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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

PREFACE TO VERSION 0.1 OF THIS MANUAL


The Abu Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual has been developed by the Abu Dhabi Municipality Road
Department to provide guidance to consultants and contractors working on Department projects in the
greater Abu Dhabi metropolitan area.

To help ensure the conformity of traffic control devices within the UAE, this manual is based chiefly on the
equivalent Dubai manual. Where appropriate, this manual also incorporates standards from the draft Gulf
Cooperation Council traffic control devices manual and the Road Department's Standard Drawings.

Version 0.0, Interim Edition


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CHAPTER 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS


1.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
1.1.1 REQUIREMENTS AND PURPOSE OF
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
1.1.2 STANDARDIZATION OF APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
1.1.3 APPROVAL FOR PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.1.4 EXCESSIVE USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.1.5 ADVERTISING SIGNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.2 CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.2.1 ROUTE DESIGNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.2.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE CLASSIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
1.3 SCOPE OF APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3

CHAPTER 2: TRAFFIC SIGNS — GENERAL


2.1 UNIFORMITY OF ATTRIBUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
2.1.1 SHAPE CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
2.1.2 SIZE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1
2.1.3 COLOR CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
2.1.4 LEGENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
2.1.5 RETROREFLECTION AND ILLUMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
2.2 TRAFFIC SIGN PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
2.2.1 LATERAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
2.2.2 VERTICAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9
2.2.3 LONGITUDINAL PLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9
2.2.4 OVERHEAD INSTALLATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10
2.2.5 ORIENTATION ANGLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10

CHAPTER 3: REGULATORY SIGNS


3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1
3.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . .3-2
3.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
3.2 CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
3.2.1 STOP SIGN 301 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-2
3.2.2 GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
3.2.3 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 303 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5
3.2.4 NO ENTRY SIGN 304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6
3.2.5 ONE WAY SIGNS 305, 306, AND 307 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6
3.3 MANDATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-7
3.3.1 AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-7
3.3.2 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLY SIGN 322 (OR 323) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-7
3.3.3 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLY SIGN 324 (OR 325) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-7
3.3.4 PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-9
3.3.5 KEEP RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 327 (OR 328) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10
3.3.6 ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10
3.3.7 U-TURN SIGN 330 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
3.4 PROHIBITORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
3.4.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
3.4.1.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS 339 TO 344 . . . . . . . . . . . .3-11
3.4.1.2 DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN COMBINATION AND DUAL
MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN 345 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13

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3.4.2 NO LEFT (OR RIGHT) TURN SIGN 346 (OR 347) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
3.4.3 NO U-TURN SIGN 348 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
3.4.4 NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16
3.4.5 NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS SIGN 350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
3.4.6 NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN 351 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
3.4.7 NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17
3.4.8 NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
3.4.9 NO HORNS SIGN 354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-18
3.4.10 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19
3.4.11 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 356 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19
3.4.12 QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN 365 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19
3.5 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-20
3.5.1 NO STOPPING SIGNS 370, 371, 372, AND 373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-21
3.5.2 NO PARKING SIGNS 377, 378, AND 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22
3.5.3 PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING SIGNS 383, 384, AND 385 . . . . . . . . . .3-23
3.5.4 PARKING FOR DISABLED PERSONS SIGNS 386, 387,, AND 388 . . . .3-23
3.5.5 PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS 389, 390, AND 391 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23
3.5.6 BUS STOP SIGN 392 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25
3.5.7 TAXI STAND SIGN 393 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25
3.5.8 DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY SIGN 394 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-26
3.6 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-26
3.6.1 BEGINNING OF FREEWAY SIGN 398 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-26
3.6.2 END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-27

CHAPTER 4: WARNING SIGNS


4.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
4.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES OF WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
4.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
4.2 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
4.2.1 JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401 TO 406 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2
4.2.2 NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS 407, 408, AND 409 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4
4.2.3 MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 AND 411 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5
4.2.4 RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE SIGN 412 (OR 413) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5
4.2.5 BENDS AHEAD SIGN 414 AND 415 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6
4.2.6 TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6
4.2.7 LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 AND 418 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-7
4.2.8 U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8
4.2.9 ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN 420 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8
4.2.10 ROAD NARROWS AHEAD SIGN 421 TO 423 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8
4.2.11 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD SIGN 424 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9
4.2.12 MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 425 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10
4.2.13 CHILDREN SIGN 426 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10
4.2.14 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD SIGN 427 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11
4.2.15 STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 428 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11
4.2.16 GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD SIGN 429 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-12
4.2.17 TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD SIGN 430 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-12
4.2.18 QUAYSIDE SIGN 431 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-13
4.2.19 DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN 432 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-13
4.2.20 ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-13
4.2.21 LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN 434 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14

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4.2.22 SPEED HUMP AHEAD SIGN 435 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14


4.2.23 TUNNEL SIGN 436 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-14
4.2.24 FALLING ROCK SIGN 437 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-15
4.2.25 SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-15
4.2.26 GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-15
4.3 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-16
4.3.1 HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451 AND 452 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-16
4.3.2 SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 454 (OR 455) . . . . . . . . .4-17
4.3.3 MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN 456 (OR 457) . . . . . .4-19
4.3.4 T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN 458 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-19
4.4 DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-20
4.4.1 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT AFFECTED BY OBSTRUCTION SIGNS . . . . .4-21
4.4.1.1 LANE DROP SIGN 465 (FROM THE RIGHT) AND 466
(FROM THE LEFT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-21
4.4.1.2 BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN SIGNS 472 AND 473 . . . . . .4-22
4.4.2 ADDITIONAL LANE AND LANES MERGE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-22
4.4.2.1 ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 AND 481 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-23
4.4.2.2 JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 OR 483 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-23
4.4.2.3 LANE MERGE SIGNS 490 AND 492 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24
4.4.3 LANE USE CONTROL BY REGULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24
4.4.3.1 LANE USE CONTROL — TRUCKS AND
BUSSES SIGNS 484 AND 485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24
4.4.3.2 LANE USE CONTROL — DIRECTIONAL
RESTRICTION SIGN 486 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-25
4.5 HIGH VEHICLE WARNING SIGN 495 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-25

CHAPTER 5: GUIDE SIGNS


5.1 PRINCIPLES OF DIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
5.5.1 METHOD OF PROVIDING GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
5.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
5.1.3 ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
5.1.4 PRIMARY DESTINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-2
5.1.4.1 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . .5-4
5.1.4.2 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR
NON-EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
5.1.4.3 OTHER LOCAL DESTINATIONS FOR
NON-EMIRATE ROUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
5.1.5 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.1.6 COLOR CODING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5.1.7 INFORMATION TO BE DISPLAYED ON SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6
5.1.8 DESTINATIONS NOT ELIGIBLE FOR DISPLAY
ON GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
5.1.9 TRAILBLAZING SIGNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
5.2 GENERAL STANDARDS FOR GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5.2.1 LANGUAGE AND LETTERING STYLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5.2.2 AMOUNT OF LEGEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5.2.3 SIZE OF LETTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-9
5.2.4 SIGN BORDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13
5.2.5 INTERNAL SPACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13
5.2.6 ARROWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13

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5.2.6.1 CHEVRON ARROW TYPES 1 AND 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13


5.2.6.2 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14
5.2.6.3 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPES 4 AND 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14
5.2.6.4 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14
5.2.6.5 DOWNWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17
5.2.6.6 UPWARD POINTING ARROW TYPE 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17
5.2.6.7 MAP ARROW TYPE 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17
5.2.7 ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-18
5.2.7.1 EMIRATE ROUTE EMBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-18
5.2.7.2 ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-18
5.2.8 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-19
5.3 ROUTE MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-19
5.3.1 USE OF ROUTE MARKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-19
5.3.2 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER SIGN 501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20
5.3.3 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER SIGN 502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20
5.4 TRAILBLAZING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-22
5.4.1 USE OF TRAILBLAZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-22
5.4.2 AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER SIGN 503 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-23
5.4.3 CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZER SIGN 504 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-23
5.4.4 EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER SIGN 505 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-23
5.4.5 ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAILBLAZER SIGN 506 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-24
5.4.6 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAILBLAZER SIGN 507 . . . . . . . .5-24
5.4.7 FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER SIGN 508 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25
5.4.8 PARKING TRAILBLAZER SIGN 509 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25
5.5 AT-GRADE JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25
5.5.1 TYPES OF AT-GRADE JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-25
5.5.2 ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK SIGN 511 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26
5.5.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26
5.5.2.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26
5.5.2.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26
5.5.2.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26
5.5.3 ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN 512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-27
5.5.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-27
5.5.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-27
5.5.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-28
5.5.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-28
5.5.4 ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29
5.5.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29
5.5.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29
5.5.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29
5.5.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29
5.5.5 ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL SIGN 514 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31
5.5.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31
5.5.5.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31
5.5.5.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31
5.5.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31
5.5.6 CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN 515 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32
5.5.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32
5.5.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32
5.5.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32

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5.5.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-33


5.6 GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-34
5.6.1 TYPES OF GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-34
5.6.2 ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 551 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35
5.6.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35
5.6.2.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35
5.6.2.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-37
5.6.3 EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40
5.6.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40
5.6.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40
5.6.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40
5.6.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-40
5.6.4 ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN 553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44
5.6.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44
5.6.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44
5.6.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44
5.6.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-44
5.6.5 GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND 556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47
5.6.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47
5.6.5.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47
5.6.5.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47
5.6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5.6.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5.6.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5.6.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5.6.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5.7 GENERAL INFORMATION SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.1 DISTANCE SIGN 585 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.1.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.1.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.1.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.1.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49
5.7.2 HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.2.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.2.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.2.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.3 TEXT SIGN 588 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.3.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.3.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-50
5.7.3.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.4 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 589 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.4.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.4.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.4.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51
5.7.5 FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE SIGN 590 . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.5.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.5.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.5.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52

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5.7.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52


5.7.6 GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.6.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.6.2 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5.7.6.3 LOCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-53
5.7.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-53
5.8 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-54
5.8.1 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
TRAILBLAZER SIGN 595 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-54
5.8.2 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE BANNER SIGN 596 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-54
5.8.3 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE SIGN 597 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55
5.8.4 MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
EXIT SIGN 598 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55

CHAPTER 6: PAVEMENT MARKINGS


6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
6.1.1 FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
6.1.2 MARKING TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
6.1.3 COLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2
6.1.4 CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-2
6.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS
PAVEMENT-MARKING GUIDANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3
6.2 REGULATORY MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3
6.2.1 STOP LINE MARKING 601 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4
6.2.2 GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4
6.2.3 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING MARKING 603 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-6
6.2.4 NO PASSING LINE MARKING 611 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-6
6.2.5 CHANNELIZING LINE MARKING 612 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7
6.2.6 EDGE LINE MARKING 613 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-8
6.2.7 LANE DIRECTION ARROW MARKINGS 614 TO 619
(INCLUDING STRAIGHT, RIGHT TURN, LEFT TURN,
STRAIGHT/RIGHT, STRAIGHT/LEFT, AND RIGHT/LEFT) . . . . . . . . . .6-8
6.2.8 PARKING ENVELOPE LINE MARKING 620 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-10
6.2.9 PARKING SPACE LINE 621 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-12
6.3 WARNING MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-12
6.3.1 RUMBLE STRIPS MARKING 650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-12
6.3.2 SPEED HUMP MARKING 651 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16
6.3.3 DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-17
6.3.4 LANE LINE MARKING 654 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-17
6.3.5 LANE END ARROW MARKING 656 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-17
6.3.6 CHEVRON MARKING 657 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18
6.3.7 HATCH MARKING 658 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18
6.4 GUIDANCE MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18
6.4.1 GUIDE LINE MARKING 680 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18
6.4.2 CONTINUITY LINE MARKING 661 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19
6.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS (RPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19
6.5.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20
6.5.2 RETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20

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6.5.3 NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM MARKING N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22


6.6 CURB PAINTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22
6.6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22
6.6.2 NO PARKING MARKING 690 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22
6.6.3 VISIBILITY PAINTING MARKING 691 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-23
6.7 OBJECT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-23
6.7.1 OBJECT MARKER DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-23
6.7.2 OBJECTS IN THE ROADWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-24
6.7.3 OBJECTS ADJACENT TO THE ROADWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-24
6.8 TEXT PAVEMENT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-24
6.8.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-24
6.8.2 TEXT SYMBOL MARKINGS 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-25
6.9 DELINEATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27
6.9.1 DELINEATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27
6.9.2 DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27
6.9.3 CURB MARKINGS FOR DELINEATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27
6.9.4 DELINEATOR APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27
6.9.5 DELINEATOR PLACEMENT AND SPACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28
6.10 BARRICADES AND CHANNELIZING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28
6.10.1 BARRICADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28
6.10.2 CHANNELIZING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28
6.11 CURB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKING
FOR FIRE HYDRANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-30
6.11.1 CURB PAINTING FOR FIRE HYDRANTS
ALONG ROADWAYS MARKING 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-30
6.11.2 CURB PAINTING AND PAVEMENT MARKING
FOR FIRE HYDRANTS ADJACENT TO PARKING SPACES . . . . . . . .6-30

CHAPTER 7: ROADWORKS TRAFFIC CONTROL


7.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
7.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
7.1.1.1 SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
7.1.1.2 UNIFORMITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
7.1.1.3 FUNCTIONALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2
7.1.1.4 MAINTENANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2
7.1.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-2
7.1.2.1 ADVANCE WARNING AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4
7.1.2.2 TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4
7.1.2.3 STABILIZATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4
7.1.2.4 WORK AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5
7.1.2.5 TERMINATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5
7.1.3 DEPLOYING ROADWORKS DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-5
7.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6
7.2.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6
7.2.2 REGULATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6
7.2.2.1 CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6
7.2.2.2 MANDATORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11
7.2.2.3 PROHIBITORY SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11
7.2.2.4 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-11
7.2.2.5 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12

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7.2.3 WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12


7.2.3.1 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12
7.2.3.2 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-14
7.2.3.3 DIAGRAMMATIC WARNING SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-14
7.2.4 GUIDE SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-16
7.3 CHANNELIZATION DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17
7.3.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17
7.3.2 PAVEMENT MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17
7.3.2.1 PAINTED MARKINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-18
7.3.2.2 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-19
7.3.3 CONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-19
7.3.3.1 TRAFFIC CONE DEVICE 7459 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-20
7.3.3.2 CONE DESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-20
7.3.3.3 CONE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-20
7.3.4 BARRIERS AND BARRICADES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-21
7.3.4.1 BARRICADE DEVICE 7460 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-21
7.3.4.2 BARRIERS AND BARRICADE
DESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-21
7.3.4.3 BARRIER AND BARRICADE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .7-24
7.3.5 DELINEATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-24
7.3.5.1 DELINEATOR SIGNS 7454 AND 7455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-24
7.3.5.2 DELINEATOR DESIGN PARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-25
7.3.5.3 DELINEATOR APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-25
7.3.6 OBJECT MARKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-25
7.3.7 DRUM DEVICE 7461 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-25
7.3.8 ILLUMINATED DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-26
7.3.8.1 WARNING AND DELINEATION LIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-26
7.3.8.2 WARNING ARROW SIGN PANELS SIGN 7462 . . . . . . . . . . .7-26
7.3.8.3 ILLUMINATED DEVICE APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-28
7.3.9 FLOODLIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-29
7.4 OTHER FORMS OF TRAFFIC CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-29
7.4.1 HAND SIGNALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-29
7.4.2 PILOT CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-30
7.4.3 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-30

CHAPTER 8: TYPICAL APPLICATIONS


8.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
8.2 AT-GRADE JUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
8.2.1 ROAD JUNCTIONS IN COMMUNITY AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
8.2.2 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURN AND
LOCAL T-JUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-3
8.2.3 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFT TURN AT
LOCAL ROAD T-JUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-3
8.2.4 SERVICE ROAD CONNECTIONS TO AN ARTERIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-6
8.2.5 LARGE ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-8
8.2.6 LARGE SIGNALIZED ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-8
8.2.7 SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-11
8.2.8 FREEWAY CROSSROADS WITH
SMALL ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-11

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8.2.9 FREEWAY CROSSROADS AT A SIGNALIZED


DIAMOND INTERCHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-14
8.2.10 MINI ROUNDABOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-16
8.3 GRADE-SEPARATED JUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-16
8.3.1 FREEWAY WITH ONE-LANE EXIT, NO LANE DROP . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-16
8.3.2 FREEWAY WITH TWO-LANE EXIT, ONE LANE DROP . . . . . . . . . . . .8-19
8.3.3 INTERCHANGE WITH A C-D ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-19
8.3.4 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH
TWO CLOSELY SPACED EXITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-22
8.3.5 FREEWAY SYSTEMS INTERCHANGE WITH
A TWO-LANE EXIT AND RAMP SPLIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-22
8.3.6 FREE-FLOW RAMP CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-25
8.4 ROADWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-25
8.4.1 TYPICAL TAPER DETAIL — TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-25
8.4.2 TYPICAL CROSSOVER DETAIL — TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . .8-28
8.4.3 TYPICAL TAPER DETAIL — TERMINATION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-28
8.4.4 SHORT WORK SITE — TWO-WAY TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-28
8.4.5 WORK SITE CLOSE TO SIDE ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-28
8.4.6 ROAD CLOSURE DETOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-33
8.4.7 MAINTENANCE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-33
8.4.8 TYPICAL TWO-LANE TAPER DETAIL —
TRANSITION AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-36
8.4.9 MINOR-ROAD SINGLE-LANE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-36
8.5 SCHOOL ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-36

CHAPTER 9: SIGNALS
9.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
9.1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
9.1.2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
9.1.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4
9.1.4 AREA OF CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4
9.1.5 TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4
9.1.6 PORTABLE TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2.1 MEANING OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC CONTROL
SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2.1.1 GREEN TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2.1.2 YELLOW TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2.1.3 RED TRAFFIC SIGNAL INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5
9.2.2 USE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6
9.2.2.1 NONFLASHING INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6
9.2.2.2 ARROW INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6
9.2.2.3 PROHIBITED COMBINATIONS OF TRAFFIC
CONTROL SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7
9.2.2.4 INDICATIONS THAT MAY FOLLOW
OTHER INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7
9.3 DESIGN AND LOCATION OF VEHICULAR
TRAFFIC CONTROL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7
9.3.1 SIZE AND DESIGN OF TRAFFIC SIGNAL LENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-7

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9.3.2 NUMBER AND ARRANGEMENT OF INDICATIONS


IN A TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-11
9.3.3 ILLUMINATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL LENSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-11
9.3.4 VISIBILITY AND SHIELDING OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-11
9.3.5 NUMBER AND LOCATION OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-12
9.3.6 HEIGHT OF SIGNAL FACES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-15
9.3.7 DESIGN AND LOCATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL
SIGNAL SUPPORTS AND CONTROLLER CABINETS
FOR SAFETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-15
9.4 SIGNAL USE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-22
9.4.1 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-22
9.4.2 ENGINEERING DATA REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-23
9.4.3 CRITERION 1 — MINIMUM VEHICULAR VOLUME . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-23
9.4.4 CRITERION 2 — INTERRUPTION OF
CONTINUOUS TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-30
9.4.5 CRITERION 3 — MINIMUM PEDESTRIAN VOLUME . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-31
9.4.6 CRITERION 4 — SCHOOL CROSSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-31
9.4.7 CRITERION 5 — PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-33
9.4.8 CRITERION 6 — ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-33
9.4.9 CRITERION 7 — COMBINATION OF CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-34
9.4.10 CRITERION 8 — SHORT PEAK PERIOD
TRAFFIC VOLUME CRITERION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-34
9.4.11 CRITERION 9 — ESTIMATE OF TRAFFIC ON
STREET TO BE CONSTRUCTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-36
9.4.12 SELECTION OF PRETIMED OR
TRAFFIC-ACTUATED CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-36
9.4.13 PEDESTRIAN ACTUATION OF
TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-37
9.4.14 SIGNAL CRITERIA ANALYSIS FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-37
9.5 TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-37
9.5.1 VEHICLE CHANGE AND CLEARANCE INTERVALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-37
9.5.2 PREVENTION OF UNEXPECTED
TRAFFIC CONFLICTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-41
9.5.3 PROTECTIVE FAIL-SAFE CIRCUITRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-41
9.5.4 SEQUENCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL
SIGNAL INDICATIONS (OPERATING PLANS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-41
9.5.5 COORDINATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-62
9.5.6 FLASHING OPERATION OF
TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-62
9.5.7 CONTINUITY OF OPERATION OF
TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-63
9.5.8 CONTROL PREEMPTION BY PRIORITY TRAFFIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-63
9.5.9 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-63
9.5.10 VEHICLE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-64
9.5.11 USE OF SIGNS WITH TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-65
9.5.12 OPERATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS BY
HAND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-65
9.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-65
9.5.1 MEANING OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-65
9.5.2 USE OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-66

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9.6.3 DESIGN OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-66


9.6.4 LOCATION OF PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . .9-67
9.6.5 PEDESTRIAN PUSHBUTTON DETECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-67
9.6.6 PEDESTRIAN SIGNAL PHASES AND
INTERVAL TIMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-67
9.7 FLASHING BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-68
9.7.1 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-68
9.7.2 SPEED LIMIT SIGN BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-68
9.7.3 INTERSECTION CONTROL BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69
9.7.4 STOP SIGN BEACON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69
9.7.5 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF FLASHING BEACONS . . . . . . . . . . . .9-69

LIST OF FIGURES
1-1 Classification of Traffic Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
1-2 Roads Owned and Managed by the
Abu Dhabi Municipality Road Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
2-1 Standard Sign Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
2-2 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Regulatory and Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
2-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Guide and General Information Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8
2-4 Sign Orientation Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-10
3-1 Longitudinal Position of Stop Sign 301 and Give Way Sign 302 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4
3-2 Use of One Way Signs 305, 306, and 307 with Signs 346 and 347 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-8
3-3 Typical Use of Maximum Speed Limit Signs 340 to 344 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14
3-4 Dual Speed Limit Sign Combination (typical) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-15
3-5 No Stopping Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-21
3-6 No Stopping with Time Limit Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22
3-7 No Parking Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22
3-8 Pay and Display Parking Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23
3-9 Parking for Disabled Persons Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-24
3-10 Parking Time Limit Sign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-24
3-11 Examples of Sign Combinations in the Parking Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25
4-1 Typical Hazard Plate Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-17
4-2 Examples of Applications of Sign 454 and Sign 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-18
4-3 Typical Application of Multiple Chevron Signs 456 and 457 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-19
5-1 Route Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
5-2 Principles of Legibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12
5-3 Typical Guidesign Internal Spacing Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14
5-4 Arrow-Type Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15
5-5 Approved Supplemental Destination Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20
5-6 Use of Route Marker Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-21
5-7 Advance Direction Sign 551 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-36
5-8 Exit Direction Sign 552 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-41
5-9 Ongoing Direction Sign 553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45
5-10 Gore Exit Signs 554 and 556 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47
5-11 Supplemental Exit Sign 557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-48
5-12 Sign 590 with No Stopping Sign 370 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-52
5-13 General Services Iconic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-54
6-1 Use of No Passing Line 611 at Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4
6-2 Transverse Regulatory Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-5
6-3 Longitudinal Regulatory Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-9

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6-4 Typical Regulatory Arrow Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-11


6-5 Warning Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-13
6-6 Combined Regulatory and Warning Pavement Markings as Painted Islands . . . . . . . . . . .6-14
6-7 Guidelines for Using Rumble Strip Marking 650 for Speed Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-15
6-8 Guidance Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19
6-9 Use of Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-21
6-10 Object Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-25
6-11 Typical Delineator Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26
6-12 Barricades and Channelizing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-29
6-13 Curb Painting for Fire Hydrants Along Roadways Marking 695 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-31
6-14 Curb Painting and Pavement Marking for Fire Hydrants
Adjacent to Parking Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-32
7-1 Roadworks Zone Traffic Control Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3
7-2 Regulatory Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-7
7-3 Warning Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-8
7-4 Diagrammatic Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-9
7-5 Guide Signs at Roadworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-10
7-6 Examples of Directional Barricade Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-22
7-7 Examples of Nondirectional Barricade Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-23
8-1 Road Junctions in Community Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-2
8-2 Arterial Midblock U-Turn and Local Road T-Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-4
8-3 Arterial Midblock Left Turn at Local Road T-Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5
8-4 Service Road Connections to an Arterial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-7
8-5 Large Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9
8-6 Large Signalized Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-10
8-7 Signalized Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-12
8-8 Freeway Crossroads with Small Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-13
8-9 Freeway Crossroads at a Signalized Diamond Interchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-15
8-10 Mini Roundabout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-17
8-11 Freeway with One-Lane Exit, No Lane Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-18
8-12 Freeway with Two-Lane Exit, One Lane Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-20
8-13 Interchange with a C-D Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-21
8-14 Freeway Systems Interchange with Two Closely Spaced Exits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-23
8-15 Freeway Systems Interchange with a Two-Lane Exit and Ramp Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-24
8-16 Free-Flow Ramp Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-26
8-17 Typical Taper Detail — Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-27
8-18 Typical Crossover Detail — Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-29
8-19 Typical Taper Detail — Termination Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-30
8-20 Short Work Site — Two-Way Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-31
8-21 Work Site Close to Side Road . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-32
8-22 Road Closure Detour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-34
8-23 Maintenance Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-35
8-24 Typical Two-Lane Taper Detail — Transition Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-37
8-25 Minor-Road Single-Lane Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-38
8-26 School Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-39
9-1 Typical Arrangements of Indications on Signal Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-11
9-2 Required Location of Signal Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-14
9-3 Signal Face Location and Indications without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-16
9-4 Signal Face Location and Indications with Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-17

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9-5 Signal Face Location and Indications —


School or Pedestrian Midblock Crossings (push-button signal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-18
9-6 School or Pedestrian Midblock Crossings (flashing amber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-19
9-7 Typical Mast Arm Mounting of Signal Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-20
9-8 Typical Pole Mounting of Signal Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-21
9-9 Vehicle Volume Count Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-24
9-10 Traffic Volume Summary Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-25
9-11 Pedestrian Count Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-26
9-12 Condition Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-27
9-13 Typical Collision Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-28
9-14 Vehicle Speed Study Field Data Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-29
9-15 Example of a Test for Criterion 2, Interruption of Continuous Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-32
9-16 Peak Hour Volume Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-35
9-17 Peak Hour Volume Criteria (less than 10,000 population or above 65 km/h) . . . . . . . . . . .9-35
9-18 Completed Traffic Signal Criteria Analysis Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-38
9-19 Standard Four-Phase Traffic Signal — Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-44
9-20 Signal Operating Plan No. 1 — Standard Signal Operating Plan —
Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-45
9-21 Signal Operating Plan No. 2 — Standard Signal Operating Plan —
With Pedestrian Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-46
9-22 Signal Operating Plan No. 3 — Leading Protected/Permissive Left Turn
From One Approach — With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-47
9-23 Signal Operating Plan No. 4 — Permissive Left Turn on Green Disk
From Opposite Approaches — With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-48
9-24 Signal Operating Plan No. 5 — Leading Protected/Permissive Left Turn
From Opposite Approaches — With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-49
9-25 Signal Operating Plan No. 6 — Leading Protected/Prohibited Left Turn
From One Approach Intersection With One-Way Street —
With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-50
9-26 Signal Operating Plan No. 7 — Intersection of Two Divided Streets
With Service Roads — Stop or Signal Control on the Service Roads —
Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-51
9-27 Signal Operating Plan No. 8 — Leading Protected/Prohibited Left Turn
From Two Approaches — Leading Protected/Permissive Left Turn From
Two Other Approaches — Intersection of Two Divided Streets With
Left-Turn Bays — With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-52
9-28 Signal Operating Plan No. 9 — “T” Intersection With a One-Way Service
Road Along the Principal Street — Without Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-53
9-29 Signal Operating Plan No. 10 — “T” Intersection With Left-Turn Bay —
Continuous Traffic on the Principal Street . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-54
9-30A Intersection Plan — Traffic-Actuated Signal With Pedestrian Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-55
9-30B Movements Doing Each of the Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-55
9-31A Table of Conflicting and Nonconflicting Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-56
9-31B Signal Indications to be Used in the Change and Clearance Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-57
9-32 Three-Phase, Lead-Lag Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-58
9-33 Four-Phase Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-59
9-34 Four-Phase, Two-Overlap Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-60
9-35 Three-Phase, Lag-Lag Diamond Interchange Ramp Signal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-61
9-36 Pedestrian Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-66

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LIST OF TABLES
1-1 Roadway Types by Functional Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2
2-1 Regulatory and Warning Sign Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
2-2 Traffic Sign Background and Legend Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
2-3 Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Traffic Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
3-1 Guidelines for Speed Limit Sign Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13
4-1 Guidelines for Positioning Advance Warning Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
4-2 Junction Spacing Requirements for Signs 405 and 406 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4
4-3 Spacing on Curves for Signs 451, 452, 454, and 455 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-16
5-1 Emirates Route Control Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-4
5-2 Locations Eligible for Supplemental Destination Signing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5
5-3 Guide Sign Background Color Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6
5-4 Information Eligible for Display on Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7
5-5 Places Not Eligible for Display on Guide Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8
5-6 Recommended “x” Height for Guide Signs (millimeters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-11
6-1 Colors of Longitudinal Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3
6-2 Use of No Passing Line 611 on Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7
6-3 Use of No Passing Line 611 and Channelizing Line 612 at Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7
6-4 Lane End Arrows Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18
6-5 Suggested Maximum Spacing for Highways Delineators on Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28
7-1 Location of Roadworks Sign 7441 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-13
7-2 Recommended Cone Spacings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-21
7-3 Warning Arrow Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-27
9-1 Permissible Sequential Traffic Control Signal Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-8
9-2 Additional Permissible Sequential Traffic Control Signal Indications
During Signal Preemption Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10
9-3 Required Advanced Visibility of Traffic Control Signal Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-12
9-4 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-30
9-5 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-30
9-6 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-31
9-7 Minimum Vehicular Volumes for Criterion 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-36
9-8 Vehicle Change Interval (seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-40
9-9 Vehicle Red Clearance Interval (seconds) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-40

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1 GENERAL - establish road user right-of-way.

PROVISIONS • Warning devices should be used to:

1.1 GENERAL - indicate potential hazards.


- identify major changes in road character-
istics.
1.1.1 REQUIREMENTS AND - locate physical obstructions.
PURPOSE OF TRAFFIC - inform of regulatory controls ahead.
CONTROL DEVICES - advise of appropriate actions.

The Abu Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual • Guide devices should be used to:
establishes the basic guidelines and principles
that dictate the design, application, and mainte- - establish route identification.
nance of traffic control devices. These devices, - direct motorists to destinations.
including traffic signs, pavement markings, and - delineate lane assignments.
signals, are placed on, over, or adjacent to a pub- - provide general information to motorists.
lic road and act to regulate, warn, or guide the
traffic flow on that facility. In order to fulfill the The requirements and purposes of traffic control
duty of promoting safe and efficient vehicular devices can be achieved through the proper
movement, a traffic control device should meet design, application, placement, maintenance,
these basic requirements: management, and uniformity, as specified in this
manual.
• The device should fulfill an important need.
The device should command attention. 1.1.2 STANDARDIZATION OF
• The device should convey a clear, simple APPLICATION
meaning.
• The device should command the respect of Traffic control devices applied in predictable
motorists. ways can significantly improve the safety and
• The device should be positioned to give suf- operation of roadways. When nonstandard
ficient time for proper response. devices are used in nonstandard applications,
road users may tend to disregard and disrespect
The basic purpose of traffic control devices is to the intended regulations or warnings. The need to
provide visual information to the motorist. The standardize traffic control devices in Abu Dhabi
information is conveyed in three ways to the road has heightened due to the following factors:
user:
• Road networks are becoming increasingly
• As regulations. more complex.
• As warnings. • Traffic speeds and volumes are increasing.
• As guidance. • The number of visitors and, therefore, drivers
unfamiliar with the city is increasing.
Therefore, traffic control devices are commonly
categorized into three groups with the following In an effort to standardize the application of traf-
specific purposes: fic control devices, the following objectives must
be achieved:
• Regulatory devices should be used to:
• Accuracy: Where the sign face accurately
- inform of traffic laws, regulations, and displays a relationship to the road conditions
statutes. being experienced.
- instruct to take some physical action. • Uniformity: Where the sign face, color, leg-
- prohibit certain vehicular maneuvers. end, symbol, etc., are designed such that the
- permit certain vehicular maneuvers.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

motorist can reduce reading and comprehen- signs is recommended to reassure motorists of
sion times whereby the time available to take their location and route.
proper action is maximized.
• Consistency: Where like situations are 1.1.5 ADVERTISING SIGNING
signed and marked in a consistent or like
manner. Any signs or markings placed on the road system
• Continuity: Where the message is displayed not having approval by the Abu Dhabi
continuously until the information provided Municipality should be removed. Any signs or
is no longer relevant to the circumstances or markings advertising or promoting a private
the road conditions. company, their products, or services should be
prohibited from the public road right of way
1.1.3 APPROVAL FOR PLACEMENT unless specifically authorized.

Traffic control devices should be placed only with 1.2 CLASSIFICATION


the approval of the Abu Dhabi Municipality for
the purpose of regulating, warning, and guiding 1.2.1 ROUTE DESIGNATION
traffic. The use of traffic control devices in any
Municipal or privately owned semipublic area A route designation system that includes a range
without proper approval should not be permitted. of road classifications has been developed to
assist in the consistent application of guidance
When given approval by the Abu Dhabi and information signs. The local and regional
Municipality for the erection of specific devices, road network has been defined by various road
construction contractors, public utility compa- classifications, each with a distinct character,
nies, and police agencies are permitted to erect purpose, and level of access control. The road
construction, maintenance, and other warning classifications in Abu Dhabi are listed and
signs to protect the public provided that such described in Table 1-1.
signs, markings, and devices conform to the stan-
dards contained in this manual.
1.2.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE
CLASSIFICATION
1.1.4 EXCESSIVE USE OF TRAFFIC
CONTROL DEVICES The traffic control devices included in the Abu
Dhabi Traffic Control Devices Manual are traffic
Due care should be taken to limit the number of signs, pavement markings, and signals. Signs,
traffic signs and markings used. Regulatory and markings, and signals are broadly grouped into
warning signs should be used conservatively as three major categories:
these signs, if used excessively, tend to lose their
effectiveness and road users could disregard their • Regulatory.
message. However, a frequent display of guide • Warning.
• Guide.

Table 1-1
Roadway Types by Functional Classification
Roadway Roadway Type for Design
Classification Urban Rural
Freeway Freeway
Primary
Expressway Expressway
Arterial Arterial
Secondary (Main Roads) • Primary
Frontage Roads • Secondary
Sector Road
Collector
Local • Primary
Local Access
• Secondary

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

A fourth group of signs and markings is that of


roadworks devices. This group includes all of the
three major categories of devices.

The categories of typical traffic control devices


are defined in Figure 1-1 with subclasses identi-
fied for each.

1.3 SCOPE OF APPLICATION


The guidance in this manual is to be practiced on
all roads owned and managed by the Abu Dhabi
Municipality Road Department. The roads man-
aged by the Department include all roads on Abu
Dhabi Island and roads on the mainland in the
vicinity of Abu Dhabi Island. In exceptional
cases, the Department also constructs and man-
ages road improvements in other areas of Abu
Dhabi Emirate.

Figure 1-2 is a map showing the general bound-


aries of the roads owned and managed by the
Department in the vicinity of Abu Dhabi.

Typical Traffic
Control Devices

Regulatory Warning Guide

Pavement Pavement Pavement


Signals Signs Signals Signs Signs
Marking Marking Marking

• Control • Advance Warning • At-grade Junctions


• Mandatory • Hazard Marker • Grade-separated Junctions
• Prohibitory • Diagrammatic Warning • General Information
• Parking Control • Route Numbers
• Freeway Control • Trailblazing

ROADWORKS
Figure 1-1
Classification of Traffic Control Devices

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

2 TRAFFIC SIGNS — • The RECTANGLE, with the long axis verti-


cal, is used primarily for regulatory signs
GENERAL (primarily parking control and one-way
signs). The shape is also used for diagram-
Traffic signs should be installed only when stipu- matic warning signs and may occasionally be
lated by the principles of this manual and/or used for guide signs.
when deemed warranted on the basis of a traffic • The TRIANGULAR shape, with the point
engineering evaluation. Traffic signs are neces- up, is used exclusively for advance warning
sary to advise motorists of traffic regulations that signs such as a sign warning a driver of a
apply at specific locations and/or at specific curve ahead.
times and to warn of hazards that may not other- • The RECTANGLE, with the long axis hori-
wise be self apparent. Traffic signs also provide zontal, is the primary shape for direction and
motorists with information concerning routes, general information guide signs and as sup-
destinations and locations of interest. plemental plates or qualification plates below
other sign shapes. It is also used for the one-
The standardization of traffic signs in their way regulatory sign.
appearance, placement, and design simplifies the • The POINTED RECTANGLE, with the long
task of road users in finding, recognizing, and axis horizontal, is used exclusively for
understanding signs and markings. It also aids chevron signs.
road users, the Traffic Police, and the legal sys-
tem in having a common interpretation of sign Other shapes should not be used for sign panel
meanings and messages. outline shapes unless specifically approved by
the Abu Dhabi Municipality Road Department.
The meanings and applications of specific stan-
dard traffic signs are described in detail in 2.1.2 SIZE
Chapters 3, 4, 5, and 7 of this manual. This chap-
ter deals with the attributes and criteria of signs The size of a traffic sign is important for two pri-
in general. mary reasons:

2.1 UNIFORMITY OF • Conspicuousness: A sign must be of suffi-


ATTRIBUTES cient size to command the attention of driv-
ers against the background of the roadway
Uniformity of attributes applies to shape, dimen- environment.
sions, color, legend, conspicuousness, and night- • Legibility: The legend (text or symbol) of the
time visibility of signs. The standardization of sign must be of sufficient size to allow
these attributes is necessary for an efficient and recognition and comprehension by drivers
uniform signing system. traveling at roadway design speeds.

For guide signs, which are largely text based, the


2.1.1 SHAPE CODE
sign sizes will vary widely depending on the
amount of legend and the lettering size of the leg-
Standard sign shapes are as shown in Figure 2-1
end. Legibility is the primary factor controlling
and their principal features are listed below:
guide sign sizes.
• The OCTAGON shape is reserved exclusive-
Sizing guide signs on the basis of legibility will
ly for the STOP sign.
generally ensure that a guide sign will be con-
• The TRIANGULAR shape, with the point
spicuous. The parameters affecting guide sign
down, is reserved exclusively for the GIVE
sizing are discussed fully in Chapter 5 of this
WAY (YIELD) sign.
manual and therefore are not generalized herein.
• The CIRCULAR shape is reserved exclu-
sively for regulatory signs such as speed limit
signs.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Reserved exclusively for the STOP sign.

Reserved exclusively for the GIVE WAY (YIELD) sign.

Reserved exclusively for REGULATORY signs (mandatory and prohibitory).

Primarily used for REGULATORY SIGNS. Also used for


DIAGRAMMATIC WARNING signs.

Reserved exclusively for ADVANCE WARNING signs.

Primary shape for GUIDE signs including DIRECTION signs and


GENERAL INFORMATION signs. Also used for ONE WAY sign
and SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE or QUALIFICATION PLATE
below other signs.

Reserved exclusively for CHEVRON DIRECTION signs.

Figure 2-1
Standard Sign Shapes

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

For regulatory and warning signs, a standardiza- 589 (see Section 5.7.4 of this manual) should
tion of size is possible and is in fact necessary. accompany these signs for a period of up to three
Regulatory and warning signs, which are more years, if deemed necessary, for public education.
symbol oriented than text oriented, tend to be
much smaller in size than guide signs. Because of Standard text messages in Arabic and English
their relatively small size, conspicuousness is an should be used when an appropriate symbol is
equally important factor as legibility in sizing not available. Symbolic messages given in this
regulatory and warning signs. manual should be used in preference to text mes-
sages whenever available. Otherwise, word mes-
Table 2-1 presents guidelines for selecting the sages should be as brief as possible. The
appropriate sign sizes for regulatory and warning Department’s standard Arabic and English fonts
signs. should be used for text on all types of signs. The
height of the Arabic “aleph” character should be
2.1.3 COLOR CODE 1.4 times the height of the English “x” letter
height. Numerical legends and their correspon-
Table 2-2 establishes the background colors, leg- ding unit of measure should be displayed in
end colors, and border colors to be used for traf- English and Arabic except in the specific case of
fic signs in Abu Dhabi. route numbers.

Sign background and legend colors or uses other 2.1.5 RETROREFLECTION AND
than those listed in Table 2-2 are not permitted. ILLUMINATION

2.1.4 LEGENDS Traffic signs are generally required to function on


an around-the-clock basis. It is thus necessary
The legend of a traffic sign is the element that that they exhibit the same shape and color during
provides a sign with a unique and definitive both day and night hours. To accomplish this, all
meaning or message. The legend may be com- sign faces should be constructed using retrore-
posed of a symbol, a text message, or both. flective sheeting.

Symbols used should be the same in appearance Retroreflective sheeting gains its name from the
as those shown in this manual. When new sym- design characteristic of the sheeting whereby the
bols are approved for usage, especially on warn- sheeting is capable of capturing light coming
ing signs, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign from a vehicle headlight and reflecting a signifi-
Table 2-1
Regulatory and Warning Sign Sizes1, 2
Recommended Recommended Required Minimum
Operating Speed3
Regulatory Sign Size4, 5 Warning Sign Size6 Clear Visibility
(km/h)
(millimeter) (millimeter) (meters)
40 600 750 50
60 750 900 60
80 900 1200 80
>100 1200 1500 100
Notes:
1. Sizes smaller than the lower limits shall not be used without specific authorization.
2. The sizes for regulatory signs are not applicable to parking control signs and freeway control signs.
3. When it is known that 85th percentile speeds are significantly different from posted speed limits, sign sizes should be
chosen based on an 85th percentile speed.
4. Regulatory sign sizes refer to a circle diameter. For the STOP sign, the diameter represents an inscribed circle.
5. Warning sign sizes refer to the apex to apex measurement of the side of the triangular sign. GIVE WAY signs should be
sized in the same way as warning signs.
6. Sizes shown are desirable minimums. Larger sign sizes, particularly for warning signs, may be used in particularly critical
situations.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 2-2
Traffic Sign Backgrounds and Legend Colors1
Sign Class Background Color Legend Color Border Color
Regulatory
Control Red/Blue White White/None
Mandatory Blue White None
Prohibitory White Black Red
Parking White Red/Green2 Red/Green
Freeway control Blue White White
Warning White Black3 Red
Guide
Emirates Routes direction Blue White4 White
Abu Dhabi roads direction Blue White4 White
Supplemental direction Brown White White
Street name signs — local/collector roads5 Blue/Green White Metallic
Distance (Emirates Route) Blue White White
Parking Blue White White
Other Blue White White
Roadworks — all signs except regulatory control Yellow Black3 Red/Black
Notes:
1. This table provides general information. Exceptions and variations exist in most sign classes.
2. Permissive parking signs also include a white on blue parking symbol.
3. Warning signs may include red in the legend to represent such things as “hazard” areas. Hazard marker signs include
red arrow shapes.
4. Route numbers and abbreviations within the route emblem shall be yellow.
5. Street name signs are not covered in this manual. Their standards and installation fall under the authority of other
Municipality sections.

cant portion of that light back to the eye of the spicuousness and legibility. However, this is not
driver. This reflected light is what drivers see, usually the case for signs mounted overhead.
allowing them to distinguish the shape, color, and
ultimately the message of the sign. Since signs Overhead signs are generally guide signs con-
must be located outside of the travel path of a taining multiple pieces of information that must
vehicle, the nighttime visibility of a sign is be viewed and understood by drivers traveling at
dependent upon the ability of the sheeting mate- relatively high speeds and/or under heavy traffic
rial to capture light striking the surface of the volumes and/or through complex interchange
sign at an angle and reflect that light back at the maneuvers. Thus these signs must be conspicu-
same angle. This feature, called angularity, is one ous and legible from a relatively long distance to
of the primary measures of the functionality of a provide adequate time for a driver to comprehend
retroreflective sheeting material. Type-MP high- the messages being conveyed. Particularly on
intensity microprismatic retroreflective sheeting urban roadways, where driving is done with low
has very favorable properties with respect to beam headlights, the intensity of light from vehi-
angularity and thus should be used for sheeting cles striking the sign face is too low to provide
on all traffic signs of all types described in this this long distance legibility.
manual unless otherwise specifically stated.
For this reason, all overhead signs should be illu-
A vehicle directs the largest percentage of its minated except in cases where all of the follow-
headlight output slightly below horizontal (and ing conditions are met:
predominantly to the right), especially under
low-beam operation. Thus, ground-mounted • When the roadway is not lighted, and
signs (particularly those on the right side of the • When the sign is visible from a distance of
roadway) will generally be well lit by vehicle 370 meters or more, and
headlights and will be capable of retroreflecting
enough light to provide adequate nighttime con-

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• When the horizontal curvature of the road • Divided roadways and one-way roads where
approaching the sign has no less than a 250 supplementary regulatory, warning, or guide
meter radius. signs are needed.
• Two-way roadways where sharp right curves
The standard means of illuminating overhead exist.
signs should be through the use of external illu- • Multilane freeways where visibility of right-
mination using mercury-vapor wide-beam flood- side signs is blocked (this can also be a war-
lights. Other means of external lighting, internal rant for the use of overhead signs, particular-
lighting, or legend-outline lighting will be per- ly guide signs).
mitted only on a special case demonstration basis • At roadworks, particularly for signs located
when authorized by the Abu Dhabi Municipality within the advance warning area.
Road Department.
Every sign location must be thoroughly checked
2.2 TRAFFIC SIGN to identify any possible visibility obstructions.
Typical problem placement locations include:
PLACEMENT
• Downhill dips in the roadway.
This section deals with the placement of ground-
• Crest vertical curves.
mounted and overhead signs. Proper placement
• Parked or stationary vehicles blocking visi-
of traffic signs refers to the lateral, vertical, and
bility.
longitudinal positioning that provides the neces-
• Trees and other foliage blocking visibility.
sary sign legibility for the passing motorists.
• Proximity of other (existing) traffic signs in
Without proper placement the efforts to select,
front of or behind the new sign under consid-
design, fabricate, and apply traffic signs are wast-
eration.
ed. However, since no two roads are aligned and
designed alike, the guidelines for sign placement
In addition, signs should be placed to avoid
given here are intended to be interpreted with a
blocking or impeding the pedestrian or bicycle
measure of flexibility. Sound engineering judge-
flow along sidewalks and trails. While traffic
ment on an individual project basis, following the
signs are placed to enhance the safety conditions
general guidelines provided here, must be
of a roadway, they are fixed obstacles which can
applied so that sign visibility and legibility are
pose a hazard if struck by motorists. Therefore,
maximized.
the sign supports must be protected appropriately
and the supports themselves should not be
It should never be assumed that a poorly
overdesigned.
designed roadway can be corrected by providing
superior traffic signing. The basic guidelines of
2.2.1 LATERAL PLACEMENT
sign placement must be considered early in the
road design process. This applies particularly to
Since signs are a roadside hazard if struck, they
the provision of guide signs and sequences of
should be placed at as great a distance from the
guide signs on multilane expressways and free-
pavement edge as practical. However, the further
ways and even more so to signs required within
removed that signs are from the pavement edge
complex interchanges. Except as identified in
the less conspicuous and legible they become to
this section, all traffic signs should be positioned
motorists. Every opportunity to position traffic
on the right side of the roadway facing the
signs behind crash barriers, guardrail, or other
approaching traffic or overhead close to the cen-
roadside safety barriers should be pursued.
ter of the travel lanes to which the signs apply.
Under certain motoring conditions traffic signs
Figures 2-2 and 2-3 and Table 2-3 describe the
can be placed on the left side of the road. These
requirements for lateral placement of signs.
conditions are:

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 2-3
Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Traffic Signs (refers to Figures 2-2 and 2-3)
Roadway Type Dimension Minimum Maximum Remarks
(millimeters) (millimeters)
Freeway A 600 3000
Expressway B 3600 9000
Major Arterial C 2100 2500 See Notes 5, 6, and 7
Frontage D 1600 2500 See Notes 7, 8, and 9
E 500 1600 See Notes 5, 6, and 8
F 2100 2500 See Note 5
G - 6000 See Note 10
H 50 -
I 600 - See Note 11
J 9000 -
K 6000 6500 See Note 12
L 1800 4200 See Note 10
Arterial A 300 1000
Collector B 600 2000
Local C 2100 2500 See Notes 5, 6, and 7
D 1900 2500 See Notes 7, 8, and 9
E 1200 1600 See Notes 5, 6, and 8
F 2100 2500 See Note 5
G - 6000 See Note 10
I 600 - See Note 11
K 6000 6500 See Note 12
L 1800 4200 See Note 10
NOTES:
1. Dimension letters refer to Figures 2-2 and 2-3.
2. If no dimension value is given in the table this means that the dimension concerned is variable.
3. Lateral dimension reference points are defined as follows:
X - Face of curb, guardrail, or barrier.
Y - Edge of pavement.
Z - Edge of shoulder.
4. For large, multipost signs with a breakaway post system, the minimum clearance between the underside of the sign
and the ground below it shall be 2250 millimeters. This will permit a standard vehicle striking the post to pass under
the sign panel.
5. In urban areas (assumed to be curbed but may sometimes not have curbs) vertical dimensions are the minimum
clearance from the bottom of the sign to the ground below.
6. Certain regulatory signs, principally the mandatory turn signs 322, 323, 326, 327 and 328 are commonly located in
front of drivers as they approach a turn. These signs should be mounted as per dimension “E” rather than “C” if so
doing will not create a visual obstruction.
7. When two signs of different classes are mounted on the same post a regulatory sign should be mounted above an
advance warning sign.
8. In rural areas (assumed to be uncurbed) vertical dimensions are measured up from the near side edge of pavement
elevation (Point Y). If the roadway is superelevated such that it rises in the direction of the sign, the pavement surface
slope shall be extended to the furthest edge of the sign and the vertical dimension taken from that elevation.
9. The use of a mounting height of less than 2000 millimeters is not recommended for Dimension “D” for signs with a
single support unless the support is provided with a breakaway system.
10. The maximum value stated may be exceeded but individual detailed structural designs shall be provided for all
support structures.
11. When posts are required to be located behind a flexible beam guardrail, the minimum dimension shall be checked for
compatibility with the maximum deflection of the railing being used.
12. The minimum dimension given is the point of minimum clearance between the bottom of the sign support structure
and the pavement surface (including shoulder if sign is over shoulder) vertically below. Minimum clearance will be 6.0
meters for gantries and 6.5 meters for cantilevers.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Parking Control
Signs

A B
A

C C D
Z/Y
X X

Detail 2-2-1: Standard Regulatory Signs

A B

D D
D
Z/Y
X

Detail 2-2-2: Standard Advanced Warning Signs

A B B A
E E E
X Z Z X

Detail 2-2-3: Hazard Warning Signs

A A

Z/Y E
X
150 millimeters
X

Detail 2-2-4: Gore Hazard Marker Detail 2-2-5: Diagrammatic Warning Signs

Figure 2-2
Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Regulatory and Warning Signs

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

0.5 Median
Width
A

C C A
X E
X

Median
Community Street Name Vertical Lateral
Detail 2-3-1: Street Name and Action Direction Signs

A B
A A

C D

X Z/Y Z Z E

Curbed Uncurbed Gore


Detail 2-3-2: Route Marker and Gore Exit Direction Signs

G G

E B

F F
X Z/Y

Curbed Uncurbed

Detail 2-3-3: Guide and General Information Signs

I X K J K I
Y X

Gantry Cantilever
Detail 2-3-4: Overhead Direction Signs

Figure 2-3
Lateral and Vertical Positioning of Guide and General Information Signs

Version 0.1 2-8


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

2.2.2 VERTICAL PLACEMENT • Most regulatory signs are placed where their
message is applied. These sign messages typ-
The vertical placement of a traffic sign should be ically refer to one point (e.g., a STOP sign) or
determined as the least distance measured from remain in effect until another regulatory sign
the pavement or ground surface to the underside changes the requirement (e.g., a SPEED
of the sign, taking account of cross fall or super LIMIT sign).
elevation if the sign is positioned over the road- • When regulatory signs are located in advance
way. The mounting height of a traffic sign affects of the point of application of the regulation,
the following elements: an accompanying distance referring to the
point of application should be displayed, nor-
• The visibility of the sign. mally with a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
• Pedestrian hazard of striking the underside of sign.
signs. • Advance warning signs should be provided
• The breakaway safety of the support struc- well in advance of the hazard or condition
ture. being signed. The motorist must recognize
the message, determine the appropriate
Figures 2-2 and 2-3 and Table 2-3 describe the response, and adjust his speed accordingly
requirements for vertical placement of signs. prior to arriving at the hazard. The distance
that an advance warning sign is located from
2.2.3 LONGITUDINAL PLACEMENT the hazard therefore varies with the speed at
which the hazard can be safely negotiated
Longitudinal placement is the element of sign and with the speed of approach — the greater
positioning that is the least definable. Guidelines the speed reduction required, the greater the
for the longitudinal placement are general and longitudinal distance that the sign should be
subject to the specific field and road conditions, located in advance of the hazard. Table 4-1 in
particularly in urban areas. The longitudinal Chapter 4 gives detailed guidelines on these
placement along a road depends on the sign type, distances.
criticality of message, and maneuver required. • Hazard marker signs should be located as
Traffic sign positions can, and should, be moved close as possible to the hazard they are mark-
longitudinally in many situations in order to: ing.
• Directional guide signs should be provided in
• Improve visibility. advance of intersections, interchanges, and
• Avoid blocking other signs. exits to allow the motorist to make the neces-
• Improve roadside safety. sary decisions and actions. Detailed guide-
• Increase spacing between adjacent signs. lines for advance distances and the sequenc-
ing order of freeway direction signs are pro-
As a general guide, regulatory signs are placed vided in Chapter 5 and are illustrated in
where the mandate/prohibition starts or applies. Chapter 8.
Regulatory signs may commonly be repeated • On rural roads, a minimum longitudinal
along a section of road to improve driver aware- spacing between smaller signs of 75 meters
ness of the application of the regulations. to 80 meters is recommended.
Warning signs are placed sufficiently far in • On urban roads, a minimum longitudinal
advance of the condition being indicated on the spacing between smaller signs of 45 meters
sign to allow adequate response time to the warn- to 50 meters is recommended.
ing. Guide signs should be placed at regular posi- • On rural roads, a longitudinal spacing
tions that best guide the motorist to routes and between larger signs of 150 meters to 300
destinations of interest. meters is desirable.
• On urban roads, a minimum longitudinal
General guidelines for the longitudinal placement spacing between larger signs of 90 meters to
of signs are provided below: 175 meters is desirable.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• On freeways, a minimum longitudinal spac- or more of the following general conditions are
ing of 200 meters between signs should be present:
adhered to.
• All grade separated interchanges through
When there is competition from several signs for roadways.
space along a road it is generally better practice • All roadways with four or more lanes in one
to increase distances between signs rather than to direction.
reduce them in order to solve specific problems. • All roadways with three or more lanes in one
However, when guide signs are involved, great direction and with peak-hour design-year
care must be exercised in the vicinity of minor one-way traffic in excess of 1,000 vehicles
side-road junctions to ensure that confusion is not per hour.
created as a result of a sign position. It is also • Restricted sight distance.
often a better solution to a problem of smaller, • High percentage of trucks.
closely spaced signs to mount the signs on a com- • High speed traffic.
mon support, particularly if, as may be the case • Consistency of sign message location
with regulatory and warning signs, their mes- through a series of intersections.
sages are associated. In such a case the regulato- • Insufficient space for ground-mounted signs.
ry sign should be mounted above the warning
sign. The minimum clearance requirement must 2.2.5 ORIENTATION ANGLE
be applied to the lower of the two signs.
Ground-mounted traffic signs should be placed at
Site and field staff must be trained to recognize approximate right angles to traffic that must read
potential sign placement problems. They must the message. Specifically, signs located less than
have the authority initiative, and skill to adjust a 9.0 meters from the edge of pavement should be
sign position from that appearing on a drawing in oriented at 93° to the line of approaching traffic.
order to overcome local difficulties without cre- This slight rotation from true right angle elimi-
ating an undesirable or unsafe side effect. nates many of the glare problems that can occur
when retroreflective sheeting is used. For signs
2.2.4 OVERHEAD INSTALLATIONS greater than 9.0 meters from the pavement edge
an orientation of 87° to the line of approaching
Overhead traffic sign installations may be mount- traffic is recommended.
ed to road bridges, overcrossing structures, or
support structures. The signs placed on overhead Figure 2-4 illustrates sign orientation in these two
structures should be located directly over the distance conditions.
affected travel lane(s). Overhead structures and
signs are typically provided on freeways, multi-
lane facilities, and heavily traveled roads.
Overhead guide signs should be used when one

Less than 9.0m Greater than 9.0m


Edge of pavement

Edge of pavement

87°
93°

Figure 2-4
Sign Orientation Angle

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3 REGULATORY SIGNS • By showing that a specific class of vehicle is


obliged or prohibited from taking some
action while the rest of road users are not.
3.1 GENERAL For example, a TURN RIGHT ONLY sign
required to apply to heavy vehicles but not
Regulatory signs are used to control the actions other traffic should display a plate with the
of road users. They indicate what road users must pictogram or symbol of a heavy vehicle
do and what they must not do. Failure to obey a below the TURN RIGHT ONLY sign.
regulatory sign, unless directed otherwise by a • The only exception to the above rule is the
traffic officer, constitutes an offense. For this rea- NO U-TURN sign when required to indicate
son it is important that those who erect regulato- that the sign is applicable to heavy vehicles
ry signs do so with a clear knowledge of other only. This case is further described in
regulatory signs in the vicinity in order to avoid Sections 3.4.3 and 4.2.8.
conflicting regulatory messages being presented
to road users. It is also possible to add information to a regula-
tory sign that does not modify its application but
Regulatory signs must be easy to understand, dif- simply gives road users additional information
ficult to misinterpret, and easy to enforce without about its operation. Examples of such applica-
argument. To this end symbols are recommended tions are:
whenever possible rather than words to pass on
regulatory messages. The use of exclusive shapes • If a speed limit is reduced in the vicinity of a
for regulatory signs, such as the octagon for the school the SPEED LIMIT sign may have a
STOP sign and the inverted triangle for the GIVE SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indi-
WAY sign, together with the reserved use of a cir- cating SCHOOL.
cular shape for most other regulatory signs • If an advance warning sign is considered nec-
ensures that their function can be instantly recog- essary before the introduction of a regulatory
nized by road users. sign and an appropriate warning sign is not
available, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
The significance or meaning of each individual sign 589 may be displayed below the regula-
regulatory sign is given in subsequent sections of tory sign indicating the distance to the start of
this chapter. It should be clearly understood that the regulation. A second regulatory sign,
a regulatory sign applies for 24 hours a day and without such a plate, must be placed at the
to all road users approaching the sign. If it is point from which the regulation is to apply.
required to modify either or both of these two
factors the sign must be altered in some way. This In order to maintain the clarity of message
can be achieved by either: required of regulatory signs it is recommended
that only one symbol should be used on a sign. If
• Qualifying the meaning of the sign with a two messages are required, two signs should be
QUALIFICATION PLATE. used.
• Use of a variable message sign.
There are many aspects of the control of road
The use of a QUALIFICATION PLATE below a users and of the safe, good behavior of road users
regulatory sign may qualify the meaning of the which apply throughout the road network. This
sign in any number of ways: makes it impractical to exercise the necessary
control by means of erecting a large number of
• By indicating the time(s) of the day that the regulatory signs.
sign is operational. For example, a NO
STOPPING sign required to operate only
during peak hours should display a plate with
the appropriate times of the peak periods
indicated below the NO STOPPING sign.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES • Prohibitory signs indicate prohibited action


OF REGULATORY SIGNS or objects.
• Parking control signs regulate parking and
It is the function of regulatory signs to supple- stopping.
ment the rules of the road to further control the • Freeway control signs indicate limits of
actions of road users, when necessary, in the roads classified as freeways.
sense that road users should take, or not take,
specific actions as indicated by such signs. Many of the signs in these classes may also be
used at roadworks. The roadworks signs univer-
It is the function of regulatory signs to indicate sally use a black symbol on a yellow background
the existence of general laws or regulations made with the exception of any control signs used at
in the interests of road safety, such as by SPEED roadworks which retain the colors shown in the
LIMIT signs. Alternatively, regulatory signs may following sections.
control traffic movement by means of STOP or
GIVE WAY signs or traffic signals in the interests All classes of regulatory sign apply on a 24-hour
of good traffic order and operational efficiency. It basis unless otherwise indicated by a secondary
can also be the function of a regulatory sign to message (see Section 3.1). Signs in all classes
indicate a change in the general levels of control may also have a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
existing for road users to a different level of con- sign 589 located below the regulatory sign.
trol. NO OVERTAKING, NO PARKING, or
other restrictions are examples of this. In working with regulatory signs it often helps to
consider the way in which the function of an
In erecting regulatory signs, the road authority individual sign message is indicated. This func-
must seek the objective of only providing so tion can be considered as exercising control or
many regulatory signs as is necessary, with ade- restriction in one of three ways as follows:
quate levels of enforcement, to ensure the safe
and orderly movement of traffic. The provision 1. By imposing a restrictive “limit,” e.g., an
of too many regulatory signs will result in a dis- upper mass limit.
respect for the signing system by road users and 2. By requiring or prohibiting a particular
a failure to achieve the desired objective. “action,” e.g., a turn.
3. By controlling a particular type of “object”
It should be the objective of any specific regula- (indicated by a pictogram or symbol of the
tory sign to transfer the required message to the “object”), e.g., a heavy vehicle.
intended road users as clearly and as quickly as
possible with a minimum effect on the complex- 3.2 CONTROL SIGNS
ity of the driving task. In order to achieve this
objective, regulatory signs must be of adequate The signs in this group have a common function
size and must be correctly positioned to attract in that they are used to allocate priority right-of-
the attention of road users. way or direction of movement.

3.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF 3.2.1 STOP SIGN 301


REGULATORY SIGNS
Sign 301 requires that the driver of a vehicle
In order to assist the understanding of the differ- should come to a full and complete stop with
ent functions of different types of regulatory sign such vehicle at the STOP LINE pavement mark-
the class is further subdivided: ing 601 and that the driver should not proceed
until it is safe to do so.
• Control signs assign priority right of way or
direction of travel. STOP signs should not be used unless engineer-
• Mandatory signs indicate actions that must ing judgment indicates that one or more of the
be taken. following conditions exist:

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

STOP signs should not be erected at intersections


where traffic control signs are operating. The
conflicting commands of two types of control
devices are confusing. If traffic is required to stop
when the operation of the stop-and-go signals is
not warranted, the signals should be put on flash-
ing operation with the red flashing light facing
the traffic that must stop.

Where two main highways intersect, the STOP


sign or signs should normally be posted on the
minor street to stop the lesser flow of traffic.
Traffic engineering studies, however, may justify
a decision to install a STOP sign or signs on the
Sign 301
major street, as at a three-way intersection where
safety considerations may justify stopping the
1. Intersection of a less important road with a greater flow of traffic to permit a left-turning
main road where application of the normal movement.
right-of-way rule is unduly hazardous.
2. Street entering a through highway or street. Portable or part-time STOP signs should not be
3. Unsignalized intersection in a signalized used except for emergency purposes. Also, STOP
area. signs should not be used for speed control.
4. Other intersections where a combination of
high speed, restricted view, and serious acci- STOP sign 301 should be located on the right
dent record indicates a need for control by side of the intersecting side street between 3 and
the STOP sign. 15 meters in advance of the near-side edge of the
crossroad (see Figure 3-1). A second STOP sign
Prior to the application of these warrants, consid- 301 should be similarly located on the left side of
eration should be given to less restrictive meas- the roadway when the side street is a one-way
ures, such as GIVE WAY sign 302 (Section street with two or more lanes, and a central island
3.2.2), where a full stop is not necessary at all or median exists.
times. Periodic reviews of existing installations
may be desirable to determine whether, because A STOP sign 301 should not be used at a junction
of changed conditions, the use of less restrictive having a traffic signal or a GIVE WAY sign 302
control or no control could accommodate traffic controlling another approach.
demands safely and more effectively.
STOP sign 301 should have a red background
STOP signs should never be used on the through with a white border and white legend.
roadways of expressways. Properly designed
expressway interchanges provide for the continu- 3.2.2 GIVE WAY (YIELD) SIGN 302
ous flow of traffic, making STOP signs unneces-
sary even on the entering roadways. Where at- Sign 302 requires that the driver of a vehicle
grade intersections are temporarily justified for should yield right-of-way at a GIVE WAY pave-
local traffic in sparsely populated areas, STOP ment marking 602 to all traffic on the roadway
signs should be used on the entering roadways to intersecting the roadway on which he is traveling,
protect the through traffic. STOP signs may also where such traffic is so close as to constitute a
be required at the end of diverging roadways at danger or potential danger. The driver should also
the intersection with other highways not designed give way to pedestrian and bicycle traffic cross-
as expressways. In most of these cases, the ing his path at that point.
speeds will not warrant any great increase in the
sign sizes.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3000
Minimum
Centerline

(See Note 4)
Curb Radius
Per Design

300 Minimum
600 Preferred 15000
Maximum

Sign 301/302
(See Note 3)

Acceptable Sign Placement


Area Envelope (See Note 2)

3000
Maximum

Notes:
1. Dimensions are shown in millimeters.
2. The preferred sign location is a point behind the curbline, within the acceptable sign placement envelope, closest to the
stop line unless another position within the envelope gives better visibility of the sign for approaching traffic.
3. Sign orientation should be at right angles to the centerline unless a right turn only is permitted, in which case a radial orien-
tation is required.
4. The 3000 minimum dimension may be increased to 5000 when a conflict with a community street name sign would occur.

Figure 3-1
Longitudinal Position of Stop Sign 301 and Give Way Sign 302

The GIVE WAY sign may be warranted: GIVE WAY sign may be placed at the
entrance to the second roadway.
1. At the entrance to an intersection where it is 4. Where there is a separate or channelized
necessary to assign right-of-way and where right-turn lane, without an adequate acceler-
the safe approach speed on the entrance ation lane.
exceeds 15 kilometers per hour. 5. At any intersection where a special problems
2. On the entrance ramp to an expressway exists and where an engineering study indi-
where an acceleration lane is not provided. cates the problem to be susceptible to correc-
3. At intersections on a divided highway where tion by use of the GIVE WAY sign.
the median between the roadways is more
than 30 feet wide. At such intersections, a GIVE WAY signs generally should not be placed
STOP sign may be used at the entrance to the to control the major flow of traffic at an intersec-
first roadway of the divided highway and a tion. However, GIVE WAY signs may be
installed to control a major traffic movement

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 302
where a majority of drivers in that movement are
making right turns. At such an intersection, GIVE
WAY signs should not be erected on more than
one approach.

GIVE WAY signs should not be used on the


through roadways of expressways. They may be
Sign 303
used on an entering roadway without an adequate
acceleration lane, but in a well-designed inter- Sign 303 should be used in conjunction with
change, the sign would interfere with the free PEDESTRIAN CROSSING pavement marking
merging movement, and it should not be used 603 and GIVE WAY pavement marking 602.
under those circumstances.
GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 should
GIVE WAY sign 302 should be located on the be used in advance of all marked pedestrian
right side of the intersecting side street between 3 crossings which are not otherwise controlled by
and 15 meters in advance of the near side edge of STOP sign 301, GIVE WAY sign 302 or traffic
the crossroad (see Figure 3-1). A second GIVE signals.
WAY sign 302 should be similarly located on the
left side of the roadway when the street is a one GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 should
way street with two or more lanes and a central be located on the right side of the roadway 3
island or median. meters in advance of GIVE WAY pavement
marking 602. GIVE WAY pavement marking 602
A GIVE WAY sign should not be used at a junc- should be at least 3 meters and preferably 6
tion having a STOP sign controlling another meters in advance of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING
approach. pavement marking 603. A second GIVE WAY TO
PEDESTRIANS sign 303 should be provided on
A GIVE WAY sign should not be used at at-grade the left side of the roadway when a median island
junctions when these are provided with appropri- or other central island is provided in advance of
ately designed full acceleration lanes. the pedestrian crossing.

GIVE WAY sign 302 should have a white back- GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303 should
ground with a broad red border. have the following color pattern:

3.2.3 GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS • The upper, GIVE WAY sign should have a
SIGN 303 white background with a broad red border.
• The lower sign, indicating pedestrians,
Sign 303 requires that the driver of a vehicle should have a red background with a white
should yield right-of-way to pedestrians crossing icon and border.
the roadway or waiting to cross the roadway.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.2.4 NO ENTRY SIGN 304

Sign 304 indicates to drivers of vehicles that


entry is prohibited to all vehicular traffic.

Sign 305

Sign 304 Sign 306


NO ENTRY sign 304 should be used to prohibit
“wrong way” entry to a roadway when confusion
may exist as to the direction of travel of traffic in
the roadway (see Section 3.2.5, ONE WAY signs
305, 306, and 307 ).

NO ENTRY sign 304 should be located on the


right and left sides of a one-way roadway. NO
ENTRY sign 304 should be oriented at 90 Sign 307
degrees to the direction of “wrong way” travel.
travel in streets intersecting the one in which they
Sign 304 should have a red background with a are traveling is in one direction towards them and
white legend and a thin white border. to inhibit the possibility of “wrong way” entry to
such streets. ONE WAY sign 305 may also be
3.2.5 ONE WAY SIGNS 305, 306, AND used to indicate that a street is a one-way street in
a straight ahead direction (this practice is intend-
307
ed to make drivers aware that when they return to
such a street from a private property or a parking
Signs 305, 306, and 307 indicate to drivers of
area that they must turn only in one direction, it
vehicles that the only permitted direction of trav-
being impractical to indicate the direction of trav-
el, in the road or portion of road on which they
el at all points of access along a one-way street).
are erected, is in the direction indicated by the
arrow on the sign. Signs 305, 306, and 307 may
When used to indicate the direction of travel in
be displayed to indicate directions straight ahead,
an intersecting street ONE WAY signs 306 and
to the right, or to the left.
307 should be located on both sides of the inter-
secting street so that both signs can be seen clear-
ONE WAY signs 305, 306, and 307 should be
ly by drivers traveling in the through street.
used in preference to NO ENTRY sign 304 in
When used to indicate the direction of travel
networks of intersecting one-way streets. ONE
within a one-way roadway ONE WAY sign 305
WAY signs 306 and 307 should be used to indi-
should be located on the right side of single-lane
cate to drivers of vehicles that the direction of
one-way streets and on both sides of one-way

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

streets with two or more lanes. If necessary, addi- in a street at a junction, other directions of travel
tional signs should be strategically placed with at the junction may be chosen. AHEAD ONLY
respect to local accesses from properties or park- sign 321 indicates that drivers have no other
ing areas (see Figure 3-2). choice but to proceed straight ahead. A 600-mil-
limeter sign 321 may be mounted on the post
ONE WAY signs 305, 306, and 307 are the one below a traffic signal when appropriate.
exception to the general color code for the con-
trol group of regulatory signs. ONE WAY signs A typical example for the use of AHEAD ONLY
305, 306, and 307 should have a blue background sign 321 would be at a signal-controlled cross-
with a white legend and a thin white border. road intersection with a free right turn and a ded-
icated left turn lane or lanes separated from the
NOTE: In some situations, regulatory signs 304, through route by a splitter island. In this instance,
321 thru 328, 346, and/or 347 may be used in if the driver is located in one of the through lanes
place of or in addition to ONE WAY signs to the AHEAD ONLY movement is the only avail-
delineate a one-way road system. Specific able option and should be signed accordingly.
approval should be obtained from the Abu Dhabi
Municipality Department for one-way system AHEAD ONLY sign 321 should have a blue
signing. background with a white icon and a thin white
border.
3.3 MANDATORY SIGNS
3.3.2 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT) ONLY
The signs in this group have the function that SIGN 322 (OR 323)
they are used to indicate to road users actions that
they must take or that are mandatory. Signs 322 (or 323) require that the driver of a
vehicle should proceed only to the right (or to the
3.3.1 AHEAD ONLY SIGN 321 left - the arrow direction being reversed) at the
junction. TURN RIGHT (or LEFT) ONLY signs
Sign 321 requires that the driver of a vehicle 322 (or 323) should be located on the far side of
should proceed only straight ahead in the direc- a roadway facing drivers to which they apply.
tion indicated by the arrow on the sign.
Signs 322 (and 323) should have a blue back-
AHEAD ONLY sign 321 should be located on ground with a white legend and a thin white bor-
the right side of a two-way roadway and on the der.
left side of a one-way roadway. The function of
the AHEAD ONLY sign 321 differs from that of 3.3.3 TURN RIGHT (OR LEFT)
the ONE WAY sign 305 in that, while the ONE AHEAD ONLY SIGN 324 (OR
WAY sign may indicate the mandatory direction 325)

Signs 324 (or 325) require that the driver of a


vehicle should proceed only to the right (or to the
left — the arrow direction being reversed) at the
junction ahead.

TURN RIGHT (or LEFT) AHEAD ONLY signs


324 (or 325) should be located on the right side
of a two-way roadway and on the left side of a
one-way roadway at a distance of approximately
50 meters from the junction to which it applies.
Signs 324 (or 325) should normally only be pro-
vided when the alignment of the approach to the
junction is such that the layout of the junction is
Sign 321

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

307
347 346

301 301

346

301 301

307

*
* Optional subject to
traffic volumes

306

*
Access to
property or
parking
305 305

306
307

346

301 301

305 305
347

See Section 3.2.5 Note

Figure 3-2
Use of One Way Signs 305, 306, and 307 with Signs 346 and 347

Version 0.1 3-8


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 322 Sign 325

not readily obvious. A 600-millimeter sign 324


(or 325) may be mounted on the post below a
traffic signal where appropriate.

Signs 324 (and 325) should have a blue back-


ground with a white icon and a thin white border.

3.3.4 PASS EITHER SIDE SIGN 326

Sign 326 indicates to the driver of a vehicle that


he may pass to either side of an obstruction in the
roadway, such as a traffic island.

PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 should be located


on a traffic divider, near the nose of the divider,
so that there is a minimum clearance of 300 mil-
limeters between the edges of the divider and the
Sign 323 sign. The most common application of sign 326
will be at entrances to collector-distributor roads
and road splits.

Sign 324 Sign 326

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

PASS EITHER SIDE signs 326 should have a


blue background with a white icon and a thin
white border.

3.3.5 KEEP RIGHT (OR LEFT) SIGN


327 (OR 328)

Signs 327 (or 328) indicate to the driver of a


vehicle that he should pass to the right (or to the
left, the arrow direction being reversed) of an
obstruction in the roadway.

KEEP RIGHT (or LEFT) signs 327 (or 328)


should be located as near as possible to the lead-
ing edge of the obstruction so that there is at least Sign 327
a clearance of 300 millimeters from the closest
path of vehicles. Use of signs 327 (or 328) most
commonly applies to traffic islands or refuges in
two-way roadways or at the beginning of median
island when a single two-way carriageway
widens to become a dual carriageway. If such a
condition occurs on a vertical curve it may be
effective to mount two type 327 (or 328) signs
one above the other.

Signs 327 and 328 should have a blue back-


ground with a white icon and a thin white border.

3.3.6 ROUNDABOUT SIGN 329

Sign 329 requires that the driver of a vehicle


should proceed only in a counterclockwise direc-
tion at the roundabout ahead. Sign 328

ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should be located


below GIVE WAY sign 302 in advance of the
entry to a roundabout when on the approach con-
cerned, it may not be obvious that the junction
ahead is a roundabout. In such circumstances,
sign 329 may be used in addition to advance
warning ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420.
Sign 420 should be located as indicated in
Chapter 4.

Should mini roundabouts be instituted in Abu


Dhabi, sign 329 should be used to direct
motorists to operate within the junction in a man-
ner consistent with driving rules for a round-
about.

Sign 329

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should have a blue 3.4.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGNS
background with a white icon and a thin white
border. 3.4.1.1 MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT
SIGNS 339 TO 344
3.3.7 U-TURN SIGN 330
Signs 339 to 344 prohibit drivers of vehicles
Sign 330 notifies the driver of a vehicle that he from exceeding the maximum speed limit indi-
may make a U-turn. cated in kilometers per hour by means of a num-
ber on such a sign.

In Abu Dhabi, the following speed limits should


be in effect unless otherwise posted:

• 30 km/h: School zone.


• 40 km/h: Selected roadways in areas with a
high concentration of pedestrians.
• 60 km/h: Urban dual carriageway.
• 80 km/h: Selected roadways with limited
access and control.
• 100 km/h: Rural roads.
• 120 km/h: Freeways and expressways.

MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT signs 339 to 344


Sign 330
should be provided after the point of access from
another roadway or when:
U-TURN sign 330 should be located at the end of
the traffic median on the near side of the possible • There is a change in speed limit along a spe-
U-turn road configuration. At signalized intersec- cific route.
tions, it should be attached to the traffic signal • There is a reduction in speed limit between
post supporting the signals for traffic coming intersecting roadways of like types.
from the opposite direction. • The road environment that would be the cri-
terion for the speed limit cannot be easily
In Abu Dhabi, U-TURN sign 330 is often used identified by drivers.
with a NO TRUCKS qualification plate 365 • The distance between postings exceed those
mounted below. indicated in Table 3-1.

U-TURN sign 330 should have a blue back- The sign numbers apply as follows:
ground with a white icon and a thin white border.
• Sign 339: 30 km/h (see Chapter 8 for guid-
3.4 PROHIBITORY SIGNS ance on use of Sign 339 in school zones).
• Sign 340: 40 km/h.
The signs in this group have the function to indi- • Sign 341: 60 km/h.
cate to road users actions that they must not take, • Sign 342: 80 km/h.
or which are prohibited. Prohibitions may apply • Sign 343: 100 km/h.
in the form of limits, or to certain actions or • Sign 344: 120 km/h.
objects. Maximum limits such as speed or height
limits are indicated in circular signs without a The following guidelines and comments should
diagonal slash. Prohibitions on actions or objects be considered as being applicable to general or
are indicated in circular signs which include a average conditions. Specific circumstances may
diagonal slash. warrant a variation in application when the prin-

3-11 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 339 Sign 342

Sign 340 Sign 343

Sign 341 Sign 344

Version 0.1 3-12


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 3-1
Guidelines for Speed Limit Sign Location
Situation In Which Sign Sign Location Warrants For Additional Signs(1)
Is To Be Provided After
Point Of Access
Parking Area or Service Road within 10 meters Not applicable
Urban Single Carriageway within 50 meters Not applicable
- Above 60 km/h(2), 4 km between postings
Urban Dual Carriageway within 50 meters - 60 km/h(2), 2 km between postings
- Below 60 km/h(2), 1 km between postings
- 100 km/h(2), 10 km between postings
Rural Roads within 100 meters - 80 km/h(2), 4 km between postings
Notes:
1. Additional signs should be provided at the rate of one extra sign approximately in the middle of the length of section between
“postings” as given in the table. A “posting” represents the initial provision of a MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign in terms of the
criteria given above and as illustrated in Figure 3-3.
2. Refers to the maximum speed limit posted on the section of road.

ciples involved should be applied with engineer- 3.4.1.2 DUAL SPEED LIMIT SIGN
ing judgment. COMBINATIONS AND DUAL
MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT SIGN
When the provision of a MAXIMUM SPEED 345
LIMIT sign is warranted, signs should be located
as indicated in Table 3-1. Figure 3-3 illustrates Many Abu Dhabi roadways have one speed limit
the typical use of MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT for cars and another, lower speed limit for trucks
SIGNS 341 to 343. and other heavy vehicles. Signing for these con-
ditions should be done using a dual speed-limit
A MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should also sign combination or with a dual speed limit sign
be provided when a change in maximum speed combination complemented by DUAL MAXI-
limit occurs along a route. It is not uncommon MUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345.
that a decrease in maximum speed limit may be
as much as 40 km/h (e.g., from 100 km/h down to
60 km/h). In such a situation, an appropriate
MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign should be pro-
vided for each 20 km/h decrease in speed limit so
that the maximum decrease in speed limit posted
at any one time is 20 km/h. The minimum dis-
tance between successively decreasing speed
limit signs should be 500 meters.
Sign 345 (typical)
It is not necessary to post maximum speed limits
on major roads after minor joining access roads,
except in the unlikely event that with roads of All roadways with dual speed limits should be
equal status the one being entered has a lower signed using a sign combination as shown in
maximum speed limit than drivers would have Figure 3-4.
reason to expect.
The combination is made up of two maximum
MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT signs 339 to 344 speed limit signs mounted on a single pole, one
should have a white background, a black legend, above the other, with a truck qualification plate
and a thick red border. mounted at the bottom, below the sign indicating
the speed limit for trucks. The sign indicating the
speed limit for cars should be mounted above the

3-13 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Version 0.1 3-14


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

the guidelines in Table 3-1; DUAL MAXIMUM


SPEED LIMIT sign 345 should be added subse-
quently as deemed useful.

When used, DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT


sign 345 should be evenly interspersed with dual
speed limit sign combinations. Good engineering
judgement should be exercised in determining
the location and frequency of DUAL MAXI-
MUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345 in a dual speed
limit zone, but its frequency should not exceed
the guidelines in Table 3-1.

3.4.2 NO LEFT (OR RIGHT) TURN


SIGN 346 (OR 347)

Signs 346 (or 347) indicate to drivers of vehicles


that they should not turn to the left or right, as the
case may be, at the junction or entrance where the
signs are displayed.
Figure 3-4
Dual Speed Limit Sign Combination (typical)
sign indicating the speed limit for trucks and
other heavy vehicles.

On roadways with dual speed limits, dual speed


limit sign combinations should be located as
would normal speed limit signs, in accordance
with the distances specified in Table 3-1.

In some conditions, it may be advantageous to


complement dual speed limit sign combinations
with DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign
345. This sign takes the appearance of a typical
guide sign in color and shape. However, its large Sign 346
size and the limited information on it precludes
the potential for confusion on the part of drivers
and clearly emphasizes the respective speed lim-
its of the two different types of vehicles.

DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT sign 345 is


to be ideally located in wide, open areas adjacent
to the roadway. DUAL MAXIMUM SPEED
LIMIT sign 345 should be considered a comple-
ment to but not a substitute for dual speed limit
sign combinations, and thus its placement in a
dual speed limit zone should not affect the place-
ment or frequency of dual speed limit sign com-
binations. Dual speed limit sign combinations
should first be correctly positioned according to
Sign 347

3-15 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Signs 346 (or 347) should be located on the side ings or where there is a conflict with pedestrian
of the roadway towards which the illegal turn movements.
would be made, not more than 25 meters in
advance of the point where the prohibition NO U-TURN sign 348 may be made specific to a
applies. time of day by means of a QUALIFICATION
PLATE sign 365 mounted below the sign. A 600-
Signs 346 or 347 should only be used in situa- millimeter sign 348 may be mounted on the post
tions where the left (or right) turn would, under below a traffic signal where appropriate. NO U-
normal circumstances, be expected by drivers to TURN for specific vehicle types is the one
be available. Their use is generally not necessary exception to this rule and is further explained in
when roadway geometry clearly indicates that Section 4.2.8.
turns are not intended at the location under con-
sideration. A 600 millimeter sign 346 (or 347) NO U-TURN sign 348 should have a white back-
may be mounted on the post below a traffic sig- ground, a black icon, a thick red diagonal line,
nal where appropriate. and a thick red border.

Signs 346 and 347 should have a white back- 3.4.4 NO OVERTAKING SIGN 349
ground, a black icon, a thick red diagonal line,
and a thick red border. Sign 349 prohibits the driver of a vehicle from
overtaking another vehicle traveling in the same
3.4.3 NO U-TURN SIGN 348 direction within the next 500 meters.

Sign 348 indicates to drivers of vehicles that they


should not perform a U-turn at the junction or
break in the median island ahead.

Sign 349

NO OVERTAKING sign 349 may be used in


Sign 348 addition to NO PASSING LINE pavement mark-
ing 611 when this is likely to be ineffective due
to adverse conditions or other factors. Sign 349
NO U-TURN sign 348 should be located not should be located on the left side of the road. If
more than 25 meters in advance of the point to the overtaking message is required for a distance
which the prohibition applies. The sign may be in excess of 500 meters the sign should be
repeated at the point of prohibition. repeated at 500 meter intervals.

Sign 348 may be required when the parallel car- NO OVERTAKING sign 348 should have a
riageway is too narrow to accept safe U-turns or white background, a black icon, a thick red diag-
when such a movement cannot safely be accom- onal line, and a thick red border.
modated due to limitations in traffic signal tim-

Version 0.1 3-16


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.4.5 NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS 3.4.6 NO GOODS VEHICLES SIGN


SIGN 350 351

Sign 350 prohibits the driver of a vehicle trans- Sign 351 prohibits drivers of goods vehicles from
porting inflammable goods, including inflamma- proceeding beyond the sign.
ble gases in portable cylinders, from proceeding
beyond the sign.

Sign 351

Sign 350 NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 should be


located on the right side of the roadway at the
NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS sign 350 may be point from which the prohibition is required to
used in advance of any area, such as a tunnel, apply. This point should be chosen where an
where transported inflammable goods represent a alternative route is available to drivers of goods
particular hazard. The sign should be located on vehicles.
the right of the roadway at the point from which
the prohibition is required to apply. This position NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 may be made
should permit vehicles carrying inflammable specific to a particular time of day rather than for
goods to take an alternative route. In practice it is the full 24-hours by means of a QUALIFICA-
likely that other prohibitions may apply at such TION PLATE sign 365, indicating the applicable
places. It is recommended that all necessary pro- time period or periods, mounted below the sign.
hibitory signs be displayed on a custom designed In a similar way the NO GOODS VEHICLES
backing board with a white background color and sign 351 may be made applicable to goods vehi-
a thin red border of the style used for diagram- cles exceeding a specific weight by the mounting
matic warning signs. It is also recommended that of QUALIFICATION PLATE below the sign
a similar combined sign be displayed in advance which displays the weight limit in the form “10
of the exit or turn onto the alternative route with T” where the unit “T” refers to a metric tonne.
an appropriate explanatory text message such as Where appropriate this weight limit may be
“Alternative Route 150 m.” replaced by a length limit such as “6.0 m.”

NO INFLAMMABLE GOODS sign 350 should NO GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 should have a
have a white background, a black icon, a thick white background, a black icon, a thick red diag-
red diagonal line, and a thick red border. The onal line, and a thick red border.
detail of the flame within the truck icon on the
legend should be red and yellow. 3.4.7 NO PEDESTRIANS SIGN 352

Sign 352 prohibits pedestrians from proceeding


beyond the sign.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

NO CYCLISTS sign 353 may be displayed in


any position where it is required to prohibit
cyclist movement or access. If pedestrian move-
ment or access is not otherwise prohibited,
cyclists may proceed provided they dismount and
walk their bicycles. Sign 353 should be used with
a size of 300 millimeters unless a larger size is
warranted for conspicuousness.

Sign 353 should have a white background, a


black icon, a thick red diagonal line, and a thick
red border.

3.4.9 NO HORNS SIGN 354


Sign 352
Sign 354 prohibits the driver of a vehicle from
NO PEDESTRIANS sign 352 may be displayed sounding the horn or other audible device of his
in any position where it is required to prohibit vehicle within 75 meters of the sign.
pedestrian movement or access, normally across
a roadway. Such places may include specific
parts of a roadway or junction which pedestrians
otherwise might expect to be able to use, but
which are considered unsafe due to the traffic
management arrangements of the road or junc-
tion. Sign 352 should be used with a size of 300
millimeters unless a larger size is warranted for
conspicuousness.

NO PEDESTRIANS sign 352 should have a


white background, a black icon, a thick red diag-
onal line, and a thick red border.

3.4.8 NO CYCLISTS SIGN 353 Sign 354

Sign 353 prohibits cyclists from proceeding


beyond the sign. NO HORNS sign 354 may be used in the vicini-
ty of hospitals or other places where it is consid-
ered necessary to limit traffic noise. Sign 354
should be located on the right side of the roadway
at the point where the prohibition is required to
apply. Additional signs may be placed at 150
meter intervals if the prohibition is required over
some distance.

Sign 352 should have a white background, a


black icon, a thick red diagonal line, and a thick
red border.

Sign 353

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.4.10 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN 3.4.11 MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT SIGN
355 356

Sign 355 prohibits drivers of vehicles exceeding the Sign 356 incorporates sign 355 into a larger sign
indicated height from proceeding beyond the sign. and includes an iconic symbol and text to
increase visibility and reinforce the sign’s mes-
sage.

Sign 356
Sign 355

MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 356 should


MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 should be used only where vehicles exceeding Abu
be located 25 to 50 meters in advance of any lim- Dhabi’s legal vehicle height limit may use the
ited height structure that has a minimum clear- road on an exceptional basis. It should be placed
ance of less than 4.2 meters, preferably on both where it is deemed tall truck traffic may enter the
the right and left sides of the approach roadway. highway. It should be located on both the right
The height indicated within the sign should be at and left sides of the roadway.
least 100 millimeters less than the actual mini-
mum clearance measured under the structure. The height indicated within the sign should be at
The height should be expressed on the sign to the least 100 millimeters less than the actual mini-
next lowest one decimal place of a meter. mum clearance measured under the structure.
The height should be expressed on the sign to the
The maximum legal height for a vehicle in Abu next lowest one decimal place of a meter.
Dhabi is 4.2 meters.
MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 356 should
Sign 355 must not be used as an advance warning have a white background, a black border, and a
sign. The sign should always be preceded by an black and red legend.
advance warning MAXIMUM HEADROOM
sign 425 (see Chapter 4).
3.4.12 QUALIFICATION PLATE SIGN
Sign 355-4.2 should be located on both sides of 365
the road at all Emirates Route border crossings
into Abu Dhabi Emirate and on all exit roads Sign 365 provides a secondary message that qual-
from cargo-handling seaports. ifies or restricts the primary message of another
regulatory sign. Sign 365 is never used alone and
MAXIMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 should is always mounted directly below the regulatory
have a white background, a black legend, and a sign that it qualifies. The background color, bor-
thick red border. der color, and message color of sign 365 should
correspond to those of the associated regulatory

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Thus, a QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 may


contain textual messages or symbols such as, but
not limited to, the following:

• 08:00 TO 20:00.
• 8 m.
• Except Friday.
• Truck (symbol).
• 10 T.

When it is desired to add to a regulatory sign


information that does not qualify the message of
the sign, a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
should be used.

3.5 PARKING CONTROL


SIGNS
The signs in this group apply to the control and
regulation of stopping and parking. The signs in
the group are available to clarify stopping or
parking controls in complex environments or to
indicate circumstances where limited or part-time
restrictions operate for part(s) of a day or apply to
specific classes of vehicle.

The group includes circular prohibition signs,


which are commonly contained within a rectan-
gular background. The prohibitory meaning of
the sign is not affected by its manner of display.
The reason for placing the sign within a rectan-
gular background is to provide a suitable base to
display relevant secondary information which
limits the application of the sign in some way.

Parking control signs may be prohibitory signs or


permissive signs. Prohibitory parking control
signs use a red border, text, and arrow whereas
permissive parking signs, which may still contain
a restrictive element in their message (e.g., a
maximum duration of stay), use a green border,
Sign 365 text and arrow. Prohibitory and permissive park-
sign with which it is mounted (this also applies to ing control signs may be mounted side-by-side
roadworks versions of regulatory signs). on sections of street where a stopping or parking
prohibition changes to permitted parking. If there
Ordinarily, regulatory signs apply 24 hours a day, are no time or payment controls over the use of a
7 days a week and are relevant to all vehicles parking area it is not necessary to erect parking
passing that sign. QUALIFICATION PLATE control signs.
sign 365 is used when the regulatory message is
intended to apply to only certain times or days, Not all numbered signs are illustrated. Examples
and/or to only certain types or classes of vehicles. are shown in Figures 3-5 to 3-8.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.5.1 NO STOPPING SIGNS 370, 371, when a particular stopping problem has been
372, AND 373 identified.

Sign 370 prohibits the driver of a vehicle from QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365 should be
stopping his vehicle at any time along the section used to convey regulatory limits with messages
of road beyond such a sign, subject to compliance such as the following:
with a traffic signal, the direction of a traffic offi-
cer, or to avoid a collision. The action of NO • For 1000 m.
STOPPING sign 370 should cease automatically • On Bridge.
when a driver leaves the roadway on which it is • In Thru Lanes.
provided unless he comes under the control of • End.
another NO STOPPING sign on the roadway
which he enters. Signs 371, 372 and 373 require that the driver of
a vehicle should not stop his vehicle at any time
The use of NO STOPPING sign 370 is appropri- along a section of road within 40 meters of such
ate on high speed roads such as major arterials a sign, subject to compliance with a traffic signal,
which have limited points of access. Sign 370 the direction of a traffic officer, or to avoid a col-
should be located on the right side of such multi- lision. Signs 371, 372, and 373 should include an
lane one-way roadways within 150 meters of a arrow to indicate the direction of application of
point of entry to the roadway and in such a way the restriction from the sign.
that the sign is at right angles to the normal direc-
tion of travel. NO STOPPING signs 371, 372, and 373 should
be located on the right and/or left side of the
NO STOPPING sign 370 should not be used roadway, as appropriate, with the sign face paral-
indiscriminately but should be limited to situa- lel to the curbline or edge of roadway. The maxi-
tions where: mum distance between signs to give adequate
coverage to a full section of nonarterial urban
• The stopping of vehicles will pose a severe roadway should be 80 meters. When a stopping
safety or capacity problem, and prohibition is to be applied to a section of road-
• There is a situation whereby a significant way for a distance less than 80 meters two NO
number of drivers are stopping their vehicles, STOPPING signs 371 and 373 should be used,
and one at each end of the section of roadway. The
• Where another form of regulatory sign or range of arrow variations with signs 371, 372,
pavement marking would not otherwise and 373 is illustrated in Figure 3-5.
make stopping illegal.
NO STOPPING signs 371, 372, and 373 may be
Thus, the use of sign 370 should generally not be made specific to a particular time of day, rather
included in new designs, but rather as a retrofit than the full 24 hours, by indicating within the

Sign 370 Sign 371 Sign 372 Sign 373


Figure 3-5
No Stopping Sign Variants

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

sign face the applicable time period or time peri- to a full section of urban roadway should be 80
ods. Alternatives, with their specific sign num- meters. When a parking prohibition is to be
bers, are illustrated in Figure 3-6. applied to a section of roadway for a distance less
than 80 meters two NO PARKING signs 377 and
3.5.2 NO PARKING SIGNS 377, 378, 379 should be used, one at each end of the section
AND 379 of roadway.

Signs 377, 378, and 379 require that the driver of NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 may be
a vehicle should not park his vehicle at any time made specific to a particular time of day, rather
along a section of road within 40 meters of such than the full 24 hours, by indicating within the
a sign. Signs 377, 378, and 379 should include an sign face the applicable time period or time peri-
arrow to indicate the direction of application of ods. The manner of display should be as illustrat-
the restriction from the sign. ed in Figure 3-6, with the substitution of the NO
PARKING disc for the NO STOPPING disc and
NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 should be the use of specific sign numbers 380, 381 and
located on the right and/or left side of the road- 382.
way, as appropriate, with the sign face parallel to
the curbline or edge of roadway. The maximum The range of arrow variations with signs 377,
distance between signs to give adequate coverage 378, and 379 is illustrated in Figure 3-7.

: : : : : :
: :

Sign 374 Sign 375 Sign 376


Figure 3-6
No Stopping with Time Limit Displays

Sign 377 Sign 378 Sign 379


Figure 3-7
No Parking Sign Variants

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

3.5.3 PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING The range of PAY AND DISPLAY PARKING


SIGNS 383, 384, AND 385 signs 383, 384, and 385 is illustrated in Figure 3-8.

Signs 383, 384, and 385 indicate to drivers of 3.5.4 PARKING FOR DISABLED
vehicles using the parking area designated by the PERSONS SIGNS 386, 387, AND
sign that they should pay the appropriate tariff at 388
the designated payment point and should affix
the ticket/notice received on the inside of the Signs 386, 387,and 388 indicate to drivers of
windscreen of the vehicle so that it can be vehicles that the parking area designated by the
observed from outside the vehicle. sign is reserved for use by disabled persons only
and that it should not be used by other drivers.
PAY-AND-DISPLAY PARKING signs 383 and
385 should be located at each end of a row of When a single PARKING FOR DISABLED
parking bays served by a “PAY-AND-DISPLAY” PERSONS sign 387 is required for a single park-
payment point, with the sign face parallel to the ing bay it should be located on the sidewalk
curbline or edge of roadway. The arrows on the approximately in the center of the length or width
signs will indicate the point from which the of the parking bay. In such an application the
“PAY-AND-DISPLAY” criteria applies, and will arrow is omitted. In other applications, signs 386
generally point towards the payment point. PAY- and 388 should be displayed in a similar manner
AND-DISPLAY PARKING sign 384 should be to that described for NO PARKING signs 377
located at intermediate intervals between PAY- and 379 (see Section 3.5.2). Sign 387 should be
AND-DISPLAY PARKING signs 383 and 385 used only to identify a single parking bay.
only when the row of parking bays is considered
to be of sufficient length as to warrant the provi- The range of PARKING FOR DISABLED PER-
sion of additional “PAY-AND-DISPLAY” pay- SONS signs 386, 387, and 388 is illustrated in
ment points. If it is necessary to advise drivers of Figure 3-9.
time limits applicable to the parking area this
should be done using appropriate PARKING 3.5.5 PARKING TIME LIMIT SIGNS
TIME LIMIT signs 389, 390, and 391 in addition 389, 390, AND 391
to signs 383, 384, and 385 in a manner similar to
the examples in Figure 3-11. Signs 389, 390, and 391 indicate to drivers of
vehicles using the parking area designated by the

Sign 383 Sign 384 Sign 385


Figure 3-8
Pay and Display Parking Sign Variants

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 386 Sign 387 Sign 388


Figure 3-9
Parking for Disabled Persons Sign Variants

sign that there are time limits to their use of the STOPPING signs 374, 375, and 376 and NO
parking area. The time limit may apply in one or PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 with regard to
both of two ways: position and frequency. In an area where mixed
prohibition (signs 377, 378, and 379) and per-
• To the maximum duration of the parking missive (signs 383 to 391) signs are used prohi-
period. bition and permissive signs may be mounted next
• To the times of day that parking is permitted. to each other with arrows pointing in appropriate
directions.
Signs 389, 390, and 391 should include an arrow
to indicate the direction of application of the time The messages of the PARKING TIME LIMIT
restrictions indicated on the sign (see Figure 3-10). signs 389, 390, and 391 may be varied. The dura-
tion of stay limit or the time of day limit may be
PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389, 390, and 391 omitted if one or other is not appropriate to the
should be displayed in the same manner as NO circumstances of the parking area.

Sign 389 Sign 390 Sign 391


Figure 3-10
Parking Time Limit Sign Variants

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Figure 3-11 illustrates some of the sign combina-


tions possible within this group of signs.

3.5.6 BUS STOP SIGN 392

Sign 392 indicates to drivers that the section of


roadway designated is reserved for the stopping
or standing of buses. BUS STOP sign 392 should
be located at the edge of the sidewalk so that it
can be seen by pedestrians and bus drivers
(mounted perpendicular to the curb). It should be
positioned near the end of the loading area and
indicate the position for the driver to stop and
passengers to queue.
Sign 392
BUS STOP sign 392 should have a white back-
ground. The icon should be offset on a blue back- The space reserved by TAXI STAND sign 393
ground and the horizontal dividing lines should be should not be used for the unattended parking of
blue. Both Arabic and English text should be red. taxis. Taxis may only stand in the space while
waiting for fares.
3.5.7 TAXI STAND SIGN 393
Taxi stand locations must be approved by the
Sign 393 indicates to drivers of vehicles that the Traffic Police.
section of roadway designated is reserved for the
stopping or standing of taxis only, and that such TAXI STAND sign 393 should have a white
section of road should not be used by other vehi- background. The icon and the horizontal dividing
cles. lines should be blue. The border and the Arabic
and English text should be red.

Sign 380 Sign 381 Sign 382

Sign 381 Sign 390 Sign 388 Sign 389 Sign 391 Sign 371
Figure 3-11
Examples of Sign Combinations in the Parking Group

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY sign 394 should


have a white background. The car-and-person
icon and the horizontal dividing lines should be
blue. The border, the prohibition icon, and the
Arabic and English text should be red.

3.6 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS

The signs in this group indicate to road users


which roads are classified as freeways. In doing
so they make road users aware of the application,
and removal, of the particular “Rules of the
Road” relevant to the use of freeways.

3.6.1 BEGINNING OF FREEWAY


Sign 393
SIGN 398
3.5.8 DROP-OFF PICK-UP ONLY
SIGN 394 Sign 398 indicates to drivers of vehicles that a
dual carriageway freeway begins and that the
Sign 394 indicates to drivers of vehicles that the various controls and prohibitions become effec-
section of roadway designated is reserved for tive beyond the sign.
dropping off or picking up passengers. These sec-
tions of roadways may be used by any type vehi-
cle, public or private.

Sign 398

Freeway rules invoked by sign 398 should mean


Sign 394 that, except in case of emergency, no person
should:
The space reserved by sign 394 should not be
used for the unattended parking of any vehicle. • Operate a nonmotorized vehicle on or near
Sign 394 is also generally used near the begin- the freeway.
ning of the loading area at bus stops, allowing • Be on foot on or near the freeway.
other vehicles to use the bus stop for drop-off and • Stop or reverse a vehicle on the roadway.
pick-up. Approval should be obtained from the • Stop, park, or drive on a shoulder, median, or
Road Department before installing Sign 394 in a roadside area.
bus stop. • Drive at a speed less than 70 km/h or 30 km/h
less than the prevailing traffic speed,
whichever is lower.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The BEGINNING OF FREEWAY sign 398


should be located on the right side within the first
third of the length of all freeway on-ramps and on
the right side, and left side when a median island
is available, when a non-freeway roadway
becomes a freeway in a straight-ahead situation.

Sign 398 should have a blue background with a


white icon and border.

3.6.2 END OF FREEWAY SIGN 399

Sign 399 indicates to the drivers of vehicles that


a freeway is about to end and that the relevant
freeway rules are no longer applicable.

Sign 399

END OF FREEWAY sign 399 should be located


on the right side within the final third of the
length of all freeway off-ramps. When a freeway
ends, but continues as a non-freeway road, sign
399 should be located on the right side, and if a
median island is available, on the left side of the
roadway. It should be noted that if it is required
that some of the prohibitions provided for on the
freeway be retained, specific prohibition signs
should be erected accordingly beyond sign 399.

END OF FREEWAY sign 399 should have a blue


background with a white icon and border. The
diagonal slash should be red.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4 WARNING SIGNS guidelines for the positioning of advance warning


signs. Distances in Table 4-1 are based on stan-
dard traffic-engineering stopping-sight distance
4.1 GENERAL equations (distance needed to reduce speed from
approach speed to safe operating speed at haz-
Warning signs are used to make drivers aware of ard).
hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions in
the roadway which drivers might not otherwise It is also important that there be an adequate clear
expect to see due to the nature of the hazard, the visibility distance to the warning sign. The avail-
hazard being hidden or partially hidden, or due to ability of this distance must be checked at the
the driver’s workload at the time. Advance warn- time of installation of the sign. Clear visibility
ing signs have a unique triangular shape and the distance cannot be assumed to exist simply
warning message is given in the majority of because it appears to be available from reading a
instances by a symbolic representation of the plan of a section of road. Engineers need to exer-
hazard or potential hazard. cise professional judgement on site to ensure
drivers have adequate clear visibility to a warn-
In order to maintain the credibility of warning ing sign.
signs they should only be used when a need has
been established or a warrant satisfied. If warning Likewise, sound engineering judgement is
signs are used automatically to “warn” of fully required for placement of warning signs used to
visible everyday road features, those warning alert drivers to temporary road conditions or par-
signs which really are important are likely to be ticularly hazardous conditions. In either of these
less effective. situations, distances from the sign to the hazard
may need to be increased or decreased from the
Most warning signs are located in advance of the guidelines in Table 4-1. It may also be the case
hazard to which they refer. To be effective as a that multiple warning signs are needed to effec-
class, warning signs must be positioned consis- tively alert drivers to a single hazard. Engineers
tently. The location of warning signs should, in should consider either of these options during ini-
part, be related to the speed with which the haz- tial installation and prepared to review this deci-
ard can be negotiated. This in turn relates to the sion in the future if deemed warranted.
difference between the speed at the hazard and
the speed when viewing the sign. Table 4-1 gives
Table 4-1
Guidelines for Positioning Advance Warning Signs
Posted Speed at Hazard (km/h)
Approach
<20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Speed (km/h)
Preferred Distance of Sign from Hazard (meters)
30 Note 1 Note 2 - - - - -
40 25 Note 1 Note 2 - - - -
50 75 60 Note 1 Note 2 - - -
60 125 110 100 50 Note 2 - -
70 150 140 125 110 50 Note 2 -
80 175 160 150 125 100 60 Note 2
90 200 185 175 150 140 75 65
100 250 230 200 180 175 125 100
110 275 250 225 210 190 160 130
120 300 275 250 230 210 190 175
NOTES:
1. No suggested minimum distances are provided for these speeds, as placement
location is dependent on site conditions and other signing to provide an adequate
advance warning for the driver.
2. No specific recommended placement distance are provided for these speeds. The
Engineer should exercise professional engineering judgement in light of local
conditions.

4-1 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The function of each individual warning sign is which they relate. Consistent with this function
given in subsequent sections of this chapter. If a they have a unique triangular shape in order to
warning sign is required for which there is no attract the attention of drivers sufficiently early
symbol GENERAL WARNING sign 450 should for their message to be effective. Advance warn-
be used in conjunction with a SUPPLEMEN- ing signs are therefore not appropriate to mark or
TARY PLATE sign 589 (see Section 4.2.26). identify the point location of the hazard. Hazard
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be marker signs should be used for such a purpose
attached below an advance warning sign to (see Section 4.3).
enhance the message of the sign (see Section
5.7.4). 4.2.1 JUNCTION AHEAD SIGNS 401
TO 406
4.1.1 FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES
OF WARNING SIGNS Signs 401 to 406 warn drivers of vehicles of a
junction ahead.
It is the function of warning signs to alert drivers
to hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401, SIDE ROAD
on or adjacent to the roadway. This function may AHEAD signs 403 and 404 and STAGGERED
be exercised in the form of an advance warning SIDE ROAD AHEAD signs 405 and 406 are
of a hazard ahead or by marking the actual phys- specifically for use on a major road to indicate
ical hazard. the presence and layout of the junction ahead. T-
JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402 may be used on a
The objective of warning signs is to transfer the major or minor road although its use on major
desired warning message to road users as clearly roads is not likely to be common.
and as quickly as possible with a minimum
impact on the driving task and in so doing to cre- Signs 401 to 406 should be located on the right
ate the safest practical road environment for side of the roadway at a distance from the junc-
users. In order to achieve this objective warning tion as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear
signs must be of adequate size and must be cor- sight distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY
rectly positioned to attract the attention of road PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the
users in time for them to take the required action. junction to the nearest 20 meters should be
By providing warning signs the design engineer attached below all signs 401 to 406.
must have as an objective the creation of an ade-
quate level of road safety while using the fewest Signs 401 to 406 should be considered for use in
possible signs. an urban area only when all of the following con-
ditions apply:
4.1.2 SUBCLASSIFICATION OF
WARNING SIGNS • The junction is not controlled by traffic sig-
nals.
In order to clarify the different functions of warn- • There are no advance direction signs.
ing signs the class is further subdivided as fol- • With the exception of T-JUNCTION
lows: AHEAD sign 402, there are no STOP or
GIVE WAY signs or road markings on the
• Advance warning signs. major road approach.
• Hazard marker signs. • No other means is available to improve the
• Diagrammatic signs. identification of the junction from an ade-
quate distance to allow drivers to safely
4.2 ADVANCE WARNING negotiate a turn. That is,there are no road
markings, gore signing, or street name signs.
SIGNS
Signs 405 and 406 should only be used when the
The signs in this group should all be used in distance between the staggered side roads is less
advance of the hazard or potential hazard to

Version 0.1 4-2


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 401 Sign 402

Sign 403 Sign 404

Sign 405 Sign 406

4-3 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

than that given in Table 4-2. If the distance


exceeds the value shown, two type 403 or 404
signs should be used, the signs being located in
accordance with Table 4-1. STAGGERED
JUNCTION AHEAD signs 405 and 406 should
be located at the distance given in Table 4-1 in
advance of the first of the two side road junc-
tions.
Table 4-2
Junction Spacing Requirements for
Signs 405 and 406
Operating Speed Distance Between
(8th Percentile) Junctions
(km/h) (meters)
Up to 45 <60 Sign 407
45 to 65 <150
65 to 85 <200
$85 <300

It is also appropriate to consider the use of


CROSSROAD AHEAD sign 401 and T-JUNC-
TION AHEAD sign 402 on the minor road
approach to a rural junction, particularly if the
road alignment is not straight on the approach to
the junction. For such an application the width of
both legs of the symbol on CROSSROAD
AHEAD sign 401 should be sized similarly to
that for T-JUNCTION AHEAD sign 402.

Signs 401 to 406 should have a white back- Sign 408


ground, a black icon, and a thick red border.

4.2.2 NO THROUGH ROAD SIGNS


407, 408, AND 409

Signs 407 to 409 are to warn drivers of vehicles


that the road indicated on the sign is not available
to through traffic, i.e., the road is a dead-end road
or is closed to through traffic for some reason.

NO THROUGH ROAD signs 407 to 409 should


be located on the right side of the roadway at a
distance from the junction as indicated in Table
4-1 and with a clear sight distance.
Sign 409
Signs 407 to 409 should only be used when it is
not otherwise obvious that the road concerned is NO THROUGH ROAD signs 407, 408, and 409
not a through road. The use of sign 409 is appro- should have a white background and a thick red
priate in advance of a crossroad when the straight border. The icon should be black and red, with
ahead leg of the junction is not a through road. black representing the road and a red “stump”
representing the end of the throughway.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.2.3 MERGING TRAFFIC SIGNS 410 Sign 411 need only be used when the angle
AND 411 between the two merging roadways makes it dif-
ficult to position sign 410 so that it may be
Signs 410 and 411 are to warn drivers of vehicles viewed from both roadways. Signs 410 and 411
of a junction ahead where two streams of traffic should not be used if the traffic on the joining
traveling in the same direction, and of equal pri- roadway is subject to stop or give way control.
ority, are required to merge into one stream.
MERGING TRAFFIC signs 410 and 411 should
have a white background, a black icon, and a
thick red border.

4.2.4 RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE SIGN


412 (OR 413)

Signs 412 and 413 warn drivers of vehicles that


there is a curve in the road ahead to the right (or
left) which requires caution.

RIGHT CURVE sign 412 should be located on


the right side of the roadway at a distance from
the start of a right-hand curve as indicated in
Sign 410

Sign 412
Sign 411

MERGING TRAFFIC sign 410 should be locat-


ed on the right side of the through roadway at a
distance from the junction of the roadways as
indicated in Table 4-1, subject to adequate clear
sight distance being available.

MERGING TRAFFIC sign 411, if required,


should be located on the right side of the joining
roadway at a distance from the junction of the
roadways as indicated in Table 4-1, subject to
adequate clear sight distance being available.

Sign 413

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the


sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
indicating the recommended speed at which the
curve may be safely negotiated should be
attached below sign 412. Sign 413 should be used
similarly for a left-hand curve.

RIGHT (or LEFT) CURVE sign 412 (or 413)


should be used in advance of a horizontal curve
that can only be negotiated comfortably by
reducing speed by one tenth or more of the oper-
ating speed of traffic on the preceding straight.
Sign 412 (or 413) should not be used on road-
ways with a basic posted speed less than 60 kilo-
meters per hour, except for exceptional circum- Sign 414
stances.

RIGHT (OR LEFT) CURVE sign 412 (or 413)


should have a white background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

4.2.5 BENDS AHEAD SIGNS 414


AND 415

Signs 414 and 415 warn drivers of vehicles that


there are sharp reverse direction curves in the
road ahead.

BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should be


located on the right side of the roadway at a dis- Sign 415
tance from the start of the first curve as indicated
in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight distance. A
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should have
the recommended speed at which the curves may a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
be safely negotiated should be attached below border.
signs 414 and 415. The symbol direction must
always be specified so that it is correctly oriented 4.2.6 TWO-WAY TRAFFIC SIGN 416
for the first curve or bend to be entered, e.g., left
before right (414) or right before left (415). Sign 416 warns drivers of vehicles in a one way
roadway that the roadway ahead carries traffic in
BENDS AHEAD signs 414 and 415 should only both directions.
be displayed when:
TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should be locat-
• The bends can only be negotiated comfort- ed on the left side of a one way roadway at a dis-
ably by reducing speed by more than one tance from the start of the two way roadway as
tenth of the operating speed of traffic on the indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight dis-
preceding straight, and/or tance to the sign. A second sign 416 may be
• The length of the straight between curves is mounted on the right side of the roadway for
less than 120 meters, or additional emphasis. A SUPPLEMENTARY
• The nature of the reverse curves is not obvi- PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the
ous to approaching drivers. start of two-way traffic may be attached below

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 416 Sign 417


sign 416. The sign may be repeated once the two-
way section of roadway is fully developed if
additional emphasis is needed.

TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should be used


when a one way roadway or carriageway
becomes a two way roadway. This condition
commonly occurs at the end of a dual carriage-
way. The sign is therefore commonly used with
DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign
424.

TWO-WAY TRAFFIC sign 416 should have a


white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

4.2.7 LANE ENDS SIGNS 417 AND Sign 418


418
A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicat-
Signs 417 and 418 warn drivers of vehicles that ing the distance to the start of the lane reduction
the right-hand or left-hand lane ends ahead. taper should be attached below signs 417 and
418.
LANE ENDS signs 417 and 418 should be locat-
ed on the right side of the roadway on two-way LANE ENDS sign 417 and 418 should be pro-
roadways. Whenever possible a sign should be vided in advance of any lane drop situation on an
located on the left side as well, particularly when arterial road that is not clearly demarcated by
the lane on the left side of a one way carriageway overhead guide signs. If necessary the larger dia-
is ending ahead. Signs 417 and 418 should not be grammatic warning LANE DROP signs 465 and
used if the reduction in road width does not result 466 may be specified for improved conspicuity
in a reduction in the number of lanes. In such on arterial roads, and should be used for high
instances the appropriate ROAD NARROWS speed freeway or expressway locations.
AHEAD sign 421, 422, or 423 should be used.
Signs 417 and 418 should be located as indicated LAND ENDS signs 417 and 418 should have a
in Table 4-1 in advance of the lane reduction white background, a black icon, and a thick red
taper and clear sight distance to the signs should border.
be available.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.2.8 U-TURN AHEAD SIGN 419 ahead be located in advance of the median open-
ing for a U-turn from the opposite direction.
Sign 419 warns drivers of vehicles that they are
permitted to make a U-turn at the junction or U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should have a white
median opening ahead. background, a black icon, and a thick red border.

4.2.9 ROUNDABOUT AHEAD SIGN


420

Sign 420 warns drivers of vehicles of a round-


about ahead.

Sign 419

U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should be located on


the median island of a dual carriageway roadway
on the left side of the roadway at a distance from
the junction or median opening as indicated in
Table 4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the Sign 420
sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
indicating the distance to the point where a U-turn ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 should be
is permitted should be attached below sign 419. located on the right side of the roadway at a dis-
tance from the roundabout as indicated in Table
U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should be provided 4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the sign. A
in advance of median openings provided specifi- SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating
cally for U-turns or at which U-turns are permit- the distance to the junction to the nearest 20
ted. U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 should not be meters should be attached below sign 420. An
provided in situations where the availability of a additional sign may be placed on the left side of
U-turn is apparent or can be accurately anticipat- a one-way carriageway.
ed by a driver (e.g., as almost all signalized inter-
sections in Abu Dhabi allow U-turns, no U- Sign 420 should only be considered for use when
TURN AHEAD sign 419 is necessary in advance it is not obvious at the distance given in Table 4-
of a signalized intersection). 1 that there is a roundabout ahead.

Subject to the distance available, in particular ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 should have
between opposing U-turns through a median a white background, a black icon, and a thick red
island, U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 may be locat- border.
ed further from the point of U-turn than the dis-
tance given in Table 4-1 in order to reassure driv- 4.2.10 ROAD NARROWS AHEAD
ers that an opportunity to U-turn exists ahead. SIGNS 421 TO 423
The distance given on the supplementary plate
must reflect such an adjustment in position and Signs 421 to 423 warn drivers of vehicles that the
indicate the actual distance to the U-turn. Under roadway ahead narrows from the right side (421),
no circumstances should sign 419 for a U-turn the left side (422) or from both sides (423).

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

narrowing situations at roadworks when the


extent of the narrowing is less than a full lane
width. If the road width reduction results in a
reduction in the number of lanes, then LANE
ENDS signs 417 and 418 should be used instead.
Signs 421 to 423 should be used when the width
of a roadway is reduced on the left or right, or
both sides, at a quicker rate than would be the
case by a standard design taper.

ROAD NARROWS AHEAD signs 421 to 423


should have a white background, a black icon,
and a thick red border.

Sign 421 4.2.11 DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS


AHEAD SIGN 424

Sign 424 warns drivers of vehicles that the one


way roadway forming part of a dual carriageway
road on which they are traveling is about to
become a single carriageway roadway carrying
two way traffic.

Sign 422

Sign 424

DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign


424 should be located on the left and right hand
sides of a one way roadway which is about to
become part of a single carriageway roadway, at
a distance from where the two carriageways
Sign 423 forming the dual carriageway come together as
indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight dis-
ROAD NARROWS AHEAD signs 421 to 423 tance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
should be located on the right side of the roadway sign 589 indicating the distance to the start of the
on two way roadways and, where practical, on two way roadway should be attached below sign
both sides of one way roadways. The normal 424.
application of these should be for temporary road

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign and sign 425 should be located in advance of the
424 may be used with TWO WAY TRAFFIC sign structure in such a position that the driver of an
416. When both signs are used sign 416 should over-height vehicle may turn off onto an alterna-
be located as indicated in Table 4-1 and sign 424 tive route. In such instances it may be necessary
should be positioned in advance of sign 416 so to provide a custom designed information sign,
that clear sight distance is maintained to sign 416. incorporating sign 425, advising drivers of over-
DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ENDS AHEAD sign height vehicles of the alternative route.
424 should have a white background, a black
icon, and a thick red border. Unless specified otherwise by the Department,
the height to be indicated on sign 425 should be
4.2.12 MAXIMUM HEADROOM SIGN 200 millimeters less than the actual minimum
425 clearance measured under the structure, further
rounded down to the nearest one decimal point of
Sign 425 warns drivers of vehicles that the clear- a meter.
ance available under an overhead structure ahead
is restricted to the amount indicated in meters on The maximum legal height of a vehicle in the
the sign. United Arab Emirates is 4.2 meters.

MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 should


have a white background, a black icon, and a
thick red border.

4.2.13 CHILDREN SIGN 426

Sign 426 warns drivers of vehicles of the likeli-


hood that children are on or adjacent to the road
ahead due to the presence of a school, play-
ground, or other activity area.

Sign 425

Sign 425 should be located on the right side of


the roadway.

MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 should not


be displayed for any structure with minimum
clearance of 5.0 meters or greater. For structures
with a clearance less than and 5.0 meters sign 425
should be provided as indicated in Table 4-1 and
with a clear sight distance to the sign. In such an
instance it is not normally considered necessary Sign 426
to provide prohibition MAXIMUM HEIGHT
LIMIT sign 355 at such structures. CHILDREN sign 426 should be located on the
right side of the roadway and, where possible, on
MAXIMUM HEADROOM sign 425 and MAX- the left side as well, at a distance from the start of
IMUM HEIGHT LIMIT sign 355 should both be the area where children are likely to be present as
displayed for any structure with a minimum indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight dis-
clearance of less than 5.0 meters. Sign 355 tance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
should be located as indicated in Section 3.4.10 sign 589 indicating the specific reason for the

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

presence of children such as “School” or vided at pedestrian crossings located at signal-


“Playground” in Arabic and English should be ized or sign controlled legs of an intersection.
attached below sign 426.
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427
CHILDREN sign 426 should be provided in should have a white background, a black icon,
advance of any appropriate roadway area which and a thick red border.
is potentially hazardous to children.
4.2.15 STOP CONTROL AHEAD SIGN
CHILDREN sign 426 should have a white back- 428
ground, a black icon, and a thick red border.
Sign 428 warns drivers of vehicles of the pres-
4.2.14 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING ence of a STOP sign 301 ahead and that they
AHEAD SIGN 427 should prepare to stop.

Sign 427 warns drivers of vehicles that there is a


marked and/or signalized pedestrian crossing
ahead at which pedestrians have right-of-way.

Sign 428

STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should be


located on the right side of the roadway at a dis-
Sign 427 tance from the STOP sign as indicated in Table 4-
1 and with a clear sight distance to the sign. A
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating
should be located on the right side of the roadway the distance to the STOP sign 301 should be
and, where possible, on the left side as well, at a attached below sign 428. An additional sign
distance from the crossing as indicated in Table should be provided on the left side of the road-
4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the sign. A way on a median island if the roadway is part of
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 indicating a dual carriageway.
the distance to the pedestrian crossing should be
attached below sign 427. STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should only
be considered for use when:
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING AHEAD sign 427
should be provided in advance of all marked • It is not obvious at the distance given in
pedestrian crossings and mid-block signalized Table 4-1 that there is a STOP control ahead,
pedestrian crossings. Sign 427 should not be and/or
located at a pedestrian crossing to mark the posi- • The approach speed is in excess of 60 km/h.
tion of the crossing. All unsignalized pedestrian
crossings should be marked by GIVE WAY TO STOP CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 should have
PEDESTRIANS sign 303. PEDESTRIAN a white background, a red icon, and a thick red
CROSSING AHEAD sign 427 should not be pro- border.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.2.16 GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD 4.2.17 TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD


SIGN 429 SIGN 430

Sign 429 warns drivers of vehicles of the pres- Sign 430 warns drivers of vehicles that the junc-
ence of a GIVE-WAY sign 302 ahead and that tion or pedestrian crossing ahead is controlled by
they should prepare to yield right-of-way and traffic signals.
stop if necessary.

Sign 430
Sign 429
TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 should
GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 429 be located on the right side of the roadway at a
should be located on the right side of the road- distance from the traffic signal as indicated in
way at a distance from the GIVE WAY sign 302 Table 4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the
as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY indicating the distance to the traffic signal should
PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the be attached below sign 430. An additional sign
GIVE WAY sign 302 should be attached below should be provided on the left side of the road-
sign 429. An additional sign should be provided way on a median island if the roadway is part of
on the left side of the roadway on a median a dual carriageway.
island if the roadway is part of a dual carriage-
way. TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 should
only be considered for use when:
GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 429
should only be considered for use when either or • It is not obvious at the distance given in
both of the following conditions exist: Table 4-1 that there is a TRAFFIC SIGNAL
control ahead, and/or
• It is not obvious at the distance given in • The signalized junction is remote or isolated
Table 4-1 that there is a GIVE-WAY control from other signalized junctions.
ahead.
• The approach speed is in excess of 60 km/h. In addition to the above situations, sign 430 may
be installed for a short period of 3 to 6 months
GIVE-WAY CONTROL AHEAD sign 428 when a new traffic signal is commissioned but
should have a white background, a red icon, and must be removed after such a period, subject to
a thick red border. the warrant criteria given above.

TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 should


have a white background and a thick red border.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The icon should have a black background with, in


descending order, red, yellow, and green lights.

4.2.18 QUAYSIDE SIGN 431

Sign 431 warns drivers of vehicles that there is an


unprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank ahead.
The sign 431 symbol may be reversed.

Sign 432

Sign 432 should have a white background, a


black icon, and a thick red border.

4.2.20 ANIMALS AHEAD SIGN 433

Sign 433 warns drivers of vehicles of the possi-


Sign 431 ble presence of attended or unattended animals
on or adjacent to the road ahead.
QUAYSIDE sign 431 should be located on the
right side of a roadway which runs directly along ANIMALS AHEAD sign 433 should be located
the side of a quay, jetty, or river bank. Sign 431 on the right side of the road at a distance from the
should, if practical, be positioned in advance of point at which animals are likely to occur near
the unprotected quayside, jetty, or river bank by a the roadway as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a
distance as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear clear sight distance to the sign. A SUPPLEMEN-
sight distance to the sign. TARY PLATE sign 589 may be attached below
sign 433 indicating the distance for which the
QUAYSIDE sign 431 should have a white back- hazard can be expected to occur.
ground, a black icon, and a thick red border.
The symbol on an ANIMALS AHEAD sign may
4.2.19 DRAWBRIDGE AHEAD SIGN be that representing camels, sheep, or goats. If
432 domestic animals are regularly herded across

Sign 432 warns drivers of vehicles that there is an


opening bridge or drawbridge in the road ahead.

Currently, Abu Dhabi has no drawbridges.

If a drawbridge is eventually constructed in Abu


Dhabi, sign 432 should be located as the result of
an engineering assessment, meeting the require-
ments indicated in Table 4-1, and in considera-
tion of clear sight distance. A SUPPLEMEN-
TARY PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to
the drawbridge should be attached below sign
432.
Sign 433

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

roadways, temporary signs displaying the appro-


priate symbol should be set up in advance of the
crossing point. Such signs should preferably indi-
cate the distance to the crossing point.

ANIMALS AHEAD sign 433 should have a


white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

4.2.21 LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT SIGN


434

Sign 434 warns drivers of vehicles that they may


be distracted by low flying aircraft or a sudden
aircraft noise and to drive with due care. Sign 435

SPEED HUMP sign 435 should be located on the


right side of the roadway at a distance as indicat-
ed in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight distance to
the sign. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589
should be provided below sign 435. This may
indicate one or more of the following:

• The distance for which speed humps are pro-


vided, or
• An appropriate text message such as “Speed
Humps” or “Traffic Calming.”

SPEED HUMP sign 435 should have a white


Sign 434 background, a black icon, and a thick red border.

LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT sign 434 should be 4.2.23 TUNNEL SIGN 436


located on the right side of the roadway at a dis-
tance from the point where the distraction may Sign 436 is to warn drivers of vehicles that there
occur as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear is a tunnel on the roadway ahead and that drivers
sight distance to the sign. may be subjected to reduced lighting levels or
that drivers of certain classes of vehicle may be
LOW-FLYING AIRCRAFT sign 434 should only required by regulatory sign not to enter the tun-
be provided when aircraft are likely to over-fly nel.
the roadway or to fly in close proximity to the
roadway. TUNNEL sign 436 should be located on the right
side of the road at a distance from the tunnel
Sign 434 should have a white background, a entrance as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a
black icon, and a thick red border. clear sight distance to the sign. If a prohibition on
certain classes of vehicle entering the tunnel
4.2.22 SPEED HUMP SIGN 435 exists, sign 436 should be displayed in combina-
tion with the relevant regulatory sign(s). If neces-
Sign 435 warns drivers of vehicles that one or sary, sign 436 may therefore be placed at a
more speed humps exist in the roadway ahead greater distance from the tunnel than given in
and that they should reduce their speed in order Table 4-1. On dual carriageway approaches to a
to negotiate them. tunnel, sign 436 may be placed on the right and
left sides of the roadway.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.2.25 SLIPPERY SURFACE SIGN 438

Sign 438 warns drivers of vehicles that there is a


risk of a slippery surface on the roadway.

Sign 436

TUNNEL sign 436 should have a white back-


ground, a black icon, and a thick red border.
Sign 438
4.2.24 FALLING ROCKS SIGN 437
SLIPPERY SURFACE sign 438 should be locat-
Sign 437 warns drivers of vehicles that there is a ed on the right side of the roadway at a distance
risk that rocks may have fallen into the roadway. in advance of a section of road where the risk of
The sign 437 symbol may be reversed. the slippery surface exists, as indicated in Table
4-1 and with a clear sight distance to the sign. A
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be
attached below sign 438 indicating the distance
for which the hazard can be expected to occur
(e.g., “For 5 km”).

SLIPPERY SURFACE sign 438 should have a


white background, a black icon, and a thick red
border.

4.2.26 GENERAL WARNING SIGN 450

Sign 450, in combination with an appropriate


supplementary message, warns drivers of a haz-
Sign 437 ard of a general nature described by the supple-
mentary message.
FALLING ROCKS sign 437 should be located
on the right side of the roadway at a distance in GENERAL WARNING sign 450 should be locat-
advance of a section of road where the risk of ed on the right side of the roadway at a distance
falling rocks exists, as indicated in Table 4-1 and as indicated in Table 4-1 and with a clear sight
with a clear sight distance to the sign. A SUP- distance to the sign. Sign 450 should only be dis-
PLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 may be played in conjunction with a SUPPLEMEN-
attached below sign 437 indicating the distance TARY PLATE sign 589. Permitted messages for
for which the hazard can be expected to occur use below sign 450 are as follows:
(e.g., “For 5 km”).
• Drifting sand.
FALLING ROCKS sign 437 should have a white • Uneven road.
background, a black icon, and a thick red border.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ing the position of physical hazards such as cul-


verts, bridge structures, large sign supports, traf-
fic island gores, guardrails, etc., to drivers. In
some instances, such as a sharp curve, hazard
markers may be used to delineate the curve and
so draw attention to the severity of the curve.

4.3.1 HAZARD PLATE SIGNS 451


AND 452

Signs 451 and 452 warn motorists of the actual


position of physical objects which are placed so
close to the roadway as to represent a hazard or
potential hazard if vehicles should collide with
Sign 450 them.
• Overhead cables (with a height clearance).

If the conditions indicated above change or are


removed, the sign should be removed.

GENERAL WARNING sign 450 is appropriate


to many conditions which occur at roadworks
sites or in association with roadworks sites (see
also Chapter 7). The sign may also be appropri-
ate for other temporary conditions. In such cir-
cumstances the exclusive black symbol on a yel-
low background color code used for roadworks
signs should be used. Typical messages used in
temporary or roadworks situations are:
Sign 451 Sign 452
• Sand
• Surveying. HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 should be
• Reduced visibility. located as close as possible to the physical hazard
• Loose stones. to identify its position. A number of evenly
• Uneven road. spaced HAZARD PLATE signs 451 or 452 may
• Slippery surface. also be used to demarcate open ditches, high
• Road ends. embankments, and ill-defined curves. See Table
• Flood. 4-3 for guidance on spacing.
• Construction traffic.
• Soft shoulder. HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 should
• Surface step (dip). always be installed so that the “arrow” points
towards the roadway and away from the hazard.
Sign 450 should have a white background, a Signs 451 and 452 should be mounted so that the
black icon, and a thick red border.
Table 4-3
Spacing on Curves for Signs 451, 452, 454, and 455
4.3 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS Curve Radius Sign Spacing “S”
(meters) (meters)
The signs in this group have the specific function 60 8-15
150 15-25
to mark an actual hazard adjacent to the roadway.
300 25
The majority of uses therefore relate to identify-
600 25

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

lower edge is 600 millimeters above ground level


for the 600 millimeter by 150 millimeter size and
1200 millimeters above ground level for the 1200
millimeter by 300 millimeter size. Figure 4-1
illustrates a number of typical HAZARD PLATE
sign applications. The larger of the two sign sizes
should be used when the posted speed limit is 80
kilometers per hour or greater.
Sign 454 Sign 455
HAZARD PLATE signs 451 and 452 should
have a red background with white diagonal ment of the roadway when these conditions rep-
stripes. resent hazards or potential hazards.

SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455, when


4.3.2 SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (OR
used independently, should be placed as close as
LEFT) SIGN 454 (OR 455) possible to the hazard that it is intended to mark.
SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 may be
Signs 454 and 455 warn motorists of the actual
mounted to point to the right and to the left. The
position of physical objects or of the actual align-
arrows should always point towards the roadway

150

600

Culvert
600

Bridge deck

Abutment

300
1200
1200

Figure 4-1
Typical Hazard Plate Applications

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

passing in front of the sign. The application of for use in place of sign 326 to mark island gores
signs 454 and 455 is very similar to that of signs if these are on a particularly difficult vertical or
451 and 452. In general, signs 451 and 452 horizontal alignment. In such an application
should be used in a lower speed or less hazardous signs 454 and 455 should be mounted side-by-
environment than signs 454 and 455. side in the gore but a separator is not necessary.

SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 may When SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455
also be used in sets whereby the signs are spaced are placed at intervals round a sharp curve they
at regular intervals to define a sharp curve (e.g., should be positioned so that one sign lies as close
on a 180° or 270° loop ramp) or to define the as possible to the line of extension of the tangent
edge of a high embankment or a guard rail at the approaching the curve, and so that the sign lies
top of such an embankment. Figure 4-2 illustrates straight-ahead for a driver in the near side lane.
a typical example of such an installation and Other signs should then be positioned forwards
Table 4-3 gives guidance on the spacing of the and backwards round the curve so that the curve
signs. Signs 454 and 455 should be considered is fully delineated, approximately from tangent
First sign to be placed
455
455
TP
455 S
See Table 4-3 for
spacing “S”

455

TP

455 454

Figure 4-2
Examples of Applications of Sign 454 and Sign 455

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

point to tangent point. It is necessary that, in MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT (or LEFT)
order to properly define the curve through both signs 456 and 457 may be used at a sharp bend
vertical and horizontal changes, at least three when the severity of the bend is not likely to be
signs are visible at any time while driving adequately conveyed by advance warning sign
through the curve. 412 or 413. The signs should comprise a mini-
mum of three chevron modules. If a sharp bend is
SINGLE CHEVRON signs 454 and 455 should sufficiently long the number of modules may be
have a white background, a red chevron, and a increased to a maximum of four. If it is necessary
thin red border. to sign a longer sharp bend this should be done
using signs 454 or 455 as illustrated in Figure 4-
4.3.3 MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT 2. Figure 4-3 illustrates the use of signs 456 and
(OR LEFT) SIGN 456 (OR 457) 457.

Signs 456 and 457 warn motorists of the actual MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 may
position of a very sharp bend or change in direc- also be used to identify the sharp change of direc-
tion in the roadway. tion required on entering a roundabout. Sign
positions are illustrated in Figure 4-3. This appli-
cation should only be considered when the view
of the center of the roundabout is restricted due to
the geometry of the approach and entry, or due to
the aesthetic treatment of the roundabout. If the
latter is such that the shape of the roundabout is
no longer evident advance warning sign 420 may
Sign 456 be specified.

Sign 456 (or 457) should have a white back-


ground, red chevrons, and a thin red border.

4.3.4 T-JUNCTION CHEVRON SIGN


458
Sign 457
Sign 458 warns drivers of vehicles that the road
they are traveling on terminates at a T-junction

456

457

456
Figure 4-3
Typical Application of Multiple Chevron Signs 456 and 457

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

assist drivers to use complex roadways more


safely and efficiently.

Sign 458 The complex geometric conditions referred to


above often involve merging and/or weaving
and in so doing the sign identifies the position of maneuvers without stop or give way control.
the far side of such a junction. These are driving actions that many drivers find
difficult to undertake and diagrammatic signs
T-JUNCTION CHEVRON sign 458 should be actually offer a combination of warning and
located on the far side of the T-junction, at 90° to guidance in such situations.
the direction of approach from the side road, so
that the sign is located at the rear of a sidewalk in The types of message that may be displayed on a
an urban area, or at the rear of a shoulder or diagrammatic sign can be categorized. The sign
approximately two meters from the edge of the group has therefore been subdivided according to
roadway, in a rural area. Use of sign 458 should these categories as follows:
be considered for high speed (60 km/h or more)
approaches to T-junctions, particularly when • Traffic movement is affected by an obstruc-
there is no street lighting, and where a guide sign tion.
would not otherwise be used. • Additional lane and lanes merge signs.
• Lane use control by regulation.
T-JUNCTION CHEVRON sign 458 should com-
prise a minimum of six chevron modules, three Several of these categories have the potential to
pointing to the right and three to the left. provide many signs. Some of these signs vary
significantly in their sign face message, and
Sign 458 should have a white background, red therefore design, while others represent limited
chevrons, and a thin red border. variations on the themes established by the earli-
er alternatives. In the following sections only a
4.4 DIAGRAMMATIC SIGNS limited number of signs are illustrated. Where it
is appropriate, design rules are stated for sign-
The signs in this group are essentially for use in face design.
situations where the size and shape of triangular
advance warning signs limits the pictorial warn- The following characteristics are appropriate to
ing message that can be displayed, and/or the all diagrammatic signs:
overall conspicuity of the sign. The situations
that tend to be indicated on diagrammatic signs • The basic rectangular shape of the minimally
are commonly ones that occur on higher speed sized sign should have a ratio of height to
roads. The diagrammatic nature of the message width of 4 to 3. Recommended standard
given by these signs means that they often depict basic sign sizes should be 1200 millimeters
the geometric arrangements of the lanes and/or (H) x 900 millimeters (W), 1600 millimeters
the whole roadway. (H) x 1200 millimeters (W) and 2400 mil-
limeters (H) x 1800 millimeters (W) for
Geometric design of roadways should result in ground mounted signs. If used overhead, rec-
drivers having sufficient time and space to nego- ommended basic sign sizes should be 2400
tiate even complex arrangements safely and with- millimeters (H) x 1800 millimeters (W) and
out undue doubt or confusion. In reality, due to 3200 millimeters (H) x 2400 millimeters
the need to satisfy many geometric requirements (W). These dimensions are exclusive of sup-
within a limited space and under traffic flow con- plementary information plates, if applicable.
ditions that may be nearing capacity, complex • The width of the basic sign may be increased
road conditions do occur. While the availability when three or more arrows are to be dis-
of diagrammatic signs should not be seen as an played, in increments equal to one quarter of
excuse for creating complex geometric designs of the basic width.
roadways, the signs may offer some options to

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• The sign face message should depict only depicting a traffic movement affected by an
one situation requiring an action on the part obstruction include:
of the drivers to whom the sign applies.
• An “obstruction” commonly means a physi- • A lane drop on a multilane, high-speed road-
cal obstacle such as a concrete barrier or a W- way.
section guardrail but also includes perceived • The temporary deviation of traffic through a
“obstructions” to vehicle movement. For median island, around a structure, or similar
example, the obstruction may be an intro- obstacle.
duced median island or a lane-drop situation • The passage of traffic alongside a physical
with a sufficient run-off and recovery area barrier that either reduces normal lane width
provided. In this case, the “obstruction” is or normal lateral clearances. Such a physical
illustrated on the sign by a solid red block. barrier may be an upstanding concrete barri-
• Arrows pointing in the direction of travel er, a row of cones or delineators separating
should point upwards on the sign and be the traffic streams, or similarly, cones or delin-
full height of the sign, with specified clear- eators protecting a limited excavation area.
ances, whereas arrows depicting opposing • The passage of two-way traffic around an
traffic flows should point downwards on the obstruction such as the beginning of a medi-
sign and be of a reduced length (shorter by an island.
approximately the length of two arrow heads).
• If a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 is 4.4.1.1 LANE DROP SIGNS 465 (FROM
required with a diagrammatic sign it should THE RIGHT) AND 466 (FROM
be a separate plate mounted below the sign THE LEFT)
for ground-mounted signs.
Signs 465 and 466 warn motorists that a lane
Diagrammatic signs are particularly appropriate drop lies ahead for a right-side lane drop or a left-
to the temporary detours common during major side lane drop, respectively.
roadworks (see Chapters 7 and 8). Their use is,
however, also appropriate in certain situations LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 should be con-
that can be considered as permanent even though sidered for use in traffic situations that are either
they may be scheduled for medium- to long-term known to have substandard geometry that cannot
improvement. Since many diagrammatic signs be rectified in the short-term or that have, for
only have a temporary application they are not whatever reason, not been sufficiently improved
illustrated in this chapter. As a result, the signs by the provision of normal advance warning
that are illustrated do not have sequential num- signs.
bers; the remaining signs are illustrated in
Chapter 7. LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 may be provid-
ed in advance of the point at which the lane is
The normal warrants for overhead signs can be dropped. An appropriate SUPPLEMENTARY
used to decide whether a diagrammatic sign PLATE sign 589 indicating the distance to the
should be used in an overhead position. lane drop mounted below the sign should be pro-
Diagrammatic signs may be displayed in associ- vided. At the start of the lane drop taper signs 465
ation with overhead direction signs. and 466 should be provided without such a sup-
plementary plate.
4.4.1 TRAFFIC MOVEMENT
AFFECTED BY OBSTRUCTION LANE DROP signs 465 and 466 should have a
SIGNS white background and a thin red border. The icon
should be black and red, with the arrows repre-
As has been noted above, an “obstruction” in the senting traffic movement in black and the
context in which signs in this group are to be obstructions in red.
used may be real or perceived. Situations that
may warrant the use of a diagrammatic sign

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Sign 465 Sign 472

Sign 466 Sign 473

4.4.1.2 BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN 4.4.2 ADDITIONAL LANE AND


SIGNS 472 AND 473 LANES MERGE SIGNS

Signs 472 and 473 warn motorists that the road- This group of signs is used to indicate to drivers
way ahead has a median starting or ending and that the roadway beyond the sign increases in
that this may, in the case of sign 472, represent a width by one lane, that an additional stream of
significant hazard in the roadway going in the traffic is entering the roadway, or that traffic may
one direction, or that, in the case of sign 473, traf- be merging, which may result in some weaving
fic streams become two way beyond the end of action. As no decrease in speed is implicitly
the median island, which in turn may be a poten- required for the roadway conditions these signs
tially hazardous condition. warn of, there are no specified minimum or max-
imum advance positioning guidelines. The
BEGINNING/END OF MEDIAN signs 472 and Engineer should use professional judgement in
473 should have a white background and a thin positioning these signs, taking into account all
red border. The icon should be black and red, relevant conditions and variables.
with the arrows representing traffic movement in
black and the obstructions in red.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.4.2.1 ADDITIONAL LANE SIGNS 480 4.4.2.2 JOINING LANE SIGNS 482 OR 483
AND 481
Signs 482 and 483 warn drivers of vehicles that
Signs 480 and 481 warn motorists on a section of an extra lane carrying joining traffic comes into
road that an additional continuous lane will be added the roadway from the right (or left) and that merg-
ahead, at the distance indicated below the sign. ing and weaving maneuvers can be expected.

The principal value of these signs is to reassure Sign 482 should preferably be positioned so that
drivers, when in heavy traffic, that overtaking drivers on the main carriageway and drivers on
opportunities will occur ahead due to the addi- the entering lane can both see the sign. If this is
tional lane. Such a sign need only be placed 500 not possible both signs 482 and 483 may be used
meters to one kilometer in advance of the start of to warn drivers. Because road configurations
the additional lane. The sign type is appropriate requiring use of this sign vary widely, there is no
for freeways and rural roads. recommended minimum or maximum placement
distance. Good engineering judgement should be
ADDITIONAL LANE signs 480 and 481 should exercised in locating the signs.
have a white background, a black icon, and a thin
red border. JOINING LANES signs 482 and 483 should
have a white background, a black icon, and a thin
red border.

Sign 480 Sign 482

Sign 481 Sign 483

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

4.4.2.3 LANES MERGE SIGNS 490 AND streams. Advance signs may also be used, partic-
492 ularly on freeways, and these should include a
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589.
Sign 490 warns of the merging of two lanes. The
use of this sign may be appropriate at at-grade Signs 490 and 492 should have a white back-
junctions to emphasize the need for drivers to ground, a black icon, and a thin red border.
undertake merging actions or maneuvers. As such
the sign only shows the two lanes involved in the 4.4.3 LANE USE CONTROL BY
merging action. REGULATION

Sign 492 warns of the merging of two lanes on a The signs in this group indicate that one or more
high-speed free-flow roadway. Such roadways individual lanes in the roadway ahead are subject
are commonly freeways or freeway ramps where to some form of special regulatory control. The
there is little or no tolerance for traffic slow- purpose of such control is to improve the opera-
down or back-up from the point of merge. It is tional efficiency of the roadway concerned. The
therefore recommended that the signs indicate all most common application of this control is a pro-
lanes at the point of merge. The signs should be hibition of heavy vehicle or truck traffic on one
erected close to the gore of the merge area on or more lanes. Another possible application is at
freeways, or on both sides of the roadway at at- unusually configured intersections where turning
grade junctions. Where possible they should be restrictions are imposed on one or more of the
visible to drivers in both approaching traffic basic lanes. Because of the regulatory message it
is a requirement that such signs indicate all lanes
on the roadway. These diagrammatic signs, in
effect, provide a background for some type of
regulatory sign. The examples given in Section
4.4.3 should be considered as typical. Once a
regulatory sign has been superimposed on the
diagrammatic background the overall sign takes
on a regulatory function.

4.4.3.1 LANE USE CONTROL —


TRUCKS AND BUSSES SIGNS
484 AND 485

In Abu Dhabi Emirate, trucks are allowed to use


Sign 490 only the right-most lane on any road, except
when preparing to make a left turn. Sign 484 and
sign 485 impose this prohibition on the use of
lanes by trucks and as such the signs warn
motorists of the special regulatory circumstances
existing on those lanes. The lane prohibition also
applies to busses, with two exceptions:

1. On roads having four or more lanes, busses


are allowed to use the second lane.
2. On roads having two or three lanes, busses
are allowed to leave the right-most lane to
overtake other vehicles, but must then return
to the right lane.

Sign 492

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 484 Sign 486

leave that lane prior to the intersection, otherwise


they will be required to make a left turn.

The LANE USE CONTROL — DIRECTIONAL


RESTRICTION series of signs supplement pave-
ment markings and provide advance notice of a
lane use control condition ahead. These signs are
not intended for routine use at all standard sig-
nalized intersections where geometry clearly
indicates intended turning lanes. Rather, its use
should be restricted to unusual intersection con-
figurations where one of the basic roadway lanes
unexpectedly becomes an exclusive turn lane. A
likely usage of this sign will be at a T-junction on
Sign 485
the through leg containing the left turn, when the
The signs should be spaced at approximately geometry is such that one of the basic roadway
five-kilometer intervals. lanes becomes an exclusive left turn lane. Its use
on other legs of the T-junction will not ordinarily
LANE USE CONTROL — TRUCKS AND be required.
BUSSES signs 484 and 485 should have a white
background and a thin red border. The icon LANE USE CONTROL — DIRECTIONAL
should be black with the prohibitory symbol (cir- RESTRICTION sign 486 should have a white
cle and diagonal slash) in red. background and a thin red border. The icon
should be black with the regulatory symbol in
4.4.3.2 LANE USE CONTROL — blue.
DIRECTIONAL RESTRICTION
SIGN 486 4.5 HIGH VEHICLE WARNING
SIGN 495
Sign 486 imposes a mandatory restriction of
movement LANE USE CONTROL — DIREC- Sign 495 is typically located in advance of gantry
TIONAL RESTRICTION on one of the basic or cantilever signs and points high vehicles to a
through lanes of a roadway. In the example short, low-grade detour that does not pass under-
shown it warns motorists that the leftmost of the neath the horizontal arm of the sign but instead
basic through lanes becomes, by regulation, an around the sign’s support column.
exclusive left turn lane at the intersection.
Drivers wishing to continue straight ahead must

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 495

HIGH VEHICLE WARNING sign 495 should be


located on the right side of the roadway at a dis-
tance in advance of the gantry or cantilever struc-
ture as indicated in Table 4-1.

If deemed appropriate by the engineer, sign 495


may have flashing yellow caution lights placed at
its top.

Sign 490 should have a red background, a white


border, and the text should be white.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5 GUIDE SIGNS • Use of route numbers as the primary method


of guidance on numbered routes.
• Use of street names as the primary method of
5.1 PRINCIPLES OF identification and guidance on non-num-
DIRECTIONAL GUIDANCE bered routes and as a secondary means of
guidance on numbered routes.
The objective of the Abu Dhabi Guide Sign sys- • Strict criteria for destinations displayed for
tem is to provide guidance to visitors to and resi- each route as an orientation guide for road
dents of Abu Dhabi. To accomplish this objec- users.
tive, guide signing must do the following: • Strict criteria for additional destinations to be
displayed on supplemental guide signs, sepa-
• Enable drivers to find their way to far more rate from the primary guide signs.
destinations than could possibly be signed. • Color coding of signing.
• Avoid confusing drivers with too much infor- • Consistency in the application of signing.
mation.
• Present drivers with predictable information. 5.1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF GUIDE
• Present drivers with advance notice so that SIGNS
directional changes can be safely made.
Guide signing can be divided into signs that are
It is the aim of the following described guide- most applicable for at-grade junctions (intersec-
sign system to accomplish these objectives. tions and roundabouts) and those that are appli-
cable for grade-separated, free-flow inter-
5.1.1 METHOD OF PROVIDING changes.
GUIDANCE
At-grade junctions, whether intersections or
The guide-signing system must be able to pro- roundabouts, generally have three choices of
vide a driver with two basic pieces of informa- direction: ongoing, left, and right. These move-
tion: ments, especially the turns, are made at slow
speed and usually under traffic signal control.
• The current location of the driver within the Since at-grade junctions are, or should be, rela-
roadway system, and tively uniform and deliberate in operation, guide
• When facing a choice of several possible signing will consist of simple ADVANCE
directions of travel, which one should be STACK signs, advising motorists of available
taken to reach the desired destination. directions of travel at the junction ahead, allow-
ing sufficient advance notice for driver orienta-
Driving is a complex process requiring a driver to tion and appropriate action. CHEVRON DIREC-
observe, comprehend, analyze and act upon a TION signs, located in the vicinity of the turning
wide variety of visual input. It is critical that area, identify the point of turning action and pro-
guide signs present information to the driver in a vide motorists with confirmation of their intend-
predictable, clear and simple manner. This infor- ed movement. In addition, a STREET NAME
mation must be presented far enough in advance sign is provided at each junction as a secondary
of the point of potential action to permit the driv- source of driver orientation and guidance.
er to determine what action is required and then
allow him to safely and orderly execute any Grade-separated junctions present a much differ-
directional changes that may be necessary. ent set of circumstances to motorists. Grade-sep-
arated junctions are generally located on high-
The guide sign system for Abu Dhabi is based volume and/or high-speed roadways and are
upon a framework of fundamental principles, designed to handle traffic in a free-flow opera-
summarized as follows: tional mode. It is thus important that motorists be
advised clearly and well in advance of their
intended point of departure. This will allow

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ample opportunity to make one or more lane Emirate that provide through travel between
changes to be properly positioned to execute a major cities and/or other emirates. Emirate
full-speed exit from the roadway. Inadequate Routes are designated at present with a two-digit
and/or unclear directions may contribute to driv- number (exception: bypass routes have a three-
er indecision; speed reduction or stopping; and digit designator, the first digit being the sequen-
abrupt, last-minute maneuvers, all of which will tial number assigned to the bypass and the last
be extremely dangerous under high-speed, high- two digits being the primary route being
volume conditions. bypassed, e.g., the first bypass to Emirate Route
22 would be numbered 122). Routes 88 and 99
Thus, a different type of signing is required for are reserved for possible future Emirate Routes.
grade-separated interchanges. This consists of Odd-numbered Emirate Routes run generally in
one or more ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION an east-west direction, and even number routes in
signs, up to 2000 meters in advance of the exit a north-south direction.
point. These signs advise motorists of destina-
tions reached from the next exit, appropriate lane The second level of primary routes are the pri-
position to access that exit, and distance to exit mary arterials (with some secondary arterials)
point. These ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION within the Abu Dhabi urban area. These routes
signs are generally repeated at intervals as the provide access from one community in the Abu
exit approaches. When the exit point is reached Dhabi urban area to another.
(also known as the theoretical gore or painted
nose) the motorist is advised by an EXIT Abu Dhabi or “AD” Routes are designated with a
DIRECTION sign that this is the point of depar- two-digit number, from 10 to 99. Even number
ture. The physical nose is also marked by a routes run generally parallel to the coast line, and
GORE EXIT sign to further reinforce the action odd numbered routes run generally perpendicular
of exiting the mainline. to the coast line. Routes in the nineties are located
along the coast line and along the Dubai Emirate
Separate and apart from the above described pri- border, descending in order moving inland and
mary guide signing will be a system of supple- towards Abu Dhabi Emirate respectively.
mental destination signing. Supplemental desti-
nations are local facilities or attractions that are Although not absolutely necessary that it be
primarily of interest to visitors to Abu Dhabi. To adhered to in the future, an initial attempt was
avoid overloading and overcomplicating the pri- made to keep routes in as sequential an order as
mary guide sign system, these supplemental des- possible. Some route numbers in the sequence
tinations are signed separately. Supplemental have been skipped to allow the future allocation
signing may be used for both at grade and grade- of these numbers to new routes in a near sequen-
separated junctions. tial order.

5.1.3 ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM 5.1.4 PRIMARY DESTINATIONS

At the heart of Abu Dhabi guide signing is the The Road Department categorizes destinations
route numbering system. Route numbers allow the eligible for use on primary guide signs into three
motorist to develop a simple series of directions to types:
follow while traveling from one part of the greater
Abu Dhabi urban area to another. Route numbers 1. Control destinations for Emirate Routes.
will be prominently and predictably displayed on 2. Control destinations for non-Emirate Routes.
the guide signs, making driver orientation and 3. Other local destinations for non-Emirate
direction clear and unconfusing. Routes.

Two routing classifications have been estab- In transliterating Arabic destination names to
lished, as shown in Figure 5-1. Emirate or “E” English, the article al should be transliterated
Routes are the major roadways in Abu Dhabi without regard to the Arabic sun and moon let-

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

THIS PAGE RESERVED FOR FIGURE


5-1, ROUTE NUMBERING SYSTEM

5-3 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ters. Unless it has been common practice to Port Zayed, and the control destination for the
spell a destination’s name otherwise and signs western terminus of Al Corniche Road is Al Ras
already exist using that spelling, the English Al Akhdhar/Breakwater. Likewise, the control
spelling should follow the Arabic spelling, not destinations for Matar Road are Dubai/Al Ain
the Arabic pronunciation (e.g., Sas Al Nakhl, Al and the Corniche.
Shahama).
The Department does not specify an “approved
5.1.4.1 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR list” of control destinations for non-Emirate
EMIRATE ROUTES Routes. Consultants are expected to exercise
good engineering judgement in selecting control
Control destinations are associated with each destinations for use on these guide signs and
Emirate Route. The purpose of control destina- these destinations are subject to the approval of
tions is to provide orientation with respect to the Department.
direction of travel along that numbered route.
5.1.4.3 OTHER LOCAL DESTINATIONS
The control destinations for the Emirate Routes FOR NON-EMIRATE ROUTES
are the cities shown in Table 5-1. These control
cities are intended to function for long-distance In addition to the control destinations described
travelers, advising them of the major city reached in Section 5.1.4.2, other local destinations are
by following that route in that direction of travel. also eligible for use on non-Emirate Route guide
In the case of selected routes, an intermediate signs. To qualify for use on guide signs, these
destination of Abu Dhabi is given for travel in destinations should be either locations frequent-
one direction. The control city of Abu Dhabi ed by the public or major landmarks that will
should be used until the Abu Dhabi urban area is assist in orientation. Eligible destinations
reached, at which time the control city for all include towns or neighborhoods (e.g., Musaffah,
onward signing should be the end destination Al Khalidiya), public medical facilities (e.g., Al
ahead. Jazeera Hospital), government offices frequent-
ed by the public (e.g., Immigration, Traffic
5.1.4.2 CONTROL DESTINATIONS FOR Police), major mosques and religious sites (e.g.,
NON-EMIRATE ROUTES Eid prayer grounds), selected military installa-
tions (e.g., Officers Club, GHQ), major streets
For major Abu Dhabi roadways that are not (e.g., Musaffah Road, Al Corniche Road) and
Emirate Routes, control destinations are to be a well-known or publicly popular locations (e.g.,
logical, well-known terminus of the route or major malls, colleges and universities, petrole-
roadway. For example, the control destination for um refineries).
the eastern terminus of the Al Corniche Road is

Table 5-1
Emirate Routes Control Destinations
Route End Destination Intermediate End
Number (South or West) Destination Destination
(North or East)
E10 Abu Dhabi Sas Al Nakhl, Khalifa City, Abu Al Shahama
Dhabi International Airport
E11 Al Sila, Saudi Arabia, Qatar Jebel Dhanna, Al Ruwais, Al Dubai
Marfa, Tarif, Liwa Oasis, Abu Al
Abyadh, Musaffah, Al Mafraq, Bani
Yas, Khalifa Bin Zayed City,
Mohammed Bin Zayed City, Abu
Dhabi, Abu Dhabi International
Airport, Ghantoot, Al Shahama, Al
Samhah, Seih Shoaib, Jebel Ali
E22 Abu Dhabi Musaffah, Al Mafraq, Bani Yas, Al Al Ain, Oman
Wathba, Fiya, Al Khatim, Al
Khazna

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The Department does not specify an “approved However, some site-specific locations may
list” of this type of destination. Consultants are require more than one similar destination. In this
expected to exercise good engineering judgement case, the name will be retained until trailblazing
in selecting local destinations for use on guide can be used without creating confusion as to
signs and these destinations are subject to the which destination is which. Such cases must be
approval of the Department. submitted to Department for approval prior to
implementation.
5.1.5 SUPPLEMENTAL
DESTINATIONS 5.1.6 COLOR CODING

Certain facilities or attractions have been deter- The use of a specific sign background color code
mined as being qualified to receive separate sign- serves as an aid to motorists in searching out and
ing, supplemental to the primary guide signs. The recognizing the type of guide sign they are look-
purpose of the supplemental signing is to provide ing for. Color coding will also aid in distinguish-
assistance to motorists, unfamiliar with Abu ing the type of route the motorist is currently on
Dhabi, in finding their way from a numbered or looking to go onto.
route to the facility being sought. This signing is
provided primarily for the benefit of tourists, but Three colors are used for the background color of
may be found to be useful at times for Abu Dhabi guide signs; blue, green, and brown. The use of
residents. the colors are described in Table 5-3 (see Chapter
7 for instructions on roadworks guide signs).
Table 5-2 lists the destinations that are approved
by the Abu Dhabi Municipality for supplemental A special case in the color coding occurs within a
signing destinations are those which warrant sup- signalized intersection or a roundabout when an
plemental signing beginning at the point of Emirate Route and an Abu Dhabi Route intersect
departure from the nearest Emirate Route and one another. Advance guide signs on the Emirate
signing all necessary turns on the most direct Route will have a blue background color and
routing from that departure point to the appropri- advance guide signs on the Abu Dhabi Route will
ate access point of the destination being signed. have a green background color. However,
The nearest numbered route to numbered route CHEVRON DIRECTION signs 515 will be
turns to reach the supplemental locations will located in or near the junction, to guide motorists
also be signed. in making turns onto their intended route. Since
some junctions include both an Emirate Route
Supplemental signs placed on a numbered route and an Abu Dhabi Route, the color coding for
should have both the symbol and the identifying CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 should be
name of the destination being signed. Subsequent that each of these signs will be the color of the
supplemental signing from the numbered route to type of route that it provides direction to. That is,
the destination should be provided by supple- signs giving direction onto an Emirate Route
mental trailblazer signs displaying only the picto- should have a blue background, and those giving
rial symbol without the identifying place name. direction to an Abu Dhabi Route should have a
green background.
Table 5-2
Locations Eligible for Supplemental Destination
Signing A similar type of color coding anomaly occurs at
Major hotels and convention centers entrance and exit ramps leading from an Emirate
Major clubs Route to an Abu Dhabi Route and visa-versa. The
Public beaches color coding rule in this case should be that a
Cultural Foundation ramp should assume the route classification of
Heritage/Bedouin Village the route to which the ramp is leading. Thus,
Zayed Sports City
Gulf International Exhibition Center signs positioned well downstream on a ramp, that
Traditional markets (souqs) are intended to be read only by motorists on the
Note: Locations are in no order of relevance. ramp should have the background color of the

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 5-3
Guide Sign Background Color Coding
All primary guide signs of all types that are located on Emirates Routes shall have a blue background color with white
Blue legend. Emirate Route emblems, shall always have a blue background color regardless of the background color of the
sign on which they are located.
All primary guide signs of all types that are located on Abu Dhabi Routes shall have a green background color with
Green white legend. Abu Dhabi Route emblems shall always have a green background color regardless of the background
color of the sign on which they are located.
Supplemental signs, which provide guidance to approved supplemental destinations, shall have a brown background
with a white legend. Supplemental signs shall always have a brown background regardless of whether they are located
Brown on an Emirate Route, Abu Dhabi Route or a local street. They will also commonly display a symbolic representation of
the destination as a black symbol on a white square background. Once a supplemental destination is reached, further
subordinate signs pertaining to that destination shall also have a brown background.
White For use with Text Sign 588. High Vehicle Exit Sign 586, and Supplementary Plate 589.

route the ramp leads to. If in an unusual situation use to get from their current location to their
a ramp leads to a split with one direction of the intended destination. Therefore, route numbers
split being an Emirate Route and the other direc- must be displayed clearly and prominently on
tion of the split being an Abu Dhabi Route, the every primary guide sign. Large, distinctively
guide sign background color for that ramp should shaped and colored route emblems with large
be blue. yellow colored English numerals provide a high-
ly conspicuous and legible route identification.
5.1.7 INFORMATION TO BE
DISPLAYED ON SIGNS The creation of a new route and associated con-
trol destinations should be referred to the Abu
It is important that each type of guide sign con- Dhabi Municipality Road Department for review
sistently display all necessary eligible informa- and approval. In this case a formal amendment to
tion, but not display any additional or extraneous this manual should be issued so that all other
information. Strict criteria have been established, signing associated with that route will be consis-
as indicated in Table 5-4, concerning what infor- tent. By strict adherence to route numbers and
mation may or may not be shown on each type of control destinations, motorists will see a consis-
guide sign. tent display of destinations when turning onto
and following the guide signs on that route. They
The Abu Dhabi guide sign system is intended to will not be left to guess at what destinations
provide motorists with directions for traveling might appear on subsequent signs. This is an
along a particular numbered route (be it an important principle of guide signing. That is,
Emirate Route or an Abu Dhabi Route) and once a destination appears on a guide sign, it
advising turns from that route onto another num- must be repeated on each subsequent guide sign
bered route (an Emirate Route or an Abu Dhabi until the destination is reached. Thus, the need for
Route). Generally, guide signs will not be used strict control of the number of destinations and
on unnumbered routes nor for advising turns the consistent use of these destinations on all
from a numbered route onto an unnumbered signs.
street. Street name signs installed under the Abu
Dhabi street and plot numbering system will On rare occasions, it may be desirable to provide
identify those streets with a street name sign a guide sign to direct motorists from a numbered
(whether that street name is a word name or a route to an unnumbered route. In this situation,
number name). street names or numbers can substitute for route
numbers. Such cases should be reviewed with the
The primary piece of information to be included Abu Dhabi Municipality Road Department in
on guide signs is the route number. Motorists consideration of the following:
unfamiliar with Abu Dhabi will consult a route or
street map to determine what numbered routes to

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 5-4
Information Eligible for Display on Guide Signs

Supplemental Destinations
Route Number Emblem

Supplemental Symbols
Downward Lane Arrow

City Center Symbol


Control Destination
Directional Arrow

Lane Drop Panel


Distance to Exit
Airport Symbol

Street Name
Sign Type
ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 4 0 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 1
ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 4 0 3 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1
ADVANCE MAP sign 513 4 0 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 1
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0
CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 4 0 4 4 2 2 0 0 2 2 1
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 0 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 0 0 1
EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 4 0 4 4 2 2 0 2 0 0 1
ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 0 4 4 4 2 2 0 1 0 0 0
GORE EXIT signs 554, 555, 556 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0
0 = Not Eligible Ever
1 = Not Eligible Ordinarily
Key:xx 2 = Eligible Where Applicable
3 = Use on Emirate Routes Only
4 = Mandatory in All Cases
• Is it necessary to provide a guide sign other stituencies to add other destinations to the guide
than a street-name sign to identify the inter- signs. Such destinations may be significant and
secting roadway? of interest in their own right, but the temptation
• If so, does the importance of the intersecting to give in to such pressure must be resisted.
roadway warrant providing it with a route Experience elsewhere has demonstrated that once
number and control destination(s)? additional destinations begin to appear on guide
• If not, then the guide sign series should dis- signs, it sets a precedent that makes refusal of
play the name of the street or other approved further destinations nearly impossible. Table 5-5,
name as the destination and omit the route though not all inclusive, provides an indication of
number and emblem. the types of places not warranting display on
guide signs within the roadway right of way.
Such instances should be extremely rare and lim-
ited mainly to cases on rural, high speed, high Guide signs for the types of places listed in Table
order facilities (freeways) where advance signing 5-5 can only be implemented with the prior
is necessary. approval of Abu Dhabi Municipality Road
Department.
5.1.8 DESTINATIONS NOT ELIGIBLE
FOR DISPLAY ON GUIDE 5.1.9 TRAILBLAZING SIGNING
SIGNS
The use of distinctive and recognizable symbols
Sections 5.1.4 and 5.1.5 list control destinations placed along a route to guide and reassure motor-
and supplemental destinations eligible for display ists that they are taking the correct roadways to
on primary and supplemental signs. There always reach a specific destination is called trailblazing.
exists the desire and pressure from outside con-

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Table 5-5
Places Not Eligible for Display on Guide Signs
Businesses Television and radio stations, motels, minor shopping centers, private businesses, petrol stations
Medical Private hospitals and clinics, mental hospitals, research facilities, nursing homes
Military Bases or detachments, armories, arsenals
Recreational Minor sports clubs and facilities, private and semipublic clubs (with the exception of public Municipal
facilities and other than those specified in table 5-2)
Schools Elementary, secondary, vocational, trade, professional

To be effective, trailblazing must be restricted to Each individual letter or number within these
limited destinations and/or to a limited extent. fonts is positioned on a background tile. The use
The Abu Dhabi guide sign system has five types of these “tiles” automatically provides the correct
of trailblazing signing: spacing between letters and vertical spacing
between rows of text.
• Abu Dhabi International Airport.
• City center (central business district) 5.2.2 AMOUNT OF LEGEND
• Numbered routes.
- Emirate Routes. A significant factor in the design of guide signs,
- Abu Dhabi Routes. and in particular direction signs, is the amount of
• Supplemental Locations information to be provided. This factor is signif-
icant because:
A detailed explanation of the Abu Dhabi trail-
blazing requirements is contained in Section 5.4. • Drivers must have enough time to read the
given information, and
5.2 GENERAL STANDARDS • The amount of information given dictates the
FOR GUIDE SIGNS ultimate size of the sign needed to display it.

In terms of all the other actions drivers have to


5.2.1 LANGUAGE AND LETTERING take in order to navigate their vehicles safely
STYLES through the street network, the amount of time
available to read guide sign messages is com-
Most signs in the guide sign class display their monly very limited.
message in the form of arrows, symbols, and/or
text. Guide sign “text” may include any of the The more information that is required to be pro-
following messages: vided on guide signs the larger they have to be
made. This in turn makes it more difficult to posi-
• A destination name (control, supplemental, tion the signs so that drivers can see them in time
or local). to read them and react to the information safely.
• A street name.
• A place name (Emirate, city, town, or com- In order to design a safe, efficient and cost-effec-
munity). tive guide sign system it is therefore desirable to
• A route number (only within a route number minimize the amount of information on signs:
emblem).
• A distance to an exit. • To reduce reading times, and
• A distance to a destination. • To reduce the size of signs.
All destination names, street names, place names, For the guide sign system to be effective the
and distances should appear on guide signs in information provided must be adequate for the
both Arabic and English. navigational needs of the majority of drivers. It is
difficult to predict the information needs of all
The style of lettering used should be Abu Dhabi drivers, particularly when it is not known what
Municipality standard Arabic and English fonts. information drivers have when they start their

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

journeys. In order to best cater for these needs a • EXIT DIRECTION signs (advance exit signs
system of well known control destinations has and exit signs).
been evolved and the most important routes have • ONGOING DIRECTION signs.
been allocated numbers (see Section 5.1).
The standard amount of legend to be displayed
The objective in numbering routes is to simplify on EXIT DIRECTION signs is limited to:
the transfer of information and reduce the amount
of information that needs to be transferred in • One arrow for each exit lane.
order to achieve effective navigation. • A route number emblem of the route to which
Information is also displayed in a consistent man- the exit leads (two may be displayed when
ner on direction signs so that the time required the junction occurs at a point where the left
for the information search process is minimized. and right turns are onto differently numbered
routes).
Symbols are also used to reduce the amount of • The name of one control destination to the
text needed to describe certain destinations such right and one to the left (each destination in
as “the city center” and “the airport” and thereby both Arabic and English).
reduce search time, reading times and recogni-
tion time. Symbols are particularly used with this The ONGOING DIRECTION signs display the
objective on supplemental destination signs. following standard amount of information:

The majority of information used in the naviga- • One arrow per ongoing lane.
tion process appears as legend on direction signs. • The route number emblem of the ongoing
There are two main categories of direction sign, route.
namely those used for at-grade junctions and • The name of the control destination for the
those used for grade-separated junctions. route.
• One intermediate destination name in Arabic
Navigational information is given for a standard and English.
at-grade junction on stack type advance direction
signs. These signs have a stack for each direction From time to time these limitations on the
through the junction. The stacks may be arranged amount of legend may seem unreasonable.
vertically, one above the other, for ground mount- Pressure to ignore the limits should be resisted
ed signs and horizontally side-by-side for over- because information, once displayed, must be
head signs. The standard amount of legend to be carried through subsequent junctions until the
displayed in each stack is limited to: destination in question is reached. This means
that the effect of an extra destination name is
• One arrow. rarely limited to one junction but in fact spreads
• One route number emblem. to several. If additional destinations are intro-
• One control destination name in both Arabic duced in several places the likelihood is that they
and English. will accumulate at common points in the network
• One intermediate destination name in both resulting in unmanageable amounts of legend.
Arabic and English.
However, site-specific conditions may require a
The same amount of information given on each departure from these parameters and guidelines.
stack that relates to a turning movement is repeat- Such variations can only be implemented with
ed at the exits from the junction on chevron signs. the prior approval of Abu Dhabi Municipality
The direction signs used for grade-separated Road Department.
junctions are mounted in an overhead position.
Since the turning movement from each road nor- 5.2.3 SIZE OF LETTERING
mally involves a high-speed exit, the navigation
information is given on two basic types of direc- Before drivers can read the legend on a guide
tion signs: sign they first have to see the sign. This function

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

of the effectiveness of the visibility of traffic using a larger letter size which makes the letters
signs generally is referred to as their conspicuity. legible earlier while maintaining the same cut-off
Conspicuity, and therefore the likelihood of to the reading time when the observation angle
detection of a guide sign is affected by: limit is reached.

• The size, shape, and color of the sign. The legibility of the lettering (and symbols) used
• The “brightness” of the sign. on guide signs and particularly direction signs is
• The contrast between the sign and its envi- affected by the following factors:
ronment.
• The location of the sign in relation to the line • The sign mounting position, i.e., ground
of sight of the driver. mounted or overhead.
• The time a driver needs, and actually has • The sign mounting height.
available, to search for the sign in terms of • The letter style, spacing, size, and stroke
road geometry, vehicle speed, traffic vol- width.
umes, the presence of other signs, and other • The legibility factor (0.6 meters of legibility
competing visual stimuli. distance per millimeter of lowercase ‘x’ letter
• The angle of the driver’s line of sight to the height”).
sign. • The visual acuity of drivers.
• The driver’s workload and surrounding dis-
Once a sign has been detected its long range tractions that compete for his attention.
attributes allow for its identification and function • The approach speed of traffic.
recognition. The “brightness” of a sign is termed • The amount of information displayed on the
its luminance. Guide signs need to have adequate sign.
luminance both by day and by night. Night-time • The luminance (daytime) and retroreflectivi-
luminance is improved by the use of retroreflec- ty (night-time) contrast ratio between the
tive materials. Retroreflective materials have the sign legend and sign background.
property of redirecting a large percentage of the • The ambient light levels (particularly street
incident light back towards the light source (A and advertising lighting).
nonretroreflective surface will reflect the light in
all directions). Therefore a guide sign surfaced Legibility can be defined simply as the ability to
with retroreflective material is capable of redi- read a text message or accurately determine the
recting most of the light from vehicle headlights form of a symbolic message. In this respect, for
back towards the vehicle. The further a sign is the long-range legibility required by drivers, the
offset, either horizontally or vertically from the most critical element must be the smallest or
path of a vehicle, the greater are the entrance and thinnest element. This critical design element can
observation angles. Retroreflective materials are be one or all of the following:
more effective at small entrance and observation
angles (although new materials are improving • Letter font style.
this characteristic). This means that the sign leg- • Letter stroke width.
end needs to be legible at small observation • Letter and line spacing.
angles which, in turn, means at some distance • Fine details of a symbol.
from the sign. This requirement affects the size of
lettering and symbols used for the legend. It also If all other factors are constant, as a general rule,
means that there is a closer point, still some dis- increasing the size of the critical element will
tance from the sign, after which it is considered increase the legibility distance of the sign mes-
that the observation angle is too great and legi- sage.
bility is no longer effective. These sign charac-
teristics affect the time for which the sign may be Typically the finest or most critical element for
observed, and therefore for which it may be read- guide sign lettering is the stroke width. There are
able, within the time between when the lettering several letter styles which have been designed
becomes legible and when the observation angle with characteristics required for use on a direc-
becomes too great. This time can be extended by tion sign. These characteristics are:

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• Consistent letter design. millimeters high and Arabic letters based on an


• Improved legibility over more “creative” aleph 140 millimeters high can be read by the
styles. normal driver from 60 meters. Legibility dis-
• Widely recognized at an international level. tances are conventionally quoted in relation to
• Greater surface area and therefore target the lowercase or “x” height of letter because
value. these constitute the majority of letters used on
• Usable with higher grades of retroreflective direction signs. These parameters are subject to
material with minimal risk of “overglow” or ongoing research but the values accepted are
“bleeding.” consistent with those used in many other coun-
tries. However, it should be noted that some driv-
The Arabic and English letter styles specified in ers may have poor visual acuity and that the leg-
this manual maximize the above characteristics. ibility index at night can be lower than 0.6
The following are the more important dimension- m/mm. Under these circumstances lower legibil-
al characteristics of lettering based on the “x,” or ity distances will result.
lowercase, English letter height:
Another factor that affects the legibility of letters
• Lowercase letter height = 1.0x on direction and other guide signs is the lumi-
• Stroke width = 0.2x nance contrast between the lettering and the sign
• Uppercase letter height = 1.4x background. This contrast is expressed as a ratio
• English text background tile height = 2.0x of light-to-dark color luminance and is appropri-
• Aleph height of equivalent Arabic text = 1.4x ate during both day and night. Ideally the contrast
• Arabic text background tile height = 2.8x ratio should be between the ratios of 5 to 1 and 10
to 1. For symbolic signs with bold symbols the
For a given letter style and letter height a driver ratio may be as low as 4 to 1 and still be effective.
with a normal visual acuity of 1 (visual acuity is Ratios higher than 10 to 1 run the risk of creating
a measure of a driver’s ability to focus on fine an “overglow” or “bleeding” effect from retrore-
objects) will be able to read the letters at a spe- flective materials at night, particularly if the
cific distance. This distance is known as the leg- background color is light and the letter color is
ibility distance. For the purpose of determining dark. “Overglow” results in the letter stroke width
the letter sizes recommended in Table 5-6, a leg- of a dark letter being diminished by the glare
ibility index of 0.6 meters of legibility distance from the bright color background. This in turn
per millimeter of lowercase “x” letter height has may affect the letter legibility. High ambient light
been adopted for English and Arabic letters and levels common under street lighting will reduce
characters. This means that English letters 100 this effect significantly and it is less problematic
Table 5-6
Recommended “x” Height for Guide Signs (millimeters)
Posted Speed 100 km/h 80 km/h 60km/h 40 km/h
Primary Guide Sign
Overhead 300 250 200 200
Ground Mounted 250 200 150 100
Supplemental Sign
Stack 250 150 100 100
Symbol Only 250 150 125 100
Gore Exit Sign 250 200 200 N/A
Chevron Sign (see Note)
At Roundabout 125 100 100 75
At Intersection 125 125 100 100
Route Marker 250 150 150 150
General Information Sign 150 150 100 100
Note: The above sizes apply for Abu Dhabi Routes only. Chevron signs placed on Emirates
Routes should be increased in size by 20%.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

15º

Reading Time/
Distance

x=0.463 V(0.32 N-0.21) D+6.22 s

Detail 5-2-1: Side Mounted Sign

h

Reading Time/
Distance

x=0.463 V(0.32 N-0.21) D+13.57 h-14.25

Detail 5-2-2: Overhead Mounted Sign


Where:
x = minimum “x” height required for legibility, in millimeters.

V = posted speed or 85th percentile speed of roadway, in km/h.

N = total units of information on a sign or sign grouping measured as follows:


words up to 8 letters = 1 unit each word
words more than 8 letters = 2 units each word
individual arrow = 0.25 units each arrow
map type arrow = 1 unit
emblem, symbol, or distance = 0.5 units each item

D = distraction factor between 1.0 for rural/low volume roads and 1.5 for urban/high volume roads.

s = lateral distance from center of furthest driving lane to center of side mounted sign, in meters.

h = vertical distance from pavement level to center of overhead mounted sign, in meters.

Figure 5-2
Principles Of Legibility

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

when vehicle headlights are commonly used in A. Side space between border and right or left
the low beam position (as under street lighting). line of justification = 0.5x
B. Minimum lateral space between a route num-
Taking into consideration all the factors given ber emblem and an arrow = 1.0x
above, including the standardization of the amount C. Minimum lateral space between text and a
of destination display referred to in Section 5.2.2, Type 5 or Type 8 arrow = 1.0x
a range of standard letter sizes has been derived for D. Minimum lateral space between text and a
various guide sign applications. These sizes are symbol or emblem = 0.5x
listed in Table 5-6 and should be adhered to. If the E. Vertical space between the top border and
amount of information to be displayed on a sign nearest legend = 0.5x
face is increased or it is necessary, due to excep- F. Vertical space between the bottom border
tional geometric conditions, that the sign must be and nearest legend = 0.5x
legible from a greater distance, consideration must G. Vertical space between an upper row of leg-
be given to the need to use a larger-than-standard end and a lower row of legend on a horizon-
letter size and approval obtained from the Abu tal stack type sign = 0.5x
Dhabi Municipality Road Department. Figure 5-2
summarizes, in equation form, the principles for The vertical space between Arabic and English
determining required letter height based on legi- text, or between two rows of Arabic or two rows
bility and reading time criteria. of English text, is dictated by the letter and num-
ber tiles and no additional internal spacing is
5.2.4 SIGN BORDERS required.

All guide signs should be provided with a con- The horizontal spacing between letters or num-
trasting border around the perimeter of the sign bers is also controlled by the letter and number
with the exception that when an exclusive exit- tiles which include the provision of a blank tile
only white panel is placed at the bottom of an 0.5x wide for use between consecutive words in
overhead exit direction sign no border is required a line.
on the white panel. The border color should be
the same as the color used for place name letter- 5.2.6 ARROWS
ing on the sign.
The following basic types of arrows are used on
Sign borders should have the following dimen- guide signs:
sional characteristics where “x” is the height of
the lowercase lettering used for the sign: • Chevron arrow.
• Stack-type arrow.
• Width = 0.25x. • Overhead arrows.
• Corner radius = 1.0x (to the outer edge of the • Map-type arrow.
border).
The individual types of arrow are detailed below.
An internal dividing border should be used to All arrows have been allocated a “Type” number
separate the stacks of a stack type direction sign. including left and right applications. The arrows
This border should have the same width as the should appear in white unless noted otherwise.
outside sign border but should not be provided The standard applications of arrows Type 1 to
with radii where it joins the outside border. Type 8 are illustrated in Figure 5-4.

5.2.5 INTERNAL SPACING 5.2.6.1 CHEVRON ARROW TYPES 1


AND 2
The sign face layout of all guide signs should
adhere to the internal spacings listed below and Chevron Arrows Types 1 and 2 are used on
illustrated in a typical example in Figure 5-3: CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 to indicate

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

0.25x
R=1.0x
= 0.5x

Arabic 2.8x
Arrow Route
5.8x 4.0x Type 3 Marker
English 2.0x
= 0.5x
0.25x
= 0.5x

Arabic 2.8x
Arrow Route
5.8x 4.0x Type 4 Marker
English 2.0x
= 0.5x
0.25x
= 0.5x
=
2.8x Arabic
Route Arrow
5.8x 4.0x 4.0x
Marker Type 5
English 2.0x
= =

3.5x x 3.0x x 3.5x


0.25x 0.25x

0.5x 0.5x 0.5x


Figure 5-3
Typical Guidesign Internal Spacing Elements

the action point for a left or right turn at an at- ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512, and
grade junction. ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 to indi-
cate the direction in which drivers must turn at
5.2.6.2 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 3 the junction ahead in order to reach the destina-
tion named in the stack in which the arrow is
Stack Sign Arrow Type 3 should only be used located.
pointing straight upwards. The arrow is used on
ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511 However, certain site specific conditions may
and ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512 to require a departure from these parameters and
indicate that drivers must travel straight-on guidelines. Such variations may only be imple-
through the junction ahead to reach the destina- mented with the prior approval of Abu Dhabi
tion named in the stack. When used on sign 512 a Municipality Road Department.
Type 3 arrow should only be used in the top stack.
5.2.6.4 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPE 6
However, certain site-specific conditions may
require a departure from these parameters and Stack Sign Arrow Type 6 should only be used
guidelines. Such variations may only be imple- pointing to the left. The arrow is used on
mented with the prior approval of Abu Dhabi ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 to indi-
Municipality Road Department. cate that drivers must execute a U-turn at the next
opportunity in order to reach the destination
5.2.6.3 STACK SIGN ARROW TYPES 4 named in the stack. In such an instance drivers
AND 5 are likely to see a further sign 514 shortly after
the U-turn indicating a right turn into a side road.
Stack Sign Arrows Types 4 and 5 may be used on
ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign 511,

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Type 1 Type 2

Chevron Direction Signs

Type 3 Type 3 Type 3

Type 4 Type 4 Type 5 Type 4

Type 5 Type 5

Type 5 Type 6 Type 4

Stack Direction Signs and Trailblazer Signs

Type 7 Type 7 Type 7 Type 7 Type 7

Advance Exit Direction Signs

Type 8 Type 8 Type 8 Type 8 Type 8

Exit Direction Signs

Type 7 Type 7

Overhead On-Going Direction Signs

Type 9

Type 8 Type 8
Type 8

Gore Exit Signs Supplemental Exit Sign


Map Direction Sign

Note : Type 8 arrow may be right or left pointing to suit application conditions.

Figure 5-4
Arrow-Type Applications

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Type 4 Type 5

Type 7

Type 6

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.2.6.5 DOWNWARD POINTING


ARROW TYPE 7

Downward Pointing Arrow Type 7 should only


be used on an overhead direction sign at the bot-
tom of the sign pointing straight downwards. The
arrow is used on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
sign 551 and ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553
to indicate that drivers may use the lane over
which the arrow is centered to reach the destina-
tion, or one of the destinations, named in the sign
above the arrow.

When signs 553 and 551 are mounted next to


each other there should be one Type 7 arrow cen- Type 8
tered over each lane. If one lane is a shared exit The Type 8 arrow may also be used on ground
lane and ongoing lane the arrow over the lane mounted SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 on a
should appear on the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC- freeway to indicate that the high speed exit a
TION sign 551. If one or more of the lanes indi- short distance ahead may be used to reach the
cated on sign 551 is an exclusive exit lane (in supplemental destination named on the sign.
other words the lane is dropped from the ongoing
path) the Type 7 arrow should appear in black on Left hand exits from a through route are to be
a white background panel at the bottom of the avoided. However, where such do occur, the Type
sign together with the word “ONLY” in Arabic 8 arrow should be inclined towards the left and
and English. moved to the left side of ground mounted signs.
5.2.6.6 UPWARD POINTING ARROW 5.2.6.7 MAP ARROW TYPE 9
TYPE 8
Map Arrow Type 9 should only be used pointing
Upward Pointing Arrow Type 8 may be used on a straight upwards so that the entry path to the dia-
ground mounted or overhead exit direction sign. gram is located at the bottom of the sign. The
The arrow should be located on the right side of arrow may only be used on ADVANCE MAP
ground mounted signs and at the bottom of over- sign 513 to indicate to drivers that the roundabout
head signs. The arrow is used on an overhead junction ahead has more than four exit roadways
EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 to indicate to driv- and/or is of an irregular shape.
ers that use of the lane or lanes over which the
arrow is located will allow them to leave the
grade-separated route by means of a high speed
exit to reach the destination, or one of the desti-
nations, named on the sign above the arrow.

If one or more of the lanes indicated on sign 552


is an exclusive exit lane the Type 8 arrow should
appear in black on a white background panel at
the bottom of the sign together with the word
“ONLY” in Arabic and English.

The Type 8 arrow is also used on ground mount-


ed GORE EXIT signs 554, 555 and 556 to indi-
cate to drivers the action point for the high speed
exit.
Type 9

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Map Arrow Type 9 should be custom designed to


suit the geometric configuration of the junction it
describes.

5.2.7 ROUTE NUMBER EMBLEMS

There are two types of numbered routes, namely:

• Emirate Routes which may extend from one


emirate to another or may connect towns and
cities within an emirate, and
• Abu Dhabi Routes, which lie primarily with-
in the Abu Dhabi urban area and/or provide
significant access to Emirate Routes.
guidelines. Such variations may only be imple-
The different routes are identified on the relevant
mented with the prior approval of Abu Dhabi
direction and route marker signs by exclusive
Municipality Road Department.
route number emblems. The number of the route
is indicated within the emblem so that the route
The Emirate Route Emblem should have a white
identification is located at the top of the emblem
background, a blue icon, and yellow text.
in English and Arabic and the route number
located below these letters in English numerals
5.2.7.2 ABU DHABI ROUTE EMBLEM
only. The overall sizes of the emblems are 4 “x”
high by 3 “x” wide.
The Abu Dhabi Route emblem should appear on
all ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs
5.2.7.1 EMIRATE ROUTE EMBLEM
511, ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs 512,
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551,
The Emirate Route emblem should appear on all
EXIT DIRECTION signs 552, ONGOING
ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs 511,
DIRECTION signs 553, CHEVRON DIREC-
ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs 512,
TION signs 515, ABU DHABI ROUTE MARK-
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551, EXIT
ER signs 502 and ABU DHABI ROUTE
DIRECTION signs 552, ONGOING DIREC-
TRAILBLAZER signs 506, which indicate an
TION signs 553, CHEVRON DIRECTION signs
approved control destination on an Abu Dhabi
515, EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER signs 501,
Route. The emblem should always have a green
and EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER signs
background within a white frame and the route
505, which indicate an approved control destina-
identification letters and the route number
tion on an Emirate Route. The emblem should
should be yellow.
always have a blue background within a white
frame and the route identification letters and the
The emblem should always be to the left of the
route number should be yellow.
destination name except on ADVANCE HORI-
ZONTAL STACK sign 511 when the emblem
The emblem should always be to the left of the
should share the top row of the sign with the
destination name except on ADVANCE HORI-
appropriate stack-sign arrow.
ZONTAL STACK sign 511 when the emblem
should share the top row of the sign with the
Certain site-specific conditions may require a
appropriate stack-sign arrow (see Sections 5.5
departure from these parameters and guidelines.
and 5.6 for examples of typical guide signs show-
Such variations may only be implemented with
ing route number emblems).
the prior approval of Abu Dhabi Municipality
Road Department.
However, certain site specific conditions may
require a departure from these parameters and

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Approval for the signing of any five-star hotel


must be obtained from Abu Dhabi Municipality
THIS SPACE RESERVED Road Department prior to implementation.
FOR ABU DHABI
Any new supplemental symbols that may be
EMIRATE ROUTE SIGN designed from time to time should embody the
principles described in Section 5.2.3. The use of
thin critical elements and fine detail should be
avoided as this will not assist long range recogni-
tion of the symbol.

5.3 ROUTE MARKER SIGNS

5.3.1 USE OF ROUTE MARKER


5.2.8 SUPPLEMENTAL
DESTINATION SIGN SYMBOLS A route marker sign is a confirmatory guide sign
that provides reassurance to motorists that they
Supplemental destination signs may be used to are on their intended route (or conversely to
present additional guidance information to driv- advise them that they have taken a wrong turn and
ers as and when this may be warranted (see are not on the route that they planned to be on).
Section 5.1). As a result, supplemental destina-
tion signs are only used occasionally. The infor- Under the Abu Dhabi guide signing system the
mation displayed therefore does not relate to ongoing routes at all intersections will be signed
approved orientational control destinations with the route number as part of the primary
which appear on normal direction signs. advance guide signing. This is true for at-grade
junctions (signalized intersections and round-
The most common application of supplemental abouts) and for grade-separated interchanges.
destination signs is to display information related Thus, every time a motorist traveling on a route
to tourist destinations. See Table 5-2 for a list of approaches a junction, he will receive confirma-
locations eligible for supplemental destination tion of the route he is on.
signing.
As such, route marker signs are not required to be
The symbols approved for use on supplemental used after every junction, but only when the dis-
destination signs are illustrated in Figure 5-5. The tance between junctions is considerable. On rural
symbol should appear on the left side of the sign roads where junctions with numbered routes are
and should be followed by the destination’s full infrequent, a route marker should be erected if
name in Arabic and English irrespective of the the distance between primary guide signs con-
direction indicated by the arrow. Thus if a specif- taining the emblem of the ongoing route are
ic beach is to be identified it should be displayed spaced more than two kilometers apart. In such a
in the form: case a route marker should be erected approxi-
mately two kilometers after the junction, and
“symbol” Al Raha Beach every 10 kilometers thereafter, up to a point not
less than two kilometers before the next primary
The symbol should be provided in black on a guide sign that contains the emblem of the ongo-
square white background. Some approved sup- ing route.
plemental destinations do not have a correspon-
ding symbol and should be signed using only On urban roadways where there is more turning
Arabic and English text. traffic at major junctions as well as more entering
traffic from minor roads between major junc-
tions, a more frequent spacing of route markers is
desirable. On urban roads a route marker should

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Horse Camel
Golf Course
Racing Racing

Beach
Zoo Marina
Park

Garden/
Theme Park/ Youth
Park Picnic Site Hostel

Camping Fort/ Tourist


Site Museum Information

Camping/
Caravan
Site

Figure 5-5
Approved Supplemental Destination Symbols
be erected if the distance between primary guide 5.3.2 EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER
signs containing the emblem of the through route SIGN 501
are located more than two kilometers apart. In
such a case a route marker should be erected EMIRATE ROUTE MARKER sign 501 should
approximately 500 meters after the junction, and be the Emirate Route emblem as described in
every two kilometers thereafter, up to a point not Section 5.2.7.1, mounted alone. The sign should
less than one kilometer from the next primary be 3.0 “x” wide by 4.0 “x” high and with an “x”
guide sign that contains the emblem of the height as given in Section 5.2.3.
through route.
5.3.3 ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER
Figure 5-6 illustrates both of the above princi- SIGN 502
ples.
ABU DHABI ROUTE MARKER sign 502
should be the Abu Dhabi Route emblem as
described in Section 5.2.7.2, mounted alone. The

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

2km Repeat every 10km 2km min


More than 5km

Detail 5-6-1: Rural Route Marker Placement

500m Repeat every 2km 1km min

More than 2km

Detail 5-6-2: Urban Route Marker Placement

Primary Guide Sign Containing Route Emblem Of Through Route

Route Marker Signs 501 or 502

Figure 5-6
Use of Route Marker Signs

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• An Emirate Route (by number).


• An Abu Dhabi Route (by number).
• A supplemental (tourist or service) destina-
tion.
• A freeway.
• A parking area.

While all of these destinations may appear on pri-


mary or supplemental direction signs there are
occasions when it may be necessary to indicate
the direction to such a type of destination when
the use of normal direction signs is not appropri-
ate, or impossible due to space limitations.

Sign 501 Trailblazing signs display only a stack type


arrow, one of Types 3, 4, 5 or 6 together with a
symbol. (When geometric conditions require, an
upward pointing slanted arrow may be used. A
THIS SPACE Type 3 arrow placed at 45 degrees is suitable for
this purpose.) The signs should be located in
RESERVED FOR advance of an intersection, roundabout or recog-
SIGN 502 nized U-turning lane. They will normally be used
to indicate a turn but, in the event that drivers
may be confused, for whatever reason, about the
correct direction to take, an ongoing indication
may be given, when appropriate, using a Type 3
arrow. The signs should preferably not be used in
addition to normal direction signs at a junction
although in one or two specific instances this
may be acceptable.
Sign 502

sign should be 3.0 “x” wide by 4.0 “x” high and Once a trailblazing sign has been used, further
with an “x” height as given in Section 5.2.3. trailblazing signs must be provided at all decision
points until the destination indicated has been
5.4 TRAILBLAZING SIGNS reached, or until the message concerned becomes
part of the information displayed by the normal
control-destination-based guide-sign system.
5.4.1 USE OF TRAILBLAZING
There are specific circumstances for each of the
“Trailblazing” is used to provide a localized sup-
types of trailblazer identified above in terms of
plement to the control destination based guide-
which an appropriate trailblazing sign may be
sign system. The concept of trailblazing can be
used. These circumstances are detailed in the fol-
applied to a specific destination or type of desti-
lowing sections.
nation and it may even be applied to direct driv-
ers towards a route. The concept involves provid-
The trailblazer signs that follow should have
ing strategically located compact supplemental
blue, green, or white background color appropri-
stack type trailblazing signs to indicate to drivers
ate for the type of route which they are located.
the direction to be taken in order to reach one of
the following specific types of destination:

• Airport.
• City center.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.4.2 AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER SIGN 5.4.3 CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZER


503 SIGN 504

AIRPORT TRAILBLAZING sign 503 is likely CITY CENTER TRAILBLAZER sign 504 may
to be the most widely used trailblazer sign. The be used within the general environs of the Abu
sign may be used to direct drivers from areas Dhabi city center, i.e., at a local level, to direct
commonly frequented by visitors to Abu Dhabi drivers towards what is considered to be the pop-
towards the airport. The sign should be used in a ular core of the business area. As such, the sign
similar manner to ADVANCE SUPPLEMEN- may only be displayed after the city center mes-
TAL sign 514 (see Section 5.5.5). Sign 503 may sage has appeared as a control destination on
be used on an Emirate Route, an Abu Dhabi direction signs.
Route, or a lesser unnumbered route. It therefore
may be used with or without normal control des-
tination direction signs, unless such a direction
sign already has the Airport as a trailblaze sym-
bol. Once sign 503 has been used it should con-
tinue to be provided at all decision points unless
the symbol appears on a direction sign.

Sign 504

Sign 504 should be located in a side mounted


position on the right side of the pavement, up to
160 meters from the junction, with due regard to
the position of any other direction signs and any
other minor side road intersections.
Sign 503
5.4.4 EMIRATE ROUTE
The AIRPORT TRAILBLAZER sign should be TRAILBLAZER SIGN 505
located in a side-mounted position on the right
side of the roadway, up to 160 meters from the EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZER sign 505
junction, with due regard to the position of any may be used to direct drivers towards an Emirate
other direction signs and any minor road inter- Route when direction signs are not otherwise in
sections. When the sign is for a left turn move- use or appropriate. Since Emirate Routes have
ment from a divided roadway it may be benefi- limited points of access it may occasionally be
cial to locate the sign on the median island, par- necessary to assist drivers in finding a route or
ticularly if a U-turn movement is called for. The street which intersects with the Emirate Route.
Airport symbol should be positioned on sign 503 Sign 505 should therefore only be used at a local
so that it “points” in the same direction as the level to assist drivers in finding their way
arrow used on the sign. upwards in the street network. Once used the sign
should be repeated at decision points until such
The Airport symbol may also be used as a trail- time as the appropriate Emirate Route emblem
blazing component on primary direction signs. appears on a normal Advance Direction sign with
See each specific sign for use locations. the appropriate control destinations. It may also
be beneficial to use sign 505 on a route which is
parallel to an Emirate Route.

The sign should be located in a side-mounted


position on the right side of the roadway, up to

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The sign should be located in a side-mounted


position on the right side of the street, up to 160
meters from the junction, with due regard to the
position of any other direction signs and any
minor side road intersections. The route emblem
displayed on the sign should include the specific
number of the Abu Dhabi Route being trailblazed.

5.4.6 SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION


TRAILBLAZER SIGN 507
Sign 505
160 meters from the junction, with due regard to A SUPPLEMENTAL DESTINATION TRAIL-
the position of any other direction signs and any BLAZER sign 507 may be used to carry on a
minor side road intersections. basic supplemental destination message which
has already appeared on an ADVANCE SUP-
The Emirate Route Emblem displayed on sign PLEMENTAL sign 514. Once a supplemental
505 should include the specific number of the message has been given by sign 514, in the form
Emirate Route being trailblazed. of an approved supplemental symbol plus the pri-
mary name of the facility (Section 5.5.5), subse-
5.4.5 ABU DHABI ROUTE quent signs at decision points up to the final turn
to the facility should be trailblazer sign 507.
TRAILBLAZER SIGN 506

ABU DHABI ROUTE TRAILBLAZER sign 506


may be used to direct drivers towards a numbered
Abu Dhabi Route when direction signs are not
otherwise in use or appropriate. Sign 506 should
therefore only be used at a local level within a
community to assist drivers in finding their way
upwards in the street network. However, there are
some instances where exceptions to this rule can
be permitted. The most notable exception would Sign 507
be on the approach to a minor junction with an
unnumbered route where the driver merely
The signs should be located in a side-mounted
requires a confirmation that the Abu Dhabi Route
position on the right side of the roadway, up to
continues in a straight ahead direction. The use of
160 meters from the junction, with due regard to
sign 506 may be particularly appropriate within a
the position of any other direction signs and any
community when there is some facility of impor-
minor side road intersections. When the sign is for
tance which tends to attract visitors from outside
a left turn movement from a divided roadway it
the community.
may be beneficial to locate the sign on the medi-
an island, particularly if a U-turn is called for. In
this latter case a Type 6 arrow should be used.

The symbol or symbols (maximum of two) dis-


played on the sign should only be approved sup-
RESERVED FOR plementary destination symbols (see Figure 5-5)
SIGN 506 which have appeared on one or more preceding
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL signs 514. In
other words, additional supplemental symbols
should not be introduced using sign 507 without
prior appearance on sign 514.
Sign 506

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.4.7 FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER SIGN


508

A FREEWAY TRAILBLAZER sign 508 may be


used as a general trailblazer sign indicating a
direction which may be taken in order to intersect
and join a freeway. Sign 508 may be used as an
alternative to EMIRATE ROUTE TRAILBLAZ-
ER sign 505 when the use of the latter sign might
cause confusion with other Emirate Route Sign 509
Emblems on other guide signs. The use of sign
508 is appropriate at a local level or on Abu 5.5 AT-GRADE JUNCTION
Dhabi Routes, particularly in an area close to a SIGNS
freeway and when the route or street concerned
runs more or less parallel to the freeway. 5.5.1 TYPES OF AT-GRADE
JUNCTION SIGNS

The following types of guide sign may be speci-


fied for use in advance of, at, or within at-grade
junctions:

• ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign


(overhead mounted), or
• ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK SIGN
(ground mounted), or
Sign 508
• ADVANCE MAP sign.
• ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign.
The signs should be located in a side-mounted • CHEVRON DIRECTION sign.
position on the right side of the roadway, up to • STREET NAME sign.
160 meters from the junction, with due regard to
the position of any other direction signs and any All approaches to junctions between two Emirate
minor side road intersections. When the sign is for or Abu Dhabi routes should be provided with
a left-turn movement from a divided roadway it each of the above sign types with the exception
may be beneficial to locate the sign on the medi- of the ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign,
an island, particularly if a U-turn is called for. which is optional. Details of the signs, their
functions, applications, locations, and the infor-
The sign should comprise the appropriate Type 3, mation that may be displayed are given in the fol-
4, or 5 arrow together with the “Freeway” symbol lowing sections.
in black on a white square background in a simi-
lar manner to signs 503, 504, and 507. When a U- However, certain site-specific conditions may
turn is required a Type 6 arrow should be used. require a departure from the parameters and
guidelines specified in the following sections.
5.4.8 PARKING TRAILBLAZER SIGN Such variations can only be implemented with
509 the prior approval of Abu Dhabi Municipality
Road Department.
PARKING TRAILBLAZER sign 509 may be
used locally to direct drivers towards a designat-
ed parking area or car park.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.5.2 ADVANCE HORIZONTAL 5.5.2.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION


STACK SIGN 511
Only the following items are eligible for display
5.5.2.1 FUNCTION on ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK signs:

• To indicate the routes and control destina- • Direction arrow.


tions at the end of each route and intermedi- • Route number emblem.
ate destinations, where applicable, that can • Control destination/intermediate destination.
be reached by turning left or right, or contin- • City center symbol.
uing ahead. • Airport Symbol.
• To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-
priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish to The items and their placement are described
make at the junction ahead. below.

5.5.2.2 APPLICATION Information relevant for changing direction to the


left, going straight ahead, or changing direction
As overhead signs on routes with traffic volumes to the right should be displayed in three separate
and/or number of lanes warranting overhead stacks, arranged horizontally from left to right,
advance signs as specified in Section 2.2.4 and as for a crossroad or roundabout and in two separate
follows: stacks for a T-junction. The left-turn stack should
always be leftmost and the right-turn stack the
• In advance of signalized at-grade intersec- rightmost.
tions.
• In advance of signalized or unsignalized • Direction Arrow.
roundabouts.
Hooked Type 4 or 5 arrows facing in the
5.5.2.3 LOCATION appropriate direction should be displayed in
the left and right turn stacks. An upward
• Overhead on gantries (placed centrally over pointing Type 3 arrow should be placed in
the roadway). the ongoing movement stack.
• Up to 250 meters in advance of the intersec-
tion or roundabout. Vertical placement:
• With due regard to the position of any minor
side road intersection. - At the top of the sign.
• Not less than 175 meters after the previous
junction of numbered routes. Horizontal placement:

Sign 511

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

- Left turn and ongoing movement: left jus- The symbol will be used only with a route
tified in stack. that has Abu Dhabi city center as a control
- Right turn: right justified in stack. destination.

• Route Number Emblem. Vertical placement:

One route number emblem should be dis- - Centered in each stack.


played for each direction of travel for which
a route number has been allocated. Horizontal placement:

Vertical placement: - Right justified in stack.

- At the top of the sign. • Airport symbol.

Horizontal placement: The symbol will be used only on a route that


is trailblazed to the airport.
- Left turn and ongoing movement: right
justified in stack. Placement:
- Right turn: left justified in stack.
- Centered between the direction arrow and
• Control destination. route number emblem in the top row.

One control destination and one intermediate 5.5.3 ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK
destination should be displayed for each SIGN 512
direction of travel for which a route number
has been allocated. If one of the turning 5.5.3.1 FUNCTION
movements does not have a route number
and control destination, the street name or • To indicate the routes and control destina-
number should be substituted for the control tions at the end of each route that can be
destination. reached by turning left or right, or continuing
ahead.
Vertical placement: • To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-
priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish to
- At the bottom of the sign, with Arabic leg- make at the junction ahead.
end above the English.
5.5.3.2 APPLICATION
Horizontal placement:
As side-mounted signs on routes with traffic vol-
- All stacks: umes and/or a number of lanes that do not war-
rant overhead advance signs as specified in
Arabic text in the bottom row is right jus- Section 2.2.4 and as follows:
tified on the route number emblem or Type
5 arrow in the top row, and English text in • In advance of signalized at-grade intersec-
the bottom row is left justified on the tions.
Types 3 or 4 arrows or route number • In advance of signalized or unsignalized
emblem in the top row. roundabouts.

If a city center symbol is used it should be


considered as an integral part of the rele-
vant line of text.
• City center symbol.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 512

5.5.3.3 LOCATION appropriate direction should be displayed in


the left and right turn stacks.
• Ground mounted on the right side of the
roadway. Vertical placement:
• Up to 250 meters in advance of the intersec-
tion or roundabout. - Centered in each stack.
• With due regard to the position of any minor Horizontal placement:
side-road intersection.
• Not less than 175 meters after the previous - Ongoing and left turn: left justified in each
junction of numbered routes. stack.
- Right turn: right justified in stack.
5.5.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
• Route number emblem.
Only the following items are eligible for display
on ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK signs: One route number emblem should be dis-
played for each direction of travel for which
• Direction arrow. a route number has been allocated.
• Route number emblem.
• Control destination/intermediate destination. Vertical placement:
• City center symbol.
• Airport Symbol. - Centered in each stack.

The items and their placement are described Horizontal placement:


below.
- Ongoing and left turn: left justified on
Information relevant for going straight ahead or Type 3 or Type 4 arrows (see Figure 5-3).
changing direction to the left or to the right - Right turn: left justified with route number
should be displayed in three separate stacks, emblem(s) in other stack(s) above.
arranged vertically, from top to bottom, for a
crossroad or roundabout, and in two separate • Control destination.
stacks for a T-junction. The straight-ahead stack
should always be uppermost and the right turn One control destination and one intermediate
stack the lowermost. destination where applicable should be dis-
played for each direction of travel for which
• Direction arrow. a route number has been allocated. If one of
the turning movements does not have a route
An upward pointing Type 3 arrow should be number and control destination, the street
placed in the ongoing movement stack. name or number should be substituted for the
Hooked type 4 or 5 arrows facing in the control destination.

Version 0.1 5-28


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Vertical placement: 5.5.4 ADVANCE MAP SIGN 513

- Centered in the stack with the Arabic leg- 5.5.4.1 FUNCTION


end above the English.
• To indicate the routes and control destina-
Horizontal placement: tions at the end of each route that can be
reached by turning left or right or by contin-
- All stacks: uing ahead.
• To assist drivers in selecting the most appro-
Arabic text is right justified on right turn priate lanes for the maneuvers they wish to
Type 5 arrow. If the sign does not require a make at the junction ahead.
right turn stack, as at a T-junction from the
left, the Arabic text should be justified on 5.5.4.2 APPLICATION
the right edge of the sign. The English text
is left justified on the route number As ground-mounted signs in advance of junctions
emblems. with nonstandard or irregular geometry such as a
roundabout that is enlarged into a noncircular
• City center symbol. shape and/or has more than four exit roadways.
This type of sign should only be used in excep-
- The symbol will only be used with a route tional circumstances and will require a signifi-
that has Abu Dhabi City Center as a con- cant side space to accommodate its size.
trol destination.
5.5.4.3 LOCATION
Vertical placement:
• Ground mounted on the right side of the
- Centered in each stack. roadway.
• Up to 250 meters in advance of the round-
Horizontal placement: about (or other junction; see section 5.5.4.4).
• With due regard to the position of any minor
- Ongoing and left turn: right justified in side road intersection.
stack. • Not less than 175 meters after the previous
- Right turn: Right justified on Type 5 arrow. junction of numbered routes.

• Airport symbol. 5.5.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

The symbol will be used only on a route that The following items only are eligible for display
is trailblazed to the airport. on ADVANCE MAP signs:

Placement: • Map direction arrow.


• Route number emblem.
- Centered between the direction arrow and • Control destination/intermediate destination.
route number emblem in the top row. • City center symbol.

Sign 513

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The items and their placement are described - Left-turn movement: justified on the left
below. side of the sign.
- Right-turn movement: left justified on the
Information relevant to changing direction or right turn arrow leg.
going straight ahead should be displayed in line
with the pointed arrow legs of the map Type 9 • Control destination.
arrow representing an exit path from the junction.
One control destination and one intermediate
• Map direction arrow. destination where applicable should be dis-
played for each direction of travel for which
The map direction arrow Type 9 should rep- a route number has been allocated. If one of
resent the shape of the complex junction as the turning movements does not have a route
closely as is practical with one pointed arrow number and control destination, the street
leg for each exit path from the junction, name or number should be substituted for the
EXCLUDING the reverse path to the direc- control destination. If the control destinations
tion of entry to the junction. (Although the in one direction are more than two destina-
example illustrated shows a form of round- tions (e.g., A1 Sila, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, as
about other shapes of map direction arrow can be found in Table 5-1), the sign should
may be considered. In such a case the sign display only two of those control destinations
design should be customized to the specific along with an intermediate destination for a
map direction arrow shape following the maximum of three destinations.
general principles stated for the example.)
Vertical placement:
Vertical placement:
- Ongoing movement: above the relevant
- At the bottom of the sign. arrow legs with Arabic text over English
text.
Horizontal placement: - Left- and right-turn movement: centered
on the left and right turn arrow legs respec-
- In the middle of the sign between the right tively with Arabic text over English text.
and left destinations.
Horizontal placement:
• Route number emblem.
- Ongoing movement: the block comprising
One route number emblem should be dis- the route number emblem and the Arabic
played for each direction of travel for which and English text should be centered over
a route number has been allocated. the relevant arrow leg. If there should be
more than one ongoing exit path from the
Vertical placement: junction the relevant blocks comprising
the route number emblem and English and
- Ongoing movement: above and to the left Arabic text should be moved off-center on
of the relevant arrow leg(s) and centered the arrow legs until sufficient space exists
vertically on the Arabic and English text between the two blocks that their proximi-
(see also Control Destination). ty will not be confusing.
- Left- and right-turn movements: centered - Left- and right-turn movements: left justi-
on the left and right turn arrow legs. fied on the route number emblem (see
below).
Horizontal placement: - All movements: the English text should be
left justified on the route number emblem
- Ongoing movement: to the left of the con- and the Arabic text right justified on the
trol destination name. right hand end of the English text,
UNLESS the Arabic text is longer than the

Version 0.1 5-30


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

English text in which case both Arabic and • In advance of signalized or unsignalized
English text should be left justified on the roundabouts.
route number emblem. • In advance of a U-turn.

• City center symbol. 5.5.5.3 LOCATION

The symbol will only be used with a route • Ground-mounted on the right side of the
that has Abu Dhabi City Center as a control roadway UNLESS the sign is for a left turn
destination. or U-turn movement and the median island is
wide enough to safely accommodate the sign,
Placement: in which case the sign may be located on the
left side of the roadway in a one-way road-
- To the right of the destination name and way or dual carriageway.
centered vertically on the Arabic and • Up to 160 meters in advance of the intersec-
English legends. tion or roundabout between sign 511 (or 512
or 513) and the junction, or up to 160 meters
• Airport symbol. in advance of the U-turn .
• With due regard to the provision of any
The symbol should not be used ordinarily on minor side road intersection.
this sign. Separate trailblaze signing should
be used. 5.5.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

5.5.5 ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL The following items only are eligible for display
SIGN 514 on Advance Supplemental signs:

5.5.5.1 FUNCTION • Direction arrow.


• Approved supplemental sign symbol (see
• To indicate approved supplemental destina- Section 5.2.8).
tions either in addition to standard advance • Approved supplemental destination (“pri-
direction signs, or on their own at junctions mary” or identifying name only).
that do not warrant standard advance direc-
tion signs. The items and their placement are described
• To assist drivers who are unfamiliar with Abu below.
Dhabi in finding their way from a numbered
route to the non-control supplemental desti- Information will commonly be displayed in sin-
nation being sought. gle left or right turn stack signs. Since the func-
tion of the sign does not include orientation, only
5.5.5.2 APPLICATION the directions to approved supplemental destina-
tions are signed. If more than one stack is
As ground-mounted signs on routes in close required the stack order should be the same as for
proximity to the facility indicated on the sign as an ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign 512.
follows:
• Direction Arrow.
• In advance of signalized or unsignalized at-
grade intersections. Hooked type 4, 5, or 6 arrows facing in the
appropriate direction should be displayed in
the appropriate stack (an ongoing Type 3
arrow may be used for an ongoing indication
in exceptional circumstances where confu-
sion may otherwise occur).

Sign 514

5-31 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Vertical placement: Vertical placement:

- Centered in each stack. - One destination: centered in the stack with


the Arabic text above the English text.
Horizontal placement: - Two destinations of the same type: cen-
tered in the stack with the two Arabic
- Left turn and U-turn: left justified in stack. names above the two English names.
- Right turn: right justified in stack. - Two destinations of different types: each
destination centered on the appropriate
• Approved supplemental sign symbol. supplemental symbol with the Arabic text
above the English text for each destina-
The approved symbol (see Figure 5-5) tion.
should be used with the primary or identify-
ing name for the facility. If more than one Horizontal placement:
facility of the same type exists in one direc-
tion up to two names may be used with one - Left turn and U-turn: Arabic text right jus-
symbol (see Approved Supplemental tified on the right edge of the sign. English
Destination below). Two different symbols, text left justified on the Supplemental
for two different types of supplemental desti- Symbol.
nation, may be displayed with their appropri- - Right turn: Arabic text right justified on
ate primary names in one stack. the Type 5 arrow. English text left justified
on the supplemental symbol.
Vertical placement:
5.5.6 CHEVRON DIRECTION SIGN
- One symbol: centered in the stack 515
- Two symbols: aligned one above the other,
centered in the stack so that the spaces 5.5.6.1 FUNCTION
between borders and symbols, and
between symbols, are equal. • To indicate the route number and control des-
tination at the end of a route, at the point of
Horizontal placement: turn onto the route (the action point).
• To indicate the point of turn towards a sup-
- Left turn and U-turn: left justified on Type plemental destination.
4 and Type 6 arrows. • To indicate the point of turn towards a local
- Right turn: left justified on edge of sign, destination.
UNLESS both left and right turn stacks are
required, in which case both left and right 5.5.6.2 APPLICATION
stack symbols should be left justified on
the Type 4 arrow in the left turn stack. As ground-mounted signs as follows:

• Approved supplemental destination. • For all exit paths from signalized or unsignal-
ized roundabouts.
The full destination name should be used for • For the left and right turn exit paths from a
all supplemental destinations, along with an signalized intersection.
approved supplementary symbol, where it is • For supplemental or local exit paths at minor
applicable. When two facilities of the same junctions.
type occur in one direction, two names may
be used with one symbol. If two different 5.5.6.3 LOCATION
types of facility occur in one direction, two
symbols may be provided within one stack so • Ground mounted on the right side of the
that one is above the other (see Approved roadway for all right turn movements.
Supplemental Sign Symbol, above).

Version 0.1 5-32


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 515
• Ground mounted on the far left side of a sig- Chevron Type 1 or 2 arrows facing in the
nalized intersection for left turn movements. appropriate direction should be displayed in
• Ground mounted on the right side of the left and right turn signs.
roadway for left turn movements without a
turning lane and/or for minor intersecting Vertical placement:
roads.
• Within the gore area of right turning slip - Centered on the sign.
roads.
Horizontal placement:
5.5.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
- Right turn: right justified on the sign.
The following items only are eligible for display - Left turn: left justified on the sign.
on CHEVRON DIRECTION signs:
• Route number emblem.
• Direction arrow.
• Route number emblem. One route number emblem should be dis-
• Control destination/intermediate destination. played when a route number has been allo-
• Supplemental symbol and destination. cated.
• City center symbol.
• Airport symbol. Vertical placement:
• Local destination.
- Centered on the sign.
The items and their placement are described
below. Horizontal placement:

Information relevant for changing direction to the - Right turn: left justified on the left edge of
right or left should be displayed singly in indi- the sign.
vidual CHEVRON DIRECTION signs. - Left turn: left justified on the Type 1
arrow.
• Direction arrow.
• Control destination.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

One control destination and one intermediate One local destination, street name or number,
destination where applicable should be dis- or parking symbol may be displayed if a turn-
played on any CHEVRON DIRECTION ing movement does not have a route number
sign displaying a route number symbol. or control destination. Signing of local desti-
nations such as these should be coordinated
Vertical placement: with and approved by the Department.

- Centered on the sign with the Arabic text Vertical placement:


above the English text.
- Centered on the sign with the Arabic text
Horizontal placement: above the English text.

- Right turn: Arabic text is right justified on Horizontal placement:


right turn Type 2 arrow and on the right
edge of the sign for left turn signs. The - Right turn: Arabic text is right justified on
English text is left justified on the route right turn Type 2 arrow and on the right
number emblem. edge of the sign for left turn signs. The
English text is left justified on the route
• Supplemental symbol and destination. number emblem.

Same as for route number emblem and con- 5.6 GRADE-SEPARATED


trol destination (see above).
JUNCTION SIGNS
• City center symbol.
5.6.1 TYPES OF GRADE-
The symbol will only be used with a route SEPARATED JUNCTION SIGNS
that has Abu Dhabi City Center as a control
destination. The following types of guide signs may be spec-
ified for use on the free-flowing roadway of a
Placement: grade-separated junction whether this is on an
Emirate Route or an Abu Dhabi Route:
- To the right of the destination name and
centered vertically on the Arabic and • ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign.
English legends. • EXIT DIRECTION sign.
• ONGOING DIRECTION sign.
• Airport symbol. • GORE EXIT sign.
• SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign.
The symbol may be added to the primary
sign or used in a separate CHEVRON A grade-separated junction may occur between
DIRECTION sign to trailblaze a turn to the two routes which have one of the following char-
Airport. When used as a second CHEVRON acteristics:
mounted on the same post, both CHEVRON
DIRECTION signs should be the same size. • Both routes have full access control and all
elements of the junction are free flowing and
Placement: grade separated. Such a junction between
two such freeways does not give access to the
- To the left of the route number. at-grade street network and is termed a “sys-
- Centered in the sign when used separately. tems” interchange.
• One route is a freeway with full access con-
• Local destination. trol and the other is essentially an at-grade
road (although it may have occasional grade-
separated junctions) with only limited access

Version 0.1 5-34


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

control. Such a junction is termed an - Extra forward ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-


“access” interchange allowing connection TION sign 551 for interchanges with other
between the at-grade street network and a freeways/expressways, at 2,000 meters in
freeway, and vice versa. advance of the theoretical gore (optional
• Both routes are essentially at-grade routes sign, recommended for systems inter-
with limited access control but have selected changes). Recommended range: 1,800
grade-separated junctions to improve junc- meters to 2,300 meters.
tion capacity. - Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
sign 551 for all freeway/expressway exits,
The at-grade portion of any of the latter two junc- at 1000 meters in advance of the theoreti-
tion types, including any off-and-on ramps from- cal gore (mandatory). Recommended
and-to the freeway, should be signed using con- range: 900 meters to 1,200 meters.
ventional at-grade direction signs as detailed in - ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
Section 5.5. However, site-specific roadway for all freeway exits 500 meters in advance
geometry may, at times, require the at grade road- of the theoretical gore (optional).
way to be signed using the following sign types Recommended range: 400 meters to 600
to indicate lane assignment. Such variations can meters.
only be implemented with the prior approval of
the Department. • On carriageways of arterial roads, approach-
ing exit ramps to other roads at grade-sepa-
All free-flowing roadways approaching a grade- rated intersections, to provide the following
separated interchange up to and including the exit sequence of signs:
ramp gore area should be provided with at least
one of each of the above sign types with the - ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551:
exception of the SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign (optional but recommended for posted
which is optional. speeds less than 80 km/hour, mandatory
for posted speeds of 80 km/hour or higher)
5.6.2 ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION At 500 meters in advance of the exit nose.
SIGN 551 Permissible range: 250 meters to 600
meters, provided that the sign 551 is at
5.6.2.1 FUNCTION least 200 meters from the EXIT DIREC-
TION sign 552.
• To provide advance indication of destina-
tions served by an exit ramp at the inter- • Figure 5-7 shows layouts for typical applica-
change or grade-separated intersection tions of ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign
ahead. 551. The ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
• To indicate the lane or lanes that should be sign must extend over the exit lanes.
followed to reach the exit ramp. Downward pointing arrows indicate the lanes
to be followed.
5.6.2.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION • For a single-lane exit, the sign must display
the destination information for the route it is
• Overhead on gantries or cantilever supports in leading onto. If the single-lane exit serves
advance of single-lane and multiple-lane exit both directions of the crossing road the con-
ramps, each with or without lane drops at an trol destination for each direction should be
interchange or grade-separated intersection. displayed. When each direction has a differ-
• On carriageways of freeways/expressways in ent route number, the sign should display the
advance of exit ramps connecting with other route numbers for both directions.
freeways/expressways (systems inter- • If a two-lane exit serves both directions on
changes), with arterial roads, or streets the crossing road, destination information for
(access interchanges) to provide the follow- both directions should be displayed.
ing sequence of signs: • When a two-lane exit ramp separates into
two roadways for different directions within

5-35 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Detail 5-7-1 Detail 5-7-2


Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Airport Destination,
Airport Destination City Center Destination

Detail 5-7-3 Detail 5-7-4


Single Lane Exit: With Lane Drop Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Two Exit Numbers

Detail 5-7-5 Detail 5-7-6


Two Lane Exit: With Two Lanes Dropped, One Route Number Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Ramp Split, Two Exit Numbers

Figure 5-7
Advance Direction Sign 551

Version 0.1 5-36


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

500 meters after the exit gore, then two sep- sign should be displayed on the ADVANCE
arate signs should be used, one for each lane. EXIT DESTINATION sign(s).
The left-hand sign must display the destina-
tion information for the left-hand branch The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTION signs
road. The right-hand sign must display the shown in Figure 5-8 (see Section 5.6.3) corre-
destination information for the right-hand spond to the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
branch. signs shown in Figure 5-7. They illustrate the
• When a grade-separated junction is provided matching of messages on the ADVANCE EXIT
on an Abu Dhabi Route an ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs and EXIT DIRECTION signs.
DIRECTION sign 551 should be used fol-
lowing the same basic principles as described The following items only, are eligible for display
above. on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs 551:
• When a lane on the approaching carriageway
ends and becomes the exit ramp (a lane • Downward pointing arrow Type 7.
drop), a white panel with the message EXIT • Route number emblem.
should be displayed at the bottom of the sign • Control destination/intermediate destination.
over the lane or lanes that are dropped. • City center symbol.
• Airport symbol.
In Figure 5-7, Detail 4, the left hand lane has a • Distance to exit.
downward pointing arrow indicating the lane to • Lane-drop EXIT panel.
be used for the exit. However, there is no white
lane drop panel indicating EXIT for this lane. The The policy on the display of each of these items
absence of the lane drop EXIT panel means that and their placement on the sign are described
the lane is a shared lane serving the ongoing des- below and illustrated in Figure 5-7.
tination as well as the exit destinations. The lane
in fact forms part of the mainline carriageway. • Downward pointing arrow.

The fact that a two-lane off-ramp is required indi- One downward pointing Type 7 arrow should
cates that a high volume of traffic will be exiting. be displayed for a single lane exit and two
The shared lane will need to carry a significant Type 7 arrows should be displayed for a two-
proportion of the exit ramp traffic. The capacity lane exit, as shown in Figure 5-7.
of a two-lane exit ramp is dependent on the num-
ber of through vehicles that remain in the shared If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrows
lane. The fewer through vehicles, the higher the should be white.
capacity of the exit ramp. Strangers who do not
know that they can stay in an optional lane to If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit,
reach ongoing destinations may move out of the the arrows indicating the lanes to be dropped
shared lane into a lane indicated for ongoing des- should be black (see lane-drop panel).
tinations. However, most regular users of the
interchange will know that it is not mandatory for Vertical placement:
them to move out of the shared lane. The regular
users will make up the greatest proportion of - The arrows should be placed at the bottom
users. of the sign.

5.6.2.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION Horizontal placement:

All information relating to routes and destina- - Each arrow should be placed over the cen-
tions displayed on a subsequent EXIT DIREC- terline of the lane to which it refers with a
TION sign 552 should be displayed on the pre- tolerance to the left or right of up to 300
ceding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign(s) millimeters.
551. No destinations or routes that are additional
to those displayed on the EXIT DIRECTION • Route number emblem.

5-37 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Only the route number emblem of the route If the route reached from the exit ramp pro-
or routes accessed directly from the exit ramp vides for travel only to the right or only to the
should be displayed. One route number only left, then only one control or intermediate
should be displayed if the route reached destination should be displayed for the route.
directly has the same route number on both
sides of the interchange. If the route reached If the road reached from the ramp has differ-
directly has different route numbers on each ent route numbers on either side of the ramp
side of the interchange, and both can be junction, the appropriate control or intermedi-
reached from the exit ramp, then both route ate destination for each route for the direction
numbers should be displayed. of travel available from the exit ramp should
be displayed adjacent to the appropriate route
Vertical placement: number emblem so that the left turn informa-
tion is placed above the right turn information.
- Each emblem should be located centrally
on the lines of legend for the Arabic and If the use of intermediate destinations pres-
English destination names associated with ents difficulties, such as the sign becomes too
the route number. large or the amount of information displayed
on the sign exceeds the amount that can be
Horizontal placement: comfortably absorbed by the driver (see
5.2), then, in the interests of public safety, the
- For single-lane exit ramps, the route num- intermediate destinations should be omitted
ber emblem(s) should be placed at the left from the sign.
of the sign. For two-lane exit ramps, the
emblems should be placed adjacent to the Vertical placement:
destination names on their left side. The
combined emblem and destination name - The Arabic legends should always be dis-
message should be centered between the played above the English legends. When
borders. If more than two destinations are two destinations are related to one route
necessary, it may be more effective to number, the Arabic right-turn destination
place the route number emblem centrally name should be immediately below the
with Arabic text to the right, and English Arabic left turn destination name. The two
text to the left. English legends should be similarly dis-
played, one immediately below the other,
• Control destination. and both below the Arabic legends.
- When two route numbers with one desti-
A maximum of one control destination and nation each are displayed, the route num-
one intermediate destination, where applica- ber emblem and associated destination leg-
ble, is permitted for each direction (left or end for the destination to the left at the exit
right) on ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION ramp, should be above the route number
sign 551. The upper destination name should emblem and legend for the destination to
be the control or intermediate destination for the right at the exit ramp.
the route reached directly from the off-ramp
in the direction to the left of the off ramp. Horizontal placement:
The lower destination name should be the
control or intermediate destination for the The control destination and intermediate des-
route reached directly from the off ramp in tination, where applicable, should be dis-
the direction to the right of the off ramp. The played adjacent and to the right of the associ-
signs displayed to drivers travelling on the ated route number emblem, as shown in
opposite approach to the interchange will Figure 5-7.
have the vertical order of the specific desti-
nation names reversed.)

Version 0.1 5-38


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

- English legend should be left justified and the location falls outside the recommended
adjacent to the right edge of the route num- range, the actual distance to the nearest 100
ber emblem. meters should be displayed. For distances
- Arabic legend should be right justified. less than 400 meters the actual distance may
The position of the right justification line be rounded to the nearest 50 meters.
should be the furthest right of the follow-
ing: When two or more successive exits occur at
an interchange, the signs should indicate the
• The longest English word. different distances. If the advance sign is
• The longest Arabic word, with its left located within the recommended range, the
end adjacent to the route number nominal distance should be used for the first
emblem. exit. The second and subsequent exits should
indicate a distance equal to the nominal dis-
When two route numbers are used, the tance used for the first exit plus the distances
same right justification for the Arabic des- from the first exit to the subsequent exits. All
tinations should be used for both route distances should be rounded up to the next
numbers. 100 meters.

• Airport symbol. Vertical placement:

The airport symbol may be displayed if the - Centered approximately on the downward
route served by the ramp has the airport as a pointing arrow(s).
trailblaze destination.
Horizontal placement:
When used the symbol should be located to
the left of the route number emblem. - On the left side of the sign to the left of the
furthest left downward pointing arrow.
The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the
direction in which traffic must travel to reach • White lane-drop EXIT panel.
the airport. For the ongoing direction the air-
craft symbol must “point” upwards. If a lane on a mainline carriageway will be
dropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panel
• City center symbol. should be displayed.

Vertical placement: The Arabic and English word EXIT should


be displayed adjacent to and to the right of a
- Centered in each stack. single arrow, with the Arabic above the
English, both centered approximately verti-
Horizontal placement: cally in the panel. When two lanes are
dropped at the exit, the EXIT panel extends
- Right justified in each stack. for the full width of the sign. In such a case
the word EXIT in Arabic and English may be
• Distance to exit. displayed centrally between the two down-
ward pointing arrows.
The distance to the exit should be displayed
in English and Arabic numerals as shown in The panel is placed at the bottom of the sign
Figure 5-7. When the ADVANCE EXIT and covers the space occupied by the relevant
DIRECTION sign has been located within downward pointing arrow(s), which should
the permissible ranges of distances from the be black. The white panel extends over the
exit, specified under “Application,” above, lane or lanes to be dropped, from the edge of
the nominal distances 500 meters, 1,000 the sign to a point above the lane line remote
meters, 2,000 meters should be displayed. If from the edge of the sign. White sign borders

5-39 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

adjacent to the panel should be incorporated • When a grade-separated junction is provided


into the panel. on an Abu Dhabi Route an EXIT DIREC-
TION sign 552 should follow the same basic
5.6.3 EXIT DIRECTION SIGN 552 principles as described above.
• When a lane on the approaching carriageway
5.6.3.1 FUNCTION ends and becomes the exit ramp (a lane
drop), a white panel with the message EXIT
• To indicate the location of the exit ramp at an should be displayed at the bottom of the sign
interchange or grade-separated intersection. over the lane or lanes that are dropped.
• To indicate by an arrow configuration the
direction of the exit. 5.6.3.3 LOCATION
• To repeat the destination information that has
been shown on the preceding advance exit • At the theoretical gore, up to 50 meters after
direction signs 551 and thereby reassure the the theoretical gore, or up to 100 meters in
driver of the destination(s) served. advance of the theoretical gore provided that
the exit lane or lanes have been developed to
5.6.3.2 APPLICATION full lane width.
• The sign should be mounted overhead the
• At single-lane and multiple-lane exit ramps, exit lane or lanes, on gantries or cantilever
each with or without lane drops, at inter- supports.
changes or grade-separated intersections.
• On carriageways of freeways, at exit ramps, 5.6.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
connecting with other freeways (systems
interchanges) or with arterial roads or streets All information relating to routes and destina-
(access interchanges). tions displayed on the preceding ADVANCE
• On carriageways of grade-separated arterial EXIT DIRECTION signs 551 should be dis-
roads at exit ramps to other roads. played on the subsequent EXIT DIRECTION
• Figure 5-8 shows layouts for typical applica- signs 552. No destinations or routes that are addi-
tions of EXIT DIRECTION signs 552. The tional to those displayed on the ADVANCE
EXIT DIRECTION sign must extend over EXIT DIRECTION signs should be displayed on
the exit lanes. Upward pointing arrows the EXIT DIRECTION signs.
should be slanted (normally to the right) to
emphasize the change of alignment. The layout examples for EXIT DIRECTION
• For a single-lane exit, the sign must display signs shown in Figure 5-8 correspond to the
the destination information for the route it is ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs shown in
leading onto. If the single-lane exit serves Figure 5-7. They illustrate the matching of mes-
both directions of the intersecting crossroad, sages on the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION
and each direction has a different route num- signs and EXIT DIRECTION signs.
ber, the sign should display the route number
emblems for both directions. Only the following items are eligible for display
• If a two-lane exit serves both directions on the on EXIT DIRECTION signs 552:
intersecting crossroad, destination informa-
tion for both directions should be displayed. • Upward pointing arrow Type 8 (inclined in
• When a two-lane exit ramp separates into two the direction of the exit ramp).
roadways for different directions within 500 • Route number emblem.
meters after the exit gore, then two separate • Control destination/intermediate destination.
signs should be used, one for each lane. The • City center symbol.
left-hand sign must display the destination • Airport symbol.
information for the left-hand branch road. • Lane drop EXIT panel.
The right-hand sign must display the destina-
tion information for the right-hand branch.

Version 0.1 5-40


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Detail 5-8-1 Detail 5-8-2


Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Single Lane Exit: No Lane Drop, Airport Destination,
Airport Destination City Center Destination

Detail 5-8-3 Detail 5-8-4


Single Lane Exit: With Lane Drop Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Two Exit Numbers

Detail 5-8-5 Detail 5-8-6


Two Lane Exit: With Two Lanes Dropped, One Route Number Two Lane Exit: With One Lane Drop, Ramp Split, Two Exit Numbers

Figure 5-8
Exit Direction Sign 552

5-41 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The policy on the display of each of these items Vertical placement:


and their placement on the sign is described
below and illustrated in Figure 5-8. - Each emblem should be located centrally
on the lines of legend for the Arabic and
• Upward pointing arrow. English destination names associated with
the route number.
One upward pointing arrow Type 8 should be
displayed for a single lane exit, and two Type Horizontal placement:
8 arrows should be displayed for a two-lane
exit, as shown in Figure 5-8. The arrows - For single-lane exit ramps, the route num-
should be slanted to represent the direction of ber emblem(s) should be placed at the left
the exit ramp (normally at 45° to the right of side of the sign, as shown in Figure 5-8.
vertical). For two-lane exit ramps, the emblems
should be placed adjacent to the destina-
If no lane drop occurs at the exit, the arrows tion names on their left side. The com-
should be white. bined emblem and destination name mes-
sage should be centered between the bor-
The number of lanes at the exit is determined ders. If more than two destinations are
by the mainline lanes from which it is possi- necessary, it may be more effective to
ble to directly exit the mainline, not the num- place the route number emblem centrally
ber of lanes on the off ramp that develop after with Arabic text to the right and English
the theoretical gore. text to the left.

If one or more lanes are dropped at the exit, • Control destination


the arrows indicating the lanes to be dropped
should be black. A maximum of one control destination and
one intermediate destination, where applica-
Vertical placement: ble, is permitted for each cardinal direction
on EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. The upper
- The arrows should be placed at the bottom destination name should be the control or
of the sign. intermediate destination for the route reached
directly from the off ramp in the direction to
Horizontal placement: the left of the off ramp. The lower destination
name should be the control/intermediate des-
- Each arrow should be placed over the cen- tination for the route reached directly from
terline of the lane to which it refers with a the off ramp in the direction to the right of
tolerance to the left or right of up to 300 the off ramp.
millimeters.
If the route reached from the exit ramp pro-
• Route number emblem. vides for travel only to the right or only to the
left, then only one control or intermediate
Only the route number emblem of the route destination should be displayed for the route.
or routes accessed directly from the exit ramp
should be displayed. One route number only If the road reached from the ramp has differ-
should be displayed if the route reached ent route numbers on either side of the ramp
directly has the same route number on both junction, the appropriate control or intermedi-
sides of the interchange. If the route reached ate destination for each route for the direction
directly has different route numbers on each of travel available from the exit ramp should
side of the interchange, and both can be be displayed adjacent to the appropriate route
reached from the exit ramp, then both route number emblem so that the left turn informa-
numbers should be displayed. tion is placed above the right turn information.

Version 0.1 5-42


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

If the use of intermediate destinations pres- tinations should be used for both route
ents difficulties, such as the sign becomes too numbers.
large, or the amount of information displayed
on the sign exceeds the amount that can be • Airport symbol.
comfortably absorbed by the driver (see
Section 5.2), then, in the interests of public The airport symbol may be displayed if the
safety, the intermediate destinations should route served by the ramp has the airport as a
be omitted. trailblaze destination.

Vertical placement: When used the symbol should be located to


the left of the route number emblem.
- Where Arabic legends and English legends
are stacked vertically, the Arabic legends The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the
should always be displayed above the direction in which traffic must travel to reach
English legends. the airport. When the arrow(s) on EXIT
DIRECTION signs are slanted at 45°
- When two destinations are related to one towards the exit ramp, the aircraft should be
route number, the Arabic right turn desti- slanted at 45° in the same direction, diago-
nation name should be immediately below nally in its white background panel.
the Arabic left turn destination name. The
two English legends should be similarly • City center symbol.
displayed, one immediately below the
other, and both below the Arabic legends. Vertical placement:
- When two route numbers with one desti-
nation each are displayed, the route num- - Centered in each stack.
ber emblem and associated destination leg-
ends for the destination to the left at the Horizontal placement:
exit ramp should be above the route num-
ber emblem and legend for the destination - Right justified in each stack.
to the right at the exit ramp.
• Lane-drop EXIT panel.
Horizontal placement:
If a lane on a mainline carriageway will be
- The control destination and intermediate dropped at an exit ramp, a white EXIT panel
destination, where applicable, should be should be displayed.
displayed adjacent to the associated route
number emblem, to the right of it, as The panel is placed at the bottom of the sign
shown in Figure 5-8. and covers the space occupied by the relevant
- English legend should be left justified and upward pointing arrow(s), which should be
adjacent to the right edge of the route num- black. The white panel extends over the lane
ber emblem. or lanes to be dropped, from the edge of the
- Arabic legend should be right justified. The sign to a point above the lane line remote
position of the right justification line should from the edge of the sign. White sign borders
be the furthest right of the following: adjacent to the panel should be incorporated
into the panel.
• The longest English word.
• The longest Arabic word, with its left The English and Arabic word EXIT should
end adjacent to the route number be displayed adjacent to and on the right side
emblem. of a single arrow, with the Arabic above the
English both approximately centered verti-
- When two route numbers are used, the cally on the panel. When two lanes are
same right justification for the Arabic des- dropped at the exit the EXIT panel extends

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

for the full width of the sign. In such a case cent to the forward ADVANCE EXIT
the word EXIT in Arabic and English may be DIRECTION sign 551, at 1000 meters ahead
displayed centrally between the two upward of the theoretical gore. If the available dis-
pointing arrows. tance ahead of the exit is too short to place a
sign at 1,000 meters in advance, the ONGO-
5.6.4 ONGOING DIRECTION SIGN ING DIRECTION sign 553 should be placed
553 adjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-
TION sign 551 at 500 meters or more in
5.6.4.1 FUNCTION advance of the exit.
• For interchanges on arterial routes at least
To provide information about the control destina- one ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553
tion that will ultimately be reached by remaining should be applied. The preferred location is
on the mainline carriageway, using the through adjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-
lanes at a point where there is an exit from the TION sign 551.
mainline carriageway at an interchange or grade-
separated intersection. 5.6.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

5.6.4.2 APPLICATION The sign should be positioned over the ongoing


lanes and be of sufficient width to display down-
• Used on mainline carriageways in conjunc- ward pointing arrows over the centers of all
tion with overhead ADVANCE EXIT ongoing lanes except optional exit lanes.
DIRECTION signs 551 and overhead EXIT
DIRECTION signs 552, at interchanges and The following items are eligible for display:
grade-separated intersections.
• At simple interchanges it is mandatory to • Downward pointing arrow type 7.
have at least one ONGOING DIRECTION • Route number emblem.
sign 553. For complicated interchanges, • Control destination/intermediate destination.
where a high volume of lane changing will be • Airport symbol.
necessary, at least two ONGOING DIREC-
TION signs 553 should be applied. The description of these items and their positions
on the sign are given below and illustrated in
5.6.4.3 LOCATION Figure 5-9.

• Overhead on gantries. • Downward pointing arrow.


• When only one ONGOING DIRECTION
sign 553 is applied, the preferred location is One downward pointing arrow Type 7 should
adjacent to the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC- be displayed over the center of each lane
TION sign 551, when used, at 500 meters available for through traffic, and which is not
from the theoretical gore. The next and most designated as a shared lane for exiting traffic
common, most effective location is adjacent (the shared lanes will have an ADVANCE
to the Forward ADVANCE EXIT DIREC- EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 or an EXIT
TION sign 551 at 1000 meters from the the- DIRECTION sign 552 over them).
oretical gore.
• For more complicated or high volume inter- Placement:
changes, at least two ONGOING DIREC-
TION signs 553 should be used. One of these - The arrows should be located at the bottom
should be at the theoretical gore, adjacent to of the sign, as shown in Figure 5-9.
the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. This is Horizontally, the arrows should be located
needed to ensure that drivers can make a final over the center of the lanes concerned,
decision about continuing straight on, or exit- with a tolerance to the left or right of up to
ing. The other sign should be applied adja- 300 millimeters.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Forward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,


OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,
OR Exit Direction Sign 552

Detail 5-9-1:
Three Ongoing Lanes: Airport Trailblazer Indicated

Forward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,


OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,
OR Exit Direction Sign 552

Detail 5-9-2:
Two Ongoing Lanes

Forward Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,


OR Advance Exit Direction Sign 551,
OR Exit Direction Sign 552

Detail 5-9-3:
Three Ongoing Lanes
Figure 5-9
Ongoing Direction Sign 553

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• Route number emblem. Additional intermediate destinations may at


times be required. Such additions may only
Only the route number emblem of the ongo- be implemented with the prior approval of
ing route should be displayed. the Department.

Vertical placement: A trailblazing airport symbol may also be


displayed on sign 553.
- The route number emblem should be locat-
ed centrally to the lines of legend for the Vertical placement:
Arabic and English destination name asso-
ciated with the route number, as shown on - The Arabic legend should be displayed
Figure 5-9. above the English legend.
- Where multiple destinations are used, the
Horizontal placement: Arabic legend should be displayed in a
stack on the right hand side of the sign, and
- The route number emblem should appear the English legend should be displayed in
on the left side of the control destination a stack on the left hand side of the sign.
legend, and adjacent to it. The combined
message, consisting of the route number Horizontal placement:
emblem and the control destination should
be centered on the sign, as shown in Figure - The control destination should be dis-
5-9. When intermediate destinations are played adjacent to the associated route
used in addition to the control destination, number emblem and to the right of it.
it is a more effective use of the available - English legend should be left justified and
sign area to place the route number adjacent to the right edge of the route num-
emblem centrally with Arabic text to the ber emblem.
right and English text to the left as indicat- - Arabic legend should be right justified on
ed in Figure 5-9. the right end of the English legend unless
the Arabic legend is longer in which case it
• Control destination. should be left justified on the route number
emblem.
The only destination name eligible for dis- - Where multiple destinations are used, the
play is the control destination and one inter- Arabic legend should be displayed in a
mediate destination, where applicable, desig- stack right justified, to the right of the cen-
nated for the route, in the direction applying trally located route number emblem. The
to the subject carriageway. The control desti- English legend should be displayed in a
nations for all routes are specified in Section stack, left justified, to the left of the cen-
5.1.4 (see Table 5-1). trally located route number emblem.

Where an intermediate control destination The combined message, consisting of airport


has been designated, it should be displayed symbol (if eligible for the route), route num-
on signs 553 from the beginning of the route, ber emblem, and control destination should
until that destination has been reached. From be centralized on the sign, as shown in Figure
that point on, the next appropriate intermedi- 5-9.
ate destination for the route should be dis-
played along with the control destination. • Airport symbol.

In the case of some Emirate Routes, the inter- The airport symbol should be displayed only
mediate destination is Abu Dhabi. That desti- if the route has the airport as a control desti-
nation should be used until the boundary of nation, or if it is designated for trailblazing in
the municipal area of Abu Dhabi is reached. Section 5.4.2.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The symbol should be placed to the left of the • Upward pointing arrow Type 8.
route number emblem, and vertically cen- • EXIT message.
tered on it.
The items eligible for display, and their positions
The aircraft symbol should be oriented in the on the signs are described below and illustrated
direction in which traffic must travel to reach in Figure 5-10.
the airport. For the ongoing direction the air-
craft must “point” upward. • Upward pointing arrow or arrows.

5.6.5 GORE EXIT SIGNS 554 AND For exit ramps from the mainline carriage-
556 ways of Emirate Routes and Abu Dhabi
Routes, one Type 8 arrow should be dis-
5.6.5.1 FUNCTION played on GORE EXIT sign 554. It should be
slanted upwards at an angle of 45° to indicate
• To indicate the physical nose of the exit ramp the direction of the exit ramp as shown in
from the main roadway. Figure 5-10, Detail 1.
• To indicate the physical nose of a split in a
ramp. For gores where a ramp splits into two
branches, two upward pointing Type 8 arrows
5.6.5.2 APPLICATION AND LOCATION should be used on GORE EXIT sign 556.
They should be inclined at 45° to the left and
• At the exit ramps from freeways and arterial right of vertical, as shown in Figure 5-10,
roads at interchanges and grade-separated Detail 2.
intersections.
• Where ramps diverge to form two branches. • EXIT message.
• Figure 5-10, Detail 1 shows the application at
the exit ramp from an Emirate Route. The English word EXIT with its Arabic
• Figure 5-10, Detail 2 shows the sign where translation above should be centered at the
an exit ramp from an Emirate Route splits top of the sign.
into two branches.

5.6.5.3 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION

The following items are eligible for display:

SIGN 554 SIGN 556

Detail 5-10-1 Detail 5-10-2


Gore Exit Sign for Gore Exit Sign for
Emirate Route Two Branch Exit Ramp
Figure 5-10
Gore Exit Signs 554 and 556

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT SIGN 5.6.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION


557
The following items are eligible for display:
5.6.6.1 FUNCTION
• Upward pointing arrow Type 8.
To provide exit information for supplemental • Approved supplemental sign symbol.
destinations (commonly for tourists) not eligible • Approved supplemental destination (“Pri-
for inclusion on the main direction signs. mary” or identifying name only).

5.6.6.2 APPLICATION The information eligible for display and its posi-
tion on the sign is described below and illustrat-
For exits from freeways or expressways at inter- ed in Figure 5-11.
changes or grade-separated intersections.
• Upward pointing arrow.
5.6.6.3 LOCATION
The upward pointing Type 8 arrow should be
• Normally ground mounted as a stack type displayed on the right side of the sign for a
sign on the right hand side. May be erected right hand exit ramp. The arrow should be
overhead on a cantilever if necessary due to pointing upward, slanted at an angle of 45o
space restrictions or visibility restrictions. to the right of vertical. It should be centered
• At the beginning of the taper for the deceler- vertically on the sign.
ation lane, or in the case of a lane drop 200
meters to 250 meters in advance of the theo- • Approved supplemental symbol and destina-
retical gore. tion.
• On freeways the sign should be at least 200
meters after the ADVANCE EXIT DIREC- A maximum of two supplemental destina-
TION sign 551 that is located 500 meters in tions should be displayed on any SUPPLE-
advance of the theoretical gore. MENTAL EXIT sign 557. More destinations
will significantly increase driver workload
If the sign is mounted overhead on a cantilever it by providing too much visual information to
should be at least 250 meters in advance of the read and comprehend in the short time avail-
EXIT DIRECTION sign 552. The location able before exiting onto the exit ramp.
should be thoroughly checked to prevent an over-
head SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign 557 from Only approved symbols illustrated in Figure
obscuring the visibility of the EXIT DIREC- 5-5 and approved destinations designated in
TION sign 552. This checking should include Section 5.1.5 are eligible for display. If more
plotting the sign on a plan of the horizontal align- than two destinations are eligible for display,
ment and on a longitudinal section of the vertical the Department should decide which two are
alignment. most important, and only those two should be
displayed.

Figure 5-11
Supplemental Exit Sign 557

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Placement:

The destinations are displayed as shown in


Figure 5-11. The symbol should be displayed
on the left side of the sign, with the Arabic
and English destination names adjacent to it
on the right side. For each destination:

- English legend should be left justified and


adjacent to the right edge of the associated
symbol.
- Arabic legend should be right justified.
The position of the right justification line
should be the furthest right of the follow-
ing:
Sign 585
• The longest English word. 5.7.1.3 LOCATION
• The longest Arabic word, with its left
end adjacent to the associated symbol. • On the carriageways leading away from Abu
Dhabi, 500 meters beyond the city boundary
When two supplemental destinations are dis- and approximately every 20 kilometers
played, the destination to the left of the exit thereafter.
ramp should be above the destination to the • On the carriageways leading to Abu Dhabi,
right. If both are in the same direction the 500 meters before the city boundary and
closer destination should be at the top. approximately every 20 kilometers preced-
ing.
5.7 GENERAL INFORMATION • Ground mounted on the right-hand side of
the carriageway.
SIGNS • A minimum of 500 meters from any other
guide sign, preferably near the midpoint
The signs classified in this group provide addi- between interchange junctions.
tional information to drivers to assist them with
their navigational task or to provide supplemen- 5.7.1.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
tary information with respect to regulatory or
warning signs. Neither of the signs in this group DISTANCE sign 585 may display up to a maxi-
should include an arrow or other directional mes- mum of three cities or towns. The names of the
sage. cities and the distances to them should be dis-
played in Arabic and in English. The Arabic
5.7.1 DISTANCE SIGN 585 names of the cities or towns should be displayed
at the top of the sign and the English names at the
5.7.1.1 FUNCTION bottom of the sign.

To inform drivers, entering or leaving a city or The top line of each language group should iden-
town, of significant destinations and the corre- tify the next significant destination along the
sponding travel distances to them. route and show the distance to it.

5.7.1.2 APPLICATION The bottom line in a language group should indi-


cate the name of a control city that has national
To be used on Emirate Routes only. significance for travelers using the route. This
may also be interpreted as a significant city
defining the end of the route.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

If there is a city of commercial or tourist impor-


tance between these two destinations, its name
may be displayed on the middle line of a lan-
guage group.

The only exception to the above guidelines and


parameters is when DISTANCE sign 585 is used
on route number E11. Being the primary route
that connects Abu Dhabi with Dubai and the
other Northern and Eastern Emirates, it is there-
fore permissible to show all the necessary
Emirates.
Sign 586

Distances to destinations in Arabic should be 5.7.2.2 APPLICATION


located on the left of the sign, and should be right
justified. Distances should be displayed in kilo- HIGH VEHICLE EXIT sign 586 may be used on
meters (integers). Arabic destinations should be Emirate Routes or any other appropriate local
right justified, based on the longest Arabic or street.
English word being positioned a controlling space
to the right of the longest distance displayed. 5.7.2.3 LOCATION

English destinations should be left justified, on The sign should be located in a side-mounted
the left of the sign. position on both sides of the roadway, up to 160
meters from the junction, with due regard to the
Distances in English should be displayed on the position of any other direction signs and any
right side, right justified. A controlling distance minor side road intersections.
should be provided between the longest English or
Arabic word and the longest distance displayed. 5.7.3 TEXT SIGN 588

The sign width will be dictated by the longest 5.7.3.1 FUNCTION


English word plus longest distance or the longest
Arabic word plus longest distance. • To identify for drivers the boundary of a sub-
urb/community or to identify the name of a
The color of this sign should be blue background bridge, tunnel, or other physical feature.
with white legend.
• To convey a textual message of regulation,
In cases where DISTANCE sign 585 and warning, or information that cannot otherwise
ROUTE MARKER sign 501 appear in approxi- be conveyed with conventional signs or with
mately the same location, consideration may be a SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589.
given to displaying both signs together.
5.7.3.2 APPLICATION.
5.7.2 HIGH VEHICLE EXIT SIGN 586
TEXT sign 588 may be used on Emirate Routes
5.7.2.1 FUNCTION or any other appropriate local street.

To inform drivers of high vehicles that they are


required to exit the roadway at the next turn off.

Sign 588

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5.7.3.3 LOCATION works traffic sign without materially altering the


meaning of the sign it supplements.
• Ground mounted on the right side of the
roadway at the boundary of the suburb or 5.7.4.2 APPLICATION
community or within 50 meters of such
boundary, within the suburb. To be used as appropriate with regulatory, warn-
• At a point within the vicinity of the feature ing, or roadworks traffic signs as variously
being identified whereby the feature identi- described in Chapters 3, 4, and 7 respectively.
fied is obvious.
• As per applicable requirements for locating 5.7.4.3 LOCATION
regulatory, warning, or guide signs.
Always directly below the primary sign that it is
5.7.3.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION supplementing. It may take the form of a sepa-
rate sign plate affixed separately, but to the same
Information eligible for display on TEXT sign 588 post as the primary sign, or it may be incorporat-
is a limited text message in Arabic and English. ed into an enlargement of the primary sign sub-
strate material.
The legend should be displayed with the Arabic
legend above the English legend. The sign should 5.7.4.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
be sized from the longer text component. When
this is the Arabic legend, the English legend SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 589 displays,
should be left justified on the end of the Arabic in Arabic over English, only information which
name. When the English legend is the longer falls into one of the following categories:
component, the Arabic legend should be right
justified on the end of the English legend. • A text message comprised of one or two
words only, such as “School.”
This sign has a white background with a black • An advisory speed at which the hazard fore-
border and legend. When used for roadworks, the warned by the primary sign can be negotiat-
background color is yellow. ed, such as “50km/h” on a roadway which
otherwise has a higher speed limit.
5.7.4 SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE • The distance from the location of the sign to
SIGN 589 the point where the condition it describes
exists, such as “200 m.”
5.7.4.1 FUNCTION • The distance, beginning at the location of the
sign, over which the message of the sign
To provide information which supplements the applies, such as “For 3 km.”
message given on a regulatory, warning, or road- • An easily recognized iconic symbol, such as
that used to depict “no trucks.”

Sign 589

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The SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign should be


the same width as the primary sign which it sup-
plements. A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign
should always have a black border and legend. It
should have a white background when used with
Regulatory or Warning signs, and a yellow back-
ground when used with Roadworks signs.

5.7.5 FIRE HYDRANT


SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE
SIGN 590

5.7.5.1 FUNCTION

To provide information on the location and iden-


tification number of a fire hydrant.

5.7.5.2 APPLICATION

To be used with NO STOPPING sign 370 to pre-


vent vehicles from stopping on roads or other
curbside areas adjacent to fire hydrants. Details
of signing and pavement marking for areas near F. H. W. 14/1 NO. . .
fire hydrants are described in Chapter 8. Figure 5-12
Sign 590 with No Stopping Sign 370
5.7.5.3 LOCATION
Note that this sign combination is to be mounted
on a red pole.
Mounted below NO STOPPING sign 370, as
shown in Figure 5-12.
5.7.6 GENERAL SERVICE SIGN 591
5.7.5.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION
5.7.6.1 FUNCTION
Sign 590 displays the following information, by
line: To inform motorists of the availability of upcom-
ing services.
1. “Fire Hydrant” in Arabic.
2. The zone, sector number, and hydrant num- 5.7.6.2 APPLICATION
ber in Arabic.
3. The letters “F. H.” for fire hydrant followed GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 informs
by the zone, sector number, and hydrant motorists of services available either adjacent to
number in English. the roadway or at a nearby, upcoming exit from
the roadway. Only services that fulfill the needs
As Abu Dhabi Civil Defence is responsible for of the road user should be shown on general serv-
assigning numbers to fire hydrants, these signs ice signs.
should be prepared in coordination with that
agency. Services eligible for this sign include:

Sign 590 should have a red background with a • Petrol station.


white legend. • Mechanic.
• Restaurant.
• Hotel.
• Refreshments.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

NEXT EXIT
Sign 591 (typical)
• Public telephone. AL SERVICE sign 591 should be erected at an
• Hospital (with a physician on duty 24 hours a appropriate interval.
day).
• First aid station (open 24 hours a day). GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should have a
• Major shopping center. blue background and a white border. Within the
• Mosque. blue background, iconic symbols representing
specific services should be black (except for the
5.7.6.3 LOCATION first aid station symbol, which is a red crescent)
on a white background as shown in Figure 5-13.
On the approach to the exit to general services, a
GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 should be placed As a general rule, the iconic symbols shown in
2 kilometers and/or 4 kilometers in advance of Figure 5-13 should be used only on General
the exit. An additional sign should be placed Service Sign 591. However, it is permissible to
within one-half kilometer of the exit. use a single icon as shown in Figure 5-13 on a
typical guide sign if the engineer deems it would
General service signing should only be provided prove useful to drivers.
at locations where the road user can return to the
roadway and continue in the same direction of A supplemental plate should indicate the distance
travel. GENERAL SERVICE sign 591 is general- to the exit. Within one-half kilometer of the exit,
ly not appropriate at major interchanges and in the supplemental plate should not indicate a dis-
urban areas. tance but have an action message such as NEXT
RIGHT or SECOND RIGHT. If, from the last
5.7.6.4 DISPLAY OF INFORMATION sign indicating general services before the exit,
the distance to the next point where services are
Icons should be placed in rows of three across the available is greater than 16 kilometers, an addi-
sign. No more than six services should be signed tional supplemental plate, NEXT SERVICES XX
on an individual sign. If more than six services KM, may be added to the sign.
are available at an upcoming exit, two GENER-

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Figure 5-13
General Services Iconic Symbols

5.8 MUNICIPALITY PARKING with due regard to the position of any other direc-
tion signs and any minor side road intersections.
STRUCTURE SIGNS
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
Municipality parking structures have custom
TRAILBLAZER sign 595 should include the
guide signs unique to those structures.
parking structure number on its face.
Municipality parking structure signs are to be
used at all municipality parking structures but
The face of sign 595 is identical to that of sign
should not be used for other parking applications.
596. However, sign 595 is supplemented with a
ONE WAY sign 306 mounted on the pole below
5.8.1 MUNICIPALITY PARKING it, pointing the direction of the car park entrance.
STRUCTURE TRAILBLAZER Furthermore, sign 595 is an aluminum sign panel
SIGN 595 and is not internally illuminated, as is sign 596.

A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE 5.8.2 MUNICIPALITY PARKING


TRAILBLAZER sign 595 should be used as a STRUCTURE ENTRANCE
trailblazer sign indicating a direction to be taken
BANNER SIGN 596
in order to enter an Abu Dhabi Municipality
parking structure.
A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be locat-
The signs should be located in a side-mounted
ed on the outside and above the vehicular-access
position on the right side of the main roadway at
opening to the parking structure. MUNICIPALI-
the entrance of the road or ramp leading to the
TY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE
parking structure. Sign placement should be done

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 595 and Sign 596

BANNER sign 596 should be centered over the • If the opening accommodates only one
opening or adjacent openings. entrance lane, the sign should be centered
above the entrance lane, below MUNICI-
Openings to parking structures may be entrance PALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EN-
only, exit only, or a combination of entrance and TRANCE BANNER sign 596.
exit. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE • If the opening accommodates two entrance
ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 is used uni- lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING
formly in all three of these configurations. STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 should
be centered between and above the two lanes
MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE and below MUNICIPALITY PARKING
ENTRANCE BANNER sign 596 should be inter- STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign
nally illuminated for night-time visibility and 596.
should include the parking structure number on • If the opening accommodates three or more
its face. entrance lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARK-
ING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597
5.8.3 MUNICIPALITY PARKING should be centered above each entrance lane
STRUCTURE ENTRANCE SIGN and below MUNICIPALITY PARKING
597 STRUCTURE ENTRANCE BANNER sign
596.
A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE
ENTRANCE sign 597 should be located outside The preceding guidance is applicable whether the
and above the opening allowing entry to the park- opening to the parking structure provides for
ing structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING entrance and exit or for entrance only.
STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597 should be
located as follows: Sign 597 should be internally illuminated for
night-time visibility.

5.8.4 MUNICIPALITY PARKING


STRUCTURE EXIT SIGN 598

A MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE


EXIT sign 598 should be located outside and
above the opening allowing exit from the parking
Sign 597 structure. MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUC-

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

the same way that it would be on the exterior,


except that it is mounted on the interior wall.

5.9 PEDESTRIAN
UNDERPASS SIGN 599

Sign 598 PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS Sign 599 guides


pedestrians to the locations of entrances to pedes-
TURE EXIT sign 598 should be located as fol- trian underpasses. Sign 599 should be located
lows: within 5 meters of the entrance to a pedestrian
underpass and in a position to maximize its visi-
• If the opening accommodates only one exit bility for pedestrians from all angles. If one end
lane, the sign should be centered above the of a pedestrian underpass has more than a single
lane. point of entrance, and those points are located
• If the opening accommodates two exit lanes, more than 15 meters apart, a separate sign 599
one MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUC- may be installed for each point of entrance. In
TURE EXIT sign 598 should be centered this case, the signs should be located as close as
between and above the two lanes. possible to the point of entrance.
• If the opening accommodates three or more
exit lanes, one MUNICIPALITY PARKING The sign should be pole-mounted. It has a blue
STRUCTURE EXIT sign 598 should be cen- background with a white border and legend.
tered above each lane.

Where an exit lane(s) is colocated with an


entrance lane(s) at a single opening, MUNICI-
PALITY PARKING STRUCTURE EXIT sign
598 should be positioned below MUNICIPALI-
TY PARKING STRUCTURE ENTRANCE
BANNER sign 596 at the same level as the
entrance lane’s MUNICIPALITY PARKING
STRUCTURE ENTRANCE sign 597.

Sign 598 should be internally illuminated for


night-time visibility.

MUNICIPALITY PARKING STRUCTURE


EXIT sign 598 is also used above exit doors on
the interior of parking structures. In this applica-
tion, sign 598 should be located and positioned in

Sign 599

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

6 PAVEMENT MARKINGS Guidance pavement markings help motorists to


understand the path that the roadway designer
intends for their vehicle to follow. An example of
6.1 GENERAL such is a guide line that may be used to mark out
the travel path through an intersection for vehic-
Pavement markings are defined as markings or ular turns that are unusual and otherwise difficult
other devices applied to, embedded in, or to understand.
attached to a pavement surface. Pavement mark-
ings must function day and night as well as under It is important for designers to understand the
adverse weather conditions. While pavement functional significance of the pavement markings
markings are an important and integral element so that their application will be consistent for the
in the design of a traffic control scheme, care use intended. The use of various classes and
should be taken not to overuse pavement mark- types of marking in combination with each other
ings. Due to their nature and location, pavement and other traffic control devices is illustrated col-
markings are subject to continual and rapid dete- lectively in the figures in Chapter 8.
rioration and wear from roadway traffic. To
retain the conspicuousness and function of pave- 6.1.2 MARKING TYPES
ment markings, their maintenance and replace-
ment is, by necessity, an ongoing and continual Pavement markings can further be classified into
process with significant cost implications. Thus, three basic types:
pavement marking requirements should be con-
sidered early in the planning and design of a proj- • Transverse lines.
ect. • Longitudinal lines.
• Symbols.
6.1.1 FUNCTION
Transverse lines and markings are those that are
Like traffic signs, pavement markings may be placed at right angles or are significantly nonpar-
classified with respect to the primary function allel to the longitudinal axis of the roadway. In
that they serve: general, the purpose of a transverse marking is to
provide a sense of limit across the normal, unim-
• Regulatory. peded forward movement of a vehicle. A give-
• Warning. way line is an example of a transverse pavement
• Guidance. marking. The give-way line crosses the forward
path of a vehicle to advise a driver to stop or be
Regulatory pavement markings advise motorists prepared to stop his forward progress in case the
of actions they should or should not take. situation dictates such action. Because transverse
Disregard for a regulatory pavement marking lines must be viewed obliquely from an
represents an offense. For example, crossing of a approaching vehicle, their widths must be sub-
solid no-passing line is illegal and offending stantial to facilitate their detection.
drivers would be subject to citation.
Longitudinal lines run generally parallel to the
Warning pavement markings advise motorists of longitudinal axis of the line of vehicular travel on
the existence of hazardous or potentially haz- a roadway. In general, the purpose of a longitudi-
ardous conditions. A dividing line that separates nal line is to convey a continual message to the
two-way traffic warns motorists of the potential driver of a moving vehicle over an extended
hazard of a head-on collision with oncoming length of roadway. A lane line is an example of a
vehicles if that line is crossed. It is not necessar- longitudinal line. It provides a continual message
ily a violation to cross that line when turning or to a driver demarcating the separation of two
passing another vehicle, but the motorist is streams of traffic moving in the same direction.
warned to maintain caution. Carelessly crossing a lane line puts one in jeop-

6-1 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ardy of a sideswipe collision with vehicles in the plement. An exception to this rule is that the back
adjacent traffic stream. side of a reflectorized marker may be red, such
that the red color is only visible by motorists
Longitudinal lines can be characterized as fol- approaching those markers from an incorrect
lows: direction.

• Broken lines are permissive in character and In general, the color of a marking should have the
may be crossed by a vehicle with due cau- following connotations:
tion.
• Solid lines are restrictive in nature and • Transverse Markings.
should not be crossed except in case of an
emergency. - White should be used for regulatory mark-
• Solid double lines convey the same message ings.
as a single solid line, but with a greater - Yellow should be used for all other mark-
degree of emphasis and conspicuousness ings.
necessitated by a particularly critical situa-
tion. • Longitudinal Markings.
• A double line solid on one side and broken on
the other conveys a message of restriction of - Yellow is used for the longitudinal lines
movement across it from the solid-line side that mark the left edge of all divided roads
and a permission of movement across it from and for both edges of one-way
the broken-line side. roads.Yellow is also used to divide traffic
• Double lines consist of two lines equal in flowing in opposite directions on rural,
width and separated by a gap equal to the high-speed roads.
width of the line. - White is used for the longitudinal lines that
• Discontinuities in longitudinal lines, whether mark the right edge of all roads and to
solid or broken, indicate by their absence delineate lanes flowing in the same direc-
locations where turns, merges, or diverges tion. White is also used to divide opposite
are expected to occur. traffic directions on two-way, undivided,
single-lange roads in low-speed, urban set-
Symbolic markings convey a roadway-oriented tings.
message to a motorist using a single or grouped
set of discrete markings to represent the condi- Table 6-1 describes the various road types
tion present. A turn arrow is an example of a sym- and the correct longitudinal-line applications.
bol marking, advising motorists by its presence
within a lane, the direction of travel that should • Symbols.
be taken from that lane. In the context of this
manual, diagonal lines such as a chevron or hatch - White should be used for all symbol mark-
marking are considered symbolic since they con- ings.
vey the same message symbolically to motorists
as would be given by chevron and/or hazard 6.1.4 CONFIGURATION
marker signs. Worded markings, while not gener-
ally recommended, are classified as symbol All broken longitudinal lines have been config-
markings. ured to fit within an eight-meter module. When
more than one longitudinal line is used within a
6.1.3 COLOR given cross-section of roadway, the modules of
each line should be situated such that they align
Painted pavement markings should be either transversely with each other across the roadway.
white or yellow. Raised pavement markers Intermittent solid lines should begin and end to
should convey to motorists the same color mes- be compatible with the broken line module (see
sage as the painted markings they replace or sup- Table 6-3).

Version 0.1 6-2


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 6-1
Colors of Longitudinal Pavement Markings
Left Edge Right Edge
Road Configuration of Travel of Travel Lane-Dividing Lines
Roadway Roadway
1 one-way (single or multilane) yellow yellow1 white (if multilane)
2 two-way, undivided, single lane yellow white
in each direction
3 two-way, undivided, multilane yellow white a. white (same direction)
in each direction b. solid double yellow
between directions
4 two-way, divided, multilane in yellow white white
each direction
Notes:
1 The Department recognizes that the MUTCD and other authorities specify a white right

edge of pavement marking in such roadway configurations, but in these cases prefers the
use of yellow.

6.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS - If the existing marking is well worn and


PAVEMENT-MARKING would be relatively inconspicuous in com-
GUIDANCE parison to the new pavement markings,
then the new pavement markings may be
The pavement marking configurations indicated applied without regard to the existing
in the following sections are intended for use in markings (care should be taken in consid-
newly constructed roadway projects. In such ering the relative conspicuousness
areas, the pavement marking configurations and between the new and old markings at a
locations should be followed as prescribed in this later point in time when the new markings
manual. However, when pavement markings on have been in service and begin to loose
existing roadways are in need of upgrade or some of their original conspicuousness).
maintenance, engineering judgment should be This does not apply to raised pavement
exercised in applying the requirements contained markers.
herein. The following guidelines should be con- - If practical to do so, existing conflicting
sidered in such cases: markings should be completely removed
from the pavement surface.
• When existing pavement markings are either - If the roadway section is scheduled for
identical to or will be completely covered by future resurfacing, but such is far enough
new markings as required by this manual, the in the future that intermediate pavement
new markings should be reinstalled over marking maintenance is necessary, then
existing markings. the existing markings may be retained and
• When existing markings are in excess of maintained even though they do not fully
what is required by this manual (such as comply with this manual.
additional lane arrows), the existing mark-
ings may be retained but not maintained, 6.2 REGULATORY MARKINGS
being allowed to gradually fade from the
pavement providing that their presence will Regulatory pavement markings dictate action
not create confusion. that must be taken by a driver when the markings
• When existing markings are of a different are encountered. Actions contrary to these mark-
configuration than those required by this ings constitute a traffic violation subject to
manual the most appropriate of the following enforcement. Regulatory markings exist in trans-
actions should be taken: verse, longitudinal, and symbol types of pave-
ment markings.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

6.2.1 STOP LINE MARKING 601 stopping and a clear view of conflicting traffic
consistent with the fact that the provision of a
Marking 601 imposes a mandatory requirement STOP control implies limited visibility. The pre-
that a driver come to a full and complete stop ferred position is one meter from the near edge of
immediately behind that line and is always used the intersecting roadway. However, the STOP
in conjunction with a STOP sign 301 or a red LINE may be located within a range of 500 mil-
traffic signal. In the event that the STOP sign is limeters up to 10 meters from this edge to take
missing or a traffic signal is unlighted due to tem- account of specific aspects of the intersecting
porary malfunction, the STOP LINE alone has roadway. For example, a larger setback may be
the full significance of STOP sign 301. STOP needed to accommodate turning vehicles when
LINE marking 601 should not be crossed without one or both of the intersecting roadways are nar-
stopping except in the case of a green traffic sig- row or the intersection is skewed. It should be
nal or when directed by a Traffic Police officer. It positioned not less than one meter in advance of
is thus of critical importance that if a STOP sign PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 when
or traffic signal is intentionally removed from such is located at a signalized road junction and
service that the associated STOP LINE be preferably not less than three meters in advance
removed from the pavement as well. of a signalized midblock PEDESTRIAN
CROSSING (see Figures 6-1 and 6-2 and Section
STOP LINE marking 601 should be a continuous 8.2).
solid white line transverse and completely across
the full width of the traveled portion of the road- 6.2.2 GIVE WAY LINE MARKING 602
way that is controlled by a STOP sign or traffic
signal. The standard width of STOP LINE mark- Marking 602 imposes a mandatory requirement
ing 601 should be 300 millimeters. On high- that a driver should, when in conflict, stop at the
speed rural roads where added conspicuousness point marked by the line and yield right of way to
is desired its width may be increased to 500 mil- vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic crossing his
limeters. Marking 601 should be positioned on intended path. Marking 602 should always be
the roadway at the location best suited for safe used in conjunction with GIVE WAY sign 302
9m L 9m L
min

No Passing Line 611

Stop Line 601

L
No Passing Line 611

See Table 6-3


for L values 9m

Dividing Line 652

Figure 6-1
Use of No Passing Line 611 at Junction

Version 0.1 6-4


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

1000 preferred
500 min
300
(500)

NO PASSING LINE 611

Detail 6-2-1: STOP LINE marking 601

1000 preferred
500 min
300
(500)

NO PASSING LINE 611

Detail 6-2-2: GIVE WAY LINE marking 602

NO PASSING LINE 611 500

GIVE WAY 500 6000 preferred


LINE 602 3000 min

250 min
3000
min

Detail 6-2-3: PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603


Figure 6-2
Transverse Regulatory Pavement Markings
(see also Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4)

6-5 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

and GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. In requirement that the driver exercise a high degree
the event that a GIVE WAY or GIVE WAY TO of care and caution in the vicinity.
PEDESTRIANS sign is missing, the GIVE WAY
LINE alone has the full significance of the GIVE PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 should
WAY signs 302 or 303. be a broken white line transverse and completely
across the full width of the roadway and shoul-
GIVE WAY LINE marking 602 should be a bro- ders. The configuration of the line should be 500
ken white line transverse and completely across millimeters line and 500 millimeters gap. The
the full width of the traveled portion of the gap orientation should be aligned parallel with
approach roadway that is controlled by a GIVE the direction of vehicular travel at the crossing.
WAY sign 302 or GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRI- The minimum width of line, measured perpendi-
ANS sign 303. The standard width of a GIVE cular to the axis of pedestrian travel, should be 3
WAY LINE is 300 millimeters. On high-speed meters. This width may be increased if large vol-
rural roads where higher conspicuousness is umes of pedestrians are present. A width basis of
desired, its width may be increased to 500 mil- 0.5 meters for every 100 pedestrians per hour
limeters. The configuration of the GIVE WAY may be used (see Figures 6-2, 8-4, and 8-7).
LINE should be a repeated pattern of 600 mil-
limeters of line separated by 300 millimeters of The use of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking
gap. 603 should be carefully considered. An engineer-
ing study should be made for their use away from
Marking 602 should be positioned on the road- signal-controlled intersections. PEDESTRIAN
way at the location best suited such that, if on CROSSING marking 603 may only be installed
approach to a junction the driver sees that this with the approval of the Department.
way is not clear of opposing traffic, he may stop
at the GIVE WAY LINE and have a clear view of 6.2.4 NO PASSING LINE MARKING
approaching crossroad traffic. It should be locat- 611
ed not less than one meter (500 millimeters
absolute minimum) from the nearest edge of the When used in place of or on the right side of
intersecting roadway. When used in conjunction marking 611, DIVIDING LINE marking 652
with a PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603, imposes a mandatory requirement that drivers
the GIVE WAY LINE should be located in should not cross or drive on the left-hand side of
advance a distance of 3 meters minimum and 6 such marking (with the exception of left turns to
meters preferred (see Figures 6-1 and 6-2 and or from private direct access to a property). It is
Section 8.2). used to demarcate sections of two-way roadways
where an extreme hazard could result if vehicles
6.2.3 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING are permitted to even temporarily use an oncom-
MARKING 603 ing traffic lane.

Marking 603 when used at a location not con- NO PASSING LINE marking 611 should be a
trolled by traffic signals imposes a mandatory longitudinal solid yellow line, running continu-
requirement that a driver must yield right of way ously on or near the centerline of the roadway. It
to pedestrians crossing the roadway carrying the should be 100 millimeters wide for posted speeds
same meaning as the GIVE WAY TO PEDES- below 50 km/h and 150 millimeters wide for
TRIANS sign 303 whether that sign is present or posted speeds above 50 km/h. It should be used
not. Regardless of its location, within marking to delineate unsafe passing situations in areas
603 pedestrians always have right of way over where the barrier sight distances are restricted to
vehicles and vehicles must yield to pedestrians less than the distances shown in Table 6-2. In
within the crossing. When used at a signal con- such uses, marking 611 should be placed on the
trolled crossing, marking 603 warns drivers of a right side of DIVIDING LINE marking 652 for
pedestrian crossing location with the likely pres- the entire length of roadway that substandard bar-
ence of pedestrians near the road and invokes a rier sight distances exist. NO PASSING LINE

Version 0.1 6-6


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 6-2
Use of No Passing Line 611 on Curves
Operating Speed Minimum Barrier Sight Distance
(km/h) (meters)
40 120
60 175
80 250
100 320
NOTES:
1. Barrier sight distance is defined as the distance that a driver with an eye height of 1.1
meters can view a 1.1-meter high object in the oncoming lane. NO PASSING LINE
marking 611 should be used on horizontal or vertical curves to mark sections of two way
roads where the actual barrier sight distance on a roadway is less than the minimum
required.
2. Barrier sight distances are different than passing sight distances used in roadway design.
Adequate passing sight distance defines the capability to safely begin and complete a
passing maneuver. The barrier sight distance is representative of the distance necessary
to abort a passing maneuver.
3. Engineering judgment must be applied in using a NO PASSING LINE. Longer lines than
those resulting from application of the above minimums may be justified. When two
sections of NO PASSING LINE are separated by less than the minimum barrier sight
distance, for the appropriate operating speed, the two lines should be extended and
joined.

marking 611 should also be used for purposes of is used to channelize one-way traffic within a lane
traffic control in advance of any controlled junc- in areas where lane changes would be hazardous
tion (signal, stop, give way or pedestrian) on a due to roadway configuration.
two-way roadway. It should replace DIVIDING
LINE marking 652 starting at the distance given CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 should be
in Table 6-3 as measured from the STOP LINE a longitudinal solid white line running continu-
marking 601, GIVE WAY LINE marking 602, or ously on the line dividing two lanes of travel in
the near edge of intersecting roadway. Marking the same direction. It should be 100 millimeters
611 should continue towards the junction until wide for posted speeds below 50 km/h and 150
intersecting those lines, other painted or curbed millimeters wide for posted speeds above 50
island, or the nearest edge of the intersecting km/h. It should be used in any situation where
roadway. there is a significant safety or functional benefit
that can be achieved if drivers are required to
6.2.5 CHANNELIZING LINE remain in their current lane over some distance.
MARKING 612 Such situations would occur in advance of traffic
signals or roundabouts. Exclusive turn lanes and
When used in place of LANE LINE marking 654, freeway or other free-flow ramps where one or
marking 612 imposes a mandatory requirement more lanes are dropped from the main roadway
that drivers not cross that marking from either will have application for marking 612. In such
side. Marking 612 should only be used between cases a 200-millimeter line width should be used.
streams of traffic traveling in the same direction. It When used in advance of a signalized junction or

Table 6-3
Use of No Passing Line 611 and Channelizing Line 612 at Junctions
Operating Speed Minimum Length (L)
(km/h) (meters)
30 9
40 18
60 27
80 36
100 54
NOTES:
1. See Figures 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, and Chapter 8.
2. Values of L shown are minimum. Greater values may be justified based on engineering
judgement. Increases should be made in multiples of 9 meters.

6-7 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

a roundabout, marking 612 should be applied for • Where not otherwise prohibited, provides
the same limits of minimum length as NO PASS- guidance to pedestrians and bicyclists.
ING LINE marking 611 as given in Table 6-3
(see Figures 6-3 and 8-2 to 8-7). Specially developed types of EDGE LINE mark-
ing 613 which are designed to produce an audible
6.2.6 EDGE LINE MARKING 613 and/or vibratory effect when driven over may be
specified. Such an application may be warranted
Marking 613 imposes a mandatory requirement if a problem occurs on a long section of rural road
that drivers not cross that marking for purposes with drivers losing attention or becoming drowsy
of driving or parking on the opposite side except and drifting towards the edge of roadway (see
in the case of an emergency. Marking 613 should also Section 6.3.1).
be used to define the edge of pavement when
such is not safe or convenient to define by use of 6.2.7 LANE DIRECTION ARROW
a raised curb or barrier. It should also be used to MARKINGS 614 TO 619
separate a traveled lane from a paved shoulder (INCLUDING STRAIGHT, RIGHT
that must remain accessible in case of emergency, TURN, LEFT TURN,
but that must not be otherwise used for driving or STRAIGHT/RIGHT,
parking.
STRAIGHT/LEFT, AND
RIGHT/LEFT)
EDGE LINE marking 613 should be a longitudi-
nal solid white or yellow (depending on roadway
Markings 614, 615, and 616 impose a mandatory
configuration) line running continuously along
requirement that drivers must travel only in the
the right side of the outermost traffic lane of a
direction indicated by the arrow if they are in the
roadway and a longitudinal solid yellow line run-
lane marked by the arrow. Drivers not wishing to
ning continuously along the left side of the inner-
travel in the direction indicated by the arrow
most traffic lane of a divided (or one-way) road-
must move to an adjacent lane if not otherwise
way. Table 6-1 provides detailed guidance for
prohibited from doing so. Markings 614, 615,
edge line colors. EDGE LINE marking 613
and 616 indicate a single, mandated direction of
should be 150 millimeters wide for posted speeds
travel for a lane.
less than 70 km/h and 200 millimeters wide for
posted speeds more than 70 km/h. Since crossing
Markings 617, 618, and 619 impose a mandatory
of marking 613 is not permitted, care must be
requirement that drivers must travel only in one
taken to provide discontinuities at points where
of the two directions indicated by the arrow from
access is intended. If continuous access to a
the lane in which the arrow is marked. Drivers
length of roadside area is intended, then marking
not wishing to travel in one of the directions must
613 should not be used. In such instances when
move into an adjacent lane if not otherwise pro-
edge delineation is still desired, PARKING
hibited from doing so.
ENVELOPE LINE marking 620 should be used.
When any of the markings 614 to 619 are located
In addition to a regulatory function EDGE LINE
adjacent to a CHANNELIZATION line marking
marking 613 performs other important safety
612 drivers must stay in their lane and continue
functions:
in the direction, or one of the directions, indicat-
ed by the arrow.
• Provides continuous demarcation of the edge
of the traveled way, reducing the tendency of
RIGHT TURN ARROW marking 615 and LEFT
drivers to drift off the road, especially at night
TURN ARROW marking 616 should be used to
and/or under adverse weather conditions.
mark lanes that are exclusively turn lanes at sig-
• Provides an indication of turn or exit points
nalized intersections. Markings 615 or 616
from the main road at points of discontinuity
should not be used to mark exit lanes at grade-
in the line.
separated junctions (although they may be used
at the terminal junctions of such exits).

Version 0.1 6-8


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

100 (150)

DIVIDING LINE marking 652


100 (150)
100 (150)
100 (150)

100 (150)
100 (150)
100 (150)
Detail 6-3-1: NO PASSING LINE marking 611 (variations shown)

100
(150)
(200)
Detail 6-3-2: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612

150
(200)
Detail 6-3-3: EDGE LINE marking 613 (line is sometimes white; see Table 6-1 for guidance)

1000 1000
100

Detail 6-3-4: PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620

500 1000
100

100

Detail 6-3-5: PARKING LINE marking 621

Direction of Travel
Figure 6-3
Longitudinal Regulatory Pavement Markings
(see also Figures 6-2 and 6-4)

6-9 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

All LANE DIRECTION ARROW markings The above are offered as guidelines and are not
should be white in color. All LANE DIRECTION intended to preclude the use of good engineering
ARROW markings should be centered trans- judgment. For example, advance arrows should
versely within the lane to which they apply such not be used if they may cause confusion due to an
that the transverse extremities of the marking are entering side road. Other arrow arrangements can
equidistant from the lane edge on each side. be used in a given situation if needed for clarity.
However, overuse of arrows is generally indica-
All lanes at the approach to a signalized intersec- tive of confusing geometry that will unlikely be
tion should have one arrow (one of markings 614, clarified by additional lane arrows. Arrow mark-
615, 616, 617, 618, or 619) positioned in each ings should not be used on freeways or similar
lane in line with one another transversely. This free flowing roadways where overhead signs and
primary row of arrows should be located as close longitudinal lines should provide sufficient delin-
to the junction as possible while still giving a eation.
clear indication of all adjacent lanes with respect
to one another. In any case, the row of arrows STRAIGHT/RIGHT (or LEFT) ARROW mark-
should be positioned so as to be entirely within ing 617 (or 618) should not be used to indicate
the limit of the CHANNELIZING LINE marking the point where turning lanes are added to the
612. Additional LANE DIRECTION ARROW basic through lanes of a roadway. They also
markings should be positioned in advance of this should not be used to indicate direct turning
row of markings in accordance with the follow- points from a mainline lane onto a side road at
ing guidelines: mid-block locations.

• For additional exclusive turn lane(s) created Regulatory pavement arrow markings are illus-
at a junction: trated in Figure 6-4. Examples of the use of
LANE DIRECTION ARROWS 614 to 619 are
- At the point where the lane(s) are first illustrated in Figures 8-2 to 8-7.
developed to their full width (but not clos-
er than 25 meters clear of the primary 6.2.8 PARKING ENVELOPE LINE
arrow). MARKING 620
- At one intermediate point providing the
clear spacing between arrows is not less Marking 620 imposes a mandatory requirement
than 25 meters. that drivers parking their vehicles within a
marked area park such that no part of their vehi-
• For basic lanes that are not exclusively cle encroaches upon the pavement area outside a
straight-ahead only lanes: parking envelope so marked. A driver who parks
such that any part of his vehicle overhangs mark-
- At 25 meters clear and at 55 meters clear ing 620 should be considered improperly parked.
in advance of the primary arrows, or
- In line transversely with additional exclu- PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620
sive turn-lane arrows. should be a longitudinal broken white line 100
millimeters wide. The configuration of the
• For straight-ahead-only basic lanes approach- PARKING ENVELOPE LINE should be a
ing a standard signalized intersection: repeated pattern of one meter of line separated by
a one-meter gap. It should be located at the edge
- No additional STRAIGHT ARROW mark- of pavement adjacent to areas where parking is
ing 614. permitted, but should not be used if the physical
space available for parking is less than 2.2 meters
When LEFT TURN ARROW marking 616 is wide (see Figures 6-3 and 8-1 to 8-3).
used to mark a midblock left-turn or U-turn lane,
STRAIGHT ARROW marking 614 should not be PARKING ENVELOPE LINE marking 620 is
used on the mainline. intended for use in areas of low-density parking

Version 0.1 6-10


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Detail 6-4-1:

300 mm 300 mm

Straight Arrow Right Turn Arrow Left Turn Arrow


614 615 616

300 mm

Straight/Right Arrow Straight/Left Arrow


617 618
Detail 6-4-2:

300 mm
Left/Right Arrow
619

Figure 6-4
Typical Regulatory Arrow Pavement Markings
(see also Figure 6-2 and 6-3)

6-11 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

where the delineation of individual parking apply irrespective of the material used to surface
spaces is not considered necessary. A secondary the parking area to be marked.
benefit of the PARKING ENVELOPE LINE is to
serve the function of EDGE LINE marking 613, A PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 may
by delineating the edge of pavement, but without also be used to designate zones within lay-bys or
the prohibition of crossing that line for purpose along curblines that are designated as stopping
of parking. The most common usage of the areas for certain classes of vehicles.
PARKING ENVELOPE LINE will be the mark-
ing of on-street parking areas in residential com- 6.3 WARNING MARKINGS
munities and other such locales where parking
spaces are not in short supply and as such a more Warning pavement markings advise motorists of
regimented parking arrangement is not warrant- the existence of hazardous or potentially haz-
ed. ardous conditions. These markings do not carry a
mandatory requirement for specific action.
6.2.9 PARKING SPACE LINE However, these markings do convey a message
MARKING 621 of warning and a willful disregard of those warn-
ings may constitute a violation when drivers fail
Marking 621 imposes a mandatory requirement to maintain adequate and safe control of their
that drivers parking their vehicles within a vehicle. Warning markings exist in transverse,
marked parking space park such that their vehicle longitudinal, and symbol types of pavement
is wholly within the lines defining the limits of markings. VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691
the parking space. A driver who parks such that and TEXT SYMBOL marking 695 also have
any part of his vehicle is on, over, or beyond warning functions. See Sections 6.6.3 and 6.8.2,
marking 621 (or an imaginary line connecting the respectively, for discussion of those markings.
ends of a series of marking 621 lines) should be Warning markings are illustrated in Figures 6-5
considered improperly parked. to 6-7 and their application is further illustrated
in the various figures in Chapter 8.
PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 should be
a solid white line 100 millimeters in width. It 6.3.1 RUMBLE STRIPS MARKING
should extend from the curb line (if a curb is 650
present) and end at the edge of the designated
parking bay. For parallel parking space delin- Marking 650 may be used to advise motorists
eation the end of the PARKING SPACE LINE through visibility, sound, and vibration of the pres-
should have a 500-millimeter long L-shape for ence of a critical regulatory or warning device
end-marking of a parallel parking bay, and a 1000 when this marking is located within a traveled way.
millimeter long T-shape for intermediate lines. When marking 650 is used within a shoulder or
Perpendicular and angled parking space mark- other road side area they provide a warning to driv-
ings generally do not require end shapes since the ers that they are drifting off of the traveled roadway.
ends of the more closely spaced PARKING
SPACE LINES should clearly delineate the park- RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650 should be posi-
ing bay limits. tioned transversely to the direction of vehicle
travel. When used within the traveled roadway,
PARKING SPACE LINE marking 621 should be they should be formed of or topped with yellow
used to mark individual parking spaces in areas thermoplastic material (for purposes of conspicu-
where parking space availability is at a premium ousness and to distinguish them from a STOP
and the definition of parking spaces will give an LINE marking 601) built up at least 5 millime-
orderly and more efficient usage of area available ters, but no more than 15 millimeters, above the
for parking. The PARKING SPACE LINE should roadway surface. The width, spacing, and num-
always be used to mark parking spaces that are ber of RUMBLE STRIPS used in a single instal-
subject to payment for usage. These provisions lation may vary to suit conditions as determined
appropriate by an engineering study. As a guide-

Version 0.1 6-12


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

NO PASSING
2000 LINE 611
= 3800 for 60 km/h

= 5200 for 80 km/h


300
= 8000 for 100 km/h

=
Detail 6-5-2:
SPEED HUMP marking 651
Detail 6-5-1:
RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650
3000 6000
100
(150)
Detail 6-5-3: DIVIDING LINE marking 652

3000 6000
100
(150)
(200)
Detail 6-5-4: LANE LINE marking 654

1170

2870

20°
20°

Detail 6-5-5: LANE ENDS ARROW 656

Direction of Travel

Figure 6-5
Warning Pavement Markings

6-13 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

EDGE LINE marking 613 or EDGE LINE marking 613 or


CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 NO PASSING LINE marking 611
150

150

Detail 6-6-1: CHEVRON marking 657 Detail 6-6-2: HATCH marking 658

45° EDGE LINE


Marking 613
45°
t
t

Physical Theoretical
Nose Nose

Detail 6-6-3
Direction of Travel

CHEVRON DIMENSIONS

Operating Speed W S t
(km/h) (millimeters) (meters) (millimeters)

40 200 1.0 150


60 300 1.5 150
80 500 2.5 200
100 1000 5.0 200
Figure 6-6
Combined Regulatory and Warning Pavement Markings as Painted Islands

Version 0.1 6-14


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

120km/h
Y DS DS Y Y/4
275m
110 30 7.50
Design speed
(DS) 90 25 6.25
30m
110km/h 70 20 5.00
245m
50 14 3.50
30 10 2.50

40m 100km/h

205m

25m DS 90km/h
Y/4
180m

35m 80km/h Y/4

145m Y

20m DS 70km/h Y/4


125m

25m 60km/h
Y/4
100m
14m DS 50km/h
86m
300mm
(typ)
16m 40km/h
70m
10m DS 30km/h 60m

30km/h

60m

Junction or other transverse hazard

Figure 6-7
Guideline for Using Rumble Strip Marking 650 for Speed Reduction

6-15 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

line, a basic rumble strip configuration is recom- • When used in built-up areas, residences and
mended to consist of five transverse yellow businesses may find the constant noise and
markings 300 millimeters wide spaced such that vibration to be disturbing and a source of irri-
at prevailing traffic speeds all five markings will tation.
be traversed during an approximately one-second • Most motorists do not need rumble strips to
period. They should be positioned within the first be made aware of the situation being warned.
one-third of the clear visibility distance to the However, all motorists are affected by driv-
sign of which they forewarn (see Figure 6-5). ing over them.

RUMBLE STRIPS should not be used within a A more acceptable usage of RUMBLE STRIPS
traveled way unless, after all other means of stan- marking 650 will be for use outside of traveled
dard traffic control devices have been evaluated, ways. In such instances, drivers remaining with-
the Department agrees that their use is the only in the traveled way are not affected by them, but
reasonable solution to an identified problem. rather they affect only those drivers who are trav-
Their use as such will generally not be permitted eling (illegally and/or accidentally) in areas
on new construction, but rather as a retrofit to a where they should not be. One particular useful
particular problem area. application is on shoulders of freeways or other
roadways, especially in long, straight stretches of
Sets of RUMBLE STRIPS markings 650, as rural roads. On such roadways drivers may
described above, may be specified in order to become bored or sleepy and slowly drift into a
reinforce the need for drivers to significantly shoulder area. The presence of RUMBLE
reduce their speed. Such circumstances will com- STRIPS in the shoulder may assist a driver in
monly occur on high speed and/or downhill regaining attention before completely leaving the
approaches to STOP or GIVE WAY control con- roadway (see Section 6.2.6).
ditions. A typical requirement might involve a
need to reduce speed from around 120 km/h to 6.3.2 SPEED HUMP MARKING 651
the order of 30 km/h a short distance from the
point of control or a change of direction. The Marking 651 should be used to warn motorists of
principle to be used provides for a series of sets the presence of a speed hump in the roadway.
of five transverse markings spaced so that each (The application, geometric design, and construc-
set will be traversed during an approximately tion of speed humps is subject to engineering
one-second period at progressively decreasing evaluation and selective usage.)
speeds. Each set of markings should in turn be
separated from the last and/or next set by a dis- SPEED HUMP marking 651 should be a broken
tance without markings that will be transversed yellow line transverse and completely across the
during a period of 1 to 2 seconds. The configu- full width of the roadway and shoulders. The
ration and number of sets of five markings configuration of the line should be 500 millime-
required for a specific site will be dictated by the ters line and 500 millimeters gap. The gap orien-
approach speed and the speed reduction required. tation should be aligned parallel with the direc-
Figure 6-7 illustrates a sequence of sets of RUM- tion of vehicular travel. The minimum width of
BLE STRIPS marking 650 spaced according to line, measured perpendicular to the axis of the
these principles. The number of sets and the over- speed hump should be two meters. The line
all installation can be determined from the figure. should be positioned such that the whole of the
Alternative designs for rumble strips must be line is visible to approaching traffic and not hid-
approved by Department. den on the far side of the speed hump. When used
on two-way roadways where the hump is visible
The disadvantages of RUMBLE STRIPS within from both directions of approach, the line may be
a traveled way are as follows: widened to provide a minimum of two meters of
visible line from each approach direction (see
• Their effect on small, lightweight vehicles Figure 6-5).
such as motorcycles may be pronounced and
undesirable.

Version 0.1 6-16


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

NO PASSING LINE marking 611 and/or CHAN- of gap. It should be 100 millimeters wide for
NELIZING LINE marking 612 should be used posted speeds below 70 km/h and 150 millime-
on each approach to the speed hump for an ters wide for posted speeds above 70 km/h. A
appropriate distance as given in Table 6-3. LANE LINE should be used on one-way travel
ways more than 6.0 meters in width. A LANE
6.3.3 DIVIDING LINE MARKING 652 LINE should not be used (or should be discontin-
ued in a tapered section) to mark a lane that will
Marking 652 should be used to warn motorists be less than 2.7 meters in width (see Figures 6-5
that vehicles traveling on the other side of the and 8-2 to 8-16).
line are traveling in the opposite direction.
Motorists may cross marking 652 to pass another LANE LINE marking 654 should be replaced
vehicle, but only when it is safe to do so. with a regulatory CHANNELIZING LINE mark-
ing 612 in circumstances where warranted (see
DIVIDING LINE marking 652 should be a longi- Sections 6.2.5 and 6.3.2) in areas where changing
tudinal broken yellow line running continuously lanes is not permitted.
on or near the centerline of the roadway. Its con-
figuration should be a repeated pattern of 3 meters Neither a LANE LINE nor a CHANNELIZING
of line followed by 6 meters of gap. It should be LINE should be used within a junction. When
100-millimeters wide for posted speeds below 50 guidance within a junction is required, GUIDE
km/h and 150-millimeters wide for posted speeds LINE marking 680 should be used (see Section
above 50 km/h. A DIVIDING LINE should be 6.4.1).
used on all two-way roadways with a travel width
of 5.5 meters or more. It may be used continuous- 6.3.5 LANE END ARROW MARKING
ly or intermittently on roads of lesser widths when 656
an engineering assessment determines that such is
beneficial for reason of safety. Marking 656 should be used to warn motorists
that a lane on a multilane roadway is ending
DIVIDING LINE markings 652 should be ahead and that they should move out of that lane
replaced or supplemented with a regulatory NO in the direction indicated at the earliest opportu-
PASSING LINE marking 611 in circumstances nity that it is safe to do so.
where warranted (see Sections 6.2.4 and 6.3.2)
when crossing the DIVIDING LINE from one or LANE END ARROW marking 656 should con-
both sides is not permitted. Neither a DIVIDING sist of a white straight arrow oriented at a 20
LINE nor a NO PASSING LINE should be used degree rotation to the longitudinal axis of the
within an intersection of two public roads where lane. The arrow should be centered in the lane
traffic is permitted to turn across an opposing such that its extremities are equidistant from the
direction of travel (see Figure 8-1). lane edge on each side (see Figures 6-5 and 8-7).

6.3.4 LANE LINE MARKING 654 LANE END ARROW marking 656 is to be used
when a long-running lane on a multilane roadway
Marking 654 should be used to warn motorists of ends. It should also be used at the end of a paral-
the presence of two or more traffic lanes travel- lel-lane-type entrance ramp. It is not intended for
ing on a roadway in the same direction. Motorists use on a tapered entrance ramp. The LANE END
may cross marking 654 to change lanes, but only ARROW should be repeated in a series of two or
when it is safe to do so. preferably three markings. The last of the arrows
in the series should be positioned at the end of the
LANE LINE marking 654 should be a longitudi- lane just prior to the point where the lane begins
nal broken white line running continuously on a to decrease in width. The spacing between each
line separating two lanes of travel in the same LANE END ARROW should be as given in
direction. Its configuration should be a repeated Table 6-4.
pattern of 3 meters of line followed by 6 meters

6-17 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 6-4 two way roadway becomes divided and vice-


Lane End Arrows Spacing versa. HATCH markings may be used to mark the
Operating Speed Spacing shoulders of particularly dangerous curves, lane
(km/h) (meters) ends, or roadside obstructions. However, these
40 24
60 32
situations should be thoroughly evaluated by an
80 40 engineering study and HATCH markings used
100 48 only if it is determined that a significant hazard
exists and that HATCH markings may signifi-
6.3.6 CHEVRON MARKING 657 cantly contribute to the delineation and warning
of the hazardous or unusual conditions. In such
Marking 657 should be used to provide warning conditions consideration should be given to the
to motorists of a divergence of traffic lanes trav- use of RUMBLE STRIPS marking 650. The rou-
eling in the same direction. tine usage of HATCH markings should be avoid-
ed.
CHEVRON marking 657 should consist of diag-
onal white lines arranged in a chevron pattern as HATCH marking 658 should only be used in
depicted in Figure 6-6. The CHEVRON should areas not intended for travel or parking and
point towards the oncoming traffic such that the should always be separated from a travel area by
sloping legs of the CHEVRON are seen to split a NO PASSING LINE marking 611 or EDGE
the diverging streams of traffic, “pushing” them LINE marking 613.
away from one another. Marking 657 should be
repeated within a gore area beginning at the the- 6.4 GUIDANCE MARKINGS
oretical nose (painted nose) of an exit or diver-
gence point and cease at the physical nose. Guidance pavement markings provide help to
CHEVRON marking 657 should not be used motorists in understanding the path that they are
within the gore area of converging streams of intended to follow where the way may not be oth-
traffic. erwise evident. Guidance pavement markings do
not carry a mandatory requirement nor convey an
CHEVRON marking 657 should only be used in explicit message of warning. Only longitudinal
areas not intended for travel or parking and broken lines and TEXT SYMBOL marking 695
should always be separated from a travel area by (see Section 6.8.2) are used for guidance mark-
an EDGE LINE marking 613 or a CHANNELIZ- ings. Guidance markings are illustrated in Figure
ING LINE marking 612. 6-8.

6.3.7 HATCH MARKING 658 6.4.1 GUIDE LINE MARKING 680


Marking 658 should be used to provide warning Marking 680 may be used within a junction
to motorists to stay clear of a physical danger that (intersection or roundabout) to provide guidance
is present adjacent to their travel lane. to road users. Except in the case of roundabouts,
usage of this marking is optional and should only
HATCH marking 658 should consist of repeated be considered in instances of nonstandard or con-
diagonal white lines situated as depicted in fusing geometry, including sheer junction size.
Figure 6-6. The dimensions and layout require-
ments for the HATCH marking should be similar GUIDE LINE marking 680 should be a longitu-
to those shown for the CHEVRON marking 657 dinal broken white line that follows one or both
as shown in Figure 6-6. The HATCH markings edges of the most efficient path (from the stand-
should be oriented such that if they were raised points of safety and/or capacity) that a vehicle
barriers, they would deflect traffic back into the should follow through an intersection. Its config-
lane from which they came. A common usage of uration may vary to suit conditions but a recom-
HATCH markings is in a median or gore area that mended configuration is a repeated pattern of 500
separates traffic that is moving in opposite direc- millimeters of line followed by 1500 millimeters
tions of travel. Such would be the case where a

Version 0.1 6-18


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

500 1500 100

Detail 6-8-1: GUIDE LINE marking 680


150
1000 3000 (200)

Detail 6-8-2: CONTINUITY LINE marking 681

Direction of Travel
Figure 6-8
Guidance Pavement Markings
of gap. A GUIDE LINE should be 100 millime- 6.4.2 CONTINUITY LINE MARKING
ters wide. 681

The primary usage of GUIDE LINE marking 680 Marking 681 may be used to provide guidance
will be: for through traffic at discontinuities in the pave-
ment-edge delineation. Its use is optional and
• To provide turning guidance, particularly for should only be considered in instances where a
left-turning traffic, at wide intersections or curving roadway geometry and/or a long break in
where the intersecting roadways meet at an the continuity of the edge of pavement delin-
angle significantly different than 90 degrees eation may be confusing or misleading to a driv-
and particularly when there is more than one er.
turning lane.
• To provide alignment guidance across a wide CONTINUITY LINE marking 681 should be a
or complex junction when there is a shift in longitudinal broken white line that follows the
the through-alignment across the junction, edge of the through-lane of traffic across an exit
• To mark circulation lanes within a round- ramp, a slip road exit, or an intersection. Its con-
about. In such instances a GUIDE LINE figuration should be a repeated pattern of 1 meter
should be used within the “shadow” of the of line followed by 3 meters of gap. It should be
roadway median islands (see Figures 8-5, 8- 150-millimeters wide for posted speeds below 70
6, and 8-8). km/h and 200-millimeters wide for posted speeds
above 70 km/h. As a general rule a CONTINU-
The use of a GUIDE LINE within an intersection ITY LINE marking should not be extended
should be considered only in exceptional circum- across an entrance ramp on a freeway or a slip
stances. Because a GUIDE LINE will almost road entrance. In such cases the convergence of
always cross the path of one or more intersecting the entering roadway edge line should provide a
lanes of traffic, particular attention must be given clear indication of the forward alignment of the
to the appearance of the line(s) when viewed by mainline (see Figure 8-16).
drivers other than those whom they are intended
to guide. Care must be taken to avoid the risk of 6.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS
the line(s) creating a confusing pattern that may (RPM)
mislead other drivers.
Raised pavement markers may be used to supple-
ment or replace painted line pavement markings
to provide increased visibility and better delin-

6-19 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

eation. They are also effective at discouraging • Areas regularly subjected to fog, dust, or
unnecessary lane changes. Examples of the use of blowing sand resulting in reduced visibility.
raised pavement markers are illustrated in Figure • Areas of heavy traffic volumes that rapidly
6-9. deteriorate painted markings and that are dis-
ruptive to regularly maintain.
6.5.1 GENERAL • Isolated areas that have low geometric-road-
way-design standards for the traffic condi-
There are two basic classifications of raised tions prevailing and that are not scheduled in
pavement markers: the near term for improvement.
• Isolated areas with documented high inci-
• Retroreflective (R). dence of collision and/or low levels of lane
• Nonretroreflective (N). discipline by drivers, particularly in curved
or complex roadway geometry conditions.
Retroreflective markers house a colored lens of • Long-term roadworks sites.
retroreflective material that is designed to redi- • Freeways (all markings on freeways should
rect a substantial portion of vehicular head light- be supplemented by R markings).
ing back at a driver for improved nighttime long- • Unlighted rural roadways.
range visibility. • Within nonweaving sections of roundabouts.

Nonretroreflective markers do not exhibit Under one or more of the following conditions
retroreflective properties but do, under daylight raised pavement markers are generally not rec-
or lighted conditions (street lights or headlights) ommended for use:
display a white or yellow body color the same as
painted lines. • Low operating speeds.
• Across the entrance and exit points of free-
Retroreflective markers are used to supplement way ramps and other intersecting connec-
white or yellow painted lines or nonretroreflec- tions to major roadways.
tive markers. • On roadways scheduled for resurfacing with-
in three years.
Nonretroreflective markers are used to replace
white or yellow painted marking. Where roadway 6.5.2 RETROREFLECTIVE RPM
lighting is not to a high standard, nonretroreflec- MARKING R
tive pavement markings should be supplemented
by retroreflective pavement markings. When a standard pavement marking number is
followed by the letter R it means that the marking
In Abu Dhabi, lane lines and channelizing lines be supplemented by the use of retroreflective
on main, divided thoroughfares are typically RPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 R).
marked with a combination of retroreflective and
nonretroreflective raised pavement markers. On The following describe the use of RPM R in var-
two-way secondary and sector roads, channeliz- ious pavement marking applications:
ing lines and no passing lines should be marked
with paint. Nonretroreflective and reflective • An RPM R should normally be used at 18-
raised pavement markers may also be used in meter intervals (2 times the 9-meter marking
most other pavement marking applications when module). Shorter spacing may be justified in
deemed appropriate by the designer and with the certain instances.
approval of the Department. • For broken lines, the RPM R should be
placed in line with the standard pavement
The following conditions may warrant the use of markings, centered in the appropriate gap
raised pavement markers: area of the line.
• When an RPM R is used to supplement a
solid line it should be placed 100-millimeters

Version 0.1 6-20


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

18000

Detail 6-9-1: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612R

Detail 6-9-2: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612N

18000

Detail 6-9-3: CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612N/R

18000

Detail 6-9-4: EDGE LINE marking 613R (line is sometimes white; see Table 6-1 for guidance)

3000 3000 3000 3000 6000 3000 3000

Detail 6-9-5: LANE LINE marking 654R

3000 3000 18000

Detail 6-9-6: LANE LINE marking 654N/R

White/Red RPM R White RPM N


Yellow/Red RPM R Direction of Travel

Figure 6-9
Use of Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs)

6-21 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

clear of and on the traffic side of the line nonretroreflective markers then both the R and N
(such as EDGE LINE marking 613 R). letter designation should be used (e.g., LANE
• When traffic utilizes the line on both sides LINE marking 654 R/N).
(such as a NO PASSING LINE marking 611
R or CHANNELIZING LINE marking 612 The RPM N should be used to replace and simu-
R) an RPM R may be placed on each side of late the painted part of a line. For broken line
the line. Alternatively, an RPM R may be types, one RPM N should be placed at the point
placed within the line. However, this will where the painted segment would begin and one
require masking the line at the RPM location RPM N should be placed at the point where the
when the line is painted and each time it is painted segment would end. Other RPM N
repainted, to prevent the RPM R from being should then be spaced equidistant between these
obscured by paint. such that the center-to-center spacing does not
• When RPM N are used for a dashed line, exceed one meter. For a solid line the RPM N
RPM R should be placed as they would with should be spaced at one-meter intervals.
paint.
• Where RPM N are used in a solid line, an Only two colors of RPM N should be used:
RPM R should be used in place of an RPM N
at the appropriate interval. • White markers should be used to replace
• When RPM R are used on more than one lon- white-colored painted markings.
gitudinal line on a roadway, they should be • Yellow markers should be used to replace
situated such that all RPM R are aligned yellow-colored painted markings.
transversely across the roadway.
6.6 CURB PAINTING
Only three colors of RPM R should be used:
The application of paint to the top and face of a
• White (or clear) markers should be used in curb may be undertaken when authorized or
conjunction with all white-colored pavement directed by the Department. The painting of a
markings as viewed by approaching drivers. curb can provide increased visibility and better
• Yellow markers should be used in conjunc- delineation than concrete-colored curbs. Curb
tion with all yellow-colored pavement mark- painting may also be used to supplement or
ings as viewed by approaching drivers. When replace the use of NO PARKING signs. Because
used with a line having meaning to traffic in curb painting involves the use of paint near the
opposing directions, such as a DIVIDING pavement surface, and because its use and appli-
LINE marking 652 R, the RPM R should be cations are similar to pavement markings, curb
bidirectional. painting is considered to be pavement markings
• Red color should only be used on the back within the context of this manual.
side of markers on one-way or divided road-
ways. This color should be viewable only to 6.6.1 GENERAL
drivers entering or driving in the wrong
direction on such a roadway. The red color of Under certain circumstances the painting of curb
an RPM R should never be visible to legally faces can play a significant role in regulating traf-
operating traffic. fic with respect to parking and in warning traffic
of the presence of a raised curb. To retain the con-
6.5.3 NONRETROREFLECTIVE RPM spicuousness and function of a painted curb,
MARKING N maintenance is an ongoing and continual process
carrying with it a significant cost implication.
When a standard pavement marking number is
followed by the letter N it means that the painted 6.6.2 NO PARKING MARKING 690
marking should be replaced by nonretroreflective
RPM (e.g., LANE LINE marking 654 N). When Marking 690 is used to advise motorists of spe-
retroreflective markers are used to supplement cific areas along a curbline where parking is pro-

Version 0.1 6-22


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

hibited. The use of marking 690 imposes a prohibits the parking of vehicles adjacent to
mandatory requirement on a motorist that he not curbs so marked.
park his vehicle adjacent to a curbline so painted.
VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 should
NO PARKING marking 690 should consist of consist of painting the top and front face of a curb
painting the top and front face of a curb with with alternating sections of black- and white-col-
alternating sections of black- and yellow-colored ored paint. The length of a black section and the
paint. The pattern and lengths of the sections length of a white section should be equal to each
should be the same as described for VISIBILITY other. When precast curbs are used, each section
PAINTING marking 691. Painting of the curb (or every two sections in the case of short curb
should extend from the point where the parking sections) may be painted with alternating colors
restriction begins and should be a continuous, such that the length of each color will be in the
solid marking to the point where the parking range of 500 millimeters to 900 millimeters to
restriction ends. match individual curbs. When short curbs are
used around curves the adjacent length of mark-
Marking 690 may be used to supplement NO ing should be retained. Because of the strobo-
PARKING signs 377, 378, and 379 when such is scopic effect of viewing alternating painting from
required for additional emphasis of a no-parking a moving vehicle, curbs or barriers with an
area, or when geometry is such that the extent of exposed front face higher than 400 millimeters
the no-parking area is not clearly delineated by should not receive marking 691 over a significant
the use of signs only. Marking 690 may also be length of roadway. Where such high curbs or bar-
used alone to delineate no-parking areas. Such riers are used, VISIBILITY PAINTING marking
applications will be most likely in cases where 691 should be limited only to discrete areas
no-parking areas are broken and interspersed where added visibility is required.
among areas where parking is permitted. In such
cases it may be difficult or impractical to regulate The primary benefit of VISIBILITY PAINTING
by signing and the use of curb painting may be marking 691 is the delineation of curbs in turning
more appropriate. areas such as intersections, roundabouts, and traf-
fic separator islands. The use of marking 691 on
It is not the intent of the Department that all curbs long stretches of straight curb on well-lighted
in Abu Dhabi where parking is prohibited be roadways is of limited benefit from a traffic-safe-
painted with NO PARKING marking 690 (nor ty standpoint. While such sections may receive
signed with NO PARKING signs 377, 378, and VISIBILITY PAINTING, its use should be
379). In areas where parking is clearly not per- weighed against the initial and long-term costs of
mitted and motorists are complying with such doing so.
restrictions, then no further parking prohibition
measures in the form of signs or curb painting is 6.7 OBJECT MARKERS
necessary.
6.7.1 OBJECT MARKER DESIGN
In locations where the engineer may wish to use
NO PARKING marking 690 but no curbs are pres- Object markers are used to mark obstructions
ent, an EDGE LINE marking 613 should be used within or adjacent to the roadway. When used,
and will have the same effect as marking 690. these markers should consist of an arrangement
of one or more of the following designs:
6.6.3 VISIBILITY PAINTING
MARKING 691 • Type 1
• Type 2
Marking 691 is used to improve the visibility of • Type 3
raised curbs and to warn motorists of the pres-
ence of those curbs. The use of marking 691 has Type 1 markers consist of an all-yellow reflective
no regulatory function and neither permits nor diamond panel 450 mm in size. A variant of this

6-23 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

marker type incorporates nine yellow reflector approach to the obstruction should be given by
units in the panel. Each reflector unit should have appropriate pavement markings.
a dimension of approximately 75 mm mounted
symmetrically on a 450-mm diamond-shaped Where the vertical clearance of an overhead
yellow panel. Type 1 markers may be larger if structure exceeds the maximum legal height of a
conditions warrant (see Figure 6-10, Detail 1). vehicle by less than 0.3 m, the clearance to the
nearest 0.1 m on a regulatory sign should be
Type 2 is a striped vertical rectangle approxi- clearly marked on the structure as well as on the
mately 300 mm by 900 mm in size with alternat- advanced warning sign.
ing black and reflectorized yellow stripes sloping
downward at an angle of 45° toward the side of 6.7.3 OBJECTS ADJACENT TO THE
the obstruction on which traffic is to pass. The ROADWAY
minimum width of the yellow stripe should be 75
mm. Type 2 object markers with stripes that begin Objects not actually in the roadway may be so
at the upper right side and slope downward to the close to the edge of the road that a marker is
lower left side are to be designated as “right” required. These include guardrail ends, underpass
object markers (see Figure 6-10, Detail 2). piers, bridge abutments, handrails, and culvert
headwalls. In some cases, a physical object may
Type 3 markers indicate the end of a roadway. not be involved, but other roadside conditions
When it is determined that markers should be such as narrow shoulder drop-offs, gores, small
placed at the end of a roadway where there is no islands, and abrupt changes in the roadway align-
alternative vehicular path, a marker consisting of ment may make it undesirable for a driver to
nine red reflectors, each with a minimum dimen- leave the roadway. Type 2 object markers are
sion of approximately 75 mm, mounted symmet- intended for use at such locations. The inside
rically on a 450-mm red diamond panel; or a 450- edge of the marker should be in line with the
mm diamond reflectorized red panel should be inner edge of the obstruction.
used. More than one marker or a larger marker
may be used at the end of the roadway where Standard warning signs should also be used where
conditions warrant. The minimum mounting applicable. Typical applications of markers for
height of this marker should be 1.20 m. roadside obstructions are shown in Figure 6-11.
Appropriate advance warning signs should be
used (see Figure 6-10, Detail 3). 6.8 TEXT PAVEMENT
6.7.2 OBJECTS IN THE ROADWAY MARKINGS

Obstructions within the roadway should be Text pavement markings may be used to supple-
marked with a Type 1 or Type 2 object marker. ment other pavement markings or signs only
when specifically authorized or directed by the
For additional emphasis, a large surface such as a Department.
bridge pier may be painted with diagonal stripes,
300 mm or more in width, similar in design to the 6.8.1 GENERAL
Type 2 object marker. The alternating black and
reflectorized yellow stripes should be sloped The use of text pavement markings should be
down at an angle of 45° toward the side of the strictly limited to situations where no other
obstruction that traffic is to pass. The minimum option to present or reinforce the required mes-
mounting height should be 1.20 m. sage to drivers is available. No specific applica-
tions for such markings are anticipated. The pro-
Appropriate signs directing traffic to one or both vision of such markings in this manual should not
sides of the obstruction may be used in lieu of the be taken as an encouragement for their use.
object marker. In addition to markings on the face Rather, they are described herein to provide a
of an obstruction in the roadway, warning of standard should there be a requirement for such
in an isolated instance.

Version 0.1 6-24


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Detail 6-10-1: Type 1

Yellow reflective 75-mm yellow


background reflectors

mm 0
13
mm 0
13
mm 0
9
450 mm by 450 mm 450 mm by 450 mm

Detail 6-10-2: Type 2 Detail 6-10-3: Type 3

Red 75-mm red


background reflectors

900 mm

mm 0
13
170 mm mm 0
45º
13

140 mm
mm 0
9

70 mm
300 mm 450 mm by 450 mm

Left object marker Right object marker


Figure 6-10
Object Markers

6.8.2 TEXT SYMBOL MARKINGS 695 grounds which are then distorted by stretching
five times in the vertical direction while main-
Markings 695 may be used to provide specific taining an unaltered width. The nominal height of
localized amplification of existing regulatory, the resultant Arabic aleph and the English upper
warning, or guide road signs or pavement mark- case letters should be 2800 millimeters. A TEXT
ings. SYMBOL message should be limited in length so
that it can be centered between parallel longitudi-
TEXT SYMBOL markings 695 should be Abu nal pavement markings, or such a marking and a
Dhabi Municipality standard Arabic and English curbline, with a minimum clearance on each side
fonts. of 150 millimeters. When both Arabic and
English messages are required the English should
English text messages should use only upper case be placed above the Arabic (such that approach-
letters and, if appropriate, numbers. Stencils for ing drivers will see the Arabic message first). The
text messages should be prepared based on 400- separation between the Arabic and English text
millimeter “x” height letters on their tile back-

6-25 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Note:
Delineators should be placed at a
constant distance from the roadway
edge except that, when an
obstruction exists near the
pavement edge, the line of
delineators makes a smooth
transition to the inside of the
obstruction.

Bridge rail or
obstruction
Type 2 object
marker

Edge of roadway
Delineators mounted above or
immediately behind guardrail. These
delineators are not at a constant
distance from roadway edge
because of the bridge rail.
Guardrail

Edge of shoulder

0.6 m to 2.0 m outside


shoulder edge
0.6 m to 2.0 m
outside roadway
edge or face of
curb

Typical spacing
60 m to 160 m

Figure 6-11
Typical Delineator Installation

Version 0.1 6-26


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

will be achieved by stacking the distorted respec- Curbs at openings in a continuous median island
tive tiles. need not be marked unless individual study indi-
cates the need for this type of marking.
6.9 DELINEATION
6.9.4 DELINEATOR APPLICATION
6.9.1 DELINEATORS
Delineation is intended to be a guide to the vehi-
Road delineators are light-retroreflective devices cle operator as to the alignment of the highway.
mounted in series at the side of the roadway to Whatever is needed to provide that guidance in a
indicate the roadway alignment. Delineators are clear and simple way should be installed.
effective aids for night driving and considered as
guidance devices rather than warning devices. The color of delineators should, in all cases, con-
Delineators may be used on long, continuous sec- form to the yellow or white color of edge lines.
tions of highway or through short stretches where
there are changes in horizontal alignment, partic- Single delineators should be provided on the
ularly where the alignment might be confusing or right side of expressway roadways and on at least
at pavement-width transitions. An important one side of interchange ramps. These delineators
advantage of delineators in certain areas is that may be provided on other classes of roads. Single
they remain visible when the roadway is wet. delineators may be provided on the left side of
roadways and should be provided on the outside
6.9.2 DESIGN of bends on interchange ramps.

Delineators should consist of reflector units capa- Where median crossovers are provided for offi-
ble of clearly reflecting light under normal cial or emergency use on divided highways and
atmospheric conditions from a distance of 300 these crossovers are to be marked, a double-yel-
meters when illuminated by the upper beam of low delineator should be placed on the left side of
standard automobile lights. Reflective elements the through roadway on the far side of the
for delineators should have a minimum area of crossover for each roadway.
approximately 100 cm². Double delineators con-
sist of two reflector units, one mounted above the Red delineators may be used on the reverse side
other. Elongated reflective units of appropriate of any delineator whenever it would be viewed
size may be used in place of the two reflectors. by a motorist traveling in the wrong direction on
that particular ramp or roadway.
6.9.3 CURB MARKINGS FOR
Delineators of the appropriate color may be used
DELINEATION
to indicate the narrowing of a pavement. The
delineators should be used adjacent to the lane
Reflectorized, continuous yellow paint should be
affected for the full length of the convergence
placed on the curbs of intersection islands locat-
and should be so placed and spaced to show the
ed in the line of traffic flow where the curb serves
width reduction. Delineation is not necessary for
to channel traffic to the right or to the left of the
the traffic moving in the direction of a wider
island. Reflectorized, continuous white paint
pavement or on the side of the roadway where the
should be used when traffic may pass on either
alignment is not affected by the convergence. On
side of the divisional island.
a highway with continuous delineation on either
or both side, delineators should be carried
Where the curbs of the islands become parallel to
through the transition and a closer spacing may
the direction of traffic flow it is not necessary to
be warranted.
mark the curbs unless a study indicates the need
for this type of delineation. Where these curbs are
Delineation is optional on sections of roadway
marked, the colors should conform to the general
between interchanges where fixed-source light-
principles of pavement markings.
ing is in operation.

6-27 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

6.9.5 DELINEATOR PLACEMENT Table 6-5


AND SPACING Suggested Maximum Spacing for
Highway Delineators on Bends
Delineators, if used, should be mounted on suit- Radius of Bend (R) Spacing on Bend (S)
(meters) (meters)
able supports so the top of the reflecting head is
15 6
approximately 1.20 m above the near roadway 30 7.5
edge. Delineators should be placed not less than 45 9
1.0 m or more than 2.0 m outside the outer edge 60 10.5
of the shoulder, or if appropriate, in the line of the 75 12
guardrail. Delineators may be mounted on the 90 13.5
120 16.5
guardrail at a height less than 1.2 m. 150 19.5
180 21
Delineators should be placed at a constant dis- 210 22.5
tance from the edge of the roadway. However, 240 24
where a guardrail or other obstruction intrudes 270 25.5
300 27
into the space between the pavement edge and
Spacing for radii not shown may be
the extension of the line of delineators, the delin- interpolated from the table. The minimum
eators should be in line with or inside the inner- spacing should be 6 meters. The spacing of
most edge of the obstruction. Typical delineator the first delineator on a tangent adjacent to a
installations are shown in Figure 6-11. bend should be 2S, the second, 3S, and the
third 6S, but not to exceed 100 meters.
Normally, delineators should be spaced 60 m to devices may be used to mark any of the follow-
160 m. When normal uniform spacing is inter- ing type locations:
rupted by driveways, crossroads, or similar inter-
ruptions, delineators falling within such areas 1. Roadway ends in a dead end or cul-de-sac
may be moved in either direction, a distance not with no outlet.
exceeding one-quarter of the normal spacing. 2 A ramp or lane closed for operational pur-
Delineators still falling within such areas should poses.
be eliminated. On expressways, a normal delin- 3. The permanent or semipermanent closure or
eator spacing is 100 m. termination of a roadway.

Double or vertically elongated delineators should A typical barricade is illustrated in Figure 6-12.
be installed at 30-meter intervals along accelera-
tion and deceleration lanes. 6.10.2 CHANNELIZING DEVICES
Spacing should be adjusted on approaches and Traffic cones and tubular markers are sometimes
throughout horizontal bends so that several delin- used outside of construction and maintenance
eators are always visible to the driver. Table 6-5 areas for general traffic control purposes. Such
shows suggested maximum spacing for delin- uses include adding emphasis to channelizing
eators at bends. lines or islands.

6.10 BARRICADES AND These devices should be a minimum of 450 mm


CHANNELIZING DEVICES in height and made of materials to withstand
impact without damage to the devices or vehi-
6.10.1 BARRICADES cles. Large-size devices should be used wherever
more conspicuous guidance is needed.
Red-and-white barricades are to warn and alert
drivers of the terminus of a road, street, or high- The color of cones and tube markers outside con-
way in other than construction or maintenance struction and maintenance areas should be the
areas. The stripes on the barricades should be same as the pavement marking these devices are
reflectorized white and reflectorized red. These supplementing or substituting. These markers

Version 0.1 6-28


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

200
150
200
1100 mm

150
200
Barricade
75 mm
75 mm
100 mm

150 mm
450 mm minimum
75 mm

Tubular Marker Traffic Cone

Figure 6-12
Barricades and Channelizing Devices

6-29 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

should be kept clean and bright for maximum tar- Figure 6-14 illustrates curb painting and pave-
get value. For nighttime use, the markers should ment markings for perpendicular, diagonal, and
be reflectorized. parallel parking spaces adjacent to fire hydrants.

Two typical channelizing devices (a tube and a Note that parking spaces need not be arranged to
cone) are illustrated in Figure 6-12. be centered on a fire hydrant and that the hydrant
may be located anywhere within the curbed
6.11 CURB PAINTING AND width or depth of the space. The parking space
providing the best street visibility and access to
PAVEMENT MARKING
the fire hydrant should be marked for no stop-
FOR FIRE HYDRANTS ping. The fire-hydrant sign combination, howev-
er, should be placed in the center of the curbed
6.11.1 CURB PAINTING FOR FIRE width or length of the prohibited parking space.
HYDRANTS ALONG
ROADWAYS MARKING 695

Along roadways, curb painting is used in con-


junction with NO STOPPING sign 370 and FIRE
HYDRANT SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE 590 to
reinforce to motorists the prohibition against
stopping in front of a fire hydrant.

In front of fire hydrants, curbstones should be


painted red for a length of 12 meters, six meters
to either side of the fire hydrant and the fire
hydrant combination sign.

Curb painting for fire hydrants along roadways is


illustrated in Figure 6-13.

6.11.2 CURB PAINTING AND PAVE-


MENT MARKING FOR FIRE
HYDRANTS ADJACENT TO
PARKING SPACES

Where a fire hydrant is located adjacent to a


parking space, curb painting and pavement mark-
ing is used in conjunction with NO STOPPING
sign 370 and FIRE HYDRANT SUPPLEMEN-
TARY PLATE 590 to reinforce to motorists the
prohibition against parking in that space.
Curbstones should be painted red (marking 695)
for the width (for perpendicular and diagonal
parking) or length (for parallel parking) of the
parking space. In addition, the parking space
should be “closed” with a 100-millimeter-wide
line across its entrance. Diagonal hatch markings,
100 millimeters wide, should run at one-meter
intervals throughout the space.

Version 0.1 6-30


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

F. H. W. 14/1 NO. . .

Curb painted red

Standard curb painting Standard curb painting


12000 mm
Figure 6-13
Curb Painting for Fire Hydrants Along Roadways Marking 695

6-31 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 590 with


NO STOPPING sign 370
Standard curb painting Fire hydrant

1000 mm (typical)
Curbstone painted red
for one parking space only

45° (typical) 100 mm

100 mm

100 mm

Sign 590 with Curbstone painted red


NO STOPPING sign 370 for one parking space only

45° (typical)

1000 mm (typical)

90°
(typical) 100 mm

100 mm
100 mm

Curbstone painted red


for one parking space only Sign 590 with
NO STOPPING sign 370
Fire hydrant

45°
(typical)

100 mm

100 mm 100 mm

Figure 6-14
Curb Painting and Pavement Marking for Fire Hydrants Adjacent to Parking Spaces

Version 0.1 6-32


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7 ROADWORKS utility works with the safety of motorists, pedes-


trians, and workers foremost in their minds.
TRAFFIC CONTROL
The same geometric and safety-design principles
7.1 GENERAL that apply to the design of permanent roadways
should also govern the design of temporary traf-
Roadworks are defined as any roadway or utility fic control situations. Temporary traffic control
construction, maintenance, or repair works situations must not be allowed to be interpreted
occurring within or near a road right of way. as being synonymous with substandard traffic
Incident areas (traffic accidents, spillage, etc.), control situations. If anything, the unusual and/or
police-control points (check points, traffic sur- more restrictive conditions found in roadworks
veys, etc.), and special-event management (major areas can dictate the necessity of even higher
sports or cultural events) and other short-term standards of safety. The aim should be to accom-
disruptions to normal roadway operations also fit modate traffic in roadworks areas using geomet-
within the functional definition of roadworks ric design considerations and traffic control
traffic control. devices comparable to those found in a normal
permanent roadway operating at the speed antic-
When approaching a roadworks area, motorists ipated in the roadworks zone.
are faced with an unexpected, unusual, and fre-
quently substandard driving situation. As a result, 7.1.1.2 UNIFORMITY
special care must be taken in implementing tem-
porary traffic control measures in association The standardization of devices is important for
with roadworks. Because roadworks are relative- the purpose of advising motorists of conditions
ly short-term situations, traffic control in these within a roadworks traffic control area.
areas is often given scant consideration. An
unusual situation with an ill-conceived traffic- The color yellow has been designated as a unique
control scheme creates a doubly dangerous situa- color reserved for use in roadworks areas. All
tion. Such would never be tolerated as part of the traffic control devices within a roadworks area
permanent operations nor should it be tolerated should have yellow as their background color.
as part of the roadworks. Black and/or red border and/or symbols, in com-
bination with yellow, should also be predominant
7.1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES work area colors. The uniform application of
these colors on traffic control devices throughout
The purpose of roadworks traffic control is to a roadworks area will provide motorists with a
provide safe and effective work areas and to visual indication that they are approaching and
warn, control, protect, and guide vehicular and navigating a roadworks area where roadway con-
pedestrian traffic. To accomplish this, the respect ditions are not normal and that they should exer-
of the driver must be earned by the appropriate, cise additional caution.
prudent, and consistent use of temporary traffic
control devices. While each roadwork area may Another aspect of uniformity is the standardiza-
have unique elements, certain fundamental prin- tion of the application of roadworks traffic con-
ciples and procedures should be considered. trol devices. Often, traffic control in a roadworks
area is executed using traffic control devices that
7.1.1.1 SAFETY are substandard or nonstandard in material,
design, or placement. Principles described
Traffic safety in a roadworks traffic control zone throughout this manual with respect to permanent
should be an integral and high-priority element of traffic signing are uniformly applicable to road-
every roadway construction project from the works signing. Only devices described or permit-
design process until project construction is com- ted in this manual should be used for roadworks
plete. Similarly, government and utility agencies traffic control and they should be used in a uni-
must plan and conduct their maintenance and form and standardized manner.

7-1 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.1.1.3 FUNCTIONALITY When inconsistent markings are retained, extra


attention must be given to ensure motorists can
Traffic movements in a roadworks area should be easily follow the detour geometry.
inhibited as little as possible. Traffic control for a
roadworks area should be designed acknowledg- 7.1.1.4 MAINTENANCE
ing that motorists will reduce their speed only if
they perceive a situation which warrants such. Every work zone should be routinely inspected
Therefore, reduced speed zones through a road- under varying traffic conditions and at different
works area should be avoided whenever practi- times of day to ensure that the traffic control
cal, should be used only when dictated by geo- devices are maintained so that they are clearly
metric conditions, and should be applied with visible, properly located, clean and in good
realistic speed limits. repair, and are operating safely and effectively.
An important part of this inspection process must
Lane drops, lane narrowing, sharp curves, or include the immediate removal or covering of
other abrupt or frequent geometric changes any traffic control device which is no longer rel-
should likewise be avoided. When such are evant.
unavoidable, adequate warning, delineation, and
channelization by means of pavement markings, This level of control can best be achieved by
signing, and other devices must be used to effec- assigning an authorized site safety officer to each
tively provide motorists with clear and positive work site. The site safety officer at small sites
guidance. These devices must be effective under should automatically be the gang foreman. At all
the anticipated conditions of traffic volumes, traf- sites the site safety officer must be accountable
fic speeds, and lighting conditions. In turn, this for the original traffic management system and
requirement will have an effect on the geometric the maintenance of this system to ensure the safe-
design, which must provide sufficient space for ty of the workers, pedestrians, and the motoring
standard levels of temporary signing. public.

To reduce complex traffic operational conditions The site safety officer must have the skill and
to an acceptable level of simplicity, geometric authority to act to modify traffic control meas-
changes should occur in individual stages, each ures or even halt construction in order to ensure
of which requires only one basic driver action, traffic and site safety. The site safety officer must
with a stabilization area between each stage. For keep a record of all accidents occurring at the site
example, the closure of two lanes should be done in sufficient detail to permit analysis to improve
in two individual transition areas. Likewise, a site traffic management.
lane closure should not end and a sharp horizon-
tal curve begin at the same point, but should be 7.1.2 TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONE
separated by a suitable stabilization area (see
Section 7.1.2). However in exceptional circum- When traffic is affected by construction, mainte-
stances a single taper as shown in Figure 8-24 nance, or utility operations, traffic control is
(Chapter 8) may be used. needed to safely guide and protect motorists,
pedestrians, and workers. Although individual
A particular functional problem in roadworks roadwork areas may have unique features, most
areas is original pavement markings that conflict roadworks traffic control zones can be broken
with revised detour geometry. Permanent pave- down and considered as five distinct areas. Each
ment markings that are inconsistent with tempo- area has a unique and important function as part
rary travel paths and would misguide motorists of a complete roadworks traffic control zone.
should be removed on all but very short-term Figure 7-1 illustrates these five parts of a road-
operations. For short-term operations, existing works traffic control zone.
markings may be left in place unless so doing
creates a definite hazard. No original pavement
marking should be left in place that may tend to
lead drivers straight into a barrier or work area.

Version 0.1 7-2


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

GUIDELINES

TERMINATION
AREA 0.5L or less

WORK
AREA Varies

STABILIZATION 0.5L to L
AREA (2L if separating transitions)

TRANSITION For S < 70 km/h L=DS²/160


ROADWORK

L
ZONE

AREA
For S > 70 km/h L=DS/1.6

ADVANCED
WARNING 100m to 2km
AREA

L = Length of Taper
D = Displacement in meters
REPRESENTATIVE TAPER LENGTHS
S = Approach Speed in km/h
S D L
= Direction of Travel
(km/h) (meters) (meters)

40 4.0 40
60 4.0 90
80 4.0 200
100 4.0 250

Figure 7-1
Roadworks Zone Traffic Control Areas

7-3 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.1.2.1 ADVANCE WARNING AREA • Merge two lanes into one (lane drop).
• Cross the central median (crossover).
This area is used to advise motorists that there are • Enter a detour completely separate from the
temporary conditions ahead of them that require road under construction.
particular care. In some instances, a stepped
reduction in the speed will be required within this The transition area must be clearly defined using
area. These speed reductions should be indicated appropriate channelizing devices and should con-
at reasonable intervals (200 meters minimum) form to the layout depicted on the guidance signs
and occur in 20 kilometers per hour steps until preceding it. Complex transition situations
the speed for which the traffic control has been should be broken down into a number of standard
designed is indicated. It is good practice to repeat transition situations. No signing for subsequent
the final speed limit at least once. transition conditions should be included in a tran-
sition area, but rather should occur in the stabi-
The length of the advance warning area should lization area separating the two transitions.
relate directly to measured approach speed. A
realistic distance must be allowed for speed The length of a transition area will depend on the
reduction. High traffic volumes will be better approach speed of traffic and the amount of
handled if the standard length of this area is gen- alignment shift involved in the transition.
erous, since more time is needed to comprehend
the sign messages and react to them under heavy Minimum lengths should be determined by the
traffic conditions. For posted approach speeds of following formula:
100 kilometers per hour and moderately high to
high traffic volumes, a base length for the Minimum lengths should be determined by the
advance warning area of 1000 meters is required. following formula:
For freeway conditions, especially in rural areas,
a length for the advance warning area of 2000 L= DS²/160 for S < 70 km/h
meters is preferred. If traffic volumes are low
and/or posted approach speed is 80 kilometers L= DS/1.6 for S > 70 km/h
per hour or less, this length may be reduced to
600 meters. L= Minimum required length of transition in
meters.
Urban sites will commonly have limited space D= Required lateral displacement of vehicles in
for advance warning area signs. However, every meters.
attempt should be made to provide adequate S= Approach speed of vehicles to the roadworks
advance signing. High-speed arterials should area traffic control zone in kilometers per
normally have sufficiently long block lengths to hour (posted speed limit or 85th percentile
allow advance warning areas in the range of 600 speed whichever is greater).
to 300 meters. On lesser roads or in busy business
areas, shorter advance warning areas in the range The alignment of the transition area should be
of 150 to 75 meters should be used. either a straight taper (in the case of a lane drop)
Consideration should also be given to extending or a reverse curve (in the case of an alignment
lane closures and the relevant signing into the shift).
preceding block and onto intersecting roads, as
applicable. 7.1.2.3 STABILIZATION AREA

7.1.2.2 TRANSITION AREA The purpose of this area is to allow traffic flow to
stabilize after negotiating a transition area before
This is the area in which drivers are required to reaching another change of condition or the work
take action, such as: area. If more than one transition area is required
to achieve the final traffic configuration, the sign-
• Shift position on the roadway without reduc- ing for the second or subsequent transitions
tion in the number of lanes. should be located within the intervening stabi-

Version 0.1 7-4


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

lization area(s). When the stabilization area This should follow the same principles given for
occurs between a transition area and the work a transition area at the start of a site.
area the stabilization area will also serve as a
buffer between the inherently dangerous work End roadworks signs and conventional speed
area and the transition area where loss of vehicu- limit signs restoring the normal speed limit con-
lar control is most likely. The buffer space pro- ditions should be erected together as soon as pos-
vides a margin of safety for both traffic and sible after the end of the termination area.
workers. If a driver does not see the advance
warning or fails to negotiate the transition, a 7.1.3 DEPLOYING ROADWORKS
buffer space provides room to stop before the DEVICES
work area. It is important that the buffer space be
free of equipment, workers, materials, and work- One of the most critical periods during the life of
ers' vehicles. a roadworks operation is the initial deployment
of the roadworks traffic control devices. The
When a stabilization area separates two transition steps listed below should be followed in the
areas, the length of the stabilization area should deployment of traffic control devices at road-
be double the length of the longer of the two tran- works:
sition areas being separated. When a stabilization
area separates a transition area from the work 1. A traffic control plan, with a level of detail
area, the length of the stabilization area should be appropriate for the complexity of the work
not less than one half the length of the preceding involved, should be prepared, approved, and
transition area, and preferably equal to the length understood by all parties responsible for the
of the preceding transition area when space per- roadworks on site.
mits. 2. All necessary traffic control devices and
appurtenances identified in the traffic control
7.1.2.4 WORK AREA plan should be procured and assembled on
site prior to deployment.
The work area is that portion of the roadway 3. All traffic control devices that can be
which contains the work activity and is closed to installed without interference with existing
traffic and set aside for exclusive use by workers, traffic operations should be deployed. Signs
equipment, and construction materials. Work erected that are not yet applicable, but that
areas may remain in fixed locations or may move may be seen by drivers on roadways current-
as work progresses. This area must be adequate- ly in use, should be covered to prevent con-
ly defined by delineators in complex conditions. fusion.
Where there is a risk to traffic or workers of vehi- 4. The deployment of the remaining traffic con-
cles entering the work area, temporary barriers of trol devices, which will result in a diversion
a standard sufficient to prevent this are recom- of traffic from current travel paths, should be
mended to contain traffic within the designated done during hours of low traffic volumes.
roadway. When traffic is relocated well away For major roadways this may require a late-
from the work area little action is required along night deployment.
its length other than to protect construction vehi- 5. Deployment should begin at the upstream
cles and employees. end of the advance warning area with
advance warning signs being uncovered or
7.1.2.5 TERMINATION AREA erected progressively towards the transition
area. Next, channelizing devices, signs, and
This area involves the return of traffic flow to other traffic control measures should be
normal flow conditions. In simple cases this can deployed from the start of the transition area
be achieved by a relatively rapid taper of chan- progressively to the stabilization area,
nelizing devices. In this case, the length of the through the work area and on to the end of
termination area may be one-half of the comput- the termination area. To the maximum extent
ed transition area length or less. In more complex possible, workmen and equipment should
conditions a reverse crossover may be required.

7-5 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

remain on the back side (away from the traf- such a diversion, the signs must conform to the
fic) of channelization devices during deploy- exclusive temporary color code reserved for
ment. roadworks signing and be positioned as indicated
6. Conflicting existing signs should be removed in this chapter.
or covered.
7. Conflicting existing pavement markings The following sections do not deal with individ-
should be removed and new temporary mark- ual sign types unless the only application of a
ings installed (if conditions warrant, "stick specific sign is in a roadworks situation (e.g.,
down" type temporary markings may be advance warning ROADWORKS sign 7441).
required until the more permanent temporary The significance of a roadworks version of a nor-
marking can be installed under traffic). mal sign remains the same as indicated in
8. Following completion of deployment the Chapters 3, 4 and 5. The signs are, however,
roadworks zone should be immediately illustrated in Figures 7-2 to 7-5 in their appropri-
inspected by the site safety officer with any ate colors for use at roadworks.
misplaced devices or confusing situation cor-
rected. A careful monitoring of the road- For roadworks signs based on a normal, non-
works zone by the site safety officer, espe- roadworks sign, the number "7" is added before
cially for the first few days of operation, is the normal sign's number to indicate the road-
essential to detect and correct any difficulties works version of the sign. For example, sign 346
experienced by drivers at various times of the prohibits left turns in a normal situation. Its road-
day or night and under varying traffic condi- works counterpart, sign 7346, prohibits left turns
tions. in a roadworks situation. In this example, only
the background color of the sign changes.
The removal of roadworks zone traffic control
devices should occur in generally the reverse 7.2.2 REGULATORY SIGNS
order of deployment, beginning at the termina-
tion area and working back through the advance All subclasses of regulatory signs may be used at
warning area. Roadworks devices no longer roadworks sites.
needed should be removed completely from the
roadway and inapplicable roadworks signs 7.2.2.1 CONTROL SIGNS
removed or covered. Conflicting temporary
pavement markings should be removed from the Control signs commonly used at roadworks com-
permanent roadways. prise:

7.2 TRAFFIC SIGNS • STOP sign 301.


• GIVE WAY sign 302.
7.2.1 GENERAL • GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303.
• NO ENTRY sign 304.
Regulatory, warning, and guidance traffic signs • ONE WAY TRAFFIC signs 305, 306 and
comprise a major part of the temporary traffic 307.
control devices used at roadworks sites.
Any of these signs may be used at roadworks and
If a traffic diversion is constructed fully in all when used should retain their normal colors as
respects to normal geometric standards, normal specified for permanent applications.
regulatory, warning, and guidance signs may be
specified for the diversion. However, even in STOP-SLOW SIGN 7308
such circumstances of geometric design it may be
considered beneficial to use roadworks signs just Sign 7308 is a special variation of STOP sign
to make drivers aware that the conditions are 301. At roadworks sites it can be used to control
temporary. If any of the geometric or other design alternating one-way streams of traffic through a
parameters are below normal standards within restricted part of the roadworks site. A pair of

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Roadworks Control Signs

301 302 304


303

305 306 307 7308

Roadworks Mandatory Signs

7321 7322 7323 7324 7325 7326 7327 7328

7329

Roadworks Prohibition Signs

7339 7340 7341 7342 7343 344 7346 7347

7348 7349 7350 7351 7352 7353 7354 7355

7356 7365

Roadworks Parking Control Signs Roadworks Freeway


Control Sign

7371-7373 7374-7376 7377-7379 7380-7382 7399


Figure 7-2
Regulatory Signs at Roadworks

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Roadworks Advance Warning Signs (not all signs shown)

7401 7402 7403 7407 7408 7409

7411 7412 7413 7414 7415 7416

7417 7418 7419 7420 7421 7422

7423 7424 7425 7427 7428 7429

7430 7435 7441 7442 7443 7450

Roadworks Hazard Marker Signs and Devices

7451 7452 7454 7455 7456 7457

7461
7458 7460 7459

Figure 7-3
Warning Signs at Roadworks

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Roadworks Traffic Movement Affected by Obstruction Signs

7465 7466 7467 7468 7469 7470 7472

7473 7474 7475 7476 7477 7478

Roadworks — Additional Lane Signs

7479 7480 7481 7482 7483

Roadworks — Lane Control Signs

7484 7485 7486

Roadworks — Lane Merge Signs

7490 7491 7492

Figure 7-4
Diagrammatic Signs at Roadworks

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Roadworks Route Marker and Trailblazer Signs

7501 7503 7505 7508

Roadworks Direction Signs

7515 7512
Chevron Detour Sign At-Grade Vertical Stack Sign (single)

7589
7512
Supplemental Plate
At-Grade Vertical Stack Sign

Figure 7-5
Guide Signs at Roadworks

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

The following prohibitory sign is not appropriate


to a normal or "permanent" application and is to
be used exclusively for roadworks situations:

MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT SIGN 7356

Sign 7356 requires that drivers of vehicles


exceeding the indicated width should not proceed
beyond the sign.
Sign 7308

flagmen may control traffic movement by alter-


nately stopping and releasing traffic in opposing
directions using the STOP sign as a hand-held
"paddle" on which the reverse side indicates the
message "SLOW" in black on a yellow back-
ground.

Sign 7308, when displaying the STOP face,


requires that a driver of a vehicle should stop
such vehicle at the point indicated by the flag-
men, AND, when displaying the SLOW face,
requires that a driver of a vehicle should proceed
slowly through the restricted work area until
advised otherwise by an appropriate road sign. Sign 7356

7.2.2.2 MANDATORY SIGNS


MAXIMUM WIDTH LIMIT sign 7356 should
All signs in this group may be used at roadworks be located 25 to 50 meters in advance of the lim-
sites, although TURN RIGHT (or LEFT) ited-width structure, preferably on both the right
AHEAD ONLY sign 7324 (or 7325) and PASS and left sides of the approach roadway. The width
EITHER SIDE sign 7326 are unlikely to be used. indicated within the sign should be at least 200
When used at roadworks the signs in this group millimeters less than the minimum width meas-
should have a black on yellow color code so that ured at the structure. The width should be
the arrow and border are black on a yellow back- expressed on the sign to the next lowest one-dec-
ground. It should be noted that the black border is imal place of a meter.
set in from the outer edge of the sign to leave a
thin outer yellow border. 7.2.2.4 PARKING CONTROL SIGNS

7.2.2.3 PROHIBITORY SIGNS Temporary prohibitory NO STOPPING signs


7371 to 7376 and NO PARKING signs 7377 to
All signs in this group may be used at roadworks 7382 in their various forms may be used at road-
sites. The signs retain their red border, and slash works or building construction sites in their tem-
where appropriate, and black symbols, but the porary form using a yellow background. When
background color should be yellow. such roadworks signs are used any conflicting
permanent prohibitory or permissive parking sign
The use of the roadworks version of NO OVER- which is in position on the section of road should
TAKING sign 7349 will be particularly relevant be covered or temporarily removed. The use of
on two-lane, two-way roads during the period temporary roadworks permissive parking signs is
when a new section of road has been surfaced but unlikely to be warranted. It is more practical,
pavement markings are not yet in place. when necessary, to modify the scope and extent
of existing permissive parking signs and to sim-
ply reposition these or to provide new signs.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.2.2.5 FREEWAY CONTROL SIGNS 7.2.3 WARNING SIGNS

END OF FREEWAY sign 7399 may be used, if All types of warning signs are particularly appro-
required, in a black on yellow form when road- priate in a roadworks environment, from the most
works on a freeway are such that the freeway can minor maintenance operation to the construction
no longer operate to the accepted standards of a of a new road or the rehabilitation of a freeway.
freeway. The majority of signs covered in Chapter 4 may
be used in a temporary capacity with a yellow
background. The most common of these are illus-
trated in Figures 7-3 and 7-4.

The meaning of the various roadworks signs


remains as stated in Chapter 4 although their
positional application may vary from that for nor-
mal warning signs. A number of signs which are
appropriate to use at roadworks only, and there-
fore to manufacture in the black on yellow color
code only, are covered in detail in the following
sections.

7.2.3.1 ADVANCE WARNING SIGNS

Sign 7399 Virtually all advance warning signs may be used


in a roadworks form. The most likely ones are
BEGINNING OF FREEWAY sign 398 should illustrated in Figure 7-3. The following advance
not be used in a temporary roadworks form. warning signs are, however, unique to roadworks
When a freeway has temporarily been downgrad- and not appropriate to a normal or "permanent"
ed during roadworks, a normal BEGINNING OF application.
FREEWAY sign 398 should be located beyond
the end of the work area to indicate a return to ROADWORKS SIGN 7441
normal freeway operation.
Sign 7441 warns drivers of vehicles that there are
roadworks ahead and that they should prepare to

Sign 7441

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

reduce speed and/or proceed with caution On the basis that it is commonly used as the first
through the work area and its approaches. sign, or pair of signs, in a sequence of roadworks
signs, sign 7441 should be located at a distance
ROADWORKS sign 7441 is the universal warn- from the start of any change in traffic conditions
ing sign for all levels of roadworks. It should be resulting from roadworks, as indicated in Table
carried by every municipal, service agency, or 7-1. A clear sight distance should be maintained
contractor's gang. Sign 7441 may also be dis- to the sign whenever possible.
played within a high-visibility background as the
first advance warning sign in a sequence of road- When the approach speed to a roadworks site is
works signs preceding a major work site or over 60 km/h, sign 7441 should be placed on both
detour around such a site (i.e., at the start of an the right and left side of the carriageway on dual-
advance warning area). In all situations except carriageway roads.
the most minor work site, sign 7441 should be
used in conjunction with a SUPPLEMENTARY At a major roadworks site, ROADWORKS sign
PLATE sign 7589 mounted below the sign dis- 7441 may be used more than once in a sequence
playing the distance to the site. of signs within an advance warning area and it
may be used locally to specifically warn of the
presence of workers close to the roadway within

Table 7-1
Location of Roadworks Sign 7441
Approach Speed Required Speed Distance Of (First)
Typical Roadworks
(85th percentile) Reduction Sign 7441 From Start (1)
Condition
(km/h) (km/h) (meters)
20 1000 minimum
100 or more 2000 minimum
40 or more
1. Lane drop/deviation/major 1000 preferred
80 20 or more 600 minimum
works
600 preferred
60 20(2) 300 minimum
100 (3) 600-300
2. Maintenance work off roadway 200-100
60 (3)
100 20 600-300
3. Maintenance work on shoulder 300-200
60 (3)
20 800
4. Mobile maintenance (with 100 1000
40
adjustment if work requires a
similar treatment to item 1) (4) 20 600
60 600
40
5. Temporary traffic signal or 100 100 600 minimum
“STOP-SLOW” control 60 60 200-150
6. Community environment, local 100 preferred
road narrowing, or service 40-60 20 60-30 minimum
work
NOTES:
1. The “start” of the roadworks site means the point where a transition area begins, or if one is not
used, where the work area commences.
2. If the work situation is within a community the requirements given in item 6 may be considered more
appropriate.
3. The driver reaction required is one of “caution” and a preparedness to slow down if necessary,
rather than an immediate speed reduction.
4. Mobile maintenance operations require considerable care in the management of approaching traffic.
Lane drops or detours may prove essential to safe operation. The advance sign(s) for a mobile
operation should move with the work so that they are never more than 2000 meters in advance of
the work.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

a roadworks zone. It is recommended that sign


7441 also be used at the end of a construction site
when traffic is returned to normal conditions, as
a courtesy to drivers, with a SUPPLEMENTARY
PLATE sign 7589 mounted below the sign dis-
playing the message "END" in Arabic and in
English.

Sign 7441 should be pole mounted for all instal-


lations covered by Table 7-1 or similar situations,
with the exception of very short term or mobile
work when the sign may be mounted on a mov-
able stand.

FLAGMAN AHEAD SIGN 7442 Sign 7443

7.2.3.2 HAZARD MARKER SIGNS


Sign 7442 warns road users that there is a flag-
man ahead and they should take note of his sig-
In a similar way to the normal applications of
nals and be prepared to reduce speed or stop if
hazard marker signs, temporary versions of the
required to do so.
signs should be used extensively in roadworks
areas to warn road users of the specific position
of hazardous obstructions. The signs are illustrat-
ed in Figure 7-3.

HAZARD PLATE signs 7451 and 7452 and SIN-


GLE CHEVRON signs 7454 and 7455 may both
be used in addition to, or in place of, traffic cones
to delineate curves and tapers within a roadworks
zone. For such an application the signs and their
support materials should be manufactured from
plastic or similar deformable materials which are
suitable for the application of retroreflective
materials (see Section 7.3.5).

Sign 7442 7.2.3.3 DIAGRAMMATIC WARNING


SIGNS

This class of warning sign has great potential to


FLAGMAN AHEAD sign 7442 may be used in
assist drivers to negotiate roadworks sites safely.
very short-term situations (e.g., at an accident site
In general they are recommended for use in
within a roadworks zone) or in more permanent
advance of the start of a transition area in con-
conditions where the hazard is particularly severe
junction with appropriate SUPPLEMENTARY
or for traffic control purposes (see Section 7.4).
PLATE sign 7589. It is also recommended prac-
tice to locate signs on both sides of a roadway
A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indi-
and, in addition, to repeat this treatment approxi-
cating the distance to the flagman should be
mately 200 meters closer to the transition area. In
mounted below the sign. The sign should be
this way drivers are given a pictorial representa-
located on the right side of the roadway at a dis-
tion of the approaching change in circumstances
tance from the flagman as indicated in Table 4-1
up to four times before they actually reach the
and with a clear sight distance. Sign 7443 may be
point of change.
used in place of sign 7442 when appropriate.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Typical of the conditions which occur at road- A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indi-
works sites and which may be depicted on tem- cating the distance to the median detour may be
porary diagrammatic warning signs are: mounted below the sign.

• Lane drops or closures (only ONE lane drop REDUCED WIDTH OF ROADWAY SIGNS
per transition area or per sign). 7474 TO 7478
• Diversions through a median island or onto a
service road or separately constructed detour
road.
• Pavement narrowing.
• An indication of additional lanes ahead in
order to reduce the risk of impatient drivers
overtaking too soon in an unsafe manner.
• Additional lanes where these may not be
expected and may result in increased traffic
friction.
• Lane use control by goods vehicles within
roadworks.
• Lane merging conditions.
Sign 7474 Sign 7475
Signs appropriate to many of these conditions are
described in Chapter 4. The following signs are Signs 7474 to 7478 warn drivers of vehicles that
additional examples which are appropriate to use the roadway they are traveling on is reduced in
at roadworks. width over a considerable distance and is bor-
dered by a barrier or excavation.
MEDIAN DETOUR SIGNS 7467 TO 7470
REDUCED WIDTH OF ROADWAY signs 7474
Signs 7467 to 7470 warn drivers of vehicles that to 7478 may be warranted and used under similar
the roadway they are traveling on will detour conditions to those stated for signs 465 and 466
through a median or barrier, executing a reverse in Chapter 4.
curve in the process.
A SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 indi-
cating the distance over which the hazard exists
may be mounted below the sign.

A representative selection of temporary diagram-


matic warning signs is illustrated in Figure 7-4.
When a new concept is considered for a sign face
design, care must be exercised to adhere to the
standard design criteria given in Chapter 4.
Alternative diagrammatic warning sign face
designs must be approved by the Department
prior to implementation.
Sign 7469 Sign 7470
Throughout the text of this section references
have been made to the use of SUPPLEMEN-
MEDIAN DETOUR signs 7467 to 7470 may be TARY PLATE sign 7589. These signs are purely
warranted and used under similar conditions to information signs without a specific regulatory,
those stated for signs 465 and 466 in Chapter 4. warning or guidance function. They should,
therefore, not be used on their own. Their func-
tion is to clarify the point to which a regulatory or
warning sign applies (distance "to" or distance

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

"for") or the degree of severity of the hazard to be reused many times when they have to be
(advisory speed) or to give other general infor- repositioned, simply by changing the supplemen-
mation (end). tary plates.

Because regulatory sign messages normally 7.2.4 GUIDE SIGNS


apply from the point at which the sign is placed,
the use of SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign Amended guide signs indicating destination
7589 with regulatory signs is relatively infre- names are only likely to be required at major
quent. It is also a basic principle governing the roadworks or where a diversion or detour is in
use of regulatory signs that they should not nor- place as a result of roadworks.
mally be used to "warn" of a regulation coming
into force up ahead. While this principle should In the simplest of cases, where the detour leads
also apply to roadworks the likelihood that it may without any risk of misdirection back onto the
be necessary to apply the principle with discre- original road, CHEVRON DIRECTION sign
tion is greater as a result of roadworks. When the 7515 may be used. These signs should display the
need to indicate the existence of a regulation word "Detour" in Arabic and English. Sign 7515
ahead arises, and this requires some action by may be positioned strategically through the
drivers before reaching the point of its applica- detour, pointing to the right or left as appropriate,
tion, it is recommended that a custom-designed as the detour changes direction. It will therefore
sign be used rather than a supplementary plate. commonly supplement roadworks cones, delin-
This should generally be a map or pictorial sign eators, or SINGLE CHEVRON signs 7454 and
and may include a regulatory sign. 7455. In such instances, advance signing using
appropriate diagrammatic warning signs, without
In a roadworks environment SUPPLEMEN- destination names, is likely to be adequate.
TARY PLATE sign 7589 should be used with the
majority of warning signs to enhance the clarity When a diversion or detour is such that drivers
of their message for the following reasons: may be confused as to which direction to take in
order to reach their intended destination, existing
• The visual clutter of roadworks sites makes it direction signs should be amended or replaced to
otherwise difficult to correlate the sign with convey the correct messages. Under such circum-
the situation ahead of which it is warning. stances, when an existing sign still remains cor-
• Drivers are commonly subjected to more fre- rect in part, the alterations should be indicated
quent messages affecting the driving task either:
(not only from road signs) that may affect
their ability to judge conditions accurately. • By overlaying the altered destination mes-
• When used on successive signs in a sequence sage with the correct one using a temporary
of signs to give drivers a sense of rate of plate with a yellow background and black let-
progress or a "countdown" into the site. tering, or
• By covering the incorrect message and erect-
SUPPLEMENTARY PLATE sign 7589 is not ing a separate additional temporary sign indi-
appropriate with hazard-marker warning signs, cating the appropriate revised direction in
only with signs used in advance of a hazard such black legend on a yellow background.
as advance warning signs or diagrammatic warn-
ing signs placed in advance of the conditions to If the route is altered to the extent that most or all
which they apply. of the directions on the sign are altered in some
way, it is recommended that a new sign be used
It is generally recommended that supplementary in advance of the junction in accordance with the
plates for use with roadworks signs not be manu- positioning criteria given in Chapter 5. If there is
factured in one piece with the relevant sign but any doubt about the geometric standard of the
are manufactured as separate signs and attached detour or if the destinations are substantially
to the same support as the sign they are supple- rearranged, a new sign should be erected with a
menting. This will allow the larger warning signs

Version 0.1 7-16


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

yellow background and black letters, arrows, and they are impacted by a vehicle the damage to the
borders. Otherwise existing direction signs may vehicle is limited and the risk of injury to work-
be retained. However, the mixed use of typical ers is minimized.
guide signs and roadworks guide signs through-
out the length of a detour may be confusing or Many of the channelization devices listed above
disorienting for drivers. If a detour is to be in are used in multiples at regularly spaced inter-
place for some time or if a detour is long, typical vals. When the construction project is of even a
guide signs should be replaced by roadworks few hours duration the devices are likely to be
guide signs throughout the length of the detour, disturbed from their original alignment due to
regardless of whether the typical guide signs being struck, due to construction activities, and
offer accurate guidance and information. commonly as a result of the air displacement of
passing vehicles. Under such circumstances they
In order to reduce costs of such relatively large will quickly cease to perform their intended col-
temporary direction signs to more acceptable lective function of providing alignment guidance.
limits, the information displayed for temporary Sections of channelization devices must therefore
direction may be limited to the display of the be regularly patrolled and "repaired" either by
route number shields only on temporary route repositioning of devices or by replacement if the
marker signs and temporary trailblazer signs (see devices are no longer capable of achieving their
Figure 7-5). individual function.

7.3 CHANNELIZATION When setting out a medium- to long-term section


of channelization it is a recommended practice
DEVICES
that the required positions of movable channel-
ization devices be marked on the road surface
7.3.1 GENERAL using small paint marks. This will enable devices
to be repositioned or replaced with a minimum
Channelization devices are elements of the total effort and with minimum exposure of workers to
system of traffic control devices used at road- the hazards of passing traffic. This same spot
works sites to provide the safest possible envi- marking technique may be used for maintenance
ronment for road users and workers. The function operations, which will go on for several days, but
of channelization devices is to alert road users to which are put in place every morning and
alterations in the roadway alignment or width removed every evening.
resulting from construction activities. Their use is
particularly relevant when such changes in align-
7.3.2 PAVEMENT MARKINGS
ment create hazardous or potentially hazardous
circumstances for road users.
Pavement markings comprise two specific types
of channelization device, namely:
Channelization devices should be used within
transition areas, stabilization areas, work zones
• Flush markings normally applied in the form
and termination areas (see Figure 7-1). They
of paint or thermoplastic materials, or
should be placed so as to provide a smooth and
• Raised markings.
gradual change of alignment or width of road-
way. They may also be used in small numbers on
There are two main factors related to pavement
a very localized basis at small maintenance work
marking that are relevant to their use within
sites.
roadworks sites:
The range of channelization devices available
• The need to maintain, modify, or remove
includes, but is not limited to, pavement mark-
existing pavement markings during the road-
ings, cones, drums, barriers, barricades, delin-
works period, and
eators, and other individual illumination devices.
• The need for additional temporary pavement
All vertically positioned channelization devices
markings as part of the channelization treat-
should be constructed so that in the event that

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ment required to control the use of a road- way alignment involving traffic shifts within
works site. roadworks should not be undertaken if site
resources, in terms of manpower and/or equip-
The effect of both of these factors is very much ment, are not available to achieve a safe and
dependent on the duration of the work to be effective result.
undertaken. Due to the relative difficulty of
removing and applying pavement markings, par- Irrespective of the duration of the work, such
ticularly when traffic still occupies the section of inspections should take particular note of pave-
road, short-term modification may be costly to ment markings which might inadvertently lead
achieve. This factor must be born in mind at the drivers away from the intended path. If a barrier
time that roadworks traffic control plans are being or barricade is placed across any lane line or cen-
prepared so that the need to remove and apply terline marking in such a way that any lane leads
temporary pavement markings is minimized. straight into the barrier, steps must be taken
immediately to remove this visual hazard. For
7.3.2.1 PAINTED MARKINGS short-term situations the relevant sections of road
marking should be obliterated by using black,
In terms of color, shape, and dimensions there are textured, pressure-sensitive tape. This tape can be
no differences between permanent and temporary applied simply and quickly and can normally be
pavement markings. The enhanced line-to-gap removed with little difficulty. This action should
ratio of broken line markings may be used to be taken under appropriate circumstances even
improve the visual effect of temporary pavement for work which will only last for four to eight
markings, particularly when these are used with hours. When a lane is temporarily closed to traf-
reduced geometric standards(see Chapter 6 for fic the same technique should be adapted so that
details). the lane line markings are hidden over the full
length of the tapering section. The only accept-
Painted pavement markings have the limitation able alternative action is to use flagmen to warn
that they may be obliterated or rendered ineffec- and control approaching traffic, but if work is not
tive very easily due to: completed by nightfall, attention must be paid to
this hazardous aspect of the existing markings.
• Heavy traffic volumes.
• Resurfacing operations on an adjacent sec- There is otherwise likely to be little need for
tion of road. temporary painted markings at short-term work
• Wind-born dust and debris. sites of up to 72 hours duration. In such circum-
• Adverse weather conditions. stances adequate delineation can be achieved
using other channelizing devices to indicate mod-
Insofar as painted markings may be affected, ified vehicle paths.
short-term work is likely to be unplanned or reac-
tive (e.g., a localized and urgent need to repair a Subject to the ease with which paint marking
service or some similar circumstance). In con- equipment may be used within a detour, longer
trast, medium- to long-term work should involve tasks lasting up to two weeks may be marked,
some degree of planning for pavement marking. when necessary, using similar white pressure-
sensitive marking tapes. (Where two-way traffic
When construction or maintenance work lasting is in operation, yellow pressure-sensitive mark-
more than one work shift necessitates modified ing tapes should be used.) For tasks of this dura-
vehicle paths through the work site, day and night tion it will not normally be necessary to mark or
drive-through checks should be made by the remark edge lines.
work supervisor or site safety officer to evaluate
the safety and effectiveness of the revised or For planned work that is expected to last more
temporary pavement markings. This drive- than two weeks, painted markings on the various
through inspection should occur, if at all possible, temporary alignments should be applied using
before any new section of a detour or a modified conventional equipment. Any redundant painted
roadway is opened to traffic. Revisions to road- markings must also be removed at this time,

Version 0.1 7-18


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

preferably by using high-pressure water blasting. markings subject to the same rules regarding
This treatment leaves a minimum of pavement color and spacing as are given for permanent
scars and completely removes old markings. applications in Chapter 6.
Blacking out existing markings or using harsher
removal techniques is not recommended as these Permanent and temporary raised pavement mark-
methods leave residual lines that, under adverse ers may be used to provide an audible warning to
light conditions, can appear as clearly as a paint- drivers that they are straying off the intended
ed marking, resulting in significant confusion for vehicle path. This application may often be war-
drivers. If removal methods such as sand-blasting ranted at roadworks due to the common use of
are used, care should be taken to avoid leaving reduced geometric standards. In such circum-
these residual or phantom lines. stances raised pavement marker spacing should
be reduced over short localized distances if
The planning of medium- to long-term work, appropriate. Permanent and temporary raised
which will require regular and significant alter- pavement markers may also be used to increase
ations to pavement markings, must take specific the visibility of longitudinal pavement markings
account of the need to mark, remove, and remark and thereby their alignment and the visibility of
lines on a regular basis over a common section of gore areas when roadways split.
roadway. Minimizing this aspect of the work
should be an integral part of the preparation of Temporary raised pavement markings may be
the roadworks traffic control plans. The follow- used to completely replace longitudinal paint
ing factors should be given consideration: markings when the latter will be subject to con-
siderable wear and it will be difficult to regularly
• The use of short-life paint, which will not maintain them. Raised pavement markers used in
require much removal effort (e.g., a water- this manner can also be very effective in keeping
based paint). vehicles in their own lanes (raised pavement
• The use of pressure-sensitive tapes. markers should therefore not be used over sec-
• The use of removable raised pavement mark- tions of detour where merging or weaving move-
ers (see Section 7.3.2.2). ments are required). When used in this manner
raised pavement markers should be spaced at
The above factors are also relevant when paint approximately one meter centers so that four
markings are temporarily required on intermedi- raised pavement markers will replace a three
ate surfacing levels during phases of construc- meter paint marking.
tion.
Temporary raised pavement markers should be
When a road construction project is complete and applied to the road surface using an approved
ready for opening to traffic, all road markings non-hardening adhesive mastic to permit their
must be in place in accordance with the road- removal for realignment and/or re-use as neces-
marking design and the provisions of Chapter 6 sary. The approved adhesive must not only per-
before the road is opened. mit such removal but must also resist movement
under vehicle impact.
7.3.2.2 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS
7.3.3 CONES
Raised pavement markers used for temporary
applications have the same functions as perma- Traffic cones are a very visible type of traffic
nent markers, namely: control device used for channelization purposes.
They have the capability to be deployed quickly
• To supplement other markings. in emergency situations, a worker can carry sev-
• As vehicle positioning guides. eral at a time with ease and they can be stored in
• As a substitute for other markings. a compact manner. When used at close spacings
they can effectively delineate any type of tempo-
Raised pavement markers may be used as a form rary alignment within a roadworks site.
of temporary marking to supplement painted

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.3.3.1 TRAFFIC CONE DEVICE 7459 • The color of all cones should be fluorescent
red or red-orange.
Traffic device 7459 is a nondirectional device • The base should be sufficiently heavy to bal-
which, by virtue of the number used at closely last the cone to withstand air buffeting from
spaced centers, warns road users of a short-term vehicles passing at 60 km/h (the base may be
realignment of a lane or roadway. designed to accept additional ballast such as
sandbags provided this is designed in such a
way that it does not create any additional
hazard).
• Any cone used during the hours of twilight,
darkness and/or dawn should be fitted with a
yellow sleeve of retroreflective material so
that this sleeve occupies approximately the
middle third of the height of the cone. This
sleeve should have a smooth sealed outer sur-
face and should have the same effective color
by day and by night.

7.3.3.3 CONE APPLICATIONS

TRAFFIC CONES control device 7459 should


Device 7459 be the primary channelization device used to
define roadway alignment in the form of:
7.3.3.2 CONE DESIGN PARAMETERS
• Tapers, including lane drops.
TRAFFIC CONES device 7459 should conform • Sharp curves.
to the following design requirements: • Reverse curves, including median cross-
overs.
• They should be conical in shape and manu- • Reduced roadway width adjacent to the work
factured from a material capable of with- site.
standing many impacts without sustaining • Traffic islands, including traffic circles.
damage and without risk of damage to vehi- • Localized hazard marking particularly at
cles or injury to workers. minor work sites.
• They should have a hollow construction and
be capable of being stacked one inside the The traffic cones may be placed on one side or
other to fit into compact spaces. both sides of a roadway. Table 7-2 gives the rec-
• The minimum height for use at minor works ommended spacing between cones for various
and emergency or accident sites should be applications.
450 millimeters.
• The minimum height for use on arterial roads Cone spacing may be reduced if necessary to
and freeways should be 750 millimeters and improve visual effectiveness of temporary road-
1000 millimeters respectively. way alignments. Cone spacing should be set at 6
• The nominal diameter of the cones at their meters when the work area is 200 meters or less
base should be: in length. Cone spacings in excess of 50 meters
will permit drivers to easily enter a work area and
- 250 millimeters for a height of 450 mil- are not recommended. Spacings set in the upper
limeters. range may be reduced around curves with a
- 400 millimeters for a height of 750 mil- radius in the range of 300 meters to 600 meters.
limeters.
- 500 millimeters for a height of 1000 mil- When cones are also intended to provide a visual
limeters. restriction or channelization of pedestrian move-
ment, 1000-millimeter-high cones should be used

Version 0.1 7-20


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Table 7-2
Recommended Cone Spacings
Center-to-Center
Temporary Condition Cone Spacing
(meters)
Transition Area Taper
1 in 10 or less 2
1 in 20 4
1 in 30 6
1 in 40 or more 8
Transition Area Crossover
curve radius under 60 meters 1
curve radius over 60 meters 2-4
Stabilization or Work Area (assumed to be straight) 6-20
Long Straight Work Areas (including maintenance work areas) 20-50
Localized Minor Work Area 1-2

and placed at two-meter maximum spacing. Such way or from entering an area closed for road-
cones should be physically interconnected by works or other special operations.
either a purpose-made, rigid barricade panel or
by nylon rope with yellow and red strips of plas- Barricades are temporary portable devices used
tic warning tape — "tiger tape" — securely fixed to demarcate areas that are not open to traffic in
at third points between. the form of vehicles or pedestrians. Such areas
commonly include the stabilization area (or
Precautions must be taken to ensure that cones buffer zone) in advance of a work area or local-
remain in their intended position both from a safe- ized minor excavations.
ty and from a site efficiency and effectiveness
point of view. For long-term installations bases 7.3.4.1 BARRICADE DEVICE 7460
may be fixed to the road surface with an approved
nonhardening removable adhesive. When a more Traffic device 7460 is a nondirectional barricade
adjustable installation is required, the base of the which warns road users, both pedestrians and
cone must be ballasted sufficiently to resist the drivers, of a hazard in their path beyond which
buffeting caused by passing vehicles. they should not proceed. The device may be used
to demarcate work areas, including footpaths and
The target value of cones used in a localized minor excavations to improve the conspicuous-
manner at roadworks sites may be increased by ness of such areas during construction, mainte-
inserting a red flag in the top of one or more nance, or repair and when it is not necessary to
cones. Similarly lighting devices may be located specifically indicate a direction of movement.
on top of selected cones to enhance their con-
spicuousness both by day and night.

Traffic cones used for channelization purposes Device 7460


may be supplemented by more directional chan-
nelizing devices such as delineators (see Section
7.3.5). 7.3.4.2 BARRIER AND BARRICADE
DESIGN PARAMETERS
7.3.4 BARRIERS AND BARRICADES
The most commonly used types of barrier are the
Barriers are permanent or temporary devices steel W-section guardrail and the concrete barri-
placed on or adjacent to the roadway at haz- er. Both types may be used for temporary instal-
ardous locations that are capable of physically lation during roadworks when safety require-
preventing vehicles from leaving the traveled ments match those specified for their normal per-
manent application. The design parameters for

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

temporary installations of these barriers should CHEVRON signs 7456 and 7457 should com-
conform to those applicable to a permanent prise a minimum of three chevrons for unidirec-
installation. Concrete barriers may, however, be tional barricades and six chevrons (three right
used in a "portable" form in the sense that they plus three left) for bidirectional barricades.
are placed on the road surface in a temporary Optionally, one or more KEEP RIGHT (or LEFT)
position and may be moved about, using the signs 7327 (or 7328) may be mounted on top of a
appropriate equipment. When manufactured for unidirectional barricade for additional directional
use in this manner, temporary concrete barriers visual impact. The height of the MULTIPLE
should be provided with some form of proven CHEVRON sign should be 400 millimeters for
connecting device. This may be as simple as pro- approach speeds of 60 km/h or less and 600 mil-
viding recesses near the top and bottom of each limeters for higher approach speeds. The barri-
end of a section of barrier to permit the use of cade should be mounted so that the lower edge is
coupling plates which will allow the barrier to be at least 1200 millimeters above ground level in
bolted together. Heavy vehicular impact with order to be clearly seen above any other channel-
such connected portable concrete barriers may ization devices such as traffic cones.
result in limited movement of one or more barri-
ers. If zero deflection under impact is required, BARRICADE control device 7460 should be
the portable barriers must be pinned to the road 200-millimeters, 300-millimeters, or 400-mil-
surface on which they are placed, in addition to limeters high and five modules long, giving
being connected together longitudinally. lengths of 1000 millimeters, 1500 millimeters or
2000 millimeters.
Barricades may be directional or nondirectional.
Directional barricades should comprise a combi- The various types of barricades are illustrated in
nation of temporary MULTIPLE CHEVRON Figure 7-6 and Figure 7-7.
signs 7456 and 7457 and KEEP RIGHT (or
LEFT) sign 7327 (or 7328). The MULTIPLE

SIGN 7327

SIGN 7328 SIGN 7327

SIGN 7457 SIGN 7456

Detail 7-6-1: Minimum Barricade, Left Detail 7-6-2: Enhanced Barricade, Right
(directional) (directional)

Mandatory Signs 7321 to 7328 SHALL NOT be used with SIGN 7458

SIGN 7458

Detail 7-6-3: T-Junction (Road Closed Ahead) Barricade


(directional)
Figure 7-6
Examples of Directional Barricade Devices

Version 0.1 7-22


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

1 meter minimum
2 meters maximum

200 mm to
300 mm

45º
1.0 meter

mm
mm
minimum

0
150

15
Type of
support
varies

2 meters minimum

200 mm to
300 mm

2.0 meter
minimum 500 mm

45º
mm
mm

150
0
15

Figure 7-7
Examples of Nondirectional Barricade Devices

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.3.4.3 BARRIER AND BARRICADE more and should taper from the edge of the trav-
APPLICATIONS eled way at a rate of 1 in 6 or preferably 1 in 10.
If such a treatment is not possible the end of the
The primary temporary application of barriers as barrier must be offset as much as possible and be
described above is to prevent vehicles leaving the tapered over at least three sections of barrier (6
traveled way or from entering the work area. meters) to a height of not more than 200 mil-
Their use should be determined by engineering limeters. The offset end must then be protected
analysis but is likely to be particularly relevant by some informal form of “crash cushion” such
under the following circumstances and when as sandbags or tires.
high volumes of traffic are present:
Barricades should be provided behind all tapers
• When a roadway is diverted from its normal formed by cones or delineators at major road-
path through a small radius curve (barriers works sites when the approach speed of traffic is
may be required on one or both sides of the 60 km/h or more. For any taper of 100 meters or
roadway). more in length, two barricades should be provid-
• To replace a wide median when this has to be ed at approximately one-quarter and three-quar-
eliminated to reduce road cross-section width ters of the distance along the taper (see Section
as part of the roadworks. 8.4). Barriers may be used in a similar way at any
• To separate opposing streams of traffic on a other part of a deviation or detour when a shift in
specially constructed detour roadway. traffic alignment is required and space is avail-
• To protect vulnerable roadside features able to accommodate the signs.
against the risk of vehicle impact.
The use of barriers at minor works is not gener-
In the majority of the above situations, a tempo- ally warranted unless same specific circumstance
rary barrier will also act as a channelization such as poor sight distance or competition from
device. In order that it can satisfy this function it advertising lighting is making visibility of the
should be light in color or conspicuously marked. work area difficult for drivers. However, it may
A barrier may be used in conjunction with other be necessary to protect a localized excavation
channelization devices such as traffic cones or from encroachment by vehicles or pedestrians. In
delineators. When used at a sharp change of this case the use of nondirectional BARRICADE
direction it is recommended that the alignment of device 7460 may be appropriate.
the barrier be made clear by means of SINGLE or
MULTIPLE DELINEATOR signs 7454 to 7457 7.3.5 DELINEATORS
mounted on or above the barrier at recommended
intervals (see Section 7.3.5). Warning lights may Delineators are channelization devices which
be used (see Section 7.3.8). may be used to delineate a temporary roadway
alignment. It is their function to impart a strong
The W-section guardrail (or other similar steel directional message, either to the right or to the
guardrails) does not lend itself to frequent reposi- left.
tioning and should therefore only be considered
for medium- to long-term installation (six weeks 7.3.5.1 DELINEATOR SIGNS 7454 AND
or more). 7455

The introduction of short sections of temporary Signs 7454 and 7455 are temporary versions of
barrier should be avoided if possible. The risk of hazard marker signs called DELINEATORS
vehicular impact on the end of an introduced bar- which, due to their ability to impart a directional
rier should be mitigated by whatever means pos- message, warn road users of a hazard in their path
sible. Temporary guardrail must be provided with on a medium- to long-term realignment of a lane
the same standard of end treatment as is specified or roadway and indicate the direction of move-
for permanent installations. Approach ends of ment necessary to avoid the delineated hazard.
portable concrete barriers should be offset from
the path of approaching traffic by 6 meters or

Version 0.1 7-24


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

riers, as close to the top as possible, or they


should be securely mounted on top of the barri-
ers.

Signs 7454 and 7455 should not be used individ-


ually as hazard markers. The temporary version
of HAZARD MARKER signs 7451 or 7452
Sign 7454 Sign 7455 should rather be used for this purpose.
7.3.5.2 DELINEATOR DESIGN
7.3.6 OBJECT MARKERS
PARAMETERS
Object markers may prove useful in a roadworks
Temporary DELINEATORS signs 7454 and
traffic control situation. As the use of object
7455 should conform to the dimensions given for
markers in a roadworks situation is the same as in
signs 454 and 455. The minimum size of a
a typical application, instructions and guidance
DELINEATOR sign is 400 millimeters by 400
for their use is the same as covered in Section 6.7.
millimeters. Larger sizes may be used provided
sufficient space is available to accommodate the
sign. 7.3.7 DRUM DEVICE 7461

7.3.5.3 DELINEATOR APPLICATIONS Drums are cylindrical containers used for chan-
nelization or delineation. Drums should have a
Delineators should be used to demarcate a minimum height of at least 800 mm and a mini-
change in alignment in exactly the same way as mum diameter of at least 500 mm. The markings
SINGLE CHEVRON RIGHT (or LEFT) signs on each drum should consist of at least two hori-
454 (or 455) as described in Section 4.3.2. They zontal reflecting yellow and two red bands that
may be used on their own or to supplement other completely encircle the drum. Each such band
channelization devices such as traffic cones or should be between 100 mm and 200 mm in width
barriers that do not give a directional message. and if there are nonreflectorized bands between
The signs should normally be located on the out- the horizontal red and yellow stripes, they should
side of a sharp curve although they may be used be a maximum of 50 mm wide. Only plastic
on both sides of a curve particularly when a Warning light
(optional)
reverse curve is being signed.

When used with traffic cones, delineators should


be mounted on separate supports (i.e., not
attached to the cones) and at such a height that
Minimum total 100-200 mm
they are clearly visible above the top of the height: 800 mm
cones. They should be spaced according to Table
4-3 although in cases of very sharp temporary 100-200 mm
alignment it may be beneficial to reduce these
spacings. Care should be taken to ensure that all
delineators are mounted at a common height 100-200 mm
above the road surface so that when seen by driv-
ers as a series of signs they indicate changes in
vertical elevation as well as horizontal alignment. 100-200 mm
Delineator signs 7454 and 7455 may also be used
above and behind sections of temporary guardrail
May be
used on curving alignments. They should be used nonreflective
with portable concrete barriers when these are
placed around curves. In this case the signs
should be attached to the vertical face of the bar- Device 7461

7-25 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

drums should be used. The red and yellow bands These lights are intended for use on maintenance
should be reflectorized with a material that has a and construction work with warnings signs, bar-
smooth, sealed outer surface, which will have ricades, drums, reflecting panels, or other
approximately the same color both day and night. devices.

Drums should not be weighed with rocks, con- Three types of light are available, namely:
crete, asphalt, sand, or any other substance to the
extent that they become hazardous to motorists if • Low-intensity flashing warning light (ITE
struck. Generally, no more than 250 mm of sand Type A).
or similar material in the bottom of a drum will • High-intensity flashing warning light (ITE
be sufficient to prevent it from being moved by Type B).
the wind and passing vehicles. Each drum should • Steady-burn light (ITE Type C).
have drain holes in its bottom to release accumu-
lated water. (NOTE: The Institute of Transportation
Engineers [ITE] purchase specification for flash-
Where drums are placed in the roadway, advance ing and steady-burn warning lights is to be used
warning signs should also be used. with respect to color, size of lens, flash-rate, and
minimum "on-time" when calling for the supply
During the hours of darkness, warning or delin- of warning lights).
eation lights may be placed on drums in the man-
ner described in Section 7.3.8.1. Arrow signs Warning and delineation lights should be
may be mounted on the top of drums where nec- attached by vandal-resistant fasteners to warning
essary. and channelization devices. When the lights are
placed on barricades, they should be mounted
7.3.8 ILLUMINATED DEVICES with the bottom of the lens approximately 1
meter above the ground.
Despite the highest levels of attention to the safe-
ty aspects of road construction and maintenance Flashing and steady-burn yellow warning lights
activities circumstances do occur which drivers should have a minimum mounting height to the
cannot be expected to anticipate and therefore bottom of the lens of 1000 millimeters above the
detect a hazard. This is particularly the case at road surface. Type A lights must also be capable
night when drivers' vision and field of view is of sustaining 24-hour operation with a low rate of
sharply reduced. failure and should be visible on a clear night from
a distance of 900 meters. Type B lights should be
Under these conditions it is often desirable to visible on a sunny day, without the sun being
supplement retroreflective signs and channeliza- directly on or behind the light, from a distance of
tion devices with illuminated devices. These can 300 meters. The higher-intensity light may need
take a number of forms, the most appropriate of to be fitted with a dimming device for use during
which are: night-time.

• Flashing yellow warning lights. 7.3.8.2 WARNING ARROW PANELS


• Steady-burn yellow warning lights. SIGN 7462
• Yellow warning arrow panels.
Yellow warning arrow panels should conform to
7.3.8.1 WARNING AND DELINEATION the general requirements given in Table 7-3. The
LIGHTS minimum legibility requirements given in the
table are based on the concept of conforming to
Yellow warning lights should consist of a decision sight distance requirements and requires
portable, enclosed, lens-directed, battery-operat- driver comprehension on a sunny day or a clear
ed light which should be capable of being illumi- night.
nated to flash or operate in a steady-burn mode.

Version 0.1 7-26


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Sign 7462 (typical)

Table 7-3
Warning Arrow Panels
Type Minimum Size Minimum Number Minimum Lamp Minimum Legibility
of Panel Lamps Candlepower Distance
1 600 mm x 1200 mm 12 1000 800 m
2 750 mm x 1500 mm 13 7000 1200 m
3 1200 mm x 2400 mm 15 8800 1600 m

The arrow panels should be rectangular, solidly Warning arrow panels should be capable of vari-
constructed, and finished in a semi-matt black able operation so that any of the following modes
material. The panels may be mounted on fixed may be selected:
supports or on a trailer or vehicle. The minimum
height to the underside of the sign from the road • Left flashing arrow.
surface should be 2.2 meters although it is rec- • Right flashing arrow.
ommended that vehicle-mounted panels be posi- • Left and right flashing arrows.
tioned as high as is practical. • A general caution indication involving the
use of four or more lamps in a nondirection-
Warning arrow panels should also conform to the al pattern.
following requirements:
Recent advancements in display technologies
• They should be capable of being dimmed to have paved the way for light emitting diode
50 percent of their rated lamp voltage. (LED) panels to be widely used in traffic-related
• The lamp flash rate should be between 25 display signs. LEDs are diodes that have been
and 40 flashes per minute. specially designed to emit light rather than heat
• The minimum lamp "on-time" should be 50 during their operations. The long duration life
percent for arrows. provided by LED-based technology as well as its
• The lamp (or lenses) should be recessed or inherent low power consumption requirements
provided with a screening hood to prevent considerably reduce the operating and mainte-
"phantom" effects caused by sunlight striking nance costs of the LED-based panel and dramat-
the lamps (or lenses). ically improves the visual display technology.
The LED panel is typically provided with an
electronic photo sensor device to reduce the light
output intensity automatically at night.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.3.8.3 ILLUMINATED DEVICE maintenance vehicles, is likely to be limited


APPLICATIONS although they may be beneficial at longer-term
fixed local maintenance sites.
Steady-burn warning lights (ITE Type C) are
appropriate for supplementing other forms of Warning arrow panels should also be used to
channelization device, if, after a drive-through supplement other traffic control devices used for
inspection of the site it is considered that the channelization purposes. While warning arrow
retroreflective devices used need further panels cannot be expected to solve difficult traf-
enhancement either by night or by day. Steady- fic problems by themselves, they may be effec-
burn warning lights may, for instance, be used in tive in reinforcing the intention of the other
conjunction with traffic cones to delineate the devices. Their use is particularly appropriate in
traveled way through detour tapers or curves. The the following circumstances:
recommended rate of use is one light to every
second cone (or at spacings equal to double the • To provide long-range warning of a tempo-
appropriate cone spacings if used with a continu- rary change in direction of a road, particular-
ous barrier; see Table 7-2). ly at the end of a long, straight approach.
• To similarly give long-range warning to driv-
Low-intensity flashing warning lights (ITE Type ers of a lane closure in support of standard
A) may be used to continually warn drivers of the diagrammatic warning signs.
commencement of a hazardous or potentially • To provide a high-visibility sign for slow-
hazardous area when they must exercise particu- moving maintenance operations when the
lar care. They may be used in conjunction with warning arrow panels should be mounted on
advance warning signs, barriers, or cones located a separate vehicle that is running at the rear
on the approach to a roadworks site. They should of the moving train of maintenance vehicles.
not be used for delineation purposes because a The vehicle carrying the arrow should also be
series of flashing lights may in fact make the equipped with other appropriate signs and
intended vehicle path less obvious. Long lines of with vehicle flashing lights.
uncoordinated but closely spaced flashing lights
may also create random fluctuating light patterns The most likely benefit to be achieved by using a
which could be distracting to drivers. long-range device such as the warning arrow
panel is that drivers will tend to change lanes in
High-intensity flashing warning lights (ITE Type the required direction (indicated by arrow) earli-
B) may be used in similar circumstances to low- er than they might otherwise do so, resulting in
intensity lights to identify the most serious of improved merging of the parallel traffic streams.
hazards. Their use is particularly appropriate If this is a requirement of the site under consider-
when a hazard is sufficiently severe that it needs ation, use of a warning arrow panel is warranted.
to be identified to drivers in daylight. The panel should be positioned in a safe position,
preferably behind other delineation devices, at
In certain circumstances, yellow rotating beacons the start of the taper or other change in direction.
may be used as an alternate form of ITE Type A Warning arrow panels can be particularly effec-
or Type B flashing warning lights. The light from tive on high-volume, high-speed roads when traf-
a rotating beacon is not directed, but is transmit- fic tends to obscure many of the other channel-
ted in all directions. As such. use of rotating bea- ization devices.
cons should be limited to vehicle-mounted appli-
cations (since changing vehicle positions relative Type 1 arrows are appropriate to low-speed urban
to traffic may make a unidirectional flashing light streets whereas Type 2 is appropriate for interme-
ineffective) or at fixed locations where misdirect- diate speeds and for moving maintenance opera-
ed light is screened such that uninvolved tions on high-speed roads. Type 3 arrow panels
motorists are not distracted. should be specified for high-volume, high-speed
traffic flows through construction sites (see Table
The application of warning lights during short- 7-3).
term maintenance activities, other than on the

Version 0.1 7-28


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

7.3.9 FLOODLIGHTING controls and the reasons for their use. It is also
essential that the workers involved in the traffic
From time-to-time, the work area of a roadworks control are well trained in their tasks.
zone will be floodlighted to permit construction
work to occur during hours of darkness. Such 7.4.1 HAND SIGNALING
may be particularly the case with maintenance
activities executed at nighttime to take advantage Hand signaling devices such as STOP-SLOW
of low traffic volumes. paddles, red flags, or warning lights may be used
manually to control traffic through restricted
Care must be taken to ensure that the placement work zones.
of floodlights do not result in light shining direct-
ly toward approaching traffic, creating glare in STOP-SLOW sign 7308 should be at least 600
the eyes of drivers. If floodlighting is used with- millimeters wide. It should be fitted with a rigid
in a roadworks zone the site safety officer should handle and should be made of light-weight rigid
check the adequacy of its placement. This is best or semirigid material. The sign should be retrore-
done by driving the roadworks zone in each flective for use at dusk, night, or dawn. STOP-
direction of travel to observe any floodlighting SLOW control may be used to control construc-
glare problems. tion vehicles as they enter the traffic stream with-
in a roadworks site, or it can be used to control
Roadways in a roadworks zone should be illumi- one-way movement within a site or alongside
nated for all high-speed or high-volume road- maintenance operations such as resealing or chip-
ways or in areas with difficult geometry. and-spray activities. The control requires two
Generally, the illumination of a roadworks area operators equipped with paddles, one at each end
should conform to the same lighting criteria of a section. The actions of the operators should
applicable for the permanent roadway it is locat- be controlled by means of hand-held two-way
ed on. The requirements of the Department for radios when the site is lengthy. One of the opera-
the permanent roadway should equally apply to tors should be nominated to be in charge of the
the roadworks zone. operation. The use of STOP-SLOW paddles on a
one-way section of road requires the allowance
7.4 OTHER FORMS OF of a clearance period during which both operators
should display a STOP indication. On long sites,
TRAFFIC CONTROL
operators should communicate with each other
regularly and should identify the last vehicle to
It is the nature of road construction and mainte-
enter the section if the ends of the section are not
nance sites that they cannot always work in a
inter-visible.
free-flow condition of vehicular and pedestrian
movement.
Red or fluorescent red flags, a minimum of 600
millimeters square, made of a durable and clean-
At some stage localized traffic control may
able material may be used to control traffic in a
become necessary when a major part of the site
similar manner by means of standard "STOP"
width needs to be occupied by workers and
signals. Red flags may also be used by a single
equipment. It should be the primary function of
flagman in a localized emergency situation to
any form of traffic control involving the occa-
warn traffic of another form of control ahead, or
sional stopping of traffic that it move vehicles
to take particular care and be prepared to stop if
and pedestrians as safely and effectively as pos-
necessary. Flagmen are responsible for traffic
sible through or around the work area while at the
safety and have a high degree of contact with the
same time protecting workers and equipment.
motorist. In selecting personnel to operate as
flagmen, site safety officers should look for the
When considering the use of the forms of traffic
following qualities:
control mentioned below it is essential that good
public relations be pursued through the various
news media by publicizing the existence of the

7-29 Version 0.1


TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

• Good physical condition including sight and driver of the last vehicle in the group following
hearing. the pilot car should be given a small red flag to
• Average intelligence. hand to the flagger at the other end of the section.
• Mental alertness. The pilot car should be light weight and easy to
• An ability to communicate with the public in handle. The name of the contractor or contracting
a courteous but firm manner. authority should be prominently displayed on the
• A neat appearance. vehicle. The pilot car sign should be visible from
• A strong sense of responsibility for the safe- the rear of the vehicle. A flashing yellow beacon
ty of the public and site staff. may be mounted on the top of a pilot car for addi-
tional identification.
Flagmen must wear high-visibility clothing in
fluorescent red or yellow. At night they should Two or more pilot cars may be needed to guide
wear a retroreflective vest or jacket of yellow, two-way traffic through a complex or hazardous
white, or in a patterned combination of these col- detour.
ors. Notwithstanding these requirements, care
must also be taken to ensure that the clothing of 7.4.3 TEMPORARY TRAFFIC
flagmen contrasts with their working environ- SIGNALS
ment and other colors may be necessary.
Temporary traffic signal installations may be used
Flagmen must be sited sufficiently far in front of in a similar manner to the hand signals described
a STOP position that drivers have enough time in in Section 7.4.1 to control alternating one-way
which to stop when required. They should stand traffic at a location within a roadworks site not
on the shoulder adjacent to the lane being con- normally subjected to such control.
trolled or in the closed lane, well clear of the trav-
eled way, within the protection of barricades if The equipment used should conform to all stan-
possible. Advance warning FLAGMAN AHEAD dards and specifications normally imposed for
sign 7442 (or STOP-SLOW CONTROL AHEAD the supply and installation of permanent traffic
sign 7443, as appropriate) must be in position signals except that the switching may be speci-
before the flagging operation starts. Under no fied to be manually operated or vehicle-actuated
circumstances should a flagman stand in a run- via temporary induction loops. The timing equip-
ning traffic lane. Flagmen should not allow other ment should be capable of being calibrated to
workers to congregate around their station. They offer sufficiently long all-red intervals between
should, as part of the their duties, be aware of directional switching to permit traffic to clear the
other workers in their vicinity who may be in controlled section before the release of an oppos-
danger if a driver fails to obey his signal, and ing flow.
should be able to issue an audible warning to
them. At night, flagman stations must be ade- Typical applications of such temporary traffic
quately illuminated. signals include:

7.4.2 PILOT CAR • One-way through sections of roadway adja-


cent to the work area (including maintenance
A pilot car can be used to guide a group of vehi- operations).
cles through a work area or detour. It is especial- • At temporary junctions on a detour or devia-
ly effective when the route is relatively long, haz- tion with temporary "haul" roads used by
ardous, complicated, or frequently changed. The construction vehicles and plant.
operation of the pilot car must be coordinated
with the flaggers at each end of the section, as in Any long one-way section of roadway operated
the case of the flag-carrying car. in this way must be carefully checked to ensure
that vehicles cannot enter or leave the section
Sufficient room must be provided for the pilot car anywhere between the end control points.
to turn around at each end of the section. The

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Temporary advance warning TRAFFIC SIGNAL


AHEAD signs 7430 should be located in advance
of each traffic signal. If traffic signals are used to
control a haul road, sign 7430 should also be
placed on the haul-road approaches. If the signals
on any approach are not visible from an adequate
stopping-sight distance, the advance warning
signs should be equipped with flashing warning
lights.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

8 TYPICAL signs in addition to those shown may be warrant-


ed and should be included if necessary for the
APPLICATIONS safety and welfare of the public.

8.1 GENERAL 8.2 AT-GRADE JUNCTIONS

The purpose of this chapter is to provide graphi- This section illustrates typical combined applica-
cal representations of how regulatory signs, tions of the use of regulatory signs, warning
warning signs, guide signs, pavement markings signs, guide signs and pavement markings for at-
and roadworks devices are used in various typical grade junctions. Where relevant to the situation
roadway situations. The figures that make up this being illustrated traffic signals are also indicated.
chapter are largely graphical and illustrative in There is a great deal of scope for variation in geo-
nature. Specific dimensions for placement of the metric detail with the majority of applications
traffic control devices are generally not shown so illustrated. This section should not be seen as a
as to discourage manual users from designing guideline for geometric design. Similar but dif-
from Chapter 8 alone. Guidance for the design of ferently detailed geometric layouts should be
various traffic control devices should be obtained signed and marked according to the illustrated
as appropriate from other chapters in this Manual principles.
and used with discretion relative to the actual cir-
cumstances and configuration being confronted 8.2.1 ROAD JUNCTIONS IN
by the designer. COMMUNITY AREAS

In each of the figures, color representations of Figure 8-1 depicts several representative config-
each pavement marking and sign are shown to urations of situations found on local access roads
aid the manual user in visualizing the relation- within a community. The sizes of signs and pave-
ships of the various elements. For each figure in ment markings are shown in a relative scale and
this chapter, a cross-referenced section includes are based on a speed limit of 40 kilometers per
notes with comments, directions, exceptions, or hour.
information that is pertinent to the situation
depicted by the figure. NOTES:

The configurations and guide signs shown on the 1. Join adjacent sections of NO PASSING
following applications are hypothetical and do LINE marking 611 when less than 32 meters
not necessarily represent actual locations in Abu apart.
Dhabi. They are intended solely to represent typ- 2. Break in NO PASSING LINE marking 611 at
ical signing for a given configuration of roadway junctions should be a minimum of 8 meters,
or junction. Signing and pavement marking posi- centered on intersecting road centerline.
tionings shown represent preferred locations. To 3. Paint all curbs within junctions and on curves
the maximum extent possible, signing locations with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691.
should be considered in the geometric design of a The use of VISIBILITY PAINTING marking
roadway with provisions made in the roadside 691, as illustrated, is intended to help identi-
design to accommodate these signs. When sign- fy junctions under limited or adverse lighting
ing existing configurations the locations indicat- conditions. In general, therefore, the sections
ed should be followed to the maximum extent of marked curbs illustrated should not be
possible, but some variation may be found connected unless the unmarked section
unavoidable. between is less than 8 meters in length.
4. The use of MULTIPLE CHEVRON signs
In general, the signing shown in the following 456, 457 and 458 is optional. These signs
applications are considered minimum (unless should not be used unless lighting, back-
signs are indicated as being optional). While it is ground, or geometry obscure the presence of
desirable to minimize the number of signs used, a termination or change in direction of the

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

690(900x900)
690(900x900)

690(900x900)

690(900x900)

Figure 8-1
Road Junctions in Community Areas

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

roadway alignment. Ordinarily the change in located at a point as close as possible after
roadway direction will be evident as a result the turn lane becomes fully developed. If the
of pavement markings otherwise required; geometry is such that any sized vehicle may
curb painting; and/or street lighting. make a U-turn, then sign 351 is omitted and,
5. See Chapter 3, Section 3.2.2 for determina- apart from STOP sign 301, no further signing
tion of use of STOP sign 301 versus GIVE is required.
WAY sign 302. 4. See Chapter 3, Section 3.2.2 for determina-
6. Recommended setbacks for STOP LINE tion of use of STOP sign 301 versus GIVE
marking 601 and GIVE WAY LINE marking WAY sign 302.
602 are typically one meter as shown. 5. Paint curbs with VISIBILITY PAINTING
Greater setbacks may be required to accom- marking 691 only in relation to the U-turn
modate left turning traffic depending on lane and its opening in the median, and the
intersection geometry. The absolute mini- immediate vicinity of the side road junction.
mum setback should be 500 millimeters. 6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not be
marked within the vehicle swept area at the
8.2.2 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK U-TURN U-turn.
AND LOCAL ROAD T- 7. Geometric design should clearly indicate the
JUNCTION prohibition of opposing traffic entering the
median opening. In situations where geome-
Figure 8-2 depicts two typical situations on a 6 try does not clearly make that evident appro-
lane dual carriageway. One situation is a mid- priate regulatory signs may be utilized to pro-
block U-turn located away from an intersecting hibit such entries.
roadway and intended solely for the purpose of
making U-turns (Figure 8-3 depicts a similar sit- 8.2.3 ARTERIAL MIDBLOCK LEFT
uation on a four-lane dual carriageway where a TURN AT LOCAL ROAD T-
midblock U-turn and left turn are combined). The JUNCTION
other situation is a local road T-junction with an
arterial. The junction depicted in this figure is Figure 8-3 depicts a situation on a four-lane dual
only provided with radii on the corners. (Figure carriageway where left turns through a median
8-3 shows a similar configuration, but with short opening from a divided road are permitted onto
tapers to facilitate turning.) The sizing of signs an intersecting local road. The sizes of signs and
and pavement markings are shown in a relative pavement markings are shown in a relative scale
scale and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilo- and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometers
meters per hour on the divided road and 40 kilo- per hour on the divided road and 40 kilometers
meters per hour on the intersecting road. per hour on the intersecting road. Figure 8-2
shows similar circumstances for a six-lane dual
NOTES: carriageway.

1. Advance warning for midblock U-turns NOTES:


should be posted and the distance to the point
of U-turn displayed. 1. ADVANCE WARNING sign 419 for a mid-
2. Appropriate ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL block left turn should be posted and the dis-
sign 514 may be used only when an approved tance to the point of left turn displayed.
supplemental destination is in the vicinity 2. Under these circumstances a U-Turn would
(see Chapter 5, Section 5.1.5). not normally be permitted due to right turn-
3. When geometry dictates that long vehicles ing traffic from the junction opposite.
are not permitted to make a U-turn, a NO Therefore a NO U-TURN SIGN 348 should
GOODS VEHICLES sign 351 with a QUAL- be posted 25 meters in advance of the turning
IFICATION PLATE sign 365 indicating the point. If however, geometric conditions war-
maximum length of vehicle permitted to U- rant a limited U-Turn movement permissible
turn should be used. Sign 351 should be then long vehicles will be prohibited from

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

KEY:

* Optional Sign

5 Note Number
See Section 8.2.2

620(100)

654 R or 654 N/R

Figure 8-2
Arterial Midblock U-Turn and Local Road T-Junction

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

612 or 612 N

620(100)

654 R or 654 N/R

Optional Sign
Note Number
See Section 8.2.3

365(900)

Figure 8-3
Arterial Midblock Left Turn at Local Road T-Junction

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

making U-Turns at such locations by place- 8.2.4 SERVICE ROAD


ment of a U-TURN AHEAD sign 419 with a CONNECTIONS TO AN
QUALIFICATION PLATE sign 365, depict- ARTERIAL
ing a goods vehicle with a red diagonal bar
running from the top right hand corner to the Figure 8-4 depicts a number of typical situations
bottom left hand corner of the sign, limiting that are commonly found on service roads adja-
the restriction to only goods vehicles and cent to arterial roadways. The sizes of signs and
busses etc., over a prescribed length (gener- pavement markings are shown in a relative scale
ally 6 meters). and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometers
3. A bus lay-by is shown. Taxi lay-bys should per hour on the main road, 40 kilometers per hour
be treated similarly. In general, private vehi- on secondary roads, and 25 kilometers per hour
cles are prohibited from stopping in these on service roads (same sizing as 40 kilometers
exclusive lay-bys in order to keep them free per hour). This figure also illustrates a typical
for use by buses or taxis respectively. In mid-block signalized pedestrian crossing.
instances where it is wished to allow private
vehicles to use a lay-by for drop-offs, the lay- NOTES:
by should be divided into two segments
using a PARKING LINE marking 621. The 1. PARKING TIME LIMIT signs 389 and 391
first segment is reserved for buses by posting are shown to illustrate one possible applica-
a BUS STOP sign 392. The following seg- tion of parking control signs. A variety of
ment is posted with a NO PARKING sign other applications is also possible.
379 which allows any vehicle (private, taxi 2. ONE WAY sign 306 is shown in this situation
or bus) to stop but not park within the desig- to indicate that the service road is one way in
nated area. the direction stipulated, but to not inhibit
4. When a U-turn is permitted, EDGE LINE drivers from entering the main road with a
marking 613 should be set back because of more or less straight ahead movement.
the two-lane carriageway if necessary to 3. NO PARKING marking 690 may be used in
allow vehicles to make a U-turn without situations such as this where vehicles may
crossing that line. have a tendency to illegally park, but where a
5. GIVE WAY sign 302 is required in the con- sign prohibiting parking would be difficult to
figuration illustrated since the right turn does site to give a proper indication of intent
not have a full acceleration taper. In instances and/or the restricted areas are small.
where median U-Turns are permitted, then a 4. NO ENTRY sign 304 is shown in this
STOP sign 301 should be used instead, since instance since sight restrictions inhibit visi-
the junction already has one STOP sign 301 bility of a ONE WAY sign 306 from the side
(at the median turn). If a full designed accel- road.
eration taper is provided then neither a GIVE 5. PEDESTRIAN CROSSING marking 603 is
WAY sign not STOP sign would be used at specifically used in this situation as an added
the right turn. safety precaution because of sight distance.
6. LANE LINE marking 654 should not be With the building lines near the side road as
marked within the U-turn/Left Turn junction illustrated, crossing pedestrians would be dif-
area. ficult to see until they are actually in the
7. Geometric design should clearly indicate the road. The use of PEDESTRIAN CROSSING
prohibition of opposing traffic entering the marking at other pedestrian crossing points
median opening. In situations where geome- must be considered on a location-by-location
try does no clearly make that evident appro- basis. In general, on service roads where
priate regulatory signs may be utilized to pro- pedestrians can be in the road at any place for
hibit such entries. purposes of accessing parked cars, the instal-
lation of painted crossings is generally not
warranted.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

654 R or 654 N/R

KEY :
* Optional Sign
1 Note Number
See Section 8.2.4
Traffic Signal

7 Typical
654 R or
654 N/R

Figure 8-4
Service Road Connections to an Arterial

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

6. A mid-block signalized pedestrian crossing is 5. If street lighting poles are present and locat-
shown crossing the main roadway and serv- ed symmetrically with respect to each
ice roads. Priority control on the main road- approach, preference should be given to
way should be by traffic signal. Pedestrian mounting STREET NAME sign 516 thereon.
priority on the service roads is provided by 6. Paint all curbs within junction and vicinity
GIVE WAY TO PEDESTRIANS sign 303. with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691
7. VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 (not shown in Figure 8-5). As a guideline
should be used in the vicinity of all service marking 691 should commence at approxi-
road connections to and from the main road- mately the same point as marking 612.
way and at junctions between side roads and 7. If the exit leg of a junction enters or is adja-
the main roadway and service roads. For cent to a community the name of the com-
more detail see Figures 8-1 to 8-3. munity may be displayed on a TEXT sign
588 on the right side of the road at a suitable
8.2.5 LARGE ROUNDABOUT distance before the first local street junction
serving the community.
Figure 8-5 depicts a representative configuration 8. The free right turn has been illustrated for the
of a full size roundabout. The sizes of signs and situation where it intersects the crossroad
pavement markings are shown at a relative scale without a fully developed acceleration lane.
and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometers If a full acceleration lane is present then a
per hour on the approach roads. Signing is shown treatment as shown in Figure 8-7 should be
only for one approach. Other approaches are sim- used.
ilar (see Figure 8-6 for details relevant to signal- 9. Depending on the length of the right turn lane
ization). the positioning of signs 508 (or 514) and 512
(or 511) may require adjustment. None
NOTES: should be located after the start of the turn
lane taper and the distances between signs
1. ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign carefully controlled. Preferred spacing is 50
511 may be required in place of ADVANCE meters minimum.
VERTICAL STACK sign 512. See Chapter
2, Section 2.2.4 for criteria and Figure 8-6 for 8.2.6 LARGE SIGNALIZED
a typical example. Such advance signs ROUNDABOUT
should be located as far in advance of the
roundabout as possible and practical (up to Figure 8-6 depicts a representative configuration
250 meters), subject to other criteria given in of a signalized roundabout. The sizes of signs and
Chapter 5. pavement markings are shown at a relative scale
2. Appropriate TRAILBLAZER sign or and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometers
ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL sign 514 per hour on the approach roads. Signing is shown
may be used only when an approved trail- only for one approach. Other approaches are sim-
blazing or supplemental destination is in the ilar.
vicinity. See Chapter 5 for guidance on
approved destinations. In general, a NOTES:
CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 should
not be used for a supplemental destination. 1. Figure 8-6 should be read in conjunction with
3. MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 Figure 8-5 and Section 8.2.5. Figure 8-6 is an
should be used only if the visible presence of adaptation to illustrate the effects of signaliz-
the roundabout is not clear to approaching ing the junction shown in Figure 8-5.
drivers due to geometry or surroundings. 2. The free right turn has been illustrated for the
4. LANE ARROWS shown are indicative only. situation where it intersects the crossroad
Actual arrows used in each lane should be without a fully developed acceleration lane.
based on traffic-engineering analysis of the If a full acceleration lane is present then a
junction.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

603(3000)

603(3000)

329(900)
612 or
612 N 427(900)

614/615

654 R or 654 N/R

420(900)
Note Number
See Section 8.2.5

Note: This figure illustrates traffic control device principles for one approach direction only. Application of devices for other
approaches and configurations should be done based on the illustrated principles and using good engineering judgement.

Figure 8-5
Large Roundabout

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

613(150)
603(3000)

601(300)
329(900)
427 (900)
613(150) With Flasher
612 or 612 N

614/615

612 or 612 N

654 R or 654 N/R


Note Number
See Section 8.2.6

420(900)

Note: This figure illustrates traffic control device principles for one approach direction only. Application of devices for other
approaches and configurations should be done based on the illustrated principles and using good engineering judgement.

Figure 8-6
Large Signalized Roundabout

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

treatment as shown in Figure 8-7 should be meters). If should be located no closer to the
used. intersection than the beginning of taper for
3. Depending on the length of the right-turn the left or right turn lane if a closer siting
lane the positioning of signs 430, 514 and must be used.
511 (512) may require adjustment. None 2. Appropriate ADVANCE SUPPLEMENTAL
should be located after the start of the turn- sign 514 may be used only when an approved
lane taper and the distances between signs supplemental destination is in the vicinity
should be carefully controlled. Preferred (see Chapter 5, Section 5.1.5).
spacing is 50 meters minimum. 3. The preferred location of the CHEVRON
4. TRAFFIC SIGNALS AHEAD sign 430 may DIRECTION sign 515 is on the channelizing
be used for a period of three to six months island formed by the free right turn lane. If
when traffic signals are installed on an exist- insufficient space is available in the island
ing unsignalized roundabout. sign 515 may be placed on the right side of
5. The preferred location of the CHEVRON the road at the beginning of curve. In such
DIRECTION sign 515 is on the channelizing case a PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 may be
island formed by the free right-turn lane. If located in the island.
insufficient space is available on the island 4. Intersection is shown with pedestrian cross-
sign 515 may be placed on the right side of ings. This may not be required in all locations
the road at the beginning of curve. In such and would thus be omitted when not applica-
case a PASS EITHER SIDE sign 326 should ble.
be located in the island. 5. Configuration shown assumes design of ade-
6. CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612 for quate acceleration lanes for free flow merge
the right-turn lane is one standard length condition.
(L=27 meters for 60 kilometers per hour; see 6. CHANNELIZATION LINE marking 612 for
Chapter 6, Table 6-3) measured from the the development of the left-turn lane is
curve point of the turning lane. shown at double the standard length (2L=54
7. See Chapter 3, Section 3.2.2 for determina- meters for 60 kilometers per hour). This is
tion of use of STOP sign 301 versus GIVE due to the left-turn lane being a dual lane and
WAY sign 302. the need for traffic to enter the lanes further
8. If the exit leg of a junction enters or is adja- from the intersection. The CHANNELIZA-
cent to a community the name of the com- TION LINE for the right-turn lane is one
munity may be displayed on a TEXT sign standard length (L=27 meters for 60 kilome-
588 on the right side of the road at a suitable ters per hour; see Chapter 6, Table 6-3) meas-
distance before the first local street junction ured from the curve point of the turning lane.
serving the community. 7. Paint all curbs within junction and vicinity
with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691
8.2.7 SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION (not shown). Marking 691 should commence
before the start of any added turn lane and
Figure 8-7 depicts a representative configuration terminate after the junction beyond the end of
of a signalized junction. The sizes of signs and any merge lanes.
pavement markings are shown at a relative scale
and are based on a speed limit of 60 kilometers 8.2.8 FREEWAY CROSSROAD WITH
per hour on the approach roads. Signing is shown SMALL ROUNDABOUTS
only for one approach. Other approaches are sim-
ilar. Figure 8-8 depicts a representative configuration
of a junction at the terminal end of a freeway
NOTES: grade separated interchange. The junction repre-
sented is a dual roundabout configuration on an
1. ADVANCE HORIZONTAL STACK sign undivided crossroad with assumed speed of 60
511 should be located as far from the inter- kilometers per hour. Figures 8-5, 8-6, or 8-7 may
section as possible and practical (up to 250 be referred to for applicable signing and pave-

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

5 m min

612 or 612 N

654 R or 654 N/R

330 (750)

365 (Truck) 6

348 (750)

612 or 612 N

KEY :

* Optional Sign

1 Note Number
See Section 8.2.7
ALT Alternate Sign
Position
Traffic Signal

Note: This figure illustrates traffic control device principles for one approach direction only. Application of devices for other
approaches and configurations should be done based on the illustrated principles and using good engineering judgement.

Figure 8-7
Signalized Intersection

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

Note Number
See Section 8.2.8

399(600x800)
1

398(600x800) 1

Note: This figure illustrates traffic control device principles for one approach direction only. Application of devices for other
approaches and configurations should be done based on the illustrated principles and using good engineering judgement.

Figure 8-8
Freeway Crossroads with Small Roundabouts

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

ment markings if other junction configurations with a speed limit of 60 kilometers per hour.
are used at an interchange terminal end. Signing Signing is only shown for traffic coming from the
is shown only for traffic coming from the bottom bottom of the figure and from the left of the fig-
of the figure and from the left of the figure. ure. Signing for other approaches is similar.
Signing for other approaches is similar.
NOTES:
NOTES:
1. See Figure 8-11 for positioning of signs 399
1. See Figure 8-11 for positioning of signs 399 and 512 on the exit ramp. The position of
and 512 on the exit ramp. The position of sign 398 on the entrance ramp is similar.
sign 398 on the entrance ramp is similar. 2. The potentially most dangerous aspect of a
2. Double roundabouts create two separate diamond interchange is the possibility of
points of decision for traffic which must use vehicles entering a freeway in the wrong
both roundabouts to reach their destination. direction from an exit ramp. Subject to the
Therefore, pairs of ADVANCE VERTICAL detail of the geometry of the junctions
STACK sign 512 are required to navigate between ramps and the crossroad, pairs of
drivers through the junction one decision at a NO ENTRY sign 304 are recommended to
time. The second sign in the series must be inhibit wrong way entry to a ramp. These NO
positioned where geometry best permits. ENTRY signs 304 should be mounted on the
This example shows placement within the traffic signal posts. In addition to NO
roundabout. If clear distance between the ENTRY sign 304, other applicable signs (NO
roundabout pair exceeds about 75 meters, RIGHT TURN sign 347 and AHEAD ONLY
then placement of the sign between the sign 321) as well as LANE DIRECTION
roundabouts is preferred. ARROWS (on the crossroad and ramps) and
3. Typically NO ENTRY signs 304 are not red RPM R markers on the ramps should all
required on exits from roundabouts due to be employed to reinforce the NO ENTRY
ramp-end geometry. However, where there is message
even a remote possibility of drivers entering 3. CHEVRON signs 515 at the action points for
a freeway traveling in the wrong direction, the turns onto the freeway may also need to
resulting in almost certain serious conse- be relocated if the junction islands are not
quences, the posting of a pair of NO ENTRY large enough to accommodate them, or if vis-
signs is justified. ibility of them is likely to be obstructed by
4. Paint all curbs within junction and vicinity other signs, such as NO ENTRY sign 304 and
with VISIBILITY PAINTING marking 691 STOP sign 301.
(not shown). 4. Paint all curbs within the vicinity of the ramp
5. MULTIPLE CHEVRON RIGHT sign 456 terminal junctions with VISIBILITY PAINT-
should be used only if the visible presence of ING marking 691 (not shown).
the roundabout is not clear to approaching 5. As a result of the potential for crossroad traf-
drivers due to geometry or surroundings. fic to mistakenly turn left too soon and enter
a freeway exit ramp, care must be taken in
8.2.9 FREEWAY CROSSROAD AT A deciding upon the configuration and place-
SIGNALIZED DIAMOND ment of the ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK
INTERCHANGE sign 512. If the diamond ramps are widely
separated then it is preferable to direct left
Figure 8-9 depicts a representative configuration turning traffic straight through the first half
of a junction between a dual carriageway cross- of the diamond junction. A single stack
road and a freeway in the form of a signalized ADVANCE VERTICAL STACK sign may
grade-separated diamond interchange. The junc- then be used to direct the left turning traffic if
tion type is subject to wide variations in geomet- such can be suitably located. Otherwise, the
ric treatment. The example illustrated assumes a CHEVRON DIRECTION sign 515 at the
dual-carriageway numbered-arterial crossroad turn point must be relied upon to direct the
left turning traffic.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

See Section 8.2.9

612 or 612 N

Note: This figure illustrates traffic control device principles for one approach direction only. Application of devices for other
approaches and configurations should be done based on the illustrated principles and using good engineering judgement.

Figure 8-9
Freeway Crossroad at a Signalized Diamond Interchange

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

8.2.10 MINI ROUNDABOUT 8.3.1 FREEWAY WITH ONE-LANE


EXIT, NO LANE DROP
Figure 8-10 depicts a representative configura-
tion of a junction between two intersecting single Figure 8-11 depicts the configuration of a single
carriageway roads in the form of a mini round- lane exit ramp. As depicted the lane used to exit
about. The junction is subject to wide variations the freeway is a lane which is shared between
in geometric treatment. The example illustrated ongoing traffic and exiting traffic. (See Section
assumes a standard crossroad junction between 8.3.2 for the treatment for a two-lane exit.) Figure
two local roads. 8-11 is presented based upon an interchange
located on an Emirate Route that is a freeway. It
NOTES: is also applicable for non-freeway exits and/or
exits on Abu Dhabi Routes. The sizes of signs
1. A mini roundabout configuration will not, and pavement markings are shown at a relative
under normal circumstances be used at the scale and are based on a speed limit of 100 kilo-
junction of numbered routes. Therefore no meters per hour.
guide signing applications are shown in
Figure 8-10. NOTES:
2. Where the median of a roundabout is not
raised and curbed, two EDGE LINE mark- 1. For a simple access type interchange on an
ings 613 spaced 150 millimeters apart should uncomplicated alignment, an EXTRA FOR-
be used to delineate the mini roundabout. WARD ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign
3. GIVE WAY sign 302 along with GIVE WAY 551 is not required nor is a second ONGO-
marking 602 will be used in the same manner ING DESTINATION sign 553 required at
as shown for a Large Roundabout in Figure the exit point.
8-5. 2. Appropriate SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign
4. ROUNDABOUT sign 329 should be mount- 557 may be used only when an approved sup-
ed on the same post and directly below GIVE plemental destination is in the vicinity (see
WAY sign 302 to direct drivers to travel in a Chapter 5, Section 5.1.5). Sign 557 is typi-
circulatory fashion through the junction as cally ground mounted but may be mounted
with a standard roundabout configuration. overhead if determined appropriate.
5. ROUNDABOUT AHEAD sign 420 is shown 3. The spacing of retroreflective RPM marking
on only one leg of the roundabout to empha- R for EDGE LINE marking 613R should be
size that its use is not necessary in all situa- reduced to four meters within the gore area.
tions, but is determined based on engineering 4. Omit FREEWAY END sign 399 when not
judgement and site distances. applicable such as on a freeway-to-freeway
ramp at a systems interchange.
8.3 GRADE-SEPARATED 5. The specific significance of the manner of
JUNCTIONS display of the various signs is that for a full
width display there is a Type 7 arrow cen-
tered over each lane and the ADVANCE
This section deals principally with sequences of
EXIT DIRECTION signs 551 are located
guide signs for a range of typical freeway grade-
over the right side lane which is also avail-
separated interchanges. Basic pavement marking
able to ongoing traffic. If a second lane is
arrangements for typical free-flow exit condi-
developed on the off-ramp, the ADVANCE
tions are also illustrated.
EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 and the EXIT
DIRECTION sign 552 should only show one
The principles illustrated are equally applicable
arrow. The second lane should not be marked
to isolated grade separated junctions on non-free-
until approximately 100 meters beyond the
way routes. Details of the terminal treatment of
552 signs.
typical off-ramp and on-ramp situations are cov-
6. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
ered in Section 8.2.
would not normally be required for an

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

456
(400x1200)

329 (600)

302 (750)

302 (750) 420 (750) * 5

329 (600)
456
(400x1200)

329 (600)
456
(400x1200)

302 (750) 3

302 (750)
456 329 (600) 4
(400x1200)

603

See Section 8.2.10

Figure 8-10
Mini Roundabout

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

R/2
50 m 250 m
min max

654 R or (100 km/h)


654 N/R
0m

500 m

See Section 8.3.1

1000 m

Figure 8-11
Freeway with One-Lane Exit, No Lane Drop

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

uncomplicated alignment. However, site spe- 6. The specific significance of the manner of
cific geometry, such as a merging collector- display of the various signs is that for a full
distributor (C-D) road after FORWARD width display there is a Type 7 arrow cen-
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551, tered over each lane. In this instance the
will at times require ADVANCE EXIT number of lanes prior to the exit is four and
DIRECTION sign 551 to be used. the number after the exit is three. For this
reason the shared exit and ongoing lane is the
8.3.2 FREEWAY WITH TWO-LANE second lane from the right in advance of the
EXIT, ONE LANE DROP exit and the right side lane drops at the exit.
It is necessary to display two exit arrows on
Figure 8-12 depicts the configuration of a two the ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs
lane exit ramp from a freeway with one lane 551 and the EXIT DIRECTION sign 552.
being dropped at the exit and the second being an There are therefore only two ongoing lanes
optional exit lane. As depicted the dropped lane indicated on ONGOING sign 553.
can only be used to exit the freeway. The adjacent 7. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
lane is shared between ongoing traffic and exist- would not normally be required for an
ing traffic (see Section 8.3.1 for the treatment for uncomplicated alignment. However, site-spe-
a single exit lane.) Figure 8-12 is presented based cific geometry, such as a merging C-D road
upon an interchange located on an Emirate Route after FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-
that is a freeway. It is also applicable for non- TION sign 551, will at times require
freeway exits and/or exits on Abu Dhabi Routes. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 to
The sizes of signs and pavement markings are be used.
shown at a relative scale and are based on a speed
limit of 100 kilometers per hour. 8.3.3 INTERCHANGE WITH A C-D
ROAD
NOTES:
Figure 8-13 depicts an interchange in the form of
1. For a simple access type interchange on an a cloverleaf with a C-D road. Figure 8-13 is pre-
uncomplicated alignment, an EXTRA FOR- sented based upon a single-lane exit (not a lane
WARD ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign drop). The sizes of signs are shown at a relative
551 is not required nor is a second ONGO- scale and are based on a speed limit of 100 kilo-
ING DESTINATION sign 553 required at meters per hour. Regulatory and warning signs
the exit point. and pavement markings are not shown.
2. Appropriate SUPPLEMENTAL EXIT sign
557 may be used only when an approved sup- NOTES:
plemental destination is in the vicinity (See
Chapter 5, Section 5.1.5). Sign 557 is typi- 1. EXTRA FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT
cally ground mounted but may be mounted DIRECTION sign 551 and/or second
overhead if determined appropriate. ONGOING DIRECTION sign 553 at the exit
3. The spacing of retroreflective RPM marking point may be added if interchange complexi-
R for EDGE LINE marking 613R should be ty and location warrants (see Chapter 5,
reduced to four meters within the gore area. Section 5.6.4).
4. Omit FREEWAY END sign 399 when not 2. Second EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 is
applicable such as on a freeway-to-freeway shown located in advance of the overpass
ramp at a systems interchange. rather than at the theoretical gore (painted
5. See Chapter 6, Table 6-3 for appropriate min- nose) to prevent overpass from obscuring the
imum value of L. For lane drops on roadways drivers view of the sign. If the interchange is
with posted speeds in excess of 70 kilometers large and the distance between the front side
per hour, a 200-millimeter wide CHANNEL- of the overpass and the exit to the loop ramp
IZING LINE marking 612 should be used. exceeds 150 meters it may be beneficial to
provide a second ADVANCE EXIT DIREC-

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R/2
250 m
50 m max
min

654 R or
654 N/R (100 km/h)
0m

250 m

500 m
553 (x=300) 551 (x=300)
7

See Section 8.3.2


654 R or
654 N/R
6

1000 m

551 (x=300)

Figure 8-12
Freeway with Two-Lane Exit, One Lane Drop

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TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES MANUAL

0m

500 m

See Section 8.3.3

1000 m

Figure 8-13
Interchange with a C-D Road

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TION sign 551, displaying the appropriate NOTES:


distance, prior to the structure with an EXIT
DIRECTION sign 552 located at the theoret- 1. The EXIT DIRECTION sign for the second
ical nose. The EXIT DIRECTION sign for exit is displayed with an "EXIT" (Lane Drop)
the second exit is displayed with an "EXIT" panel even though corresponding
(Lane Drop) panel even though correspon- ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs do not
ding ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION signs have the "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panels. This is
do not have the "EXIT" (Lane Drop) panels. due to the short auxiliary lane developed
This is due to the short auxiliary lane devel- between the entering and exiting loop ramps
oped between the entering and exiting loop and the need to advise entering drivers to
ramps and the need to advise entering drivers leave that lane or be forced to exit.
to leave that lane or be forced to exit. 2. The sign positioning for second EXIT
3. If by design the speed limit on the C-D road DIRECTION sign 552 is subject to whether
is reduced to less than 100 kilometers per the approach is at an overpass or an under-
hour, sign letter size for signs on the C-D pass (see Section 8.3.3).
road may be reduced accordingly. 3. It is a basic principle of the guide signing
4. See Figure 8-11 for pavement markings for system that there should never be more
this configuration. arrows displayed at one point across the
5. If the exit lane configuration is different the roadway than there are lanes on the road.
EXIT DIRECTION sign 552 may need to be
varied to indicate more than one lane and/or 8.3.5 FREEWAY SYSTEMS
a lane drop situation. INTERCHANGE WITH A TWO-
6. It is a basic principle of the guide signing LANE EXIT AND RAMP SPLIT
system that there should never be more
arrows displayed at one point across the Figure 8-15 depicts a systems (freeway to free-
roadway than there are lanes on the road. way) interchange with a two lane exit that splits
7. ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 shortly after the exit point. Figure 8-15 is pre-
would not normally be required for an sented based upon the ramp split not being a lane
uncomplicated alignment. However, site spe- drop (two lanes continue to left destination and
cific geometry, such as a merging C-D road one lane exits from the ramp to right destination)
after FORWARD ADVANCE EXIT DIREC- and being located less than 500 meters from the
TION sign 551, will at times require first exit. The sizes of signs are shown at a rela-
ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551 to tive scale and are based on a speed limit of 100
be used. kilometers per hour. Regulatory and warning
signs and pavement markings are not shown.

8.3.4 FREEWAY SYSTEMS NOTES:


INTERCHANGE WITH TWO
CLOSELY SPACED EXITS 1. When the distance between the exit and the
ramp split exceeds about 500 meters, consid-
Figure 8-14 depicts a systems (freeway to free- eration should be given to including an
way) interchange with two closely spaced exits ADVANCE EXIT DIRECTION sign 551
directly from the mainline. Figure 8-14 is pre- between the exit and the ramp split.
sented based upon successive single lane exits, 2. It is a basic principle of the guide signing
neither of which are lane drops. The sizes of system that there should never be more
signs are shown at a relative scale and are based arrows displayed at one point across the
on a speed limit of 100 kilometers per hour. roadway than there are lanes on the road.
Regulatory and warning signs and pavement The display shown at the theoretical nose
markings are not shown. must therefore be positioned so that the exit
sign arrows are fully over developed exit
lanes.

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0m

500 m

1000 m

See Section 8.3