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GTAW Welding

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is frequently referred to as TIG welding. TIG welding is a commonly used high quality welding process. TIG welding has become a popular choice of welding processes when high quality, precision welding is required. In TIG welding an arc is formed between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the metal being welded. Gas is fed through the torch to shield the electrode and molten weld pool. If filler wire is used, it is added to the weld pool separately.

TIG Welding Benefits
y y y y y

Superior quality welds Welds can be made with or without filler metal Precise control of welding variables (heat) Free of spatter Low distortion

Shielding Gases
y y y

Argon Argon + Hydrogen Argon/Helium

Helium is generally added to increase heat input (increase welding speed or weld penetration). Hydrogen will result in cleaner looking welds and also increase heat input, however, Hydrogen may promote porosity or hydrogen cracking.

GTAW Welding Limitations
y y y

Requires greater welder dexterity than MIG or stick welding Lower deposition rates More costly for welding thick sections

3 to 25% CO2 Argon/Helium CO2 is also used in its pure form in some MIG welding processes. There are three primary metal transfer modes: y y y Spray transfer (MP3 Audio) Globular transfer (MP3 Audio) Short circuiting transfer (MP3 Audio) The primary shielding gasses used are: y y y y Argon Argon . MIG welding is therefore referred to as a semiautomatic welding process.1 to 5% Oxygen Argon . and allows smooth transfer of metal from the weld wire to the molten weld pool. forms the arc plasma. shields the arc and molten weld pool. However. stabilizes the arc on the metal being welded. MIG welding is a commonly used high deposition rate welding process.MIG Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is frequently referred to as MIG welding (metal inert gas). MIG Welding Benefits y y y y y All position capability Higher deposition rates than SMAW Less operator skill required Long welds can be made without starts and stops Minimal post weld cleaning is required MIG Welding Shielding Gas The shielding gas. in some applications the presence of CO2in the shielding gas may adversely affect the . Wire is continuously fed from a spool.

Safety 1. washcloth. Types of injuries in Welding  Burn: Burn is most common and painful injuries that occur in the welding shop.  Burn is divided into three groups:  First degree burn  Second degree burn  Third degree burn First degree burn: this burn occurs when surface of skin is reddish in color. tender and painful and does not involve any broken skin. Burns can be caused by ultraviolet light rays as well as by contact with welding material. Then cover the area by sterile bandages or clean cloth. 3. s Safety precaution in Welding . handkerchief soaked in cold water) until the pain decreases. resulting in the formation of blisters and possible breaks in the skin.mechanical properties of the weld. 2. First step in treating a first ± degree burn is to immediately put the burned area under cold water (not iced)or apply cold water compresses (clean towel. There is no substitute for caution & common sense. Why safety is necessary? Ans: to prevent the accident. The chances of infection is high with burns because of burn tissue. Second degree burn: this burn occurs when surface of skin is severely damaged.

easier. and requires little cleanup of welds. The process is also widely known by the shop name MIG (Metal Inert Gas). The name Metal Inert Gas was used when the process was first developed to weld Aluminum using an inert (chemically non reactive) gas supply. The wire fed welding arc is capable of joining thin sections and bridging gaps in poor fit up situations. The process has evolved to become a favorite choice for welding steel with gases that are not inert. This makes Mig welding cost effective for production welding in fabrication shops. a wire feed unit with an attached gun to feed the filler wire to the arc.GAS METAL ARC WELDING (MIG) INTRODUCTION The term Gas Metal Arc Welding is the American Welding Society¶s preferred name for this semi-automatic welding process that uses a wire feeder to deliver the filler metal to a hand operated gun to produce the weld. THE MIG WELDING CIRCUIT Welding is done by using a constant voltage welding machine to supply the power. the mig welding process is faster. MAKING THE WELD The voltage. . wire speed and gas flow are set by the welder according to recommended ranges for the application before welding. and a gas supply system to shield the weld area. When compared with Stick welding.

THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) Although there are many styles and designs of MIG welding machines produced by manufacturers. The welding machine is usually set to provide DC reverse polarity current. This means the voltage remains relatively constant as set on the machine. The welder then controls the nozzle distance from the work. the welder pulls and holds the trigger to start the gas flow and the arc. the angle of the gun. while others have a separate wire feed unit attached. WELDING GUN 4. THE WIRE FEED UNIT 3.After positioning the gun. gas flow. in other words the distance of the nozzle and wire from the work. and break the arc. and rate of travel speed across the joint. The welding machine is classified as a constant voltage Machine. THE WELDING MACHINE (POWER SOURCE) 2. At the end of the joint the trigger is released to stop the wire feed. TYPICAL MIG GUN MAJOR EQUIPMENT FOR MIG WELDING In addition to the safety clothing and hand tools generally used in the welding trade the major parts of the Mig welding process are: 1. they serve the same basic function. . Some Mig machines are designed with an enclosed wire feed unit. while the amperage increases or decreases according to the arc length. The Amperage in Mig welding is controlled by the wire speed setting on the wire feed unit. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY 1.

TYPICAL MIG MACHINE WITH WIRE FEED ENCLOSED Smaller portable units are available for light shop work or home use. . These units typically use a small one pound wire spool.

This push button stops the machine. Stick and Tig Machine used at the School is shown below with a description of the controls used for mig welding. OFF: RED PUSH BUTTON. ON: BLACK PUSH BUTTON. . CONTROLS: 1. 2. CURRENT SELECTOR. 3. This is a push button that when depressed starts the machine.The Miller Dimension 400 Combination Mig.

This lever selects either CC. . Constant Current used for Stick and Tig Welding or CV Constant Voltage used for Mig Welding. The remote contactor switch should be set to ON to enable the Mig Gun trigger as the remote contactor. MIG FEEDER CONNECTION. 4. 2. The wire feed unit used with the Dimension 400 Welding machine is the Miller model S-52 located on the top of the machine. 9. VOLTS OR AMPERAGE DIAL. These meters show the amperage and voltage during welding. 7. The filler wire and gas are fed to the Arc by the attached gun. The remote control switch is used for Tig Welding with a Foot pedal. A gas cylinder with attached regulators is hooked up to the wire feed units solenoid to supply the gas shielding. The wire feed unit is connected to this receptacle for Mig Welding. This unit is used to describe the controls on a typical wire feed unit. ARC CONTROL.20 Volts. The wire feed unit supplies a constant and smooth rate of filler wire from a spool mounted on the back of the unit. Remember when mig Welding to read the numbers in the white square. and should be in the OFF position for Mig Welding. located close to the machine or built in to the machine depending on manufactures style and type of machine. Make sure the lever is pushed up for CV when Mig Welding. VOLT AND AMP METERS. THE WIRE FEED UNIT The wire feed unit may be placed on the machine. REMOTE CONTROL SWITCH. REMOTE CONTACTOR SWITCH. 8. The Arc Control setting is not used for mig welding and is disabled when in the for Mig Welding. This Dial shows amperage intervals in regular numbers and Voltage settings in the white squares. 6. CV mode 5. For example: 150 Amps or approximately 18 . The pictures below show the controls of the Miller S-52 wire feed unit. Although styles may differ they serve the same basic function.


The rollers are sized to match the wire used. FUSE The Fuse protects the Wire Feed Unit from overload or an internal short. SLOW-FAST WIRE START SWITCH The Slow-Fast Wire Start Switch is used to set the initial wire flow start as either a slow start or fast start when starting the Arc. 9. Once the new rolls are installed the retaining screws are replaced.035. part of the wire feed system. are a set of upper and lower rollers with grooves that pull the wire from the spool and drive it through the gun. WIRE The Type of wire shown. Pressing and holding this button allows the gas flow to be adjusted without starting the wire flow or the arc. The pressure can be increased or decreased using the thumb screw on the clamp bridge. GUIDE ROLLS The Guide Rolls. Too little pressure may cause the wire feed to slip or skip. When the gun trigger is pulled. To change the guide rolls: The adjusting spring is released and the gear cover flipped back to access the guide rolls retaining screws. the screws are removed and the rolls are pulled out.The wire spool shown holds about 30 pounds of wire when full and sits on the wire spool hub at the rear of the wire feed unit. 5. BREAKER The Breaker is a Circuit Breaker that protects the Motor of the wire feed unit from overload. 7. while too much pressure may flatten the wire or cause it to freeze up. is classified as AWS ER-70S-6 used for welding mild steel structural shapes. the wire is drawn from the underside of the spool through the guide rolls and the gun to the weld zone.035. 8. 10. GAS PURGE BUTTON The Gas Purge Button is used to purge the gas from the gun when the gas supply has been turned off. 4. After the Arc is started the wire speed reverts to the speed set on the Wire Speed Control. TRIGGER PLUG The trigger plug is attached to the trigger receptacle to enable the gun to remotely activate the wire feed and gas flow. . 3. 6. and used at the school. The wire size is 0. The guide rolls and wire used above are size 0. 2. GUN The gun plugs into the wire feed system to accept the wire and gas supply and deliver them to the welding arc. PRESSURE SPRING The pressure spring clamps the wire between the guide rolls to feed the wire through the gun.

11. 12. 17. The gun assembly is made up by the gun head. welding lead. The wire feed control is marked in graduations of ten and ranges from zero to 100. 16. 15. and welding position among other variables. GAS HOSE The gas hose attached to the wire feed unit allows the shielding gas to be fed to the attached Mig gun. REMOTE RECEPTACLE The Remote Receptacle is used to attach certain remote devices and the remote switch located above the receptacle is set to the remote position to activate the remote device. the metal thickness. TRIGGER PLUG FRONT VIEW Another view of the Trigger Plug attached to the trigger receptacle 13. size of wire. The switch must be off when switching to Constant Current mode and Stick welding to prevent the gun from inadvertently arcing if it comes into contact with the work surface. ON-OFF SWITCH This Switch is used to activate the wire feed unit and turn it off at the end off the class session. The wire jog button is often used to advance the wire when changing wire spools. The appropriate setting depends on. WIRE SPEED CONTROL The Wire Speed Control is used to set the rate of wire feed through the gun for welding. WIRE JOG BUTTON The Wire Jog button when pressed and held advances the wire through the gun without energizing the gas shielding. The Wire Speed is co-coordinated with the voltage setting to produce a smooth arc. 3. When a remote device is attached to the remote receptacle the switch is in the Remote position. power connector and wire feed connector. 14. REMOTE SWITCH The remote switch has two settings Remote and Standard. For normal operations using an attached Mig gun the switch is left in the Standard position. WELDING GUN The welding gun is attached to the wire feed unit to deliver the filler wire and shielding gas to the welding arc. TYPICAL WELDING GUN .

a neck shaped like a goose neck. The gun has a power connector that plugs into either the machine or the wire feed unit depending on style and design. and a head consisting of a gas diffuser. contact tip and nozzle. conduct the shielding gas and feed the filler wire through the gun to the arc. In addition to the electrical wiring. the welding lead has a gas hose running through it to carry the gas supply and a liner to conduct the wire. the gun also has a wire feed connection.WELDING LEAD The welding lead cable is constructed to allow electrical flow. . GUN LINER GUN HEAD AND PARTS The typical mig gun has a handle with a trigger. In the case of the units with a separate wire feeder.

Helium and Argon may be used in gas mixtures to combine the benefits of each component part. CARBON DIOXIDE . or close to the welding machine. Magnesium. The safety rules for handling and using cylinders from the SAFETY SECTION must be understood and followed. HELIUM Helium is used for similar applications to Argon. Argon may be used when welding non-ferrous metals (metals that contain little or no iron) such as. or for automated welding applications. Helium provides deeper penetration characteristics than argon but with a less stable Arc. or copper and its alloys.4 times heavier than air and blankets the weld zone to protect the weld zone from the air. which mean they are chemically inactive and do not directly affect the Base metal or Weld metal. Helium produces a hotter arc and may be desirable for welding applications that require a higher heat input such as. Argon is used in mixture with other gases because of its ability to stabilize the arc and reduce spatter. HELIUM and CARBON DIOXIDE. Argon is 1. ARGON Both Argon and Helium are inert gases. Aluminum. but since Helium is lighter than air it requires higher flow rates than when using Argon. The principal gases used in MIG welding either alone or in a mixture are: ARGON.BERNARD MIG GUN HEAD AND PARTS 4. SHIELDING GAS SUPPLY The gas is usually supplied from a high pressure cylinder chained or secured on. for welding thicker sections.

It is critical to select the gas shielding that provides the best weld characteristics for the metal being welded. The AWS (American Welding Society) has developed a system of numbers and letters to designate filler wire type and usage. The 6 is used to designate the usability and characteristics of the wire. and a less stable arc than when used in a mixture with Argon. or shielding gas charts. GAS MIXTURES There are a variety of gas mixtures available for use with the MIG welding process that combines the advantages of their component parts. In the above the Tensile Strength is 70. If the filler is designed for Flux Core the letter may be a T for tubular wire. The filler wire used for welding mild steel at the school is the AWS ER-70S-6. The letter and number designation is as follows: ER ± 70 S 6 The E designates Electric Welding The R designates Filler Rod The 70 designates the Tensile Strength The two or three numbers following the hyphen designate the Tensile Strength (the ability of the weld metal to withstand forces acting to pull it apart) in thousands of pounds per square inch. FILLER WIRE (MIG WIRE) The filler wire used at Delta School Of Trades is one of the series designed for welding Low Carbon Steel and is supplied on 30 pound spools that are attached to the back of the wire feed unit.Carbon Dioxide is a chemical compound of one part Carbon and two parts Oxygen. In some cases a letter may be added at the end to designate other materials have been added. THE MIG WELDING ARC . The S designates Solid Wire. Carbon Dioxide is often used for its relatively low cost and good penetration characteristics. Carbon Dioxide may be used for welding carbon steels when the filler wire with the appropriate deoxidizers are used. Other numbers may be used in place of the 6 to designate other desirable weld metal characteristics. Before welding consult Gas suppliers. Engineering. When pure Carbon Dioxide is used as the shielding gas the welds that have a rougher appearance. This wire has good penetration and deoxidizers added among other weld metal characteristics. The wire size used is 0.000 pounds per square inch. This gas is commonly referred to as simply 75-25. Although not an Inert gas.35 commonly referred to as just 035 (0 thirty five). A selection of filler wires are available to Mig weld other metals and Alloys and information regarding their selection can be obtained from Welding Supply Outlets. more spatter. At Delta School Of Trades the MIG welding process is used to weld mild steel in all positions using a popular gas mixture of 75% Argon and 25% Carbon Dioxide. Supervision.

SPRAY TRANSFER SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER Short circuiting transfer as the name implies creates a short circuiting effect when the energized wire touches the workpiece and melts into the weld puddle. This type of transfer results in a smooth weld with shallow penetration that easily bridges gaps or poor fit-up. have a separate DCEP terminal marked CV for attaching a lead wire that runs from the machine to the wire feed unit that energizes the attached Mig gun. SHORT CIRCUITING TRANSFER 2. 1. Some machines designed for Mig welding are set for DCEP polarity only. Globular Transfer occurs with higher voltage settings than Short Circuiting Transfer and results in deeper penetration with a flatter weld bead. like the Miller Dimension 400 used at the School.The Mig Welding arc is usually Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP) or Reverse Polarity with Constant Voltage. Spray Transfer results in weld beads with a minimum of spatter. GLOBULAR TRANSFER Globular Transfer as the name implies is a metal transfer where the tip of the wire forms globules or large droplets that melt and are forced across the Arc into the weld puddle. . Some multiple process welding machines. A welding table. Spray transfer occurs at higher voltages and above certain critical transition currents determined by the wire size. For example. approximately 17v to 21 volts. or Ladder rack. METAL TRANSFER ACROSS THE ARC There are three methods of metal transfer from the wire spool through the arc to the weld puddle possible with the Mig welding Process. SPRAY TRANSFER Spray Transfer as the name implies is a form of metal transfer that sprays small globules or droplets of metal across the arc into the weld puddle. Globular Transfer may be used to weld in all positions and the arc makes a hissing sound. Spray transfer usually requires the use of two percent oxygen or more for the spraying effect to occur. deep penetration and smooth weld beads. The short circuiting effect is a simplified way of describing an action that happens approximately 200 times per second and is not readily apparent to the welder. window guards. GLOBULAR TRANSFER 3. Short circuiting or short arc is used extensively for welding sheet metal or angles etc that are fabricated and do not require a great deal of strength. Short Circuiting may be used in all positions and the arc makes a sound like frying bacon. The short circuiting transfer usually occurs when the voltage is relatively low.

2. Determine the voltage and wire speed settings . In some instances Management may inform the welder of the specific parameters or a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) may be provided to set the welding parameters. Determine the Filler Wire The metal composition and classification must be considered when selecting the filler wire. too little and the weld will be of poor quality with porosity. The arc makes a harsh sound like high pressure water forced through a small opening. Filler wire with a T in the classification or inner shield are for FLUX CORE ARC WELDING and may require a change in Polarity. 1. too much gas flow may cause swirling and result in porosity (Air Holes). METAL TRANSFERS USING THE MIG WELDING PROCESS Before using the Mig process to weld a specific application. Determine the Gas Shielding As mentioned above there are a variety of gas types and mixtures designed for specific applications. 3. the welding parameters must be considered to achieve a sound weld with an acceptable appearance. Gas flow should be carefully considered. Keep in mind a change in filler wire may require a change in gas shielding. The following should be considered when the welder selects the welding parameters. Flux Core filler metal may or may not require a shielding gas as a backup gas. Welding Non-ferrous metals or applications that require a certain metal transfer may require a change in gas supply. Filler wire guides and information for selecting the correct filler wire for a given application are available from most welding supply stores. In other cases the Welder is responsible for determining the welding parameters. In general the filler wire should match or be compatible with the base metal being welded.The Spray Transfer is a hotter arc and is best suited to thicker materials in the flat and horizontal positions. Consult gas suppliers for recommendations for the specific welding application.

Which metal transfer is taking place: Lower voltage will be Short Circuiting. The wire speed and voltage must be coordinated to produce a sound weld with good appearance.For most Mig welding applications. A dirty tip may also cause popping or the wire to hang up and not melt properly. The following are a few tips for setting the current. the current should be Direct Current Reverse Polarity (DCEN). always set the machine by practicing setting on scrap metal in the same configuration. A slight push angle with the gun will produce a smoother flatter weld bead than when using a drag angle. The weld bead should be well formed with a gradual transition to the base metal at the corners of the weld. Changing the wire speed or voltage changes the way the weld bead runs and looks. To produces good welds. If you are not sure check on the box the wire spool came in for the current type and range or contact your welding supply store. If the wire is melting in blobs without forming a good weld turn up the wire speed or decrease the voltage. especially if the setting were working. and position you are going to weld. Check the tip and clean the nozzle before changing setting. Higher voltages will be Globular. turn down the wire speed or increase the voltage. thickness. but not all. If the wire is hitting the base metal and popping or skipping. Note: Contact tips and nozzles must be cleaned of dirt and spatter frequently. Higher voltage and 2% or more oxygen will produce a hot arc and spray transfer. . The Mig process uses a constant voltage machine that means the voltage stays relatively while the amperage varies with the stick out distance (gun nozzle tip to work distance). The amperage is controlled by the wire speed setting.

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