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An introduction to the fundamentals of storage technology
An introduction to the fundamentals of storage technology
An introduction to the fundamentals of storage technology
Published by Fujitsu Siemens Computers GmbH Mies-van-der-Rohe-Strasse 8 80807 Munich. . The names reproduced in this document can be brands whose use by third parties for own purposes can violate the rights of the owners.com/contact All rights reserved. Germany Contact www. editing. production: ZAZAmedia / Hartmut Wiehr Printed in Germany. Subject to delivery and technical changes.fujitsu-siemens.Storage Basics January 2009 Copyright © Fujitsu Siemens Computers 2009 Text.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Section 2 – Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company . . . . . . 15 Section 3 – Online storage: disks and reliability . . . . . . . . 31 Section 5 – Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Section 8 – The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners . . 83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Forecast: Future storage trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Section 7 – Virtualization – some catching up is necessary regarding storage topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Section 1 – The information society – saving data and knowledge at new levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Section 6 – Storage management – making complex storage networks manageable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section 4 – Storage networks – spoilt for choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fujitsu Siemens Computers is to increase its investment in this managed storage business. thin provisioning – regardless of whether they are already established or still just hype – are eager to help here. DeDup. Coming to grips with the ever-growing flood of data is still the greatest challenge as far as storage is concerned. This statement no longer only applies to major customers and their data centers. In addition we have begun to not only develop and implement storage solutions at our customers‘. . virtualization. we integrate their products in solutions and provide the appropriate services. “Coming to grip“ means secure data storage and accessibility with due regard to agreed quality standards (service levels) and at a reasonable cost (CAPEX und OPEX). This not only gives us the advantage that we are becoming better in selecting and developing products that enable storage solutions to be run on a cost-optimized basis and at defined quality standards. Our managed storage customers receive an invoice and the pertinent report every month. improved efficiency and return on investment. We have a comprehensive portfolio of best-in-class products in this regard. Many of the new technologies such as ILM. CentricStor solutions are prime examples of this. we then develop our own products and solutions. Thanks to this strategy Fujitsu Siemens Computers has also developed into one of the most successful providers of storage solutions in Europe.Preface Dear Reader. SSD. We advise our customers to develop a storage solution that suits them from this variety of established and new technologies. but also to operate them ourselves for our customers. The way in which we monitor technology helps us to make the right choice here. If we see that our customers have problems. but neither is it our intention nor are we able to do everything ourselves. for which there is no suitable solution on the market. but also affects SME businesses and even smaller companies. The advantages are quite obvious: transparency as regards costs and performance. Together with technology leaders in storage we have developed strategic partnerships.
and to highlight the value added for your company. Our products and associated services – delivered by us or our certified partners – are the basis for storage solutions that help you contend with the growing flood of data! Your Helmut Beck Vice President Storage Fujitsu Siemens Computers . We also introduce some of our partners in the storage sector and provide a comprehensive overview of the current storage product portfolio of Fujitsu Siemens Computers.8 Preface The aim of this book is to provide you with an introduction to storage technologies and storage networks.
I n 2008 the World Wide Web celebrated its 15th birthday and Google. Although generating information is much easier. Its readability is based on file formats. archiving and managing information is more important than ever before. it has now also become easier to lose such information as well. Its existence is based on the fact that it is stored somewhere on electromagnetic storage systems. . Search machines. bring a certain amount of order to this knowledge chaos and it was this particular discovery by two Stanford students that “revolutionized global knowledge within a very quick time. automated information processing and the associated electronic storage of information have affected an increasing number of areas within our lives. the Internet search machine company. such as Google. Saving. That is only possible using new and state-of-the-art technology which has been developed over the last 60 to 70 years.”  Accessing data quickly assumes that the data can be read and is available somewhere in the World Wide Web. Human development greatly depends on our ability to acquire information and to make it available to subsequent generations. information technology (IT). Such milestones represent a new element in the history of computer technology: nowadays. anyone can just click on a mouse and browse through a vast indescribable amount of information and entertainment data at anytime and anywhere.Section 1 The information society – saving data and knowledge at new levels There has never been a specific culture without information. for example the invention of typeface and printing as well as computers and the Internet. society has undergone a major change as well. Since the invention of the computer by Konrad Zuse.e. classifications and index or meta data which must be defined before being accessed by the search machine. Whenever there have been major inventions. i. became 10 years old.
they outlived their creator and became independent of time and space. In 1300 B. film and television – until we finally reached the first computing machine developed by Konrad Zuse in 1938. we had the first wooden bamboo strips in China and the first book. Our alphabet today used in European languages arose only about 3. first of all verbally and then using images and systematic symbols. World Wide Web and mobile phones. Human life organized itself around such information.”  “Knowledge progress as a result of technology” made a jump forward some 3. The rest is “history”: Internet. August 2008 saw the German weekly news magazine “Der Spiegel“ look closely at the effects of such a flood of data on mankind and briefly looked at the very beginnings of information technology. About 300 years later the Greeks turned that principle into the original alphabet. then the typewriter.000 years later when Johannes Gutenberg invented the copper matrices as the basis for the mass creation of individual letters in about 1450. . partially written. Comprehensive information can now be moved.10 Section 1 Original forms of information technology S toring information and knowledge is not exactly a modern intervention Irrespective of the social forms of human coexistence history has revealed certain constants in handling such knowledge and in its significance: even in early times human groups forwarded their experiences from generation to generation – separately and not just by word-of-mouth. not just daily life but also fixed state institutions and not least religion itself. A wide range of cultures thus existed around the world long before the Europeans “discovered” the world – and became subject to occidental standards. The first stages were: “The Sumerian matchstick lines turned language into a standard: fixed in clay. the LP. The first weekly papers appeared after 1600 in Strasburg and Wolfenbüttel and the first daily paper was published in Leipzig in 1659. They piled up knowledge and traditions. later the telephone. Then things moved fast: the invention of the telegraph in mid 19th century. electromagnetic waves via Hertz and then radio. The Phoenicians develop the first text with syllables. such as Sumerian pictogrammes and Egyptian hieroglyphics. Basically a very short time ago when compared with the overall history of man and homo sapiens in East Africa about 4 million years ago .300 years ago with the Sumerians and later the Egyptians.C.
there are some companies today which just exist virtually within computers and that includes many Internet businesses. Oracle or Microsoft. business or economy. This is why Data Warehousing exists where the data collected data is sorted and edited according to business intelligence criteria. i.0 and social media. However. saved and provided via networks. And it is the advance of computers and the World Wide Web which has now moved society away from an industrial society to one based on information.e. Accounting was always at the center of automation developments. . The production of goods in the classical sense is more in the background and it is now the product “services” and “information” which has been established. Some of the oldest clay slates found in Persia contained book-keeping documentation. whereby the term “knowledge” is used here without any value attached to it. for airline companies want to know – for marketing and flight organization purposes – how often their customers fly.The information society – saving data and knowledge at new levels 11 Digitizing knowledge T he means and technologies used by man to document experience and knowledge either for a short time or indeed long-term have greatly developed throughout history. More and more digital information is entered. without an assessment of the content. the reason why human or social groups pass on information is still the same. Depending on the business model. this growth is based on the amount of accrued company data. i. Its evaluation and interpretation has become very complex due to the quantity and constant expansion. Classic companies started with solutions for ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and moved via CRM (Customer Relationship Management). their destination and also their chosen form. can be easily accessed via queries. Distributing information and entertainment has become a separate profitable business and has constantly changed the way in which society interacts . It is frequently production-technical and commercial data that is entered the most and processed in applications from SAP. The first computers were predominantly used for book-keeping purposes. Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence to new areas in Web 2. This structured data. Databases alone do not provide such interpretations. On the one hand. More and more operational areas are now electronic and each new sector provides an increasing amount of digital data. which is systematically stored in database fields.e. SCM (Supply Change Management). For example. And today IT has spread throughout companies like wildfire.
Changing information forms within companies
he Enterprise Strategy Group defines three phases: Phase one saw the automation of core processes with database-based applications, for example SAP R/3. Information became structured and transaction-oriented, hence the name “transaction data”. Phase two saw the structure of IT within a company change. The PC was invented and it was introduced to companies on a decentralized basis. PCs were then merged into workgroups which changed data via the first servers. That was the birth of Novell and also the starting-point to develop Windows as a server operating system. And suddenly there were vast quantities of non-structured office files. The age of distributed files had started and the required storage capacity was soon greater than that required for transaction data. And today we are at the beginning of the Internet data age Web 2.0 applications such as social networks, wikis or blogs are also being used in companies. Each person is now not only an information user but also an author of information and so the amount of data that now has to be stored has considerably multiplied. The digital footprint in the network is now already enormous and the end of such growth is not in sight. It can be expected that Internet data will soon leave all other sorts of data way behind.
The growth of non-structured data (Web 2.0)
ost of today’s data is not structured. It comes from Office or e-mail programmes. Non-structured data has relevant and non-relevant data, all mixed up and not easy to sort. That is the challenge: it is non-structured data that has to be managed correctly so that important data can be archived on a long-term basis without any loss and so that non-important data can be saved with a minimum of resources. The term “compliance” is used to describe all the data storage requirements as defined by organizations and the state. The mountain of digital data is growing because the old analog storage media in the consumer world is being replaced: voice, music, photos, TV and film are now digitally recorded and stored resulting in gigantic quantities of data. And added to that comes the continuing conversion of analog media. The improvement in Internet streaming technology and the improvement in bandwidths will enable the Internet to presumably replace media such as CD-ROMs or DVDs for music and film. This will generate increased demand for hard disks and arrays.
The information society – saving data and knowledge at new levels
How big is an Exabyte?
Kilobyte (KB) 1,000 bytes OR 103 bytes. 2 Kilobytes: a typewritten page. 100 Kilobytes: a low-resolution photograph. 1,000,000 bytes OR 106 bytes. 1 Megabyte: a small novel or a 3.5 inch floppy disk. 2 – 10 Megabytes: a high-resolution photograph taken by a digital camera. 3 – 4 Megabytes: a song compressed with MP3. 5 Megabytes: the complete works of Shakespeare. 10 Megabytes: a minute of high-fidelity sound. 10 – 20 Megabytes: a digital chest X-ray. 100 Megabytes: 1 meter of shelved books or two hours of compressed radio. 650 Megabytes: a CD-ROM. 1,000,000,000 bytes OR 109 bytes. 1 Gigabyte: a pickup truck filled with books. 3.2 Gigabytes: one hour of HDTV. 5 Gigabytes: the size of a typical movie stored on a single DVD. 20 Gigabytes: a good collection of Beethoven works. 50 Gigabytes: capacity of a Blue ray disc. 100 Gigabytes: a library floor of academic journals or about 1,200 hours of downloaded MP3 music. 500 Gigabytes: the native capacity of the largest tape cartridge in 2005. 1,000,000,000,000 bytes OR 1012 bytes. 1 Terabyte: 50,000 trees made into paper and printed. 2 Terabytes: an academic research library. 10 Terabytes: the print collections of the U.S. Library of Congress or projected capacity of a magnetic tape cartridge in 2015. 600 Terabytes: National Climactic Data Center (NOAA) database. 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes OR 1015 bytes. 1 Petabyte: 3 years of EOS data (Earth Observing system). 2 Petabytes: all U.S. academic research libraries. 20 Petabytes: production of hard disk drives in 1995. 200 Petabytes: all printed material. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes OR 1018 bytes. 2 Exabytes: total volume of information generated in 1999. 5 Exabytes: all words ever spoken by human beings. 9.25 Exabytes: the amount of capacity needed to hold all U.S. phone calls in one year. 90 Exabytes: estimated worldwide available digital storage capacity in 2010 for all media (disk, tape, optical).
Source: Horison Information Strategies, UC Berkeley Study “How Much Information”, IDC
The so-called Web 2.0 with its new interaction options for network participants, for example YouTube, MyFace, LinkedIn or Xing, will also result in huge data quantities being stored by the providers responsible. Most of today’s Blade servers and storage arrays are being sent to such companies. This development will increase as new technologies expand, such as leased software (Software as a Service / SaaS) or Cloud Computing where the user accesses programmes and data which is stored in giant data centers “somewhere in the Internet cloud“. Medium-sized companies and start-ups will enjoy low-priced options that enable them to use such a sophisticated infrastructure.
Amazon with its large data centers is renting out computing and storage capacity for its external customers. Of course, the appropriate network bandwidths must exist and the provider must be 100% reliable. It is clear that new technologies which are used first of all in the consumer environment will expand into the world of business IT. Risk analyses for particular situations are essential, especially when looking at security topics and cost savings. The options in our “Information society” have simply not yet been exhausted. New processes for transferring knowledge and storing information have joined the existing procedures . Information technology has enormous potential – but, just like all the other technical progress before, it is simply a tool for specific purposes. It all depends on how it is used and for which objectives. First of all, it has to be ensured that data backup itself becomes more reliable. The storage example shows both the technological opportunities as well as the restrictions. And that is why – particularly in this environment – there is a whole range of new fundamental inventions and gradual improvements.
Storage in such a world is thus gaining in significance:
1) The ever-increasing mountains of data first of all has to be saved first – and where possible using optimized resources. 2) As data has to be available anytime, anywhere, the storage systems used must provide the data worldwide via the Internet on a 24 hour-a-day basis. Data has to be saved several times on a redundant basis in order to ensure that it is not lost due to unforeseen circumstances. 3) An increasing amount of data with even less structure will dominate everyday data storage processes: data management must thus become more intelligent so that data is suitably saved according to its value (Information Lifecycle Management). This is the only way to meet compliance requirements.
birthday and family snapshots – which used to bore us all at family slideshow evenings really have to be saved on state-of-the-art technology for ever and ever? Does a company really have to save everything electronically despite legal specifications? According to IDC the growth of all non-structured data (file-based) that is being increasingly collected outside the company will exceed structured data (block-based) for the first time in 2008. Such estimates have often proven to be even too conservative. fire brigade and rescue services. data disappears. An additional factor is the so-called social networks (social communities). voice and music recordings. i. In particular. If something goes wrong. is stolen or the data backup media cannot be recovered when hardware is faulty. The balance in the company between structured data entered in databases or ERP applications and non-structured data resulting from e-mails A . But almost all IT departments follow some sort of storage strategy even if it is not well-known nor follows specific regulations: they move their data from A to B or C in order to save costs or they don’t need the data for a while. Digital information is being saved everywhere at a great extent including data centers which are expanding daily. It is rare for this type of situation to become public knowledge as the company will try to protect its reputation or brand name. TV cameras in major cities or at security-conscious locations (security & surveillance) as well as the conversion from analog to digital radio in police. These include film and video.Section 2 Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company Companies have looked at the topic of saving data but with various degrees of intensity. such as YouTube or Facebook with their enormous amount of data photos and videos. recent years have shown that. then people tend to keep quiet about it. Most companies thus have a basis and a need for a clear strategy when it comes to saving their digital treasures. But is all this data really worth it? Do all those holiday. lmost all the forecasts and estimates about fast data and storage growth have so far proven to be true despite the comments of a lot of analysts and market observers. other groups in society now digitize their analog information. medical x-rays (medical imaging).e. in addition to the company IT and their storage requirements.
Booking. every hour in business-critical information. this cannot be said for the actual storage of such data quantities: the main type of storage i. has also shifted.e. including attachments. videos and so on. The problem of retrieving structured data via database queries and interpreting data via Data Warehousing or Business Intelligence has today basically been solved although there is no solution for non-structured data . Such data is a typical example as it is saved several times and used or read by numer- M . yet it becomes “unimportant” after a certain period and even “out-of-date”. fast access to expensive hard disks is limited and only assigned to really critical business applications. i. • Other files. It has to be moved for space reasons. are not necessary business critical yet have to be stored nearby (Nearline) as such files are often modified and used again and again. such as presentations. Office files. However. Moving data oving data records and data in servers and applications to less performant storage areas is necessary for several reasons: • New up-to-date data is materializing every day. purchasing and selling data must all remain in direct access. from primary online storage to slower and lower-priced disk systems (Nearline or Secondary Storage).16 Section 2 World wide File and Block Disk Storage Systems. presentations. in 2008 file-based data will for the first time experience of stronger growth than block-based data.e. 2005–2008 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Block based File based Petabytes 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: IDC 2007 According to IDC.
HSM and ILM: classic concepts with long-term effects T wo classical concepts. It can move to an archive in whichever manner. The analysts in the Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG) have developed the “Iceberg” model. prove that a tiered storage process was always somehow operated within a company’s IT. for how long and on which medium? In the world of mainframes the Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) method was used where the automatic storage of data is on the lowest-priced storage devices according to the performance required for each application and according to the description offered by Fred Moore . This process is not visible for the users who can access all the data they want without any restrictions irrespective of the storage hierarchy level currently involved. even it is from the server to a backup medium. CDP/Continuous Data Protection). This is a third type of storage – on tape but the data is a long way from the original starting-point. StorageTek and other providers set up their strategy on Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) so as to guide the user to a content view of his stored data. it is still using a tiered data backup system as data is being moved. how. But this is only from the backup media and not from the primary or secondary disk storage units. • Legal regulations or just careful commercial thinking requires long-term data storage without having to have the contents constantly available during daily business. Restore. A hardware manufacturer had a wide range of different devices on offer. In early days it was stored to tape (known nowadays as so-called Virtual Tape Libraries) which simulate tape storage in disk systems. A special HSM software looks after the various storage levels. More information about this complex topic is in section 5. Snapshot. These procedures are based on up-to-date duplication concepts which fish out the copies during the backup processes. There are two main types of data: dynamic data which is continually changed (= visible part of the data iceberg) and permanent data that is static or fixed and will not be changed any more (= invisible part) . Both look at a fundamental question: what must be saved. there was also more cooperation with those manufacturers who concentrated on . Once the Internet bubble burst.Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company 17 ous employees. IBM introduced this procedure for the first time in mainframes in 1975. and even though this would be inadmissible from a professional storage viewpoint. apart from anything else. • Last but not least: data loss must be avoided depending on the value of the data by making immediate or delayed copies which can be recovered as required (Backup. such as servers and primary disk storage units. Even if a company only uses one aspect of these procedures.
) and cost. EMC bought Documentum – a manufacturer of a document management solution (DMS) – in order to set up packages for both their old and new customers.g. A similar approach is Tiered Storage which is basically the same as HSM and ILM. . compliance. retention. The stored data is increasingly moving towards non-access on account of the various levels involved: from servers and quick primary storage (online storage for data that requires immediate business access) and slower storage (nearline storage for data that is only required sometimes) to backup mechanisms and archiving. Tiering storage requires some mechanism to place data: Static – applications assigned to specific tiers Staged – batched data movement (e.18 Section 2 What is Tiered Storage? Tiering means establisching a hierarchy of storage systems based on service requirements (performance. but which looks more at the combination of IT infrastructure (hardware basis) and data contents. business continuity.g. ILM manages the data from its origin to its archiving or deletion and stores the data on various fast and powerful data media depending on its individual value. Even those who keep their data for a year or even longer on high-performance and expensive online storage. protection. ILM can be seen as a continuation of HSM in the world of Unix and Windows. Even if companies are often not aware of it they all practice some form of ILM. HSM or ILM policy serice) Source: SNIA The stored data is increasingly moving towards non-access on account of the various levels involved: from servers and quick primary storage and slower storage to backup mechanisms and archiving. But whether such a decision can be justified is not clear as in the meantime the data could have been saved on cheaper data media. Such a structure based on the value of the data exists in every company whatever they may call it. etx. using software to classify data. security. have made a decision regarding the assumed value of their data. archive) Dynamic – some active data mover (e. This type of storage management is based on HSM technology and uses company policies to establish an optimal match between data values and the respective storage subsystems.
Many manufacturers selling HSM or ILM promised their customers that they would. HSM and ILM have had an effect: Tiered Storage today is seen by companies to be quite normal. That is more easily said than done: how can someone decide which data should be stored at which stage and on which medium and for how long?  The traditional data hierarchy was split in two: data saved on hard disks with direct and fast access and backup or archive data saved on cheap tape and which is not in direct access and thus partially bunkered somewhere. Those that plan such a step with specific criteria can save money immediately .Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company 19 ILM Implementation Roadmap Instrument & manage service to ILM practices across sites Automate with ILM Management tools Capture overall savings & benefits Begin operating policy-based services Refine ILM practices & benefits Set data & info polices across domains Tier storage and protection into standard Service Levels Deploy Configuration Mgmt tools Begin collaborating on requirements Identify value.org/ dmf. above all. Data & Security Services Identify information assets & infrastructure resources/services Source: SNIA The recommendation of the SNIA Data Management Forum is to add intelligence to the tiering efforts by integrating it into a broader ILM-based practice. More informations at www. HSM and ILM can be regarded as a high-level. This refers to the classic storage processes such as data save. its direct significance for the business process. The two tiers have now become four . i. A real hierarchy now almost completely dominates the world of storage. lifecycle & classification of information for each business unit Use SRM tools to identify and track Deploy ILM practices across the enterprise Automate ILM-based policies & services Pilot ILM-based Solution Stacks Standardize Information. restore and disaster recovery which must be classified as such so that the data can be saved on the appropriately priced and powerful storage medium according to its value for the company.e. backup. reduce their storage costs. Even if this approach is not always accepted . indeed “tactile“ strategy which establishes the data backup stages and criteria in a justified sequence. Those who select HSM or ILM as their strategy want to move away from this old concept and now wish to save data according to usage.snia.
very fast response time. Further developments in disk and array technology have today resulted in a tiered storage model which comprises at least three or four classes: Tier 0: Fast data storage (Flash Memory or (Enterprise Class) Solid State Disk) is used to ensure that data can be accessed very quickly. Tiered storage and data classes he classic version only had two storage levels: the first step was to have the data saved on server-related hard disks (Direct Attached Storage = DAS) and keep it there for a while for fast data access and then the second step was to move the data to a Tape Library. expensive primary storage (fibre channel and SAS disks) down to less expensive secondary storage (disk-to-disk (D2D)) on SATA disks which still have to be accessed via servers or applications. which are actively involved in crude oil exploration with enormous amounts of data which even when using online storage would be too far away from the applications. it first had to be transported back and then loaded into the productive system – a process which could often last for hours or even days. retention period: days. approx. Tier 2: Vital data. banks or companies.999% availability. and then down to different forms of backup: either as backup storage on cheap SATA disks which have the function of the older type of tape backup (Virtual Tape Libraries / VTL) or as classic backup and archive on magnetic tapes.99 % availability. FC or SAS disk. If the data had to remain accessible. local and remote replication. retention period: hours. point-in-time copies. Backup and archive data was also saved on tapes and kept at a safe place usually away from the company premises – at least that was the theory. T . 99. recovery time objective: seconds. For example. FC-SAN. they reflect exactly the value of the data on each tier based on the corresponding costs. FC or SAS disk. recovery time objective: immediate. Tier 1: Mission critical data (such as revenue data). Solid State Disks (SSD) – as very expensive cache storage – have been on offer for years from specialist companies such as Texas Memory Systems. data mirroring. In other words. But if the data was required again due to a recovery situation. The main customers are state-owned organizations in the USA.20 Section 2 or five and. less critical data but fast response time. 20% of data. making up about 15% of all data. enterprises could only use powerful tape libraries from StorageTek or IBM with high-performance robotics that loaded or unloaded the cartridges quickly. in an ideal situation. 99. FC-SAN or IP-SAN (iSCSI). automatic failover.
retention period: years. SATA disk. low => 10 hours/year Tape Long-term retention Fixed content Video. about 25% of data. OLTP 99. archive Reference 99. IPSAN (iSCSI). where data should optimally reside and how it should be managed changes during its lifespan.0% availability. reference data Point-in-time. such as Data Tiered Storage and the Data Lifecycle Tier 1 Data type Applicatons Availability in percent I/O.999% Very high None Disk Probab i Tier 2 Application Vital. The price of the equivalent software in the market. tape libraries lity o f re u Tier 3 Reference. tape FC-SAN or IP-SAN (iSCSI). sensitive 99. This can only be handled manually.0%–99. ca. recovery time objective: hours/days. Tier 4: Non-critical data. ILM or Tiered Storage require clear-cut and continuous data classification.99% High < 5 hours/year Disk. Therefore. snapshot. which is again much too expensive. deduplication at . disk-to-disk-to-tape periodical backups. government regulations Tape libraries. deep archive Offsite vaults Probability of reuse (%) V alu a VTLs SATA/JBOD MAID ∞ 90+ days 1+ years forever minutes (remastering) hours days ata Amount of d 0 Average days since creation Recovery Time Objective (RTO) 0 days milliseconds 30+ days seconds Data mover Key components (ILM) Policy engine Tiered storage hierarchy Source: Horison Information Strategies It is increasingly important to understand that the value of data changes throughout its lifetime. 99. 99. 40% of the data.9% Moderate. medical. CDP Synchronous and asynchronous (remote) fd eo Secondary storage SATA disk and virtual tape Fixed content. backup/ recorvery. retention period: unlimited. especially with non-structured data. HSM.Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company 21 Tier 3: Sensitive data. moderate response times. Amount of data Primary storage se Enterprise class disk Mirroring and replication. recovery time objective: minutes. MAID. virtual tape libraries. throughput Scheduled downtime Recovery technology 100 Operational Mission-critical.9% availability.
immediate access to customer flight booking data is essential before. or related to the moment of data entry or other criteria. the proportion of data that must still be retained towards the end of its lifecycle is increasing and not reducing as in earlier days. Decisions about data storage and archive locations and periods must thus be taken. There are more “transit stations” than before and more computing power and server performance must be used when moving data from the one tiered storage to the next. Even when “nearline” tape libraries were introduced at the beginning of the Nineties. it was still thought that archiving data was the last phase before it was deleted. on the other hand. Fujitsu Siemens Computers has been working together with Kazeon in this respect. state regulations throughout the world now decree that IT data must be stored for longer periods. For example. . ILM has only been accepted as a comprehensive concept if it could be obtained as an integrated product (such as CentricStor from Fujitsu Siemens Computers). Many start-up companies have been involved in classifying data and in automating the processes involved and have since been followed by the “giants” in the branch. But that has certainly changed. new hard disk technologies have resulted in various disk storage phases. is such that an investment has to be carefully calculated beforehand. The result is that many customers regard ILM or Tiered Storage as a good idea but shy away from the corresponding investment involved.22 Section 2 Movers or Policy Engines. In practice. It would be a serious mistake to believe that the importance of data once stored does not change according to the business process. Nowadays. On the one hand. during and after the flight but a week later it is only of interest for those running statistics or customer behavior evaluations. A life span of more than one or two years for most data was pretty inconceivable in those days.
The first data media of this type consisted of a stack of 51 disks with a diameter of 60 cm (IBM RAMAC). This means in turn that data backup is basically pretty uncertain. But as early as 1956 alternative data media started to appear: the magnetic disk.Section 3 Online storage: disks and reliability This section looks at the extremely sensitive area of direct data storage – during or immediately after its creation within the business process. I . rotating disks which are arranged above each other in an airtight housing. corresponds to several books or the complete works of Shakespeare – see the overview in section 1). but to coated disks. Nothing must get lost! The added safety harness in the form of backup on other media comes at a later stage. costs play a less important role. Both methods were based on binary data (consisting of two figures: “1” or “0”) either by punching or not punching a hole on paper cards or by magnetizing or not magnetizing the tapes. namely the processor. punch cards were originally used to save data. the data is no longer written and read sequentially to the data media. In this situation. This was followed in 1952 by magnetic tapes. In contrast to sequential storage. Hard disks as known today have several. In contrast to magnetic tapes. What are the features of expensive fibre-channel and SAS disks as used in online storage? Why are RAID systems used? And how fast must direct data access actually be? These are just some of the questions to be looked at more closely. can only operate on such a basis. Magnetic tapes were fast and could save what was in those days a large amount of data. This form of storage is still necessary today as computers can only handle information which has been reduced or converted using such a binary system. n the early days of electronic data processing which only took place on mainframes. A read/write head is driven by a motor above these disks and can skip to all the positions required. this type is known as random access and is much faster. In other words: this numbering system just consists of a “1” and a “0” because the heart of the computer. which slows down access and retrieval. namely five megabytes (= 5 million characters. the forerunner of the modern hard disk.
The advantage of magnetic tapes is they are not constantly moving and that the data is also stored in a non-power status.4 30. Lower-priced and slower disks are used for backup to disk systems or as an intermediate stage in the form of virtual tape libraries (VTL) on which data is retained for application access (nearline storage) before it is “finally“ moved to tape according to specific regulations or periods of time. they should be replaced every three to four years on average even if some disk manufacturers claim a longer lifespan. the use of tape today is moving from backup to archiving (see section 5). This is also the case even when there are no read/write accesses. while powerful hard disks have since taken on the main job of data storage and even some of the backup activity. The lifespan of a hard disk is basically limited as a result of its mechanisms and thus possible error sources. Disks can be directly accessed by servers for business critical data where very fast. yet expensive FC and SAS disks are used.9 1.4 Parallel SCSI SAS Fibre Channel ATA/SATA Source: Gartner Dataquest According to Gartner Dataquest the SAS interface is evolving into the number one disk technology. These disks and their immediate successor did not have any intelligence of their H The disk market in terms of interfaces 2007 23.3 2009 26.24 Section 3 Lifespan of hard disks ard disks consist of mechanical parts which are constantly mobile and require energy.4 16.9 44. Relating to the tier storage concept. It was 1980 before Seagate (a company founded in 1979 und now the world‘s largest disk manufacturer) launched a hard disk suitable for IBM PCs with a capacity of 5 MB. The previosly dominant Parallel SCSI is sinking into insignificance. .4 33.3 23. Tapes used professionally are said to last for even thirty or more years.
15k rpm * 10k.000 hours 1. SATA hard disks now provide competition to fibre-channel hard disks as today they have a higher degree of reliability and have fallen in price.2 gbps Yes SATA Low-end file storage 7. 3.5 ms 24 x 7 High > 1.5 – 7. SAS disks (Serial Attached SCSI) today play a significant part in this professional sector as they are gradually replacing the SCSI disks.0 gbps No Rotation speed Seek time Typical average access time Power-on time (hours x days) I/O duty cycle MTBF Maximum bus 4 gbps speed Interactive error Yes management * rpm = Rotations per minute ** ms = Milli seconds Source: Horison Information Strategies .5 ms ** 3 – 4 ms ** 5. Fibre channel technology as a whole is regarded as particularly powerful for enterprises since the introduction of storage area networks (SANs).4 million hours 5.5 ms ** 3 – 4.5 ms 24 x 7 High > 1.5.200 rpm * 8 – 10 ms ** 13 – 15 ms 10 x 5 Low 600. As they are compatible to SATA. The performance of various disk types Specification Fibre Channel SAS SCSI Online storage Online storage Online storage and transaction and transaction and data data transaction data 10k. Many different devices could be connected to a SCSI controller – from hard disk to scanner. such as IDE/EIDE (Integrated Drive Electronics and Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) and ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) which come from the consumer sector or are known as SCSI disks (SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) specially developed for enterprises.4 million hours 3. They read reliably and quickly.5 – 7. Since 2001 the ATA development SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) has become more widespread – the data is no longer transferred in parallel but in serial. they can be installed together in a joint array which can result in tier 1 and tier 2 being connected within one single device.5 ms 24 x 7 High > 1.5 – 7. The parallel data transfer rate was much higher than the previous sequential transport methods. 15k rpm * 3 – 4.Online storage: disks and reliability 25 own and were completely managed by an external controller.4 million hours 3 gbps Yes 5. 15k rpm * 10k. Today‘s standard hard disks are based on standards.
such as buildings on extensive factory premises or within a town.” • Possible solutions: – More reliable disks (migration from SATA to SAS) – Redundant disks (RAID. availability • What is most difficult to replace if a company loses everything. SAS and SCSI disks are used in online storage as part of the data and storage hierarchy .000. it can be positioned away from other devices in the storage network (up to 10 kilometers. Online storage customer requirement: reliability. as a result of disaster: – Its buildings? – Its computers? – Its data? • “50 % of all companies who lose their data as a result of a fire or flood are bankrupt within one year. This was decisive in setting up Storage Area Networks (SANs) since the end of the Nineties as decentralized locations. As they have no mechanical parts. But they too are nearing their end as the SSD lifecycle comes to a conclusion after 10. The use of IP protocols for storage networks has since extended the range of FC and SCSI/SAS hard disks to cover very large global distances.26 Section 3 The technical options of the various hard disk types have not yet been fully exploited and SATA will probably expand further regarding professional storage but will in turn be replaced by SAS in nearline storage. e. in addition to better equipment with internal microprocessors for mechanic and error control.000 write accesses  according to manufacturer specifications. Only powerful FC. mirroring) – Regular backups Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers . The advantage of fibre channel is that.000 to 1. could be connected to each other via the storage network.g. Solid State Disks (SSD) already installed by some manufacturers in their storage systems are already significant as a kind of second cache (RAM) due to their high access rates. whereas SCSI is only 25 meters). they have a lifespan that is longer than that of classic hard disks.
one problem still remains. The manufacturer’s warranty has usually expired after three to four years and new investments are made usually for accounting purposes. Pinheiro/W. 4 Years 5 Years . this can be compared to the stress situations that arise when a plane takes off and lands . head crash.Online storage: disks and reliability 27 Hard disks – a contradiction in terms regarding long-term data backup E ven if you decide to use high-value hard disks in online storage. material damage. Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population. The lifecycle (or duty cycle) is also reduced by frequent power-ups and switch-offs – more so than if a disk runs on a round-the-clock basis. but that is certainly anything but long-term as a power failure. Barroso.-D. Weber/L. The correct moment for replacing hard disks also depends on conditions. A. Annualized failure rates (AFR) broken down by age groups 10 8 AFR (%) 6 4 2 0 3 Month 6 Month 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years Source: E. such as temperature and the amount of time the hard disks have been running. An increasing amount of information is saved on magnetic media. theft or the sudden “death” of the system hardware are all enough to send your data – so carefully saved and at considerable cost – all off into Nirvana. The actual reason for this situation is the strange contradiction that exists in our so-called digital age. February 2007 (Google) Not only the age of the disks is accounted for in the annual error rates but also the different disk types. namely the lifespan of the hard disks – and thus your data – is extremely limited.
The redundancy versions require additional investments in disks which then standby for the emergency of disk failure (so-called hot spares). First of all. The common factor in RAID levels (apart from RAID 0) is that there is a balance between performance and redundancy according to the system or application requirements. RAID. many small and inexpensive disks are combined to one group LUN (Logical Unit Number) so that they provide more performance for an application. The RAID function known as striping means that the capacities of each disk in the array can be split into partitions which in turn can be addressed by one or more LUNs: application data can thus be distributed across several disks whereby they use an early “type” of storage virtualization. Redundant Array of Independent (earlier known as Inexpensive) Disks started their development at the University of Berkeley in the mid Nineties. Disk systems can be reset to their original state should a disk or a LUN fail by using parity calculations which take up a lot of computing time and nowadays are fixed in chips. RAID 0 combines several disks in order to increase performance.28 Section 3 Even if the disks last somewhat longer than a three-year cycle in particular situations. RAIDs are mainly involved in providing protection against disks failing. The operating system sees a RAID as one single logical hard disk (consisting of many different physical disks). There are two important functions in a RAID. while RAID 5 requires about 10% more disk space in order to ensure redundancy: One disk covers for several disks and is ready to jump in and help should there be an emergency. However. this situation increases the risks involved (in contrast to the general belief that RAID provides greater data security) as the statistical probability increases that the whole system will no longer function when one of the disks in the array goes down. during processor-intensive reconstruction of the original parity status after . RAID 1 saves everything twice (this requires double disk capacity). The widespread RAID 6 was developed in order to eliminate a possible RAID 5 error: Specialists from different manufacturers and research groups wondered what would happen if. modifies the configuration and size of the system cache according to the respective application requirements. How important is the price of new disks (constantly falling) and the administration hours involved in comparison to a data catastrophe that you yourself have caused and the costs of which could damage a company beyond belief? Reliability with RAID S o-called RAID solutions exist to protect data on a basically unreliable hard disk and they are used as a standard in most of today’s disk systems. A RAID controller can do more: it takes on the disk administration. Today. it is advisable to make the change and recopy the data in good time.
the spare disk or another disk in the array were to fail? If such a failure were to occur. Most manufacturers recommend a specific RAID configuration for their systems or applications. All these procedures are based on the idea of redundancy: keep everything twice or more where possible. This includes at a hardware level clusters and grids which means that specific hardware is available several times so that the second device can run with an identical configuration and identical data should there be any problems. How much data protection do you need? I T manufacturers have always been fairly inventive when introducing additional protective functions for data storage around disk arrays. For example.Online storage: disks and reliability 29 Milestones in the hard disk drive industry Capacity 5 MB 10 MB 100 MB 500 MB 1 GB 100 GB 500 GB 1 TB 1.11 Year 1956 1962 1965 1975 1981 2001 2005 2007 2008 Formatted Capacity 4. networks and backups against any .5 TB Company IBM IBM IBM STC IBM Seagate HGST HGST Seagate Model 350 Ramac 1301 2302-3 8800 Super Disk 3380 Barracuda 180 7K500 7K1000 Barracuda 7200. In such a situation. International companies have also networked their data storage units and have to go to great lengths to protect their storage media. RAID 6 has a second parity calculation ready which becomes active when a second disk fails.4 MB 21.5 TB Source: Storage Newsletter. The transfer between clusters and grids is based on scaling and also subject to heated expert debate.6 GB 500 GB 1 TB 1.6 MB 112 MB 880 MB 1. the performance of the controller drops by more than 30% compared with a simple RAID 5 downtime. RAID 3 is more suitable for video streaming and NetApp has selected RAID 4 for its NAS-Filer as very fast read/write actions can occur on the disks . edition July 2008 a disk downtime.260 GB 181. Oracle recommends a combination of RAID 1 and 5 for its database in order to increase performance.
As everything is redundant and mirrored. LUN masking is the function in an FC-SAN which makes only those storage areas visible to an application which the latter needs to implement its tasks. In the event of a catastrophe. IPSec is used for authentication and saving data streams.) All these processes have their origin in the basic problem of storing data on electromagnetic media. . Hard zoning means that hardware checks all the packages and forwards them only to the permitted addresses. Mirroring (a RAID 1 principle where i. (See section 5 for more details. However. Zoning switches in FC-SANs ensure that access control is permitted for each storage system. IT operations can be continued. one disk is an exact mirror of the other) can also be applied to mirroring an entire storage system. They thus frequently do not meet the security policy requirements for the company‘s IT. With IP-SANs on iSCSI basis.30 Section 3 misuse. Continuous Data Protection (CDP) as well as Snapshots. protecting electronic data media on a permanent basis against downtime or damage remains a tricky and never-ending story to which IT managers must give their full attention. An identical server can be positioned at a second location possibly several kilometers away and a storage landscape can be set up based on a contingency data center.e. Despite all the advantages of such technology the stored data could suddenly disappear into thin air! An old medium such as paper can be longer lasting and proven methods exist against dangers such as fire or natural catastrophes. the productive IT including the stored data is transferred from A to B. via encryption . Soft zoning means that devices just get information about those systems with which they are to exchange data. There is no patent recipe. for example. The software elements in data backup are logically based on processes for Backup and Restore. such as hard disk or tape (and likewise DVD or Blu Ray). All the data is constantly transferred from location A to location B so that the same data is at both locations. This zoning can be run on a hardware or software basis. Today‘s SAN and NAS infrastructures unfortunately have only low-rate security mechanisms both at a fibre channel level as well as on an iSCSI basis.
it exists in various versions. NAS and SAN in 2007 NAS 17 % 23 % 60 % SAN DAS Source: IDC. Furthermore. Therefore. This is especially necessary since small to medium-sized companies in particular are currently also able to set up own storage networks for their purposes. However. the share of DAS is still large.Section 4 Storage networks – spoilt for choice Today storage networks are denoted as “state of the art”. which one should you choose in practice? H ard disks that are installed in servers and PCs or are directly connected to the servers in storage arrays are still the most wide-spread structure in small to medium-sized companies – known in this case as Direct Attached Storage (DAS). there are fewer experts EMEA market share for DAS. this section deals with the description of some fundamental architectural features of the various approaches and the explanation of important terms. . Small to medium-sized businesses have discovered the productive forces of IT and use them for their business processes. 2008 Even although SAN determines the topology of storage systems as a whole. which makes its understanding complicated – particularly for beginners. However. at the same time their financial resources limit their investments in an own IT infrastructure. particulary in small and medium sized business. However. At least all large companies use this technology.
which was to the detriment of the transfer speed and caused data losses. each directly attached storage unit is in the same way as the individual server not at full capacity. and bears the name Fibre Channel (FC). In other companies. The superfluous capacity and computing power is used in the server for peaks for special occasions. . and most recently with 8 Gbit/sec achieved a transport speed that even outperformed the Ethernet. The Fibre Channel protocol was specially developed for the transport of files. small to medium-sized businesses do not follow every trend and concentrate on the basics. which had originally only been developed for the transport of messages . thus reached the limits of their capacity. And for storage it is “reserved” for corresponding write and read operations – in other words there is a gap between the investment made and benefit achieved. Although keeping a DAS structure does not meet the state of the art of current storage technology. This silo structure may become somewhat complex with time – and use a great deal of space and energy in the server room or data center – but it is ultimately easy to monitor and manage.32 Section 4 available. who only have to provide support for a small part of the IT. But what does DAS really mean? Users who connect one or more storage arrays per server have a dedicated. the amounts of data to be moved in the local area network (LAN) became increasingly large. in which several server units had access to the same storage arrays – but separate for mainframes and Open Systems (Unix computers. and later also for Windows servers). Networks on the basis of the Internet protocol (IP). However. Consequently. exclusive storage array for precisely the application that is installed on the server. who in addition are not able to specialize in the same way as their colleagues in large-scale companies. where the client/server infrastructure was implemented via the internal network. such as storage arrays or printers to a server. Why storage networks make sense T he need for a separated network for storage purposes only was reflected toward the end of the nineties in a separate technology for Storage Area Networks (SANs). According to analysts individual servers only run at about 15 to 20 % capacity and for storage the value is on average about 40%. such as internal monthly billing or external accesses for web-based purchase orders in the pre-Christmas period. The new infrastructure consisted of own cabling and a further development of the SCSI protocol. which was already used for the connection of various devices. it can be used as the starting point for a gradual transformation. there were provided storage structures. The disadvantage is obvious: If not split into several partitions. It is said to be reliable.
Technical Consultant with the American IT manufacturer LSI. to which various devices can be connected. This is for example the opinion of Mario Vosschmidt. In an FC network special switches are given the task of connecting storage arrays with servers and also with each other. A switch works as a kind of multiple socket. specialists describe it as easy to handle.Storage networks – spoilt for choice 33 PC Client PC Client PC Client Ethernet LAN Server Storage Area Network Fibre Channel SAN Server Disk Storage Disk Storage Disk Storage Disk Storage Tape Storage Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers A storage area network (SAN) constitutes a separate storage infrastructure which is only intended for data transport.  In contrast to the wide-spread image of Fibre Channel as “difficult to set up and manage”. .
The intention of the manufacturer with these purchases was to strengthen it market position vis-à-vis Cisco. And over the last few years false expectations have . hard-fought conflicts rage to decide market positioning. One particular aspect is the configuration of different storage zones (zoning). the worldwide leader in Ethernet switches. has also had Fibre Channel solutions in its portfolio for several years and has thus positioned itself as a competitor against Brocade for Fibre Channel. However. Cisco. The administrator can define which devices and data are and which ones are not to be connected with each other. Brocade has taken over several providers (McData. which are the prevailing storage infrastructure today in large companies and institutions. even if it has to switch over almost completely to new products. also lost the race because the manufacturers behind it concentrated too much on their core product and thus ultimately did not keep up with the competitors . IP-SANs on an iSCSI basis would already be in a position to do this. a structure that forms the core of a SAN. A new FCoE network calls for standards and an agreement between the various providers. in which there is still a lack of standards in many places. If a SAN is extended. which was founded in 1995. such as zoning or virtualization. who were greatly involved with directors . This means that such switches can take on tasks within the network. Not for the first time in the history of information technology have the cards been re-shuffled between the companies involved – a recurring development that is enhanced by a forthcoming new technology: Currently. With their help it is possible to set up a “Fabric”. Every manufacturer wants to be involved in FCoE. Compared with Ethernet. Fibre Channel has ultimately remained a niche technology. This serves to protect against unauthorized access both in and also outside a company. this company is the market leader in FC switches. CNT and Inrange). The name “Director” has become widely accepted for larger FC switches with at least 128 ports. fast transport services that are less susceptible to errors. named “Token Ring”. additional switches and zones can be set up. problems frequently still occur in practice because server and network administrators are too unfamiliar with data storage. The historical service of FC-SANs. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is being used to attempt to bring together the separate networks of message transport (Ethernet or TCP/IP) and data storage (Fibre Channel and iSCSI) to again form a common network. which work as the nerve center in an SAN and were equipped with more “intelligence” in the course of their development. depending on the existence of ports (connection for cable). but the communication and storage transport networks are mostly kept separate for performance reasons. Although the technology is simple in comparison with a classic network. Today.34 Section 4 During its time of origin this Fibre Channel architecture was particularly linked with the Californian company Brocade. Some providers have obviously still not forgotten that a previous rival technology of Ethernet. before this is finally the case. consists in providing efficient.
storage units.Storage networks – spoilt for choice 35 in part been raised. in small data blocks of about four to 128 KB.e. which is particularly associated with the name of Network Appliance (today NetApp). an alternative network structure came into being for the storage of data within the company network. because the obstacles (and prices) for FC training courses were set too high. with the saving of file services we are dealing with related files. The storage arrays attached in the SAN are mostly managed via the tools supplied by the manufacturers. which derives from the physical splitting of hard disks into sectors and blocks. This makes handling easier for the administrator and direct access to the file contents is also possible. which in turn only requires a short familiarization period and is directly supported by the suppliers . A Network Attached Storage (NAS) denotes an integrated overall solution. For this purpose NetApp offers so-called filers. When storing in blocks. i. Consolidate file services pproximately at the same time as the FC-SANs. operating system. which support the file services NFS (= Network File System. file system and network services. . which combines servers. Whereas the files are saved in blocks in an FC-SAN. no data can for the time being be accessed via the start and end A DAS Direct Attached Storage Application NAS Network Attached Storage Application SAN Storage Area Network Application Network File System File System File System Network Disk Storage Disk Storage Disk Storage Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers Every topology pursues a different concept but the goal is the same: protecting application data. originally developed by Sun) and CIFS (= Common Internet File System under Windows) and are especially suited for unstructured data.
And everything the customer needs to know about the two technologies is only that both systems can be used at any time for data storage. one of the founders and now Executive Vice President of Engineering at NetApp. All PC users know that their data is archived in certain files and folders and thus have a logical structure. In an NAS the focus is placed on the network functions  and less on the performance of the hard disks used. expressed a frank opinion in an interview: “NAS and SAN are like two flavors of the same ice cream. No-one needs to have any reservations. bear security in mind TCP/IP – fast but very high overhead (up to 40% net) Simple implementation. fast – up to 200 Mb/s Rapid data transport All data Drives. because with each storage process free blocks are occupied first. stored content Clients (workgroups) Only disks Protocol Optimized for Types of data Split Storage for Drives Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers of the files and their contents and structures cannot be directly accessed. secure FC. the operating system needs an increasingly long amount of time to open files. expensive.36 Section 4 The difference between SAN and NAS Network SAN Fibre channel – complex. NAS is chocolate-flavored and SAN is strawberry-flavored. open and fast communication over long distances Only files Files. closed system. What intelligent person would be disturbed by the fact that the someone does not like chocolate-flavored ice cream. By using the command “Defragment” the suffering Windows user puts things in order again on the hard disk – at least for a while. either. resources Server (data center) All NAS IP – simple implementation. Many users consider it a lower-cost alternative to an SAN. which can be individually adapted depending on their requirements. . but prefers strawberry-flavored ice cream.”  This somewhat flippant statement can also be interpreted in such a way that companies with SAN and NAS have two storage architectures to choose from. regardless of the context of the file content. David Hitz. First of all the various blocks have to be on the physical level and consolidated into one entity that is visible for the user. torn apart). open system. They also know that their data are ultimately scattered over the hard disk – after lengthier use they are “fragmented” (distributed. cost-effective. Consequently. Whoever decides in favor of which version depends on a great many factors that are perhaps also very individual.
However. In practice. . because this technology is currently faster than Fibre Channel with only 8 Gbit/sec at present. customers incur additional costs due to the new cabling that becomes necessary. The attraction of this architecture is its ability to use the existing TCP/IP infrastructure for data storage.Storage networks – spoilt for choice 37 Comparing the three topologies Based on network technology Maximum number of supported appliances / HBA Vulnerability to downtime with external influences Price level Scalability Maximum distance to server Base protocol Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers DAS No 15 Yes (copper) Low Bad 25 m SCSI NAS Yes / Yes (copper) High Relative / Ethernet SAN Yes 126 No (glass) Very high Very good 10 km FCP A third version has been under discussion for some years now: iSCSI networks for storage units (also known as IP-SAN) obviously overcame the lengthy introductory phase a year ago and have achieved significant sales figures. and the administrators can fall back upon their existing IP know-how. Nevertheless. however. This makes the installation and maintenance of a second infrastructure (only set up for storage) superfluous. In the meantime. new prospects are the result of the new transfer speed of 10Gbit/sec for the Ethernet. it is generally assumed that an iSCSI infrastructure is mainly suited for small to mediumsized companies and has found its true position there. there have been greater obstacles in the integration of the various tasks of the LAN and iSCSI storage network.
Modern IT is similar: “In actual fact.” copies should be made at all times of every piece of stored information and kept ready for emergencies. for example the brakes or the steering suddenly fail or a tire bursts. but surveys and analyses still result in glaring errors in this basic discipline. Since everything that does not appear to be directly necessary for the day-to-day business or cannot be immediately converted into hard cash. then it is usually too late to avert disaster. A motorcar or a bicycle is often only used until it no longer works – based on the motto “Nothing will go wrong”.Section 5 Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise Data backup is the same story as with many necessary tasks. T he penetration of society and the economy with IT has only just begun. companies that behave according to this ideal are the exception. This interdependence of business processes and electronically generated and processed information makes it absolutely necessary for companies with requirements of all magnitudes to ensure secure data storage. Corporate IT and the need for data backup have been in existence now for about 40 years. but which are ultimately only performed half-heartedly or not at all because they require additional time or more money. However. is not given the attention that would actually be appropriate to the matter. And if something happens. Increasingly more parts of daily life – from communication and information procurement right through to healthcare – are dominated by IT systems. . That ought not to be so: creating an efficient and automated remedy is no great conjuring trick. and economic processes today depend on electronic support in almost all branches of industry and in all sizes of companies.
• Basis for recovery. • Reset to the last possible point of consistency. • A differential backup always specifies all the changes after the last full backup. • For databases retrace with the help of redo logs to the most current version possible. with which applications can be started (particularly with databases). In this respect. Distinction in backup volumes: • A full backup (complete data backup) is on account of the time required only performed at greater intervals and constitutes the basis for the following backups. Further specifications exist depending on the backup software used .40 Section 5 Fundamental backup terms Backup: Regular data backup to enable access to data in the event of data loss. which only save the extensions and changes to the original database that have taken place in the meantime. • Incremental backup denotes a backup of the data that have arisen anew or been changed since the last backup (regardless of whether it is an incremental or a full backup). • The result does not necessarily provide data. Recovery: • Restartable restore of data and systems. a differential backup needs more storage space than an incremental one. • The result provides a physically intact volume / file system. . Restore: • Recovery of data via backups (irrespective of the medium) to the time when the backup was originally created.
insurance companies or airlines. for example. about 50% of the data saved is not used. 2001. However. will have a relatively fast impact on the business success of these companies. extreme weather conditions and failures in hardware. This is why data backup always has to be performed with state-of-the-art methods and improved so as to continue to remain competitive. Therefore. can also have an impact on data backup. Data loss in banks. And last but not least. such as those that have occurred in many countries over the last few years. efficiently organized data backup processes have always been decisive for a company’s market image. In many branches of industry. the German Association for Information Technology. The most important factors to trigger a realignment of backup and recovery strategies can be specified as follows: Local threats. such as banking or healthcare.Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise 41 Backup and recovery strategies artner analysts assume that a fundamental change in significance of the data backup is currently taking place . Terrorist attacks and threats have featured highly on the agenda in many countries since September 11. business applications) only have comparably modest growth. IT infrastructure has to be equipped to meet rapidly changing business and technical requirements. according to surveys performed by BITKOM. In the age of globalization and the Internet most companies cannot afford any interruptions and downtimes in the infrastructure. Power failures of a greater scope. Unstructured data (e-mails. G . files) grow in a particularly disproportional manner. backup and recovery processes should be planned on a long-term and flexible basis and not at the expense of the productive processes of IT. This calls for measures to move these unused data to less expensive levels of the storage hierarchy or to remove them from a productive context and archive them earlier. software. the time slots for backup and recovery are becoming increasingly tight. while classically structured data (databases. because work is performed on a 24/7 basis in various locations. retail trading and mechanical or automotive engineering. such as fire. networks and media endanger business continuity. At the same time.
which impair data integrity or can even cause entire systems to fail. which even proficient administrators can make. whose sudden expiry can also mean the demise of the data stored upon them. Many manufacturers specify values between one and a million hours for high-end drives. Which IT department and which company gladly admits to having done something wrong? Regardless of the imminent disasters it is frequently these technical errors of everyday IT or simply the end of the life-span of the components and media used. Most faults are caused by the hardware or system.42 Section 5 How does data loss come about? Hardware or System Malfunction 44 % Human Error 32 % 14 % Software Corrupton or 3 % 7% Program Malfunction Natural Disasters Computer Viruses Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers Software errors and viruses are relatively rarely the cause of data loss. A separate branch of industry. I n addition to the aforesaid external influences. which has become greatly centralized over the course of the last few years. looks after the recovery of data storage systems of various types . which can go from the power supply units and processors . the direct reason for data loss is software errors. via hard disks  to other components and even to redundant assemblies (on a double or multiple basis) such as hard disk arrays. which would mean a biblical life expect- . In order to specify the durability of hard disks their capacity and expected life-span are expressed in the term MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure). whereby in this regard a great deal disappears under a dense veil of silence. Added to these are user and operating errors. which is an extrapolated value for the probable downtime of a drive. followed by human error. as well as various hardware errors.
The underlying tests assume a very high number of parallel disks. Since the term MTBF has on account of its inaccuracy increasingly come under criticism. their throughput has in the meantime risen to more than 500 MB/sec. are used today. the implied optimal conditions are in practice the exception so that real failure rates can be very high. Compared with disks. However. However. in individual cases even longer. The average life-span of hard disks is at present three to five years. The life-span of magnetic tapes is specified as up to 30 years for DLT/SDLT and LTO and is thus clearly beyond that of hard disks and solid state disks . It is established in the same way as the MTBF. while capacities are also clearly on the increase and now lie at about 1 TB (LTO 4). but specifies the anticipated annual failure rate as a percentage of the installed number of disks. disks become more and more inexpensive (in summer 2008 Seagate announced a 1. • Backup to Tape / Tape Libraries: Data backup on tapes is a low-cost option of storing data. on the basis of which possible failure rates are calculated. Backup architectures / Storage locations for backup data T he consequence of this development in the price/performance ratio for the backup architecture is that tape continues to move further toward archiving at the end of the tiered-storage chain. The data is usually saved on low-price SATA disks and not on cost-intensive Fibre-Channel disks. As capacity increases.  . and the magnetic tapes that are still used in storage are becoming more efficient. for example AFR (Annualized Failure Rate). This dispute is futile because it is the particular requirements of each company that matter.87% . An ultimately futile dispute has even developed as to which is the better solution for backup – disk or tape. Companies should only rely on longer time periods if they use automatic error controls with direct notification of the manufacturer’s service.5 TB disk). it is advisable to use special forms of a disk backup before the data is finally moved to tape. access is slower. other units of measurements. Redundancy through disk system arrays (see section 3) and sophisticated backup mechanisms have to prevent this.7 out of 1000 disks fail a year. For the backup there are various forms how physical data backup can take place: • Backup to Disk / Disk Libraries: Storage on disks is faster than write accesses on tapes. which depending on the stipulated Service Level Agreement (SLA) ensures a replacement before the disk finally fails. the annual failure rate or AFR is 0. If 8.Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise 43 ancy of 114 years (= one million hours). For example. tapes have the advantage of a longer life-span. If the proportion of data that has to remain permanently accessible for a longer period of time is very high.
• Virtual Tape Libraries (VTL): VTLs represent the ultimate in storage. it is possible to integrate backup-to-disk concepts in existing data backup environments. If two disk levels are used within a storage array. As a result. For connected computers a VTL presents itself like one or more tape libraries. it follows from this that banks have zero tolerance toward failure. . such as Fibre Channel or SAS. To define Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for backups the following terms are often used today: • RPO (Recovery Point Objective) The term RPO (Recovery Point Objective) is used to describe how much data loss the company can afford at most. price advantages can be achieved because only one array needs to be procured. RPO Disaster RTO Weeks Days Hours Mins Secs Secs Mins Hours Days Weeks The gap is narrowing RPO = Recovery Point Objective. which combines several expensive and cheaper hard disks. For example. Here we have a combination of fast access times from disks with low-priced tapes. RTO = The maximum recovery time which can be tolerated before business must be resumed. Merely the time of the backup on tape has been delayed. First the data is temporarily stored on disk in order to keep the backup window to a minimum. which are usually based on tape drives. The interval between the individual backups takes its bearings from this. which outwardly emulates a tape library.44 Section 5 • Disk to Disk to Tape (D2D2T): This version takes various requirements into account by also considering data backup on magnetic tapes in addition to the short-term backup on disk as the next stage. The data backup is subsequently effected on the lower-cost tapes. on the primary level and SATA on secondary level. whereas other branches of industry can cope with this better. A virtual tape library (VTL) is a storage system on the basis of a disk array. RTO = Recovery Time Objective RPO = Data Loss RTO = Downtime Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers RPO = The amount of data which has to be recovered after a data outage in order to be able to resume business as usual (measured in time).
In this regard. Extended backup options ince the backup windows are becoming increasingly small. a snapshot is also stored on the primary storage system – and if this fails. A pointer is only a reference to the originally saved file so that it should not be saved twice or repeatedly. S • Single Instance Storage Single Instance Storage describes how double files are detected and saved once only. CDP is the realization of the backup ideal: Everything is saved – immediately and in its entirety. because each change immediately triggers a storage process. More recent procedures. such as Single Instance and Data Deduplication. data deduplication also takes place at segment level. there are various technical approaches to meet these requirements. Using • points in time or • snapshots enables a backup to take place in a relatively small time slot. which can entail savings figures of far more than 50%. Here the data is prepared as a copy at certain times during ongoing operation in order to run the backup from this copy – irrespective of productive operations. • Data Deduplication is already classed as one of the great inventions in storage technology . • Continuous Data Protection (CDP) CDP means that every change in the data is also simultaneously made in the backup. However. make a direct search of the data volume to be stored and sort out double or multiple datasets during the backup process. in which access to electronic patient data has to be fully guaranteed – particularly in emergencies. Such findings are replaced by pointers. which saves space and costs. Redundancies are not only detected at file level here. In CDP the RPO (Recovery Point Objective) is set to zero. This can take place in two ways : . The backed-up data volume can be reduced through compression factors. this form of data backup is also no longer effective.Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise 45 • RTO (Recovery Time Objective) RTO concerns the question as to how long it takes to recover lost data or restore them in the system? The scope may be restricted by statutory or institutional specifications. Taken as an example here is healthcare.
That may be applicable in many cases. because both cases could not be more contrary. Nevertheless. – At source In addition to the low data volume the other advantage here is that the reduced quantity of data can be transferred more quickly.99 % < 1 h/year < 1 h/month < 15 Min. Backup is about protection against data loss. 3 Business Important 99 % < 100 h/year < 8 h/month 8 hours 48 hours < 4 hours 90 % < 2 hours 4 Non Critical 97 % No commitment Intermittent 24 hours 96 hours 24–48 hours 90 % Not specified Source: Fujitsu Siemens Computers .46 Section 5 – On the target Deduplication takes place on the storage medium itself. This is relevant for branch offices. because in part only analog data links are available here. 99. because weekly backup tapes possibly end up in the data bunker marked with a label saying “Archive”. but the entire storage process is extended as a result.g. the archiving of data is often restricted by the parameter time – permanently versus temporarily.9 % < 10 h/year < 2 h/month 1 hour 12 hours Seconds 95 % < 45 Min. whereas archiving deals with long-term storage in order to meet e. statutory requirements. < 1 hour Seconds 97 % < 30 Min. which helps keep the data volume to be stored to a minimum. Backup is normally used in a 1:1 ratio to C FSC Business Continuity Model Requirements Data Class Description Availabilty Unscheduled downtime Planned downtime RTO (Downtime) RPO (Data loss) Archive Access Time Backup Success Rate Offline import response time 1 2 Mission Critical Business Critical > 99. such a distinction – and in particular the associated practice – is inadequate. Backup versus archiving ompared with backup.
In the event of a disaster all information before the oldest existing backup and after the last one is irretrievably lost. . space and costs. You will seldom have to restore a data backup that is a few months old. has reuse as his objective – at some later point in time. As they are actually not intended for use.Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise 47 restore. Archiving media are not put to one side like backup tapes. write-related copies. Archiving can be done of its own free will – the bandwidth ranges from precautionary storage for as yet unforeseeable purposes right through to acquisitiveness – or because legislation. Whoever no longer wants to use the archived data later and also does not have to comply with regulations concerning any possible resubmission. However. only specific requirements arise. should also consider deletion – which saves resources. The copies of the original data mirrored on the backup media are usually only stored for a shorter period of time and are replaced on a permanent basis by more up-to-date. such as currency or completeness. Whoever archives. the banks or other institutions have issued mandatory regulations or at least recommend archiving. This storage procedure – when information leaves the productive process – is about preparing data on a separate medium and making it available for later use. in an archive you should be able to find data relatively easily and quickly without having to perform a restore. because their use is only taken into consideration in extreme cases. these data backups must also not be kept for a long time – because the copies are only needed in the event of a disaster. Archiving is an altogether different matter.
whereby the last two are based on TCP/IP protocol. The large storage management suites and the administration of the entire IT infrastructure as offered by some manufacturers requires a great deal of experience and thus are only possible for large-scale companies on account of its complexity. web tools or component managers help you at the start but do not cover the entire planning of the overall architecture and its elements. In the meantime there are at least four major storage architectures which require different levels of know-how: DAS (Direct Attached Storage). This is necessary as otherwise chaos would occur when staff change their jobs. stages and modifications. That’s the theory. device parks and applications. However. SAN (Storage Area Network). The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) with its standard requirements and procedures is an important aid in documenting such processes. The numerous company takeovers have resulted in users operating various IT islands with different operating systems. T he confusion in storage management software can possibly be overcome by keeping to the tools supplied by the manufacturers. Integrated configuration tools. NAS (Network Attached Storage) and IP-SAN (iSCSI). But management does not become any easier as a result – indeed to the contrary. namely Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE). This could return the world of storage to a more standardized environment. The next architecture is on the horizon – one that is only partially compatible with the above installations.Section 6 Storage Management – making complex storage networks manageable One would think that after over 40 years of server and storage technology the handling of such infrastructure on a daily basis and their specific applications would be easy. So far each manufacturer has provided his own management tools for his products yet generally without any standards except for SMI-S. Such standards are also of assistance in the discussions between manufacturers and customers or during company mergers . Planning and monitoring storage installations should be set up systematically right from the beginning and includes a constant list of all the phases. the fact is that data quantities are constantly increasing and the storage landscape has become more complex and comprehensive.
it usually adds its own negative element. longer than is financially viable. It is not a coincidence that it is these companies which choose technologies that they know or at least seem to know: DAS is well known today with SMEs.e additional NAS filers are now created so that the non-structured data can be saved “suitably”. indices and search options for such documents. As a range of Windows licenses already exists together with unused servers. Larger companies are one step further and provide dedicated servers in a SAN. For example. When the IT department realizes the mix-up. ITIL has issued a series of publications which are aimed at helping a company to structure its IT and business processes. Their purchase would also hardly be sensible when compared to the data quantities that have to be managed. However. Change Management describes the procedure for the continuous management of modifications which replaces simple but irregularly updated Excel tables and which is based on ITIL and the management tools supplied by the respective manufacturer. Such a lack of clarity results in errors and failures and thus extra overnight work for employees. it just makes the company less flexible than their larger competitors. and iSCSI is widespread here thanks to its close relationship with LAN architecture. Medium-sized customers can usually not afford most of the tools used in this sector. And then the question arises at some time about merging or integrating the various stand-alone storage solutions where sometimes the block level (SAN) and sometimes the file level (NAS) is the dominating element. This particularly applies to information management which requires both investment and know-how. such as Office documents tends to be saved in a non-systematic manner – with all the “ugly” consequences regarding classification. Data management is thus frequently without good planning and basically chaotic. it probably also has data which could be saved more cheaply on other storage levels with somewhat less performance – that would be chaos at a higher level. i. They also have their own solutions which in turn require more investment and basically add yet another complexity level to the overall storage architecture. As a SAN has already been configured. As long as these are well-tested and proven solutions. if standard solutions or “Storage out of the Box“ are used. Medium-sized companies have fewer financial resources which can result in them using quicker yet not fully tested implementations for long periods.50 Section 6 when different IT worlds have to be united. then such cautious behavior is certainly not wrong. It is thus possible to avoid – right from the start – any storage wilderness with all types of products that are only flimsily interconnected. The latter can afford to have well-trained employees and longer planning phases which enables them to text new and more effective technologies for a longer period and then apply them productively. . the overall management is much simpler due to the use of software that is already suitable. non-structured data.
minimizing the number of vendors and storage pools is one way to reduce storage administration overheads. SRM products were mainly homogeneous. storage management becomes difficult as problems. reporting tool to a proactive tool that could make decisions and take actions based on user-defined policies. 2. SRM products only dealt with disk space allocation and lacked any insight into disk performance issues. failures. Storage organizations must accept that the structure of storage is going to be split up by vendor and type of array and that organizationally. These services exploit information about data content and relationships in making decisions. Counter-measures are usually taken too late in such situations. Windows and later a Linux market which held great promise 2-4 years ago but has faded in recent years. SRM users were worn down with all the alerts and decisions that they had to perform manually.Storage Management – making complex storage networks manageable 51 Storage Management (1) Storage Resource Management: “SRM (Storage Resource Management) initiatives began in earnest in the late 1990’s. This was a Unix. However. Examples include records management and content management applications. storage management is often faced with the problem of controlling such heterogeneity. thus failing to provide support for heterogeneous environments. SRM products had a hard time moving from a reactive. Horison Information Strategies) (2) Information Management “(Information Lifecycle Management) The discipline and function of oversight and control of information resources.” (SNIA Dictionary) The consequence is that. There were several reasons why the 20+ SRM companies faded and lost momentum: 1. “ (Fred Moore. hardware and software faults cannot be immediately identified. Today’s reality is that organizations will need to integrate a variety of vendor and homegrown tools. reporting and constant error analysis could be implemented with software support whereby such tools are usually supplied by the manufacturers. Information management services: The processes associated with managing information as it progresses through various lifecycle states associated with a Business Process. and 3. . due to such structures. If many different components are used. monitoring.
must be taken into account. such as Christmas business. Storage Management is only one of many other areas. storage can be devided into three main groups. “Stranded Storage” is storage which was originally provided for specific applications or users but not used after all. These are procedures which plan the flexible. The latter is understood as providing and if necessary procuring on time the storage required: sufficient storage arrays and hard disks must be available to meet all these requirements. departments and applications as well as provisioning. If. which various fields are assigned to.52 Section 6 IDC’s Storage Taxonomy Storage Storage Hardware Storage Software Storage Services Storage Systems Storage Mechanisms Data Protection and Recovery Storage Management Storage Replication File System Other Storage SW Disk Systems Tape Libraries Optical Jukeboxes Storage Infrastructure HDDs Tape Drives Optical Drives Removable Media Archive and HSM Storage InfraInfrastructure Storage Device Management Consulting Implementation Management Support Source: IDC According to IDC. for example. seasonal peaks. Thin Provisioning also uses virtualization  via which different physical hard disks and disk arrays are combined to logical or virtual units. The technology known as Thin Provisioning has been developed to counteract this problem. The IT department should remain independent in order to free itself of any blame and be able to refer to the other manufacturer who has forced the user to take on a . Management elements are sufficient supply of storage for users. The objective of Thin Provisioning is basically to use “stranded storage capacities” again. changing assignment of storage for various applications: capacities are assigned and removed depending on capacities . This enables a very exact assignment of storage space and you no longer have to consider the maximum and minimum physical disk limits. this would mean low system usage during the other periods which could be 20 to 30% below actual capacity.
are – after a while – more popular especially in medium-sized companies. the problem in many SAN environments is the know-how and experience of the network administrators. a virtualization solution for SQL and mail server based on Windows and Linux and finally a NAS for FlexFrame for SAP with Fujitsu Siemens servers and NetApp storage. The alternative network NAS (Network Attached Storage) was developed with the aim of offering classic file servers and storage systems in one package.Storage Management – making complex storage networks manageable 53 specific SAN. the amount of administration effort rises. above all. NAS or iSCSI infrastructure.000 employees. This approach can also be seen in the use of software: it is often the case that too many tools from various sources are used instead of relying on a single provider. The third version is IP-SANs which today are usually used as iSCSI storage networks. but also in international companies with more than 1. handles the transport of files from the servers to the storage systems. Such networks which are based on known LAN technology. Whereas storage systems such as SAN. Almost all the storage manufacturers today offer the appropriate programs. who come from the classic Local Area Network (LAN) sector and do not know enough about data storage topics. Heterogeneous storage networks – standardized management I n a SAN (Storage Area Network) on Fibre Channel basis (FC) the main components in the network are FC switches whose protocol services are easy to configure and only have a few error sources. Such an environment frequently has less value placed on the performance of data access and the hard disks involved. a central tool should be used for the subsequent administration which thus enables end-to-end management. . A Fujitsu Siemens customer has gone his own way and has deliberately selected and configured separate stand-alone solutions for different architectures: a SAN for mainframes including mirroring for a second (backup) data center. A management software is also integrated which. NAS or IP-SAN can be configured by the supplied software. The second part of the SAN is the storage systems which are usually monitored and controlled via the supplied administration tools. In other words: the often vilified silo solutions can certainly make sense in certain customer situations just like DAS systems. However. All three sectors are separately managed whereby the required extra effort guarantees that other areas are not automatically touched in an error situation. Of course. If the NAS servers are connected to powerful FC storage systems in a SAN. IT departments have a wealth of experience due to their many years of work with TCP/IP networks that are in use everywhere.
In order to make storage networks userfriendly for the companies. According to Frank Bunn. Bunn: “And they were right more often than not. the SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association which includes almost all the storage manufacturers) organized a so-called management initiative in order to create a standard for all devices. the subject of SAN was previously predominantly controlled by the larger companies. In the past it was frequently the case that storage equipment from the various manufacturers did not “understand” each other in the network as they either do not have suitable interfaces (APIs = Application Programming Interface) or they were not compatible with those from other manufacturers.2 take Fibre Channel SAN as well as NAS and iSCSI into consideration which greatly expands the environment for integrators. BrightStor SRM from CA or Sanpoint Control from Symantec. also known as element manager. swap information about their interfaces and ensure mutual licensing. A separate IP infrastructure with the mounted storage systems must be set up in order to have a working IP-SAN . let alone the quantity. Storage management itself is above these transfer techniques and consists. A web server is installed for easier operation so that the administrators can access a browser. The second step can greatly facilitate the management of storage systems. Small and average companies were more skeptical according to the motto “too complex. switches and storage systems via interfaces. More complex networks are monitored and controlled via monitoring services which connect many storage components such as HBAs (Host Bus Adapter). It enables the standardized management of different products and provides a consistent view of the SAN and NAS environment. But that is just the first step. Customers often do not even know which storage equipment they have. too expensive and doesn’t work anyway”. SNIA Europe and storage specialist at Symantec. It is a constant process which began as early as 2002. SMI-S creates better interoperability.”  As far as Bunn was concerned. .1 and 1. Partners can thus implement and support storage networks who are not complete SAN specialists. Users are often thus very enthusiastic as they can finally see their entire storage environment reflected in SMI-S. However. first of all. Many years of work were spent by the SNIA boards before they submitted a standardization proposal known as the Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S). SMI-S does make SAN management much easier.” The SMI-S versions 1. SMI-S has an important long-term influence on storage management: “SMI-S is not an overnight solution. The manufacturers now work much closer together. Some examples are Control Center from EMC. of the tools supplied by the manufacturer. The communication interfaces covered by the SMI-S now often have priority over the proprietary APIs.54 Section 6 but it would be a mistake to believe that storage data can simply be moved around in addition to the existing network paths.
The mutual licensing process often takes much longer than is really necessary as far as the topic itself is concerned. Furthermore. These circumstances have resulted in user acceptance not being particularly high.Storage Management – making complex storage networks manageable 55 However. various SMI-S versions are in use. . Not every manufacturer is implementing the adapted interfaces in their devices which would be compatible to the other providers. the standardization process has not been completed despite the many years of effort.
The degree of utilization can be increased very quickly with virtual systems where several devices or hundreds of hard disks are linked to logical units. backup or archiving which does not contribute in any way towards increasing productivity or improving operational procedures. Joseph Reger. Storage is often regarded as unavoidable for data storage. These percentages are even lower in storage. The potential is enormous and a great deal of money could be saved. many users are still wary regarding the use of virtualization in their own company. Virtual storage space can help companies to use existing storage resources efficiently as well as centralize and simplify administration. Many users follow exactly this procedure in practice: they expand virtualization to other sectors on a step-by-step basis. CTO (Chief Technology Officer) at Fujitsu Siemens Computers. only 15 to 20% have already looked at virtualization. To Dr. this is all very obvious: “Approximately 10% utilization is simply a bad value compared to existing systems such as mainframes or Unix platforms. However. By “superior A . It was the x86 sector which drove virtualization forwards as the average system utilization was very bad. ccording to IDC. saving. companies are holding back from using virtualization in their storage environment as they do not regard this as absolutely essential. Yet the experience gathered as a result of successful server virtualization can also apply for storage.”  Of all the options available to improve the situation it is hardware virtualization which is the best: “The reason is because the superior layers no longer need to take care of this. The utilization of storage systems is normally very low.” says Reger.Section 7 Virtualization – some catching up is necessary regarding storage topics Everyone worldwide is talking about virtualization. This technology is meanwhile said to be truly “fantastic“ and the corresponding product announcements in this sector are immense. IDC market researchers determined in a study carried out in 2008 that only 33% of companies in Western Europe have introduced server virtualization from VMware or Citrix XenSource and 67% have done nothing yet in this sector.
more is made of it. virtual ports or virtual SANs: something they all have in common is the approach of separating the physical view from the logical one. in which virtualization technologies can be applied today: hardware virtualization. This means that the operating system does not know it is running on virtual instances – from the view of the operating system there really are ten different servers or storage arrays. The scaling of these solutions is determined by the transport performance of this appliance. i. If the operating system is virtualized. this means that the application thinks there are several instances of the operating system. virtually. This applies to server and storage in the same way. 2) With out-of-band virtualization a single appliance takes care of only the meta data and of controlling the data path. about virtualization at switch infrastructure level. operating system virtualization and application virtualization: “With the first group it is a matter of pretending as if we have more hardware than is actually available. It originally meant the mapping of storage resources for the servers or applications involved. With this technology operating systems and applications need not even know that they are running in a virtualized environment. virtual tape. Consequently. while the host and server respectively organize the transport of the storage data to and from the storage devices. operating systems and applications that also benefit from virtualization. This covers terms and technologies. file systems.e.e. virtual disk volumes. Today it is usually used for the allocation of random storage resources. i.”  By means of thin provisioning it is for example possible to have more logical address space available in a storage array than is physically available. a distinction should be made between three different approaches: 1) With so-called in-band virtualization the control entity for the data connection.”  According to Reger there are in principle three large areas. meta data and data transport itself is on the same appliance. including data replication mechanisms. whereas in actual fact only one is running. the consolidation or regrouping of physical storage units to form logical ones. however. i. Physically. Reger continues his explanation: “By simulating various machines – pieces of hardware that do not even exist – the result is a peculiar layer of transparency.58 Section 7 layers” we mean everything beyond the hardware layer.e. The providers FalconStor and DataCore were among the first manufacturers to have offered such solutions. Storage virtualization is in part misused as a term by the IT industry. i. such as volume management. splitting physical memory into partitions or consolidating several physical hard disks into one or even various logical units. When dealing with virtualization within the storage network (SAN device virtualization) itself. the hardware exists once only. You simulate virtual levels of hardware that do not even exist. .e. the average degree of utilization was dramatically increased and a great deal of money was saved.
Virtualization – some catching up is necessary regarding storage topics 59 3) The third approach consists in the separation of the control entity and data path. However. Such virtualization solutions normally have two goals. The separation of the instances as performed here results in increased data transport speed and enables scaling of the concept. Something all these virtualization solutions have in common is that they permit a coordinated selection of the optimal storage arrays for a certain task. but a market standard has not established itself here. remote mirroring or disaster recovery. . The majority of the users of virtualization solutions use them in the sense of improved storage management. The most progress can be seen in storage virtualization with magnetic tapes. Storage systems are frequently already completely partitioned during first installation and afterwards are only managed via virtualization: “The approach has proved itself to be successful for years. particularly for very dynamic environments. Only the basic configuration of the elements to be virtualized is still performed by the proprietary management applications. The first goal is to remove the constraints of a storage array and/or a manufacturer. Neither is a market standard becoming apparent. which is done by an intelligent network device. storage virtualization has not yet made the breakthrough. It is a different story entirely with file-based storage systems. for example with service providers or users with a large number of small application islands. Therefore. This is certainly also due to the fact that with the LUN concept every SAN storage array already has rudimentary hard disk virtualization. storage resources can be made available at will and dynamically changed independent of the storage array. In this way. either . the users have to use this element manager together with the selected virtualization software. such as in public administration. the NAS systems. Virtual Tape Libraries (VTL) are at present best practice. There are a number of very promising approaches for file virtualization. Switch manufacturers like Brocade and Cisco provide suitable devices for this purpose. data replication such as data snapshots. CentricStor VT is currently the leading virtual tape product in data centers. such as pool building (consolidation of storage capacities of the same service quality). Wherever high scaling is required for thousands of LUNS and hundreds of servers the use of split-path technology is absolutely necessary. importance is increasingly attached to online storage virtualization in virtualized server environments . The second goal is to provide manufacturer-independent data services. You can use solutions from several storage array manufacturers together in a pool.”  In contrast to server virtualization. This technology is known as “Split Path Architecture for Intelligent Devices” (SPAID). Virtualization increases the freedom of choice of the users. When its comes to backup on tape.
U ntil recently every application had its fixed allocated infrastructure. NetApp. CA. network components and storage systems. Fujitsu Siemens Computers has developed its own range of storage products designed to meet the particular requirements of their users.Section 8 The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners Fujitsu Siemens Computers is Europe’s largest storage provider and offers its customers everything from one source – all that they need for their storage infrastructure. The dual target storage solution integrates the advantages of hard disk and magnetic tape as the backup data can be stored on a wide range of storage media based on rules and autonomously. The offer also includes a range of sophisticated services – from maintenance to Managed Storage. Fujitsu Siemens Computers is moving in this direction as part of its Dynamic Infrastructure strategy of which storage is an integral part. But now the aim is to allocate only those infrastructure resources that the applications actually require. CentricStor VT (Virtual Tape) enables intelligent backup of all company data. This objective is achieved via virtualization: Large resource pools exist which can then be used dynamically depending on the requirements involved. Working with tape is thus fit for ILM (Information Lifecycle Management). Sun and Symantec. a collection of servers. In addition to a wide range of products from the leading manufacturers. True Tape Virtualization (TTV) from . CentricStor VT: intelligent tape storage virtualization O ne example for this process is CentricStor VT. such as EMC. and corporate data backup can be based in a flexible manner on different Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Brocade.
tape libraries and tape technology as well. Initially it was released by Fujitsu Siemens Computers to support the BS2000/OSD. which can be deployed in almost any environment while protecting previous investments in tape automation.“  . The CentricStor Grid Architecture (CGA) has excellent scaling features and offers far-reaching reliability for each data center. CentricStor was conceptually designed as an appliance to be used with all types of tape software.” Version 4 of CentricStor was specifically developed in order to solve the following problems for data backup supervisors • data quantities are continuously increasing. servers. tape library systems and tape drive technologies it evolved into the most versatile VTL appliance. flexible virtual tape library supporting most existing mainframe and major Unix and Windows operating systems and major tape libraries. over the years with constant certifications for major operating systems. backup applications.62 Section 8 CentricStor VT represents above-average connection opportunities and also enables a clear reduction in costs as it consolidates all the backup storage media used. The report “The Forrester Wave: Enterprise Open Systems Virtual Tape Libraries” published on 31st January 2008 by Forrester Research looked closely at 12 providers based on 58 criteria. And continues: “As the leading system provider in Europe the company has a solid basis of more than 300 customers and over 500 installed VTLs whereby most of the installations are with major companies. • archiving periods for data are longer. which became the most open. The result is that Fujitsu Siemens Computers was found to be one of the market leaders for Virtual Tape Libraries. • a second data center must be provided in case of a possible catastrophe. architecture and tape integration”. however. MVS mainframe platforms and ADIC tape libraries. Fujitsu Siemens Computers has solid growth regarding new customers and has one of the highest growth values for existing customers. The positive assessment by Forrester is also confirmed by a study carried out by the ex-Gartner analyst Josh Krischer: ”In 1999 Fujitsu Siemens Computers launched its CentricStor virtual tape solution. The Forrester Report awards top marks to the company for its strategy in the Virtual Tape Appliances sector: “Fujitsu Siemens Computers is the leader in host support.
Additional storage capacity can be easily provided and CentricStor FS can also be installed very easily.“  FibreCAT SX series: fast storage systems for the data center T he FibreCAT SX40. concluded the following in a report: “The recently launched CentricStor FS from Fujitsu Siemens Computers is a high-end storage system on file basis via which scaling is possible at a very fine level. The revolutionary FibreCap technology protects the system in case of power failure.0 applications. FibreCache and state-of-the-art RAID controller technology. which is up to 50% faster than the FibreCAT SX80. availability and performance requirements as defined by file server consolidation initiatives and Web 2. SX80. the FibreCAT SX88. Snapshots are integrated as a standard. . thus fulfilling capacity. in particular. SX88 and SX100 storage systems offer quality and reliability as required in data centers. SX80 iSCSI. analyst working for the Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG). The administration of CentricStor FS is simple – only one single file system must be managed irrespective of the size. data throughput and access times. which has twice the speed and performance of the FibreCAT SX80. The storage resources can thus be used more efficiently.The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners 63 CentricStor FS: consolidated File Services entricStor FS is an innovative. C Terri McClure. This is due to Fibre Channel technology with 4 Gigabit per second. It offers practically unlimited scaling regarding storage capacity. automatic failover and fallback ensures that the system keeps running. The use of standard components and the excellent cluster features make CentricStor FS a scalable easy-to-manage file storage solution with a low starting price that has been specially designed for the real world of increased file quantities. FibreCAT SX systems are very fast storage systems. scale-out storage system which offers file services at high speed and is very reliable. and the FibreCAT SX100. If a component fails. SX60.
The administration is not complicated thanks to the intuitive web interface. The new arrays. when fully configured. pre-installed and pre-configured and thus ready for operation within minutes. reliable and easy to manage. Additional interfaces (SAS.64 Section 8 FibreCAT SX systems are user-friendly and easy to put into operation.” FibreCAT NX40 S4: reliable file and print server and SAN/NAS gateway for medium-sized customers T he FibreCAT NX40 S4 is a file and print server and a SAN/ NAS gateway for medium-sized customers. with management tools included. The system can be equipped with SATA-II or powerful SAS hard disks and provides. Fibre Channel) increase the system capacity via external storage systems and it then operates as SAN/NAS gateway. Expansion with the FibreCAT SX/CX family is particularly simple as the required software is already pre-installed. The FibreCAT NX40 S4 is also available as an option with iSCSI functionality. The FibreCAT NX40 S4 is a rack model with only 2 height units (2 HE). The system uses the operating system Windows Storage Server 2003 R2 with additional functions for the file and print server sector. The FibreCAT SX range supports reliable primary storage as well as the need for faster backup and recovery. medium and large organizations. The system‘s quality and reliability provides a wide range of application usages in departments and branch offices. The systems are suitable for a wide range of applications. internal storage capacity of 4.5 terabytes. The systems in which the data is resident must be secure. . The FibreCAT NX40 S4 systems are pre-tested. will be a sound investment to meet the business and compliance requirements of small. The analyst Hamish Macarthur from Macarthur Stroud International said the following regarding the FibreCAT SX series: “Managing and protecting the information assets of an organization is critical in today’s markets.
On request the FibreCAT Solution Lab can also carry out customer-specific tests and create realistic application scenarios. The second generation of the magnetic tape systems FibreCAT TX24 S2 and FibreCAT TX48 S2 means that backup to tape. This also includes coordinating the seamless integration of the various FibreCAT systems into the comprehensive solution portfolio offered by Fujitsu Siemens Computers.The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners 65 FibreCAT TX series: LTO for medium-sized customers T he FibreCAT TX series consists of the entry model TX08 and the two models TX24 S2 and TX48 S2 designed for medium-sized customers. LTO-3 or LTO-4 drive which is a half height unit and provides storage capacity of 12. FibreCAT Solution Lab F ujitsu Siemens Computers not only offers its own products but also has lots of storage competence within Europe. high speed and very low media costs. the FibreCAT Solution Lab in Paderborn is a center of expertise. The FibreCAT TX08 is a compact and reliable tape automation unit and enables a low-priced entry into the FibreCAT TX family. in comparison to hard disk.8 terabytes (LTO-4 compressed). is usually more energyefficient as power is only used when data is read or written to tape. In addition to the numerous storage experts supporting projects on-site. The main task of the FibreCAT Solution Lab is to constantly monitor quality with regards to a reliable system and component availability. The FibreCAT TX08 is equipped with LTO technology which is synonymous for large capacity. Other tasks include adhering to all legal standards regarding environment protection and DIN ISO Standards and implementing them on time. Both systems provide SAS and Fibre Channel interfaces to the server. . It can be equipped with a LTO-2. Fujitsu Siemens customers can thus see the FibreCAT systems operating in live demonstrations. This corresponds to an automated data backup for approximately 2 weeks. The offer price includes a full version of the backup software ARCserve Backup as well as one year‘s on-site service.
provided and stored. Against this backdrop SAP asked itself whether they wanted to continue managing the required storage volumes themselves or to practice what their own hosting experts recommend to their customers. namely outsource the work that is not part of their core competence and concentrate on the important elements essential for their core business. appropriate reserve capacities were provided in order to meet any additional requirements in time. Fujitsu Siemens Computers thus supports one of the largest Managed Storage projects in Europe and also manages the cooperation activities with the strategic partners involved. Furthermore. A paradigm change is required instead of individual steps. The job involved is to connect up the various technologies into end-to-end solutions making them easy to manage as well as operate. Fujitsu Siemens Computers has thus developed a strategy known as Dynamic Infrastructure.66 Section 8 Managed Storage rowth in storage means above all an immense increase in data quantities which must all be managed. Fujitsu Siemens Computers took on the role of general contractor for SAP and the entire responsibility for providing online storage capacity for data backup – 4 petabytes monthly at the start and then moving up to more than 200 terabytes daily. SAP managers would thus place their operations and support regarding processsupporting storage infrastructure into the skilled hands of external people. saved. namely EMC and NetApp which provide products in the SAN and NAS environment and whose specialists are involved in the corresponding service sector. Any limits to such growth rates are not appearing on the horizon. SAP has found such a competent partner in Fujitsu Siemens Computers. Storage is not a solitary topic but certainly an important element in the overall dynamic data center. FlexFrame for mySAP is one of the most successful and best known examples of such solutions for a virtualized infrastructure consisting of servers and storage systems. The storage solutions from Fujitsu Siemens Computers are a fixed part of this strategy and are components used in implementing the objective of providing end-to-end IT solutions that generate a maximum business contribution with minimum total costs. . The demand for online storage capacity increases as does the demand for backup storage volumes. G Storage – one part of the whole picture I t is not enough in the storage world to simply move a few levers to control this vast flow of data.
the implementation of a fast backup solution for Oracle and the Center of Excellence which has been set up with Oracle are just some of the excellent examples that have resulted from our cooperation so far. One example of such excellent cooperation can be seen in the quotes from the CEOs of our partners EMC and NetApp: Joe Tucci. CEO at NetApp: “The strategic partnership with Fujitsu Siemens Computers has contributed a lot to our success and is still growing in the EMEA region. and we will continue to concentrate our joint operations on offering our customers the most comprehensive solution portfolio available on the market.“ Dan Warmenhoven.The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners 67 Customers benefit even more from the fact that Fujitsu Siemens Computers work together very closely with many partners on storage matters. EMC solutions play a central role in the Fujitsu Siemens Computers vision of a Dynamic Data Center.“ . Our jointly developed solution FlexFrame for mySAP Business Suite. EMC President & CEO: “The combination of EMC’s networked storage solutions and the server-based solutions from Fujitsu Siemens Computers creates a wideranging offer of end-to-end infrastructure solutions that meet the requirements of our customers.
In contrast to FCoE where fibre channel tools can still be used. In particular. The result is the so-called DCE (Data Center Ethernet) via which previous TCP/IP data traffic can be A .e. iSCSI indeed started with this promise but fibre channel SAN purists were never really convinced for the following reasons. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) lthough two of the three leading storage technologies (NAS. iSCSI changes these levels and Ethernet is not deterministic. Having looked at the main storage technologies in the preceding sections. 4. The question thus arises whether SAN storage networks can also be set up on an Ethernet basis so that only one type of network is needed as this would greatly reduce costs. 2x Fibre Channel) the servers would only have 2 FCoE cables. Fibre Channel networks require dedicated HBA (host bus adapters. In contrast to PCs and servers where the main market players define the standards.Forecast Future storage trends C 1. 3. i. Leading network providers are now competing to merge storage networks and server networks in new ways. the storage market has innovative companies joining in the fray which have unusual new ideas that move the market in new directions. These network components are clearly more expensive than Ethernet cards and switches and they also require specific fibre channel know-how. which by far dominates the market. SAN. the continuous increase in data results in demands for new ideas on how to make storage more efficient. it is the third. let us look at current storage trends and see which ones have the potential to make a major breakthrough in the way that a company stores its data. Instead of 4 cables (2x Ethernet. SANs are typically implemented on a fibre channel basis. 2. iSCSI) are based on Ethernet. server plug-in cards) and switches. ompanies are facing many challenges regarding storage systems. the Ethernet standard is to be extended so that it can provide the same quality of service as a fibre channel network. We have selected five relevant trends: Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) Massive Array of Idle Disks (MAID) Flash-based Solid State Disks (SSDs) Security (Encryption of Data at Rest) New Storage Architectures (Grid Storage) 1. 5.
Furthermore. 3. The speed comes from the parallel access on many spindles. This not only wears out the mechanical parts but continually consumes energy. based on price per capacity. MAID is a major step forward in significantly saving energy and towards Green IT. The disks should be periodically powered up and checked to make sure that the data can still be read. there are plans to extend fibre channel beyond 8Gb/s even up to 16Gb/s. Massive Array of Idle Disks (MAID) T he Enterprise hard disks used today run without any interruption on a 24x7 basis. SATA disks are thus typically used in MAID systems. there are a few obstacles to be surmounted. You can also reduce their rotational speed instead of switching them off completely which will significantly save power and reduce the danger of unknown disk errors. In short: the 10Gb Ethernet is available and 40Gb as well as 100Gb is on the horizon. such scenarios which have only 2 SSD (two in order to ensure data redundancy via mirroring) could be sued to replace a dozen hard disks in RAID 5 or RAID 6 arrays. 2. As the price of flash chips has fallen by an annual average of 50% in recent years. thanks to their much faster read speed and faster access speed. but this is only sensible if data really is not accessed for a longer period as frequently switching on and off would use up even more power and negatively affect the disk lifespan. Hard disks not accessed for some period of time are switched off. A conversion to FCoE requires a high amount of infrastructure investment which in due course will be balanced by savings in operating similar networks. hardly generate any heat and have no problems regarding rotational vibration as there are no moving parts. However. such disks are of great interest for a variety of situations. . However. For example. SSDs that are optimized for enterprise use are already better than today’s hard disks with regard to price per IOPS. they need less energy. This results in a great deal of energy savings. Flash-based Solid State Disks (SSDs) F lash memory based SSDs. With an alternative storage array on MAID basis only one small part of the hard disk is always active. MAID is thus mainly used in the important archive and backup sector where the price per saved terabyte is important. A large number of hard disks are used today to achieve similar speeds. are more expensive than conventional hard disks but.70 Forecast handled in exactly the same way as fibre channel (FCoE).
This architecture gives systems the scaling and flexibility urgently required in today’s file-driven world and is also the backbone for Internet infrastructure (Cloud Computing). CentricStor FS is one of the first incarnations of this new type of storage generation. there are many ways to approach encryption. 5. their production is thus expensive. Unfortunately. network and switch level as well as in devices.g. Growth will have no limits and the systems will offer more capacity and more access speed as they increase in size. And as with all monolithic systems. Such scale-out systems can be greatly extended by just adding more and more standard components. Encryption helps to avoid misuse: the data cannot be read nor used by anyone who is not authorized to do so. such as one’s own encryption appliances or tape libraries and disk drives. hard disks) and has to be replaced.Future storage trends 71 4. New Storage Architectures (Grid Storage) T oday’s storage systems are usually built up in a monolithic manner and were specially designed as a storage system. Security (Encryption of Data at Rest) D ata management and data storage has always gone hand-in-hand with security: there would be serious consequences if sensitive data fell into the wrong hands. Key management for an entire data center is currently a problem as most manufacturers offer their own key management. And without a specific standard there is no guarantee that data users can also read the data and exchange it as required without any problems. A paradigm change will revolutionize the storage industry: let’s take standard servers and the large number of manufactured simple standard RAID systems and turn them into one storage system thanks to an intelligent software layer. All data on any faulty data media must be made non-readable. This also applies if data media is faulty or supposedly faulty (e. . the maximum configuration is limited for design reasons. at application. As fewer storage systems are produced than PCs or standard servers. file system. It can be carried out at various levels. Standardization does not yet exist.
17. Secondly. Munich 2006. Page 40)  See also the interview with Michael Peterson in http://www. Director of the Internet Archive in San Francisco. NetApp CEO: “My view (regarding ILM) is that a workintensive data management process should not be set up if there is an automated one. who are seriously looking at such a topic. edition dated 11. 2008. such as Cognos.  Many authors have written about the positive and negative effects of this development. April 25. It can also be seen as an attempt to integrate classic storage equipment with ILM or HSM.5% use such solutions throughout the company. Die andere Seite der IT – Business-Transformation durch Services und dynamische Infrastruktur. The following passage from an interview in the German weekly “Die Zeit“. that developed software for document management (DMS) or business intelligence (BI) proves that storage hardware and the criteria for stored data are merging. nobody in the world is more than a day’s walk from an Internet café.  Details about typeface development from Charles Panati. We now have the communication infrastructure to provide the world’s great libraries to youngsters in Uganda or the poorer areas in the USA or Germany. File Infrastructure Requirements in the Internet Computing Era. New York 1998. 2008) Section 2  The fact that major storage manufacturers have been buying up companies.  Fred Moore / Horison Information Strategies. Page 67 ff. Business Objects.  “Der Spiegel”. Documentum or FileNet. And . Storage Spectrum (2007).  Steve Duplessie. Die Zeit. cover feature “Addicted to data“. and Including. Hyperion. Wolfram Funk. for example Dan Warmenhoven. Page 88.searchstorage. 2008. 8. For example. Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG). Experton Group (quoted in the German magazine “Computerwoche” 46/2006. Neil Postman. See the interview in Hendrik Leitner / Hartmut Wiehr. The Browser’s Book of Beginnings – Origins of Everything Under. Seite 215 ff. Neue Züricher Zeitung.  Cf. Question: “Which development has changed the most the way we handle knowledge in recent years?” Answer: “Two”. Page 76. Page 5. 10 years Google. Nicholas Negroponte or Nicholas Carr. Firstly: hard disks now hardly cost anything.“ (Interview with Brewster Kahle. It is now no longer an utopian idea to have man’s entire published works on disk. must realize that ILM cannot be simply bought as a single product nor implemented via a one-off project“.de/topics/ archiving/e-mail/articles/107136/. 1. the Sun.Remarks Section 1  The triumph of large numbers.  “Every fourth user has implemented ILM at a certain point or in a certain area but only 3. July 2008. Users. Joseph Weizenbaum.  Cf.
in: iX. but was then itself purchased by McData shortly afterwards.  See Günter Thome / Wolfgang Sollbach. 8/2008. page 122 ff.uni-bremen.  ICP Vortex has provided a White Paper about the various RAID-levels. And he requires an online archive in order to retrieve the data quickly and also for compliance reasons. particularly in USA. Disks report during running operations as to whether they are going to fail. Section 4  For the history of the Ethernet protocol and the Internet. (…). Mario Vosschmidt/Hartmut Wiehr. which have not been in use for a while. Berlin Heidelberg 2007.informatik.org/. Storage networks and their instruments of administration. Do they react immediately to a signal or only with the retries? The latter would suggest that the magnetic interface is no longer 100%.ﬁbrechannel. are addressed periodically to make sure that they still work. Cambridge and London 2003. edition 12/2007 (free download: http://www. NetApp talks of data archiving and migration. the company with the largest market force in the network sector. Brocade is still the market leader for FC switches.pdf). All the corresponding information is collected and one of the spare disks is triggered by the system if certain threshold values are exceeded. The document is in German and can be downloaded from: http://vortex.pdf. . The user wants to migrate his data from expensive storage forms to cheaper ones.de/ix/extra/2007/ie0712.de/NR/rdonlyres/82BA6504-885D444E-AC71-7AC570CF56A3/0/raid_d. 9. New York 2000. 2007). Ceruzzi’s.snia. CNT ﬁrst took over its competitor Inrange. Fundamentals of Information Lifecycle Management. Seen globally. the forecast in this book.org/education/ tutorials/ and http://www.  Seen from a historical viewpoint. Hartmut Wiehr.  Cf. “Disk systems – technology and products. Section 3  Cf. and in Clayton M.  Cf. 11. in iX extra.  Good interpretations of the development of the IT industry are to be found in Paul E. Drives.“ (Interview in “Computerwoche”.74 Remarks ILM is very work-intensive. page 214 ff. vol.  There is an early warning system in professional disk systems. Brocade now unites all the former FC switch providers against Cisco.  A good overview is to be found in the brochure “NetApp Products & Solutions”.html.  For more information about SANs and Fibre Channel see http://www. Or else a message is sent to the service team.de/grp/unitel/referat/timeline/timeline-2. A History of Modern Computing. The Innovator’s Dilemma. Christensen’s. page 69. which were developed on behalf of the US Army and were to ensure the transportation of messages in the event of war see http://www. whereas Cisco has continuously extended its market share. Calling all that ILM is confusing.heise.
with technical values.pdf. A great many PowderHorns are still in use today. Cf.A. particularly in the consumer segment.  See in this respect Dave Russell / Carolyn DiCenzo. such as temperature. issue 28/2008. A good overview of the durability of these optical media with due regard to their suitability for archiving purposes can be found in “c’t – Magazin für Computertechnik”.Remarks 75  Interview with David Hitz in “project 57 – Journal for Business Computing and Technology”.speicherguide. Dedup turns backup inside out. MarketScope for Enterprise Backup/Recovery Software 2008.de/ix/extra/2007/ie0712. EMC. startup time or track reliability of the read and write heads being controlled.  See Hartmut Wiehr. issue 12/2007. with which very fast access to tape cartridges is possible. page 116 ff. also the interview with NetApp CEO Dan Warmenhoven in “Computerzeitung”.  Cf.R. and after StorageTek was taken over by Sun in 2005 the new owner had to repeatedly extend the maintenance cycles on account of the pressure exerted by major customers. (Self-Monitoring. “The Top 10 Storage Inventions of All Time”. June 16. issue 38/2008.  Specialist service providers. in iX extra. The market is wide-spread. a partner of Fujitsu Siemens Computers. Other terms and contexts relating to this topic are explained there. page 10. in Byteandswitch. download: http://www. page 10. These customers saw no reason to phase out their tried-and-trusted tape libraries and replace them with follow-up models. 2008. which was the basis for the 4400 Tape Libraries (Nearline) which were introduced in 1988. The correction is used to detect errors during the storage and transfer of data.de: Focus on tape drives and tapes (http://www. The large PowderHorn Libraries introduced in 1993 were a further development of this technology.asp?mtyp=&lv=200). Section 5  Many storage manufacturers supply their own backup programs together with their hardware. The errors are then automatically remedied in the second step.T. speicherguide. Begrenzte Lebensdauer (= Limited life-span): Disks – Status Quo and Trends.de/magazin/bandlaufwerke. issue 16/2008. Special 01/05. Analysis and Reporting Technology) have a function that constantly monitors them. such as Kroll Ontrack or Seagate Services. . CommVault and BakBone can frequently be found in the Windows environment. has after the takeover of Legato in 2003 a complete solution (NetWorker) in its portfolio. page 39 ff.heise. April 2008.  Hard disks with S.  Hartmut Wiehr. The durability of DVDs and Blu Ray Disc (BD) is subject to very large ﬂuctuations. Of the independent providers CA with ARCserve and Symantec with NetBackup are particularly worth mentioning.  For more details see www.M.  As early as 1987 StorageTek presented the 4400 Automated Cartridge System (ACS). in “Computerzeitung”. can often recover hard disks damaged by ﬁre and water and thus save the lost data.  An example of error corrections is ECC (Error Correction Code).
 Ibid. Joseph Reger. server and network resources on a single platform. which at the same time increases the security of all the applications. in: “iX – Magazin for professionelle Informationstechnik”. File Infrastructure Requirements in the Internet Computing Era.  Published in tecchannel. see the article “SMI-S is holding the storage networking industry together“ (Mit SMI-S hat sich die Storage-Networking-Industrie ihren inneren Zusammenhalt gegeben) www.de (September 5. With SAN zoning the same principle is applied to the division of a network into virtual subnetworks so that servers of the one zone cannot access storage systems of another zone. July 2008 . Section 7  “Virtualization drives IT industrialization forward”: Interview by Hartmut Wiehr with Dr. Gut eingebunden – Speichernetze and ihre Verwaltungsinstrumente (Well incorporated – Storage networks and their administration tools). For more information. CentricStor Virtual Tape: the Swiss Army Knife for data protection. Resources can thus be assigned and moved in run mode in a virtual environment and depending on current requirements.searchstorage. Gut eingebunden – Speichernetze und ihre Verwaltungsinstrumente (Well incorporated – Storage networks and their administration tools). page 124.  LUN masking (also LUN mapping) means that only the storage area it needs to perform its work is allocated and made visible to an application. issue 8/2008. Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG). 2004: http://www.searchstorage. in: iX – Magazin für professionelle Informationstechnik. July 2008. April 10.de/topics/ rz-techniken/virtuelle-systeme/articles/117015/.searchstorage.76 Remarks Section 6  Fujitsu Siemens Computers has developed two dynamic infrastructure solutions FlexFrame for SAP and FlexFrame for Oracle which combine storage.  Mario Vosschmidt/Hartmut Wiehr. September 2008  Terri McClure.  See Mario Vosschmidt/Hartmut Wiehr. CentricStor FS von Fujitsu Siemens Computers. Krischer & Associates. As a result of this segmentation general access to certain storage areas is prohibited. 26th January 2006. Heft 8/2008.  Ibid. 2007). Section 8  Josh Krischer. Enterprise Strategy Group (ESG).  Steve Duplessie.de. Page 123.  See section 7 for more about virtualization. at www.
Business Continuity The ability of an organization to continue to function even after a disastrous event. due largely in part to increasing regulatory requirements which often require organizations to invest in new technologies in order to address compliance issues. D Data Deduplication Deduplication technology segments the incoming data stream. In the event of computer problems (such as disk drive failures. and could slow down the performance of the IT infrastructure. power outages. enabling load balancing and high availability. This event driven backup works during productive computing time. new writes to that site can be accepted. Block transfer is the most efficient way to write to disk. Block Data Raw data which does not have a file structure imposed on it. C Compliance In data storage terminology. the copy is subsequently retrieved and restored to a functional system. or virus infection) resulting in data loss or damage to the original data. Compliance has become a major concern for organizations and businesses. accomplished through the deployment of redundant hardware and software. the segment is not stored again but a reference is created for it (pointer). without having to wait for the secondary (remote) storage site to also finish its writes. If an incoming data segment is a duplicate of what has already been stored. the use of fault tolerant systems. but has the disadvantage of incurring data loss. Asynchronous Replication does not have the latency impact that synchronous replication does. uniquely identifies these data segments. Clustering can be housed in the same physical location (basic cluster) or can be distributed across multiple sites for disaster recovery. Database applications such as Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Exchange Server transfer data in blocks. Information is first copied to non-volatile disk or tape media. B Backup/Restore A two step process. Continuous Data Protection (CDP) Refers to backing up computer data by saving as an automated function a copy every time changes are made to that data. should the primary site fail before the data has been written to the secondary site. together controlled by software usually housed within the subsystem. This process operates at a very low level of granularity or atomic level to identify as much redundancy as possible. The trade-offs in this .Glossary A Array (Storage Array) A subsystem which houses a group of disks (or tapes). Asynchronous Replication After data has been written to the primary storage site. the word compliance is used to refer to industry-wide government regulations and rules that cite how data is managed and the need for organizations to be in compliance with those regulations. and then compares them to segments previously stored. as well as a solid backup and recovery strategy. Cluster A group of servers that together act as a single system.
Fibre Channel (FC) A high–speed interconnect used in storage area networks (SANs) to connect servers to shared storage. Disaster Recovery The ability to recover from the loss of a complete site. speed and data size. as with clusters or multiple NAS boxes. a path failure results in data being rerouted to a different physical connection to the storage. and cabling. and fiber optics. RAID– volumes. In the case of clustering. shielded or unshielded twisted pair. allowing FC traffic to be transported over Ethernet networks. whether due to natural disaster or malicious intent. switches. File Data Data which has an associated file system. This direct connection provides fast access to the data. Future plans call for 1. E Ethernet Local area network (LAN) topology commonly operating at 10 megabits per second (mbps) over various physical media such as coaxial cable. Disaster recovery strategies include replication and backup/restore. . F Failover In the event of a physical disruption to a network component. DAS include the internally attached local disk drives or externally attached RAID (redundant array of independent disks) or JBOD (just a bunch of disks). Fibre Channel components include HBAs. data is immediately rerouted to an alternate path so that services remain uninterrupted. H High Availability A continuously available computer system is characterized as having essentially no downtime in any given year. A global or dispersed file system would enable storage administrators to globally build or make changes to file systems. Ethernet standards are maintained by the IEEE 802. it is more commonly used in storage area networks. Products are announced for 2009 or 2010. Fault–Tolerance Fault–tolerance is the ability of computer hardware or software to ensure data integrity when hardware failures occur. it is useful to have a means to make the file systems on multiple servers or devices look like a single file system. Standards are in work in different standardization committees. 10 and 100 gigabit Ethernet versions. storage is only accessible from that server.3 committee. FCoE could be an alternative to classical Fibre Channel technology. Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) A technology that encapsulates Fibre Channel frames in Ethernet frames. To date this remains an emerging technology. however. Fault-tolerant features appear in many server operating systems and include mirrored volumes. The term Fibre Channel also refers to the storage protocol. and server clusters.78 Glossary filtering process pertain to efficiency. A system with 99. In contrast. DAS (Direct Attached Storage) DAS is storage that is directly connected to a server by connectivity media such as parallel SCSI cables. hubs. Failover applies both to clustering and to multiple paths to storage. Although Fibre Channel can be used for direct attached.9% uptime. G Global File System In some configurations. a high availability system is defined as having 99. In the case of multiple paths to storage.999% availability experiences only about five minutes of downtime. one or more services (such as Exchange) is moved over to a standby server in the event of a failure.
and retrieval over time. Instead. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) ITIL refers to a documentation of best practice for IT Service Management. desktop discs) or magnetic tape drives. iSCSI (Internet SCSI) A protocol that enables transport of block data over IP networks. Used by many hundreds of organisations around the world. usually within a building. and can also facilitate mergers and acquisitions. are more expensive (per byte stored) than slower devices. and on the accommodation and environmental facilities needed to support IT. LUN (Logical Unit Number) A logical unit is a conceptual division (a subunit) of a storage disk or a set of disks. Sometimes referred to as data lifecycle management. load balancing helps to maintain high performance networking. HSM systems exist because high-speed storage devices. based on its value to the organization. ITIL is often implemented when different enterprises work together. HBA (Host Bus Adapter) The HBA is the intelligent hardware residing on the host server which controls the transfer of data between the host and the target storage device. L LAN Local Area Network. ITIL consists of a series of books giving guidance on the provision of quality IT serv- . storage. and then copy data to faster disk drives when needed. ices. known as the logical unit number (LUN). While it would be ideal to have all data available on high-speed devices all the time. LTO Linear Tape Open. such as low-speed discs (SATA. JBOD differs from RAID in not having any storage controller intelligence or data redundancy capabilities. such as enterprise disk drives (Fibre Channel. without the need for a specialized network infrastructure. ITIL has been developed in recognition of organisations‘ growing dependency on IT and embodies best practices for IT Service Management. or adjacent buildings. Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) A data storage system that automatically moves data between high-cost and low-cost storage media. which allows it to be uniquely identified. Hardware and software involved in connecting personal computers and peripherals within close geographic confines. C: can be a logical unit). Load Balancing Referring to the ability to redistribute load (read/write requests) to an alternate path between server and storage device. Each logical unit has an address. Logical units can directly correspond to a volume drive (for example. SAS). The LTO family.Glossary 79 which translates into a few hours of planned or unplanned downtime per year. such as Fibre Channel. a group of disks housed in its own box. I ILM (Information Lifecycle Management) The process of managing information growth. a whole ITIL philosophy has grown up around the guidance contained within the ITIL books and the supporting professional qualification scheme. a half-inch open technology with Ultrium format – a cartridge targeted at ultra-high capacity requirements. HSM systems store the bulk of the enterprise‘s data on slower devices. J JBOD (Just a Bunch of Disks) As the name suggests. this is prohibitively expensive for many organizations.
it must be formatted and assigned a drive letter before data can be stored on it. point-in-time copies. Normally used for missioncritical data. depending on the type of copy being made. such as host bus adapters (HBAs) in the host servers. R RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) A way of storing the same data over multiple physical disks to ensure that if a hard disk fails a redundant copy of the data can be accessed instead. Not to be confused with TCP/IP ports. etc. Replication Replication is the process of duplicating mission critical data from one highly available site to another. storage arrays. Compare to DAS and SAN. When the primary disk is off-line. a secondary resource can take over its function. A network capable of high-speed communications over distances up to about 80 kilometers. S SAN (Storage Area Network) A storage area network (SAN) is a specialized network that provides access to high performance and highly available storage subsystems using block storage protocols. The main characteristic of a SAN is that the storage subsystems are generally available to multiple hosts at the same time. the alternate takes over. but is implemented in the storage array.80 Glossary LUN Masking A method to restrict server access to storage not specifically allocated to that server. Redundancy The duplication of information or hardware equipment components to ensure that should a primary resource fail. Mirroring A disk data redundancy technique in which data is recorded identically and either synchronously or asynchronously on multiple separate disks to protect data from disk failures. duplicates are known as clones. Network-attached storage is accessible directly on the local area network (LAN) through LAN protocols such as TCP/IP. mirroring is classified as RAID 1 configuration and doubles disk costs. providing continuous access to data. Port The physical connection point on computers. Metadata The information associated with a file but separate from the data in the file. required to identify data in the file and its physical location on a disk. Ports on a Fibre Channel network are identified by their Worldwide Port Name (WWPN) IDs. The replication process can be synchronous or asynchronous. Once the partition is created. The SAN is made up of specific devices. on iSCSI networks. or snapshots. M MAN Metropolitan Area Network. switches. not the switch. LUN masking is similar to zoning. P Partition A partition is the portion of a physical disk or LUN that functions as though it were a physically separate disk. Example schemes include mirroring and RAID 5. . and disk storage subsystems. switches that help route storage traffic. which are used as virtual addresses assigned to each IP address. ports are commonly given an iSCSI name. which is used to connect to other devices on a network. N NAS (Network Attached Storage) A NAS device is a server that runs an operating system specifically designed for handling files (rather than block data).
therefore. The advantage of this approach is that the two sets of data are always synchronized. Compare with NAS and DAS. a memory bus board. SAS delivers the high performance. policy management. swap files. event management. quota management. reporting and analytic capabilities that allow you to drill down for performance and availability. Data stored on SSDs should include anything that creates bottlenecks. and authorization and login information. Because they contain their own CPUs to manage data storage. with both Serial ATA (SATA) and SAS drives. SCSI also refers to a parallel interconnect technology which implements the SCSI protocol. Parallel SCSI has been the standard in connectivity for more than 20 years. While SATA (Serial ATA) is designed for desktops. The disadvantage is that if the distance between the two storage disks is substantial. for example. and is known for its stability and reliability. such as databases. Solid State Disk (SSD) A solid state disk is a high-performance plugand-play storage device that contains no moving parts. SAS/SATA SAS: Serial Attached SCSI. Snapshots can be taken according to a scheduled time and provide a consistent view of a filesystem or device for a backup and recovery program to work from. they produce highest possible I/O rates. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) A set of standards allowing computers to communicate with attached devices. capacity management. data and media migration. library and index files. performance and availability management. Key elements of SRM include asset management. SCSI is available in two flavours: Parallel SCSI and Serial Attached SCSI.Glossary 81 which makes them scalable and flexible. a CPU. each write to the primary disk and the secondary (remote) disk must be complete before the next write can begin. and error detection and recovery. configuration management. policy and event-management perspective. SSD components include either DRAM or EEPROM memory boards. Snapshot A virtual copy of a device or filesystem. This includes bill-back. monitoring. SSDs are most effective for server applications and server systems. a director class switch. Switches differ in their capabilities. It is not a copy of the data. Each storage subsystem contains one or more storage controllers. and media management. making it a good choice in storage environments requiring configuration simplicity or optimal cost/capacity. I/O routing. the replication process can take a long time and slows down the application writing the data. Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) is the newest generation of SCSI. Synchronous Replication In synchronous replication. and a battery card. Storage Resource Management (SRM) Refers to software that manages storage from a capacity. the controller provides the intelligence for the storage subsystem. charge back. See also asynchronous replication. utilization. is a high end switch that provide advanced management and availability features. Storage Controller Providing such functionality as disk aggregation (RAID). where I/O response time is crucial. tape libraries etc) and printers. Switch An intelligent device residing on the network responsible for directing data from the source (such as a server) or sources directly to a specific target device (such as a specific storage device) with minimum delay. Snapshots imitate the way a file or device looked at the precise time the snapshot was taken. scalability and reliability required for mainstream servers and enterprise storage. . such as storage devices (disk drives. they are a lot faster than conventional rotating hard disks. only a picture in time of how the data was organized.
NAS or SAN. V VTL (Virtual Tape Library) Refers to an intelligent disk-based library that emulates traditional tape devices and tape formats. Virtualization can be accomplished in–band (in the data path) or out-of-band. An automated tape library is a hardware device that contains multiple tape drives for reading and writing data. and can virtualize storage resources irrespective of whether they are DAS. Out–of–band virtualization does not compete for host resources. Department of Defense. but is implemented in the switch and operates on the basis of port identification (either port numbers on the switch or by WWPN of the attached initiators and targets). and software which emulates traditional tape devices and formats.S. Webopedia. A set of transport and network layer protocols developed under the auspices of the U. access ports for entering and removing tapes and a robotic device for mounting and dismounting the tape cartridges without human intervention.82 Glossary T Tape Library In data storage. A volume is formatted by using a file system. only faster. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. tape drives or other devices. Zoning is similar to LUN masking. (Sources: Adaptec. or as their own standalone tape library solution. Target A target is the device to which the initiator sends data. Virtual tape backup solutions can be used as a secondary backup stage on the way to tape. Horison Information Strategies. particularly over Ethernet. data is deposited onto disk drives just as it would onto a tape library. Tiered Storage Data is stored according to its intended use. for fast recovery. Since thin provisioning is designed to allocate exactly what is needed. Has emerged as the de-facto standard for communications among Unix systems. a tape library is a collection of magnetic tape cartridges and tape drives. Fujitsu Siemens Computers. Microsoft. Thin Provisioning Thin provisioning is most commonly used in centralized large storage systems such as SANs and also in storage virtualization environments where administrators plan for both current and future storage requirements and often over-purchase capacity. but the term also applies to bridges. To mount means to make a group of files in a file system structure accessible to a user or user group. Data required to be kept for regulatory purposes is archived to lower cost disks. Virtualization In storage. tape libraries. Most commonly the target is the storage array. Volume A volume is an area of storage on a hard disk. A single hard disk can have multiple volumes. which can result in wasted storage. and volumes can also span multiple disks. ZAZAmedia) . Acting like a tape library with the performance of modern disk drives. virtualization is a means by which multiple physical storage devices are viewed as a single logical unit. as more storage is needed additional volumes can be attached to the existing consolidated storage system. it removes the element of “paid for but wasted“ storage capacity. SNIA. exactly when it is needed. A VTL generally consists of a Virtual Tape appliance or server. Z Zoning A method used to restrict server access to storage resources that are not allocated to that server. For instance. data intended for restoration in the event of data loss or corruption is stored locally. and typically has a drive letter assigned to it. Additionally.
EMC thereby rings in a paradigm change by moving the information itself – rather than the applications – into the center of the infrastructure. But more intelligent storage is only half the solution: a better concept is needed for information management. Y . With its years of experience. EMC offers the software. especially when you consider that the volume of information is growing by an average of 60 percent per year. our products have been the choice for many enterprises for years.Information infrastructures in enterprises T he principle of profitable trading increasingly demands efficient handling of information in the enterprise. EMC is striving to make optimal use of this capital as well as to protect. systems. Business demands on IT are therefore given noticeably higher priority than technological goals such as “better data security” or “better structured data”. through to archiving and deletion. The optimum strategy for setting up an information infrastructure includes intelligent data storage. security and services that you need to develop a more intelligent storage concept that is effective. enterprises mainly want to improve their compliance with all legal requirements and enhance support of their business processes. As a result. This can be achieved by implementing multiple key initiatives. From hard disk libraries to content management systems and SANs. EMC hardware and software to build up your information infrastructure our enterprise is changing continuously – and EMC will grow and change with you. manage. protection against data loss or misuse. With its solutions. store and archive it. the demands on the infrastructure must be focused on the paths the information takes in the enterprise: from creation. optimizing the infrastructure of IT management and services and utilizing the value added potential of information. EMC has identified six important areas that can help you to store information more intelligently. capture and utilization. economical and user-friendly and also provides you with the necessary flexibility for expansion together with your enterprise. Alongside the top priority of cost reduction.
Six approaches to storing more intelligently.
1. Classify data and deploy tiered storage Not all data is created equal. In fact, each byte of data used in your organization varies in terms of how often it’s accessed and how quickly it must be recovered in the event of downtime. Therefore, it’s vital to begin the journey toward storing more intelligently by classifying data based on access requirements. As soon as you begin assessing your data, you’ll find that a “one size fits all” approach to storing data no longer makes sense. Rather, deploying tiered storage provides the needed framework and processes to maintain information on the “right storage type” at the “right time,” thereby aligning capabilities to requirements and ultimately lowering total cost of ownership (TCO). EMC offers a range of scalable, easy-to-use storage platforms, software, and services to help organizations like yours classify data and establish a tiered storage infrastructure. Our portfolio includes EMC® Symmetrix®, EMC CLARiiON®, and EMC Celerra. All EMC storage platforms can be deployed with a combination of high-performance and low-cost/high-capacity disk drives within the same array, and offer feature-rich software functionality to simplify movement, management, and protection of valuable data. So, whether your organization requires a small-scale solution with tiered storage deployed within one physical system, or has a large-scale environment where multiple tiers of storage systems are needed, the ultimate benefit is the same—lower TCO.
Tier 1 Production Data Tier 2 Tier 3 "One size fits all" „Tiered Storage“
Durch die Klassifizierung von Daten und die Bereitstellung von By classifying data and Organisationen ihre TCO in der Regel Tiered Storage können deploying tiered storage, organizations typically see a 25 percent improvement in TCO. um 25% verbessern.
Information infrastructures in enterprises
EMC is the market leader in the area of IP storage solutions The wide proliferation of IP storage technologies, such as iSCSI and NAS for accessing storage systems, offers enterprises of all sizes the option of economically setting up and operating efficient and reliable storage networks. Enterprises can now use their existing IP technologies and IP-trained personnel to provide and operate their storage networks. All-in-all, the methods offered by today’s mature, IP-based storage technology make it significantly simpler and more cost-effective to achieve the desired storage consolidation results. With the storage families Celerra NS, CLARiiON CX (FibreCAT CX) and Symmetrix DMX, EMC is the market leader in the field of IP storage solutions. According to IDC Research, no other supplier has provided more IP-based storage solutions than EMC with its wide network of EMC Velocity2 partners. The reason for this: EMC offers a wide range of flexible options to allow enterprises and organizations of all sizes to profit from cost-effective and user-friendly IP storage solutions – regardless of whether you are providing a whole new network storage system or consolidating servers and applications that are not in an existing SAN. 2. Create an active archive When information is needed, it must be online and readily accessible—whether it’s required daily or to meet longer-term audit cycles. Active archiving gives you the ability to move data that is used infrequently from primary storage into a more cost-effective storage infrastructure while still allowing quick and easy access. EMC Centera® is the first active archive solution in the market that is purpose-built for storage and retrieval of fixed content. By migrating static or infrequently accessed information from the production storage environment to an EMC Centera active archive, valuable “production storage” space is freed up and backup media requirements lessen as static content is removed from daily or weekly backup processes. For compliance purposes, EMC Centera also offers guaranteed content authenticity to meet the emerging set of regulatory requirements.
In vielen E-Mail- oder Dateisystemumgebungen werden mehr In many e-mail or file system environments, greater than 75 percent als 75% der not modified, which makes it an ideal candidate of the data is Daten nicht verändert – damit sind diese Daten for ideale Kandidaten für die aktive Archivierung. active archive.
3. Reduce / eliminate redundant data One of the key drivers impacting storage costs is the amount of production data that needs to be stored and backed up. Reducing or eliminating duplicate data in backup environments is a key step to storing more intelligently. Consider a simple example: an e-mail attachment is distributed and then saved by 20 different users. The impact? Storage capacity, network bandwidth, and backup media are unnecessarily consumed by a factor of 20. With data de-duplication, storage requirements lessen, operations are streamlined, backup times are shortened, and overall TCO is improved. EMC technology proactively helps to reduce or eliminate the amount of redundant data that an organization creates, stores, and ultimately backs up. EMC Centera computes a content address every time an object is requested to be stored. For example, when two or more people try to store the same e-mail attachment, EMC Centera computes the same content address each time. With this intelligence, EMC Centera easily determines that multiple people are trying to store the same file and gives each user a pointer to the file instead of storing multiple copies. This minimizes information redundancy and the amount of storage required. EMC Avamar® backup and recovery software can achieve the same results for your backup data. EMC Avamar leverages global de-duplication technology to eliminate the unnecessary transmission of redundant backup data over the network and saved to secondary storage. By de-duplicating across sites and servers, you can dramatically shrink the amount of time required for backups, network utilization, and the growth of secondary storage.
Speed backup and recovery By extending the tiered storage methodology to backup/recovery operations. Mal schnellere 10 times faster backups. All EMC storage platforms can be deployed with low-cost/high-capacity disk drive technologies that are ideal for backup-to-disk applications. backup software applications. and a wide range of LAN-based. . including assessment services. 4. EMC offers a complete solution for backup-to-disk needs. organizations can dramatically improve the speed and reliability of their backup and recovery processes. For example. and virtual tape library (VTL) solutions so you can realize better performance and reliability in your backup and recovery environment—no matter how you manage your backups today. SAN-based.Information infrastructures in enterprises 87 Before After EMC Avamar erzielt eine Reduzierung der täglichen EMC Avamar realizes up to 300 times reduction in daily backup Backup-Daten bis zum Faktor 300 und bietet bis zu zehn data and up to Backups. disk-based solutions deliver five-fold improvement in backup and recovery times compared with tape-based solutions.
In addition. Use space-saving snapshots to reduce capacity requirements Creating full copies of production data has been a common practice to assist with backup. recovery times. the use of space-saving snapshots provides a much smarter. Today. Oracle. as have the capacity requirements to support local replication activities. Specifically. the storage requirements and costs associated with this practice have escalated. both types are supported and integrated with key applications.und Recovery-Zeiten um den Faktor 5.88 EMC Before After Backup Data Tier 3 Backup Data Festplattenbasierte Lösungen bieten eine Verbesserung Disk-based solutions provide a 5x improvement in backup / der Backup. SQL Server. more affordable alternative for protecting and re-purposing production data. All EMC storage platforms offer the flexibility to deploy array-based full copy clone and local snapshot replication—you can choose which to leverage based on your application requirements and use cases. 5. As information continues to grow. the space-saving characteristics of logical snapshot copies allow organizations to more quickly and effectively leverage replication capabilities while minimizing the traditional costs and capacity requirements that go along with them. and SAP. recovery. such as Microsoft Exchange. and testing of application environments. .
and yet organizations spend considerable resources provisioning. time-consuming tasks can be redirected toward strategic initiatives. Deploy server and file virtualization IT departments today face a number of challenges in their physical server infrastructures. When you combine VMware server virtualization with EMC Rainfinity® Global File Virtualization. and lower TCO by maximizing utilization in heterogeneous NAS. move data non-disruptively. According to IDC. Organizations can overcome these challenges and implement significant efficiencies by using virtualization to optimize the infrastructure at the server level. For every $1 spent on new servers. für die lokale Replikation erforderlichen Kapazität. In fact. data center capacity can be scaled non-disruptively and availability can be ensured for all applications at a reasonable cost.you get the added benefits of virtualizing your unstructured data environments. and securing growing numbers of physical servers. Virtualization with VMware offers a fundamentally simpler and more efficient way to manage server infrastructures. What’s more. 6. CAS. $8 is spent in ongoing management. maintaining. and file server environments . a typical x86 server deployment uses only 10 to 15 percent of its total capacity. address performance bottlenecks.Information infrastructures in enterprises 89 Before After Snaps Snaps Clones Snaps Snapshots bieten eine 10 zu zehnfache Reduzierung der Snapshots provide up to bis times reduction in capacity required for local replication. the time to provision a new server can be decreased by up to 7o percent. beginning with underutilization and server sprawl. new applications can be provisioned in minutes. again according to IDC. The Global File Virtualization capabilities allow you to simplify management. and time previously spent on manual.
For example. and are easy to use and manage. can help you consolidate servers to increase capacity utilization and eliminate unnecessary infrastructure. EMC solutions can be deployed quickly. M . And EMC Centera includes self-configuring. and protecting your valuable information from security threats and breaches. and even outages from overburdened power grids. And finally. high energy demands and costs. EMC solutions simplify storage management EMC has invested heavily in developing new and improved tools that meet user requirements to streamline storage management and improve ease of use across all platforms. EMC Energy Efficiency Services can help you make your data center as power efficient as possible. such as VMware. Powerful EMC virtualization solutions. self-healing. however studies show that only one in five feel protected. T Storage solutions with security built-in ost organizations readily agree that information is their most important asset. such as making sure your information is easy to manage. Celerra Manager. Advanced tools and services from EMC help optimize energy efficiency in your data center. Symmetrix Management Console. EMC storage platforms consume less energy per terabyte than alternative solutions. Energy-efficient solutions improve cost management oday’s data centers face critical energy issues power and cooling limitations. taking the right steps to conserve energy. For example. while the EMC Power Calculator enables EMC experts to advise on ways to reduce power and cooling costs through more efficient data management.90 EMC Addressing your key priorities At EMC. we’re focused on the things that are most important to you. and self-managing capabilities that enable an administrator to manage up to 50 times greater quantity of content. These capabilities help simplify. and CLARiiON Navisphere® Manager all allow users to configure and provision a terabyte of storage in less than one minute. Continue to look to EMC for further innovations resulting from our investment in research and development programs aimed at reducing your energy and cooling costs. in 2006 organizations spent $45B on security products. In fact.
a more secure infrastructure. not bolting it on. such as Microsoft Exchange.“ 2007. EMC provides organizations with the information management framework they need to store more intelligently. EMC and Fujitsu Siemens Computers have worked to build a strong relationship built on mutual trust and technological innovation. Oracle and SAP. and archive operations • Ensuring effective and affordable information protection • Virtualizing information infrastructure • Automating data center operations • Securing critical assets • Leveraging content for competitive advantage • Accelerating business value for business-critical applications. As such.Information infrastructures in enterprises 91 At EMC. Take the Next Step With its flexible and cost-effective storage consolidation solutions. But storage is only part of what we do. recovery. Partnership between EMC and Fujitsu Siemens Computers “For nearly a decade. EMC technology plays a key role in Fujitsu Siemens Computers‘ vision of the Dynamic Data Center and we continue to focus our combined efforts on providing customers with the industry‘s most comprehensive set of solutions. This strategic approach provides our customers with improved access control. SQL Server. Common strengths of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and EMC: • EMC Storage integrated with Fujitsu Siemens Computers FlexFrame infrastructure • Fujitsu Siemens Computers CentricStor is available in the EMC Select Reseller program • Fujitsu Siemens Computers’ Infrastructure Services is an accredited member of the EMC Authorized Service Network (ASN) program . we’ve taken an information-centric approach by building security into our products. Joe Tucci. A key to our success is the combined expertise of both our sales and technical teams who have helped our mutual customers meet some of their biggest challenges. and expanded compliance and auditability—so that their information infrastructure is guarded from security threats. Our focus is on improving your business from the ground up. The combination of EMC networked storage systems and software with servers from Fujitsu Siemens Computers helps to provide a broad offering of end-to-end solutions. EMC President & CEO. we help organizations like yours with solutions focused on: • Establishing backup.
visit www.emc.com .92 EMC • EMC Storage integration with Microsoft is implemented via Fujitsu Siemens Computers BladeFrame technology • Common solution for Grid Computing based on Fujitsu Siemens Computers PRIMERGY server systems • OEM and reseller agreements for EMC Networker For more information on EMC solutions.
Introduction I n January 2008. Organizations that use Brocade products and services are better able to optimize their IT infrastructures and ensure compliant data management. and manage their information. Brocade is expanding this leadership position with the introduction of an entire family of 8 Gbit/sec switch products targeting a range of data center environments—from the enterprise to Small and Medium Business (SMB). providing the industry’s first end-to-end 8 Gbit/sec solution for SMB to enterprise customers. Brocade® introduced 8 Gbit/sec capabilities for the Brocade 48000 Director and the new Brocade DCX Backbone platform. these new ASICs offer new capabilities that align with growing data center requirements for IT process automation. In addition to doubling performance throughput. and reduced Operating Expenses (OpEx). The new Brocade Fibre Channel (FC) switch family meets current and near-future storage networking needs by doubling the current standard FC speed of 4 Gbit/sec to 8 Gbit/sec. storage administrators have quickly exploited the new perform- . All of Brocade’s products are tested and certified by Fujitsu Siemens Computers which ensures seamless integration into the comprehensive and leading edge infrastructure solutions of Fujitsu Siemens Computers. With the periodic doubling of transport speed from 1 to 2 Gbit/sec and from 2 to 4 Gbit/sec. energy efficiency. share. These high-performance solutions are driven by a new family of Brocade 8Gbit/sec ASICs. Steady increases in performance and functionality have been the hallmark of Fibre Channel evolution over the past decade. which process and route data with much higher levels of efficiency. New Brocade 8 Gbit/sec Host Bus Adapters work in concert with Brocade 8 Gbit/sec fabrics to deliver high performance and advanced functionality end to end. The continuing expansion of data centers and the introduction of new technologies such as server and fabric virtualization are driving the need for higher storage networking performance and greater capabilities from the data center fabric.DATA CENTER FABRIC Leveraging 8 Gbit/sec Fibre Channel End to End in the Data Center B rocade is a leading provider of networked storage solutions that help organizations connect. In addition Brocade is launching 8 Gbit/sec Host Bus Adapters (HBAs).
only half the number of ISLs is required with 8 Gbit/sec links than with 4 Gbit/sec links. virtualization. • Server Virtualization. Although meeting these needs may not require an immediate upgrade to 8 Gbit/sec for all storage applications. At long distances. Data centers may have some or all of these needs today. more Inter-Switch Links (ISLs) are used to keep pace with storage and server scaling. In large-scale data centers. Almost all of these native FC extension links support 8 Gbit/sec speeds. it is much easier to architect data center fabrics when highspeed ports are available. ISLs using the same number of links. While not all hosts. so utilization can be doubled on links that usually cost thou- . it is now possible to fully integrate advanced functionality that extends from the fabric all the way to the server platform. and ISLs currently require maximum speed capability. In a shared environment.94 Brocade ance capabilities and advanced features to build more optimized storage networks. the ISL oversubscription ratio is halved by upgrading from 4 to 8 Gbit/sec. Integrated Routing and Adaptive Networking services are compatible with legacy SAN equipment. Likewise. • Operational Flexibility. a tiered services model requires the ability to specify service levels for hosted applications and to monitor and manage these services end to end—all capabilities of Brocade 8 Gbit/sec solutions. for example. • Investment Protection. • Large Fabrics. so do the fabrics that interconnect storage with servers. due to the high cost of dark fiber or WDM links. in which IT may be using chargeback to serve internal customers. moving SAN bandwidthintensive hosts to 8 Gbit/sec connectivity enables the servers to achieve higher levels of performance using fewer HBAs and a smaller cabling infrastructure. • Backup. • Higher Levels of Performance. consider the following: • Storage Growth. Large amounts of traffic to tape or disk during backups require the fastest SAN speeds possible to fit within backup windows. Hosting multiple operating system instances on a single host platform dramatically increases storage I/O demands. 8 Gbit/sec can earn a very fast ROI compared to 4 Gbit/sec. As fabrics scale. • Tiered Services. and fabric scaling will make acquiring 8 Gbit/ sec capabilities today a safe and well-founded decision. storage. With the introduction of Brocade 8 Gbit/sec switches and HBAs. which in turn drives up host SAN throughput. In trying to decide where enhanced performance and capabilities can be applied in your own environment. future plans for expansion. Existing SANs can be significantly enhanced with new capabilities enabled by 8 Gbit/sec port speed. As SAN storage grows. As fabrics grow. Storage Area Network (SAN) storage capacity has dramatically increased year over year in almost all data centers. extending their Return on Investment (ROI) as data center fabrics scale.
Running many VMs on a single server hardware platform can dramatically increase the requisite Input/Output (I/O) load and mandate offloading as much I/O processing as possible. and the fabric interconnect. 20. Some virtualized hosts have 10. Phase 3 will provide data centers with policy-driven utility computing. • Phase 2. so that CPU cycles can be devoted more productively to application processing. The primary business drivers are reduction of OpEx and the requirement for Business Continuity (BC). as a result of server consolidation and flexible test and development. . Brocade recognizes these three phases for evolving virtualization in the data center: • Phase 1. Brocade’s 8 Gbit/sec end-toend solutions can prevent this saturation and increase the ROI on server hardware and virtualization software investments. Here are some typical use cases: • Automated server provisioning and applications deployment using pre-built Virtual Machine (VM) “templates” • Data center architectures and products that provide High Availability (HA) and no interruption of service during server maintenance or failure • Storage replication and automated restoration of service to support DR goals • Phase 3. V Virtualization has fundamentally transformed the traditional relationship between servers. high-performance storage adapters. The primary business driver for this phase is the reduction of Capital Expenditures (CapEx). Fully leveraging server virtualization therefore requires more powerful. storage. which can exceed the capacity of a 4 Gbit/sec HBA. of dollars per month. and further OpEx reductions. Building a high-performance foundation that provides the flexibility to selectively deploy 8 Gbit/sec as needed simplifies data center fabric management and accommodates the inevitable growth in applications and data over time. and end-to-end service provisioning. in which business drivers are flexible IT. Evolving Data Center Virtualization irtualization of server platforms can dramatically increase the need for higher-speed capability in the SAN. if not tens of thousands. This can quickly justify the equipment cost for the increased speed capability. or even 30 operating systems. The challenge for Phase 2 is characterized by growth and deployment of Disaster Recovery (DR) solutions and the need for high availability and automated server provisioning. service-level management. variable cost.Leveraging 8 Gbit/sec Fibre Channel End to End in the Data Center 95 sands. We are now moving into this phase.
To meet regulatory compliance requirements. can be applied to individual VMs. A completely non-oversubscribed switching architecture enhances server scalability by enabling the rapid growth of virtual servers without compromising data center performance. (When there are two Brocade DCX chassis connected via Inter-Chassis Links. Brocade meets the needs of more dynamic virtualized environments by providing an integrated fabric and HBA solution that can selectively deploy security and QoS to VM-hosted applications as required. ultra-high-speed 16 Gbit/ sec connection using Brocade ISL Trunking technology. Brocade 8 Gbit/sec Products T he Brocade DCX Backbone. so that special Brocade features. Integrated Routing (IR) fabric service is a new option on the Brocade DCX Backbone and Brocade 5300 and 5100 Switches with the release of Fabric OS® (FOS) 6. a total of 256 IR ports are available. Brocade completed the . such as Top Talkers and QoS Traffic Prioritization. and 48-port blades. the benefits of Brocade 8 Gbit/sec switching technology are extended directly to VMs via N_Port ID Virtualization (NPIV).1. which balances traffic flows at the frame level. Brocade 8 Gbit/sec HBAs implement the industry standard Fibre Channel Security Protocol (FC-SP) and will support in-flight data encryption for secure network transactions. the new Brocade fabric service. As of FOS 6. Brocade’s first 8 Gbit/sec platform.1.96 Brocade Brocade’s new family of 8 Gbit/sec switches supports the rapidly growing data center by delivering 8 Gbit/sec performance on every port with no oversubscription. Brocade 8 Gbit/sec HBA ASICs support a maximum of 500k I/O per Second (IOPS) per port ( >1M IOPS on a dual-port HBA) to free up the host processors and meet virtualization productivity goals. Brocade 8 Gbit/sec HBAs complement industry-leading performance with advanced storage functionality to further streamline virtualized server operations. In May 2008. IR can be enabled on the maximum number of ports on the Brocade 5300 (80 ports) and Brocade 5100 (40 ports) via user configuration. In addition. This end-to-end fabric and host integration is unique to Brocade and offers the industry’s highest I/O performance for virtualized environments. Currently. 32-. with 16-. IR can be activated on FC8 port blades with up to 128 IR ports per Brocade DCX chassis. In the future. was released in early 2008. conventional networking methods are no longer sufficient. two 8 Gbit/sec HBA ports will be able to be combined into a single. Adaptive Networking. for example. only an optional IR software license is required. provides configurable Quality of Service (QoS) for each VM. With the increasing use of VM mobility to shift application workloads from one hardware platform to another.) No additional hardware is required to enable perport Fibre Channel Routing.
Further information may be found on our website at: www. plus the enhanced power efficiencies of the new switch platforms are also important drivers for adoption of 8 Gbit/sec technology. 32. 8 Gbit/sec is needed for server virtualization. New capabilities. 16. and as data center plans are developed. and fabrics with 4 and 8 Gbit/sec devices interoperate seamlessly.Leveraging 8 Gbit/sec Fibre Channel End to End in the Data Center 97 transition to 8 Gbit/sec with the release of Fabric OS 6. 64. Brocade’s integrated end-to-end 8 Gbit/sec solution provides the broadest choice of capabilities with the highest performance and efficiency. Visit the Brocade Web site for data sheets describing these products: www. more ports can be used for servers and storage. and 80 ports • FC8-16. In addition. backups. FC8-32.com . such as Adaptive Networking and Integrated Routing. Higher speed in the data center brings the immediate benefit of higher-performing ISLs and increased scalability. since ISL performance is doubled. and 24 ports • Brocade 5100 Switch with 24. and 40 ports • Brocade 5300 Switch with 48.1 and a full family of new switches and HBAs for end-to-end connectivity in the data center: • Brocade 815 (single port) and 825 (dual port) HBAs • Brocade 300 Switch with email@example.com Conclusion S peed increase in Brocade switching platforms is one of many advantages from Brocade’s next generation ASIC family. and FC8-48 port blades for the Brocade 48000 Director Brocade 8 Gbit/sec switches comply with industry standards. scaling of fabrics.com Contact: Brocade Communications GmbH Ralf Salzmann Altkönigstrasse 6 64546 Mörfelden Walldorf ralf.brocade. and high-performance computing requirements. Every data center user has or will have these needs in the future.
The wide-ranging solution portfolio for serverto-storage virtualization. high availability levels. N Solutions Microsoft. NetApp ensures that your business-critical data is constantly available and can also simplify your business processes. The storage requirement for company data will continue to grow fast in coming years. iSCSI. The commitment to simplicity. http and FTP permit access at file level. such as NFS. very fast backup and restore processes. business applications. very effective operating system kernel. NetApp has developed a wide range of tools for its database and application software. faster”. VMware. With the help of its powerful unified storage architecture NetApp helps companies overcome these challenges efficiently: Extremely low operating costs (TCO). FC. Based on the motto “Go further. CIFS. Data access protocols. The NetApp concept Data ONTAP A small. optimized to meet storage process requirements. . provides top performance for storage applications and has a wide range of usage: Data ONTAP permits universal data access via block or file level protocols. This presents IT managers with the challenge of purchasing an ever increasing quantity of storage equipment yet also having to manage such devices. data security and much more has persuaded customers worldwide to opt for NetApp.NetApp Innovative solutions for storage and data management etApp embodies innovative storage and data management with excellent cost efficiency. faster“. Oracle and SAP are important strategic NetApp partners. innovation and the success of its customers has enabled the company to become one of the fastest growing storage and data management manufacturers. consolidation and virtualization options as well as simplified and easy management of the entire storage environment are behind the NetApp slogan “Go further. NetApp helps companies to be successful.
. Better use of existing storage resources As all the devices are connected in a network. data and applications can be distributed. regardless of the overall storage space required by the application. NetApp FlexClone provides notable savings in storage space and has low overheads. Snapshot Using “Snapshot” technology developed by NetApp. Storage reductions of up to 30% can thus be obtained for the same amount of data and operational applications. as required.e. Metrocluster If the two storage controllers of a FAS cluster are at different locations. An automatic transfer is made if an FAS system is not available.100 NetApp Extremely flexible storage allocation Data ONTAP means that all the hard disks available in a system can be used for all applications. Snapshots are read-only copies of the data on the respective volume (i. A specific storage area no longer needs to be assigned to certain applications. Each application can use all the drives installed. an immediate replication of the data volumes and data sets without any additional storage space. 255 snapshots can be created for each volume created without any loss in performance. MetroCluster synchronously mirrors the data (see SyncMirror) in both data centers. the data in the snapshot is stored on the same disks as the productive data). irrespective of the physical storage space (virtualization). This results in a number of business benefits: N Less administration effort Fewer employees can manage more storage and more applications. The NetApp unified storage concept etApp has designed a completely standardized storage architecture which seamlessly integrates all the storage products and which can be managed with one standardized operating system (Data ONTAP). Flexvol & Flexclone NetApp FlexCloneTM technology enables real cloning.
Investment in other dedicated systems is avoided. web data is also supported. scalable and reliable NetApp FAS systems (fabric attached storage) for simplified data management meet company requirements whatever their size – starting from the Global 1000 firms down to medium-sized companies and small departments. home directories and web content. T Maximize storage utilization and performance via virtualization Server virtualization in the data center improves server usage and simplifies server administration for the customer. iSCSI and NAS environments. and the FAS2000 series for data backup in branches and medium-sized companies. including business applications. The FAS systems were designed to consolidate and provide data for a wide range of applications. more capacity and the fast. Flexible scalability When storage requirements drastically increase due to more data or new business applications. If storage optimization is not taken into consideration during server virtualization. configuration and administration processes for these systems are extremely simple. Enterprise Content Management. No migration costs The end-to-end NetApp product range enables fast and smooth data transfer when other systems are added. NetApp FAS systems he powerful. as they must support higher I/O rates. then you have probably only moved the costs from the servers to the storage systems. In addition to Windows. The stable and flexible microkernel operating system Data ONTAP enables the simultaneous and combined usage in FC SAN. non-interrupted provision of storage space. the storage systems can be extended at any time to optimally meet new requirements. e-mail. Unix and Linux. additional storage equipment can be integrated instantly. the Midrange series FAS3100 with exceptional price/performance ratio for SAN and NAS. The demands on storage systems increase. . technical applications. file shares.Innovative solutions for storage and data management 101 Long-term investment protection When requirements change. The installation. The FAS product range comprises the high-end FAS6000 series for data consolidation in large and highperformance applications.
Support for a virtual desktop infrastructure In addition to server virtualization. the VMWare Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) offers additional resource-saving virtualization technology.102 NetApp Together with providers. SnapManager for virtualized infrastructures (VI) SnapManager for VI provides customers with an automated solution for backing up and restoring virtual machines in a VMware ESX environment. As one of the founding members of the “Adaptive Computing Initiative for SAP”. Application environments no longer run on the user’s desktop processor but in virtual machines in the data center. such as VMware. simple and low-priced provision and data management solutions • First-class virtualized storage solution for thin provisioning in heterogeneous storage environments NetApp deduplication in the Esx environment The NetApp deduplication is one of the fundamental components of our data ONTAP® operating system. fast. NetApp won the SAP Pinnacle Award for Technical Innovation and cooperation in the Adaptive Computing “Netweaver Innovation” category for the FlexFrameTM for . Linux® and Windows® platforms. NetApp has a successful history in developing solutions which significantly simplify SAP data management. NetApp offers solutions and best practices for developing a virtualized infrastructure – from servers to storage – that provide a number of advantages: • Scalable and consistent I/O performance for all ESX protocols (NFS. • The system performance of the ESX environment and thus the applications are hardly impaired by the SnapManager backup and restore processes. NetApp has been awarded numerous certificates for the compatibility of its storage solutions and is in the SAP compliance list for the SAP “Adaptive Computing Services” for Unix. NetApp solutions for SAP As a worldwide technology partner for SAP. NetApp FlexClone can configure thousands of such virtual machines within minutes. iSCSI and FC) • Flexible. Data deduplication enables storage capacity savings of approx 90%. The elimination of redundant data objects and exclusive referencing to the original object permits more efficient use of the existing storage. The two main advantages of this solution are: • The backups created using NetApp snapshot technology only use a fraction of the storage space that traditional systems would require. More than 5000 customers worldwide (March 2008) already benefit from the advantages of a VMware solution with NetApp storage.
Integrative components are NetApp system cloning and backup/recovery scenarios. • Clones of the SAP database can also be automatically created. flexibly and economically to business requirements. netapp. Unix and Linux environments with unified NAS/SAN storage solutions. simple upgrades and migrations of SAP systems. backup and recovery. NetApp Adaptive Computing solutions enable SAP customers to react dynamically. test. interfaces and training. • There is a worldwide support agreement between NetApp and SAP which ensures that the customer has 7x24 SAP infrastructure support. The combination of NetApp SnapShotTM and SnapRestore® provides SAP customers with fast. are used to clone SAP productive systems within a few minutes and without affecting performance and without any additional initial storage requirement. • ILM solutions: storage consolidation. Data management solutions. The NetApp Unified Storage model provides SAN / IP SAN and NAS connections with block and file access methods within a single storage architecture.com . This thus significantly simplifies the addition and management of systems for QA. development. automated error-free data restores and permits application-specific disaster recovery. archiving and compliance via ArchiveLinkTM and/or WebDAV • High-availability and disaster recovery solutions for data encryption • SnapManager for SAP: the solution certified by SAP simplifies the creation of application-consistent snapshot copies. simple backup and restore processes for several TB of SAP data as well as efficient. Further information about this and other NetApp solutions can be found at www.Innovative solutions for storage and data management 103 mySAP Business SuiteTM joint development with Fujitsu Siemens Computers. such as FlexCloneTM. NetApp also offers the following for those companies using SAP: • A comprehensive range of products for Windows. reporting.
A simplified interface and new central management functions enable you to organize. Thanks to the modular approach this solution is suitable for every company whatever its size. CA Recovery Management: a complete data protection solution A Recovery Management offers comprehensive and integrated data protection and recovery functions which your company requires. This results in lower operating costs and improved administration.CA RECOVERY MANAGEMENT Data protection and availability Solution A Recovery Management offers you the functions and services which you really need: comprehensive protection and reliable recovery in a simple easy-to-use solution. C Benefits T he solution can be seamlessly integrated into existing IT management solutions so that Enterprise IT Management is simplified and extended. C . monitor and configure your entire backup environment. automated failover and interrupt-free disaster recovery tests so that you can provide the protection which you need for specific company data. It links up CA ARCserve Backup with CA XOsoft Replication and CA XOsoft High Availability so that you can define a multi-level data protection concept to meet your corporate objectives. It includes application-related. powerful backup with replication. interrupt-free data protection. These technologies provide multi-level data protection which can be aligned to your company targets. Robust and proven technologies are used which are connected via one simplified interface. requirements and guidelines and covers numerous hardware and software platforms.
higher operational efficiency. This solution enables reliable data protection in the “Enterprise class” for a wide range of operational environments. The solution enables central management and offers enhanced functions to meet your company’s changing requirements. CA XOsoft High Availability provides low-priced interrupt-free availability of servers which run Microsoft Exchange.com. A combination of these functions gives companies more control.com/us . CA ARCserve Backup Release 12 A ARCserve Backup provides the most comprehensive data protection currently available on the market. powerful solutions — CA ARCserve® Backup. Contact: cainfo. It also enables integrated continuous data protection (CDP) against corruption and automatic disaster recovery tests which ensure that critical company data and applications can be recovered. more protection and reduced costs. improve security. CA XOsoft Replication and CA XOsoft™ High Availability. Functions. BlackBerry support and other applications (both on 32 and 64-bit Windows servers). Reports provide useful information and optimize backup procedures as well as the catalog database based on SQL Express with improved indexing for fast recovery. Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) WebServer.germany@ca. The fact that CA ARCserve Backup also contains integrated virus protection and encryption tools makes it the most secure backup solution currently on the market and one that can be immediately implemented. C CA XOsoft High Availability & CA XOsoft Replication Release 12 T his solution for maximum business continuity is based on asynchronous real-time data replication with automatic failover and automatic reset. Microsoft SQL Server or Oracle databases.106 CA Recovery Management CA Recovery Management combines proven. www. such as FIPS-certified 256 encryption.ca. Fileserver.
Sun Microsystems / StorageTek More than 35 years’ experience in the classic field of data security s a result of the takeover of StorageTek Sun Microsystems has advanced to become one of the world’s leading providers of tape libraries and drives. There is a solution portfolio of almost 13.000 commercial and technical applications for Sun Systems with the platform SPARC/Solaris. A Markets S un Microsystems is a system provider that develops hardware and software. Since software development concentrates on resolving system-related tasks or setting strategically important milestones in line with Sun’s vision. which have pioneered both branch-related and task-related methods. development of communities as well as market leadership in Open Source. These partnerships have enabled fast and competent solutions for end customers on a wide-spread basis. To ensure that systems are integrated at an early stage Sun Microsystems has set up a number of partner programs. On the contrary. Sun is not in competition with the developers of application programs. Customer-oriented solutions with special service offerings are a mark of the company. customers retain their freedom. With its vision “The Network is the Computer” Sun is promoting the distribution of the Internet and is itself focusing on open innovations. Sun Microsystems (JAVA) develops information technology for the global economy. . In this way. firm partnerships exist with numerous renowned software manufacturers in order to develop offerings together. In addition to the partnerships with independent software manufacturers. Sun is very much committed to long-term sales partnerships with innovative distributors and resellers. Sun is represented in more than 100 countries. because they can decide in favor of the best solution on the market.
managing them intelligently and having them available in a controlled way at all times is of vital interest for every company. Sun Nearline products as quasi-standards are convincing with their high performance levels and above-average error tolerance. Cooperation between Sun Microsystems and Fujitsu Siemens Computers has already proved to be extremely effective in large-scale. A Sun StorageTek Open Storage solutions E lectronically stored data are currently one of the most important assets for many companies. which not only store their data securely and in compliance with regulations. As a result of OEM contracts as well as reseller agreements with Sun for Nearline. This in turn enables trend-setting information lifecycle management infrastructures. data availability and failure concepts. Storing these data securely. particularly large enterprises and small to medium-sized customers. complex projects. On account of their open design and varied connection options they can be optimally integrated in backup environments with the systems sold by Fujitsu Siemens Computers.g.108 Sun Microsystems The partnership between Fujitsu Siemens Computers and Sun Microsystems partnership of many years exists between Fujitsu Siemens Computers and Sun Microsystems/StorageTek. are proof of this. They combine our more than 35 years of experience in classic fields. And this applies to companies of the most different kind. drive types and Sparc-based products Fujitsu Siemens Computers has won over a strong partner for disaster recovery and backup. such as data security. . Sun StorageTek Open Storage solutions allow you to face these challenges successfully. SPARC-based systems. but also make them available to everyone who needs them. CentricStor Virtual Tape Appliance. e. which you can read about in the case studies. since 2008. with new technologies like access protection through identity management and storage virtualization. Unrelenting data growth and the increasing number of statutory regulations with regard to archiving periods and access controls call for new data storage and administration methods. which has been extended to include the Nearline (tape) sector and. The numerous joint projects.
– Simpler storage management through partitioning. Highlights – Flexible scaling. Tape Library StreamLine® SL8500 T he modular Sun StorageTek StreamLine SL8500 tape library enables organizations to set up their operational processes more efficiently.sun. Linux and Windows. Highlights – Data consolidation: Excellent scaling as well as support for mixed media. growth according to your requirements. – Joint resources: Designed for use in mainframes. – Low space requirements: High density of media slots. to maximize availability and create optimal prerequisites for auditing reliability with the burden of costs and impairment to their processes remaining absolutely within scope. optimization and maintenance. optimal utilization. Redundancy of operation. Unix.More than 35 years’ experience in the classic field of data security 109 Tape Library StreamLine® SL500 T he Sun StorageTek StreamLine SL500 tape library is the entry-level solution for small to medium-sized businesses.com . sharing. – Support and services for successful installation. – Cost savings through less space and lower power consumption. Tried-and-trusted LTO technology ensures trouble-free operation. environmentally aware storage concept for the midrange market. – Higher throughput: High-performance throughput and capacity. The modular expandability of a standard rack permits customers to adapt capacities to meet their operating needs at any time. The “Any Cartridge Any Slot” technology enables you to use the best possible drives – depending on access and storage requirements. – Innovative technologies. visit www. For more information on Sun solutions. – Simple scaling: Without any downtimes. risk reduction and development of new opportunities. for which only the capacity actually used is charged. Tape Library StorageTek SL3000 T he Sun StorageTek SL3000 modular library system is an innovative. – Higher availability: Upgrade without downtimes.
N . Symantec’s leaders bring decades of diverse experience and a history of success. Combining business acumen with technical savvy.Symantec: Confidence in a connected world S ymantec is a global leader in providing security. information and interactions. these executives guide more than 17.. Fujitsu Siemens Computers is using Altiris technology for building its DeskView and ServerView solutions. Headquartered in Cupertino. Partnership between Fujitsu Siemens Computers and Symantec early all Symantec products (and those formerly of VERITAS) are certified for Fujitsu Siemens Computers products. The cooperation between Symantec’s software-solutions alongside the platforms of Fujitsu Siemens Computers has already proved to be very effective in large and complex projects. Calif. especially for large enterprises and SME customers. Storage and Availability Management. storage and systems management solutions to help businesses and consumers secure and manage their information. Market Categories Consumer Products. Fujitsu Siemens Computers is offering the VERITAS Storage Foundation as the strategic file systems and volume management solution for its PRIMEPOWER servers. Security and Compliance. The Fujitsu Siemens Computers CentricStor Virtual Tape Appliance is already being optimized through additional functions to Symantec products in its operations. This applies for all varieties of businesses. Symantec has operations in more than 40 countries. Above all. Symantec Global Services. NetBackup and Enterprise Vault are strategic products and integral components of the Fujitsu Siemens Computers storage software portfolio.500 talented employees to create innovative products and solutions that enable customers around the world to have confidence in their infrastructure.
com . and content management and collaboration systems. Veritas NetBackup offers granular file-level and image-level recovery from a single backup. and enables discovery of corporate data from e-mail systems. Linux and NetWare environments. V Symantec Enterprise Vault – E-Mail Archiving S ymantec Enterprise Vault™ provides a software-based intelligent archiving platform that stores. Because not all data is created equally. Further information may be found on our website at: www. manages. knowledge management. Enterprise Vault also provides specialized applications. and automated disaster recover. and information security initiatives. automatic discovery of virtual machines (winner of 2007 “Best of VMWorld” for Data Protection). For the ultimate in data protection.com Rene Köhnen-Wiesemes: rene_wiesemes@symantec. NetBackup helps organizations take advantage of both tape and disk storage with its advances in disk and snapshot-based protection. such as Discovery Accelerator and Compliance Accelerator. content compliance.com Contact: Harald Derbsch: harald_derbsch@symantec. NetBackup software provides online database and application aware backup and recovery solutions for all leading databases and applications to deliver data availability for Utility Computing. To reduce the impact on business critical systems. stability and storage consumption inherent to PST files. Enterprise Vault utilizes intelligent classification and retention technologies to capture. security. It also eliminates PST headaches and removes the problems of backup.112 Symantec Veritas NetBackup – High performance data protection eritas NetBackup Enterprise Server delivers high performance data protection that scales to protect the largest Unix. that mine archived data to support legal discovery. Windows. Net-Backup offers data encryption that transmits and stores data using the latest encryption technologies on the market today. file server environments. off-site media management. instant messaging platforms. Archiving for legal and compliance enables you to retrieve e-mail content and corporate documents to meet legal and regulatory compliance requirements. index. and store target data in order to enforce policies and protect corporate assets while reducing storage costs and simplifying management. Offering complete protection from desktop to data center to vault. categorize.symantec. NetBackup software offers a single management tool to consolidate all backup and recovery operations.
NetApp. Sun and Symantec Price: 14.99 Euros . CA. EMC.Storage Basics An introduction to the fundamentals of storage technology Contents Section 1 – The information society – saving data and knowledge at new levels Section 2 – Tiered storage: intelligent information management in the company Section 3 – Online storage: disks and reliability Section 4 – Storage networks – spoilt for choice Section 5 – Backup & Restore: an unloved compulsory exercise Section 6 – Storage management – making complex storage networks manageable Section 7 – Virtualization – some catching up is necessary regarding storage topics Section 8 – The storage strategy of Fujitsu Siemens Computers and its partners Forecast: Future storage trends Glossary As well as articles about storage from our partners Brocade.
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