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Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages.

NETWORK >ipconfig [/all] [/renew [Adapter]] [/release [Adapter]] [/flushdns] [/displaydns] [/registerdns] [/showclassid Adapter] [/setclassid Adapter [ClassID]]
/all : Displays the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters. /renew [Adapter] : Renews DHCP configuration for all adapters (if an adapter is not specified) or for a specific adapter if the Adapter parameter is included. /release [Adapter] : Sends a DHCPRELEASE message to the DHCP server to release the current DHCP configuration and discard the IP address configuration /flushdns : Flushes and resets the contents of the DNS client resolver cache. /displaydns : Displays the contents of the DNS client resolver cache, which includes both entries preloaded from the local Hosts file and any recently obtained resource records for name queries resolved by the computer. /registerdns : Initiates manual dynamic registration for the DNS names and IP addresses that are configured at a computer. /showclassid Adapter : Displays the DHCP class ID for a specified adapter. /setclassid Adapter [ClassID] : Configures the DHCP class ID for a specified adapter.

>control admintools >services.msc > devmgmt.msc >eventvwr.msc (or just eventvwr) >systeminfo
Displays detailed configuration information about a computer and its operating system, including operating system configuration, security information, product ID, and hardware properties, such as RAM, disk space, and network cards.

>msconfig >hostname
Displays the host name portion of the full computer name of the computer.

>drwtsn32 Dr Watson diagnostics Run >eventvwr or mmc.exe X:\WINDOWS\system32\eventvwr.msc Event Viewer >perfmon.exe [file_name] [/HTMLFILE:converted_file settings_file]
Allows you to open a Windows XP Performance console configured with settings files from Windows NT 4.0 version of Performance Monitor.

>tracert [-d] [-h MaximumHops] [-j HostList] [-w Timeout] [TargetName]
Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to the destination with incrementally increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values.

>regsvr32 [/u] [/s] [/n] [/i[:cmdline]] dllname
/u : Unregisters server. /s : Specifies regsvr32 to run silently and to not display any message boxes. /n : Specifies not to call DllRegisterServer. You must use this option with /i. /i:cmdline : Calls DllInstall passing it an optional [cmdline]. When used with /u, it calls dll uninstall. dllname : Specifies the name of the dll file that will be registered.

>netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p Protocol] [-r] [-s] [Interval]
Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols), and IPv6 statistics -a : Displays all active TCP connections and the TCP and UDP ports on which the computer is listening. -e : Displays Ethernet statistics, such as the number of bytes and packets sent and received. This parameter can be combined with -s. -n : Displays active TCP connections, however, addresses and port numbers are expressed numerically and no attempt is made to determine names.

Displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure. Before using this tool, you should be familiar with how DNS works. The Nslookup command-line tool is available only if you have installed the TCP/IP protocol.

WIN XP/2K COMMANDS at (windows XP/2000) Scheduling utility. bootcfg (XP only) This utility allows you to set up your boot options, such as your default OS and other loading options. cacls (XP, 2000, & NT4.0) Changes the ACLs (security Settings) of files and folders. Very similar to chmod in Linux. comp (XP & 2000) This utility is very similar to diff in Linux. Use the /? switch to get examples of command usage. contig (works with NT4.0 and newer) A great defrag utility for NTFS partitions. control (XP only) - unpublished! Allows you to launch control panel applets from the command line. control userpasswords2, for example will launch a helpful local user admin utility. defrag (XP only - NT4.0 and Win2k use contig) If you are running Win2k or NT4.0 there is still hope. Contig is a free defrag program that I describe on the defrag page. diskpart (XP only) Use this command to manage your disk partitions. This is the text version for the GUI Disk Manager. driverquery (XP only) Produces a list of drivers, their properties, and their versions. Great for computer documentation. eudcedit (XP only) -unpublished! Private Character editor. Yes with this program built into Windows XP you can create your own font! findstr Find String - similar to Linux's Grep. fsutil (XP only) - unpublished! This is a utility with a lot of capability. Come back soon for great examples. getmac (XP & 2000) This command gets the Media Access Control (MAC) address of your network cards. gpresult (XP & 2000)

This generates a summary of the user settings and computer group policy settings. gpupdate (XP only) Use this utility to manually apply computer and user policy from your windows 2000 (or newer) domain. MMC (XP, 2000 & NT4.0) - Microsoft Management Console This is the master tool for Windows, it is the main interface in which all other tools use starting primarily in Windows 2000 and newer systems. more Utility used to display text output one screen at a time. Ex. more c:\windows\win.ini msconfig (XP only) The ultimate tool to change the services and utilities that start when your Windows machine boots up. You can also copy the executable from XP and use it in Win2k. msinfo32 (XP &smp; 2000) An awesome diagnostic tool. With it you can get a list of running processes, including the residing path of the executable (great for manually removing malware) and get detailed information about hardware and system diagnostics. narrator (XP only) Turns on the system narrator (can also be found in accessibility options in control panel). Will will allow your computer to dictate text to you. netsh (XP & 2000) A network configuration tool console. At the 'netsh>' prompt, use the '?' to list the available commands and type "exit" to get back to a command prompt. nslookup (all) A DNS name resolution tool. openfiles (XP Only) Allows an administrator to display or disconnect open files in XP professional. Type "openfiles /?" for a list of possible parameters. Pathping (XP & 2000) A cross between the ping and traceroute utilities. Who needs Neotrace when you can use this? Type "pathping <ip address>" and watch it go. recover (XP & 2000) This command can recover readable information from a damaged disk and is very easy to use. reg (XP & 2000) A console registry tool, great for scripting Registry edits.

sc (XP & 2000) A command line utility called the Service Controller. A power tool to make service changes via a logon/logoff or startup/shutdown script. schtasks (XP only) A newer version of the AT command. This allows an administrator to schedule and manage scheduled tasks on a local and remote machines. secedit (XP & 2000) Use this utility to manually apply computer and user policy from your windows 2000 (or newer) domain. Example to update the machine policy: secedit /refreshpolicy machine_policy /enforce To view help on this, just type secedit. NOTE: In Windows XP SP1 and news, this command is superceded by: gpupdate /force sfc (XP & 2000) The system file checker scans important system files and replaces the ones you (or your applications) hacked beyond repair with the real, official Microsoft versions. shutdown (XP & 2000) With this tool, You can shut down or restart your own computer, or an administrator can shut down or restart a remote computer. sigverif (XP only) Microsoft has created driver signatures. A signed driver is Microsoft tested and approved. With the sigverif tool you can have all driver files analyzed to verify that they are digitally signed. Just type 'sigverif' at the command prompt. systeminfo (XP only) Basic system configuration information, such as the system type, the processor type, time zone, virtual memory settings, system uptime, and much more. This program is great for creating an inventory of computers on your network. sysedit (XP/2000) System Configuration File Editor. An old tool that was very handy for the Windows 9X days. msconfig is what you want to use now. tasklist (XP pro only) Tasklist is the command console equivalent to the task manager in windows. It is a must have when fighting scumware and viruses. Try the command: tasklist /svc to view the memory resources your services take up. taskkill (XP only)

Taskkill contains the rest of the task manager functionality. It allows you to kill those unneeded or locked up applications. tree (XP & 2000) An amazing experience everyone should try! This command will provide a 'family tree' style display of the drive/folder you specify.

WMIC (XP & 2000) Windows Management Instrumentation Command tool. This allows you to pull an amazing amount of low-level system information from a command line scripting interface. BASIC SHORTCUTS Alt + F program. Alt + E program F1

File menu options in current Edit options in current
Universal Help in almost ever Windows

Ctrl + A Select all text. Ctrl + X Cut selected item. Shift + Del Cut selected item. Ctrl + C Copy selected item. Ctrl + Ins Copy selected item Ctrl + V Paste Shift + Ins Paste Home Goes to beginning of current line. Ctrl + Home Goes to beginning of document. End Goes to end of current line. Ctrl + End Goes to end of document. Shift + Home Highlights from current position to
beginning of line.

Shift + End

Highlights from current position to end of

Ctrl + at a time. Ctrl +  at a time.

Moves one word to the left Moves one word to the right

CONTROL PANEL QUICK KEYS           
Accessibility Options Add New Hardware add new hardware Add/Remove Programs appwiz.cpl Date/Time Properties Display Properties FindFast findfast.cpl Fonts Folder Internet Properties Joystick Properties Keyboard Properties keyboard Microsoft Exchange control access.cpl control sysdm.cpl control control timedate.cpl control desk.cpl control control fonts control inetcpl.cpl control joy.cpl control main.cpl control mlcfg32.cpl

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(or Windows Messaging) Microsoft Mail Post Office Modem Properties Mouse Properties Multimedia Properties Network Properties

control control control control control

wgpocpl.cpl modem.cpl main.cpl mmsys.cpl netcpl.cpl

NOTE: In Windows NT 4.0, Network properties is Ncpa.cpl, not Netcpl.cpl

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Password Properties control password.cpl Power Management (Windows 95) control main.cpl power Power Management (Windows 98) control powercfg.cpl Printers Folder control printers Regional Settings control intl.cpl Scanners and Cameras control sticpl.cpl Sound Properties control mmsys.cpl sounds System Properties control sysdm.cpl



+D Brings the desktop to the top of all other windows. +M Minimizes all windows. Undo the

+ SHIFT + M minimize done by

+ M and WINKEY + D. +E Open Microsoft Explorer.

+ Tab Cycle through open programs through the taskbar. +F Display the Windows Search / Find feature. + CTRL + F Display the search for computers window. + F1 Display the Microsoft Windows help. +R Open the run window. Open the

Alt + Back a page. Alt +  Forward a page. F5 Refresh current page / frame. F11 Display the current website in full screen mode. Pressing F11 again will exit this mode. Esc Stop page or download from loading. Ctrl + Enter Quickly complete an address. Ctrl + N Open New browser window. Ctrl + P Print current page / frame. Spacebar Moves down a page at a time. Shift + Spacebar Moves up a page at a time.

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Ctrl + K Complete the name and/or e-mail being typed in the e-mail address bar. Ctrl + R Reply to an e-mail. Ctrl + F Forward an e-mail. Ctrl + N Create a new e-mail.

+ Pause / Break key system properties window. +U

Open Utility Manager.

+L Lock the computer (Windows XP and above only).


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Starting login: `Logging in' telnet: Connect to another machine logout: `Logging out'

w: ... shows who is logged on and what they're doing finger (emailaddr).. shows more information about a user

 File Commands            emacs: `Using the emacs text editor' mkdir: `Creating a directory' cd: `Changing your current working directory' ls: `Finding out what files you have' cp: `Making a copy of a file' mv: `Changing the name of a file' rm: `Getting rid of unwanted files' chmod: `Controlling access to your files' cmp: Comparing two files wc: Word, line, and character count compress: Compress a file

 Utils     df: .. shows disk space available on the system du: .. shows how much disk space is being used up by folders chmod .............. changes permissions on a file bc: .. a simple calculator

 Compiling   make: compiles source code gcc (file.c) ....... compiles C source into a file named 'a.out'

 Job & Process Control        ps: `Finding your processes' kill: `Killing a process' nohup: Continuing a job after logout nice: Changing the priority of a job &: `What is a background process?' Cntrl-z: Suspending a process fg: `Resuming a suspended process'

 Compression Utils     gzip: best compression for UNIX files zip: . zip for IBM files tar: . combines multiple files into one or viceversa lharc, lzh, lha .... un-arc'ers, may not be on your system

 Communication  e-mail: `Sending and receiving electronic mail' talk: Talk to another user  write: Write messages to another user  sftp: Secure file transfer protocol  Information  man: Manual pages  quota -v: Finding out your available disk space quota  ical: `Using the Ical personal organizer'  finger: Getting information about a user  passwd: Changing your password  who: Finding out who's logged on     Printing lpr: `Printing' lprm: Removing a print job lpq: Checking the print queues

 Conversion Utils   dos2unix (file) (new) - strips CR's out of dos text files unix2dos (file) (new) - adds CR's to unix text files

alias Create an alias awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index break Exit from a loop builtin Run a shell builtin cal Display a calendar case Conditionally perform a command cat Display the contents of a file cd Change Directory cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux chgrp Change group ownership chmod Change access permissions chown Change file owner and group chroot Run a command with a different root directory cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts clear Clear terminal screen cmp Compare two files comm Compare two sorted files line by line command Run a command - ignoring shell functions continue Resume the next iteration of a loop cp Copy one or more files to another location cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

 Finding    grep: search for a string in a file tail: show the last few lines of a file who: . shows who is logged into the local system

cut Divide a file into several parts date Display or change the date & time dc Desk Calculator dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file declare Declare variables and give them attributes df Display free disk space diff Display the differences between two files diff3 Show differences among three files dir Briefly list directory contents dircolors Colour setup for `ls' dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path dirs Display list of remembered directories du Estimate file space usage echo Display message on screen ed A line-oriented text editor (edlin) egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression eject Eject CD-ROM enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands env Display, set, or remove environment variables eval Evaluate several commands/arguments exec Execute a command exit Exit the shell expand Convert tabs to spaces export Set an environment variable expr Evaluate expressions factor Print prime factors fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string find Search for files that meet a desired criteria fmt Reformat paragraph text fold Wrap text to fit a specified width. for Expand words, and execute commands format Format disks or tapes free Display memory usage fsck File system consistency check and repair function Define Function Macros gawk Find and Replace text within file(s) getopts Parse positional parameters grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern groups Print group names a user is in gzip Compress or decompress named file(s) hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument head Output the first part of file(s) history Command History hostname Print or set system name id Print user and group id's if Conditionally perform a command import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file info Help info install Copy files and set attributes join Join lines on a common field kill Stop a process from running less Display output one screen at a time let Perform arithmetic on shell variables ln Make links between files local Create variables locate Find files logname Print current login name logout Exit a login shell look Display lines beginning with a given string lpc Line printer control program lpr Off line print lprint Print a file lprintd Abort a print job lprintq List the print queue lprm Remove jobs from the print queue ls List information about file(s) m4 Macro processor man Help manual mkdir Create new folder(s) mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes) mknod Make block or character special files more Display output one screen at a time mount Mount a file system mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mv Move or rename files or directories nice Set the priority of a command or job nl Number lines and write files nohup Run a command immune to hangups passwd Modify a user password paste Merge lines of files pathchk Check file name portability ping Test a network connection popd Restore the previous value of the current directory pr Prepare files for printing printcap Printer capability database printenv Print environment variables printf Format and print data ps Process status pushd Save and then change the current directory pwd Print Working Directory quota Display disk usage and limits quotachec k Scan a file system for disk usage quotactl Set disk quotas ram ram disk device rcp Copy files between two machines. read read a line from standard input readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly remsync Synchronize remote files via email return Exit a shell function rm Remove files rmdir Remove folder(s) rpm Remote Package Manager rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees) screen Terminal window manager sdiff Merge two files interactively sed Stream Editor select Accept keyboard input seq Print numeric sequences set Manipulate shell variables and functions shift Shift positional parameters shopt Shell Options shutdown Shutdown or restart linux sleep Delay for a specified time sort Sort text files source Run commands from a file `.' split Split a file into fixed-size pieces su Substitute user identity sum Print a checksum for a file symlink Make a new name for a file sync Synchronize data on disk with memory tac Concatenate and write files in reverse tail Output the last part of files tar Tape ARchiver tee Redirect output to multiple files test Evaluate a conditional expression time Measure Program running time times User and system times touch Change file timestamps top List processes running on the system tracerout e Trace Route to Host trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne) tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters tsort Topological sort tty Print filename of terminal on stdin type Describe a command ulimit Limit user resources umask Users file creation mask umount Unmount a device unalias Remove an alias uname Print system information unexpand Convert spaces to tabs uniq Uniquify files units Convert units from one scale to another unset Remove variable or function names unshar Unpack shell archive scripts until Execute commands (until error) useradd Create new user account usermod Modify user account users List users currently logged in uuencode Encode a binary file uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')

vdir vi watch wc whereis which while who whoami xargs yes .period ###

Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b') Text Editor Execute/display a program periodically Print byte, word, and line counts Report all known instances of a command Locate a program file in the user's path. Execute commands Print all usernames currently logged in Print the current user id and name (`id -un') Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s) Print a string until interrupted Run commands from a file Comment / Remark

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Hurdles Traverse Bundle

TEST PLAN OUTLINE 1. Background 2. Introduction (Scope) 3. Assumptions 4. Test Items List each of the items (programs) to be tested. 5. Features to be tested List each of the features (functions or requirements) which will be tested or demonstrated by the test. 6. Features not to be tested Explicitly lists each feature, function, or requirement which won't be tested and why not. 7. Approach Describe the data flows and test philosophy. Simulation or Live execution, Etc. 8. Item Pass/Fail Criteria Blanket statement Itemized list of expected output and tolerances 9. Suspension/Resumption Criteria Must the test run from start to completion? Under what circumstances may it be resumed in the middle? Establish check-points in long tests. 10. Test Deliverables What, besides software, will be delivered? Test report Test software 11. Testing Tasks Functional tasks (e.g., equipment set up) Administrative tasks 12. Environmental Needs Security clearance Office space & equipment Hardware/software requirements 13. Responsibilities Who does the tasks in Section 10? What does the user do? 14. Staff and Training 15. Schedule 16. Resources 17. Risks and Contingencies 18. Approvals

Software Design Specification Outline    Introduction System Overview Design Considerations • Assumptions and Dependencies • General Constraints • Goals and Guidelines • Development Methods Architectural Strategies • strategy-1 name or description • strategy-2 name or description System Architecture • component-1 name or description • component-2 name or description Policies and Tactics • policy/tactic-1 name or description • policy/tactic-2 name or description Detailed System Design • module-1 name or description • module-2 name or description Glossary Bibliography

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More TECH KEYWORDS                     Kick-start Embark, Commence Executing Dispatch Hinge Underpinnings Instant Lightweight Apparatus Instrumentation Mechanism Retrofit Retreat Compute Hack / Tweak Flush Drain Draw – draw down Marshal – marshal data Propagate