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Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by
sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo
>ipconfig [/all] [/renew [Adapter]] [/release
Request messages.
[Adapter]] [/flushdns] [/displaydns] [/registerdns]
>control admintools [/showclassid Adapter] [/setclassid Adapter
/all : Displays the full TCP/IP configuration for all adapters.

> devmgmt.msc /renew [Adapter] : Renews DHCP configuration for all

adapters (if an adapter is not specified) or for a specific
>eventvwr.msc (or just eventvwr) adapter if the Adapter parameter is included.

/release [Adapter] : Sends a DHCPRELEASE message to the

>systeminfo DHCP server to release the current DHCP configuration and
Displays detailed configuration information about a computer discard the IP address configuration
and its operating system, including operating system
configuration, security information, product ID, and hardware /flushdns : Flushes and resets the contents of the DNS client
properties, such as RAM, disk space, and network cards. resolver cache.

>msconfig /displaydns : Displays the contents of the DNS client

resolver cache, which includes both entries preloaded from
the local Hosts file and any recently obtained resource
>hostname records for name queries resolved by the computer.
Displays the host name portion of the full computer name of
the computer. /registerdns : Initiates manual dynamic registration for the
DNS names and IP addresses that are configured at a
>drwtsn32 computer.
Dr Watson diagnostics /showclassid Adapter : Displays the DHCP class ID for a
specified adapter.
Run >eventvwr
or /setclassid Adapter [ClassID] : Configures the DHCP class ID
for a specified adapter.
mmc.exe X:\WINDOWS\system32\eventvwr.msc
Event Viewer >tracert [-d] [-h MaximumHops] [-j HostList] [-w
Timeout] [TargetName]
>perfmon.exe [file_name]
[/HTMLFILE:converted_file settings_file] Determines the path taken to a destination by sending
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request
Allows you to open a Windows XP Performance console messages to the destination with incrementally increasing
configured with settings files from Windows NT 4.0 version Time to Live (TTL) field values.
of Performance Monitor.
>netstat [-a] [-e] [-n] [-o] [-p Protocol] [-r] [-s]
>regsvr32 [/u] [/s] [/n] [/i[:cmdline]] dllname [Interval]
/u : Unregisters server. Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the
computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing
/s : Specifies regsvr32 to run silently and to not display any table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP
message boxes. protocols), and IPv6 statistics

/n : Specifies not to call DllRegisterServer. You must use this

-a : Displays all active TCP connections and the TCP and
option with /i.
UDP ports on which the computer is listening.
/i:cmdline : Calls DllInstall passing it an optional [cmdline].
When used with /u, it calls dll uninstall. -e : Displays Ethernet statistics, such as the number of
bytes and packets sent and received. This parameter can
dllname : Specifies the name of the dll file that will be be combined with -s.
-n : Displays active TCP connections, however, addresses
and port numbers are expressed numerically and no
attempt is made to determine names.


Displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain

Name System (DNS) infrastructure. Before using this tool,
you should be familiar with how DNS works. The Nslookup
command-line tool is available only if you have installed the
TCP/IP protocol.
This generates a summary of the user settings
WIN XP/2K COMMANDS and computer group policy settings.

at (windows XP/2000) gpupdate (XP only)

Scheduling utility. Use this utility to manually apply computer and
user policy from your windows 2000 (or newer)
bootcfg (XP only) domain.
This utility allows you to set up your boot options,
such as your default OS and other loading MMC (XP, 2000 & NT4.0) - Microsoft
options. Management Console
This is the master tool for Windows, it is the main
cacls (XP, 2000, & NT4.0) interface in which all other tools use starting
Changes the ACLs (security Settings) of files and primarily in Windows 2000 and newer systems.
folders. Very similar to chmod in Linux.
comp (XP & 2000) Utility used to display text output one screen at a
This utility is very similar to diff in Linux. Use the time. Ex. more c:\windows\win.ini
/? switch to get examples of command usage.
msconfig (XP only)
contig (works with NT4.0 and newer) The ultimate tool to change the services and
A great defrag utility for NTFS partitions. utilities that start when your Windows machine
boots up. You can also copy the executable from
control (XP only) - unpublished! XP and use it in Win2k.
Allows you to launch control panel applets from
the command line. msinfo32 (XP &smp; 2000)
An awesome diagnostic tool. With it you can get a
control userpasswords2, for example will list of running processes, including the residing
launch a helpful local user admin utility. path of the executable (great for manually
removing malware) and get detailed information
defrag (XP only - NT4.0 and Win2k use about hardware and system diagnostics.
If you are running Win2k or NT4.0 there is still narrator (XP only)
hope. Contig is a free defrag program that I Turns on the system narrator (can also be found
describe on the defrag page. in accessibility options in control panel). Will will
allow your computer to dictate text to you.
diskpart (XP only) netsh (XP & 2000)
Use this command to manage your disk A network configuration tool console. At the
partitions. This is the text version for the GUI 'netsh>' prompt, use the '?' to list the available
Disk Manager. commands and type "exit" to get back to a
driverquery (XP only) command prompt.
Produces a list of drivers, their properties, and
their versions. Great for computer nslookup (all)
documentation. A DNS name resolution tool.

eudcedit (XP only) -unpublished! openfiles (XP Only)

Private Character editor. Yes with this program Allows an administrator to display or disconnect
built into Windows XP you can create your own open files in XP professional. Type "openfiles /?"
font! for a list of possible parameters.

findstr Pathping (XP & 2000)

Find String - similar to Linux's Grep. A cross between the ping and traceroute utilities.
Who needs Neotrace when you can use this? Type
fsutil (XP only) - unpublished! "pathping <ip address>" and watch it go.
This is a utility with a lot of capability. Come back
soon for great examples. recover (XP & 2000)
This command can recover readable information
getmac (XP & 2000) from a damaged disk and is very easy to use.
This command gets the Media Access Control
(MAC) address of your network cards. reg (XP & 2000)
A console registry tool, great for scripting
gpresult (XP & 2000) Registry edits.
sc (XP & 2000) Taskkill contains the rest of the task manager
A command line utility called the Service functionality. It allows you to kill those unneeded
Controller. A power tool to make service changes or locked up applications.
via a logon/logoff or startup/shutdown script.
tree (XP & 2000)
schtasks (XP only) An amazing experience everyone should try! This
A newer version of the AT command. This allows command will provide a 'family tree' style display
an administrator to schedule and manage of the drive/folder you specify.
scheduled tasks on a local and remote machines.

secedit (XP & 2000)

Use this utility to manually apply computer and WMIC (XP & 2000)
user policy from your windows 2000 (or newer) Windows Management Instrumentation Command
domain. Example to update the machine policy: tool. This allows you to pull an amazing amount
secedit /refreshpolicy of low-level system information from a command
line scripting interface.
machine_policy /enforce
To view help on this, just type secedit. BASIC SHORTCUTS
NOTE: In Windows XP SP1 and news, this
command is superceded by: gpupdate /force Alt + F File menu options in current
sfc (XP & 2000) Alt + E Edit options in current
The system file checker scans important system program
files and replaces the ones you (or your F1 Universal Help in almost ever Windows
applications) hacked beyond repair with the real, program.
official Microsoft versions. Ctrl + A Select all text.
Ctrl + X Cut selected item.
Shift + Del Cut selected item.
shutdown (XP & 2000)
Ctrl + C Copy selected item.
With this tool, You can shut down or restart your
Ctrl + Ins Copy selected item
own computer, or an administrator can shut down
Ctrl + V Paste
or restart a remote computer.
Shift + Ins Paste
Home Goes to beginning of current line.
sigverif (XP only)
Ctrl + Home Goes to beginning of document.
Microsoft has created driver signatures. A signed
End Goes to end of current line.
driver is Microsoft tested and approved. With the
Ctrl + End Goes to end of document.
sigverif tool you can have all driver files analyzed
Shift + Home Highlights from current position to
to verify that they are digitally signed. Just type beginning of line.
'sigverif' at the command prompt. Shift + End Highlights from current position to end of
systeminfo (XP only) Ctrl + Moves one word to the left
Basic system configuration information, such as at a time.
the system type, the processor type, time zone, Ctrl +  Moves one word to the right
virtual memory settings, system uptime, and at a time.
much more. This program is great for creating an
inventory of computers on your network. CONTROL PANEL QUICK KEYS

sysedit (XP/2000)  Accessibility Options control access.cpl

System Configuration File Editor. An old tool that  Add New Hardware control sysdm.cpl
was very handy for the Windows 9X days. add new hardware
msconfig is what you want to use now.  Add/Remove Programs control
tasklist (XP pro only)  Date/Time Properties control timedate.cpl
Tasklist is the command console equivalent to the  Display Properties control desk.cpl
task manager in windows. It is a must have when  FindFast control
fighting scumware and viruses. Try the command: findfast.cpl
 Fonts Folder control fonts
tasklist /svc  Internet Properties control inetcpl.cpl
to view the memory resources your services take  Joystick Properties control joy.cpl
 Keyboard Properties control main.cpl
taskkill (XP only)  Microsoft Exchange control mlcfg32.cpl
 (or Windows Messaging)
 Microsoft Mail Post Office control wgpocpl.cpl
 Modem Properties control modem.cpl
 Mouse Properties control main.cpl
 Multimedia Properties control mmsys.cpl
 Network Properties control netcpl.cpl

NOTE: In Windows NT 4.0, Network properties is

Ncpa.cpl, not Netcpl.cpl

 Password Properties control

 Power Management (Windows 95) control
main.cpl power
 Power Management (Windows 98) control
 Printers Folder control
 Regional Settings control intl.cpl
 Scanners and Cameras control
 Sound Properties control mmsys.cpl
 System Properties control sysdm.cpl

Alt + Back a page.

+D Brings the desktop to the top
of all other windows. Alt +  Forward a page.
F5 Refresh current page / frame.
F11 Display the current website in full
+M Minimizes all windows. screen mode. Pressing F11 again will
exit this mode.
Esc Stop page or download from
+ SHIFT + M Undo the loading.
minimize done by Ctrl + Enter Quickly complete an
+ M and WINKEY + D. Ctrl + N Open New browser window.
Ctrl + P Print current page / frame.
Spacebar Moves down a page at a
+E Open Microsoft Explorer. time.
Shift + Spacebar Moves up a page
+ Tab Cycle through open programs at a time.
through the taskbar.

+F Display the Windows Search /  Ctrl + K Complete the name

Find feature. and/or e-mail being typed in the e-mail
address bar.
 Ctrl + R Reply to an e-mail.
+ CTRL + F Display the search for  Ctrl + F Forward an e-mail.
computers window.  Ctrl + N Create a new e-mail.

+ F1 Display the Microsoft

Windows help.

+R Open the run window.

+ Pause / Break key Open the

system properties window.

+U Open Utility Manager.

+L Lock the computer (Windows

XP and above only).
 w: ... shows who is logged on and what
UNIX COMMANDS they're doing
 finger (emailaddr).. shows more information
 Starting about a user
 login: `Logging in'
 telnet: Connect to another machine
 logout: `Logging out'

 File Commands  Utils

 emacs: `Using the emacs text editor'  df: .. shows disk space available on the
 mkdir: `Creating a directory' system
 cd: `Changing your current working directory'  du: .. shows how much disk space is being
 ls: `Finding out what files you have' used up by folders
 cp: `Making a copy of a file'  chmod .............. changes permissions on a
 mv: `Changing the name of a file' file
 rm: `Getting rid of unwanted files'  bc: .. a simple calculator
 chmod: `Controlling access to your files'
 cmp: Comparing two files  Compiling
 wc: Word, line, and character count
 compress: Compress a file  make: compiles source code
 gcc (file.c) ....... compiles C source into a file
 Job & Process Control named 'a.out'

 ps: `Finding your processes'  Compression Utils

 kill: `Killing a process'
 gzip: best compression for UNIX files
 nohup: Continuing a job after logout
 zip: . zip for IBM files
 nice: Changing the priority of a job
 tar: . combines multiple files into one or vice-
 &: `What is a background process?'
 Cntrl-z: Suspending a process
 lharc, lzh, lha .... un-arc'ers, may not be on
 fg: `Resuming a suspended process'
your system
 Communication
 Conversion Utils
 e-mail: `Sending and receiving electronic
mail' talk: Talk to another user
 dos2unix (file) (new) - strips CR's out of dos
 write: Write messages to another user text files
 sftp: Secure file transfer protocol  unix2dos (file) (new) - adds CR's to unix text
 Information
 man: Manual pages
 quota -v: Finding out your available disk LINUX COMMANDS
space quota
 ical: `Using the Ical personal organizer' alias Create an alias
awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
 finger: Getting information about a user
break Exit from a loop
 passwd: Changing your password builtin Run a shell builtin
 who: Finding out who's logged on cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command
cat Display the contents of a file
 Printing cd Change Directory
 lpr: `Printing' cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
chgrp Change group ownership
 lprm: Removing a print job chmod Change access permissions
 lpq: Checking the print queues chown Change file owner and group
chroot Run a command with a different root directory
cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
 Finding clear Clear terminal screen
cmp Compare two files
 grep: search for a string in a file comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
 tail: show the last few lines of a file
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
 who: . shows who is logged into the local cp Copy one or more files to another location
system cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
cut Divide a file into several parts mv Move or rename files or directories
date Display or change the date & time nice Set the priority of a command or job
dc Desk Calculator nl Number lines and write files
dd Data Dump - Convert and copy a file nohup Run a command immune to hangups
declare Declare variables and give them attributes passwd Modify a user password
df Display free disk space paste Merge lines of files
diff Display the differences between two files pathchk Check file name portability
diff3 Show differences among three files ping Test a network connection
dir Briefly list directory contents popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
dircolors Colour setup for `ls' pr Prepare files for printing
dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path printcap Printer capability database
dirs Display list of remembered directories printenv Print environment variables
du Estimate file space usage printf Format and print data
echo Display message on screen ps Process status
ed A line-oriented text editor (edlin) pushd Save and then change the current directory
egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended pwd Print Working Directory
expression quota Display disk usage and limits
eject Eject CD-ROM quotachec k Scan a file system for disk usage
enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands quotactl Set disk quotas
env Display, set, or remove environment variables ram ram disk device
eval Evaluate several commands/arguments rcp Copy files between two machines.
exec Execute a command read read a line from standard input
exit Exit the shell readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
expand Convert tabs to spaces remsync Synchronize remote files via email
export Set an environment variable return Exit a shell function
expr Evaluate expressions rm Remove files
factor Print prime factors rmdir Remove folder(s)
fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk rpm Remote Package Manager
fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string screen Terminal window manager
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria sdiff Merge two files interactively
fmt Reformat paragraph text sed Stream Editor
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width. select Accept keyboard input
for Expand words, and execute commands seq Print numeric sequences
format Format disks or tapes set Manipulate shell variables and functions
free Display memory usage shift Shift positional parameters
fsck File system consistency check and repair shopt Shell Options
function Define Function Macros shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
gawk Find and Replace text within file(s) sleep Delay for a specified time
getopts Parse positional parameters sort Sort text files
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern source Run commands from a file `.'
groups Print group names a user is in split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s) su Substitute user identity
hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument sum Print a checksum for a file
head Output the first part of file(s) symlink Make a new name for a file
history Command History sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
hostname Print or set system name tac Concatenate and write files in reverse
id Print user and group id's tail Output the last part of files
if Conditionally perform a command tar Tape ARchiver
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to tee Redirect output to multiple files
file test Evaluate a conditional expression
info Help info time Measure Program running time
install Copy files and set attributes times User and system times
join Join lines on a common field touch Change file timestamps
kill Stop a process from running top List processes running on the system
less Display output one screen at a time tracerout e Trace Route to Host
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
ln Make links between files tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
local Create variables tsort Topological sort
locate Find files tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
logname Print current login name type Describe a command
logout Exit a login shell ulimit Limit user resources
look Display lines beginning with a given string umask Users file creation mask
lpc Line printer control program umount Unmount a device
lpr Off line print unalias Remove an alias
lprint Print a file uname Print system information
lprintd Abort a print job unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
lprintq List the print queue uniq Uniquify files
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue units Convert units from one scale to another
ls List information about file(s) unset Remove variable or function names
m4 Macro processor unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
man Help manual until Execute commands (until error)
mkdir Create new folder(s) useradd Create new user account
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes) usermod Modify user account
mknod Make block or character special files users List users currently logged in
more Display output one screen at a time uuencode Encode a binary file
mount Mount a file system uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')  Hurdles
vi Text Editor
watch Execute/display a program periodically  Traverse
wc Print byte, word, and line counts  Bundle
whereis Report all known instances of a command
which Locate a program file in the user's path.
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s) TEST PLAN OUTLINE
yes Print a string until interrupted
.period Run commands from a file
### Comment / Remark 1. Background
2. Introduction (Scope)
3. Assumptions
Software Design Specification Outline 4. Test Items
List each of the items (programs) to be tested.
 Introduction 5. Features to be tested
 System Overview List each of the features (functions or
 Design Considerations requirements) which will be tested or
• Assumptions and Dependencies demonstrated by the test.
• General Constraints 6. Features not to be tested
Explicitly lists each feature, function, or
• Goals and Guidelines
requirement which won't be tested and why not.
• Development Methods 7. Approach
 Architectural Strategies Describe the data flows and test philosophy.
• strategy-1 name or description Simulation or Live execution, Etc.
• strategy-2 name or description 8. Item Pass/Fail Criteria Blanket statement
 System Architecture Itemized list of expected output and
• component-1 name or description tolerances
• component-2 name or description 9. Suspension/Resumption Criteria
 Policies and Tactics Must the test run from start to completion?
Under what circumstances may it be resumed
• policy/tactic-1 name or description
in the middle?
• policy/tactic-2 name or description Establish check-points in long tests.
 Detailed System Design 10. Test Deliverables
• module-1 name or description What, besides software, will be delivered?
• module-2 name or description Test report
 Glossary Test software
 Bibliography 11. Testing Tasks
Functional tasks (e.g., equipment set up)
Administrative tasks
More TECH KEYWORDS 12. Environmental Needs
Security clearance
 Kick-start Office space & equipment
 Embark, Commence Hardware/software requirements
 Executing 13. Responsibilities
 Dispatch Who does the tasks in Section 10?
 Hinge What does the user do?
 Underpinnings 14. Staff and Training
 Instant 15. Schedule
 Lightweight 16. Resources
 Apparatus 17. Risks and Contingencies
18. Approvals
 Instrumentation
 Mechanism
 Retrofit
 Retreat
 Compute
 Hack / Tweak
 Flush
 Drain
 Draw – draw down
 Marshal – marshal data
 Propagate