Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
You, too, can be a Human Calculator, you're doing. This is the message when you KNOW, BELIEVE, and LOVE what
that you will hear in my audiocassette, Calculating, which I introduced about numbers, memory,
The Human Calculator
fll!£. 11 is the Math,
message I have taken across the United Slates and Canada for the past several years. in my book, The Magic of practice, and creativity.
The five keys to Human
are undentanding numbers.thmking
Igive you this workbook SO that you can use those keysthinking, memory, practice, creativity and understandin g nu mbers, Remember: it's o.k, to be wrong. The important thing is to 10'.. Even though the strategies I wi LI show you are simple to learn and use, you can't expect to hear them once and then
work them like magic. Practice builds your confidence. it. Once you get 10 KNOW what you are doing, you will come to LOVE
Copyright 1992 by Scott Flansburg and Youth Eoterprises, Inc, All rights reserved.
7898 East Acoma Drive, Suite 100
Youth Enterprises.
Inc.
Scottsdale, Arizona 85260
Contents Introduction I. Review of Basics
LI Place values Addition Subtracrion.. Box Multiplication Right to Left Multiplication Left to right Multiplication Complementary Multiplication Division Squaring Cube Roots Calendar Formula I
1.2
2
. 6 8 13 16
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8
1.7
19
. . 21 26
1..9 1.10
1.11
24
28
2. In More Detail: 2.2 2.3
3. Fractions 3.1 3.2 3.3 2.1 Subtraction in More Detail Division in More Detail................. Squaring in More Detail.... 30 . ..
32 35
3.4
3.5
Adding Fractions Subtracting Fractions Multiplying Fractions Dividing fractions Mixed numbers
.
37 41 44 .47 49
4. Decimals 4.1
4.2 4.3
4.4
Decimal Fractions Adding and Subtracting Multiplying.. Dividing
50
. . 52 54 55
5. Percentages 5.1 5.2 6. Algebra 6.1
Percentages and Fractions Worki n g with Percentages
.. .
..... 57 ..... 59
6.2
6.4
6.5
6.6 6.7
6.3
Learning to "Speak Algebra" Nine Easy Steps to Algebra Keeping Equations in Balance................. Adding with Algebra Subtracting with Algebra Multiplying with Algebra Dividing with Algebra ..
. . ..
... 71 73
61 64 66 69 70
l.l Place
Values
Here's How to Do It
'We write numbers in Arabic numerals, reading from Lef. to right. Each figure in a number has a ~ Place: 'Values tell how many ones, how many tees, how many hundreds. how man.y thousands, and so.fonh represents.
~,.
a number
Look at the number 12. This is the same as 10 plus 2. nr 1 and 2 ones. The figure that tell, how many ten ones are in 12 is called the "units" or vones" digit The figure that tells how many lens are in 12Js called the "lens"
digit.
_...12,
lens d.igil units digi
t
Let's exam; ne a larger number: 2,458. It has 8 ones or units, 5 lens. 4 hundreds, and 2 thoesands. tho'~d/undred5
/\ones tens
This applies to any n umber, no matter how large. Place values go LV!hi:sorder, from right ones lens
hundreds
1Q
2.458
left:
thousands
ten thousands
hundred thousands millions
len millions
hundred milllona billions .... and so fOM This way of looking al numbers wiU prove useful, Practice l;hiuJting nbO'Ulnumbers in these terms,
Now You Can Do It
Identify the digiti in these
42,876 has 4 278
fi
I,II'OMI"S.
Here's an example:
len thousands, 2 thousands, 8 hundreds, 7 tens. and {1 units, 35,892
SO
5
007
333
'n7
$78
9.081,320
360" 87,256
7,802 2001
1,244
341,245 July 21 5'2" 16.252.110
Route 66
761TOO\OO"'" 8 million
10 1 dalmations 3.898.245.762
2.112.211
1.2 AddJdo!l
Here's How to Do It
In school. you have probably learned io tackle "" addition problem by starting with the ro rs, column on 462 231
ill
With ~his method, you begin fI.:ddingthe units d~gil:;.....,[he figures On ihe far right ora number. In this case.you would
add 2. 1 and 6 ro gel ,,' ihe units: digit in the answer. Then ,you work witb the tens digHs:
462
231
:ill
9
I in 11 as the [ens dlglt
Your next step wou.ld be to add 6, 3, aed 2. for n sum of 11. You would write the righthand j,n the answer and then move [0 chc hundreds digits: I
462 231 ;W 19
You would carry 'he lef\ttand I in II to the hundreds column and add \.4.3, and 2 '0 gel the
fl rs , two numoe rs of
me,answer: 10.
I 462
1019
That'S one, 'Way to work addition. Some people feel it makes more sense 10 add in the same direction fact. this is so easy you can .add long (:01umns, of nombers in yOU! bead. Wc'U try it Out on a simple problem.
~
231
mat we read: from left toright.
In
25 12 31
Start with [he tens dlglts on (he left: 2 and 1 is 3, p.hJs.3 iso. To help us rememberthat these arc lW) we witi mark the place val ue tho!' we're not us i ng j"" now w uh a 0 in parentheses: 2(0)'" 1(0)'" 3(0) = 6(0),
15 12 31
6(0)
2
No"", 6(0) is your hDS§ number,
It will change as we move through lb. problem,
In your mind.keep
track
of each chang. lb. bast number makesswhen you reach the end. lb. base number changes into the answer' Move ovee to lb. uni rs column, ThJnJ(, 6(0) and 5 is 65.; plus 2 is 67; plus I is 68. And lIl.t 's the answer, 2,
12
II
68
What if
you have to "carry". number, as we did in the •• ample for nghirolcft first set of numbers; using this new method.:
462 2.31
addition?
Let', add Our
m
~ S!3It On th.lefi, wilb the hundred, we will mark the place values that 4(00) 2(00) digits, 4 plus 2 is 6, plus 3 i.9. To help us remember Ib at these a", we'", no' using wuh 0" like this: 4(00) plus 2(00) plus 3(00) is 9(00).
:Y.OQl
9(00) 9(00) i.s the base Now start adding is 101(0). 46(0) 23(0) 6(0)
DijlDber. Remember to keep track of j. in your mjnd, .he tens digits to the bast number: 9(00) and 6(0) is 96(0). pi us 3(0) is 99(0). plu, 2(0)
101(0)
.1Wl
or,
101(0)+
3(0)
____l(Q)
101(0)
finally, we add 00 lb. units digits: 101(0) plus 2 is 1012. plus I is 1013, ptus 6 is 1019. We arrived at the answer in seconds. without having (0 write down the steps.
462 231
2 or, 101(0) +
I ___Ji 1019
1619
m
3
Now You Can Do It
Try lefttoright 32 ±..M 23
addition On these
exercises. 86 ±...l.2
28
:U.l
92
~
43
~
95
~
LM
146 27]
±..m
136
±m
358
±.l1l. 48
25
~
1,243 2.345
26 16
55 13
98
71
II
2.576
H
29 33 28
2:t
8,703 2,%1
~
308 522
!..ill.
~
22
:w
9,272 5,498 27
2.309
§.ill.
124 15 32 17
286
399 II 51J7
567
400
1'>54
4,365 212
2,860 J.I16
],125
754 _.18.
12
225
124 221
.us.
234
116 214
36
ill
516
:zm
348 223 117
1.397 5,276
237 132
ill
7,865 24 1,%3
ill
546
137 2,176
ill:
8,113 7,125 8,999
us
9,080 207
125 243 121
ill
232
8
4,047
1,765
.i.2ll.
...1£l
.i2lM
845 432
.l..J.2J
615 348 432
.ill
287 164 352 )11
486 243
121
615 142 352
246
ill
ill
ill.
'!M.
4
6
36 62
90
12 32 56
12 42 68 96 16 38 60
18 48 72
102
78
48
24 52
18 42
40 22 68
M
258 192 468
II
3'16 268 515
.sa
789 456 123
64
30 56 84 8 26 52 72
2§
2<:
3GB
412
472
m
22+32+14+12+6= 4+ 10 .. 5 .. 6+]= 185 + 220" 432+661 = III +236+312=
618
256 382
ill.
:Ml!
ill
ill
1.416 2.315 1.174
2,285 3,214 1.416
4,685 3.219
3,207
3.615 4,408 5.1:21
J.l.lJ
652+ 181 +203: 1.213 + 2.114 + 2.002 = 2.222" 37 + 390" 563 .. 248+211 7.432 + 8.965 + 28 + 437
2..l.ll
l...l±8
lIJ.ll
=
=
4.287 2.486 2,823 7,141 5,276 3.567 26,812
6,231 1.345 4.021 ;UU
.l1.lli
.ul!1.
2.ill
2+4+6+8" 21 +42 +84 + 168 .. 336" 651 + 1,302+2.604+5,208+ 10,416 + 1,151 + 895 + 36" 22+44+66+88=
1.736=
5
1.3 Su htmtllon
Here's How to Do It
SUblJ1lClion. is really addinjJ in rewrso,
takeaway 8 is what?" Instead, ask yo",,",lf
When someone what numbe .. ~
ask.
you, "What is 14 minus 8," don't think, "14
makes 14,
The answer
j s 6.
V iSllaliu
it like this~
14
:.J!
6
(Think: 100,
6 and 8 make 14)
I'll is works for larger numbers, 199
Try it on 199 mi nus lSI:
:.ill
Workfrom lefllo right, Think: "IOOp!usOmake.IOO, The answer mustbe ress than 100," Go IQ the I.nseolu"",: S(O) plus 4(0) make, 9(0). The Ii,,;! di Si tin your bas. number is 4(0), Now look at the units: I plus 8 makes nine, Add thot to 4(0) to get Ih~ ....... er: 48, 199
:.ill
48 (Thin_k:
S(O) plus whal makes 9(0)1 1 plus what makes 97)
In
That's easy, BUI what happens when you bave 10 borrow? Rent.ember the meaning of~. • ollmberlil<e7l, Icrexarnple, you have 1 'COSand ) unit. This is really rhesarn.i.6,ens and II uni, s. Why? II is reaily I ton and I unit. Now ters .ublroc' 53 from 71.
Because
11
ill
A.t a glance, we see that the three in the units column 6(0) and I I, and think 5:3 as 5(0) and J, Visu"lilt;:
or
is larger than the 1 above it. So, in
yotl1
mlnd convert ? I to
6(01 and II _ SCQ) and 3
Tho rest is easy. Mk youl"$Clr Ille same questions: woo< ,umber added added 10 J makes II'! That'$ II. Combine til c two: 1(0) + 8 = 18, 6(0) and II  SCOlapd 1(0) 71 :3 II
10
S(O) makes
6(0)1 It's 1(0), And whar
1(0)
:Ll!
I8
ill
18
Thesnswerl
6
Now You Can Do It
What number 18 ,___6 added to the bottom number makes the top number? 199
~
26
=...Mll 37
~
54
~
75
92
28
656
829
:..2l
153
:...l1
14
=.l!!
.:..!.!2
60 :M
896
.o.ill.
33
o..H
:....8.
376
~
22
.o..ll
762
~
670
:...ill.
47
109 o..ll
:...li1
;;.lli 89
~
96
=..l2.
~
26
~
58
:..ll
~
62
~
77
~
43
332
:.lll
:om
898
518
277 =..ill
SS6
918
249
:Jfll
754
.:.ill
129
~
304
:..W
649 .:.l§lj 1,063
:..ill
242
:.M2
456
=...:J1.
973 .o.lli_ 505
:...l.(ijl
o..ill
987 :.1I1
~
692
o...lli
:....2&l.
9.875
~
578
~
263
~
563
~. 865
~ ~
999
~ ~ ~
876
~1
231
=.ill_
:..ill
:..l2B.
7,986
),456
2,765
~
9,754
5,809
.±ill
4,864
:..hl22
3.987
4,986
3,876
9,765
:.lJl1!i
6,054
=.225:
=U!.i
:.lJ.®
4,957 :.l.OOl_ 2,926
3,746
=.l.lli ,__m_
9,135
.o.l.2.U
~
9,234
~ ~
3.967
~
8,[57
2.875
5.455
::..l..m
o22l2
7
1.4 Box MulllpUcaUoll
Here's How 10Do It.
Here's 3 way to multiply Ib',t makes you feel like you're working. crossword puzzle. Say you want to multiply 24. 12. Fi .. t. <!raw.!xlx ODddivide it into Iaur squares. one for each of the four digilS in the problem. Now. wri I. the first numbcc along the lop, with the left digit over Ihe Ion box, "fld Ute .ighl digit over I,ho righi, 00<, Then write thesecond number down tile right side, with lite r,r" (10.') digil on top and lhe SIlOOnd (units) digi. On the bottom, Finally, divide each of !tie foo' little boxes in half dlagcnally. Stop I SIcp2
2
4
2
Now you multi ply around the box. entering each answer in the tQP and bottom hal v es of the boxes you have
made, Unit< digi" go in the bouom triangles. and tens digilS go inlo the top triangles. Starling at the top righi, 4 x 1 ;;;;.4, That's; a unit with nolens. SO you put it il'llhe lowetlriangle of Ihc 4 X I box. Drop down to the box below it and multiply 4 x 2 ~ 8. Put the 8 in the lower lrionsle of that bo x. Next. move over to Ilte 2 in 24. and multiply
2 x I = 2. Put that 2 in lite lower triangle of us 00'.
And IOSI, multiply 2 x 2 ~ 4. Put the 4 in ilS lower mangle.
2
Now we are going to add the numbers in our oo'!Iili.&WlaIlx. starti ng wirh rho lower righthand bo1. There', no.hing to add to 8, so just write (ha! below its box. In the next row up, starting with the lower tria_ngleon the bottom
8
left, 4 + ~ = 8, Write til., beneath its box, The only number in the nex' row, wh lch starts with tile u PP'" !liangJe on 'he bottom left. is a 2. Write it next to the box. In the I.. t row, which consists ",lly of the upper lefthand !liangl e,
!here are no ligures,
To see the answer, reed off
die new outside figures. go.ng from upper left to lower right: 288
Sometimes when you multiply the digits around me outside. you gel 3D answer that has~, lo that case, you pur the answer' s tens digit in the1Qg:triangleoflts box. and the units digit in the .l.2.w«triangle. Porexarnpte.
II}'
multiplying
13 x 14,
tn its
llj)3[
numbers
Multiply around the outside: 3 x I ,,3. Put ibat 3 in us lower triangte. h,4 = 12, Put the tons digi', 1(0). !liangle, and put tbe units digit. 2. In its ~ triangle. Now multiplY I .4" 4 and I x I " I: put those in their triangles.
9
Now all you have. to do is add and read the answer.
4
13xI4=182 Sometimes adding. when
yOll
are adding the numbers .•you get a twodigit answer.
This happens
when you mul'.ply
34 X 23. for example. In that case, write me answer's tens digit in the triangle just above the last number you're
Then add the tens diglt in that row.
3
Starting On rile upper right. 4 x 2 ;;;;; Put this onedigit answer in 8. lower triangle of its box. ext. 4 x 3 = 12. Put the ten, digit. 1(0) iry lis lop triangle and the units digit. 2. in its bottom triangle. Finally. 3 X 3= 9. which you put in us bottom triangle, Now add dlagenaljy.just as you <lid in lbe Ilrstexamplc. When you gene 9+ 1+8.lhesum is 18. Write the 8 outside the box and carry the I (which is aWJ.li digit) into the ten' triangle above the9. Add the Ito the 6. write the answer (1) outside the box. and read the answer: 782
me
10
Doe, box multiplication wori< OD larger numbers? Sure. It work' on number' Ora"y sue, Try 345 x 27:
2
7
345 x 27 = 9,315
11
Now You Can Do It.
Try box multiplication on these problems
11 12 10 12 14
lI..ll
14
lI..ll
12
ill
15
ill
21
ill
31
W
2.4
ill
43
ill
19
ill
16
ill
,8
&J.§ 62
x..l2
35
ill
29
ill
65 &.ll 153
ill
47
ill
123
Lti
&.12
311 &..ll 254
lJ1
424
ill
565
xu
912
215
ll..ll
763
ill
888
..usi
401
ill
298
lI.1Q
767
ill
248
&..!&
S99
.J..1lI.
278
1.&
912
.01
115
ill
511
&..lIZ
362
a...l.l.J
.J..2..IJi
256
&.ill
&..ill.
661
.ul!
~
965
U2.Ci
um
999
861
4l2ll
555
~
993
222
lLlll
1,112
~
777
444
Ul.i
4.121
aii
3,213
&.Salt
1,422
Uli
2,315
2.214 &..ll 5,126
ill
7,891
llZl.
1.452
ll..ll
3,261
ill
1.,110
L2.2
1,901
I!.M
8.883
A.22
1,599
ill
1.627
U2
1,897
.l.J.li
~
:UU
2.493
~
il12
4,679
.uu
9.185
7,358
1.276
1,857
lIM:i
8,894
&..ill
2,()()2
3.lO.2
8,176
r...1ll2
~
&.l211
llill
U2ll
12
I.S Riglllt.<>LtfI Cross.MultipiJcotioll
Here's How 10 Do It
I.. g e.problems in t""' head. YO\J m!JU:ipiy 14 x 12.
C;,,;ss.multiplying is a 'tralegy Ihat 01]0"'" you 10 solve ,u'P,i$,;ngly can go right to left, or len to righ,. Let'S sian with dghl.!.Olefi {7Wss·mn1rjpli£lttiQg Say we, want 1.0 14
ill
To lind <he last digit (unhs digit) i.. <he answer •.multiply!he thi' (0. holdit in your head) as the answer's units digi r,
14 two
numbers on the nghl: 2. 4 ~ 8 IVn«
ill
8
To find the middle.digit, we crossmultiply two sets of numbers. ""d add t~ resuns, Firs' multiply 1 x 2 (tho answer Is 2). Tbenmuluply 4 x I (<he answer is 4). Add the ewe resul.. toget .... tens dig;' in ,he p.",blenf, ,nSwer (2 + 4 " 6).
.14
ill 68
To ~ nd (he final di gil_whioh
~
14
• I ~ I. Writo it oown in the hundred.
14
in this problem is .... bu!ldred.s diGi,~j"st <01umn.
multiply theleftmost
digit,:
ill 168
Thi,easy ,tro'.cgy gel' even easier wllb practice. WI,., if eros sr nul(iplying and adding resuns in atwodi gi I. number? Let's see w!>at happen'.
Stan
on the right: 2 x 2 " 4. the uni .. digit in Ine
"",wer.
~
pUI
62
4
Now oms.,.multiply and add the ,.,ul(S' 2 x I = 2. and 6 x 2" 12. Notice In" 2·+ 12 ~ 14. We can', 14 in the middlo of !he aoswer, But we ",,",em.ber thai the digit we're looking for ln the m iodle is a.1I:I1£ digi,. And actually. when WOOIO<'H,,"I'iply. we're .multiplyin8 by units: 2 x I (0) and 6(0) x 2. WhO.l we h,ve mlli added is 2(0) .. 12(0) = 14(0)! ~ 4 in our ",".1, of !4 will 00<" py <he tens place in the answer, That mcens lIIe I in our 14(0) is.really a hundred. So. we'll slmply write (he tell, digit (4) in the answer's len, place, When we finish. m."ltiplying for 'he nat pl ace, the ",."It we gel wiJi be uhundreds digit. Then we wiU itdd the leftover I(oo) 10 tho ",,"I L
1£",.
62
.z...U
44
13
magic, (he
Last step: multiply 6 x I ~ 6. and add the leftover I: 6 + I ~7. Here is our hundreds digil in the answer, and. like whole answer appears! 62
..L!l
744 This ,Ir.logy works on throedigi.
621
numbers .• OO. Take .•for example:
..u&I
S'art on the right:
621
I x 4 ~ .4
..u&1
4 Now mulliply erisscress; 2x4~8,and I x 8=8. Add the results 10 sec tho'S +8~ 16. Or. in reality. since we're now dealing with tens digits, 8(0) + 8(0) ~ 16(0). Write the 6", the ten' digil in the answer on" corry the leftover 1(00) to the hundreds pari of .he answer.
621
..u&1
64
(remember,
1(00) is left over)
Go '0 the lefthand digits and cms.multiply again. This lime. we cross mulliply three times: Hundred times units digil and len x len djeil" or 6 x 4 = 24.5 x I ,,5. and 2 x 8" 16. Add the answers; 24 + 5 .. 16 ~ 45. Thi, is ,,,ally 45(00). smcc we .'" now deali ng with ~ digits. Now add the lefto"e., 1(00): 45(00) + 1(00) ~46(OO). Again, wc'lI write one digil down and cany the other. In this case, we'lI wmedown a 6 and C1IIT)'4(000) 10 r he thousands di,gil in Ihe answer.
~
is in the ~
621 664
~
62
I
(remember, 4(000)
is left oyer)
ForthenexlS'ep. multiply 6~ 8 =48 and 2 x 5 = 10. Add the results: 48 + 10 = 58. Remember"his digi., so il is really 58(000). W. have 4(000) left over. So we add 4(000) .0 the 58(000) '0 go. 62(000). Write the 2 in ,hal 62 as the thousands digit in the answer. Th.6 i, really a len.lhoYSilnd, digit. and i. ge u added .0 the next step.
2664 (6(0.000) is lef. over) One I... muhfplicationendaddltion will give USthe fi nal answer. Multiply the lefthand digitS; 6 x 5 = 30.
~
621
__u_u
62
I
TIl is is really 3<)(0.000), and we cana<klOur leftover 6(0.000)'0 it: 30 ...6  36. or 30(0.000) + 6(0.000) ~ 36(0.000). Wri te down the 36 and see the answer.
362,664
~
621
14
Now You Can Do It
Practice righttoleft crossmultiplying
head.
enough, and you will won be performing am •.,ing feats in your
12
32
23
17
41
ill
ill
ill
ill
ill
16
13
ill
ill
~
31
24
54
ill
.u.l
28 z...ll
42
x..l.I.
~
16
91
18
!..2&
ill
27
18
ill
Ul
43 &.11
~
64
72
&.11
81 .l...l8_
u:z
123
97
76
29
38
ill
.uJ
ill
~
733
246
342
618
LID
lI..ill.
!..l.22
.l..lll
456
&.l..I2
~
483
267
418
517
1..ll2.
lLW
&.lll
816
237
'186
Lill
Lillo
.l...W:
....ru.
922
256
497
.1..l2!1
~
109
420
726
!.2lll
&..ttl
~
333
.ull
940
0L12.
~
145
291
747
666
Lll
Ul
ill
15
1.6 LeUtoRigbt
C ress Multlplicou..n
Here's How to Do It
This strategy works. in the opposite direction from the last one. Let's try
it
On
36 x 24.
~
Stan on the leftin
multiplying 3(0) x 2(0) '" 6(00).
36
this 0","" with the ten, columns. Multiply 3, 2 ~6, but remember that you're ~ OUI base number, which will change as we move along. is 6(00).
~
Now we crossmulripjy. to get.
36
6(00) but
in two steps. First do 6. 2(0) ~ 12(0)~ Add that to the base .umwof6(OO)
new bose number, 12(0),
6(00)
± .lliQl
72(0) Crossmultiply
3(0) x 4" 12(0), and add that to the bas. number to form a new base number of 84(0).
12(0)
±..illID
Finally, multiply 84(0) the units digits, 6 x 4 ,,24. &4(0) Add that to the base number and view the answer: 864.
±..2±
864
Lei's see how this works on a tnreedigu number. and at the same lime review lhc process of carrying.
Here's the same example we used in the: last section.
621
.II..5M
Start on the
left, remembering
Ibat tile 6 and the 5 are ~
digits.
6(00) x 5(00)
= 30(0000)
30(0000)
Moving across the bottom, from loft to right, crossmultiply number to get a new base number 348(000).
~
621
or
6(00) x 8(0)
= 48(OOO)~ Add that
to the bas.
~
number.
30(0000)
348(000) crossmultiply 2{O)
X
Now move toward the right along the top: 348(000) ±...1Q!2QQ1 358(000)
5(00) ~IO(OOO)~ Add it to the base
16
N",u_ mulllpJy 6(00) x lhe bonorn units digi.l, 4: 6(00) x 4 ~ 24(00). Keep adding 10 Ihe b3o!enumber: now we have a base number of 360.4(00).
~
Cro<s·multiply 62
358(000)
3604(00)
J x 5(00) ~ 5(00). and add illO lb. base num.ber 10 gel 360.900. J 360,4(00) ±..._.Wl!ll. 360,9(00)
.u..J...A
Conlinuing leO. crossmultiply 2(0) x 4" 8(0).nd add: 621
UJU
360.9(00) :t...._UQJ J60.9S(O}
Again crossmultiply 3lld add: I x 8(0)" 8(0): Ihe new base number Is 361.06(0). 621 360.98(0)
ll..LU
±.......&lIl
361.06(0)
No .. multiply the center digi is : 2tO}. 8(0) '" 16(00). Add ugain 10 bring the bOIS<: number 10 362.66(0).
u..u
621
621
:!:........1.6&
361.06(0)
362.. «) 6 362,664.
And finally, multiply I x 4 '" 4. Add it to lit. base number and see II•• """",er:
362,664
~
362.66{O)
:t...__..j
362,664
17
Now You Can Do It
Try the speedy ''''!.Iogy you just learned on these ex"",ises:
is .l...U
16
21
41
22
ill
ill
43
x..2l
5S
3.JJ:
21
zs
ill
18
x..2l
74
n
x.M
45
LU
76
U2.
52
lU1
23 x 31 = 14 x 23 ~ 71 x 24 =
&..23.
ua
tizi
ill
35x 35 ~ 9h64~
84
&..21 132
36
93
39
64
i!...ll
412
iLll
741
ill
202
.L2l
334
l!...2ll
423 &..l.ll 999
~
.au
326
1'd8.1
421
l!...l!U
234
511
LUZ
238
l!.ill
764
Ull
638
Ll1ll
375
~ ~
l!..M1
653
L1!l2
439 &..2Ji!i
~ ~
.Lill.
639
736
~
950
A.lli
llh 231 ~ 211x1l1_ 432 x 222341x4~~ 654 x 511 =
18
Here's How to Do It,
are dose (0 ! 00, they're =y 1(>",U lti ply, Take. for example, 96 x 94, quickly f18""" lbe diff.re",co between each number and 100. The dllfereece bel we." % and 100 is 4. Tho, dlff ere nee between 94 and 100 is 6. let". wrile lhese numbers down like lhis: 96 4 Whe" 1""0 "umbers 'Tho first step is \0
2'!
choose,
J!
The next SI4!p' is to !iLlbJrnCJ diaspuaUy Subl!aCl4 fronl94 or 6 from %. It doesn't mauer whi,cli you the result wilt always. be Ihe same. ]0 this case, we get a base number of 90. 96 4
~
90
,~
Nnw. multiply the two dilferenccs: 96 4
2;1,
4 ,6
~ 24.
Wri,e tI.. , '.0 lb. right of rhe 90.
90 And thai's obe lf'the numbers The wffere,nee The difftrenco
..!i
24
answer: 96 x 94 ,,9,024. are largerthan 100, you rulIl,lhediff.",ncesinsload between !03.nd tOO ls 3. between, 107 and 1,00 is 7. 103 3
of subtracting.
TlJI;' 0," 103 x 101.
ill
Now, odd dlegonally:
103
2
3 + 107 = IIO ..or7 + 103",110. 3
ill liO
Multiply 3. 7 _ 21. Writ. 103
1
(be
ill 110
.J.
II
resultto obe risJ'i' orobe I IO",,~ read Ih. answer. 3
!O3 • 107 ~ 11,021. I flhe productorthe dlfferencesls more th an tfuee dlgi rs, you will havcto carry the h"n<ltcds digi". Here's how this work. 0" 88 x 87. 88 12
a:z
7S
11
we ge ra bose number of7 S. A, you can see by mcexample 12 above, th i, is I:lllII.l:L
By ,ub"""'i118 diagon"lIy, 75(00). Multiply 12. 13 '= 156 88
The
'_"'WO'
75 156 is noI7S,156" To rlOd lbe t me ",,"''''CT, we nave 75(00) ____LjjI 7656 1,03, 100" 7,656
az
....1l
'0
add 75(00) and 1.~6:
19
Now You Can Do It
Few of your friends will know how easy it is to solve these posers. 98 92 96
x....21
99
!!JU
90
il...2a 92
!t2.J.
94
97
91
lo.22
93
ll2<:
92 x 94 95.9896 x 91 '" 98.97 '" 90.95 
A.22
~
L22
sss
=
89
93
i!JU.
88
ill
79
szs
87
96
~
91
99
3..ll
96
94
.il.M
&..22
A..82
.3.M
ill
101
lOS
i!..llH
109
.tlll1
108
104 .ul!2. 106
108
tiIl1
J()3
.u.w.
3...lQ2
102
lI...l.Jll!
108
~
107
:UllCi
105
.ul!2. 109
s.ua
llOx 109 x III x 114 x 107 x
107 !I...lLl
&..ll4
s.ua
102
i!...il2
108= 117", 109112 = 113
~
117
115
106
119
.J....lll
&..ll4
Lll!1
129 .J....1.!l5:
20
Here's How to Do It
Long Division Division can be thouglu of as "reverse mulli plication." 10be multipl i.d (0 gel another ""mber. The trick is 10 rin d cui how many limes" number
IIwl
A$k "what
nu.mber mullipliod
by 2 equals 8T'
The answer, 4, is the answer to the d,ivi,ion problem.
8~2=?
2'4~8
8+2_4
Long
division .hows
)'OU
the proce .. used in
<hi.,ype oreal.ulation.
lei's
divide 488 (which we will
<aU Ihe ~
by IS (ihe 1Ii!!:i.I!lI):
18)4'8"8
Look. :11.:he divisor and ask yourself which o( the f r$1 few dJg:; IS In the dividend (OJ11la nu mber you c:ao divide into, 18 does 001 go j nlO 4. u will go inlo 48 two ti mes, with .dial. left Over. W ri te 2 oveethe 8 in Ihe d ividend,
2
IS~
Now mulliply 2 x 18 _ 36, Wril. 36 benealh the 48 and suMel,
18
.J2
12
NO"1 step is 10bring down the 8 in ,he di vid,nd and wei Ie iI "",,110 !he 12 you gOi [rom subuacting, Then divide 18 into th.is new number. 18 goes into 12 enter 8 seven limes'; write 7 in the answer 10 {he right of ,the 2. 2'1
18~
lIi
128
Multiply 7 x 18~ 126. Again. write rhls bell.ath the number into which yo.jusl divided, 128. Subeaet.
27
IS}48ll
lIi
128 2
ill
Lc"'$,ophcre~ lb",lef(oyer2i.coJled'hc~, Tbe ans w eri'ealled'h.QlIl!Iknl. You can express an answer with a rem:1.inder in lWO ways, Write il as "'27 r. 2" and n::3d it. "Twentyseven with 3 remainder ef two." Or write the remainder Over the diviw as a rra.,tion: 27 2118.
21
488
+
488 +
18 _ 27 r, 2 18  27 2118
When the di'l,l'isor has three Or moredigilS. first figure Out which d_igtts: of the dividend the whole divisor will fit into. 'Then look at the divisor's first one or tWO dig;ts~ divide them lnto !he flrst two or three digits of the dividend find the first number of the answer. For example: 486+ 161.
'0
161)4]60 You see tha' 161 will go into 486. How many times? Well, 16 goes into 48 three times. That's probably the correct numberwrit. it as the firs, digit in the answer. !fyou multiply 161 .3 and get a number Wm than 486, you know the first number in the answee j s less than 3.
3
161~
ru
Proceed with the problem as OOOv e.
Short Division
Long division helps you keep track of problems that involve large numbers, But when your divisor is
a number between J and 12, ills. easy to keep the partial remainder in your head or make a shorthand note of it. What is 81"'3'/ 381
With short division, .I like to wri te the 8nSWCr .ll..llikr the dividend. 3 goes imo 8 two ti mes, with 2 left over, (Why? Because 3 x 2 = 6. and tha, is 2 less than 8.) Writ. 2 under the 8. and note the remainder of2 above tho ne .. "umber. 2
3l!L_
2 Now, picture the 2 and the 1 as a new number: 2l. Divide 3 into that new number 2l. 21 remainder. Write the 7 under the 1 in the divi.deJld and read the answer: 27
+
3 ~ 7. with
00
2 3l!L_ 27
I
7~
41 r6
22
Now You Can Do It
Usc whichever method is easiest for you on the following.
11)879
12)458
9807
13)468
19)625
15ym
17)248
18)872
21}6S4
12)1,246
14}542
36)5,489
29)3,826
41}9,867
24J6)Tf
47)2,638
52)4,147
61)2,039
35)3,162
76)1,776
161)486
142J674
158)391
201)394
512714
862)3,912
263}4367
278)1,242
326)14,486
1,421)1,826
6,829)16,439
23
U
Squarlng
Here's How to Do It
~ ~ ls IIlU Iliplying a number by itsel f. for e xe mple. when we m ulti ply 4 x 4 ~ 16. we say we have 4. The answerin this case, 16is called the ~ of 4. Or, the ~ of 16 is 4. To write the expression "4 squared," simply write a raised 2 (for "squared") after the 4: 42. Certain numbers. are 'Veryeasy to sqcare, Here are some strntegies that will dazzle your friends.
Squaring
Numbers
That
EJ.d In Fi ve that ends in S will always end in 25. You automatically know the second
The square of any number
pan
t.
of the answer.
To find the first part. take the nu mber' s first dtgl t, odd I. Wbat is 3521 The second part of the answer is 25. Add I 10 the fl.'" digit: 3;. [ = 4 Now multiply that by the firs. digit: 4 x 3 = lZ, tho fir"
and multiply U,. result by 'he same first digi
pan of the answer.
Put me two together fer the answer: 1,225
If.he number is [",ger than two digits, add 1[0 the number lila!", formed by the digits 10 the lett Qflhe 5. For example, 1052: The last part of the answer is 2S Add I 'he fir" two digits: 10 + I ~ 11
'0
Multiply
by
tl',. original
firs' digits'
I I x 10  I HI
Put the two pans together: JI025 1052  II ,025
Squaring Numb ers around 100 If. number is less I11"" lOOb.t more than 51, simply figure tlt. difference between 1000nd the number. difference from the number, and "Writethe result as the: first dl.g.i:l.s in your answer. Let's flY it on 962: 100 96 _4. Subtract 4 from 96: 96  4 = 92 There's 'he fin, pan of the answer, Remember, this is aClually 92 .~: 92(00).
Subtract
mar
To get the second part of Ill. answer, lake lb. difference
between
I ()() and 'he number (in this case, 4) and
square it: 42  16 That's 'be second pan of the answer, Pur 'he two togellIer and read the answer: 9,216.
When you do this wlth Dum bets less than 91. you have to carry when you add the two parts together ..This works t.he same way as wilh ordinary multiplication, Just remember that the first pan of the answer really means
blImlrW·
Wh.J is 8821 100·88 _12 88 76(00)
.o...l2
24
'This is tile frn;t part of tile answer. Square the difference: 122" 144. Now add that to the first 76(00)
pan of the answer:
+144 7744 Tbe answer: 8&2;;;;;; 7,744. When you wan t to square anum ber that is l.ar.W than 100,.you add the difference to the number, instead of subtracriog. Find Ibe square of 106;
106
r 112. This is the first part of the.answer. Remember. i, really rcpr ese nts 112(00) Now square the difference: 62 = 36. Add the two together to got tbe .nswer: I Q62 11,236 'We'll show you how to square some other numbers in a later section of this workbook.
oJJli! 6 Add 6 + 106
=
Now You Can Do It
One of the keys to human calculating is
mwlJ,QIX.
You need to know the multi plication without looking
•able. To
fU1'I8Ze
your frieads. you must know the squares of numbers up to 12 as: well as YOlJIQ'l:Ow your own name.
Here they ere. Write each one len times. 12= 22 ~ Then recite the answers at your crib sheet.
32= 42= 52= 62= 72= 82~ 92~ 102= 112= 122= If writing each of these expressions takes you two seconds, and writing a math it to your memory. how many minutes will it take to learn all 12 squares?
Find the squares 252 152 of these numbers: 1352 1852 452 9052 2552 4652 992 892 IIS2 1012
fOCI
ten times commits
1152 88.52 872
862
912 1122
982
11)42 1072 882
922
952 842 902
1022
1052 1062 1132 1252 4852 1212
5552
1032
1162
1232 1222 972
932
1102 1112 1092
1082
1202 1192 1142
942 962
1242,
25
l.lO Cube Roots
Here's How to Do It
To cube a number, we multiply it by i,self twice. For example. 3 cubed is 3 x 3.< 3 = 27. We write (hi, will! a raised three after the number to becub<d: 33 ~ 17. Read it, "Three cubed equals 27," A cube root LS LJSl opposite. The cube I.'Q(l( of27 is 3: it's 'tile number which, multiplied by ilSt:lf twice, j the equal s the number in quesucn. write it like !.his: 0'27 ~ 3 Findi!~g Ihe C1.! be 'root of a number tl1e old Iashioned way is. [0 put it mlldly, a pal D. But you can learn a suategy iha: makes it extremely easy '0 fLOdthe cebe roots of numbers that are perfect cubes.
First .•you need to learn lhe following I' = I 23 ~ 8 )3 _ 27 chart:
43  64 53 ~ 125 63 = 216 73 ~ 343
83 _ 512
93 = 729 Look closely at the answers .nd you'll see Illat each one end, in. a different digit .. I 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 TilLS means 1h~')twhen whole numbers from 1 to 9 are cubed, no answer will end in the 8ij me di git I Here's how ro usc this fact:
Take a number. such as ]7.5 ~616,
Dj vide !.he n umber into groups of 3 digits: 175616 Look at the number formed On the right: 616. Lock at thechan and. see in 8 6. Tbc only one is 216. or 63. Thi s means the second .part Or !he answer is Next. look at the left '01 of digits: 175. Between wnieh tWO numbers number 175 fit' It fallsbetween 125 and 2! 6_ The first figure of the answer i.~ number. The CU be root 0 f 125 is 5, and so the Iirsi di gj t in oW' answer ts;s, Put
which number.
when cubed, ends
6_
on Ille cube chart above does the the cube root of Ille WIilIItl
the
two
together:
OIl
0' 175,616 56 If your number contains fewer than 6 digit'. di vjce ;t into unit, ,<aniDg wuh the first three digits
right:
tho
9,261: 9261 15.625: 15 62.~ Thi s strategy works wi [h n umbers up
IO
one million.
26
Now You Can Do It
Remember, to really impress your friends and family. you must memorize Ihe cube [{XU chan, Try yOll:r trick on these:
~
~
~
~
fs:832
~
.J!250,047
.J!175,616
~1
79,507
¥4.<Y%
~
~
¥iIO:m
~
.J!912.673
~
..y704.969
..y46,6s6
~ Yl.72s
~
~
..ym:68s
J!2S7.496
~
¥681.472
..yi9.683
J/148.877
.J' 493.039
J/117,649
~
¥15.625
~
,yT.3j1
.J!300.763
.J!405,224
J/456,533
.ym:r;&8
~
.y64.OOO
..yS&4.736
.J!262.144
.JI9.26I
.J'19S,1l2
~
..y35,937
~
~
foo:m
27
1.11 The Calendar FO.rnluJa
Here's How to Do It
Ask a friend what day, mouth, and year he was born. Think for a few seconds. and then armcunce=with
perfect accuracywhich day oft.hc week he came into lbe world!
This strategy will make you look like a wizard.
Your first step is to learn the foUowi.ng §iWiG!(a!)l yalues of each month in the year:
January Feblllary March April May
June July
0 3 3 6
4
6
2
August September October November December NCJ<', we assign lhe,., ncmbe .. 10 lhe days
Sunday
5 0
J
5 of the week. Remember them, 100:
0
Monday T~.y wednesday
Thu_rsdilY 4
Friday
Sanrrday Now, rake they.ar lito person was 45, Add
5
6 was
Divide it by 4 and drop the remainder. tha, back
10
bom and drop the "19," [hhe without rounding.
born i.n 1945, for example, .... e
45 .. 4 ~ 1 [ (drop the rernalnder) !he
year:
11 + 45 ~ 56 To that, add the day of II", monthsour subject was born on May 7. 56+ 7 63 Now add thesignificnnt value rottbe month in wbicbshe was bom. The significant value for May is 1. 63 + 1=64, Divide this by 7. the number of days in. week 64 .. 7 = 9, r, I The ~ is what maners, II ,.Us yoo the assigned day "fthe w..,k! Monday is I. and so our friend was bom on Monday. May 7, 1945. This procedure is easy [0 learn as the calendar formula, The abbreviation "S V>tstands for "significant
value." Day of Ihe week ~ (war
+
Remember. the~th'lyou getafterdividing you're 1001<108 for. The significanl value, given above work only for the 19OOs. To find. day in !he 18()(l$, add 2 10 the significant value, For the 1700$. odd 3: fot the 1600s. add 4, To Iind a day in lb. 21s, century (!he 2000,). subtrac; I from the significanl value, The calendar fern •• I. works only for the Gregorian calendar. which was adopted in most Catholic countries in 1582 and In England in 1752.
+ year :'"day t Sy 7 ? Into lhe top pan of the formula ",Us you which day Qflhe week
4)
28
Now You Can Do It
On wh at days of the week did the Iollowing Archduke Francis Ferdinand became was assassinated, even
ts take place? to the beginning of World War I (J une 28, 1914).
which led
Neil Armstrong
Edward
the first
person to walk on the moon (luly 20, 1%9).
he could marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield
VIII abdicated
the throne of England",
Simpson (December
II, 1936).
10
The term "United Nations" was first used officially the Axis powers (January I. 1942),
describe 26 nations who allied themselves against
AI exander Graham Bell spoke the tint words over a. telephone: "Mr. Watson. come at once. I wan t yon." (March 10, I 876)
The Salk polio vaccine Robert Fullon',~, (October29,1814). went into
mas, distribution
(August
I, 1956) warship, was launched at New York Harbor
the world',
fifSt steampowered
Franklin Delano Roosevelt said, wijh more accuracy than he may have realized, 'This generation of Americens nas a rendezvous. wilh desrlny'' (June 27, 1936).
The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of
Independence
(July 4. 1776),
Irving Berlin's tirst musical, Watch YgprSt£Q. opened on Broadway (December
8, 1914).
Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, was launched by the U.S.S.R. (October 4, 1957).
A braham Lincoln 12,18(9), Richard
was born in a log cab! n on Sinking Spring Farm, near Hodgenville.
Kentucky
(February
M, Nixon res jgned the presidency
of the United States (August
8. 1974).
The Great While Fleet, a regatta of 16 battles... ips, set sail for an aroundmewcrtd h theU ruled Slat",' allies and potential opponents (December 16, 1907).
The drug cortisone Mexico proclaimed was discovered; Texas as one of it was used forrelief of rheumatoid arthritis
cruise meant
10
impress
(April 20, 1949).
it. provinces
(May 7. 1824), of his signing of the Declaration of Independence (July
Thoma, Jefferson died on the 50th anniversary
4,1826).
29
/
/ / ilJt / /
In More Detail /
/
/
/
/ /
2.1 Subtraction in Mere Detail
Here's How to Do It
Numbers Even though we' vC called subtraction "reverse addition:' there's one thing you can't do with subtraction mal you can with addi rion, You tao add numbers in any order and illways get the. same answer. But you can 't subtract in just MY order. For example, 6 + 9 is the same as 9 + 6but 9 ,6 is Illl1lbe same as 6,9_ Can you take a bigger number away from a smaller number? Sure~ The rc..~IIU called a negmi .... .IllJw\:x::r. It represents numbers less than zero. is e Grandpa Belvig tramps in out of the Minnesota SJlOW. shivers. and says, "Its 40 below out there!" He means the temperature measures 40 degrees ~ on the thermometer. or =~5t.That's ver; cold, indeed. T c so biract a larger rill mber from a smaller one, subuaetthe number 011 top from the one on the bottom and then mark the answer as a: negative number. Negative
I
96~3 6  9 ~3 Subtracting by Adding Number'S around 100 If you are subtracting a number near 100 (such as 96, or 98), you can simplify the problem ""d,ing Ill.
difference between the number and 100. subtracting 100, and then adding the difference to the result. Let's lJj' il
0." 04·96. The difference between 96 and 100 is 4 (Illal is, 100· Add the difference (4) to 96: 96 + 4; 100. Subtract 134. 100 ~ 34_ Subtract the difference from the result: 34 + 4 ; 38.
134
96 ~ 4).
:....2li
38 Subtraetlng by Adding 10 Each Number If you add the same amount to bOih numbers in a subtraction problem, the d}frml'lCe betW"D !he_new numbers is tbe .'liiUuea_,N;; difference betwee.rl the old nnrnlxtn This comes in handy any rime you can change one t of the numbers: involved into a number that ends in O. Why'!' BCC~lIJSC easy to subtract with Or from numbers it~s that end in 0. Here's a problem:
148
=.21
We can change 97 into 100 by adding 3. Then, add 3 148 oj 3 ~ 1St
[(I
148 and subtract to find the answer to the original problem.
:...5J1+3.lOO
Subtracting by
51
Subtraeting [rom Eacb NlUIlb •• If you C8J1 add 10 both numbersin a problem and get the same answer, then you can subtract from 001n numbers with tbe sameeffect. Consider 8.796·6,342_ You cansubtract 342 from 6,342. to gct 6.000and you nonce thot it's pretty ""Y (0 subtract 342 from 8,796, too: 8.796  342 ~ 8,454 ~  342 ee t\.llOO
2,454
30
Now You CaD Do It
Try your now strategjes 15 :_l on these:
7 :..U 25
.zs
128 :..lJ
50
~
2:;
.sa
~
9,876
982
:.m
6.789
67
~
50
~
14
:..l2S.
:..2.81f!
[0Ile.47·.
liowroldl!!ll1
OMailemoon in Minol. Nonh Dakota, lt was 35·. Bynighlfall.lIl"mcrcuryhad " in Mioot thorn evening?
Joe borrowed S I J fromBurbara, Today he .0 Id hi, cotlecdon of old 33 rpm records in a yard sal. for S8. whichl>e will use 10 partially repayhisdeblloB.rbara. By how much is he still in ,he hole? Express this as a neg"; ve number. (A banker wou,ld say thnl Joe has il negalive balance on his debt) Playing "Moille, May
far to the
!'CaT'
L" Pelenell, hi. friends lowalk 18.le.,. forward and then 26.teps do they march? Wriw this as a negative number, 1.86 ;....2a
backward.
How
~ ~
214
540
358
927
.:..l2!!
3.888
:.l22
9,564
:...ill.
5.482
~
7.642
2.923
.:.lm
~
:J!m
347·9S~ S92·89~ 867·195~
746  497 ~
4,586· 1.492 =
56
:.l1
129
77 :..§J
28
82
oll
683 ,:jli
ill
879
;...M{i
:.M!
496
66
245
:.18.
98.387
:..l2!l
42;761
:.Jl2
56.823
~
77.458
:..1.8..222.
o...!Mll
~
83.445
~
31
2.2 Dlvisl"" In More Detail
Here's How 100(1 It
Faclorin,g
Some difficultlooting problems can be made very simple by a 1''''''0'' caHed~, This i, based on the principle [hat you go" the same answer by di "iding a number by ~ of a di vi SO[ a, you do when you dl vide by the whole divisor, The parts of a lorge' number are called fil<lm. fa. example, 6 and 3 are factors of 18 (bee,"« 6 x 3 " 18). Suppose we won,
'0 divide
486 by I S.
Firs' divide 486 by 6.
486~6= 81 Now di vide olio by 3, 81 +3_27.
",,".1,
'This resu) t, 27. is the same'as the ansWff' to the original problem ~
486 ~ 18 ~ 27
Multlply,IJlg or Dividing Both Parts of a DivisioQ Problem when you mul ij pl y or di vide the, di visor aru1lhedj ",jdend by !.he same(lumberany numberyou don "t change jhe answer to the di vision problem, ] f the divisor ends in 5, for example. you (an double it Wl!i the di vidend,
and Ihen you can di vide by a number ending in zero, which is easier.
1S)2j2
Multiply bo[h part. of the problem by 2:
25,2,,20 212,2 424
Now divide:
8 r.14 50)4~
(Note: By doubling lhe dividend and divisor. we get the same answer [quutienl] but the rernalndcr doubled. The answer 25j2i"2i. actually 8r,,U.
'0
is
If the divisor is • multiple of
5. YO" "OIl. di"ide it ;wi !be dividend by a faclOr U"U turn, [he divisor inJO $.
45)720
We know 9 x 5 '" 4~. So divide both part, by 9. Ot coursc, your dividend has to be evenly div;sibl,e by
the factor you want to usc! 45+9",5 720"900 Nowwh_iU a piece of cake r 16
,)SOor. 720 .. 45", 16
Anorhcr way '0 tame a difficult problem is 10 change i[S dividend into. number tho[ ends in zero, Say you want '0 dlvlde 2,396 by 4. Notice that 2,)96 is 41.." [han 2,400. SQ, add 4 [0 the dividend '0 make it a number lhat ends. tn zero.
AdlllDg or Subtno<llng fwm 1M Dlv.ldelld
32
2.396 ±_____± 2.400
Now perform Ihe unbelievably .asy task of dividing 2.400 by 4;
600
{12400 W. added 4 and then divided 1 from the result:
it by 4. So we now have 1 unit 10<1many (4
+
4 ~ I). To correct for this,
~
Believe it
Or
not, that's the answer to the original problem.
If the dividend
4)2412
is On the
high side of
UTO,
reverse
the process.
by 4.leovinc
Subll'OCt 2412  12  2400. We've already seen that 2400+ 4 600. We have subtracted 12and divided it us wilb 3 unhs too few in the enswer (12+4  3). 'Therefore. we must iI.Ild 3 to our resujr: 600 + 3  603.
=
2412+4~603
$ubtracl
1823231&00.
1800
+
6300.
We have subtracted
remainder of 51OO few in the answer. SQ. we must add 3 and a remaindeeof S 10 OUf eoswer Note: The above process Is diificull when we have to add. to the dividend 4)2395
Who" we add 5 10 gel 2400 and divide
23 and divided il by 6 leaving 3 units and a 300 + 3 r. 5 ~ 303 r.5
For example:
by 4. our answer is: 600·1 r. 1 ~ 598 ,.3. the number you add or subtract should be evenly divisible by the
As you can see, for this divisor.
to'
work easily
33
Now You Can Do II
Factor the divisor: 16)128 14)TI4 9j]W 24~ lSm;l 18)251
12)2Yi
!6)Wr 12)U8
21ri~ 24}1'W 24)624
9jTW 8)128 21jTh8
Multiply both parts to make the di visor end in 0: (Remember to divide the remal nder at the ced.)
~)T62
ISjhlT 6S)TI3
15)i87 5)108
35)140 25)')T1 I()5if®"
75}E3 5)592 555) 14,(itjjf
55j2TO"
15j6O'r
SJT,0T4
4~j2JT
Dl vide
both part'S to make (he dtvlsor a 5; (Remember to divide lhe:remainder ai the end.) 4SW 15}48 20)&4 85jTIj2 95)1,159 75)TI5 10Sjffi"' 455)728 35N4 115)483 9ISjT,li98
4())11i4
(5)156 85)1.037
to make, il e·nd in 0:
55}3%
Add
[,0
Ihe: dividend
6)TI2
14)T4f 212)1.424
9)21'1
17)268 86)2.172.
3}433
21]7S4 47)4,141
!2)2M
32}664""
s)4i6
18ym38~
26jT,678
Su btract
from tM. di vidend to make :it end in 0: 13)22l) 45)3.130 51)7.153 12)Sj"2 32)1,096 48j8,288
4}308 6}342 68)10,204
1}4i4
28)1,684 23)6,161
3jT(i9 54)6.2i"642)18,126
34
2.3
Squ adng in Mor<> Detail
Here's How to Do It
1,000
numbers around 100. MOM Important: keeP' irnck Q[XQur pia"
Squaring
N "mOO", around
~
Le,', find
TheslroJegy
,hO square
here is slrnllar tosquaring
4 Subtract
~
of 9%: 1.000
996  4
= 992.
<he r"S' part of the
OJlSWer. I, really represent. 992(000). or 992 Square lI1e dl ffcrence: 4l" 16. Remember ,h., 111;, is 16.llQl 16(0). Write !M second part of the answer in the tens and LmLl.$ laces.Ieaving p a zero Ln the hundreds. column. adding 992(000) and 16:
~,
You're ;t'caUy
992(000) 9921)16
:L....l!!
usr asyou do for ""mbe.'" rugh.e, 111"" 1.00.
<Jr. 9962 = 992,016 For num bers nillf>cir 111.0 1.000, odd inst ea d of 'ubua<ting ,Oo diff."'ll<c.j
Squaring
Numbers Tha! End In 1.
If you know your multiplication table, it's. easy to aq uare numbers thaI end in zero. lip to l20. AU you have to do is square the firs' part and then odd' two Os. 2" 1<!4""d 00. or 14,400 To square a number ending in one, first .:hi nk Of the number right before it, wh LC'1i ends in zero, Squure Ih.' numbo·,. for example. 212:
no
Tho number bof ore 21 is 20 202,,400
Now. odd that nextlower nembcr to tile number you're squaring: 20+21 =41. Add the two results (0 gel d\oC. answer:
400
±....'!l
441 Squ.ariug Numbers Thai End in Pour
You aLready know how to :square nembers What is 342~ Will end in five. When yO\l: want to square a number ending
in fout. [,''' squ are 1110"""I higher number (which w.ill alway, "nd in five). Firsl fond 1he square oDS: 352" I .225. Now add 111. number (34) to the "OX, hi,gi1,! number (3S). 34 + 35~' 69. Subtract this from tile square of tho higher number 1.225· 69 " 1,156. The result is lb. answer! 342",1,1% Squaring Num bers Thai End In SI><. This ume.sqcare the ne;;.;:t~nLJmber, [h".36i,3S. which always ends in five. Try J~ on 362: the next nomeertower
35
Add !he number '0 !he nex t lower number: 36 .. 3S 7 l , And j nstead of subtracting. adJj tlli, 1.0 ,"'> square of the higher Dumber: 1.225" 71 = 1,296. or. 362 1,296
=
=
Squaring Numbers Thai Eod In Nine FIrst square me next hi,gher number which 31ways ends in zero. Add (he number to 'be Squared 10the next higher number and subtract lb. result from the square you 've founu
I
For example. what is 7921 The next number higher than 79 is 80. 802 =6.400 Add IIle number and the next higher number: 79 .. 80 = 159. Subtract this from !be square of the high er number.
6.400  159
= 6,241.
or. 792 = 6,241
Now You Can Do It Use the strategles you now know
9972 9892
(0
work these squares:
9922 1.0022 9932 312 712 9882 9942 ],0082 1,01.)62 1112 912 1,07\2 1242 742 9812 1.0122 1.0372 512 1012 9762
1,1,)(142
9862 212
1.'JI.)72
1.0032
812
612 112 842
412 1.0n2
442
242 3.0142
642
3142 542
942
1742
2642 1.2942 462
5542 862
962
4442
11}62 1162 2762 1992
262
)62
662
762
s62
9862
792 1392
6662 492
3292
1362.
1792 2192
4262 2592
4492
892
36
!
!I
fJjt
Fracffons
II I
I
I
I
I I
3.1 Adding Fractions
He.re's How to Do It
To line (the. ~)_
add fractions that have the same bonm number (denominator). you simply add the numbers above the Then, if necessary, ~ the: fraction to its lowest terms. For example:
16
a
1
16
_II
16
We have added the nnmeraiors: S + I + 2:::: 8. We put that number over the denorninatpr that all three fracuons shared (16). Next. we must reduce 8/16 by dividing each term by !he same number. Both 8 and 16 are divisible by 8: 8 + 8:;;;;I; and 16 .. 8;;;;;, . Use lhe 1 as a new numerator and the 2 as a. new denominator to find the answer: 2
16  2
J! _ 1
5/16 + 1116 + 2116 ~ 112 Finding a Common Denominator Sometimes you need to add fractions that have different denomi netors. We might, for example, want to
know the sum of 3/8 and 1116. Fractions must have the DDl:I:. or oommon del1oro] nalQrS in order for us to add them. W. can change 3/8 to sixt eenths by multiplying Il2lh the numerator and lI1edenominator by 2.
.l
Now it's possible
x 2~_!.\ to add the frections:
8 • 2 ~ 16
.!i
16
1 +Mi
16 Since 7/16 cannot be reduced. it is the answer.
Here's another way to find a common denominator: First multiply the denominatorS together.
.1.
37
1
2
1
3
1
4 Mulliply
2.3.4 = 24. Now. chatlge each f ractlon 1024111, by multiplying ilS IlI!lIItJJI1ll) by 1110 number required to change thedenQrnjMl9r to 24. To change the denomimU'orof 112 ro 24. we must multiply it by 12~:;;0, multiply the numerator (I) by 12:
1x 12= II 1 x 12 24 "To change III 10 241hs. we nJulliply by S: 10 change 114 to 241111.multiply by 6 .
.1 x 6= .li 4 x 6= 24 To add (he fractions, add the new numerators: reduce: 26124" I 2124 Or I V12.
To change an impropcr fracticn.a
12 + 8 + 6 ;;;; 6. PUI that number over the common de nominator and 2
fraction where lhe: numerator is larger lhan the denomjnaror. (26124)
to a whole number and a fruction, divide and use the remainder as: the numerator: 26 + 2A ~ I r. 2. or I 2124. Th i s method works with large fractions thaI don' I have any obvious common denominator. Actually. we could see at a glance ilia, 12 is also a common denomleatorfor lJ2..I/3.Olld 1/4: 112=6112: 1/3 =<V12:ond 1,/4= 3112. Those f"clions total 13/12. or 11112. Remember, there's always more than one way 10 find the answer to a math problem! Human Calculating ,...lIk Fractions Here ·s a rea Ily 10 add fractions. First. mulupty the denominarors. "Then crossmuhiply tl,e au merators end denomin ators and add. For example. what is 113 + In? Crossmuluply the first numerator rimes lIIe second denenunator: I x 2 ~ 2. Crcssmultlply ihe second numerator times the fi.f$1 denominator: I x 3 ~ 3, Add the two products: 2 + 3 = 5. This is the allS'Wti'"s n umemter: 5/?
f." W"~
Multiply
the denominators:
2;w;3 ... 6. Makcthat
the denomimllor
of tne answer
''!16. And the answer
is: 516_
or, 1/3 + 112 51~ re llJCky enough 1'0add two f~,ctions whose numerators are ] •j ust put the s..um ottnc denQrnjuiltQ[::;. ~ofthedonominaIOrs. Add 1/3 .. 11&: The surn of the denomlnators is 3 .. 8 = U. This is the new numerator (1m). The product of Ihe cenominarors is:3 x B = 24. This is the new cenominator (1124). The answer is: ] 1124. 1/3 .. 1/8 = 11124
0>."""0
[f you'
=
38
Now You Can Do It
Practice finding common denominators for fractions: 213 and 114; 112and 3/8: 3/4 and 1/6: 215 and ll3; 4f1 and 516 219 and 113: 5/S and 415; 1/10 and 112: 3/6 and 718; 9110 and 1111 7/8 and 1116 and 314; 215 and 4110 and 7115; 3110 and 1/9; ll/ll and 115and 219; 515 and 18145
and 32190
Reducethese fractions (0 their lowest terms: 5110; 418: 6112; 18/36; 9115 7121: 12114; 3/9; 40/60; 1&/20 501100; 121/132; 26/28; 35156;45181
Add by crossmultiplying:
1 4
a
6
10
2
6
8
1 ±.2
1 9
12
16
2
10
II
15
91
.1
.1
±.12.
_9;
_j_
1.0
150
.2 92
39
Add
these fractions:
1
2 ;I. 3
5
J
6
s
2
10
2
6 ..2
16
8
2
'1
1
.l
S
1 ±..:l.
1 ±.J
±..II
a
1 ±..20
1 ±.l
1
2
1
4
1
12
1
5
9
1
1
1
±..Ii
1 ±1
±.lJl
1
.u
1
±..II
2
5
a
~ ~
IS
8
a
10
1
9
1
3
II
2
l
5
.l
5
2.
9,
1 ±..:l.
1
±..Ii
s
2±.l
is ill
Change
10
wool.
Or
mi xed numbers:
16115:
815;412; 913: 18112
lOIS; 2817: 3219; 25/15; 36132
18112; 92142; 63/45;
13019; 1,248/64
40
3.2 Subll1lcllng Fractions
Here's How to Do II
Tbe basic melil.od (or Subl:taCling fract.ions uses the same pri ncjples we learned for adding frottions. FifJO a common denominator. Change all !be fractions to new fractions with In...,common denomlnators SubtrdC.~the smaller nwnennor from !he large,r one. And' if necessary, reduce [he re:;ulting fraotion to its Jowest terms. Here's an example using fracuons thai already have the same denominator:
Wbal3boul
su btracting
113 from 2/5?
C00l010D
First. give. the fractions
denominators.
The lowes. common
denomin810r
for 113and 215 is IS.
2 • 3~ 5 x 3= 1 • 5=
J
6
15
~
x 5 = 15
Now subtract the new fractions.
li
15
15
There'
$
..I.
the answer:
215 • 113 = lIlS Human Calculating wi,h Fractions: Subtraction Remember how we added r,;)< tions by c'oss·lfIu!l.ipl~i ng? Well, we can do iiies am. ,hing onsubtrsctlon. Let'. say you wan, '0 su brract l.._l 45 The common dct.lominalO.r is still the product of the deaommarors: 4;w;: ~ 20. To find [he'.numeraror, 5 crossmultiply the fj,~r nuIDC:r.UOr and second denominator. and Olen the second numerator and first denominator. Then subiract these ,umbers: 3 x S ·2 x 4 = IS ·8=,7. Pur this ever iii. comeion denominator.
1.2=.1
4S 20
41
Now You Can Do It
Remember to reduce the answers (0 their lowest terms. and thal il's possible rOT SOme answers to be
negative nambers.
fi 8
12
15
10
Jt
:1 5
9
a
.lll 16
11
26
JJt
19
II
18
11
2)
II
96
~
67
165
:tl!
~
:...1M
84
m
980
:..m
12
.u.
Subtract
by cro"Lnu.luplyint:
±
5
1
8
~
6
10
~
I
8
:..li
a
1 :..4
.a
2
;Jl
.>
~
2
1
2
2
5
a
9
1 :..l 42
1
:.!I
1 :..l.li
U
16
12
20
11
30
.1 :..!i
Subtraet tbcse fractions:
II 33 ill
1
8
10 _3
.2
U
16
_3
..2l.
103
~
Ii :.J2.
:..!lJ.
~
...l o..Ji
II
63
II
12
2J.
31
J.
5
...l 1M
~
9
~
91
..l.6.!l
360
.lti 37
1
3
~
J.
II oM
2 0:
180
.21
11
15
11 82
2!!.
33
43
33 Multiplying Fractig!lll
Here's How to Do It
To Iind a fraction of ill; largel number, m ultiply me number by the tracuon,
213 oU cups is. multiply To multiply. g cups.
For example. 10 see, how much by liIe number, place the result
over the denominaror,
fraction IIlU Iriply the ~ and 'reduce tile resulting fraction to its lowest terms,
213. " by a whole number. simply
e ,213
Multiply
= 16. Place tIl.e 1.6 over 8/3 Reduce the fraction: 8/3 _ 2. 21],
8.,2
U!. ,,",nominOlor 0[3:
3>2/3=2213 To multiply two Iractions, multiply lhc numerators and then multiply the denominators. ]f possible, Simplify things first by reducing the original fractions to thei r lowest terms. a_n,d course you reduce the answer. of
100.
1,Z
8x3
First multiply the numerators: I x 2 ;;;;, This. is the new 2.
numeeatoe.vfben multiply the dencminators:
8 :t:3 = 24_ This is the new denominator.
lx~=.l
8x3 Reduce the result: 2/24 I IS x 213 24
=
= UU.
1f12.
Sometlrnes you can make a shortcut by ~ There are two ways to cancel. OI1e is to crossdivide nu mbers in a muluplicatlon problem, if tl'ley divide evenly into One another, Divide numerators with deeomjnarcrs only=not numerators into numerators Or denominators into deuominarors. In the example abo ve, 2 goes into 8 four times. Draw a hne through lhe 2 and replace Ltwilh a 1: draw • Iine lhrough Ih.e Sand replace i, wi,h a 4. 1 'f>, 3
4 x ! = 1 (oewnumermorj and 4, 3~ 12 (ncwdcncminator) to see tbearuwet: 1112. This saved: h.a,Vin,c 10 reduce lhe answer from Y24. whenever you find eeros tn both a: numeratorand a denominator. you cancancel them, too. Iuthiscese, they simply disappear. Say you need '.0 multiply 1110" 360/92. Now multiply!
.,.r
I
J. x .100 JO n Urns in the n umerator (360) and the denom inOIOT(! 0)_ Now you jus multiply (new numerator) and I • 92 = 91 (new denominator).
Cancelthe 1110 x 360/92 _ 36/92, Now reduce tho result: 36192 ~ 9/23
I x 36 = 36
Be sure to cancel
m the n umber
multiply
of zeros j n the second number lhai, corresponds. to the number of'zeros
10116 x 814200. you could cancel only 2m: 0 from 4200. to match the
in the first number. Fcr example.ro one 0 you cancel from the lO.
1!l x....a
16 Multiply Ix8 x 4200
Cancel
0""
0: !l16, 8/420
= II and
16 x 420.~ 6720_ Reduce this froc'ion: 101! 6 , 8/4200 = 1/840
816720 =
11840.
44
Now You Can Do It J
6 1
1
7
).
3
s
6
1
8
t...li
a.
a
4
a
Z L!
3 t...li
f! .!...lI
1 2
z g
_2 11
l.Il
21
Z
5
a
3
U ill
_l
25
..l
18
15
Ji
l
6
x8
1
x21
.l.2
.l.2
61
12
13
92
.a
Wl
360
1.1
16
.1 U
69
.!
.l.2
99 II
15
1.
.2[l
210
~
8
.! L!l
~
.!...lI
~
2 t...:i
1 ill 45
2li
30
..l
8
.s
6
U
15
10
2
ISO
J
a
8
III
12
3
5
II ill
SO
.s
190
..ll!
ISO
.JiQ
:l.
7
10
1.
II ill
10
.1
ill!
320
j 19
220
JlJl
III
12
.Ii L.1!l
.46
3A Oh'ld lug Fractions
Here's How 10 Do II
To divide a fraction by anolherfntClion. Let's divide In by 1/4: invert jhedlvlscr and ronew the same steps as in muhiplicaticn.
The di vi sor is: 1/4. so
1 .. 1 24
\\''C
(urn ill upside:down:
411.
1 .:! 2 I C"n",,1 tho 2 into the 4: .I.
And mUltipl),:
I x2
12" I = 2, the answer's 2.~2
I'
.'1:' 2
numerator:
a_nd t x l
e
1. the denominator.
B."
use ony number <livid.,. by I is 1M number. 2/1 ~ 2.
OMding with tractions and Whole Numbers Wh.t if you need to divide 3 fraction by. whole number_ay. 113 .. 21 Make:l fraction OUt of the whole number by putting i1over 1. As we jus. saw. 2 is lhc lnven this new fraction (because it is tho divisor) and ",uhiply . .I. .. 2 3
S. file
as 'Y~. Then
.I. .. 2.
3 I
1 x.l. 3 2 The answer is I16. Todivide 0\ whole number what h'ppeM when we divide 2 by
2
+
.I.
6
by 3 fractjon. oncc3gain iRvert Ihe divisor (this tlmc. the fraction.). Let's see 1/3;
1
3
2x l
I
jj I
=6
3 When you divide a number by a propel fraction, you gel 3. larger number!
2
+
1=
6
47
Now
You
CaD
Do It .s.+2.
6 ;1+1
8 5
1..1
2 6
2. .. 1
3
)
1..1
S 4
.3
1+1 75
III + ~ 12 8
u,s
16 8
..2 .. 1
10
S
1+5. 86
Jj!i ......ti 190 180
J:2. .. 1
100 10
Jl! .. ...u
41
100
.l!!.. .2.
IS 25
_j_+21 12 48
1+7 .3
2 .. 3 9
1 +16 S
~ .. 20
5
..2+ 3
10
4
J +]
2+ 12 .3
5_ "14 6
~ +9 ?
....Ii+4 II
1ll.. 14
12
.l!!"3
19
1i.14
8
2.+190 5
250
llli + 3
4+1
.3
5.. 1
s
2+.3. 5
6+1
10
8"~
7
3" ~ 6
7" Ii 8
9+ III
12
13+ It
9
5" Ii IS
2+! 5
6.. 1lI 52
14 .. .3.2.
~
81
100+
.u;
19
91+!
5
48
3.5 Handllng
Mil<e<INumt,e ....
Here's How 10 Do It
A mixed number occurs when· a whoPe number and a fraction appear loge,he,r: I 112is a mixed number, Another wal' of expressing lhe same value is. wl ~han j mgroper fnl;ctjQn3 rracu,on whose nu meraior is Iarg;er than ilS dencml na lor. The mixed number 2314 is the some .. the improper fraction 1114. To add, subtract. multiply. or divide mixed numbers, you can convert them (0 improper fracrlcns, 00 tills bymulli plying she wholen_bel brtll. fraocion' s denominator and tlIen adding the resul I 10tile numerator. This gives yOlI the numeralor of the imp.rope, fraction. 23/4 Multiply 2 X4 .. 8. then add !be result 10 !be numerator. 3: 8 + 3 = 11. 2314 .. 1V4 To change an improper fraction into a mixed "umber. divide the numerator (II) by the denomin.l.or(4). Usc: the rerru't;nder as the nume r.UQr of the mixed number's feactlon. II + 4 = 2 1.3 The 2 is Ihe whole pan of the Illi.\ed number: place the rentainclu 3 (>vetthedenomlnalo, 10 lind the fraotion: 314. If necessary. reduce the (motion. lJlb 2 314 Any fractlon tII.1 has. 1 as a <!enOnlinotoreq.ol, ,be numerator. For example, SII = 5. Any ("""ion tha1 has the sa",e number as a numrm\orand as .dcnomlnruor equals I. Fot ex3ll'ple, SIS; I.
on.
Now You Can Do It
Change th ese mixed numbers 10 improper fractions: 5 112: 34/5: 6 1/8: 2 9110; 44n 92111; IS 617: 21 ?fS: 46 2/5; 3 14/15
1712113; 124/5;
192110;50;
723/4
Change these improper fractions 10 mixed or whole numbers: 1517: 19/6: IOfS;8f7; 14/3
2117: 2518; 3216; 16/15; 43/9
33/12;
l681J 68; 18/14: 151175; 12l! J
49
!
!!
I1Jt!
Decimals
! !
!
!
!! !
4.) !)ed_I Fraotlons
Here's How 10 Do It
A decimal ISa special kind of fraction. It expresses Iractions in tens. hundreds. thousands. and W COM. For example, 112is the same as the decimal, S, or 511O. Tho figures aft .... he docimal point represen to rraction. One figure shows the ftact'ion coums tenths; two figures, hundredths. th.reefigures.lhousandths" and onward (0 infinity.
5110 "'.5 five tenths
51100 ~ .05 fj,.• bundredths 511,000 '" .005 fLv.lho.sandtils 5/10.000 = .0005 five ten·lhou>andlll, 51100.000 = .00005 five hundredthousandths Notice Ihal no comma appears to thc.f'gure, 1<> lbe righl of the decimal poim, To write 371100 as a decimal fraction. just write .37. To meke l: 37/1,000. write .037. For 37110,000. write .0037. And 10 express 3 7110. you would write 3.7. You can (urn any fraction into OJ decimal by dividing the dc'nominalor iruo the numerator, Lei'S try that on 5110:
10)5" wrne adecimal pointaftertlK::5.and
[ben
place another decuna! pointjusr.above il where theanswergces.
IO~ ND'" divide 10 lnm 50 10 gelS. Place the S Over lbe 0, 10 the righl Of the decimal point. and YDU will see bow SilO mms imo .S! .5 10}5.0 Zero, afler lb. S don' I cllange llIe docimal Iraeuon's v8Iu.: .5 = .50 ~ .500 = 112. You' II find il useful to learn l.he decimal equivalents of. Iew common Iracuons, If you need to fJ"O whnt .25 of son ... quantity is fo' example, you'U know [hal all you have [0 do is divide by 4, because .25 is alway' 114. lI4" .25 112~.5
314", .75
113" .33 (appto.imolely) 213 = .666 (approxlm a.tely)
115 =.2
2IS ~.4 315~ .6 4/5=.8 118= .125 1/12".08 (appno,imn.tely) Notice that some dee! mal cquivajents are approximations. This happens when the deeomjnnor will not the numerator no mauer how Rlany U:lOS We put in. SO''OClUnCS. as with 113 Qr 213. a single number repealS over and oven ai other times, ,",wilb In or 1111, a set of'numbers repeats over aod over. Thus. 113~ .333... and In ~.142857142857 ... these ate called repeating decimals
even_ly divide
50
Now You Can Do It
Write these n umbers as decimals: eight .. nth,
nine. tenths.
si xteen hundredths ibree thousandths four hundredths one hundred twentytwo tbousendtha one ""0 one. half One fifth three q uaners ten .na three .hundrodth, twelve and thirtyone hundttdlhs: Change these fracuons into decimal fractions: o ver again. 116 419 12120 317 2111 4IJ6 618 511.7 20145 27160 511600 continue repeating decimal until you see the pattern start
13f2j
1231458
26195
161125 901360
15/322
100123 2 518 1618
17 617 39 8188 25 '1/4
1.24112,555
JOO 3115
51
4.2 Adding and Subtracting Declmals
Here's How to Do It
Decimal s are added J.SIIlIe same way as whole numbers, Irs especially important to ~"P track of place ~. Wbon you write down. column of dedmal fig ures, be sure to ,..rire the,docimalpoint' one directly beneath rbe other. This will help in.ure th,,, you don't accidentally add tenths to hundredths.
4.586 13.21
7.tn4 4.3 U~ the .,.,thod_iest (or you loadd IlIe figures. Wben you gel 10 !bete.lh.columnand youna ve tocarry, remember 'enth, cany over into units. Simply add tbe numbers exactly as you would add • column of whole numbers aOOthen pi.". the doc; mal pohu ln the answer di=lly below your column of points. 4.586
that 13.21
2M2
7.074
4,3
56.790 Subtraction "'o"ks the same way. Be sure 10 keep the d""imal points in order. 135.8791 Not. that the .645 is the same as .6450. so you subtract 0 from l.
2M2
~
113.2341 Wb.t if you want 10 subtract 4.4257 from 22.645? Add. 0 to .645 and proceed. 22.645 22,6450
~
135,8791
J12ll
=
~
IlUI93
Thi, makes il easy 10 subtract, ,ay. 3fIO.OOO from 1/2, 1/2: .5 3J I 0.000 ~ .0003
52
Now You Can Do It
Add decimals representing these numbers: 112 + 215 314 .. 113 12314 + 2 7/8 4/5 ... 271100 26711,000 + 314 8/64 + In 71150 + 9711 0 82415 ... 3116 8 m ...S3lIS 61 2110 + 61 2/9
Subtract decimals representing these numbers: 314· 1/4 5/8 . 113 I 118·418 571100  3110 12415  3 9110 I 112  lIS 251100  2111000 4/5  71100 9 112  9991100 1/4  27/80 Add 118 + 314 16213 ... 84n 315 ... 1 1112
9110 ... 1461100 11 3/4 + 27 1/20 42315 + 10 7/8
In  115
14110112
213  112 6n  3/10
1 211100 151100  1711000 161/3  I 118
to lito  7 314 2516 9/10
19  82190
usese <!e<:;mal numbers, 1.23 664 JAI2 3.825
3.6 871.3
100.31
2.6 4.06
41.4 3.7
561.04
~
...J.1
2,2'" 3.45 + 13.7 6.6& + 4.0091 ).62 ... 21 ... 37,208 61.889 + 1.3 + 923.007112
..llJl
ll.6lll
+ 37,;)4S 6 + 3.09 + 47.8 l.S + .18+ 18 7.11 ... 1.7i + 17.7 + 71 8.2 + 9.821 38.005 ... 1.435 ...5.505 + 12.5 +.56 ... I 1.876,890123 +45.7612 ...42 ... 761.227
Subtract these numbers. USing d&C1D1a!s: five tenths minus twentyfive hundredths
three .nd chittythree hundredth, minus One fifth
four fifths minus one third nine hundred thousandths minus one half During a summer drought, the level of water in the town water tank fell to 1/4 of the tank's capacity of 100,000 gallons. Fall rain, added 50.000 gall 0"' to the tank. How many gallons arc now in the lonk? Express that as a decimal fraction of the: tank's capacity. Subtract:
1.227 ,_j_ 87.37  .035 2001 ·51.54 2.225  112 3.8211 08 3.82 5.415
.o..W:Zli
;.l.ill
7.0 ,_j_
82.658
.:..1S.W
999 .0999
53
Here's How to Do It
To multtpiy numbers with decimal points. firsl use the method that's easiest for you to fmd a prndu'C't.. lgncrin g the decimal poims. The". count the ",,"1 number of figures 10 the right of the decimal point' in the problem. 'Ibis lOOIlis lI'e number of figure> that mUS! appear to lhe righl oflM decimal poW in Ihe answer. Ro example, 4.21 , 3.5, 4.21 . Cross·mulliply 421 x 35 ~ 14,735. Now couorthe number of di&itsto the righl or tbe decimal poi.tsthere ore lWO in 4.21 and 1 in 3.5, for 010131 aD. Th.'.1 means Iho answer has three digits 1.0the right ofi" decimal point: 14.735. That's all there is 10 it! 4.2·1 X 3.5 ~ 14.735
L!..i
Now You Can Do It
Practice JUulriplyi"g
92
tbese numbers 3.4
as decimal" 4.10
32
.912
Ll
4.0
llU
9.1
L2
7.61
Ll!!i
928
~
.Loll
500
3.JI
.005
.um
1.32
Lll
719
iI..'!.ll_
4.8 ;0U
638
L!l1
6.89 x .013 ~ .43 x , 12:. 7.007 x 2.001'" 47 x 112 ~ 99.119 x . 50 "
U
UZJ.
.1.2:1.2
7,942.1
4.899
ol............I
3,333.3
~
38.29
5.455
9482
01.1.61
62.148
l:..l..Jl_
L1..l!.L
43 1/2
Lm
2110
79110
L.....U.l
l!.li1ll.®.
Ulli
.uL.:!
54
4.4 Dhldlng Decimals Divide decimal numbers just as you woald whole numbers. The trick is to figure where the decimal point the answer. There are two ways to do this. In one method. you count the number of digit;; to the right of the decimal points in the. divisor and then in tbe dividend. Then subtract the divisor's number from !he dividend's to get the number of digi", to the right of the decimal point in the answer .
goes in
.9)ilj8
decimal We know tbatl08 .. 9 = 12. Thedividend. 1.08, has two decimal digits (.08) and the dlvisor, .9, has One digit. Subtract the divisor', from tho di,ridend's: 2· I. I. The answer contains one decimal digit: 1.2.
=
In tbe second method.
write the division
problem
In the conventional
way:
.9jT'58
With
the dividend's
iii
pencil
Or
in your mind" s eye, mo ve the divisor's decimal point all the way to the right. Then move
decimal
point the same number of places to the right. .9.)1.0.8
Place the decimal
point over the new place in the line for the
answer, and divide as usual:
1.2
9)"jQ.8
1.08+ .9= 1.2
If the there arc. more digils behind the di vidcnd until you he.ve enough figures.
decimal point in the divisor than in the dividend, add
UfOS 10
the
.000j'i"O]OO 1200 9)10800
10.8
+
.009
= 1200
55
Now You Can Do II
Dividing these numbers is. easy when you keep the decirna_1points str:light
.sj'IT
6+ 1.2=
3.syrn
.42).m2 .63);1)242.1)"2>.92
.075 .. 314 = 51100 .. 1110 "
22.95 +.045=
.3740 + 5.S"
82.7)
.1 .5~7.S
.82J41U
3m.
86.3jOilll
55.S}9.3T8l; .53)OOJ
5.3J9[T
53j9OT" .O!2):t68
56
I I I {§jt I I r
Percent
ages
~
!I
II
5.1 Porcent.agell and Frac.tlO.DS
Here's How to Do It
Percentages: art a special form of decimal fraction. "Percent" means "out of every 100," and percentage ls a way of fisutilJg parts of. whole by~. To say ''7%''meaos "seven out of 100 port s," When we say "x percent of something." we are 'peaking of that many hundre<llh, of'it, Ten percent of 56. for example, is tho same 8$ .10, or ten hundredths. of 56.
PeruDl to ~lmals To convert percentages to decimals, all you have to do is move the decimal poillt two phl"'" (0 !he left and drop Ihe percent sign (%).
27%
=
.27
3%=.03
144%= 1.44 101(2% = 10.5%"' .105 ~imah sign,
.12= 12%
to Percen t To convert decimals into percentages, move the decimal poict
tWQ
places
10 tbe
eight and add the percent
.02=2% .002 _ .2% 1 ).00= 100%
=
4.3 =430%
to Po,,,,,.] We have seen how to equate certain decimaJ numbers. to easytoworkwith fractions. For example,.S is the same as ]f2, and .8 is the seme as 415. Since percen tages are really h".ndredth s, some percentage, equal u seful commonftaetions. Whcnyoulrnowthal20%=.20=IIS, u'seasy to figure 20%ofi55: just dlvide IS5by5. Why? Because 20% = 115of ISS, or 115, 155.
20% of ISS
Fraclions
= 31
Any fraction can be expressed as • percemege, If the fraction is already a hundredth, just express i I as a decimal, delete the decimal point, and pia ee the percent sign (%) after it. 141100= .14 = 14% 51100 = .05 5%
=
To express other fractions as percentages. nrs! convert them into decimals (di ...de lhe numerator i denominaicr), then shift lhe decimal polnt two places tp the right
215 =.4
by the
Move the decimaL point two places to lhe right: .4:40% 14/360 = .038 = 3.8%
1315 = 815 &/5 = 1.6 1.6= 160% Here are some common percentage equivalents to fractions; 11\0 = 10% 115 = zoo,
57
)/4 =25%
1/3 = 33 1/3%, or 33.3% (approx. 33%)
215 =40% liZ = 50% 213 = 66 2/3%. or 66.6% (approx. 66%) 314_75% 4S = 80%
Knowing these. you "on ""'ily find 10% orary number ,imply by dj,idiqg the 20% of a number. divide by 5 25% of a number. di vide by 4 Approximalcl.y 33% of a number. divide by 3 40% of. number, divide by 5 ard multiply by 2 50% of. number, di.ide by 2 Approximately 66% of. Dumber. divide by 3 and multiply by 2 75% of. number, divide by 4 and multiply by 3
"".,ber by 10. To f,M ....
80% of. number, divide by 5 and multiply by 4
Now You Can Do II
TU.m these decl mills; lnto perc:enra,ges
.81 .643 4.01 .OS3
.95 .891 370 9.401
.16 2.36 .2 .0101
.07 .04 .5 7.907
.34
.004 5.05 385385
Out of every 100 minutes after school, Joe ",latches soap operas for 37 min ures. What percentage or his ume is spem walohiDg the soaps? Tum these fractions into percentages: 114 3151 11115 5/6 1015 5125 I 1110 31J1l 4/5 53/60
14116 7J1l 9118 14115 901360
9110
213
671100 19120
314
719 91n 115
UlliO 8213
What percemage of her sales is made
up
Three quarters of the pets sotd by There: sa ' s Pel Shop are goldIi,h. <>f goldfish?
Tum these percentages into fmc{iQn:s. 33 1/3%
5%
40%
60% 15%
3()<J,
25%
16%
125%
95%
1.625%
71% 51%
540% 200%
mixed numbers, 10% 100% 81% 480% 5,001%
or ..,.!hole numbers: 90% 66213% 172% 2331/3% 4,804%
Jeanine, a haspi,.1 worker, vi us 38 patiect each day. When.he has seen 50% oflhem. what fracuon or the iotat number or her patieots has she visited? How many people. is Ibis?
Tum these percentages 87% 15% 50% 5%
100% 342%
i nto decimals:
35%
1.5% 204%
40% 05%
1 112% 3.25%
25% 9)% 3315%
4.. 87% 2
99.9%
.999%
008%
58
S.2 Wnrklng wllh Pereeeteg es
Here's How to 00 It
What during
Percentage oh Number is Tbat?
Lee Wong· s [atlOry made 8 widgets todfl~. The ... production schedule says they should make 32 widgets
the week. Wha' percentage of their weekly production did the factory work." accomplish in one day? The question is, wbal QtrS,nt is 8 0(321 Figure the percentage by dividing the number that follows the words "what percent is" by the other number. Then R10ve the decimal point IWQ places to the right to see the
percentage. In this case, we di vide 8 by )2,
8+32~.25 S = 25% of 32 Another way do this: make. fraction of the two numbers: 8132. Reduce it as far to a decimal number. Then move the decimal point two places (0 th.e·right
'0
as possible and change
it
8132 = 1/4 lI4 .25 8 =25% of 32 How Many Is • Percentage of Thot Number? 1" the third week of May. tho Lee Wong WidgetFaclOryproduced75%oftheirquo,a many widgets did !hey mate that week?
Now question is, what is 75% pf 3l?: To find the answer. change the percemage
of32
Widgets. How
me
to a decimal
by moving the decimal point two places to the
.Ieft:
75% .75 Multiply the number whose percent you wish find by the decimal fraction: 32 widgets x .75 ~ 24 wtdgets IJ you know the fraction equivalents to the percentages, you have a shortcur: To gel ,he same answer, Simply divide 32 by 4 and multiply by 3. 32 widgets +4 8 8 x 3 = 24 widgets
=
'0
75% is the same as
3/4.
=
Now You Can Do It
Convert the percentages to decimals or fractions to figure the answers to these:
5% oi328 = 14%0[82 = 25% of 40 = 33113%of9O50% of 160= 21%of67= 18% of98 ~ 92% of 101 35%of66 = 80%0[50 = 27% of 99 = 20% of 350 ~ 10% of ].56215% of 1.601
=
n%of
132_
59
101% of 15 ~
n%of27
~
66 213% Qf60~ 110%o[9()~ 210% of
40 ~
Divide to find the answers to these quesucns: is what percentage of 80? 40 is what percen [3ge of 501 10 is what percentage oDDl 16 is; what percentage of 32'"'
20 25 is what percentage of 501
of 72? 42 is who< percentage of 56? 19 is what perceruage of 20? 27 i, what percentage of lO2? 34 i, whar percentage of 25"
~6 is what percentage
100 is what percentage of 150' 99 is what percentage of j 82? 77 is what percemage of 1771 480 is what percentage of 500?
760 is what percentage of 1,0001
60
!
!!
I;j'!
Algebro
! !
!
!
6.1
Learning 10 "Speak
Algebra"
Here's How to Do It
AJgebru is a way of speaking and thinting about mem.
It allows us
IO
express ideas
ill
a special k~n.d of
'h<>rth.nd,
An ~ in algebra is simply a way of making a statement, For example .. suppose we know that a Compact Disc player is On sale for 2~% Jess than the regular price. We could have the letter s_ Sl.nd for the sate price and the leuer [stand for the regular price. We remember that one way to find a percentage of iii. number is [0 multiply the number by the decimal equivalent of the percetaagesin this case, 25% is the same as .25. Then we could 5iay. <The sale price is 25% less ..han the regular price" in algebraic language. like this:
Sr·
.25r
How do we read that expression? 'The sale price. S. equals the regular price, r, minus .25 limes T." (0 algebra, there are two tmportant kinds of numbers: ~ and ~_ A variable is; a number whose \'alIJC may change. A constant is a number whose value is. always the same. For example, there is a constant called it, which is used in figuring the dimensions of a circle. That symbol, pronounced "pie," is the Greek letter "pi." The value of 1t is always aPI)roxinuncty 3. t4t6. It never changesen
rernajns~,
A vaeiable ls a number that can change according toeircumstances. Nrcx.Q_mple, when we wan! tofigure Out the sale price of Our Compact Disc player, we know that bow U,e regular price and the sale price will vary according to which "CD" we want to btly~some "CD"sCQst mote thnn others. So, in the formuja above, both Sand r are variables. In atgebra, we art: allowed to symbolize any number witb ill terrer or n Greek letter. We show how the numbers rclalc to each other using symbols similar to the ones we use in arithmetic. We use + '0 mean "added to,"
 for "subtracted from," ...for "divided by," and = to me$, "equals." We also can show division by wriLing a fraction. The number or numbers 10 be di v ided go on top. and I.he number 'We are using as a divisor go On [be bottom. To write '·'6 divided by 3:' then. we could write;
!i
3
We. know that
e is (he same as 2 plus 4. If we wanted. 10 divide 2 plus 4 by S, we could show i! Hke thls:
We could show that a 'l/3jiabl.eany
numbercis
to be divided
by
J. Simply let theletter ~ stand for
OUT
variable:
Read this as "x divided by 3." And if we wanted to say that divided by 3, we could let lb. other variable be represented
tWO
variable numbers by the lener y:
are to be added together and then
Read it as "x plus y divided
by 3," is multiplied by another) we may sImp!), place both numbers together: .25r
To show thai one number
means ".25 times r,"
There are rwc other ways to show multiplication. .25(r) We can put one of the terms in parentheses:
Or we can separate the term, by a raised dot; .25' r Either of these statements reads ~'.2S times r.'
Algebra with the often uses a few other useful symbols. we ean so)' one number is gremer .han another number
symbol >.
61
This says'
The symbol
'3
.>7 is greater than 7_" < means~;
b<7 Road lba. as "b is loss than 7." The sym bol ;::;means: js oouallp Qr greater than; and the symbol symbol ± means plus or mjnus_ a ~ 10 reads '"3 is. equal to or greater than 10"
s: means
is eq Llal
IQ qr
less than, The
b S 10 reads "b is equal or less than 10" c ± lO reads "c plus or mines 10" Parentheses are used to group figures togeiber. When you see them, it means you should perform the operations inside the parentheses flrst, and then proceed whh the fest of the formula. Normally. all multipljcation and division is done first. and then addition and subtraction. Here are SOme examples: (x + y) means "3 number that j s the sum of ~ and (xy) meens "a number th at is the product of x and y" (x  y) means "a number that is the result of x minus y" (xy + a  6) means "a number that is ihe result of multiplying x times y, adding a, and subtracting 6," Su ppose we saw a statement I ike this: 6 (x t 6)(3 + b + c) + 36y
'0
t·
6
If we didn't know the values of any of the variables. we could still simplify this ,lale<non. by dividing the 6 lntc the 36 in 36y and into ihe Sof the firs. part: 6 o.6~1 and 36+6~ 6. We could then cancelthe 6 and change the36wa6: 6 (, ...6)(.... b tel ...36y ~ (x .. 6)(0 + b +0) + 6y
6 But suppose we: knew the values of a. b. c, x, and y_ Suppose the values looked like this:
x~2
y",4 a~3
b~5
c_1 If we fll led in teners with the values, we would know exactly what number our formula represents: 6 (2 +6)(3+5 ± Il + 36 ,4 6
Perform the operations
.i.nill1e. the parentheses
first:
2+6~S 3±5+1~9 Now the statement looks like this: (2 x 8 x 9 ± 36 4 6
jI
Ne);.l. multiply: 6,8 x 9 =432 36, 4 ~ 144 This makes the statement say;
m..±..H:!
6
Now divide: 432 .. 6 ~ 72 and 144 ... 6 =
24. Cancel the 6 and replace 432 and 144 with 72 and 24:
72+24
62
Add these "umben; to get 'he sum: %.
Wilh
(;( t
the variables we were given, we see that
6)(a
t
btc)
+ 36)'
~96
6
Now You Can 0., It Translale th ese stetemems into algebra; (Use your own letters fc r var iables) On. number is added to • second number. Mul(iply an unknown variable by 3. TIIre. hundred fortyeight is more than 27. Five rimes an unknown number is more than 1.186. A certain number equals six. One number is subt... acted from a second number. One number times anotber number equals. third number. On. number divided by another number is twice as l"'lIe as a third number. A certain "umber is greater than 8. but it could also be equal '08, Ten plus cight=or sometimes minus cigh'tim,.~ 14 equals change. number,
Addf"",toa cetain munber:takethosumandmulJiplyi,_thesnmeV'<lriablc mirw.'l1O,dividethen:sullby 16
Symbolize a constant as 11: (this is the Greek,lener "pi," and it is prooou.noed «pic." IIreally is aconstant, which is always approximately 3, 1416). Call the area of a circle A. and tbe distance from the center to the outside of the circle r. ThS pf¢;t of the dr,stle i $ Ibis djs.gmp; sgyp.red tj Dl£$ Pi. Write mal sraremem as an algebrai.c formula. Suppose we bave a series of variables, bu, on a certain day we know how much they .. and for. They ond their values an: as fellows:
._2
04 0_7
nO
y .. 10 ~=3 Wi!h these in mind, figure (a + y)  (x + .)
ab x xy
.5
QU!
Ibe valucs of the foUowing
S",lOmenlS:
~
,5y , lb 5,
n<y
:m
5
n
:;;;;n
>3
31>(. + b)(c + x)
x + z(ab
t
3bc)  464
14a 190(z,  2+ IOxl· I&b 12c
63
6,Z Nine Easy Steps to Algeb ra
Here's How to Do It
There areJus. a few hasie ground rules for alg,cbr.t Once you Jearn them. you're on your way to a gra.;;;p
of the whole science. HC'I'C lhey are:
1. The .sum of II Sf ries of numbers 1$ ~.besame, DO matter wbat order you add tbem. You know this from .fiUm1etic: 2, + 3 + 5 ts tho as 5 + 3 + 2",) + 5 + 2,0"2 ,+ 5 + 3.,.. d so forth. The same rule hold); true in alS.bro. even When values are grouped in, p"""nllle~., Fo><'e<omple: (~+ y) + zsa x + (y + x) '"' + y + ~
"""0
0:.
x+y+~~z+y+x~y+z+x
And soon.
2. The product ofnumt>crsi. tho sam e, no matte. in wbal order they are multiplied. Here. too, we know from an ihmetic that 2: ;J;; 4 =' 4 x 2. In aJgebm. woe: can make:3: general, S13lemCnt aoout
'1i.y = y'X..
The product of more than t'WO numbers also is mo same; no matter how (xy),. ,_ '(~l '" 'Y'  .yx _ yxz
yOIJ
multiply them:
3. If you mill tiply a 'Urn by a «<lain number, yo" get tbe same resultas you would iCy.... multi plied each number in the addition problem by the same number. Let's I')' I~'I w;,h arithmetlc. Suppose "'0 odd, 2 + 4. 2
,U
6 Now, suppose we nmII.ip'iy the answer, 6, by the nllmbet 2,
12 What would happen if we multlpl roo, each o r the numbers in Ihe addi lion problem by '2 Ili'ld! added .'heir products? 2'24 . 4,2", U !2 The answer ls lhc samc~1 We can say thut in the lo"S""S. of algebra lik< this: (x +)')t _ x'' + yz 4. You can sub1raC'lan.ynumber rtGmanOlherDumber~ Sometimes Ute resuJIlsaneg.ath"e Dum,bcr. laJ ked about negative numbers LH an earl i CJ section. Suppose" is largor Ill". x, (We would write il as 7.;' s: 011wecould say x c z: is smaller than z"). Now. irwe subtracted zfrom,:\. Our answer would be a negative nu rnber, We. m igrn wri(e mati ike tl1 is: x 2.<0
We
4~
U
e
s, You can di'lr'id~ any number
by an,Y of her '1lIJmM:r~ excep' zero. You
(Moot dj,vidc.a: number by
6. The n u rn ber 0 is unlike othernumbers, Aoy numbor ,ubt ".cted from i!.Se1f equals 0, and aoy number multiplied by 0 eq uals O. If we express a numberany Ilumber~as; ,il~we can write lhesc ideas like tnis:
aa_O
.dl",O Substitute YOUF favorite number in these :,nalen"lCmS, 10., 100 10,0",0
Q;'1d
you 'will. see thallhis, mak,es, sense:
6A
equals 1. A,>y number
7. Tho n umber I is unll ke ether numbers, dlvldcd by I "'Iu"1s ilself. In ala ~ I 0/1 e a 10+ 10" I
An)' n nmbe
(<>1 er than 0) divided h
by iLSdf ~ways
algeb",k l'OllgU'jJC:
AgaLn" try [I wltb a fo..m..iliarnumber. 10 + I = 10
Let ""3" stand for IO~
8. Any poslUw ""mber muJllplied by. neg.tln number becomes. nq:ati •• Dumber. An,d .oy negative numbe r multl,plied by anot.btr negati'fe' number beWOte$ .a p.o.sHive number. Again, our number will be represented by .;1.: a x Le a This ti n1'Cl"et's suppose a equa Is 3. S ubstl tu te 3 in each (I f those expressions. l 3 x ·1'=·3 ·3"·1 = 3 If' we used some OI.h~T (lumber shan the unique number l.lhe rc:,sult wOl..dd took ILke this: n x ·6=·(" ·a,.(,,, 6. Try UHU again" assuml og u = 3: 3,<·6 = ·18 ·3.·6 ",18 9. You""" add equals 1,0"'Iu.Is,,'ul>I rae 1equals from "'I "als, mulli ply equals by "'I IlO!s, and dlvlde
equals
,,·,1=.
ha'IJea,num,'berUlal_you decId:emcaU z YOi.! have another:nu.mbct. whjeh you ('"_aU And you have a ~ll~ird x, number. caucd 'I. You learn Ihat x and ., arc ahe ;S;ftJ1"IoC. Once you kn I;iIW that. you reetl ze lh.J,I
In other
by equals, and the RSuUs wm always \Vh;;u does rhis mean? Suppose you
'be
Slaual'.
The Qnly esceptlon
IS that you can't
dlvlde
by O~
words. ib ~y and you fi nd om mao y = 5. )'0" know thm z+:tL1.+y;;:;2+S 'By ,he same token,
x'l
Z+X=l+Y
= yz,
V~ _7Jy You he vc already used this princl ple in some add Lto."3_ndmllJ ti plication sU':uegies ..explained in c;aJ~j.cii' sections.
Now YOlUCan Do It
beruuluplicd; 15. wha, is the result of abfl5? Show another ~y of findin,g the 3J1$Wer to J (l4 + c). If>" 6 and y ~ 12. whal is tho resuu of 'yl2x+y? If ~,,6..,d Y" 12.. whar Mil happen if you multlpfy (x .. y) by .j? We kI~OW ti'LaJ :x{rLb + 002 ~ 4b<o) is lhe same as what "expression wilhom parentheses"? lfa = 16. b _ 12. and c = O. whot is the result of ax b"'1 Given the values abo ve.. what do you, gel when ,you subtrnet (a + b)  (,1 + b)? Ira
You have [ouroumbe,,", a, b. c. ancl.14. Snow how many ways ,h.yoon
=5
and b
=
And wh" ts b)? Us:!n,g[he:.same values. find me answer [0 ala. Find the answer to' 311_ Who< i, the value of o( .)? \Vb .. i"ho vajue oh(:b)? Wha' do you gc, when you mul'iply 360. 21 WhOli, the resU11 of 14b. 20?
«0 
65
6.3 Koepi'lg Equations
in Balaeee
Here's How to Do II
An. ~ shows ..hal an exprcssi on on one side: of an eq ual sign is the same as me expression on the
These are ecuauons: other side of the equal sign.
4x=2y
You C8n think of ail equ ation as a scale mat's in balance. You can do things: to one side or subtract, for examplebut to keep it in balance, you have to do the same ihing 1(1. both sldes, Take <Ix~ 2y, for example. Now suppose we add the number S to 4" 4:\ + 5 ~ 2yTn Of C"",,",, 4, + 5 doesn't cqual Zy. But it ~ equal2y + 5. 4, + 5 = 2y +5 Let's try it with an eq uauon that eon [runs. only known values.
OT
anothercedd
4x3=2.6 ]2,= 12
Add 5 to both si des:
(4,3) + 5 = (2.6) + 5 !2 .. 5~ 12,+5 17 ~ 17
We have changed!
the ~ of the sides, but each slde has stayed ~ with the other. when we do the same thing 10 .twill 'ides. we see thai each .ide sti 11equal, the other 'ide. You can add to both ,s:idc:s+ subtract from bolh sides, multiply boths ides, aod di vide both sides by the same
number.
So whm,? WeIll suppose: we have "thisequation: h~ 14 We want to know UIe vulueof z, We.can use the: principle ofbataoci ng equations to find it. Notice that x lsrnultiplicd by 2 on the left side. Perform the opposite cpemttonsd i vj slon, as we. have seen, is reverse multiplication, and subtraction is
reverse addition. So divide both sides by 2:
~ll
2 1 Di v iding 2x by 2 cancels tho 2 on. Ihe loft side and Ieaves us wjlll 14 divided by 2,on the rillh'" x=11 2
,_7
Chock this by replacing x with 7 in Ihe "alement 2,
= 14. The". 2 x i ~14.
If we knew th__., di vided by 2 was 14, we would do somethi ng suni lor: x ~_ 14 2
Multiply both sides by 2:
21'_14,2 1
,=
)4 x 2
X" 28 Cneck th;, by replacing,
with 28 in the statement
>:.12 4, Then. 2812 ~ 14. '"
66
And if);
ptus 2 were 14;
Subtract
2 from beth sides:
x ll Check tnis by replacing x with 12 in the statement x + 2 _ 14. Then. 12 + 2 = 14. And finally. if x minus 2 were 14: x 2Add 2 to both sides: , 2 + 2: 14 + 2
14
x
=
14 .. 2
,:16 Check uris by replacing x with 16 in the statement x ·2= 14. Then, 16·2 = 14
67
Now You Can Do It
Fjnd the value of the unknowns in these equations:
x + 5 = IS
•  14
4~=24 xiii =2
= 31
Anna wan'S '0 buy her brother an ivoryhandled pen knife for hi, birthday. Its price (p) is S4.9S more 'he earned by doing her household chore, (0) lasl week. She earned $12 .sO. How much does tne pen knife ccsi? Express and solve litis as an algebraic equation. than Three pens; cost $1.15. We express this as an equation
by lcuing D stand for~, pens COSt?
3p=$1.15
How mach does One pen cost? How would you calculate how much l5
Chris has a large collecri On of computer games. Yesterday he lent Penny eight games. This reduced his collection by U4. With an algebraic equation, fi,gu~rehow many games Chris owns.
It is not possible to find the value of all the unknowns in these equations without mom lnformaucn. But yOUCM show ~ ways 10 rwd their value. By adding, subtracting.mulripjying or dividing both sides, try to find at least one other way to express each of these equations: 2. _ 14 + 5y
0
6 =2sb
52x1y = )/2 9yz  36y 7." + 2ab = ) 4yl3x
Did you nouce lhat it.m possible
y(]U
to find the value of", in the equation
9yz ~ 36y? \'{hat i,Sl.? Show how
figured it out ..
If it ls true thaI 2(52<1)1)= 1, and lhal any number divided by iL",lf ls on", what do we know about (he value of 2(52x1y)? WhO! doe, tllis ,e.1Ius about the value of yO
68
6.4 Adding
with Aigeb ra
Here's How to Do II
Wc've seen that we can add numbers to both sides of ar; e{LUalicn. Sometimes this allows us to nnd the
value of an unkncwn. But in a~gcbrayou don', always end up with a numeral. One)'} the best you can do is simplify an expression.
Suppose you have iln expression Iike this: 2b  6. ~ Jx .. 4u .. 86)' 10 bolh Si<les, you can see <hesimplest
way 10 find 2b: 2b  6... 6. ~ JX .. 4. + 86y +6" 2b ~ 3, .. "" + 86y +60 You can comb inc 43: and ea adding Ihe number partsohhose 1\10'0xpressions: e way \0 find 2b:
2b ~ 3 ... 10. + S6y
By adding 6.
4a ....ea
~ I Oa.. Now we sec the simplest
Notice that the terms we: added had to have the same letter, Expressions ln cn equation thai h .... identicat leuers vc are called ~. We coutd Dol add 3x .00 86y \"COMe up with something like 89.)'1 Also. wecannot add 3xy 10 86y. TO add like ICrms in an algebra expression, simply ibe numerals.
Now You Can Do It
Combine li_kc:terms in these expressions and equauons
(0 simplify
them;
2"+4y+3OO+ 17x 5.... 76nn\ + 52n + 14m 18.· 16q~ tb .. 7. + 13c 38ed + 15.  87be: ~ 70  ad· 5cd 23p· 86
+ 14M  Sed· 8p(6cd) ... 151'
Til" h ass a bo,g of'apples and oranges. He gives two apples to Angel a , He gives three apples 10 Christine. He gives one apple and two oranges to Jorge. And he gives four oranges to Peter. He has seven ;tIpples and Ihn:e oranges lef] .. leI .!,>tood for apples, ~ "and for oranges. and z st:l.nd for the ",,01 number of apple. and oranges Lim, T;LO.lar1ed with, E.p~ these facts in lhe l<lnguage of algebro. Once yo. hove described all "fT;I,,', giR,. simplify equation.
,)1.
Combine like terms:
47abe  3a
29v  18vb
87ae .. 7d  14.<
+ 7. 761 + 8bc  ivb  451 + Sv + 5de 19ab ~ ISb +7.b 60b 3.... lOb +60 = 180abe + ib  4a
14.< ~ 5cd  d
69
6.S Sublracl;ng with Algebra
Here's How to Do It
subuact Subtracting the numbers. algebraic expressions works the same way as adding them. To comhine hke
tenDS. simply
4x + 10,= 14x In algebra. we used negative numbers more often th_an in arithmetic. or 8, is called a signed QumJxr.
A
number
with a sign in from
of it, such as +6
Subtracting a positive number is the same as adding a negative number. Subtracting R negative number is the same as adding a positive number. Let's ihlnk about Unn. Suppose we have an equation: 2bOO=3
We decide to ~ a negative number from bolh sides. That number is 4a. sign, Thus. On [he lerr side
2b· 6.· (<Ia) = 3,· (4.)
When two minus (or ··Ileg,ative·~) signs occur together, they become a plus. (or "positive") em,  (4a) become, +4.! Let's combine terms on !he left side; 2b  00· (<Ia) 3x· (4a) 2b  00 + 4a = 3x . (4a) 2b· 2a= 3x  (40)
=
Now combine terms on the right side: 2b  2. = 3.  (4a) 2b·20=3x+4a To tell how to fi nd 3 x, oil we ha vc to do is mo ve 4<lIO the left side b~ subtracting
2b·2a·4a=3x 2b ~ 6a ~ 3);., which
4. from beth
,j des:
is where we began. Now. suppose you COme across an expression like this: 97x· (a  b +0) The minus sign on the outside of the parentheses tells you mat you can remove the parentheses if you chao"e rbe signs of the nllmbers inside (be oarentheses, In other words. you have two choices, You can either subtract and add all the numbers inside the parentheses and subtract that from 97x. QL you can remove the parentheses and change the signs on a, b. and c: a becomes ~a. b becomes +b, and c becomes ~c. The new expression looks like
this: Let's give
91<·. + b· c a, b. and c the valu,"" of 4,3. and 2. 97x .(a ' b + c) ~ 91. • (4 . 3 + 2) (4  3 + 2) = 3 97.· (4·3 + 2) = 97x 3
parentheses and changing signs:
Now try removing
97< " + be • a + b  c = 4 +3·2,"·3 97x·. + b c '197x·3
Now You Can Do It Combine terms in these expressions: 48a + 3b 60 + 120  tied = 4b 12x + 4y lab + Sxy + 3. + 2y + ab 5run· 860 +3de = 30m +60:1. + 140· 8n 8bvd· (6. + 2bvd· 18c) 32/00 + 19bc + (18 ·Sbc)
cc , (8. + b  c)  40 S.  (4.· 6b) 10e· (Sci + tie  lOa) 12xy  [xy + 12 + 3d) ISac· (.ad  3.e  1&:0)
70
6.6 Multiplying
with Algebra
Here's How to Do It
To multiply algebra terms..writethem next to each other and simplify. ab x cd = abed . Remember. though, lhal one number plus another number equals two times the number,
number is munlplled by another b+ b = 2b b x b = b2 number, ir ~ the number. So:
BUI when u
When you add a n umber to j tself you are really multiplying. j t, If you added b f ve ti mes. for exam ple, you would nctualfy multiply it by 5: b+ b+b+b+b=5b But when you mu.ltiply numbers by themsel .... you alis, !hem es, high\}! POWer_ When we say "four times four is four squared (42):' we could also say that "four squared is fourto the second power," Four cubed (4 x 4 x 4) is written 43; that is the same as "four to the third 9Ower." Each time we muJtiply a number by itself. we mise it [0 the next higher power. So, if we multiplied b by itself five times, We would mise it to tile fifth power. The fifth power is wrinen will' a small raised 5. like this: 5 bxbxbxbxb_b5 In effect, a plain number like 4 or b is a number raised to the first power. Imagine 4 as 41 eud b as 01,
tQ"
Then you c,ansee that to multiply b by itself five times, all you do is add the powers: hi x b l x b l x b! 'bl_b5
Now You will
I
SIJ ppose
you wanted to multiply
eb times b:
ab x b ? be multiplying b l tlm es bl. which memo you will add the powers. I + I = 2. The new power of b is 2. which is just a way of saying Iha[ b times b equals b2_ Now combine the resun with a: ab x b _ ,b2 And to multiply b2 by b. add the powers: 2
b2xb=h3
+ I _ 3.
This works wl th any powers:
xI2.xS_x17
How do you multiply Remember
expressions'?
Simply
muluply
one term 8t a lime; numbeL
(a ... b)(e ...d}  .c + ad .. be + bd
thaI when you multiply a positive number by a flegativc number yoc gee 8 negative
jl
a(·b} ab \Vhcn }'OU multiply •a(·b) ~.b Apply these fa cts (0 + b)(.· b) ",.2 The ab cancels
Pla'Dllve QUIDberby_D negative
number
you gel a posjljve number .
0"' tho +ab, and adding
to multiplying expressions: + (·.b) e ab + (_b2) = 02. 02
a negative!>2 is 'he same as subuscting b2.
71
Now You Con
51 mp 1ify these expressions and equations:
1)0
It
Cxy) x Ca.b). (0<1) (n + m)(. + y)
12(p .. 4q) 60(8 .. b)  (40  2b)
3dC."
z)
zeob Hd  46y) abd (cdc + 4<d) 15.(2'0 + Sac  23)C."
'Y ~ 'C>" b) cd ~ nm + xy(o +d) op+
b)
Sed ~ 4ab  20(e + d)
.. b)
ab ~"(450
Sb(ab .. cd] ~ 15q (0+1) 4,),,; 12.,+ 2 (0 .. ,)
15, (2x +4y) ~ 3 x2 + W x y
.y(ab + 2, + lXly) 2.(4eo  3.) 4>( 12"yz" 24.3"y) IS nm(2m'  In 7) 12,2'y4(2. + S'Y + 7y2)
72
6.7 DMding with ALgebra
Here's How to Do II
I'>:i _
In 3 division problem. bke terms may cancel each other out. Y x
~~ 3 3. ~_2<
3(y+d)  3 To divide powers in an algeb.ra problem, ,ubU'llOllhe powc r otthe divisor from the 1"'''''.' of the
dividend,
learn about
By doing this. you may end up with a negative power. There is such an animal wh_ichyou will in more advanced algebra courses, For now. just keep in mind that negative powers are o.k, .3 •• 2 __
I
.5
73
Now You Can Do It
Simplify <he following:
I!.iJll.1&l
ah
~
2xy
15(mp+a+zl
5x
l.3.l.il±..M
6y(0+ (xtvlf2a+b) 3 (2. b)
+ b)
~
xy2
12.4 b5 3,4 b2
Answers:
3l.ll
2y
.x, 2y
3xy
74
Introduction
You, too, can be a Human Calculator, you're doing. This is the message when you KNOW, BELIEVE, and LOVE what
that you will hear in my audiocassette, Calculating, which I introduced about numbers, memory,
The Human Calculator
fll!£. 11 is the Math,
message I have taken across the United Slates and Canada for the past several years. in my book, The Magic of practice, and creativity.
The five keys to Human
are undentanding numbers.thmking
Igive you this workbook SO that you can use those keysthinking, memory, practice, creativity and understandin g nu mbers, Remember: it's o.k, to be wrong. The important thing is to 10'.. Even though the strategies I wi LI show you are simple to learn and use, you can't expect to hear them once and then
work them like magic. Practice builds your confidence. it. Once you get 10 KNOW what you are doing, you will come to LOVE
Copyright 1992 by Scott Flansburg and Youth Eoterprises, Inc, All rights reserved.
7898 East Acoma Drive, Suite 100
Youth Enterprises.
Inc.
Scottsdale, Arizona 85260
Contents Llltraduction 1. Everday Business Math 7, I Checkbooks 7.2 Tips & Tal( ,................. 7.3 Sales Dsicounts 7.4 Budgets " 1
.4
... ,,.
6
8
S. Math Magic: Games to Reinforce Number Sense
8.1 Garnes and Puzzlers .,"
a
11
1
!! !!
Everyday B .
f}j'! ! ! i.
uS/nessM ath
!
!
7.1 The Cbe.kbook People, put their money in bankfi
of~: savings, checking.
10
H.re'. How to Do II keep it safe and to earn some mtercsr. 6anks~ hnve several different kinds
".wkel. etc,
When you PUl your money in a dleCk_ing account •• he bank issues you .3 set or ~ priOIW wilh you r name. address. account number. and the number of the check, To pay. bill wiU" check. you write the date,lhe amount cfthe check in numerals andtn words, and sign your name, The person who receives your check presents it (0 the bank, wbich transf ers the amount you have authorized on lite cl\cck to that person. You ntily receive a check from SOJ'OeOn.~ who Q'IHC$ )'01.1 money, 1.0 Ihilt case, you Si,g,n your name on the back (this is cailed ~ the chock) urd lake it 10 you, b",,~ which depcsi ISIhal sum in your accou nt, To keep track of how much money is 1n your 3CCOliOI. you ha ve a ~ or cbock Dtr istcr, The, heckbook is set up with blank spaces for you 10 record lhe amount of each check or deposil.. person to wborn you wrote I.he check. and ,he reason you wrote the check. A typical check register looks like IbiS:
money
Number
Date
Description
of uansaction
I
PaymC"1
j
I
tI'
r
Deposit
BaI""""
'1
I
1
..

I I
_.
!
Each lime you write a check or make an automatic teller transactbm. you enter the chec k nu mber, dale. notes showi.ng to \\'hom you wrote the check. and why, and tim amou nt. To see bow nlUC h money remains in your account. subuact the amount (rom lbe~ and craer Ihe new balance. Whenever you mnke a deposit. write the dale, 3 nQIC showing the source of she depcsa, and Ihe amount, Add the amount to the balance and note the new' toral. Suppose ,hal 011July 4, you have $872,37 in your checking .00"U"t. On 'he way to a friend', pol luck picnic and swim p,rty, you make a COupie of stops: Number Date 7/3 714 7/4 714
*.*.
2356 2357 2358
I
....
Description of transaction
paymenl ** ... 17.62 5.89 25,00
Whi.B""~ Suoennart Picnic Supplies, IJOP U.s"V.DNJt.lore Suman lotion
AUlomatic Teller
n
1"
I
Deposh
Balance
812.:>7
Baby,illin~ .aming.<
noo
I
I I I
17.62 854.75 5.89 848,86
~
Afl., writing two checks OJ,d making a deposit onJuly 4, you hove a 'Olal of $873.86 in your chocking account. Oece moullt. the bank sends you a ~ summarizing.1I your uansseuoas. plus any charges the bank makes (bank_~charge foes for printing checks, for cbecks written on insufficient funds, etc.). Because you usually write checks or make deposns between rna":tiine this fePon was compi led and the day it arri yes in the mail, thili: bank's. balance is y rtOI the same as lhe balance in yo or checkbook, To confum thai you know your correct balance and to check for auy (yoolS or the bank's), you must
","ali
0"""
=miII;.yourchockbook Go through your
with 'he bank ".",,,,,,,,..
checkbook and check off, in 'he column headed with. eheekmark or 'he word "cteared," each deposit thal:appears Qn your statement, As you go. be sure ibe amount in your checkbook agrees with me amounl on the Slatem.,LlI!llJ:ili: your deposits). On the statemem, pl.ce a checkrnark no xt 10 each verified deposit. Now check off in your checkbook each check, withdrawal! or oiher dedl"ici Lon thaI appears on the statemem. Again, carefully verify the amounts as you go. Place a checkmaek on the statemem nut to each verified check,
When this is done. look a~ the statement.
MY items
in your checkbook. Enter these hems in tho checkbook and add to orsubtracr from the balance accordingly. Check each entry off in the checkbook and on the statement as you go, On a separate: piece of paper (sometimes the bank statement provides space), U$'( all the withdrawals, checks. and other deductions thar are llQl checked off in your checkbook. Add lben' up and note the total, Next. list and add up all the deposits that are no' checked off in your checkbook. Note that total. Write down the endim: balance shown on the statement Add to this number the tota] or yoor deposits. Theil subtract the uncleared checks, withdrawals and other deoucuons. The resuJI should equal the. balance you show in your register. If not, •• k yourself the following q uesuons: Have you cheeked all addition and subtraction in your checkbook? Have you correctly entered the amount of each withdrawal and deposit? Have you carried the correct balance, forward from one register page to [he next'! Have aU withdrawals. charges. checks. and automatic payments been subtracted?
nw checked
off are deposits
or wl thdrawals
n01 catered
Hove YO"deducted all bank charges?
If you have dane all these dtil:lgs correctly and your checkbook still does
ocr reconcile with your statement, contact
your bank.
2
No,," You Can Do It
Katie opened a checking account on May 5. Below is her first statement. opening bank statement. Number
Reconcile bcr checkbook with her
....
JOj
Date
Description of transaction
Deposlr Opening checking acct. Boo, Rack
Payment
tI'
Deposit
Balance
515 5/9
5115 5118
500.00 .)5.98 30.00
49.95
500.00
.1444.02
414.02
102 103 104 105 106 107
5120
5/25
Bicycle tire TicaThon coneen Tic"",. ComputerStore Computer Game Mega· Pump
Gasoline I. Magntn Makeup & perfume
364.07
9.87
354.20
67.83
l
611 6/l
Honey On' Roses Gif] for Mom
Auto Teuer Cash
32.56 20.00
._
I i I I
286.37 253.81 233.81
Bank Statement Opening eal,nce. SI5
5 checks
$500.00
213.63
20.00
1 other deduction Service charge Ending balance, 612 Deposits: SIS Checks: SI9 5/15 5/18 5120
5/25
8.93 25744
$500.00 101 102 55.98 30.00
103
104
49,95
9,87 67,83
105 Auto Teller Ctled printing
Other deductions:
611 Service charge:
20.00
8.93
515
3
7.2
Tips and To
a....'s nnw 1000
II
Figure tips in round numbers on tho beforetax tab: 15% give or la<e. few ccms, Precisely 15% of an $8.75 resl;mraOi bill is $1.31. Leave S1.3(). $1.35. orif the service was really 1lliIm!$I.SO, An easy way to find t5% is first ro Iind 10% ofth<l bill by m()vingthede<;inw poinl one place totbc righi, Ten P"«:".tof$8.75 is .8750, 0"booI88«n", Then add half oflbat (44 cents); 5.88 + $.44" $1.32. Round the answer to tbe nearest 5 or 10 and you'lI In the United States, most people
have the tip: Sl.30. !ip as follows: W.h""ses. waiters, and bartenders. 15% HOlol maids: 10% of total (0001 bi11 Taxicab dri v crs: 15% Airport luggage handlers., bellboys: S 1 a bag Room service wai tors: S I 5% of meal bill Tour bus drivers: 10% to 15% Shutde bu. drivers: 10% if. fee i. charged; $1 a bag if no fee
li.ir SI~li.ts: 15% 00 20%
"""IS
If a restaurant or hOlel bill srates that a g.mtuilY is added to )'OU{[O!aJ. rips are unnecessary, Tips. are optional. but taxes arc not. M.any stares and cities charge sales tax on restaurant rneals.J lqucr, nonfood Item .s pure ha ",d in SfOCory stores, and purchases such as clolhing and appliances. To figure jhe W, you flrst have (0 know hew much {he local govemmenr levles. Say )Iour state has a. 4.5% LaX and ycur clry a 1.2% tax 00 restaurant food. The easiest approach is '0 add them together: 4.5% .. 1.2%  5.7%.
Convert this to a decimal by moving the decimal poinl two places to the len: bill t>y .057. To get. 5.7% _ .OS7. mund tho multiplier to To find the precis. tax, muLtiply the totall"".bl. the nearest t"nUI or hundredth: .057 fOunds 10 .06. Many govemrocras charge no tax food. This are nonfood item, such as detergent. paper towels. mugb estimate.
"I)
mean, the onl y thing, purchased in. grocery store that llIll taxed and the like. Suppose yeut supermarket bill look, like thi.:
I pound hamburg" potato chips
$1.99
1.28 .67
canned soup furniture polish dishwasher detergent
coffee
3.98
4,26
2,89
coffee maker ,,,,(5.7%) TOTAL
.lU2
32.66 S:l4l3
JAL
polish. dishwasher
Your lax is lli2l 5.7% of 532.66. Tax is charged only on the nonfood itemsfurniture detergent, and coffee maker=wblch total 525.83.
4
Now You Con 00)1 Chris Chringle makes • business trip to Chicago. The taxi from tbe, airport costs he" 521.55, and when she erri ves at the hotel, 'he bellboy wrestles ber three heavy bag, out of the cab, carrie, them into the lobby. and del Ivers them to her room. Since she is; tired and hungry. she orders a sandwich and a soft drink from room service. to me tune of S 12.87. A waiter delivers her order promptly. Before she goes to her business meeting, she has her hair ", as bed and set in the hole]'. beauty salon ($35.00), and she buy' a $15.00 scarf at the salon's checkout desk. After their meeting, she and her client. go to dinner. she covers lbe ta b 0($14 1.85, plus tax, No" morning, she pays iheSI07 room bill and rides the hotel's free shuttle bus back to the airport. The driver loads her suitcases onto the bus and liJI.Sthem off 31 the curbside: checkin, How much. aU told, does this trip cost her in tips? (Round prices to the nearest dollar.) If Chicago charges a 6.2% sales tax on restaurant food, how mach did Chri, pay in tax for the business dinner with her clients? In Chris's home town, regular unleaded gasoline sells for $1. 19 a gallon; taxes included. Her state charges a sales tax on gasoline. How much is the beforetax price of gasoliee? A neighboril'lg town adds its Own 2.3% sales
to pay
to tax
6%
to the base price of gasoline.
How much wou.ld Chris have
prtce.)
buy gas there?
(Figu",
the 2.3% city tax and the 6% 'tate tax on the beforetax
You buy the following goodies in a gourmet 'tore: Castiron ,kille! (regular price, $49.95) Nonstick griddle ($35.88) S¢, of chopsticks ($14.50) Jar of imported Engli,h marmalade (55.97) English tea crackers ($9.67) Hot pad shaped like a rooster ($10,99) Can of pickled pigs' feet ($4.85) Ceramic cookie jar shaped like. goltlfi.sh ($ 18.99) Cookies ($1l.8S) Stainless steel tell kettle ($67.99)
The store gives you a 5% discount on each purchase. Your state charges a 4.4% sales lax on nonfood items. How much is your total? (Sale, !AX is figured on tbe discounted price.)
5
7.3 Sales DI",oUJlI. Here's How 10 Do It sale. is one place where knowing how to use percentages comes in handy. Suppose you go (0 an appliance store (0 purchase a refrigerator. There you see signs trumpeting. "SALE! TA KE 40% OfF THE ALREADY DISCOUNTED PRICE!!!!!" Very exciting, but what does it mean? You find a refrigerator with a price tag of$688.9'J. Nalurally. you nouec tho[ this lsjusr one cent shon of$689. which is '0 close 10 $700 that by the ume you pay. sales tax the real cost will be more than $700.
A However, the $688.99 price tag has been crossed out and marked down toS598.99. You recognize rnat this is really about 5600. According to the sign s, if you buy this refrigerator, you get 10 take lIll2lIlg 40% off the $598,9'J, To figure how much you would have to p.y. first caJeulale$4{)% of the round flgure of$600 (shortcut: divide $600 by 5 and double the result: $600 .. 5 ~$120; $120 x 2 = $240). Subtract this number trom the $600 price 1.3g to find the discounted price: S600  $240 _ $360. You would pay about $360. plus lax. for a refrigerator whose ori gl nal price was about $70f)' Not a bad deal! Meanwhile, down the block anouier appliance store is selling a refrigerator for $450. The original price was about $800, By what percentage is it discounted? To find oct. subtract S800  $450 ~ S350. Divide S350 by $800 to gel .4375, or about .44, Change this to. percentage (move the decimal two plate, 10 the righl) to see <be percent discount: 44%,
listed price. You have been ann i..... ersary?
Now You CanOa It J_ocelebra1eits 2lst anniversary, Business warehouse advertises that i1will sell any cQmputerfor21%offtht considering a 52999 model. How much will you pay if you buy on the store's
Rosa! s Designer Apparel is also having a sale. On one rack, the store offers many outfits at different di S4;QtuHS.
One awesome pair of wool slacks: is marked down from SS8 to $42_ An equally nice skin is priced at 1'65, down from $7 J. Given thai you would wear one about as often as the other. which is a benet bargain? Your favorite supermarket has a SuperSavers Club. Members who present a card
IQ
the cashier
gel
discounts
en certain items. This afternoon. walfbanger's Fancy Canned Mushrooms are on sale to SuperSavers at 12% off. The regular price is $2.49. Schlemiel's Canned Mushrooms ore not on sale, Their regular price is $2, 15, Which
is a better buy? Every year in your community. a large volunteer raj lowi.ng fine titles: Paim withQut pain List price: $45.00 I Married a Icenage Werewolf List: S10.00 Gujde 10 Underwaler Brei_thju\T List: $19.95 Shop Jill organization conducts 4.00 $.50 $.25 a book sale. YOI,}have selected the
Sale Price: Sale; Sale: Sale:
YO" Drop'
Ust: $24.50
$1.95 be yO"' percentage
What percent do you save off the list price saving off the total of the list prices'?
or each
title? If you buy all of them. what would
Y'OUrun into your farni Iy doctor at the book sale. N otici og your taste j n reading matter. he offers 10 sen you an autographed cop')' of his selfpublished book, Dr Smilh's Seer';! Journal and pocket GUide !9 Toenail Care. at 27% off the re.ail price of $39.95, Naturally, you jump at the opportunity. If you fail 10 jump out of the way. how much will you save On rhis book? About how much would you pay f'Or the following salepriced items, not counting
iaxes?
Boom box: 15% off origin.l price of $329,95 Package of Ooppy disks: 6% off original price of $8.00 Telephone: 30% off original price of $79,95 Original painting: 12% off original price of $3.490,
Diamond earrings: 40% off original price of $569
6
Your kid brothel. Joe. went to a sidewalk sale and couldn't resist tho following Sel of lOy cars, $4.69 (originally $5.99) Teshirt with weird design, $16.95 (originally 19.99) Nlntendo Come, 527.88 (origirutily $47.00) Rubber bullwhip. S2.99 (originally 59.95) Ice skates, $54.95 (orig.aIly S60.oo) How much. in perceruages, was each of these item, diS<Xlunted? Ifbe sold you the price. how much profh would he make?
goodies:
T·,hin for 5% offth.
original
7
7.4 Budgels Here's How (0 Do It W. thmk of math as a lYpe of creative thinking [hat employ, logic, Budgeting bring, together math with Ute kind of logic we USe every da~ommon sense. Few activities bring .3 better sense of accomphshrnem and
jndepertdencc than making a budge' of
)'Qur Own
design
work.
A budget plans and lrotls the inflow and cutgo of money. Anyone who hOSany income and expenses benefits by planning how the money will be spent That inctodes homeowners. bus] ness managers. govemmem officers. and even kids wnh allowances.
To make a budgel~ cslab~ish IWO large categories: ~aJld~. Under lncorne, lisl&11 thesources of
mouey Ihat you expect ro come; n regu 1arly, Under Ex.pcnsts, allow reasonable amoen ts ror everything mal you know you will spend 0011. Among your Expens.es, YOu should include a lilUe e;:ctro amount for mlseetlaneous expenditures jUSilin case you go overboard On it shopping spree, nnd you should afways set aside something for savings. Your expenses, including ~vlng:s. should equm your income. Let" s in vent a sample budget for Ca rric, a leyearcld girt. She attends high school. and she gets an allo\"tnnce of $25 a week. Her parents buy he r school fuecaes. but she uses her own money for oncampus.snacks (usually 60 cemseach day) Occasionally she goescutelter scnool for. popand French fres with her friends (.bout $2.00). She 01<0IiI< 10buy clothes and makeup, On S'.lu,<I3y" she goes to the mall will. hergirlfriell.ds. when: 'he may hove es On ice cream treat or fast food J unch (abo ~t $3.00). She prays varsi t)' basketball t and after the onceweekl y games 'he goes QuI with her teammate for pizza (her share of. pepperoni pizza is $350. plus 65 cent for. ,of, drill"). To earn extra money, Carrie sells. preprinted Chnsimas cards 10 locaJ ousincssess:hc SlMS this enterprise in
September and through midDecember earns about S50 a month jn commissions. She hopes to use some of this
income to buy Christmas gifts for her family. She also collects ceramic figurines of horses. Carrie lists her Income for the month of September below ~onthe Icft. 3_ftd her Expenses: On the right. Pirst. she Ii,., all her ~gular expenses, Aft.r she odds them up, she will know bow much slle has len to spend on clothes.
ceramic horses, and [he like. To figure the cosi of:. m onth'
S
WO:L1:h sn aeks, she mul ri plies their of
CO!11
by the number
of times she buys su ncks.
~
S lnee she goes '0 school five times 8 week. and OJ monro has: about 4 .... vecks, she mill ti pl lcs :5 x 4 ·[0get Ihe [lumber of days she bu yssnack" 20, She spends about 60 cems per sc hool day on snac ks: 20 x $.60 ~ S 12,00. montlt_ She thinks she can afford to go out with her Iriends after school twice II week, or 8 times a month. for a (0131Or $16. Weekend trips 10 the shollping mall COSI her $12.00 a month. Aftergan'Lt!:. pi7,Zaparties four limes a momf come to $16,60.10 addition 10 0,..., expenditures. ,he lrie, to save SI5.00each month. September S15 $125 School snacks:
Ancr school:
Allowance (4 weeks) Christmas cord,
~
$12.00
16.00
.lQ
Moll crawllog: Pizza:
Savings
Her regular expenses come
(0 3
subtotal or:
12.00 16,60 W!Q
S71.60
3S
Subtracting that from hertotru September Income, Came sees how much she has left over to spend
her di:sposablc iWIDe. $125,00
she pleascs>
:.l.l..m
$
53.40
Now Carrie distributes (his. sum among mhe· mer things she would like 10 have or do. o
Chris",,", gifts:
Clothes:
Makeup
Expenses cOQliQ!'tjd
15.00 20.00
5.0()
Mi",eU ane cus Plgunnes Subtotal:
10.00 3.40 53.40
Total expenses, S71 ,60 + S53.4O· S)25,00
8
Of course, a fancy ceramic horse CQS1, IDO'" jhan 53.40. But ir Carrie sa "OS her figurine money in September, win have 56.80 10 Spend (In a horse in Octooer, and 510.20 in November, SlIe mi,gIlt also us. some of ber "miscellaneous" funds for a special collector" s item. Similarly, $5,00 won't buy her much lipslickunl.Ss she waits until ""'I month 10 make her purchase Then she would ha,v.lhis month's amount to add ro October's $5.00 makeup budsel. for. t,otal or $10,00, If sIle succeeds in s<:ltiIlgaside SI5.00 each momh between September and December for Christ"''' gifts. she will have $4S 10 spend On family members, And $15,00 placed in her "I!)JI ar savingx account each moruh for a. entire year will add up loS18GnOl enough 10 send her to HOIVard, bul il ought to buy her 3 swell OUlfll next fall,
she
To stay within her budget. Came wriles the names of ber expenses on separate envelope', Each momh, she places me amoum she has budgeted for each expense inside its envelope, This helps her 10 avoid spending too much on any given item, Her friend Christine ,imply keeps a running list of her expenses in a ledger booklhi. allows her tc see at a glance how much she is using for her various categories.
9
Now You Can Doll
Joe is 16 and owns
iii car.
To support
at after school and on weekends. grass grows all winter long. In addition to mowing and IIi mming, he makes extra money cleaning swimming 'P'OQlsJoe charges $40,00 a nlOnth to mow and trim a lawn. He has S customers. and he uses theirequipment. Three of his customers pay him $5.00. week to clean their pools. Joe's fathe·r also gives him an allowance of $35.00 • week and pays him $10.00 for every "A" he brings home on hi. high school report card. Joe gets a report cord ev e ry
other month! on which he averages three A's and two B's, In addition, her cOOre s by giving him 113 of her allowance of $15.00 a week. Joe's kid slster, Corinne. bribes Joe to do
10
the car, he started h:is:own lawn maintenance Fortunately for Joe, he lives ina SUo.be,llcity where
business.
which he works
Joe's dad paid for the. car. However, Joe has to buy insurance, gasoltne and oil: and he has
pay for repairs
and upkeep. Joe's insurance costs $1 20 a month. Gasoline runs about $lO a week. as long as he stays in town. The car needs an oil change every 2,000 milesabout every 3 months. Joe buys and changes hi. own oil ($1.00 a quart. plus $6.00 for a filter): the car takes 4 quart, of oil, In between changes thecar uSC, another quart of oil. The car needs to be serviced twice a Y''''', <0 the tune of about $50. Occasionally, things need to be rlXedo recent brake job cos! Joe S60. To cover theo<: inevitable repair bill" Joe ought aside about $100 a month. Now, Joe has some other interests, One of them is girls. He and his girlfriend. Sharon, enjoy movies. dances, coneens, and the like. To take Sharon to • moderately priced dinner costs Joe about $20. A movie cos" $6.50 apiecepopcorn and soda add An<Xher $3.00 to the tab. A concert ticket is $10.00, and admission to roltcr rink" water parks, and sinular amusements averages $S.OO apiece .. A" ight out wi th Sharon may run Joe 535.00, phis S" for the car, Joe take s Sharon OU! for this kind of evening twice a month. Every Saturday, they do something like ice skating Or miniature golf. and Joe always buys Sharon a soft drink and snack (about $2 ..00). To impress Sharon and look good while dnvmg his Cat, Joe is: a sharp dresser. His clothes, wh ich he purchases with his earnings. are always in style and fit him well Joe plans to help his patents send him to college. and so each month he: pu rs money into savings bonds for thill
'0 1'"'
P"rpose..
WI
Anything thar he has left over after lJ)e;se expenses is spent Oil computer games, fishing) , and ammunluon for hi, .22 target rifle (Joe is an expert marksman). Calculate
fishing gear (Joe likes deep
Joe's income and expenses
and create a monthly
budget for
him.
10
;;
; Mmh MagiC ; ;
;; ;
;
; ;;
;
8.1 Games I.
and
Po .. Iers
Which of these two stacks of figures totals tbe largest sum? 987654321 8765342 [ 7654321 654321 54321 4321 321 21 123456789 123435678 1234567 1.23456 12345 1234 123 12 I
2. Thanksgiving is coming up. The comer market sell, turkey {or 89 COnlS" pound. YO" plan to have 18 people to dinllel. Allowing. for 3/4 pound per person, how large a turkey should you buy7How much will it cost'! How much will each serving cost? 3. On the other hand, everyone has turkey. Whal if instead you served steak a.l$3.59 a pound? Because the steak you will serve has no bones. you can allow LI2 pound per person. How much steak will you buy to serve l8. at what cost? What will be tho CO,t per guest' 4. You decide 10 serve turkey. and, 10 be sure yOIJ have enough, you purchase per pound 10 cook a turkey. How long win your turkey need 10 roast? 5. Oli price? an 18pounder.
It lakes 20 minutes.
vi a bough • .iI dress for on sale for 75% off Ihe. marked price. She paid S62 ..50 for it. How much was. the original
6. Tom Jones' Television and Repair Shnpdid well [his year. Business increased 135%. Last year, me siore eamed
$135.000. How much did it make ,hi, year? What percentage of
3.
7. Two cups. make a pint. and two pints make a quart.
quart is a pint?
8. Leroy Jones. went to the grocery store and purchased the folJowing items on sale:
3 cans green beans, 90 cents (regularly 37 cents. 3. tan) 10 pounds of potatoes. S9 cents (regularly IS cents a pound) 2 pound; ofT bone .I•• ks, $6.78 (regularly $3.90. pound) 3 avocaco s, S 1.20 (down from 5() cents apiece last week) 2 fresh lemon s, 30 cents (regularly 20 cents aplecc) How much did save off (he regular prices by buying salepriced
items?
9. The bank charge, Rodrigo 10 cents for every check he writes. what wiU be left after he write, tim>: chcckssOne for $ [4.98. one for $52.67. and one for $30.000n a balance of $268.451 10. Find the new amount
itl
each of the following
instances:
$40 i"creased by 40% 51.500 decreased by 20% S890 Increased I>y 15% 120 mile. per hour increased by [48 kilowatts decreased by 50% 2 rabbits increased by 150%
JO%
11
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.