Introduction

You, too, can be a Human Calculator, you're doing. This is the message when you KNOW, BELIEVE, and LOVE what

that you will hear in my audiocassette, Calculating, which I introduced about numbers, memory,

The Human Calculator

fll!£. 11 is the Math,

message I have taken across the United Slates and Canada for the past several years. in my book, The Magic of practice, and creativity.

The five keys to Human

are undentanding numbers.thmking

Igive you this workbook SO that you can use those keys-thinking, memory, practice, creativity and understandin g nu mbers, Remember: it's o.k, to be wrong. The important thing is to 10'.. Even though the strategies I wi LI show you are simple to learn and use, you can't expect to hear them once and then
work them like magic. Practice builds your confidence. it. Once you get 10 KNOW what you are doing, you will come to LOVE

Copyright 1992 by Scott Flansburg and Youth Eoterprises, Inc, All rights reserved.

7898 East Acoma Drive, Suite 100

Youth Enterprises.

Inc.

Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

Contents Introduction I. Review of Basics
LI Place values Addition Subtracrion.. Box Multiplication Right to Left Multiplication Left to right Multiplication Complementary Multiplication Division Squaring Cube Roots Calendar Formula I

1.2

2
. 6 8 13 16

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8

1.7

19
. . 21 26

1..9 1.10
1.11

24

28

2. In More Detail: 2.2 2.3
3. Fractions 3.1 3.2 3.3 2.1 Subtraction in More Detail Division in More Detail................. Squaring in More Detail.... 30 . ..

32 35

3.4
3.5

Adding Fractions Subtracting Fractions Multiplying Fractions Dividing fractions Mixed numbers

.

37 41 44 .47 49

4. Decimals 4.1

4.2 4.3
4.4

Decimal Fractions Adding and Subtracting Multiplying.. Dividing

50
. . 52 54 55

5. Percentages 5.1 5.2 6. Algebra 6.1

Percentages and Fractions Worki n g with Percentages

.. .

..... 57 ..... 59

6.2

6.4
6.5
6.6 6.7

6.3

Learning to "Speak Algebra" Nine Easy Steps to Algebra Keeping Equations in Balance................. Adding with Algebra Subtracting with Algebra Multiplying with Algebra Dividing with Algebra ..

. . ..

... 71 73

61 64 66 69 70

l.l Place

Values

Here's How to Do It
'We write numbers in Arabic numerals, reading from Lef. to right. Each figure in a number has a ~ Place: 'Values tell how many ones, how many tees, how many hundreds. how man.y thousands, and so.-fonh represents.

~,.

a number

Look at the number 12. This is the same as 10 plus 2. nr 1 and 2 ones. The figure that tell, how many ten ones are in 12 is called the "units" or vones" digit The figure that tells how many lens are in 12Js called the "lens"
digit.

_...-12,
lens d.igil units digi
t

Let's exam; ne a larger number: 2,458. It has 8 ones or units, 5 lens. 4 hundreds, and 2 thoesands. tho'~d/undred5

/\ones tens
This applies to any n umber, no matter how large. Place values go LV!hi:sorder, from right ones lens
hundreds
1Q

2.458

left:

thousands
ten thousands

hundred thousands millions
len millions

hundred milllona billions .... and so fOM This way of looking al numbers wiU prove useful, Practice l;hiuJting nbO'Ulnumbers in these terms,

Now You Can Do It
Identify the digiti in these
42,876 has 4 278
fi

I,II'OMI"S.

Here's an example:

len thousands, 2 thousands, 8 hundreds, 7 tens. and {1 units, 35,892

SO
5

007
333

'n7
$78

9.081,320
360" 87,256

7,802 2001
1,244

341,245 July 21 5'2" 16.252.110
Route 66

761TOO\OO"'" 8 million

10 1 dalmations 3.898.245.762

2.112.211

1.2 AddJdo!l

Here's How to Do It
In school. you have probably learned io tackle "" addition problem by starting with the ro rs, column on 462 231

ill
With ~his method, you begin fI.:ddingthe units d~gil:;...--..,[he figures On ihe far right ora number. In this case.you would
add 2. 1 and 6 ro gel ,,' ihe units: digit in the answer. Then ,you work witb the tens digHs:

462
231

:ill

9
I in 11 as the [ens dlglt

Your next step wou.ld be to add 6, 3, aed 2. for n sum of 11. You would write the right-hand j,n the answer and then move [0 chc hundreds digits: I

462 231 ;W 19
You would carry 'he lef\-ttand I in II to the hundreds column and add \.4.3, and 2 '0 gel the

fl rs , two numoe rs of

me,answer: 10.
I 462

1019
That'S one, 'Way to work addition. Some people feel it makes more sense 10 add in the same direction fact. this is so easy you can .add long (:01umns, of nombers in yOU! bead. Wc'U try it Out on a simple problem.

~

231

mat we read: from left toright.

In

25 12 31
Start with [he tens dlglts on (he left: 2 and 1 is 3, p.hJs.3 iso. To help us rememberthat these arc lW) we witi mark the place val ue tho!' we're not us i ng j"" now w uh a 0 in parentheses: 2(0)'" 1(0)'" 3(0) = 6(0),

15 12 31
6(0)

2

No"", 6(0) is your hDS§ number,

It will change as we move through lb. problem,

In your mind.keep

track

of each chang. lb. bast number makes-s-when you reach the end. lb. base number changes into the answer' Move ovee to lb. uni rs column, ThJnJ(, 6(0) and 5 is 65.; plus 2 is 67; plus I is 68. And lIl.t 's the answer, 2,
12

II
68
What if

you have to "carry". number, as we did in the •• ample for nghi-ro-lcft first set of numbers; using this new method.:
462 2.31

addition?

Let', add Our

m
~ S!3It On th.lefi, wilb the hundred, we will mark the place values that 4(00) 2(00) digits, 4 plus 2 is 6, plus 3 i.9. To help us remember Ib at these a", we'", no' using wuh 0" like this: 4(00) plus 2(00) plus 3(00) is 9(00).

:Y.OQl
9(00) 9(00) i.s the base Now start adding is 101(0). 46(0) 23(0) 6(0)

DijlDber. Remember to keep track of j. in your mjnd, .he tens digits to the bast number: 9(00) and 6(0) is 96(0). pi us 3(0) is 99(0). plu, 2(0)

101(0)

.1Wl

or,

101(0)+

3(0)

____l(Q)
101(0)

finally, we add 00 lb. units digits: 101(0) plus 2 is 1012. plus I is 1013, ptus 6 is 1019. We arrived at the answer in seconds. without having (0 write down the steps.
462 231

2 or, 101(0) +
I ___Ji 1019

1619

m

3

Now You Can Do It
Try left-to-right 32 ±..M 23
addition On these

exercises. 86 ±...l.2

28

:U.l
92

~

43

~

95

~

LM

146 27]

±..m

136

±m

358

±.l1l. 48
25

~
1,243 2.345

26 16

55 13

98
71

II
2.576

H
29 33 28

2:t
8,703 2,%1

~

308 522

!..ill.

~

22

:w

9,272 5,498 27

2.309
§.ill.

124 15 32 17

286
399 II 51J7

567

400
1'>54

4,365 212

2,860 J.I16

],125
754 _.18.

12
225
124 221

.us.
234
116 214

36

ill
516

:zm
348 223 117

1.397 5,276

237 132

ill
7,865 24 1,%3

ill
546
137 2,176

ill:
8,113 7,125 8,999

us
9,080 207

125 243 121

ill
232

8
4,047

1,765

.i.2ll.

...1£l

.i2lM
845 432

.l..J.2J
615 348 432

.ill
287 164 352 )11

486 243

121

615 142 352

246

ill

ill

ill.

'!M.

4

6
36 62

90
12 32 56

12 42 68 96 16 38 60

18 48 72
102

78
48

24 52

18 42

40 22 68

M
258 192 468

II
3'16 268 515

.sa
789 456 123

64

30 56 84 8 26 52 72

2<:
3GB
412

472

m
22+32+14+12+6= 4+ 10 .. 5 .. 6+]= 185 + 220" 432+661 = III +236+312=

618

256 382

ill.

:Ml!

ill

ill

1.416 2.315 1.174

2,285 3,214 1.416

4,685 3.219
3,207

3.615 4,408 5.1:21

J.l.lJ
652+ 181 +203: 1.213 + 2.114 + 2.002 = 2.222" 37 + 390" 563 .. 2-48+211 7.432 + 8.965 + 28 + 437

2..l.ll

l...l±8

lIJ.ll

=

=
4.287 2.486 2,823 7,141 5,276 3.567 26,812

6,231 1.345 4.021 ;UU

.l1.lli

.ul!1.

2.ill

2+4+6+8" 21 +42 +84 + 168 .. 336" 651 + 1,302+2.604+5,208+ 10,416 + 1,151 + 895 + 36" 22+44+66+88=

1.736=

5

1.3 Su htmtllon

Here's How to Do It
SUblJ1lClion. is really addinjJ in rewrso,
take-away 8 is what?" Instead, ask yo",,",lf

When someone what numbe .. ~

ask.

you, "What is 14 minus 8," don't think, "14
makes 14,

The answer

j s 6.

V iSllaliu

it like this~
14

:.J!
6
(Think: 100,

6 and 8 make 14)

I'll is works for larger numbers, 199

Try it on 199 mi nus lSI:

:.ill
Workfrom lefllo right, Think: "IOOp!usOmake.IOO, The answer mustbe ress than 100," Go IQ the I.nseolu"",: S(O) plus 4(0) make, 9(0). The Ii,,;! di Si tin your bas. number is 4(0), Now look at the units: I plus 8 makes nine, Add thot to 4(0) to get Ih~ ....... er: 48, 199

:.ill
48 (Thin_k:

S(O) plus whal makes 9(0)1 1 plus what makes 97)
In

That's easy, BUI what happens when you bave 10 borrow? Rent.ember the meaning of~. • ollmberlil<e7l, Icrexarnple, you have 1 'COSand ) unit. This is really rhesarn.i.6,ens and II uni, s. Why? II is reaily I ton and I unit. Now ters .ublroc' 53 from 71.

Because

11

ill
A.t a glance, we see that the three in the units column 6(0) and I I, and think 5:3 as 5(0) and J, Visu"lilt;:

or

is larger than the 1 above it. So, in

yotl1

mlnd convert ? I to

6(01 and II _ SCQ) and 3
Tho rest is easy. Mk youl"$Clr Ille same questions: woo< ,umber added added 10 J makes II'! That'$ II. Combine til c two: 1(0) + 8 = 18, 6(0) and II - SCOlapd 1(0) 71 :3 II
10

S(O) makes

6(0)1 It's 1(0), And whar

1(0)

:Ll!
I8

ill

18

Thesnswerl

6

Now You Can Do It
What number 18 ,___6 added to the bottom number makes the top number? 199

~

26

=...Mll 37

~

54

~

75

92

28

656

829

:..2l
153

:...l1
14

=.l!!

.:..!.!2
60 :M
896

.o.ill.
33

o..H

:....8.
376

~

22

.o..ll
762

~

670

:...ill.
47

109 o..ll

:...li1

;;.lli 89

~

96

=..l2.

~

26

~

58

:..ll

~

62

~

77

~

43

332

:.lll

:om
898

518

277 =..ill
SS6

918

249

:Jfll
754

.:.ill
129

~

304

:..W
649 .:.l§lj 1,063

:..ill
242

:.M2
456

=...:J1.

973 .o.lli_ 505

:...l.(ijl

o..ill
987 :.1I1

~

692

o...lli

:....2&l.
9.875

~

578

~

263

~

563

~. 865

~ ~

999

~ ~ ~

876

~1

231
=--.ill_

:..ill

:..l2B.
7,986

),456

2,765

~

9,754

5,809

.±ill
4,864

:..hl22
3.987

4,986

3,876

9,765

:.lJl1!i
6,054

=---.225:

=-U!.i

:.lJ.®
4,957 :.l.OOl_ 2,926

3,746

=.l.lli ,__m_
9,135

.o.l.2.U

~

9,234

~ ~

3.967

~

8,[57

2.875

5.455

::..l..m

o22l2

7

1.4 Box MulllpUcaUoll

Here's How 10Do It.
Here's 3 way to multiply Ib',t makes you feel like you're working. crossword puzzle. Say you want to multiply 24. 12. Fi .. t. <!raw.!xlx ODddivide it into Iaur squares. one for each of the four digilS in the problem. Now. wri I. the first numbcc along the lop, with the left digit over Ihe Ion box, "fld Ute .ighl digit over I,ho righi, 00<, Then write thesecond number down tile right side, with lite r,r" (10.') digil on top and lhe SIlOOnd (units) digi. On the bottom, Finally, divide each of !tie foo' little boxes in half dlagcnally. Stop I SIcp2

2

4

2

Now you multi ply around the box. entering each answer in the tQP and bottom hal v es of the boxes you have
made, Unit< digi" go in the bouom triangles. and tens digilS go inlo the top triangles. Starling at the top righi, 4 x 1 ;;;;.4, That's; a unit with nolens. SO you put it il'llhe lowetlriangle of Ihc 4 X I box. Drop down to the box below it and multiply 4 x 2 ~ 8. Put the 8 in the lower lrionsle of that bo x. Next. move over to Ilte 2 in 24. and multiply

2 x I = 2. Put that 2 in lite lower triangle of us 00'.

And IOSI, multiply 2 x 2 ~ 4. Put the 4 in ilS lower mangle.

2

Now we are going to add the numbers in our oo'!Iili.&WlaIlx. starti ng wirh rho lower right-hand bo1. There', no.hing to add to 8, so just write (ha! below its box. In the next row up, starting with the lower tria_ngleon the bottom

8

left, 4 + ~ = 8, Write til., beneath its box, The only number in the nex' row, wh lch starts with tile u PP'" !liangJe on 'he bottom left. is a 2. Write it next to the box. In the I.. t row, which consists ",lly of the upper left-hand !liangl e,

!here are no ligures,
To see- the answer, reed off

die new outside figures. go.ng from upper left to lower right: 288

Sometimes when you multiply the digits around me outside. you gel 3D answer that has~, lo that case, you pur the answer' s tens digit in the1Qg:triangleoflts box. and the units digit in the .l.2.w«triangle. Porexarnpte.
II}'

multiplying

13 x 14,

tn its

llj)3[

numbers

Multiply around the outside: 3 x I ,,3. Put ibat 3 in us lower triangte. h,4 = 12, Put the tons digi', 1(0). !liangle, and put tbe units digit. 2. In its ~ triangle. Now multiplY I .4" 4 and I x I " I: put those in their triangles.

9

Now all you have. to do is add and read the answer.

4

13xI4=182 Sometimes adding. when
yOll

are adding the numbers .•you get a two-digit answer.

This happens

when you mul'.ply

34 X 23. for example. In that case, write me answer's tens digit in the triangle just above the last number you're
Then add the tens diglt in that row.

3

Starting On rile upper right. 4 x 2 ;;;;; Put this one-digit answer in 8. lower triangle of its box. ext. 4 x 3 = 12. Put the ten, digit. 1(0) iry lis lop triangle and the units digit. 2. in its bottom triangle. Finally. 3 X 3= 9. which you put in us bottom triangle, Now add dlagenaljy.just as you <lid in lbe Ilrstexamplc. When you gene 9+ 1+8.lhesum is 18. Write the 8 outside the box and carry the I (which is aWJ.li digit) into the ten' triangle above the9. Add the Ito the 6. write the answer (1) outside the box. and read the answer: 782

me

10

Doe, box multiplication wori< OD larger numbers? Sure. It work' on number' Ora"y sue, Try 345 x 27:

2

7

345 x 27 = 9,315

11

Now You Can Do It.
Try box multiplication on these problems
11 12 10 12 14

lI..ll
14

lI..ll
12

ill
15

ill
21

ill
31

W
2.4

ill
43

ill
19

ill
16

ill

,8
&J.§ 62

x..l2
35

ill
29

ill
65 &.ll 153

ill
47

ill
123

Lti

&.12
311 &..ll 254

lJ1
424

ill
565

xu
912

215

ll..ll
763

ill
888

..usi
401

ill
298

lI.1Q
767

ill
248

&..!&
S99

.J..1lI.
278

1.&
912

.01
115

ill
511

&..lIZ
362

a...l.l.J

.J..2..IJi
256

&.ill

&..ill.
661

.ul!

~

965

U2.Ci

um
999

861

4l2ll
555

~

993

222

lLlll
1,112

~

777

444

Ul.i
4.121

aii
3,213

&.Salt
1,422

Uli
2,315

2.214 &..ll 5,126

ill
7,891

llZl.
1.452

ll..ll
3,261

ill
1.,110

L2.2
1,901

I!.M
8.883

A.22
1,599

ill
1.627

U2
1,897

.l.J.li

~

:UU
2.493

~

il12
4,679

.uu
9.185

7,358

1.276

1,857

lIM:i
8,894

&..ill
2,()()2

3.lO.2
8,176

r...1ll2

~

&.l211

llill

U2ll

12

I.S Riglll-t.<>-LtfI Cross.MultipiJcotioll

Here's How 10 Do It
I.. g e.problems in t""' head. YO\J m!JU:ipiy 14 x 12.

C;,,;ss.multiplying is a 'tralegy Ihat 01]0"'" you 10 solve ,u'P,i$,;ngly can go right to left, or len to righ,. Let'S sian with dghl.!.O-lefi {7Wss·mn1rjpli£lttiQg Say we, want 1.0 14

ill
To lind <he last digit (unhs digit) i.. <he answer •.multiply!he thi' (0. holdit in your head) as the answer's units digi r,
14 two

numbers on the nghl: 2. 4 ~ 8 IVn«

ill

8

To find the middle.digit, we cross-multiply two sets of numbers. ""d add t~ resuns, Firs' multiply 1 x 2 (tho answer Is 2). Tbenmuluply 4 x I (<he answer is 4). Add the ewe resul.. toget .... tens dig;' in ,he p.",blenf, ,nSwer (2 + 4 " 6).
.14

ill 68
To ~ nd (he final di gil_whioh

~

14

• I ~ I. Writo it oown in the hundred.
14

in this problem is .... bu!ldred.s diGi,~j"st <01umn.

multiply theleftmost

digit,:

ill 168
Thi,easy ,tro'.cgy gel' even easier wllb practice. WI,., if eros s-r nul(iplying and adding resuns in atwo-di gi I. number? Let's see w!>at happen'.

Stan

on the right: 2 x 2 " 4. the uni .. digit in Ine

"",wer.

~
pUI

62
4

Now oms.,.multiply and add the ,.,ul(S' 2 x I = 2. and 6 x 2" 12. Notice In" 2·+ 12 ~ 14. We can', 14 in the middlo of !he aoswer, But we ",,",em.ber thai the digit we're looking for ln the m iodle is a.1I:I1£ digi,. And actually. when WOOIO<'H,,"I'iply. we're .multiplyin8 by units: 2 x I (0) and 6(0) x 2. WhO.l we h,ve mlli added is 2(0) .. 12(0) = 14(0)! ~ 4 in our ",".1, of !4 will 00<" py <he tens place in the answer, That mcens lIIe I in our 14(0) is.really a hundred. So. we'll slmply write (he tell, digit (4) in the answer's len, place, When we finish. m."ltiplying for 'he nat pl ace, the ",."It we gel wiJi be uhundreds digit. Then we wiU itdd the leftover I(oo) 10 tho ",,"I L

1£",.

62

.z...U
44

13

magic, (he

Last step: multiply 6 x I ~ 6. and add the leftover I: 6 + I ~7. Here is our hundreds digil in the answer, and. like whole answer appears! 62

..L!l
744 This ,Ir.logy works on throe-digi.
621

numbers .• OO. Take .•for example:

..u&I
S'art on the right:
621

I x 4 ~ .4

..u&1
4 Now mulliply eriss-cress; 2x4~8,and I x 8=8. Add the results 10 sec tho'S +8~ 16. Or. in reality. since we're now dealing with tens digits, 8(0) + 8(0) ~ 16(0). Write the 6", the ten' digil in the answer on" corry the leftover 1(00) to the hundreds pari of .he answer.
621

..u&1
64
(remember,

1(00) is left over)

Go '0 the left-hand digits and cms.-multiply again. This lime. we cross mulliply three times: Hundred times units digil and len x len djeil" or 6 x 4 = 24.5 x I ,,5. and 2 x 8" 16. Add the answers; 24 + 5 .. 16 ~ 45. Thi, is ,,,ally 45(00). smcc we .'" now deali ng with ~ digits. Now add the lefto"e., 1(00): 45(00) + 1(00) ~46(OO). Again, wc'lI write one digil down and cany the other. In this case, we'lI wmedown a 6 and C1IIT)'4(000) 10 r he thousands di,gil in Ihe answer.

~
is in the ~

621 664

~

62

I
(remember, 4(000)

is left oyer)

ForthenexlS'ep. multiply 6~ 8 =48 and 2 x 5 = 10. Add the results: 48 + 10 =- 58. Remember"his digi., so il is really 58(000). W. have 4(000) left over. So we add 4(000) .0 the 58(000) '0 go. 62(000). Write the 2 in ,hal 62 as the thousands digit in the answer. Th.6 i, really a len.lhoYSilnd, digit. and i. ge u added .0 the next step.

2664 (6(0.000) is lef. over) One I... muhfplication-end-addltion will give USthe fi nal answer. Multiply the left-hand digitS; 6 x 5 = 30.

~

621

__u_u

62

I

TIl is is really 3<)(0.000), and we c-ana<klOur leftover 6(0.000)'0 it: 30 ...6 - 36. or 30(0.000) + 6(0.000) ~ 36(0.000). Wri te down the 36 and see the answer.

362,664

~

621

14

Now You Can Do It
Practice right-to-left cross-multiplying
head.

enough, and you will won be performing am •.,ing feats in your

12

32

23

17

41

ill

ill

ill

ill

ill

16

13

ill

ill

~

31

24

54

ill

.u.l

28 z...ll

42

x..l.I.

~

16

91

18

!..2&

ill

27

18

ill

Ul

43 &.11

~

64

72

&.11

81 .l...l8_

u:z
123

97

76

29

38

ill

.uJ

ill

~

733

246

342

618

LID

lI..ill.

!..l.22

.l..lll

456

&.l..I2

~

483

267

418

517

1..ll2.

lLW

&.lll

816

237

'186

Lill

Lillo

.l...W:

....ru.
922

256

497

.1..l2!1

~

109

420

726

!.2lll

&..ttl

~

333

.ull

940

0L12.

~

145

291

747

666

Lll

Ul

ill

15

1.6 LeU-to-Rigbt

C ress -Multlplicou..n

Here's How to Do It
This strategy works. in the opposite direction from the last one. Let's try

it

On

36 x 24.

~
Stan on the left-in
multiplying 3(0) x 2(0) '" 6(00).

36

this 0","" with the ten, columns. Multiply 3, 2 ~6, but remember that you're ~ OUI base number, which will change as we move along. is 6(00).

~
Now we cross-mulripjy. to get.

36

6(00) but

in two steps. First do 6. 2(0) ~ 12(0)~ Add that to the base .umwof6(OO)

new bose number, 12(0),
6(00)

± .lliQl
72(0) Cross-multiply

3(0) x 4" 12(0), and add that to the bas. number to form a new base number of 84(0).
12(0)

±..illID
Finally, multiply 84(0) the units digits, 6 x 4 ,,24. &4(0) Add that to the base number and view the answer: 864.

±..2±
864
Lei's see how this works on a tnree-digu number. and at the same lime review lhc process of carrying.

Here's the same example we used in the: last section.
621

.II..5M
Start on the

left, remembering

Ibat tile 6 and the 5 are ~

digits.

6(00) x 5(00)

= 30(0000)

30(0000)
Moving across the bottom, from loft to right, cross-multiply number to get a new base number 348(000).

~

621

or

6(00) x 8(0)

= 48(OOO)~ Add that

to the bas.

~
number.

30(0000)
348(000) cross-multiply 2{O)
X

Now move toward the right along the top: 348(000) ±...1Q!2QQ1 358(000)

5(00) ~IO(OOO)~ Add it to the base

16

N",u_ mulllpJy 6(00) x lhe bonorn units digi.l, 4: 6(00) x 4 ~ 24(00). Keep adding 10 Ihe b3o!enumber: now we have a base number of 360.4(00).

~
Cro<s·multiply 62

358(000)
3604(00)

J x 5(00) ~ 5(00). and add illO lb. base num.ber 10 gel 360.900. J 360,4(00) ±..._.Wl!ll. 360,9(00)

.u..J...A

Conlinuing leO. cross-multiply 2(0) x 4" 8(0).nd add: 621

UJU

360.9(00) :t...._UQJ J60.9S(O}

Again cross-multiply 3lld add: I x 8(0)" 8(0): Ihe new base number Is 361.06(0). 621 360.98(0)

ll..LU

±.......&lIl

361.06(0)

No .. multiply the center digi is : 2tO}. 8(0) '" 16(00). Add ugain 10 bring the bOIS<: number 10 362.66(0).

u..u
621

621

:!:........1.6&

361.06(0)

362.. «) 6 362,664.

And finally, multiply I x 4 '" 4. Add it to lit. base number and see II•• """",er:

362,664

~

362.66{O)
:t...__..j

362,664

17

Now You Can Do It
Try the speedy ''''!.Iogy you just learned on these ex"",ises:

is .l...U

16

21

41

22

ill

ill
43

x..2l
5S

3.JJ:
21

zs
ill
18

x..2l
74

n

x.M
45

LU
76

U2.
52

lU1
23 x 31 = 14 x 23 ~ 71 x 24 =

&..23.

ua

tizi

ill

35x 35 ~ 9h64~

84
&..21 132

36

93

39

64

i!...ll
412

iLll
741

ill
202

.L2l
334

l!...2ll
423 &..l.ll 999

~

.au
326

1'd8.1
421

l!...l!U
234-

511

LUZ
238

l!.ill
764

Ull
638

Ll1ll
375

~ ~

l!..M1
653

L1!l2
439 &..2Ji!i

~ ~

.Lill.
639

736

~

950

A.lli

llh 231 ~ 211x1l1_ 432 x 222341x4~~ 654 x 511 =

18

Here's How to Do It,
are dose (0 ! 00, they're =y 1(>",U lti ply, Take. for example, 96 x 94, quickly f18""" lbe diff.re",co between each number and 100. The dllfereece bel we." % and 100 is 4. Tho, dlff ere nee between 94 and 100 is 6. let". wrile lhese numbers down like lhis: 96 4 Whe" 1""0 "umbers 'Tho first step is \0

2'!
choose,

J!

The next SI4!p' is to !iLlbJrnCJ diaspuaUy Subl!aCl4 fronl94 or 6 from %. It doesn't mauer whi,cli you the result wilt always. be Ihe same. ]0 this case, we get a base number of 90. 96 4

~
90

,~

Nnw. multiply the two dilferenccs: 96 4
2;1,

4 ,6

~ 24.

Wri,e tI.. , '.0 lb. right of rhe 90.

90 And thai's obe lf'the numbers The wffere,nee The difftrenco

..!i
24

answer: 96 x 94 ,,9,024. are larger-than 100, you rulIl,lhediff.",nc-esinsload between !03.nd tOO ls 3. between, 107 and 1,00 is 7. 103 3

of subtracting.

TlJI;' 0," 103 x 101.

ill
Now, odd dlegonally:
103

2
3 + 107 = IIO ..or7 + 103",110. 3

ill liO
Multiply 3. 7 _ 21. Writ. 103

1
(be

ill 110

.J.
II

resultto obe risJ'i' orobe I IO",,~ read Ih. answer. 3

!O3 • 107 ~ 11,021. I flhe productorthe dlfferencesls more th an tfuee dlgi rs, you will havcto carry the h"n<ltcds digi". Here's how this work. 0" 88 x 87. 88 12

a:z
7S

11
we ge ra bose number of7 S. A, you can see by mcexample 12 above, th i, is I:lllII.l:L

By ,ub"""'i118 diagon"lIy, 75(00). Multiply 12. 13 '= 156 88

The

'_"'WO'

75 156 is noI7S,156" To rlOd lbe t me ",,"''''CT, we nave 75(00) ____LjjI 7656 1,03, 100" 7,656

az

....1l

'0

add 75(00) and 1.~6:

19

Now You Can Do It
Few of your friends will know how easy it is to solve these posers. 98 92 96

x....21
99

!!JU
90

il...2a 92

!t2.J.
94

97

91

lo.22
93

ll2<:
92 x 94 95.9896 x 91 '" 98.97 '" 90.95 -

A.22

~

L22

sss

=

89

93

i!JU.
88

ill
79

szs
87

96

~

91

99

3..ll
96

94

.il.M

&..22

A..82

.3.M

ill

101

lOS

i!..llH
109

.tlll1
108

104 .ul!2. 106

108

tiIl1
J()3

.u.w.
3...lQ2

102

lI...l.Jll!
108

~

107

:UllCi
105

.ul!2. 109

s.ua
llOx 109 x III x 114 x 107 x

107 !I...lLl

&..ll4

s.ua

102

i!...il2

108= 117", 109112 = 113-

~

117

115

106

119

.J....lll

&..ll4

Lll!1

129 .J....1.!l5:

20

Here's How to Do It
Long Division Division can be thouglu of as "reverse mulli plication." 10be multipl i.d (0 gel another ""mber. The trick is 10 rin d cui how many limes" number

IIwl

A$k "what

nu.mber mullipliod

by 2 equals 8T'

The answer, 4, is the answer to the d,ivi,ion problem.

8~2=?

2'4~8
8+2_4
Long

division .hows

)'OU

the proce .. used in

<hi.,ype oreal.ulation.

lei's

divide 488 (which we will

<aU Ihe ~

by IS (ihe 1Ii!!:i.I!lI):

18)4'8"8
Look. :11.:he divisor and ask yourself which o( the f r$1 few dJg:; IS In the dividend (OJ11la nu mber you c:ao divide into, 18 does 001 go j nlO 4. u will go inlo 48 two ti mes, with .dial. left Over. W ri te 2 oveethe 8 in Ihe d ividend,

2

IS~
Now mulliply 2 x 18 _ 36, Wril. 36 benealh the 48 and suMel,

18

.J2
12

NO"1 step is 10bring down the 8 in ,he di vid,nd and wei Ie iI "",,110 !he 12 you gOi [rom subuacting, Then divide 18 into th.is new number. 18 goes into 12 enter 8 seven limes'; write 7 in the answer 10 {he right of ,the 2-. 2'1
18~

lIi
128

Multiply 7 x 18~ 126. Again. write rhls bell.ath the number into which yo.jusl divided, 128. Subeaet.
27

IS}48ll

lIi

128 2

ill

Lc"'$,ophcre~ lb",lef(oyer2i.coJled'hc~, Tbe ans w eri'ealled'h.QlIl!Iknl. You can express an answer with a rem:1.inder in lWO ways, Write il as "'27 r. 2" and n::3d it. "Twenty-seven with 3 remainder ef two." Or write the remainder Over the diviw as a rra.,tion: 27 2118.

21

488

+

488 +

18 _ 27 r, 2 18 - 27 2118

When the di'l,l'isor has three Or moredigilS. first figure Out which d_igtts: of the dividend the whole divisor will fit into. 'Then look at the divisor's first one or tWO dig;ts~ divide them lnto !he flrst two or three digits of the dividend find the first number of the answer. For example: 486+ 161.

'0

161)4]60 You see tha' 161 will go into 486. How many times? Well, 16 goes into 48 three times. That's probably the correct number-writ. it as the firs, digit in the answer. !fyou multiply 161 .3 and get a number Wm than 486, you know the first number in the answee j s less than 3.

3
161~

ru

Proceed with the problem as OOOv e.

Short Division
Long division helps you keep track of problems that involve large numbers, But when your divisor is

a number between J and 12, ills. easy to keep the partial remainder in your head or make a shorthand note of it. What is 81"'3'/ 381
With short division, .I like to wri te the 8nSWCr .ll..llikr the dividend. 3 goes imo 8 two ti mes, with 2 left over, (Why? Because 3 x 2 = 6. and tha, is 2 less than 8.) Writ. 2 under the 8. and note the remainder of2 above tho ne .. "umber. 2

3l!L_
2 Now, picture the 2 and the 1 as a new number: 2l. Divide 3 into that new number 2l. 21 remainder. Write the 7 under the 1 in the- divi.deJld and read the answer: 27
+

3 ~ 7. with

00

2 3l!L_ 27

I
7~

41 r6

22

Now You Can Do It
Usc whichever method is easiest for you on the following.

11)879

12)458

9807

13)468

19)625

15ym-

17)248

18)872

21}6S4

12)1,246

14}542

36)5,489

29)3,826

41}9,867

24J6)Tf

47)2,638

52)4,147

61)2,039

35)3,162

76)1,776

161)486

142J674

158)391

201)394

512714

862)3,912

263}4367

278)1,242

326)14,486

1,421)1,826

6,829)16,439

23

U

Squarlng

Here's How to Do It
~ ~ ls IIlU Iliplying a number by itsel f. for e xe mple. when we m ulti ply 4 x 4 ~ 16. we say we have 4. The answer-in this case, 16--is called the ~ of 4. Or, the ~ of 16 is 4. To write the expression "4 squared," simply write a raised 2 (for "squared") after the 4: 42. Certain numbers. are 'Veryeasy to sqcare, Here are some strntegies that will dazzle your friends.

Squaring

Numbers

That

EJ.d In Fi ve that ends in S will always end in 25. You automatically know the second

The square of any number

pan
t.

of the answer.
To find the first part. take the nu mber' s first dtgl t, odd I. Wbat is 3521 The second part of the answer is 25. Add I 10 the fl.'" digit: 3;. [ = 4 Now multiply that by the firs. digit: 4 x 3 = lZ, tho fir"

and multiply U,. result by 'he same first digi

pan of the answer.

Put me two together fer the answer: 1,225

If.he number is [",ger than two digits, add 1[0 the number lila!", formed by the digits 10 the lett Qflhe 5. For example, 1052: The last part of the answer is 2S Add I 'he fir" two digits: 10 + I ~ 11

'0

Multiply

by

tl',. original

firs' digits'

I I x 10 - I HI

Put the two pans together: JI025 1052 - II ,025

Squaring Numb ers around 100 If. number is less I11"" lOOb.t more than 51, simply figure tlt. difference between 1000nd the number. difference from the number, and "Writethe result as the: first dl.g.i:l.s in your answer. Let's flY it on 962: 100- 96 _4. Subtract 4 from 96: 96 - 4 = 92 There's 'he fin, pan of the answer, Remember, this is aClually 92 .~: 92(00).

Subtract

mar

To get the second part of Ill. answer, lake lb. difference

between

I ()() and 'he number (in this case, 4) and

square it: 42 - 16 That's 'be second pan of the answer, Pur 'he two togellIer and read the answer: 9,216.

When you do this wlth Dum bets less than 91. you have to carry when you add the two parts together ..This works t.he same way as wilh ordinary multiplication, Just remember that the first pan of the answer really means

blImlrW·

Wh.J is 8821 100·88 _12 88 76(00)

.o...l2

24

'This is tile frn;t part of tile answer. Square the difference: 122" 144. Now add that to the first 76(00)

pan of the answer:

+144 7744 Tbe answer: 8&2;;;;;; 7,744. When you wan t to square anum ber that is l.ar.W than 100,.you add the difference to the number, instead of subtracriog. Find Ibe square of 106;
106

r 112. This is the first part of the.answer. Remember. i, really rcpr ese nts 112(00) Now square the difference: 62 = 36. Add the two together to got tbe .nswer: I Q62 11,236 'We'll show you how to square some other numbers in a later section of this workbook.

oJJli! 6 Add 6 + 106

=

Now You Can Do It
One of the keys to human calculating is
mwlJ,QIX.

You need to know the multi plication without looking

•able. To

fU1'I8Ze

your frieads. you must know the squares of numbers up to 12 as: well as YOlJIQ'l:Ow your own name.
Here they ere. Write each one len times. 12= 22 ~ Then recite the answers at your crib sheet.

32= 42= 52= 62= 72= 82~ 92~ 102= 112= 122= If writing each of these expressions takes you two seconds, and writing a math it to your memory. how many minutes will it take to learn all 12 squares?
Find the squares 252 152 of these numbers: 1352 1852 452 9052 2552 4652 992 892 IIS2 1012

fOCI

ten times commits

1152 88.52 872

862
912 1122

982
11)42 1072 882

922
952 842 902

1022
1052 1062 1132 1252 4852 1212

5552
1032

1162
1232 1222 972

932
1102 1112 1092

1082
1202 1192 1142

942 962
1242,

25

l.lO Cube Roots

Here's How to Do It
To cube a number, we multiply it by i,self twice. For example. 3 cubed is 3 x 3.< 3 = 27. We write (hi, will! a raised three after the number to becub<d: 33 ~ 17. Read it, "Three cubed equals 27," A cube root LS LJSl opposite. The cube I.'Q(l( of27 is 3: it's 'tile number which, multiplied by ilSt:lf twice, j the equal s the number in quesucn. write it like !.his: 0'27 ~ 3 Findi!~g Ihe C1.! be 'root of a number tl1e old- Iashioned way is. [0 put it mlldly, a pal D. But you can learn a suategy iha: makes it extremely easy '0 fLOdthe cebe roots of numbers that are perfect cubes.
First .•you need to learn lhe following I' = I 23 ~ 8 )3 _ 27 chart:

43 - 64 53 ~ 125 63 = 216 73 ~ 343
83 _ 512

93 = 729 Look closely at the answers .nd you'll see Illat each one end, in. a different digit .. I 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 TilLS means 1h~')twhen whole numbers from 1 to 9 are cubed, no answer will end in the 8ij me di git I Here's how ro usc this fact:
Take a number. such as ]7.5 ~616,

Dj vide !.he n umber into groups of 3 digits: 175616 Look at the number formed On the right: 616. Lock at thechan and. see in 8 6. Tbc only one is 216. or 63. Thi s means the second .part Or !he answer is Next. look at the left '01 of digits: 175. Between wnieh tWO numbers number 175 fit' It fallsbetween 125 and 2! 6_ The first figure of the answer i.~ number. The CU be root 0 f 125 is 5, and so the Iirsi di gj t in oW' answer ts;s, Put

which number.

when cubed, ends

6_
on Ille cube chart above does the the cube root of Ille WIilIItl

the

two

together:
OIl

0' 175,616- 56 If your number contains fewer than 6 digit'. di vjce ;t into unit, ,<aniDg wuh the first three digits
right:

tho

9,261: 9261 15.625: 15 62.~ Thi s strategy works wi [h n umbers up

IO

one million.

26

Now You Can Do It
Remember, to really impress your friends and family. you must memorize Ihe cube [{XU chan, Try yOll:r trick on these:

~

~

~-

~

fs:832

~

.J!250,047

.J!175,616

~1

79,507

¥4.<Y%

~

~

¥iIO:m

~

.J!912.673

~

..y704.969

..y46,6s6

~ -Yl.72s

~

~

..ym:68s

J!2S7.496

~

¥681.472

..yi9.683

J/148.877

.J' 493.039

J/117,649

~

¥15.625

~

,yT.3j1

.J!300.763

.J!405,224

J/456,533

.ym:r;&8

~

.y64.OOO

..yS&4.736

.J!262.144

.JI9.26I

.J'19S,1l2

~

..y35,937

~

~

foo:m

27

1.11 The Calendar FO.rnluJa

Here's How to Do It
Ask a friend what day, mouth, and year he was born. Think for a few seconds. and then armcunce=-with
perfect accuracy-which day oft.hc week he came into lbe world!

This strategy will make you look like a wizard.
Your first step is to learn the foUowi.ng §iWiG!(a!)l yalues of each month in the year:

January Feblllary March April May
June July

0 3 3 6
4

6
2

August September October November December NCJ<', we assign lhe,., ncmbe .. 10 lhe days
Sunday

5 0
J

5 of the week. Remember them, 100:
0

Monday T~.y wednesday
Thu_rsdilY 4

Friday
Sanrrday Now, rake they.ar lito person was 45, Add

5
6 was

Divide it by 4 and drop the remainder. tha, back
10

bom and drop the "19," [hhe without rounding.

born i.n 1945, for example, .... e

45 .. 4 ~ 1 [ (drop the rernalnder) !he

year:

11 + 45 ~ 56 To that, add the day of II", month-s-our subject was born on May 7. 56+ 7- 63 Now add thesignificnnt value rottbe month in wbicbshe was bom. The significant value for May is 1. 63 + 1=64, Divide this by 7. the number of days in. week 64 .. 7 = 9, r, I The ~ is what maners, II ,.Us yoo the assigned day "fthe w..,k! Monday is I. and so our friend was bom on Monday. May 7, 1945. This procedure is easy [0 learn as the calendar formula, The abbreviation "S V>tstands for "significant
value." Day of Ihe week ~ (war
+

Remember. the~th'lyou getafterdividing you're 1001<108 for. The significanl value, given above work only for the 19OOs. To find. day in !he 18()(l$, add 2 10 the significant value, For the 1700$. odd 3: fot the 1600s. add 4, To Iind a day in lb. 21s, century (!he 2000,). subtrac; I from the significanl value, The calendar fern •• I. works only for the Gregorian calendar. which was adopted in most Catholic countries in 1582 and In England in 1752.

+ year :'"day t Sy 7 ? Into lhe top pan of the formula ",Us you which day Qflhe week
4)

28

Now You Can Do It
On wh at days of the week did the Iollowing Archduke Francis Ferdinand became was assassinated, even

ts take place? to the beginning of World War I (J une 28, 1914).

which led

Neil Armstrong
Edward

the first

person to walk on the moon (luly 20, 1%9).
he could marry American divorcee Wallis Warfield

VIII abdicated

the throne of England",

Simpson (December

II, 1936).
10

The term "United Nations" was first used officially the Axis powers (January I. 1942),

describe 26 nations who allied themselves against

AI exander Graham Bell spoke the tint words over a. telephone: "Mr. Watson. come at once. I wan t yon." (March 10, I 876)
The Salk polio vaccine Robert Fullon',~, (October29,1814). went into

mas, distribution

(August

I, 1956) warship, was launched at New York Harbor

the world',

fifSt steam-powered

Franklin Delano Roosevelt said, wijh more accuracy than he may have realized, 'This generation of Americens nas a rendezvous. wilh desrlny'' (June 27, 1936).
The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of

Independence

(July 4. 1776),

Irving Berlin's tirst musical, Watch YgprSt£Q. opened on Broadway (December

8, 1914).

Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, was launched by the U.S.S.R. (October 4, 1957).
A braham Lincoln 12,18(9), Richard

was born in a log cab! n on Sinking Spring Farm, near Hodgenville.

Kentucky

(February

M, Nixon res jgned the presidency

of the United States (August

8. 1974).

The Great While Fleet, a regatta of 16 battles... ips, set sail for an around-me-wcrtd h theU ruled Slat",' allies and potential opponents (December 16, 1907).
The drug cortisone Mexico proclaimed was discovered; Texas as one of it was used forrelief of rheumatoid arthritis

cruise meant

10

impress

(April 20, 1949).

it. provinces

(May 7. 1824), of his signing of the Declaration of Independence (July

Thoma, Jefferson died on the 50th anniversary
4,1826).

29

/

/ / ilJt / /
In More Detail /

/

/

/

/ /

2.1 Subtraction in Mere Detail

Here's How to Do It
Numbers Even though we' vC called subtraction "reverse addition:' there's one thing you can't do with subtraction mal you can with addi rion, You tao add numbers in any order and illways get the. same answer. But you can 't subtract in just MY order. For example, 6 + 9 is the same as 9 + 6-but 9 ,6 is Illl1lbe same as 6,9_ Can you take a bigger number away from a smalle-r number? Sure~ The rc..~IIU called a negmi .... .IllJw\:x::r. It represents numbers less than zero. is e Grandpa Belvig tramps in out of the Minnesota SJlOW. shivers. and says, "Its 40 below out there!" He means the temperature measures 40 degrees ~ on the thermometer. or =~5t.That's ver; cold, indeed. T c so biract a larger rill mber from a smaller one, subuaetthe number 011 top from the one on the bottom and then mark the answer as a: negative number. Negative

I

9-6~3 6 - 9 ~-3 Subtracting by Adding Number'S around 100 If you are subtracting a number near 100 (such as 96, or 98), you can simplify the problem ""d,ing Ill.
difference between the number and 100. subtracting 100, and then adding the difference to the result. Let's lJj' il

0." 04·96. The difference between 96 and 100 is 4 (Illal is, 100· Add the difference (4) to 96: 96 + 4; 100. Subtract 134. 100 ~ 34_ Subtract the difference from the result: 34 + 4 ; 38.
134

96 ~ 4).

:....2li
38 Subtraetlng by Adding 10 Each Number If you add the same amount to bOih numbers in a subtraction problem, the d}frml'lCe betW"D !he_new numbers is tbe .'liiUuea_,N;; difference betwee.rl the old nnrnlxtn This comes in handy any rime you can change one t of the numbers: involved into a number that ends in O. Why'!' BCC~lIJSC easy to subtract with Or from numbers it~s that end in 0. He-re's a problem:
148

=.21
We can change 97 into 100 by adding 3. Then, add 3 148 oj- 3 ~ 1St
[(I

148 and subtract to find the answer to the original problem.

:...5J1+3-.lOO
Subtracting by

51

Subtraeting [rom Eacb NlUIlb •• If you C8J1 add 10 both numbersin a problem and get the same answer, then you can subtract from 001n numbers with tbe sameeffect. Consider 8.796·6,342_ You cansubtract 342 from 6,342. to gct 6.000-----and you nonce thot it's pretty ""Y (0 subtract 342 from 8,796, too: 8.796 - 342 ~ 8,454 ~ - 342 ee t\.llOO
2,454

30

Now You CaD Do It
Try your now strategjes 15 :_l on these:

7 :..U 25

.zs
128 :..lJ

50

~

2:;

.sa
~
9,876

982

:.m
6.789

67

~

50

~

14

:..l2S.

:..2.81f!
[0Ile.47·.
liowroldl!!ll1

OMailemoon in Minol. Nonh Dakota, lt was 35·. Bynighlfall.lIl"mcrcuryhad " in Mioot thorn evening?

Joe borrowed S I J fromBurbara, Today he .0 Id hi, cotlecdon of old 33 rpm records in a yard sal. for S8. whichl>e will use 10 partially repayhisdeblloB.rbara. By how much is he still in ,he hole? Express this as a neg"; ve number. (A banker wou,ld say thnl Joe has il negalive balance on his debt) Playing "Moille, May

far to the

!'CaT'

L" Pelenell, hi. friends lowalk 18.le.,. forward and then 26.teps do they march? Wriw this as a negative number, 1.86 ;....2a

backward.

How

~ ~

214

540

358

927

.:..l2!!
3.888

:.l22
9,564

:...ill.
5.482

~

7.642

2.923

.:.lm

~

:J!m

347·9S~ S92·89~ 867·195~
746 - 497 ~

4,586· 1.492 =

56

:.l1
129

77 :..§J

28

82

oll
683 ,:jli

ill
879
;...M{i

:.M!
496

66

245

:.18.
98.387

:..l2!l
42;761

:.Jl2
56.823

~

77.458

:..1.8..222.

o...!Mll

~

83.445

~

31

2.2 Dlvisl"" In More Detail

Here's How 100(1 It
Faclorin,g
Some difficult-looting problems can be made very simple by a 1''''''0'' caHed~, This i, based on the principle [hat you go" the same answer by di "iding a number by ~ of a di vi SO[ a, you do when you dl vide by the whole divisor, The parts of a lorge' number are called fil<lm. fa. example, 6 and 3 are factors of 18 (bee,"« 6 x 3 " 18). Suppose we won,

'0 divide

486 by I S.

Firs' divide 486 by 6.
486~6= 81 Now di vide olio by 3, 81 +3_27.

",,".1,

'This resu) t, 27. is the same'as the ansWff' to the original problem ~
486 ~ 18 ~ 27

Multlply,IJlg or Dividing Both Parts of a DivisioQ Problem when you mul ij pl y or di vide the, di visor aru1lhedj ",jdend by !.he same(lumber-any number-you don "t change jhe answer to the di vision problem, ] f the divisor ends in 5, for example. you (an double it Wl!i the di vidend,
and Ihen you can di vide by a number ending in zero, which is easier.

1S)2j2
Multiply bo[h part. of the problem by 2:

25,2,,20 212,2- 424
Now divide:

8 r.14 50)4~
(Note: By doubling lhe dividend and divisor. we get the same answer [quutienl] but the rernalndcr doubled. The answer 25j2i"2i. actually 8r,,U.

'0

is

If the divisor is • multiple of

5. YO" "OIl. di"ide it ;wi !be dividend by a faclOr U"U turn, [he divisor inJO $.

45)720
We know 9 x 5 '" 4~. So divide both part, by 9. Ot coursc, your dividend has to be evenly div;sibl,e by

the factor you want to usc! 45+9",5 72-0"-900 Now-wh_iU a piece of cake r 16

,)SOor. 720 .. 45", 16
Anorhcr way '0 tame a difficult problem is 10 change i[S dividend into. number tho[ ends in zero, Say you want '0 dlvlde 2,396 by 4. Notice that 2,)96 is 41.." [han 2,400. SQ, add 4 [0 the dividend '0 make it a number lhat ends. tn zero.

AdlllDg or Subtno<llng fwm 1M Dlv.ldelld

32

2.396 ±_____± 2.400
Now perform Ihe unbelievably .asy task of dividing 2.400 by 4;

600
{12400 W. added 4 and then divided 1 from the result:

it by 4. So we now have 1 unit 10<1many (4

+

4 ~ I). To correct for this,

~

Believe it

Or

not, that's the answer to the original problem.

If the dividend
4)2412

is On the

high side of

UTO,

reverse

the process.

by 4.leovinc

Subll'OCt 2412 - 12 - 2400. We've already seen that 2400+ 4 600. We have subtracted 12and divided it us wilb 3 unhs too few in the enswer (12+4 - 3). 'Therefore. we must iI.Ild 3 to our resujr: 600 + 3 - 603.

=

2412+4~603

$ubtracl

1823-23-1&00.

1800

+

6-300.

We have subtracted

remainder of 51OO few in the answer. SQ. we must add 3 and a remaindeeof S 10 OUf eoswer Note: The above process Is diificull when we have to add. to the dividend 4)2395
Who" we add 5 10 gel 2400 and divide

23 and divided il by 6 leaving 3 units and a 300 + 3 r. 5 ~ 303 r.5

For example:

by 4. our answer is: 600·1 r. 1 ~ 598 ,.3. the number you add or subtract should be evenly divisible by the

As you can see, for this divisor.

to'

work easily

33

Now You Can Do II
Factor the divisor: 16)128 14)TI4 9j]W 24~ lSm;l 18)251

12)2Yi
!6)Wr 12)U8

21ri~ 24}1'W 24)624

9jTW 8)128 21jTh8

Multiply both parts to make the di visor end in 0: (Remember to divide the remal nder at the ced.)

~)T62
ISjhlT 6S)TI3

15)i87 5)108

35)140 25)')T1 I()5if®"

75}E3 5)592 555) 14,(itjjf

55j2TO"

15j6O'r
SJT,0T4

4~j2JT

Dl vide

both part'S to make (he dtvlsor a 5; (Remember to divide lhe:remainder ai the end.) 4SW 15}48 20)&4 85jTIj2 95)1,159 75)TI5 10Sjffi"' 455)728 35N4 115)483 9ISjT,li98

4())11i4

(5)156 85)1.037
to make, il e·nd in 0:

55}3%

Add

[,0

Ihe: dividend

6)TI2
14)T4f 212)1.424

9)21'1
17)268 86)2.172.

3}433
21]7S4 47)4,141

!2)2M
32}664""

s)4i6
18ym-38~

26jT,678

Su btract

from tM. di vidend to make :it end in 0: 13)22l) 45)3.130 51)7.153 12)Sj"2 32)1,096 48j8,288

4}308 6}342 68)10,204

1}4i4
28)1,684 23)6,161

3jT(i9 54)6.2i"642)18,126

34

2.3

Squ adng in Mor<> Detail

Here's How to Do It
1,000
numbers around 100. MOM Important: keeP' irnck Q[XQur pia"

Squaring

N "mOO", around

~

Le,', find

TheslroJegy

,hO square

here is slrnllar to-squaring

4 Subtract

~

of 9%: 1.000

996 - 4

= 992.

<he r"S' part of the

OJlSWer. I, really represent. 992(000). or 992 Square lI1e dl ffcrence: 4l" 16. Remember ,h., 111;, is 16.llQl 16(0). Write !M second part of the answer in the tens and LmLl.$ laces.Ieaving p a zero Ln the hundreds. column. adding 992(000) and 16:

~,

You're ;t'caUy

992(000) 9921)16

:L....l!!
usr asyou do for ""mbe.'" rugh.e, 111"" 1.00.

<Jr. 9962 = 992,016 For num bers nillf>cir 111.0 1.000, odd inst ea d of 'ubua<ting ,Oo diff."'ll<c.j

Squaring

Numbers Tha! End In 1.

If you know your multiplication table, it's. easy to aq uare numbers thaI end in zero. lip to l20. AU you have to do is square the firs' part and then odd' two Os. 2" 1<!4""d 00. or 14,400 To square a number ending in one, first .:hi nk Of the number right before it, wh LC'1i ends in zero, Squure Ih.' numbo·,. for example. 212:

no

Tho number bof ore 21 is 20 202,,400

Now. odd that next-lower nembcr to tile number you're squaring: 20+21 =41. Add the two results (0 gel d\oC. answer:
400

±....'!l
441 Squ.ariug Numbers Thai End in Pour
You aLready know how to :square nembers What is 342~ Will end in five. When yO\l: want to square a number ending

in fout. [,''' squ are 1110"""I higher number (which w.ill alway, "nd in five). Firsl fond 1he square oDS: 352" I .225. Now add 111. number (34) to the "OX, hi,gi1,! number (3S). 34 + 35~' 69. Subtract this from tile square of tho higher number- 1.225· 69 " 1,156. The result is lb. answer! 342",1,1% Squaring Num bers Thai End In SI><. This ume.sqcare the ne;;.;:t~nLJmber, [h".36i,3S. which always ends in five. Try J~ on 362: the next nomeertower

35

Add !he number '0 !he nex t lower number: 36 .. 3S 7 l , And j nstead of subtracting. adJj tlli, 1.0 ,"'> square of the higher Dumber: 1.225" 71 = 1,296. or. 362 1,296

=

=

Squaring Numbers Thai Eod In Nine FIrst square me next hi,gher number which 31ways ends in zero. Add (he number to 'be Squared 10the next higher number and subtract lb. result from the square you 've founu
I

For example. what is 7921 The next number higher than 79 is 80. 802 =6.400 Add IIle number and the next higher number: 79 .. 80 = 159. Subtract this from !be square of the high er number.
6.400 - 159

= 6,241.

or. 792 = 6,241

Now You Can Do It Use the strategles you now know
9972 9892
(0

work these squares:
9922 1.0022 9932 312 712 9882 9942 ],0082 1,01.)62 1112 912 1,07\2 1242 742 9812 1.0122 1.0372 512 1012 9762

1,1,)(142
9862 212

1.'JI.)72
1.0032

812
612 112 842

412 1.0n2

442
242 3.0142

642
3142 542

942
1742

2642 1.2942 462

5542 862
962

4442
11}62 1162 2762 1992

262
)62

662
762

s62
9862
792 1392

6662 492
3292

1362.
1792 2192

4262 2592
4492

892

36

!
!I

fJjt
Fracffons

II I

I

I

I

I I

3.1 Adding Fractions

He.re's How to Do It
To line (the. ~)_

add fractions that have the same bonm number (denominator). you simply add the numbers above the Then, if necessary, ~ the: fraction to its lowest terms. For example:

16

a
1

16

_II

16
We have added the nnmeraiors: S + I + 2:::: 8. We put that number over the denorninatpr that all three fracuons shared (16). Next. we must reduce 8/16 by dividing each term by !he same number. Both 8 and 16 are divisible by 8: 8 + 8:;;;;I; and 16 .. 8;;;;;, . Use lhe 1 as a new numerator and the 2 as a. new denominator to find the ans-wer: 2

16 - 2

J! _ 1

5/16 + 1116 + 2116 ~ 112 Finding a Common Denominator Sometimes you need to add fractions that have different denomi netors. We might, for example, want to
know the sum of 3/8 and 1116. Fractions must have the DDl:I:. or oommon del1oro] nalQrS in order for us to add them. W. can change 3/8 to sixt eenths by multiplying Il2lh the numerator and lI1edenominator by 2.

.l
Now it's possible

x 2~_!.\ to add the frections:

8 • 2 ~ 16

.!i
16

1 +Mi
16 Since 7/16 cannot be reduced. it is the answer.
Here's another way to find a common denominator: First multiply the denominatorS together.

.1.

37

1
2

1
3

1
4 Mulliply

2.3.4 = 24. Now. chatlge each f ractlon 1024111, by multiplying ilS IlI!lIItJJI1ll) by 1110 number required to change thedenQrnjMl9r to 24. To change the denomimU'orof 112 ro 24. we must multiply it by 12~:;;0, multiply the numerator (I) by 12:

1x 12= II 1 x 12 24 "To change III 10 241hs. we nJulliply by S: 10 change 114 to 241111.multiply by 6 .

.1 x 6= .li 4 x 6= 24 To add (he fractions, add the new numerators: reduce: 26124" I 2124 Or I V12.
To change an impropcr fracticn.a

12 + 8 + 6 ;;;; 6. PUI that number over the common de nominator and 2
fraction where lhe: numerator is larger lhan the denomjnaror. (26124)

to a whole number and a fruction, divide and use the remainder as: the numerator: 26 + 2A ~ I r. 2. or I 2124. Th i s method works with large fractions thaI don' I have any obvious common denominator. Actually. we could see at a glance ilia, 12 is also a common denomleatorfor lJ2..I/3.Olld 1/4: 112=6112: 1/3 =<V12:ond 1,/4= 3112. Those f"clions total 13/12. or 11112. Remember, there's always more than one way 10 find the answer to a math problem! Human Calculating ,...lIk Fractions Here ·s a rea Ily 10 add fractions. First. mulupty the denominarors. "Then cross-muhiply tl,e au merators end denomin ators and add. For example. what is 113 + In? Cross-muluply the first numerator rimes lIIe second denenunator: I x 2 ~ 2. Crcss-multlply ihe second numerator times the fi.f$1 denominator: I x 3 ~ 3, Add the two products: 2 + 3 = 5. This is the allS'Wti'"s n umemter: 5/?

f." W"~

Multiply

the denominators:

2;w;3 ... 6. Makc-that

the denomimllor

of tne answer-

''!16. And the answer

is: 516_

or, 1/3 + 112 51~ re llJCky enough 1'0add two f~,ctions whose numerators are ] •j ust put the s..um ottnc denQrnjuiltQ[::;. ~ofthedonominaIOrs. Add 1/3 .. 11&: The surn of the denomlnators is 3 .. 8 = U. This is the new numerator (1m). The product of Ihe cenominarors is:3 x B = 24. This is the new cenominator (1124). The answer is: ] 1124. 1/3 .. 1/8 = 11124

0>."""0

[f you'

=

38

Now You Can Do It
Practice finding common denominators for fractions: 213 and 114; 112and 3/8: 3/4 and 1/6: 215 and ll3; 4f1 and 516 219 and 113: 5/S and 415; 1/10 and 112: 3/6 and 718; 9110 and 1111 7/8 and 1116 and 314; 215 and 4110 and 7115; 3110 and 1/9; ll/ll and 115and 219; 515 and 18145
and 32190

Reducethese fractions (0 their lowest terms: 5110; 418: 6112; 18/36; 9115 7121: 12114; 3/9; 40/60; 1&/20 501100; 121/132; 26/28; 35156;45181
Add by cross-multiplying:

1 4

a

6

10

2

6

8

1 ±.2

1 9

12
16

2
10

II
15

91

.1
.1

±.12.

_9;

_j_

1.0

150

.2 92

39

Add

these fractions:

1
2 ;I. 3

5

J

6

s
2

10

2

6 ..2
16

8

2
'1

1

.l
S

1 ±..:l.

1 ±.J

±..II

a

1 ±..20

1 ±.l

1
2

1
4

1
12

1
5

9

1
1

1

±..Ii

1 ±1

±.lJl

1

.u

1

±..II

2

5

a
~ ~
IS

8

a
10

1
9

1
3

II

2

l

5

.l
5

2.

9,

1 ±..:l.

1

±..Ii

s

2±.l

is ill

Change

10

wool.

Or

mi xed numbers:

16115:

815;412; 913: 18112

lOIS; 2817: 3219; 25/15; 36132

18112; 92142; 63/45;

13019; 1,248/64

40

3.2 Subll1lcllng Fractions

Here's How to Do II
Tbe basic melil.od (or Subl:taCling fract.ions- uses the same pri ncjples we learned for adding frottions. FifJO a common denominator. Change all !be fractions to new fractions with In...,common denomlnators SubtrdC.~the smaller nwnennor from !he large,r one. And' if necessary, reduce [he re:;ulting fraotion to its Jowest terms. Here's an example using fracuons thai already have the same denominator:

Wbal3boul

su btracting

113 from 2/5?
C00l010D

First. give. the fractions

denominators.

The lowes. common

denomin810r

for 113and 215 is IS.

2 • 3~ 5 x 3= 1 • 5=
J

6
15

~

x 5 = 15

Now subtract the new fractions.

li
15

15
There'
$

..I.

the answer:

215 • 113 = lIlS Human Calculating wi,h Fractions: Subtraction Remember how we added r,;)< tions by c'oss·lfIu!l.ipl~i ng? Well, we can do iiies am. ,hing onsubtrsctlon. Let'. say you wan, '0 su brract l.._l 45 The common dct.lominalO.r is still the product of the deaommarors: 4;w;: ~ 20. To find [he'.numeraror, 5 cross-multiply the fj,~r nuIDC:r.UOr and second denominator. and Olen the second numerator and first denominator. Then subiract these ,umbers: 3 x S ·2 x 4 = IS ·8=,7. Pur this ever iii. comeion denominator.

1.2=.1
4S 20

41

Now You Can Do It
Remember to reduce the answers (0 their lowest terms. and thal il's possible rOT SOme answers to be
negative nambers.

fi 8

12
15

10

Jt

:1 5

9

a

.lll 16

11
26

JJt

19

II
18

11
2)

II
96

~

67

165

:tl!

~
:...1M

84

m
980

:..m

12

.u.

Subtract

by cro"-Lnu.luplyint:

±
5

1
8

~
6

10

~

I
8

:..li

a

1 :..4

.a

2

;Jl

.>

~

2

1
2

2

5

a

9

1 :..l 42

1
:.!I

1 :..l.li

U
16

12
20

11
30

.1 :..!i

Subtraet tbcse fractions:

II 33 ill

1
8

10 _3

.2

U
16
_3

..2l.
103

~

Ii :.J2.

:..!lJ.

~

...l o..Ji

II
63

II
12

2J.
31

J.
5

...l 1M

~
9

~

91

..l.6.!l
360

.lti 37

1
3

~

J.

II oM

2 0:

180

.21

11
15

11 82

2!!.
33

43

33 Multiplying Fractig!lll

Here's How to Do It
To Iind a fraction of ill; largel number, m ultiply me number by the tracuon,
213 oU cups is. multiply To multiply. g cups.

For example. 10 see, how much by liIe number, place the result

over the denominaror,

fraction IIlU Iriply the ~ and 'reduce- tile re-sulting fraction to its lowest terms,

213. " by a whole number. simply

e ,213
Multiply

= 16. Place tIl.e 1.6 over 8/3 Reduce the fraction: 8/3 _ 2. 21],
8.,2

U!. ,,",nominOlor 0[3:

3>2/3=2213 To multiply two Iractions, multiply lhc numerators and then multiply the denominators. ]f possible, Simplify things first by reducing the original fractions to thei r lowest terms. a_n,d course you reduce the answer. of
100.

1,Z
8x3
First multiply the numerators: I x 2 ;;;;, This. is the new 2.

numeeatoe.vfben multiply the dencminators:

8 :t:3 = 24_ This is the new denominator.

lx~=.l
8x3 Reduce the result: 2/24 I IS x 213 24

=

= UU.
1f12.

Sometlrnes you can make a shortcut by ~ There are two ways to cancel. OI1e is to cross-divide nu mbers in a muluplicatlon problem, if tl'ley divide evenly into One another, Divide numerators with deeomjnarcrs only=not numerators into numerators Or denominators into deuominarors. In the example abo ve, 2 goes into 8 four times. Draw a hne through lhe 2 and replace Ltwilh a 1: draw • Iine lhrough Ih.e Sand replace i, wi,h a 4. 1 'f>, 3
4 x ! = 1 (oewnumermorj and 4, 3~ 12 (ncwdcncminator) to see tbearuwet: 1112. This saved: h.a,Vin,c 10 reduce lhe answer from Y24. whenever you find eeros tn both a: numeratorand a denominator. you cancancel them, too. Iuthiscese, they simply disappear. Say you need '.0 multiply 1110" 360/92. Now multiply!

.,.r

I

J. x .100 JO n Urns in the n umerator (360) and the denom inOIOT(! 0)_ Now you jus multiply (new numerator) and I • 92 = 91 (new denominator).
Cancelthe 1110 x 360/92 _ 36/92, Now reduce tho result: 36192 ~ 9/23

I x 36 = 36

Be sure to cancel

m the n umber
multiply

of zeros j n the second number lhai, corresponds. to the number of'zeros
10116 x 814200. you could cancel only 2m: 0 from 4200. to match the

in the first number. Fcr example.ro one 0 you cancel from the lO.

1!l x....a
16 Multiply Ix8 x 4200

Cancel

0""

0: !l16, 8/420

= II and

16 x 420.~ 6720_ Reduce this froc'ion: 101! 6 , 8/4200 = 1/840

816720 =

11840.

44

Now You Can Do It J
6 1

1
7

).

3

s
6

1
8

t...li

a.
a
4

a

Z L!

3 t...li

f! .!...lI

1 2

z g

_2 11

l.Il
21

Z
5

a

3

U ill

_l

25

..l
18

15

Ji

l

6

x8

1

x21

.l.2

.l.2
61

12
13

92

.a

Wl
360

1.1
16

.1 U

69

.!

.l.2
99 II

15

1.

.2[l

210

~
8

.! L!l

~

.!...lI

~

2 t...:i

1 ill 45

2li

30

..l
8

.s
6

U
15

10

2

ISO

J

a

8

III
12

3
5

II ill

SO

.s

190

..ll!

ISO

.JiQ

:l.
7

10

1.

II ill

10

.1

ill!
320

j 19

220

JlJl

III
12

.Ii L.1!l

.46

3A Oh'ld lug Fractions

Here's How 10 Do II
To divide a fraction by anolherfntClion. Let's divide In by 1/4: invert jhedlvlscr and ronew the same steps as in muhiplicaticn.

The di vi sor is: 1/4. so

1 .. 1 24
\\''C

(urn ill upside:-down:

411.

1 .:! 2 I C"n",,1 tho 2 into the 4: .I.

And mUltipl),:

I x2

1--2" I = 2, the answer's 2.~2
I'

.'1:' 2

numerator:

a_nd t x l

e

1. the denominator.

B."

use ony number <livid.,. by I is 1M number. 2/1 ~ 2.

OMding with tractions and Whole Numbers Wh.t if you need to divide 3 fraction by. whole number_ay. 113 .. 21 Make:l fraction OUt of the whole number by putting i1over 1. As we jus. saw. 2 is lhc lnven this new fraction (because it is tho divisor) and ",uhiply . .I. .. 2 3

S. file

as 'Y~. Then

.I. .. 2.
3 I

1 x.l. 3 2 The answer is I16. Todivide 0\ whole number what h'ppeM when we divide 2 by
2
+

.I.

6

by 3 fractjon. oncc3gain iRvert Ihe divisor (this tlmc. the fraction.). Let's see 1/3;

1
3

2x l

I

jj I

=6

3 When you divide a number by a propel fraction, you gel 3. larger number!

2

+

1=

6

47

Now

You

CaD

Do It .s.+2.
6 ;1+1
8 5

1..1
2 6

2. .. 1
3
)

1..1
S 4

.3

1+1 75

III + ~ 12 8

u,s
16 8

..2 .. 1
10

S

1+5. 86

Jj!i ......ti 190 180

J:2. .. 1-

100 10

Jl! .. ...u
41
100

.l!!.. .2.
IS 25

_j_+21 12 48

1+7 .3

2 .. 3 9

1 +16 S

~ .. 20

5

..2+ 3
10

4

J +]

2+ 12 .3

5_ "14 6

~ +9 ?

....Ii+4 II

1ll.. 14
12

.l!!"3
19

1i.14

8

2.+190 5

250

llli + 3

4+1

.3

5.. 1

s

2+.3. 5

6+1

10

8"~
7

3" ~ 6

7" Ii 8

9+ III
12

13+ It

9

5" Ii IS

2+! 5

6.. 1lI 52

14 .. .3.2.

~

81

100+

.u;
19

91+!

5

48

3.5 Handllng

Mil<e<INumt,e ....

Here's How 10 Do It
A mixed number occurs when· a whoPe number and a fraction appear loge,he,r: I 112is a mixed number, Another wal' of expressing lhe same value is. wl ~han j mgroper fnl;ctjQn-3 rracu,on whose nu meraior is Iarg;er than ilS dencml na lor. The mixed number 2314 is the some .. the improper fraction 1114. To add, subtract. multiply. or divide mixed numbers, you can convert them (0 improper fracrlcns, 00 tills bymulli plying she wholen_bel brtll. fraocion' s denominator and tlIen adding the resul I 10tile numerator. This gives yOlI the numeralor of the imp.rope, fraction. 23/4 Multiply 2 X4 .. 8. then add !be result 10 !be numerator. 3: 8 + 3 = 11. 2314 .. 1V4 To change an improper fraction into a mixed "umber. divide the numerator (II) by the denomin.l.or(4). Usc: the rerru't;nder as the nume r.UQr of the mixed number's feactlon. II + 4 = 2 1.3 The 2 is Ihe whole pan of the Illi.\ed number: place the rentainclu 3 (>vetthedenomlnalo, 10 lind the fraotion: 314. If necessary. reduce the (motion. lJlb 2 314 Any fractlon tII.1 has. 1 as a <!enOnlinotoreq.ol, ,be numerator. For example, SII = 5. Any ("""ion tha1 has the sa",e number as a numrm\orand as .dcnomlnruor equals I. Fot ex3ll'ple, SIS; I.

on.

Now You Can Do It
Change th ese mixed numbers 10 improper fractions: 5 112: 34/5: 6 1/8: 2 9110; 44n 92111; IS 617: 21 ?fS: 46 2/5; 3 14/15
1712113; 124/5;

192110;50;

723/4

Change these improper fractions 10 mixed or whole numbers: 1517: 19/6: IOfS;8f7; 14/3

2117: 2518; 3216; 16/15; 43/9
33/12;

l681J 68; 18/14: 151175; 12l! J

49

!
!!

I1Jt!
Decimals

! !

!

!

!! !

4.) !)ed_I Fraotlons

Here's How 10 Do It

A decimal ISa special kind of fraction. It expresses Iractions in tens. hundreds. thousands. and W COM. For example, 112is the same as the decimal, S, or 511O. Tho figures aft .... he docimal point represen to rraction. One figure shows the ftact'ion coums tenths; two figures, hundredths. th.reefigures.lhousandths" and onward (0 infinity.
5110 "'.5 five tenths

51100 ~ .05 fj,.• bundredths 511,000 '" .005 fLv.lho.sandtils 5/10.000 = .0005 five ten·lhou>andlll, 51100.000 = .00005 five hundred-thousandths Notice Ihal no comma appears to thc.f'gure, 1<> lbe righl of the decimal poim, To write 371100 as a decimal fraction. just write .37. To meke l: 37/1,000. write .037. For 37110,000. write .0037. And 10 express 3 7110. you would write 3.7. You can (urn any fraction into OJ decimal by dividing the d-c'nominalor iruo the numerator, Lei'S try that on 5110:

10)5" wrne adecimal pointaftertlK::5.and

[ben

place another decuna! pointjusr.above il where theanswergces.

IO~ ND'" divide 10 lnm 50 10 gelS. Place the S Over lbe 0, 10 the righl Of the decimal point. and YDU will see bow SilO mms imo .S! .5 10}5.0 Zero, afler lb. S don' I cllange llIe docimal Iraeuon's v8Iu.: .5 = .50 ~ .500 = 112. You' II find il useful to learn l.he decimal equivalents of. Iew common Iracuons, If you need to fJ"O whnt .25 of son ... quantity is fo' example, you'U know [hal all you have [0 do is divide by 4, because .25 is alway' 114. lI4" .25 112~.5
314", .75

113" .33 (appto.imolely) 213 = .666 (approxlm a.tely)
115 =.2

2IS ~.4 315~ .6 4/5=.8 118= .125 1/12".08 (appno,imn.tely) Notice that some dee! mal cquivajents are approximations. This happens when the deeomjnnor will not the numerator no mauer how Rlany U:lOS We put in. SO''OClUnCS. as with 113 Qr 213. a single number repealS over and oven ai other times, ,",wilb In or 1111, a set of'numbers repeats over aod over. Thus. 113~ .333... and In ~.142857142857 ... these ate called repeating decimals

even_ly divide

50

Now You Can Do It
Write these n umbers as decimals: eight .. nth,
nine. tenths.

si xteen hundredths ibree thousandths four hundredths one hundred twenty-two tbousendtha one ""0 one. half One fifth three q uaners ten .na three .hundrodth, twelve and thirty-one hundttdlhs: Change these fracuons into decimal fractions: o ver again. 116 419 12120 317 2111 4IJ6 618 511.7 20145 27160 511600 continue repeating decimal until you see the pattern start

13f2j

1231458
26195

161125 901360

15/322

100123 2 518 1618

17 617 39 8188 25 '1/4

1.24112,555

JOO 3115

51

4.2 Adding and Subtracting Declmals

Here's How to Do It
Decimal s are added J.SIIlIe same way as whole numbers, Irs especially important to ~"P track of place ~. Wbon you write down. column of dedmal fig ures, be sure to ,..rire the,docimalpoint' one directly beneath rbe other. This will help in.ure th,,, you don't accidentally add tenths to hundredths.
4.586 13.21

7.tn4 4.3 U~ the .,.,thod_iest (or you loadd IlIe figures. Wben you gel 10 !bete.lh.columnand youna ve tocarry, remember 'enth, cany over into units. Simply add tbe numbers exactly as you would add • column of whole numbers aOOthen pi.". the doc; mal pohu ln the answer di=lly below your column of points. 4.586
that 13.21

2M2

7.074
4,3

56.790 Subtraction "'o"ks the same way. Be sure 10 keep the d""imal points in order. 135.8791 Not. that the .645 is the same as .6450. so you subtract 0 from l.

2M2

~

113.2341 Wb.t if you want 10 subtract 4.4257 from 22.645? Add. 0 to .645 and proceed. 22.645 22,6450

~

135,8791

J12ll

=

~

IlUI93

Thi, makes il easy 10 subtract, ,ay. 3fIO.OOO from 1/2, 1/2: .5 3J I 0.000 ~ .0003

52

Now You Can Do It
Add decimals representing these numbers: 112 + 215 314 .. 113 12314 + 2 7/8 4/5 ... 271100 26711,000 + 314 8/64 + In 71150 + 9711 0 82415 ... 3116 8 m ...S3lIS 61 2110 + 61 2/9
Subtract decimals representing these numbers: 314· 1/4 5/8 . 113 I 118·418 571100 - 3110 12415 - 3 9110 I 112 - lIS 251100 - 2111000 4/5 - 71100 9 112 - 9991100 1/4 - 27/80 Add 118 + 314 16213 ... 84n 315 ... 1 1112

9110 ... 1461100 11 3/4 + 27 1/20 42315 + 10 7/8

In - 115
14110112

213 - 112 6n - 3/10
1 -211100 151100 - 1711000 161/3 - I 118

to lito - 7 314 2516- 9/10
19 - 82190

usese <!e<:;mal numbers, 1.23 66-4 JAI2 3.825
3.6 871.3

100.31

2.6 4.06

41.4 3.7
561.04

~

...J.1
2,2'" 3.45 + 13.7 6.6& + 4.0091 ).62 ... 21 ... 37,208 61.889 + 1.3 + 923.007112

..llJl

ll.6lll

+ 37,;)4S 6 + 3.09 + 47.8 l.S + .18+ 18 7.11 ... 1.7i + 17.7 + 71 8.2 + 9.821 38.005 ... 1.435 ...5.505 + 12.5 +.56 ... I 1.876,890123 +45.7612 ...42 ... 761.227

Subtract these numbers. USing d&C1D1a!s: five tenths minus twenty-five hundredths
three .nd chitty-three hundredth, minus One fifth

four fifths minu-s one third nine hundred thousandths minus one half During a summer drought, the level of water in the town water tank fell to 1/4 of the tank's capacity of 100,000 gallons. Fall rain, added 50.000 gall 0"' to the tank. How many gallons arc now in the lonk? Express that as a decimal fraction of the: tank's capacity. Subtract:
1.227 ,_j_ 87.37 - .035 2001 ·51.54 2.225 - 112 3.8211 -08 3.82 5.415

.o..W:Zli

;.l.ill

7.0 ,_j_

82.658

.:..1S.W

999- .0999

53

Here's How to Do It
To multtpiy numbers with decimal points. firsl use the method that's easiest for you to fmd a prndu'C't.. lgncrin g the decimal poims. The". count the ",,"1 number of figures 10 the right of the decimal point' in the problem. 'Ibis lOOIlis lI'e number of figure> that mUS! appear to lhe righl oflM decimal poW in Ihe answer. Ro- example, 4.21 , 3.5, 4.21 . Cross·mulliply 421 x 35 ~ 14,735. Now couorthe number of di&itsto the righl or tbe decimal poi.tsthere ore lWO in 4.21 and 1 in 3.5, for 010131 aD. Th.'.1 means Iho answer has three digits 1.0the right ofi" decimal point: 14.735. That's all there is 10 it! 4.2·1 X 3.5 ~ 14.735

L!..i

Now You Can Do It
Practice JUulriplyi"g

92

tbese numbers 3.4

as decimal" 4.10

32

.912

Ll
4.0

llU
9.1

L2
7.61

Ll!!i
928

~

.Loll
500

3.JI
.005

.um
1.32

Lll
719
iI..'!.ll_

4.8 ;0U

638

L!l1
6.89 x .013 ~ .43 x , 12:. 7.007 x 2.001'" 47 x 112 ~ 99.119 x . 50 "

U

UZJ.

.1.2:1.2

7,942.1

4.899

ol............I
3,333.3

~

38.29

5.455

9482

01.1.61
62.148
l:..l..Jl_

L1..l!.L
43 1/2

Lm
2110

79110

L.....U.l

l!.li1ll.®.

Ulli

.uL.:!

54

4.4 Dhldlng Decimals Divide decimal numbers just as you woald whole numbers. The trick is to figure where the decimal point the answer. There are two ways to do this. In one method. you count the number of digit;; to the right of the decimal points in the. divisor and then in tbe dividend. Then subtract the divisor's number from !he dividend's to get the number of digi", to the right of the decimal point in the answer .

goes in

.9)ilj8
decimal We know tbatl08 .. 9 = 12. Thedividend. 1.08, has two decimal digits (.08) and the dlvisor, .9, has One digit. Subtract the divisor', from tho di,ridend's: 2· I. I. The answer contains one decimal digit: 1.2.

=

In tbe second method.

write the division

problem

In the conventional

way:

.9jT'58
With
the dividend's
iii

pencil

Or

in your mind" s eye, mo ve the divisor's decimal point all the way to the right. Then move

decimal

point the same number of places to the right. .9.)1.0.8

Place the decimal

point over the new place in the line for the

answer, and divide as usual:

1.2

9)"jQ.8
1.08+ .9= 1.2
If the there arc. more digils behind the di vidcnd until you he.ve enough figures.

decimal point in the divisor than in the dividend, add

UfOS 10

the

.000j'i"O]OO 1200 9)10800
10.8
+

.009

= 1200

55

Now You Can Do II
Dividing these numbers is. easy when you keep the decirna_1points str:light

.sj'IT
6+ 1.2=

3.syrn

.42).m2 .63);1)242.1)"2>.92

.075 .. 314 = 51100 .. 1110 "
22.95 +.045=

.3740 + 5.S"

82.7)

.1 .5~7.S

.82J41U

3m.

86.3jOilll

55.S}9.3T8l; .53)OOJ

5.3J9[T

53j9OT" .O!2):t68-

56

I I I {§jt I I r
Percent

ages

~

!I

II

5.1 Porcent.agell and Frac.tlO.DS

Here's How to Do It

Percentages: art a special form of decimal fraction. "Percent" means "out of every 100," and percentage ls a way of fisutilJg parts of. whole by~. To say ''7%''meaos "seven out of 100 port s," When we say "x percent of something." we are 'peaking of that many hundre<llh, of'it, Ten percent of 56. for example, is tho same 8$ .10, or ten hundredths. of 56.

PeruDl to ~lmals To convert percentages to decimals, all you have to do is move the decimal poillt two phl"'" (0 !he left and drop Ihe percent sign (%).
27%

=

.27

3%=.03

144%= 1.44 101(2% = 10.5%"' .105 ~imah sign,
.12= 12%

to Percen t To convert decimals into percentages, move the decimal poict

tWQ

places

10 tbe

eight and add the percent

.02=2% .002 _ .2% 1 ).00= 100%

=

4.3 =430%

to Po,,,,,.] We have seen how to equate certain decimaJ numbers. to easy-to-work-with fractions. For example,.S is the same as ]f2, and .8 is the seme as 415. Since percen tages are really h".ndredth s, some percentage, equal u seful commonftaetions. Whcnyoulrnowthal20%=.20=IIS, u'seasy to figure 20%ofi55: just dlvide IS5by5. Why? Because 20% = 115of ISS, or 115, 155.
20% of ISS

Fraclions

= 31

Any fraction can be expressed as • percemege, If the fraction is already a hundredth, just express i I as a decimal, delete the decimal point, and pia ee the percent sign (%) after it. 141100= .14 = 14% 51100 = .05 5%

=

To express other fractions as percentages. nrs! convert them into decimals (di ...de lhe numerator i denominaicr), then shift lhe decimal polnt two places tp the right
215 =.4

by the

Move the decimaL point two places to lhe right: .4:40% 14/360 = .038 = 3.8%

1315 = 815 &/5 = 1.6 1.6= 160% Here are some common percentage equivalents to fractions; 11\0 = 10% 115 = zoo,

57

)/4 =25%
1/3 = 33 1/3%, or 33.3% (approx. 33%)

215 =40% liZ = 50% 213 = 66 2/3%. or 66.6% (approx. 66%) 314_75% 4S = 80%
Knowing these. you "on ""'ily find 10% orary number ,imply by dj,idiqg the 20% of a number. divide by 5 25% of a number. di vide by 4 Approximalcl.y 33% of a number. divide by 3 40% of. number, divide by 5 ard multiply by 2 50% of. number, di.ide by 2 Approximately 66% of. Dumber. divide by 3 and multiply by 2 75% of. number, divide by 4 and multiply by 3

"".,ber by 10. To f,M ....

80% of. number, divide by 5 and multiply by 4

Now You Can Do II
TU.m these decl mills; lnto perc:enra,ges

.81 .643 4.01 .OS3

.95 .891 370 9.401

.16 2.36 .2 .0101

.07 .04 .5 7.907

.34

.004 5.05 385385

Out of every 100 minutes after school, Joe ",latches soap operas for 37 min ures. What percentage or his ume is spem walohiDg the soaps? Tum these fractions into percentages: 114 3151 11115 5/6 1015 5125 I 1110 31J1l 4/5 53/60

14116 7J1l 9118 14115 901360

9110
213

671100 19120
314

719 91n 115

UlliO 8213
What percemage of her sales is made

up

Three quarters of the pets sotd by There: sa ' s Pel Shop are goldIi,h. <>f goldfish?
Tum these percentages into fmc{iQn:s. 33 1/3%

5%
40%

60% 15%
3()<J,

25%
16%

125%
95%

1.625%

71% 51%

540% 200%

mixed numbers, 10% 100% 81% 480% 5,001%

or ..,.!hole numbers: 90% 66213% 172% 2331/3% 4,804%

Jeanine, a haspi,.1 worker, vi us 38 patiect each day. When.he has seen 50% oflhem. what fracuon or the iotat number or her patieots has she visited? How many people. is Ibis?

Tum these percentages 87% 15% 50% 5%
100% 342%

i nto decimals:

35%
1.5% 204%

40% 05%
1 112% 3.25%

25% 9)% 3315%

4.. 87% 2

99.9%

.999%

008%

58

S.2 Wnrklng wllh Pereeeteg es

Here's How to 00 It
What during

Percentage oh Number is Tbat?
Lee Wong· s [atlOry made 8 widgets todfl~. The ... production schedule says they should make 32 widgets

the week. Wha' percentage of their weekly production did the factory work." accomplish in one day? The question is, wbal QtrS,nt is 8 0(321 Figure the percentage by dividing the number that follows the words "what percent is" by the other number. Then R10ve the decimal point IWQ places to the right to see the
percentage. In this case, we di vide 8 by )2,

8+32~.25 S = 25% of 32 Another way do this: make. fraction of the two numbers: 8132. Reduce it as far to a decimal number. Then move the decimal point two places (0 th.e·right

'0

as possible and change

it

8132 = 1/4 lI4 -.25 8 =25% of 32 How Many Is • Percentage of Thot Number? 1" the third week of May. tho Lee Wong WidgetFaclOryproduced75%oftheirquo,a many widgets did !hey mate that week?
Now question is, what is 75% pf 3l?: To find the answer. change the percemage

of32

Widgets. How

me

to a decimal

by moving the decimal point two places to the

.Ieft:

75% .75 Multiply the number whose percent you wish find by the decimal fraction: 32 widgets x .75 ~ 24 wtdgets IJ you know the fraction equivalents to the percentages, you have a short-cur: To gel ,he same answer, Simply divide 32 by 4 and multiply by 3. 32 widgets +4 8 8 x 3 = 24 widgets

=

'0

75% is the same as

3/4.

=

Now You Can Do It
Convert the percentages to decimals or fractions to figure the answers to these:

5% oi328 = 14%0[82 = 25% of 40 = 33113%of9O50% of 160= 21%of67= 18% of98 ~ 92% of 101 35%of66 = 80%0[50 = 27% of 99 = 20% of 350 ~ 10% of ].56215% of 1.601

=

n%of

132_

59

101% of 15 ~

n%of27

~

66 213% Qf60~ 110%o[9()~ 210% of

40 ~

Divide to find the answers to these quesucns: is what percentage of 80? 40 is what percen [3ge of 501 10 is what percentage oDDl 16 is; what percentage of 32'"'
20 25 is what percentage of 501

of 72? 42 is who< percentage of 56? 19 is what perceruage of 20? 27 i, what percentage of lO2? 34 i, whar percentage of 25"

~6 is what percentage

100 is what percentage of 150' 99 is what percentage of j 82? 77 is what percemage of 1771 480 is what percentage of 500?
760 is what percentage of 1,0001

60

!

!!

I;j'!
Algebro

! !

!

!

6.1

Learning 10 "Speak

Algebra"

Here's How to Do It
AJgebru is a way of speaking and thinting about mem.

It allows us

IO

express ideas

ill

a special k~n.d of

'h<>rth.nd,
An ~ in algebra is simply a way of making a statement, For example .. suppose we know that a Compact Disc player is On sale for 2~% Jess than the regular price. We could have the letter s_ Sl.nd for the sate price and the leuer [stand for the regular price. We remember that one way to find a percentage of iii. number is [0 multiply the number by the decimal equivalent of the percetaage-s-in this case, 25% is the same as .25. Then we could 5iay. <The sale price is 25% less ..han the regular price" in algebraic language. like this:

S-r·

.25r

How do we read that expression? 'The sale price. S. equals the regular price, r, minus .25 limes T." (0 algebra, there are two tmportant kinds of numbers: ~ and ~_ A variable is; a number whose \'alIJC may change. A constant is a number whose value is. always the same. For example, there is a constant called it, which is used in figuring the dimensions of a circle. That symbol, pronounced "pie," is the Greek letter "pi." The value of 1t is always aPI)roxinuncty 3. t4t6. It never changes-e-n

rernajns~,
A vaeiable ls a number that can change according toeircumstances. Nrcx.Q_mple, when we wan! tofigure Out the sale price of Our Compact Disc player, we know that bow U,e regular price and the sale price will vary according to which "CD" we want to btly~some "CD"sCQst mote thnn others. So, in the formuja above, both Sand r are variables. In atgebra, we art: allowed to symbolize any number witb ill terrer or n Greek letter. We show how the numbers rclalc to each other using symbols similar to the ones we use in arithmetic. We use + '0 mean "added to,"

- for "subtracted from," ...for "divided by," and = to me$, "equals." We also can show division by wriLing a fraction. The number or numbers 10 be di v ided go on top. and I.he number 'We are using as a divisor go On [be bottom. To write '·'6 divided by 3:' then. we could write;

!i
3
We. know that

e is (he same as 2 plus 4. If we wanted. 10 divide 2 plus 4 by S, we could show i! Hke thls:

We co-uld show that a 'l/3jiabl.e-any

number-c-is

to be divided

by

J. Simply let the-letter ~ stand for

OUT

variable:

Read this as "x divided by 3." And if we wanted to say that divided by 3, we could let lb. other variable be represented

tWO

variable numbers by the lener y:

are to be added together and then

Read it as "x plus y divided

by 3," is multiplied by another) we may sImp!), place both numbers together: .25r

To show thai one number

means ".25 times r,"
There are rwc other ways to show multiplication. .25(r) We can put one of the terms in parentheses:

Or we can separate the term, by a raised dot; .25' r Either of these statements reads ~'.2S times r.'
Algebra with the often uses a few other useful symbols. we ean so)' one number is gremer .han another number

symbol >.

61

This says'
The symbol

'3

.>7 is greater than 7_" < means~;

b<7 Road lba. as "b is loss than 7." The sym bol ;::;means: js oouallp Qr greater than; and the symbol symbol ± means plus or mjnus_ a ~ 10 reads '"3 is. equal to or greater than 10"

s: means

is eq Llal

IQ qr

less than, The

b S 10 reads "b is equal or less than 10" c ± lO reads "c plus or mines 10" Parentheses are used to group figures togeiber. When you see them, it means you should perform the operations inside the parentheses flrst, and then proceed whh the fest of the formula. Normally. all multipljcation and division is done first. and then addition and subtraction. Here are SOme examples: (x + y) means "3 number that j s the sum of ~ and (xy) meens "a number th at is the product of x and y" (x - y) means "a number that is the result of x minus y" (xy + a - 6) means "a number that is ihe result of multiplying x times y, adding a, and subtracting 6," Su ppose we saw a statement I ike this: 6 (x t 6)(3 + b + c) + 36y

'0

6
If we didn't know the values of any of the variables. we could still simplify this ,lale<non. by dividing the 6 lntc the 36 in 36y and into ihe Sof the firs. part: 6 -o.6~1 and 36+6~ 6. We could then cancelthe 6 and change the36wa6: 6 (, ...6)(.... b tel ...36y ~ (x .. 6)(0 + b +0) + 6y

6 But suppose we: knew the values of a. b. c, x, and y_ Suppose the values looked like this:
x~2

y",4 a~3
b~5

c_1 If we fll led in teners with the values, we would know exactly what number our formula represents: 6 (2 +6)(3+5 ± Il + 36 ,4 6
Perform the operations

.i.nill1e. the parentheses

first:

2+6~S 3±5+1~9 Now the statement looks like this: (2 x 8 x 9 ± 36 4 6
jI

Ne);.l. multiply: 6,8 x 9 =432 36, 4 ~ 144 This makes the statement say;

m..±..H:!
6
Now divide: 432 .. 6 ~ 72 and 144 ... 6 =

24. Cancel the 6 and replace 432 and 144 with 72 and 24:

72+24

62

Add these "umben; to get 'he sum: %.
Wilh
(;( t

the variables we were given, we see that
6)(a
t

btc)

+ 36)'

~96

6

Now You Can 0., It Translale th ese stetemems into algebra; (Use your own letters fc r var iables) On. number is added to • second number. Mul(iply an unknown variable by 3. TIIre. hundred forty-eight is more than 27. Five rimes an unknown number is more than 1.186. A certain number equals six. One number is subt... acted from a second number. One number times anotber number equals. third number. On. number divided by another number is twice as l"'lIe as a third number. A certain "umber is greater than 8. but it could also be equal '08, Ten plus cight=-or sometimes minus cigh'-tim,.~ 14 equals change. number,
Addf"",toa cetain munber:takethosumandmulJiplyi,_thesnmeV'<lriablc mirw.'l1O,dividethen:sullby 16-

Symbolize a c-onstant as 11: (this is the Greek,lener "pi," and it is prooou.noed «pic." IIreally is aconstant, which is always approximately 3, 1416). Call the area of a circle A. and tbe distance from the center to the outside of the circle r. ThS pf¢;t of the dr,stle i $ Ibis djs.gmp; sgyp.red tj Dl£$ Pi. Write mal sraremem as an algebrai.c formula. Suppose we bave a series of variables, bu, on a certain day we know how much they .. and for. They ond their values an: as fellows:

._2
0-4 0_7

n-O

y .. 10 ~=3 Wi!h these in mind, figure (a + y) - (x + .)
ab x xy

.-5

QU!

Ibe valucs of the foUowing

S",lOmenlS:

~

,5y , lb 5,

n<y

:m
5
n

:;;;;n

>-3

31>(. + b)(c + x)
x + z(ab
t

3bc) - 464

14a 190(z, - 2+ IOxl· I&b 12c

63

6,Z Nine Easy Steps to Algeb ra

Here's How to Do It
There areJus. a few has-ie ground rules for alg,cbr.t Once you Jearn them. you're on your way to a gra.;;;p
of the whole science. HC'I'C lhey are:

1. The .sum of II Sf ries of numbers 1$ ~.besame, DO matter wbat order you add tbem. You know this from .fiUm1etic: 2, + 3 + 5 ts tho as 5 + 3 + 2",) + 5 + 2,0"2 ,+ 5 + 3.,.. d so forth. The same rule hold); true in alS.bro. even When values are grouped in, p"""nllle~., Fo><'e<omple: (~+ y) + zsa x + (y + x) '"' + y + ~

"""0

0:.

x+y+~~z+y+x~y+z+x
And soon.

2. The product ofnumt>crsi. tho sam e, no matte. in wbal order they are multiplied. Here. too, we know from an ihmetic that 2: ;J;; 4 =' 4 x 2. In aJgebm. woe: can make:3: general, S13lemCnt aoout
'1i.y = y'X..

The product of more than t'WO numbers also is mo same; no matter how (xy),. ,_ '(~l '" 'Y' - .yx _ yxz

yOIJ

multiply them:

3. If you mill tiply a 'Urn by a «<lain number, yo" get tbe same resultas you would iCy.... multi plied each number in the addition problem by the same number. Let's I')' I~'I w;,h arithmetlc. Suppose "'0 odd, 2 + 4. 2

,U
6 Now, suppose we nmII.ip'iy the answer, 6, by the nllmbet 2,

12 What would happen if we multlpl roo, each o r the numbers in Ihe addi lion problem by '2 Ili'ld! added .'heir products? 2'24 . 4,2", U !2 The answer ls lhc samc~1 We can say thut in the lo"S""S. of algebra lik< this: (x +)')t _ x'' + yz 4. You can sub1raC'lan.ynumber rtGmanOlherDumber~ Sometimes Ute resuJIlsaneg.ath"e Dum,bc-r. laJ ked about negative numbers LH an earl i CJ section. Suppose" is largor Ill". x, (We would write il as 7.;' s: 011wecould say x c z: is smaller than z"). Now. irwe subtracted zfrom,:\. Our answer would be a negative nu rnber, We. m igrn wri(e mati ike tl1 is: x -2.<0
We
4~

U

e

s, You can di'lr'id~ any number

by an,Y of her '1lIJmM:r~ excep' zero. You

(Moot dj,vidc.a: number by

6. The n u rn ber 0 is unlike othernumbers, Aoy numbor ,ubt ".cted from i!.Se1f equals 0, and aoy number multiplied by 0 eq uals O. If we express a number-any Ilumber~as; ,il~we can write lhesc ideas like tnis:
a-a_O

.dl",O Substitute YOUF favorite number in these :,nalen"lCmS, 10., 10-0 10,0",0

Q;'1d

you 'will. see thallhis, mak,es, sense:

6A

equals 1. A-,>y number

7. Tho n umber I is unll ke ether numbers, dlvldcd by I "'Iu"1s ilself. In ala ~ I 0/1 e a 10+ 10" I

An)' n nmbe

(<>1 er than 0) divided h

by iLSdf ~ways

algeb",k l'OllgU'jJC:

AgaLn" try [I wltb a fo..m..iliarnumber. 10 + I = 10

Let ""3" stand for IO~

8. Any poslUw ""mber muJllplied by. neg.tln number becomes. nq:ati •• Dumber. An,d .oy negative numbe r- multl,plied by anot.btr negati'fe' number beWOte$ .a p.o.sHive number. Again, our number will be represented by .;1.: -a x -Le a This ti n1'Cl"et's suppose a equa Is 3. S ubstl tu te 3 in each (I f those expressions. l 3 x ·1'=·3 ·3"·1 = 3 If' we used some OI.h~T (lumber shan the unique number l.lhe rc:,sult wOl..dd took ILke this: n x ·6=·(" ·a,.(,,, 6. Try UHU again" assuml og u = 3: 3,<·6 = ·18 ·3.·6 ",18 9. You""" add equals 1,0"'Iu.Is,,'ul>I rae 1equals from "'I "als, mulli ply equals by "'I IlO!s, and dlvlde
equals

,,·,1=-.

ha'IJea,num,'berUlal_you decId:emcaU z YOi.! have another:nu.mbct. whjeh you ('"_aU And you have a ~ll~ird x, number. caucd 'I. You learn Ihat x and ., arc ahe ;S;ftJ1"IoC. Once you kn I;iIW that. you reetl ze lh.J,I
In other

by equals, and the RSuUs wm always \Vh;;u does rhis mean? Suppose you

'be

Slaual'.

The Qnly esceptlon

IS that you can't

dlvlde

by O~

words. ib ~y and you fi nd om mao y = 5. )'0" know thm z+:tL-1.+y;;:;2+S 'By ,he same token,
x'l

Z+X=l+Y

= yz,

V~ _7Jy You he vc already used this princl ple in some add Lto."3_ndmllJ ti plication sU':uegies ..explained in c;aJ~j.cii' sections.

Now YOlUCan Do It
beruuluplicd; 15. wha, is the result of abfl5? Show another ~y of findin,g the 3J1$Wer to J (l4 + c). If>" 6 and y ~ 12. whal is tho resuu of 'yl2x+y? If ~,,6..,d Y" 12.. whar Mil happen if you multlpfy (x .. y) by .j? We kI~OW ti'LaJ :x{rLb + 002 ~ 4b<o) is lhe same as what "expression wilhom parentheses"? lfa = 16. b _ 12. and c = O. whot is the result of ax b"'1 Given the values abo ve.. what do you, gel when ,you subtrnet (a + b) - (,1 + b)? Ira

You have [ouroumbe,,",- a, b. c. ancl.14. Snow how many ways ,h.yoon

=5

and b

=

And wh" ts b)? Us:!n,g[he:.same values. find me answer [0 ala. Find the answer to' 311_ Who< i, the value of o( -.)? \Vb .. i"ho vajue oh(:b)? Wha' do you gc, when you mul'iply 360. -21 WhOli, the resU11 of -14b. -20?

«0 -

65

6.3 Koepi'lg Equations

in Balaeee

Here's How to Do II
An. ~ shows ..hal an exprcssi on on one side: of an eq ual sign is the same as me expression on the
These are ecuauons: other side of the equal sign.

4x=2y
You C8n think of ail equ ation as a scale mat's in balance. You can do things: to one side or subtract, for example-but to keep it in balance, you have to do the same ihing 1(1. both sldes, Take <Ix~ 2y, for example. Now suppose we add the number S to 4" 4:\ + 5 ~ 2yTn Of C"",,",, 4, + 5 doesn't cqual Zy. But it ~ equal2y + 5. 4, + 5 = 2y +5 Let's try it with an eq uauon that eon [runs. only known values.
OT

another-c-edd

4x3=2.6 ]2,= 12
Add 5 to both si des:

(4,3) + 5 = (2.6) + 5 !2 .. 5~ 12,+5 17 ~ 17
We have changed!

the ~ of the sides, but each slde has stayed ~ with the other. when we do the same thing 10 .twill 'ides. we see thai each .ide sti 11equal, the other 'ide. You can add to both ,s:idc:-s+ subtract from bolh sides, multiply boths ides, aod di vide both sides by the same
number.

So whm,? WeIll suppose: we have "thisequation: h~ 14 We want to know U-Ie vulueof z, We.can use the: principle ofbataoci ng equations to find it. Notice that x lsrnultiplicd by 2 on the left side. Perform the opposite cpemtton-s-d i vj slon, as we. have seen, is reverse multiplication, and subtraction is
reverse addition. So divide both sides by 2:

~-ll
2 1 Di v iding 2x by 2 cancels tho 2 on. Ihe loft side and Ieaves us wjlll 14 divided by 2,on the rillh'" x=11 2

,_7
Chock this by replacing x with 7 in Ihe "alement 2,

= 14. The". 2 x i ~14.

If we knew th__., di vided by 2 was 14, we would do somethi ng suni lor: x ~_ 14 2
Multiply both sides by 2:

21'-_-14,2 1

,=

)4 x 2

X" 28 Cneck th;, by replacing,

with 28 in the statement

>:.12 4, Then. 2812 ~ 14. '"

66

And if);

ptus 2 were 14;

Subtract

2 from beth sides:

x -ll Check tnis by replacing x with 12 in the statement x + 2 _ 14. Then. 12 + 2 = 14. And finally. if x minus 2 were 14: x -2Add 2 to both sides: ,- 2 + 2: 14 + 2
14

x

=

14 .. 2

,:16 Check uris by replacing x with 16 in the statement x ·2= 14. Then, 16·2 = 14

67

Now You Can Do It
Fjnd the value of the unknowns in these equations:

x + 5 = IS
• - 14

4~=24 xiii =2

= 31

Anna wan'S '0 buy her brother an ivory-handled pen knife for hi, birthday. Its price (p) is S4.9S more 'he earned by doing her household chore, (0) lasl week. She earned $12 .sO. How much does tne pen knife ccsi? Express and solve litis as an algebraic equation. than Three pens; cost $1.15. We express this as an equation

by lcuing D stand for~, pens COSt?

3p=$1.15
How mach does One pen cost? How would you calculate how much l5

Chris has a large collecri On of computer games. Yesterday he lent Penny eight games. This reduced hi-s collection by U4. With an algebraic equation, fi,gu~rehow many games Chris owns.
It is not possible to find the value of all the unknowns in these equations without mom lnformaucn. But yOUCM show ~ ways 10 rwd their value. By adding, subtracting.mulripjying or dividing both sides, try to fin-d at least one other way to express each of these equations: 2. _ 14 + 5y
0-

6 =2sb

52x1y = )/2 9yz - 36y 7." + 2ab = ) 4yl3x
Did you nouce lhat it.m possible
y(]U

to find the value of", in the equation

9yz ~ 36y? \'{hat i,Sl.? Show how

figured it out ..

If it ls true thaI 2(52<1)1)= 1, and lhal any number divided by iL",lf ls on", what do we know about (he value of 2(52x1y)? WhO! doe, tllis ,e.1Ius about the value of yO

68

6.4 Adding

with Aigeb ra

Here's How to Do II
Wc've seen that we can add numbers to both sides of ar; e{LUalicn. Sometimes this allows us to nnd the

value of an unkncwn. But in a~gcbrayou don', always end up with a numeral. One)'} the best you can do is simplify an expression.
Suppose you have iln expression Iike this: 2b - 6. ~ Jx .. 4u .. 86)' 10 bolh Si<les, you can see <hesimplest

way 10 find 2b: 2b - 6... 6. ~ JX .. 4. + 86y +6" 2b ~ 3, .. "" + 86y +60 You can comb inc 43: and ea adding Ihe number partsohhose 1\10'0xpressions: e way \0 find 2b:
2b ~ 3 ... 10. + S6y

By adding 6.

4a ....ea

~ I Oa.. Now we sec the simplest

Notice that the terms we: added had to have the same letter, Expressions ln cn equation thai h .... identicat leuers vc are called ~. We coutd Dol add 3x .00 86y \"COMe up with something like 89.)'1 Also. wecannot add 3xy 10 86y. TO add like ICrms in an algebra expression, simply ibe numerals.

Now You Can Do It
Combine li_kc:terms in these expressions and equauons
(0 simplify

them;

2"+4y+3OO+ 17x 5.... 76nn\ + 52n + 14m 18.· 16q~ tb .. 7. + 13c 38ed + 15. - 87be: ~ 70 - ad· 5cd 23p· 86

+ 14M - Sed· 8p(6cd) ... 151'

Til" h ass a bo,g of'apples and oranges. He gives two apples to Angel a , He gives three apples 10 Christine. He gives one apple and two oranges to Jorge. And he gives four oranges to Peter. He has seven ;tIpples and Ihn:e oranges lef] .. leI .!,>tood for apples, ~ "and for oranges. and z st:l.nd for the ",,01 number of apple. and oranges Lim, T;LO.lar1ed with, E.p~ these facts in lhe l<lnguage of algebro. Once yo. hove described all "fT;I,,', giR,. simplify equation.

,)1.

Combine like terms:
47abe - 3a

29v - 18vb

87ae .. 7d - 14.<

+ 7. 761 + 8bc - ivb - 451 + Sv + 5de 19ab ~ ISb +7.b- 60b 3.... lOb +60 = 180abe + ib - 4a
14.< ~ 5cd - d

69

6.S Sublracl;ng with Algebra

Here's How to Do It
subuact Subtracting the numbers. algebraic expressions works the same way as adding them. To comhine hke

tenDS. simply

4x + 10,= 14x In algebra. we used negative numbers more often th_an in arithmetic. or -8, is called a signed QumJxr.

A

number

with a sign in from

of it, such as +6

Subtracting a positive number is the same as adding a negative number. Subtracting R negative number is the same as adding a positive number. Let's ihlnk about Unn. Suppose we have an equation: 2b-OO=3
We decide to ~ a negative number from bolh sides. That number is -4a. sign, Thus. On [he lerr side

2b· 6.· (-<Ia) = 3,· (-4.)
When two minus (or ··Ileg,ative·~) signs occur together, they become a plus. (or "positive") em, - (-4a) become, +4.! Let's combine terms on !he left side; 2b - 00· (-<Ia) 3x· (-4a) 2b - 00 + 4a = 3x . (-4a) 2b· 2a= 3x - (40)

=

Now combine terms on the right side: 2b - 2. = 3. - (-4a) 2b·20=3x+4a To tell how to fi nd 3 x, oil we ha vc to do is mo ve 4<lIO the left side b~ subtracting
2b·2a·4a=3x 2b ~ 6a ~ 3);., which

4. from beth

,j des:

is where we began. Now. suppose you COme across an expression like this: 97x· (a - b +0) The minus sign on the outside of the parentheses tells you mat you can remove the parentheses if you chao"e rbe signs of the nllmbers inside (be oarentheses, In other words. you have two choices, You can either subtract and add all the numbers inside the parentheses and subtract that from 97x. QL you can remove the parentheses and change the signs on a, b. and c: a becomes ~a. b becomes +b, and c becomes ~c. The new expression looks like
this: Let's give

91<·. + b· c a, b. and c the valu,"" of 4,3. and 2. 97x .(a ' b + c) ~ 91. • (4 . 3 + 2) (4 - 3 + 2) = 3 97.· (4·3 + 2) = 97x- 3
parentheses and changing signs:

Now try removing

97< -" + b-e • a + b - c = -4 +3·2,"·3 97x·. + b- c '197x·3

Now You Can Do It Combine terms in these expressions: 48a + 3b -60 + 120 - tied = 4b 12x + 4y -lab + Sxy + 3. + 2y + ab 5run· 860 +3de = 30m +60:1. + 140· 8n 8bvd· (-6. + 2bvd· 18c) 32/00 + 19bc + (18 ·Sbc)

cc , (8. + b - c) - 40 S. - (-4.· 6b) 10e· (Sci + tie - lOa) 12xy - [-xy + 12 + 3d) ISac· (.ad - 3.e - 1&:0)
70

6.6 Multiplying

with Algebra

Here's How to Do It
To multiply algebra terms..writethem next to each other and simplify. ab x cd = abed . Remember. though, lhal one number plus another number equals two times the number,
number is munlplled by another b+ b = 2b b x b = b2 number, ir ~ the number. So:

BUI when u

When you add a n umber to j tself you are really multiplying. j t, If you added b f ve ti mes. for exam ple, you would nctualfy multiply it by 5: b+ b+b+b+b=5b But when you mu.ltiply numbers by themsel .... you alis, !hem es, high\}! POWer_ When we say "four times four is four squared (42):' we could also say that "four squared is four-to the second power," Four cubed (4 x 4 x 4) is written 43; that is the same as "four to the third 9Ower." Each time we muJtiply a number by itself. we mise it [0 the next higher power. So, if we multiplied b by itself five times, We would mise it to tile fifth power. The fifth power is wrinen will' a small raised 5. like this: 5 bxbxbxbxb_b5 In effect, a plain number like 4 or b is a number raised to the first power. Imagine 4 as 41 eud b as 01,

tQ"

Then you c,ansee that to multiply b by itself five times, all you do is add the powers: hi x b l x b l x b! 'bl_b5
Now You will
I

SIJ ppose

you wanted to multiply

eb times b:

ab x b -? be multiplying b l tlm es bl. which memo you will add the powers. I + I = 2. The new power of b is 2. which is just a way of saying Iha[ b times b equals b2_ Now combine the resun with a: ab x b _ ,b2 And to multiply b2 by b. add the powers: 2

b2xb=h3

+ I _ 3.

This works wl th any powers:

xI2.xS_x17

How do you multiply Remember

expressions'?

Simply

muluply

one term 8t a lime; numbeL

(a ... b)(e ...d} - .c + ad .. be + bd
thaI when you multiply a positive number by a flegativc number yoc gee 8 negative
jl

a(·b}- -ab \Vhcn }'OU multiply •a(·b) ~.b Apply these fa cts (0 + b)(.· b) ",.2 The -ab cancels

Pla'Dllve QUIDberby_D negative

number

you gel a posjljve number .

0"' tho +ab, and adding

to multiplying expressions: + (·.b) -e ab + (_b2) = 02. 02
a negative!>2 is 'he same as subuscting b2.

71

Now You Con
51 mp 1ify these expressions and equations:

1)0

It

Cxy) x Ca.b). (0<1) (n + m)(. + y)
12(p .. 4q) 60(8 .. b) - (40 - 2b)

3dC."

z)

zeob Hd - 46y) abd (cdc + 4<d) 15.(2'0 + Sac - 23)C."
'Y ~ 'C>" b) cd ~ nm + xy(o +d) op+

b)

Sed ~ 4ab - 20(e + d)
.. b)

ab ~"(450

Sb(ab .. cd] ~ 15q (0+1) 4,-),,; 12.,+ 2 (0 .. ,)

15, (2x +4y) ~ 3 x2 + W x y

.y(ab + 2, + lXly) 2.(4eo - 3.) 4>( 12"yz" 24.3"y) IS nm(2m' - In 7) 12,2'y4(2. + S'Y + 7y2)

72

6.7 DMding with ALgebra

Here's How to Do II

I'>:i _

In 3 division problem. bke terms may cancel each other out. Y x

~-~ 3 3. ~_2<

3(y+d) - 3 To divide powers in an algeb.ra problem, ,ubU'llOllhe powc r otthe divisor from the 1"'''''.' of the
dividend,

learn about

By doing this. you may end up with a ne-gative power. There is such an animal wh_ichyou will in more advanced algebra courses, For now. just keep in mind that negative powers are o.k, .3 •• 2 __
I

.5

73

Now You Can Do It
Simplify <he following:

I!.iJll.1&l
ah

~

2xy

15(mp+a+zl

5x

l.3.l.il±..M
6y(0+ (xtvlf2a+b) 3 (2. b)

+ b)

~

xy2

12.4 b5 3,4 b2

Answers:

3l.ll
2y

.x, 2y

3xy

74

Introduction
You, too, can be a Human Calculator, you're doing. This is the message when you KNOW, BELIEVE, and LOVE what

that you will hear in my audiocassette, Calculating, which I introduced about numbers, memory,

The Human Calculator

fll!£. 11 is the Math,

message I have taken across the United Slates and Canada for the past several years. in my book, The Magic of practice, and creativity.

The five keys to Human

are undentanding numbers.thmking

Igive you this workbook SO that you can use those keys-thinking, memory, practice, creativity and understandin g nu mbers, Remember: it's o.k, to be wrong. The important thing is to 10'.. Even though the strategies I wi LI show you are simple to learn and use, you can't expect to hear them once and then
work them like magic. Practice builds your confidence. it. Once you get 10 KNOW what you are doing, you will come to LOVE

Copyright 1992 by Scott Flansburg and Youth Eoterprises, Inc, All rights reserved.

7898 East Acoma Drive, Suite 100

Youth Enterprises.

Inc.

Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

Contents Llltraduction 1. Everday Business Math 7, I Checkbooks 7.2 Tips & Tal( ,................. 7.3 Sales Dsicounts 7.4 Budgets " 1
.4

... ,,.

6
8

S. Math Magic: Games to Reinforce Number Sense
8.1 Garnes and Puzzlers .,"
a

11

1
!! !!
Everyday B .

f}j'! ! ! i.
uS/nessM ath

!

!

7.1 The Cbe.kbook People, put their money in bankfi
of~: savings, checking.
10

H.re'. How to Do II keep it safe and to earn some mtercsr. 6anks~ hnve several different kinds
".wkel. etc,

When you PUl your money in a dleCk_ing account •• he bank issues you .3 set or ~ priOIW wilh you r name. address. account number. and the number of the check, To pay. bill wiU" check. you write the date,lhe amount cfthe check in numerals andtn words, and sign your name, The person who receives your check presents it (0 the bank, wbich transf ers the amount you have authorized on lite cl\cck to that person. You ntily receive a check from SOJ'OeOn.~ who Q'IHC-$ )'01.1 money, 1.0 Ihilt case, you Si,g,n your name on the back (this is cailed ~ the chock) urd lake it 10 you, b",,~ which depcsi ISIhal sum in your accou nt, To keep track of how much money is 1n your 3CCOliOI. you ha ve a ~ or cbock Dtr istcr, The, heckbook is set up with blank spaces for you 10 record lhe amount of each check or deposil.. person to wborn you wrote I.he check. and ,he reason you wrote the check. A typical check register looks like IbiS:

money

Number

Date

Description

of uansaction

I

PaymC"1

j
I

tI'

r

Deposit

BaI""""

'1---

I
1

..

-

I I

_.

!

Ea-ch lime you write a check or make an automatic teller transactbm. you enter the chec k nu mber, dale. notes showi.ng to \\'hom you wrote the check. and why, and tim amou nt. To see bow nlUC h money remains in your account. subuact the amount (rom lbe~ and craer Ihe new balance. Whenever you mnke a deposit. write the dale, -3 nQIC showing the source of she depcsa, and Ihe amount, Add the amount to the balance and note the new' toral. Suppose ,hal 011July 4, you have $872,37 in your checking .00"U"t. On 'he way to a friend', pol luck picnic and swim p,rty, you make a COupie of stops: Number Date 7/3 714 7/4 714

*.*.
2356 2357 2358

I

....

Description of transaction

paymenl ** ... 17.62 5.89 25,00

Whi.B""~ Suoennart Picnic Supplies, IJOP U.s"V.DNJt.lore Suman lotion
AUlomatic Teller

n
1"
I

Deposh

Balance
812.:>7

Baby,illin~ .aming.<

noo
I

I I I

17.62 854.75 5.89 848,86

~

Afl., writing two checks OJ,d making a deposit onJuly 4, you hove a 'Olal of $873.86 in your chocking account. Oece moullt. the bank sends you a ~ summarizing.1I your uansseuoas. plus any charges the bank makes (bank_~charge foes for printing checks, for cbecks written on insufficient funds, etc.). Because you usually write checks or make deposns between rna":tiine this fePon was compi led and the day it arri yes in the mail, thili: bank's. balance is y rtOI the same as lhe balance in yo or checkbook, To confum thai you know your correct balance and to check for auy (yoolS or the bank's), you must

","ali

0"""

=miII;.yourchockbook Go through your

with 'he bank ".",,,,,,,,..

checkbook and check off, in 'he column headed with. eheekmark or 'he word "cteared," each deposit thal:appears Qn your statement, As you go. be sure ibe amount in your checkbook agrees with me amounl on the Slatem.,LlI!llJ:ili: your deposits). On the statemem, pl.ce a checkrnark no xt 10 each verified deposit. Now check off in your checkbook each check, withdrawal! or oiher dedl"ici Lon thaI appears on the statemem. Again, carefully verify the amounts as you go. Place a checkmaek on the statemem nut to each verified check,

When this is done. look a~ the statement.

MY items

in your checkbook. Enter these hems in tho checkbook and add to orsubtracr from the balance accordingly. Check each entry off in the checkbook and on the statement as you go, On a separate: piece of paper (sometimes the bank statement provides space), U$'( all the withdrawals, checks. and other deductions thar are llQl checked off in your checkbook. Add lben' up and note the total, Next. list and add up all the deposits that are no' checked off in your checkbook. Note that total. Write down the endim: balance shown on the statement Add to this number the tota] or yoor deposits. Theil subtract the uncleared checks, withdrawals and other deoucuons. The resuJI should equal the. balance you show in your register. If not, •• k yourself the following q uesuons: Have you cheeked all addition and subtraction in your checkbook? Have you correctly entered the amount of each withdrawal and deposit? Have you carried the correct balance, forward from one register page to [he next'! Have aU withdrawals. charges. c-hecks. and automatic payments been subtracted?

nw checked

off are deposits

o-r wl thdrawals

n01 catered

Hove YO"deducted all bank charges?
If you have dane all these dtil:lgs correctly and your checkbook still does

ocr reconcile with your statement, contact

your bank.

2

No,," You Can Do It

Katie opened a checking account on May 5. Below is her first statement. opening bank statement. Number

Reconcile bcr checkbook with her

....
JOj

Date

Description of transaction
Deposlr Opening checking acct. Boo, Rack

Payment

tI'

Deposit

Balance

515 5/9
5115 5118

500.00 .)5.98 30.00
49.95

500.00

.1444.02
414.02

102 103 104 105 106 107

5120
5/25

Bicycle tire Tic-aThon coneen Tic"",. Computer-Store Computer Game Mega· Pump
Gasoline I. Magntn Make-up & perfume

364.07
9.87

354.20
67.83

l

611 6/l

Honey On' Roses Gif] for Mom
Auto Teuer Cash

32.56 20.00

._

I i I I

286.37 253.81 233.81

Bank Statement Opening eal,nce. SI5
5 checks

$500.00

213.63
20.00

1 other deduction Service charge Ending balance, 612 Deposits: SIS Checks: SI9 5/15 5/18 5120
5/25

8.93 25744

$500.00 101 102 55.98 30.00

103
104

49,95
9,87 67,83

105 Auto Teller Ctled printing

Other deductions:
611 Service charge:

20.00
8.93

515

3

7.2

Tips and To

a....'s nnw 1000

II

Figure tips in round numbers on tho before-tax tab: 15% give or la<e. few ccms, Precisely 15% of an $8.75 resl;mraOi bill is $1.31. Leave S1.3(). $1.35. or-if the service was really 1lliIm!-$I.SO, An easy way to find t5% is first ro Iind 10% ofth<l bill by m()vingthede<;inw poinl one place totbc righi, Ten P"«:".tof$8.75 is .8750, 0"booI88«n", Then add half oflbat (44 cents); 5.88 + $.44" $1.32. Round the answer to tbe nearest 5 or 10 and you'lI In the United States, most people

have the tip: Sl.30. !ip as follows: W.h""ses. waiters, and bartenders. 15% HOlol maids: 10% of total (0001 bi11 Taxicab dri v crs: 15% Airport luggage handlers., bellboys: S 1 a bag Room service wai tors: S I 5% of meal bill Tour bus drivers: 10% to 15% Shutde bu. drivers: 10% if. fee i. charged; $1 a bag if no fee
li.ir SI~li.ts: 15% 00 20%

"""IS

If a restaurant or hOlel bill srates that a g.mtuilY is added to )'OU{[O!aJ. rips are unnecessary, Tips. are optional. but taxes arc not. M.any stares and cities charge sales tax on restaurant rneals.J lqucr, nonfood Item .s pure ha ",d in SfOCory stores, and purchases such as clolhing and appliances. To figure jhe W, you flrst have (0 know hew much {he local govemmenr levles. Say )Iour state has a. 4.5% LaX and ycur clry a 1.2% tax 00 restaurant food. The easiest approach is '0 add them together: 4.5% .. 1.2% - 5.7%.
Convert this to a decimal by moving the decimal poinl two places to the len: bill t>y .057. To get. 5.7% _ .OS7. mund tho multiplier to To find the precis. tax, muLtiply the totall"".bl. the nearest t"nUI or hundredth: .057 fOunds 10 .06. Many govemrocras charge no tax food. This are nonfood item, such as detergent. paper towels. mugb estimate.

"I)

mean, the onl y thing, purchased in. grocery store that llIll taxed and the like. Suppose yeut supermarket bill look, like thi.:

I pound hamburg" potato chips

$1.9-9
1.28 .67

canned soup furniture polish dishwasher detergent
coffee

3.98
4,26

2,89

coffee maker ,,,,(5.7%) TOTAL

.lU2
32.66 S:l4l3

JAL
polish. dishwasher

Your lax is lli2l 5.7% of 532.66. Tax is charged only on the nonfood items-furniture detergent, and coffee maker=-wblch total 525.83.

4

Now You Con 00)1 Chris Chringle makes • business trip to Chicago. The taxi from tbe, airport costs he" 521.55, and when she erri ves at the hotel, 'he bellboy wrestles ber three heavy bag, out of the cab, carrie, them into the lobby. and del Ivers them to her room. Since she is; tired and hungry. she orders a sandwich and a soft drink from room service. to me tune of S 12.87. A waiter delivers her order promptly. Before she goes to her business meeting, she has her hair ", as bed and set in the hole]'. beauty salon ($35.00), and she buy' a $15.00 scarf at the salon's check-out desk. After their meeting, she and her client. go to dinner. she covers lbe ta b 0($14 1.85, plus tax, No" morning, she pays iheSI07 room bill and rides the hotel's free shuttle bus back to the airport. The driver loads her suitcases onto the bus and liJI.Sthem off 31 the curbside: check-in, How much. aU told, does this trip cost her in tips? (Round prices to the nearest dollar.) If Chicago charges a 6.2% sales tax on restaurant food, how mach did Chri, pay in tax for the business dinner with her clients? In Chris's home town, regular unleaded gasoline sells for $1. 19 a gallon; taxes included. Her state charges a sales tax on gasoline. How much is the before-tax price of gasoliee? A neighboril'lg town adds its Own 2.3% sales
to pay
to tax

6%

to the base price of gasoline.

How much wou.ld Chris have
prtce.)

buy gas there?

(Figu",

the 2.3% city tax and the 6% 'tate tax on the before-tax

You buy the following goodies in a gourmet 'tore: Cast-iron ,kille! (regular price, $49.95) Nonstick griddle ($35.88) S¢, of chopsticks ($14.50) Jar of imported Engli,h marmalade (55.97) English tea crackers ($9.67) Hot pad shaped like a rooster ($10,99) Can of pickled pigs' feet ($4.85) Ceramic cookie jar shaped like. goltlfi.sh ($ 18.99) Cookies ($1l.8S) Stainless steel tell kettle ($67.99)

The store gives you a 5% discount on each purchase. Your state charges a 4.4% sales lax on nonfood items. How much is your total? (Sale, !AX is figured on tbe discounted price.)

5

7.3 Sales DI",oUJlI. Here's How 10 Do It sale. is one place where knowing how to use percentages comes in handy. Suppose you go (0 an appliance store (0 purchase a refrigerator. There you see signs trumpeting. "SALE! TA KE 40% OfF THE ALREADY DISCOUNTED PRICE!!!!!" Very exciting, but what does it mean? You find a refrigerator with a price tag of$688.9'J. Nalurally. you nouec tho[ this lsjusr one cent shon of$689. which is '0 close 10 $700 that by the ume you pay. sales tax the real cost will be more than $700.
A However, the $688.99 price tag has been crossed out and marked down toS598.99. You recognize rnat this is really about 5600. According to the sign s, if you buy this refrigerator, you get 10 take lIll2lIlg 40% off the $598,9'J, To figure how much you would have to p.y. first caJeulale$4{)% of the round flgure of$600 (shortcut: divide $600 by 5 and double the result: $600 .. 5 ~$120; $120 x 2 = $240). Subtract this number trom the $600 price 1.3g to find the discounted price: S600 - $240 _ $360. You would pay about $360. plus lax. for a refrigerator whose ori gl nal price was about $70f)' Not a bad deal! Meanwhile, down the block anouier appliance store is selling a refrigerator for $450. The original p-rice was about $800, By what percentage is it discounted? To find oct. subtract S800 - $450 ~ S350. Divide S350 by $800 to gel .4375, or about .44, Change this to. percentage (move the decimal two plate, 10 the righl) to see <be percent discount: 44%,

listed price. You have been ann i..... ersary?

Now You CanOa It J_ocelebra1eits 2lst anniversary, Business warehouse advertises that i1will sell any cQmputerfor21%offtht considering a 52999 model. How much will you pay if you buy on the store's

Rosa! s Designer Apparel is also having a sale. On one rack, the store offers many outfits at different di S4;QtuHS.
One awesome pair of wool slacks: is marked down from SS8 to $42_ An equally nice skin is priced at 1'65, down from $7 J. Given thai you would wear one about as often as the other. which is a benet bargain? Your favorite supermarket has a Super-Savers Club. Members who present a card
IQ

the cashier

gel

discounts

en certain items. This afternoon. walfbanger's Fancy Canned Mushrooms are on sale to Super-Savers at 12% off. The regular price is $2.49. Schlemiel's Canned Mushrooms ore not on sale, Their regular price is $2, 15, Which
is a better buy? Every year in your community. a large volunteer raj lowi.ng fine titles: Paim withQut pain List price: $45.00 I Married a Icenage Werewolf List: S10.00 Gujde 10 Underwaler Brei_thju\T List: $19.95 Shop Jill organization conducts 4.00 $.50 $.25 a book sale. YOI,}have selected the

Sale Price: Sale; Sale: Sale:

YO" Drop'

Ust: $24.50

$1.95 be yO"' percentage

What percent do you save off the list price saving off the total of the list prices'?

or each

title? If you buy all of them. what would

Y'OUrun into your farni Iy doctor at the book sale. N otici og your taste j n reading matter. he offers 10 sen you an autographed cop')' of his self-published book, Dr Smilh's Seer';! Journal and pocket GUide !9 Toenail Care. at 27% off the re.ail price of $39.95, Naturally, you jump at the opportunity. If you fail 10 jump out of the way. how much will you save On rhis book? About how much would you pay f'Or the following sale-priced items, not counting

iaxes?

Boom box: 15% off origin.l price of $329,95 Package of Ooppy disks: 6% off original price of $8.00 Telephone: 30% off original price of $79,95 Original painting: 12% off original price of $3.490,
Diamond earrings: 40% off original price of $569

6

Your kid brothel. Joe. went to a sidewalk sale and couldn't resist tho following Sel of lOy cars, $4.69 (originally $5.99) Teshirt with weird design, $16.95 (originally 19.99) Nlntendo Come, 527.88 (origirutily $47.00) Rubber bullwhip. S2.99 (originally 59.95) Ice skates, $54.95 (orig.aIly S60.oo) How much. in perceruages, was each of these item, diS<Xlunted? Ifbe sold you the price. how much profh would he make?

goodies:

T·,hin for 5% offth.

original

7

7.4 Budgels He-re's How (0 Do It W. thmk of math as a lYpe of creative thinking [hat employ, logic, Budgeting bring, together math with Ute kind of logic we USe every da~ommon sense. Few activities bring .3 better sense of accomphshrnem and
jndepertdencc than making a budge' of
)'Qur Own

design

work.

A budget plans and lrotls the inflow and cutgo of money. Anyone who hOSany income and expenses benefits by planning how the money will be spent That inctodes homeowners. bus] ness managers. govemmem officers. and even kids wnh allowances.
To make a budgel~ cslab~ish IWO large categories: ~aJld~. Under lncorne, lisl&11 the-sources of

mouey Ihat you expect ro come; n regu 1arly, Under Ex.pcnsts, allow reasonable amoen ts ror everything mal you know you will spend 0011. Among your Expens.es, YOu should include a lilUe e;:ctro amount for mlseetlaneous expenditures jUSilin case you go overboard On it shopping spree, nnd you should afways set aside something for savings. Your expenses, including ~vlng:s. should equm your income. Let" s in vent a sample budge-t for Ca rric, a le-year-cld girt. She attends high school. and she gets an allo\"tnnce of $25 a week. Her parents buy he r school fuecaes. but she uses her own money for on-campus.snacks (usually 60 cemseach day) Occasionally she goescutelter scnool for. popand French fres with her friends (.bout $2.00). She 01<0IiI< 10buy clothes and make-up, On S'.lu,<I3y" she goes to the mall will. hergirlfriell.ds. when: 'he may hove es On ice cream treat or fast- food J unch (abo ~t $3.00). She prays varsi t)' basketball t and after the once-weekl y games 'he goes QuI with her team-mate for pizza (her share of. pepperoni pizza is $350. plus 65 cent for. ,of, drill"). To earn extra money, Carrie sells. preprinted Chnsimas cards 10 loc-aJ ousincsses-s:hc SlMS this enterprise in
September and through mid-December earns about S50 a month jn commissions. She hopes to use some of this

income to buy Christmas gifts for her family. She also collects ceramic figurines of horses. Carrie lists her Income for the month of September below ~onthe Icft. 3_ftd her Expenses: On the right. Pirst. she Ii,., all her ~gular expenses, Aft.r she odds them up, she will know bow much slle has len to spend on clothes.
ceramic horses, and [he like. To figure the cosi of:. m onth'
S

WO:L1:h sn aeks, she mul ri plies their of

CO!11

by the number

of times she buys su ncks.

~

S lnee she goes '0 school five times 8 week. and OJ monro has: about 4 .... vecks, she mill ti pl lcs :5 x 4 ·[0get Ihe [lumber of days she bu yssnack" 20, She spends about 60 cems per sc hool day on snac ks: 20 x $.60 ~ S 12,00. montlt_ She thinks she can afford to go out with her Iriends after school twice II week, or 8 times a month. for a (0131Or $16. Weekend trips 10 the shollping mall COSI her $12.00 a month. After-gan'Lt!:. pi7,Zaparties four limes a momf come to $16,60.10 addition 10 0,..., expenditures. ,he lrie, to save SI5.00each month. September S15 $125 School snacks:
Ancr school:

Allowance (4 weeks) Christmas cord,

~

$12.00
16.00

.lQ

Moll crawllog: Pizza:
Savings

Her regular expenses come

(0 3

subtotal or:

12.00 16,60 W!Q
S71.60
3S

Subtracting that from hertotru September Income, Came sees how much she has left over to spend
her di:sposablc iWIDe. $125,00

she pleascs->

:.l.l..m
$

53.40

Now Carrie distributes (his. sum among mhe· mer things she would like 10 have or do. o

Chris",,", gifts:
Clothes:
Makeup

Expenses cOQliQ!'tjd

15.00 20.00
5.0()

Mi",eU ane cus Plgunnes Subtotal:

10.00 3.40 53.40

Total expenses, S71 ,60 + S53.4O· S)25,00

8

Of course, a fancy ceramic horse CQS1, IDO'" jhan 53.4-0. But ir Carrie sa "OS her figurine money in September, win have 56.80 10 Spend (In a horse in Octooer, and 510.20 in November, SlIe mi,gIlt also us. some of ber "miscellaneous" funds for a special collector" s item. Similarly, $5,00 won't buy her much lipslick-unl.Ss she waits until ""'I month 10 make her purchase Then she would ha,v.lhis month's amount to add ro October's $5.00 makeup budsel. for. t,otal or $10,00, If sIle succeeds in s<:ltiIlgaside SI5.00 each momh between September and December for Christ"''' gifts. she will have $4S 10 spend On family members, And $15,00 placed in her "I!)JI ar savingx account each moruh for a. entire year will add up loS18G-nOl enough 10 send her to HOIVard, bul il ought to buy her 3 swell OUlfll next fall,
she

To stay within her budget. Came wriles the names of ber expenses on separate envelope', Each momh, she places me amoum she has budgeted for each expense inside its envelope, This helps her 10 avoid spending too much on any given item, Her friend Christine ,imply keeps a running list of her expenses in a ledger book-lhi. allows her tc see at a glance how much she is using for her various categories.

9

Now You Can Doll
Joe is 16 and owns
iii car.

To support

at after school and on weekends. grass grows all winter long. In addition to mowing and IIi mming, he makes extra money cleaning swimming 'P'OQlsJoe charges $40,00 a nlOnth to mow and trim a lawn. He has S customers. and he uses their-equipment. Three of his customers pay him $5.00. week to clean their pools. Joe's fathe·r also gives him an allowance of $35.00 • week and pays him $10.00 for every "A" he brings home on hi. high school report card. Joe gets a report cord ev e ry
other month! on which he averages three A's and two B's, In addition, her cOOre s by giving him 113 of her allowance of $15.00 a week. Joe's kid slster, Corinne. bribes Joe to do
10

the car, he started h:is:own lawn maintenance Fortunately for Joe, he lives ina SUo.be,llcity where

business.

which he works

Joe's dad paid for the. car. However, Joe has to buy insurance, gasoltne and oil: and he has

pay for repairs

and upkeep. Joe's insurance costs $1 20 a month. Gasoline runs about $lO a week. as long as he stays in town. The car needs an oil change every 2,000 miles-about every 3 months. Joe buys and changes hi. own oil ($1.00 a quart. plus $6.00 for a filter): the car takes 4 quart, of oil, In between changes the-car uSC, another quart of oil. The car needs to be serviced twice a Y''''', <0 the tune of about $50. Occasionally, things need to be rlXed-o recent brake job cos! Joe S60. To cover theo<: inevitable repair bill" Joe ought aside about $100 a month. Now, Joe has some other interests, One of them is girls. He and his girlfriend. Sharon, enjoy movies. dances, coneens, and the like. To take Sharon to • moderately priced dinner costs Joe about $20. A movie cos" $6.50 apiece-popcorn and soda add An<Xher $3.00 to the tab. A concert ticket is $10.00, and admission to roltcr rink" water parks, and sinular amusements averages $S.OO apiece .. A" ight out wi th Sharon may run Joe 535.00, phis S" for the car, Joe take s Sharon OU! for this kind of evening twice a month. Every Saturday, they do something like ice skating Or miniature golf. and Joe always buys Sharon a soft drink and snack (about $2 ..00). To impress Sharon and look good while dnvmg his Cat, Joe is: a sharp dresser. His clothes, wh ich he purchases with his earnings. are always in style and fit him well Joe plans to help his patents send him to college. and so each month he: pu rs money into savings bonds for thill

'0 1'"'

P"rpose..
WI

Anything thar he has left over after lJ)e;se expenses is spent Oil computer games, fishing) , and ammunluon for hi, .22 target rifle (Joe is an expert marksman). Calculate

fishing gear (Joe likes deep-

Joe's income and expenses

and create a monthly

budget for

him.

10

;;
; Mmh MagiC ; ;

;; ;

;

; ;;

;

8.1 Games I.

and

Po .. Iers

Which of these two stacks of figures totals tbe largest sum? 987654321 8765342 [ 7654321 654321 54321 4321 321 21 123456789 123435678 1234567 1.23456 12345 1234 123 12 I

2. Thanksgiving is coming up. The comer market sell, turkey {or 89 COnlS" pound. YO" plan to have 18 people to dinllel. Allowing. for 3/4 pound per person, how large a turkey should you buy7How much will it cost'! How much will each serving cost? 3. On the other hand, everyone has turkey. Whal if instead you served steak a.l$3.59 a pound? Because the steak you will serve has no bones. you can allow LI2 pound per person. How much steak will you buy to serve l8. at what cost? What will be tho CO,t per guest' 4. You decide 10 serve turkey. and, 10 be sure yOIJ have enough, you purchase per pound 10 cook a turkey. How long win your turkey need 10 roast? 5. Oli price? an 18-pounder.

It lakes 20 minutes.

vi a bough • .iI dress for on sale for 75% off Ihe. marked price. She paid S62 ..50 for it. How much was. the original

6. Tom Jones' Television and Repair Shnpdid well [his year. Business increased 135%. Last year, me siore eamed
$135.000. How much did it make ,hi, year? What percentage of
3.

7. Two cups. make a pint. and two pints make a quart.

quart is a pint?

8. Leroy Jones. went to the grocery store and purchased the folJowing items on sale:
3 cans green beans, 90 cents (regularly 37 cents. 3. tan) 10 pounds of potatoes. S9 cents (regularly IS cents a pound) 2 pound; ofT -bone .I•• ks, $6.78 (regularly $3.90. pound) 3 avocaco s, S 1.20 (down from 5() cents apiece last week) 2 fresh lemon s, 30 cents (regularly 20 cents aplecc) How much did save off (he regular prices by buying sale-priced

items?

9. The bank charge, Rodrigo 10 cents for every check he writes. what wiU be left after he write, tim>: chccks-sOne for $ [4.98. one for $52.67. and one for $30.00-0n a balance of $268.451 10. Find the new amount
itl

each of the following

instances:

$40 i"creased by 40% 51.500 decreased by 20% S890 Increased I>y 15% 120 mile. per hour increased by [48 kilowatts decreased by 50% 2 rabbits increased by 150%

JO%

11

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful