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Dictionary: steam turbine Sponsored Links MAN TURBO Steam Turbines Compressors and turbines for industrial processes. www.manturbo.com Steam Turbine Sulzer Turbo Services: Repair, maintenance and refurbishment. www.sulzerts.com/steam_turbines Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n. A turbine operated by highly pressurized steam directed against vanes on a rotor.
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Sponsored Links Steam Turbine Units specializes in Steam Turbine Units Experienced Chinese manufacturer www.leinuopower.com Steam Turbine Suppliers Source Quality Products Online Choose from Verified Suppliers! Alibaba.com Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Steam turbine Top Home > Library > Science > Sci-Tech Encyclopedia A machine for generating mechanical power in rotary motion from the energy of steam at temperature and pressure above that of an available sink. By far the most widely used and most powerful turbines are those driven by steam. Until the 1960s essentially all steam used in turbine cycles was raised in boilers burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) or, in minor quantities, certain waste products. However, modern turbine technology includes nuclear steam plants as well as production of steam supplies from other sources. See also Nuclear reactor. The illustration shows a small, simple mechanical-drive turbine of a few horsepower. It illustrates the essential parts for all steam turbines regardless of rating or complexity: (1) a casing, or shell, usually divided at the horizontal center line, with the halves bolted together for ease of assembly and disassembly; it contains the stationary blade system; (2) a rotor carrying the moving buckets (blades or vanes) either on wheels or drums, with bearing journals on the ends of the rotor; (3) a set of bearings attached to the casing to support the shaft; (4) a governor and valve system for regulating the speed and power of the turbine by controlling the steam flow, and an oil system for lubrication of the bearings and, on all but the smallest machines, for operating the control valves by a relay system connected with the governor; (5) a coupling to connect with the driven machine; and (6) pipe connections to the steam supply at the inlet and to an exhaust system at the outlet of the casing or shell.
Cutaway of small, single-stage steam turbine. (General Electric Co.) Steam turbines are ideal prime movers for driving machines requiring rotational mechanical input power. They can deliver constant or variable speed and are capable of close speed control. Drive applications include centrifugal pumps, compressors, ship propellers, and, most important, electric generators. Steam turbines are classified (1) by mechanical arrangement, as single-casing, cross-compound (more than one shaft side by side), or tandem-compound (more than one casing with a single shaft); (2) by steam flow direction (axial for most, but radial for a few); (3) by steam cycle, whether condensing, noncon-densing, automatic extraction, reheat, fossil fuel, or nuclear; and (4) by number of exhaust flows of a condensing unit, as single, double, triple flow, and so on. Units with as many as eight exhaust flows are in use. See also Turbine. Sponsored Links Steam Turbine China Steam Turbine Supplier. High Quality, Competitive Price. Made-In-China.com Coil Type Steam Generator Rental, 300-1200 kg/hr, PHE's for Deluge & Process Pipework Descaling www.dutchoffshoreservices.org WordNet: steam turbine Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > WordNet
Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and related words.
The noun has one meaning: Meaning #1: turbine in which steam strikes blades and makes them turn Sponsored Links
which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible process.cellkraft. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency through the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam. (July 2008) A rotor of a modern steam turbine. 1. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam. Its modern manifestation was invented by Charles Parsons in 1884. Because the turbine generates rotary motion. It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen and greatly improved by James Watt) primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. and converts it into rotary motion.acpowerplus.se Ac Power Plus diesel Diesel Engines Generator Gas Genset Yanmar Kohler John Deere Westerbeke www.Cellkraft E-Series High precision evaporation/steam generation. using inline citations). . it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator – about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines.com Wikipedia: Steam turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references (ideally.8 to 3000 ml liq/hour www.
less expensive and does not need to be pressure-proof. however.  . the classic Aeolipile.3 Speed regulation 4 Direct drive 5 Speed reduction 6 References 7 Further Reading 8 External link History The first device that may be classified as a reaction steam turbine was little more than a toy. It can operate with any pressure of steam. Within Parson's lifetime the generating capacity of a unit was scaled-up by about 10. considerably less efficient. because the turbine is simpler.5 kW of electricity. whose first model was connected to a dynamo that generated 7. It is also. who described it as a prime mover for rotating a spit.1 Impulse Turbines 3. George Westinghouse.Contents [hide] • • 1 History 2 Types ○ ○ 2.2 Operation and Maintenance 3. A number of other variations of turbines have been developed that work effectively with steam.1 Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions 2.1. The de Laval turbine (invented by Gustaf de Laval) accelerated the steam to full speed before running it against a turbine blade.1 Turbine Efficiency • 3 Principle of Operation and Design ○ 3. Similar smoke jacks were later described by John Wilkins in 1648 and Samuel Pepys in 1660. Another steam turbine device was created by Italian Giovanni Branca in 1629. the first impact steam turbine with practical applications was invented in 1551 by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt. His patent was licensed and the turbine scaled-up shortly after by an American. Parsons.1.000 times. described in the 1st century by Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt.2 Casing or Shaft Arrangements 3. The Parson's turbine also turned out to be relatively easy to scale-up. This was good.2 Reaction Turbines ○ ○ • • • • • 3. The modern steam turbine was invented in 1884 by the Englishman Charles A. A thousand years later.
The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.000. A cross compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds. Casing or Shaft Arrangements These arrangements include single casing. reheat. to 2.Parsons turbine from the Polish destroyer ORP Wicher II Types Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp (0. and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available. steam is released from various stages of the turbine. tandem compound and cross compound turbines. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state. and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feedwater heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure.000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity. Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional power. Noncondensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications.500. These are commonly found at refineries. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve. extraction and induction. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants.75 kW) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. noncondensing. district heating units. . compressors and other shaft driven equipment. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. In a reheat turbine. at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. typically of a quality near 90%. Steam Supply and Exhaust Conditions These types include condensing. In an extracting type turbine. or left uncontrolled. pulp and paper plants. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants.000 hp (1. Extracting type turbines are common in all applications.
Impulse Turbines An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. in which the entropy of the steam entering the turbine is equal to the entropy of the steam leaving the turbine. Most modern steam turbines are a combination of the reaction and impulse design. in a number of stages. No steam turbine is truly “isentropic”. shaped like buckets. generating work. The steam leaving the moving blades is a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage. which the rotor blades. One set of stationary blades is connected to the casing and one set of rotating blades is connected to the shaft. higher pressure sections are impulse type and lower pressure stages are reaction type. the steam is expanded. with the size and configuration of sets varying to efficiently exploit the expansion of steam at each stage. As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from steam chest pressure to condenser pressure (or atmosphere pressure). A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades. The sets intermesh with certain minimum clearances. These jets contain significant kinetic energy. These stages are characterized by how the energy is extracted from them and are known as impulse or reaction turbines. Due to this relatively higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. The loss . however. or constant entropy process. with typical isentropic efficiencies ranging from 20%-90% based on the application of the turbine. The interior of a turbine comprises several sets of blades. or “buckets” as they are more commonly referred to. Turbine Efficiency Schematic diagram outlining the difference between an impulse and a reaction turbine To maximize turbine efficiency. convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction.Principle of Operation and Design An ideal steam turbine is considered to be an isentropic process. Typically.
This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. often spectacularly. requiring precision manufacture and special quality materials. possibly leading to imbalance and catastrophic failure. To prevent this. Turbines are expensive to make. first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine. Uncontrolled acceleration of the turbine rotor can lead to an overspeed trip. Speed regulation The control of a turbine with a governor is essential. In installations with . Any imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration. the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. allowing time for the rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing). If this fails then the turbine may continue accelerating until it breaks apart. reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor. Most of these centralised stations are of two types: fossil fuel power plants and nuclear power plants. to prevent damage while some applications (such as the generation of alternating current electricity) require precise speed control. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. Also. essential that the turbine be turned with dry steam. It is. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator. As the generators must rotate at constant synchronous speeds according to the frequency of the electric power system. Direct drive Electrical power stations use large steam turbines driving electric generators to produce most (about 80%) of the world's electricity. which in extreme cases can lead to a blade letting go and punching straight through the casing. the main steam stop valves (after the boiler) have a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and proceed to heat up the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements are relatively small. as turbines need to be run up slowly. along with controls and baffles in the boilers to ensure high quality steam. however. with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor. condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear. water entering the blades will likely result in the destruction of the thrust bearing for the turbine shaft. which causes the nozzle valves that control the flow of steam to the turbine to close. If water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the blades (moisture carryover) rapid impingement and erosion of the blades can occur. Operation and Maintenance When warming up a steam turbine for use. and 3600 r/min for 60 Hz systems.of energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss". the most common speeds are 3000 r/min for 50 Hz systems. Also a turning gear is engaged when there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even heating to prevent uneven expansion. The turbines used for electric power generation are most often directly coupled to their generators. with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor. Reaction Turbines In the reaction turbine. then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is admitted to the turbine. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades.
pennnet.rochester. ^ turbine. low maintenance. as may be found in nuclear power stations. Alexander (2005). ^ Parsons.pdf 8.history..com/display_article/152601/6/ARTCL/none/none/1/New- Benchmarks-for-Steam-Turbine-Efficiency/ 9. Heron of Alexandria.pdf Further Reading . but with limited success.the first steam turbine-powered ship Another use of steam turbines is in ships. but with four-pole generators. MacTutor 4. ^ http://pepei.ansys. ^ O'Connor. This purchase cost is offset by much lower fuel and maintenance requirements and the small size of a turbine when compared to a reciprocating engine having an equivalent power. Wet-steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants. such as Turbinia. 3. Tulsa OK: PennWell Books. especially in marine applications. Encyclopedia Britannica Online 2. Steam turbine efficiencies have yet to break 50% yet diesel engines routinely exceed 50%. Speed reduction The Turbinia .edu/steam/parsons/part1. the generator sets may be arranged to operate at half these speeds. pp. 7. University of Aleppo. E. "The Steam Turbine".co. had direct drive from the steam turbine to the propeller shafts. and low vibration are compelling advantages. ^ Leyzerovich.org/wiki/Wärtsilä-Sulzer_RTA96-C 10. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan (1976).) A steam turbine is only efficient when operating in the thousands of RPM range while application of the power in propulsion applications may be only in the hundreds of RPM and so requiring that expensive and precise reduction gears must be used. (Steam turbine locomotives were also tested. http://www. ^ www. p111. Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering. E.    References 1.mhi.jp/technology/review/pdf/e451/e451021.high steam output. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 44 (2): 107-124. although several ships. J. Roberston (1999). p.com/assets/testimonials/siemens.html. J. 6. 34-35. ^ http://en.. ISBN 1593700326. 5. except for diesel engines which are capable of higher efficiencies. Institute for the History of Arabic Science. ^ A new look at Heron's 'steam engine'" (1992-06-25). ^ https://www. light weight. their small size. Sir Charles A.wikipedia.
(1878). H. Thurston. Thermische Turbomaschinen.com Siemens answers: Efficient energy supply with Offshore Windparks. This entry is from Wikipedia. (1998). It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer) Donate to Wikimedia http://www.lohrmann. • Answers. the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. Appleton and Co. A History of the Growth of the Steam Engine''. (1977) (in German). External link • Steam Turbines: A Book of Instruction for the Adjustment and Operation of the Principal Types of this Class of Prime Movers by Hubert E.• • • Cotton. D. R. Traupel. A turbine that is powered by the wind. Collins.com ▼ ○ Home Page . Evaluating and Improving Steam Turbine Performance.C. K. www.answers.com/Answers Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n.Siemens..com/topic/steam-turbine wind turbine Dictionary: wind turbine (wĭnd) Sponsored Links Used Steam Turbines Europe's largest provider of used Steam Turbines & Power Plants www. W.
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the most versatile form of energy. The first large-scale wind turbine built in the United States was conceived by Palmer Cosslett Putnam in 1934. When demand for electricity increased later. Even into the twentieth century tall. the smaller models are less likely to undergo major mechanical failure. Jacobs's small. etc. Currently. inadequate wind turbines fell out of use. 17. abandoned in 1945 because of mechanical failure. Mod-2. Wind farms have sprung up all over the United States. The tower was 36. the United States Department of Energy is aiming to go beyond 3. enough to meet the energy needs of 500.How Products are Made: How is a wind turbine made? Top Home > Library > Science > How Products are Made Background A wind turbine is a machine that converts the wind's kinetic energy into rotary mechanical energy.7 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually.). the rotational energy is converted into electricity. he completed it in 1941. For thousands of years people have used windmills to pump water or grind grain. however. Also. the most striking being the vertical-axis Darrieus. The tower of a typical American-made turbine is approximately 80 feet tall and weighs about 19. work was begun to develop wind turbines that could produce electricity. . Wind turbines with three blades spin more smoothly and are easier to balance than those with two blades. Currently. and thus are more economical to maintain. Most towers do not have guys. though some are painted instead. slender. The model most supported by commercial manufacturers. however. It was. and its two stainless steel blades had diameters of 58 yards (53 meters). and most are made of steel that has been coated with a zinc alloy for protection. while larger wind turbines produce more energy. The great number of interconnected wind turbines is necessary in order to produce enough electricity to meet the needs of a sizable population. the nacelle. This was a 100 kilowatt turbine with two 21-yard (19-meter) blades.6 yards (33.5 meters) high. In more advanced models. the United States began once more to consider the feasibility of producing cheap electricity from wind turbines. The tower is either a steel lattice tower similar to electrical towers or a steel tubular tower with an inside ladder to the nacelle. or enough to meet the needs of a small town. Mod-1.200 kilowatts per machine. Many different models of wind turbines exist. Putnam's wind turbine could produce 1. which is shaped like an egg beater. which are cables used for support.250 kilowatts of electricity.000 pounds. The machine was huge. is a horizontal-axis turbine. In 1975 the prototype Mod-O was in operation. Raw Materials A wind turbine consists of three basic parts: the tower. With the 1970s oil embargo. Wind farms are huge arrays of wind turbines set in areas of favorable wind production. More prototypes followed (Mod-OA. each larger and more powerful than the one before. After World War I. and the rotor blades.000 wind turbines on wind farms owned by several wind energy companies produce 3. which is then used to do work. Marcellus Jacobs invented a prototype in 1927 that could provide power for a radio and a few lamps but little else. multi-vaned wind turbines made entirely of metal were used in American homes and ranches to pump water into the house's plumbing system or into the cattle's watering trough. most notably in California. by using a generator.000 homes. with a capacity of around 100 kilowatts and three blades not more than 33 yards (30 meters) in length.
all bolts are tightened. Wind farms must also be placed near utility lines to facilitate the transfer of the electricity to the local power plant. Preparing the site • Wherever a wind farm is to be built. The Manufacturing Process Before consideration can be given to the construction of individual wind turbines. and their speed must be regularly over 15. but most blades consist of a skin surrounding a core that is either hollow or filled with a lightweight substance such as plastic foam or honeycomb. In California's Altamont Pass. These areas are preferred because the wind turbines can be placed on ridges and remain unobstructed by trees and buildings. which converts the wind energy into electricity and which is located at the base of the tower. At each wind turbine location. and the tower is kept horizontal until placement. Usually made of fiberglass.500 pounds. and also connect all of them to the remote control center. where the wind farm is monitored and the electricity is sent to the power company. while others connect the whole turbine to nearby turbines and to a transformer. the land is graded and the pad area is leveled. they are usually assembled on site. winds are strongest in the winter. wind speed peaks in the summer when demand is high. it is preferred that they be greatest during periods of maximum electricity use.5 miles per hour (25 kilometers per hour). Winds must be consistent. for instance. The parts are bolted together before erection. followed by the installation of the underground cables. other materials in use include lightweight woods and aluminum. Wind farms work best in open areas of slightly rolling land surrounded by mountains. A concrete foundation is then laid into the ground. Wind turbines also include a utility box. which controls the position of the turbine relative to the wind. faster winds. and stability is tested upon completion. Although the tower's steel parts are manufactured off site in a factory.The nacelle is a strong. hollow shell that contains the inner workings of the wind turbine. A crane lifts the tower into position. A typical nacelle for a current turbine weighs approximately 22.000 pounds. Various cables connect the utility box to the nacelle. Wooden blades are solid. a hydraulic system that controls the angle of the blades. and the yaw drive. Although the most dominant material used for the blades in commercial wind turbines is fiberglass with a hollow core. or balsa wood. site of the world's largest wind farm. The generator and electronic controls are standard equipment whose main components are steel and copper. If the winds are stronger during certain seasons. the nacelle contains the main drive shaft and the gearbox. creating a natural wind tunnel of stronger. The most diverse use of materials and the most experimentation with new materials occur with the blades. when the need for heating increases the consumption of electrical power. Erecting the tower • . and the mountains concentrate the air flow. It also contains the blade pitch control. In some areas of New England where wind farms are being considered. manufacturers must determine a proper area for the siting of wind farms. the roads are cut to make way for transporting parts. These cables connect the wind turbines to each other in series. A typical fiberglass blade is about 15 meters in length and weighs approximately 2.
yet shaped like a blade. and every six months a major maintenance checkup is scheduled. The fiberglass mixture must then dry for several hours. Cables run from the nacelle to the utility box and from the utility box to the remote control center. Final preparation of the blade involves cleaning. First. After the fiberglass is dry. It is also possible for a worker to test the electrical system on site and note any problems with the generator or hookups. Efforts are now being made in this area on the part of both the government and manufacturers. however. production of wind turbines involves very little concern with quality control. Mechanical failure because of alignment and assembly errors is common. is manufactured off site in a factory. an air-filled bladder within the mold helps the blade keep its shape. The utility box for each wind turbine and the electrical communication system for the wind farm is installed simultaneously with the placement of the nacelle and blades. Every three months they undergo inspection. occasionally a three-pronged blade has two blades bolted onto the nacelle before it is lifted. The nacelle is then bolted around the equipment. While wind turbines on duty are counted on to work 90 percent of the time. . Non-hydraulic brakes tend to be reliable. like the tower. however. Its inner workings—main drive shaft. many structural flaws are still encountered. are formed from fiberglass. Rotary blades • • • Installation of control systems • Quality Control Unlike most manufacturing processes. a mold that is in two halves like a clam shell. sealing the two halves. while wooden blades are carved to form an aerodynamic propeller similar in cross-section to an airplane wing. and painting. Because assembly is easier to accomplish on the ground. particularly with the blades. while it does. which is then closed. sanding. Unlike the tower. Next. Aluminum blades are created by bolting sheets of aluminum together. The blades are usually bolted onto the nacelle after it has been placed onto the tower. Plans are being developed to use existing technology to solve these difficulties. Wind turbines do have regular maintenance schedules in order to minimize failure. the nacelle is lifted onto the completed tower and bolted into place.Nacelle • The fiberglass nacelle. and blade pitch and yaw controls—are assembled and then mounted onto a base frame. The manufacture of fiberglass is a painstaking operation. the mold is then opened and the bladder is removed. By far the greatest number of blades. no standards have been set. gearbox. At the site. a fiberglass-resin composite mixture is applied to the inner surfaces of the mold. Because mass production of wind turbines is fairly new. and the third blade is bolted on after the nacelle is in place. This usually involves lubricating the moving parts and checking the oil level in the gearbox. Cracks sometimes appear soon after manufacture. Electrical sensors frequently fail because of power surges. is prepared. but hydraulic braking systems often cause problems. it is also put together in the factory.
When wind energy is used for electrical needs. Denmark. U. The current annual production of electricity by wind turbines (3.) The United States Department of Energy has also contracted with three corporations to research ways to reduce mechanical failure.000 machines) by the year 2000. improve the efficiency of the blades. Other wind turbine manufacturers also plan to increase the numbers produced.3 percent of the wind's energy can be captured. efficient. Research is now being done to increase the knowledge of wind resources. By comparison. especially when huge wind farms are built near pristine wilderness areas. 59.Environmental Benefits and Drawbacks A wind turbine that produces electricity from inexhaustible winds creates no pollution. Plans are in effect to increase the life span of the machine from five years to 20 to 30 years. (The efficiency of an ideal wind turbine is 59.3 percent. and the whirring blades do produce quite a bit of noise. Efforts to reduce these effects include selecting sites that do not coincide with wilderness areas or bird migration routes and researching ways to reduce noise. The turn of the century should see wind turbines that are properly placed.200 machines) to 800 megawatts (8. This project began in the spring of 1992 and will extend to the end of the century. Efforts are also being made to provide developing countries with small wind turbines similar to those Marcellus Jacobs built in the 1920s. This involves the testing of more and more areas for the possibility of placing wind farms where the wind is reliable and strong. coal. The United States Department of Energy has recently set up a schedule to implement the latest research in order to build wind turbines with a higher efficiency rating than is now possible. Where To Learn More Books . The Future The future can only get better for wind turbines. and numerous.7 billion kilowatt-hours) is equivalent to four million barrels of oil or one million tons of coal. If this is accomplished. By 2005. dependence on fossil fuels for this purpose is reduced. provide better controls. The largest manufacturer of wind turbines in the world. Turbines in actual use are about 30 percent efficient. Wind turbines are not completely free of environmental drawbacks. Wind turbines will become more prevalent in upcoming years. develop drive trains that last longer. International committees composed of several industrialized nations have formed to discuss the potential of wind turbines. is developing plans to expand manufacture of wind turbines. The potential for wind energy is largely untapped. Many people consider them to be unaesthetic. plans to expand from 420 megawatt capacity (4. That is.000 machines) by 1995.S. Windpower. which already produces 70 percent to 80 percent of Europe's wind power. wind turbines would account for 10 percent of the United States' electricity production. durable. They plan to have 2. oil. The United States Department of Energy estimates that ten times the amount of electricity currently being produced can be achieved by 1995. and natural gas produce one to two pounds of carbon dioxide (an emission that contributes to the greenhouse effect and global warming) per kilowatt-hour produced.000 megawatts (20. seventy times current production is possible. Bird kills have been documented. and allow for better surge protection and grounding.
E.alxion. Kovarik. 1979. Periodicals Frank. 1991. Divone. March 3. 1986. June. Palmer Cosslett. Made-In-China. Tom. "Modern Windmills. 1987." Mother Earth News. Daniel V. Van Nostrand Reinhold.com Wind Turbine Professional Wind Turbine Supplier." Discover. 68-74. "Wind Power. 110-118. Vogel. July-August. National Academy Press. 1986. pp." Discover. Deborah. Price. Shawna. Mohs." Design News. Moretti. 1986. Windpower: A Handbook on Wind Energy Conversion Systems. June. Peter M. May. Competitive Price. 46-49. 1986. pp. pp." Scientific American. Putnam. Mayo. [Article by: Rose Secrest] Sponsored Links Direct Drive PM Generator Brushless alternators for Wind Turbines from 200W up to 100KW www. p. August. David M. and Louis V. 1991. 1981. 240. Domus Books. Eggleston. Park. Wind Turbine Engineering Design. "Hydraulic Yaw Control Upgrades Wind Turbine. "Blowing in the Wind. 103. Stefanides." Popular Mechanics. p. Jack. "Blowin' in the Wind. 40-43+. J. Van Nostrand Company. Hunt.Assessment of Research Needs for Wind Turbine Rotor Materials Technology. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Wind Energy. pp. Marshall. "Basement-Built Wind Generator. and John Hurst. The Wind Power Book. 1948. High Quality.com Wikipedia: Wind turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia Wind turbines History Design Manufacturers Unconventional . Cheshire Books. Charles Pupher. Power from the Wind. 1981. 1989.
and how that affects wind-turbine design.Wind farm in the North Sea off Belgium Wind turbines near Aalborg. Contents [hide] • • 1 History 2 Resources . the machine is usually called a windmill. wind power unit (WPU). See environmental concerns with electricity generation for discussion of environmental problems with wind-energy production. the machine is called a wind generator. water pumping. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery. Denmark A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy. etc. The article on wind power describes turbine placement. The Windmill article discusses machines used for grain-grinding. wind turbine. If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity. such as a pump or grinding stones. or aerogenerator. wind energy converter (WEC). economics and public concerns. The wind energy section of that article describes the distribution of wind energy over time. This article discusses electric power generation machinery.
1. weighed four tons and had 12kW turbine.4 Cyclic stresses and vibration 184.108.40.206 VAWT subtypes 3.1 HAWT Subtypes 3.3 VAWT disadvantages ○ 3. .2 VAWT advantages 3.3 HAWT disadvantages 3. It was 60 feet tall.2.1.1 Horizontal axis 3.2 Vertical axis • • • • • • • • • • 4 Turbine design and construction 5 Low temperature 6 Unconventional wind turbines 7 Small wind turbines 8 Record-holding turbines 9 Criticisms 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links History Main article: History of wind power The world's first automatically operated wind turbine was built in Cleveland in 1888 by Charles F. Brush.1.2 HAWT advantages 3.2.• 3 Types of wind turbines ○ 3.
Around the time of World War I. from the 7th century. A yardstick frequently used to determine good locations is referred to as Wind Power Density (WPD. It takes into account wind velocity and mass. American windmill makers were producing 100. In this period. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material. not much different from current wind machines. In Denmark by 1900 there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills. Resources Main article: Wind power Wind turbines require locations with constantly high wind speeds. producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW.D.000 farm windmills each year. these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water. Color coded maps are prepared for a particular area described. mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common. Iran. Ohio by Charles F Brush in 1888. and in 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric generators from 5 kW to 25 kW." The larger the WPD calculation. The largest machines were on 24 m (79 ft) towers with four-bladed 23 m (75 ft) diameter rotors. and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries. The first utility grid-connected wind turbine operated in the UK was built by the John Brown Company in 1954 in the Orkney Islands.3 kV distribution system. most for water-pumping. By the 1930s windmills for electricity were common on farms. Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta. the higher it is rated by class. frequently expressed in terms of the elevation above ground level over a period of time. USSR in 1931. and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower. three-bladed rotor and a rated output of 100 kW. which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades. A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta. connected to the local 6. However. Horizontal axis . The first windmill for electricity production in the United States was built in Cleveland. Vertical-axis turbines are less frequently used. By the 14th century. The first known electricity generating windmill operated was a battery charging machine installed in 1887 by James Blyth in Scotland. It had an 18 meter diameter. high-tensile steel was cheap. the first practical windmills were built in Sistan. It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 per cent. Types of wind turbines Wind turbines can be separated into two types based by the axis in which the turbine rotates.C. as "Mean Annual Power Density at 50 Meters. for example. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A. With a wind resource assessment it is possible to estimate the amount of energy the wind turbine will produce." The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS. These were vertical axle windmills.) It is a calculation relating to the effective force of the wind at a particular location.Wind machines were used in Persia as early as 200 B. UK.
Since turbulence leads to fatigue failures. usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails. The Netherlands. the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount. typically (at least) four bladed. Ede. Since a tower produces turbulence behind it. Additionally.Components of a horizontal axis wind turbine (gearbox. despite the problem of turbulence. These windmills were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan and were typically used to grind grain. the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. and reliability is so important. In the Netherlands they were also used to pump water from low-lying land. Most have a gearbox. . 12th-century windmills These squat structures. Downwind machines have been built. most HAWTs are upwind machines. and must be pointed into the wind. were developed in Europe. HAWT Subtypes Doesburger windmill. and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. and because in high winds.
the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34%. and low torque ripple. • . high efficiency. They were also produced in other countries like South Africa and Australia (where an American design was copied in 1876). and had good starting torque. and Aeromotor also entered the market. Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power. Dempster. the Netherlands. A gear box is commonly used to step up the speed of the generator. HAWT advantages • Variable blade pitch. In some wind shear sites. Other firms like Star. 19th-century windmills The Eclipse windmill factory was set up around 1866 in Beloit. which contribute to good reliability.5 metres (139 ft) tall. so the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season. Hundreds of thousands of these mills were produced before rural electrification and small numbers continue to be made. These have high tip speeds of up to six times the wind speed. which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack. but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system. The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute. All turbines are equipped with shut-down features to avoid damage at high wind speeds. Modern wind turbines Three bladed wind turbine Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually threebladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. or to operate a radio receiver. The American rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power by the 1950s. being some 42. Wisconsin and soon became successful building mills for pumping water on farms and for filling railroad tanks. The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. every ten meters up. a traditional style windmill (the Noletmolen) was built in 2005 to generate electricity. Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries. although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator. to provide power to lights. Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control. operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one. The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (65 to 130 ft) or more. Some models operate at constant speed. They typically had many blades. The mill is one of the tallest Tower mills in the world.In Schiedam. The tubular steel towers range from 200 to 300 feet (60 to 90 metres) tall.
needing very tall and expensive cranes and skilled operators. HAWT disadvantages Turbine blade convoy passing through Edenfield in the UK • • • • The tall towers and blades up to 90 meters long are difficult to transport. receiving power through the whole rotation. so that the main bearings do not have to resist the torque peaks. Because wind velocity often increases at higher altitudes. since the blades always move perpendicularly to the wind. To improve reliability. gyroscopic precession tries to twist the turbine into a forward or backward somersault. with the rotor facing the wind in front of the tower). The combined twist is worst in machines with an even number of blades. involve various types of reciprocating actions. The tower hinders the airflow at the lowest point in the circle. disrupting the appearance of the landscape and sometimes creating local opposition. axle and bearing. As it pivots. Massive tower construction is required to support the heavy blades. These effects produce a cyclic twist on the main bearings of a HAWT. the majority of HAWTs use an upwind design. and most proposed airborne wind turbine designs. HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades toward the wind. For each blade on a wind generator's turbine. Reflections from tall HAWTs may affect side lobes of radar installations creating signal clutter. requiring airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle. the rotating blades act like a gyroscope. the backward force and torque on a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade peaks as it turns through the highest point in its circle. and generator. Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure caused by turbulence when a blade passes through the tower's wind shadow (for this reason. although filtering can suppress it. material failures were a major cause of turbine failure for many years. gearbox. which produces a local dip in force and torque. Transportation can now cost 20% of equipment costs.• High efficiency. • • • Cyclic stresses and vibration Cyclic stresses fatigue the blade. In contrast. Their height makes them obtrusively visible across large areas. teetering hubs have been used which allow the main shaft to rock through a few degrees. precessive force is at a minimum when the blade is . Tall HAWTs are difficult to install. Backtracking against the wind leads to inherently lower efficiency. where one is straight up when another is straight down. When the turbine turns to face the wind. all vertical axis wind turbines.
If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height. such as the ground or a building rooftop. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable. meaning they are often installed nearer to the base on which they rest. this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence.horizontal and at a maximum when the blade is vertical. they generally require some external power source. so less wind energy is available for a given size turbine. the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. including noise and bearing wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten the service life. VAWTs can utilize winds from varying directions. VAWT subtypes 30 m Darrieus wind turbine in the Magdalen Islands Darrieus wind turbine "Eggbeater" turbines. the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground. so the tower doesn't need to support it. It is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers. hub and axle of the turbines. Solidity is measured by blade area over the rotor area. This cyclic twisting can quickly fatigue and crack the blade roots. because the starting torque is very low. However. which can introduce issues of vibration. Also. . to start turning. Drag may be created when the blade rotates into the wind. or an additional Savonius rotor. Vertical axis Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. but produce large torque ripple and cyclic stress on the tower. and it is more accessible for maintenance. when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop. With a vertical axis. Air flow near the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow. They have good efficiency. Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing. The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more blades which results in a higher solidity for the rotor. Drawbacks are that some designs produce pulsating torque. which contributes to poor reliability.
relatively flat torque curve. more efficient operation in turbulent winds. 12 m Windmill with rotational sails in Osijek. V. Giromill A subtype of Darrieus turbine with straight. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting. They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops. VAWT advantages • • A massive tower structure is less frequently used. and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. . a lower blade speed ratio.A helical twisted VAWT. Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs). blades. Straight. as opposed to curved. a higher coefficient of performance. a wide. They sometimes have long helical scoops to give a smooth torque. or curved blades may be used. Designs without yaw mechanisms are possible with fixed pitch rotor designs. as VAWTs are more frequently mounted with the lower bearing mounted near the ground. Croatia Savonius wind turbine These are drag-type devices with two (or more) scoops that are used in anemometers.  The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque. and in some high-reliability lowefficiency power turbines.
(10 km/h).  • • VAWT disadvantages • • • • Turbine design and construction Components of a horizontal-axis wind turbine . they start creating electricity at 6 m. Having rotors located close to the ground where wind speeds are lower due to wind shear. ridgelines. hilltops. Most VAWTs produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs in large part because of the additional drag that they have as their blades rotate into the wind. VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs. especially those that funnel wind into the collector area.h.p. VAWTs situated close to the ground can take advantage of locations where mesas. Solving this problem requires a superstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guy wired models. they appear novel to those not familiar with the wind industry. Versions that reduce drag produce more energy. Guy wires attached to the top bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts. making it easier to maintain the moving parts. A VAWT that uses guy-wires to hold it in place puts stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. Typically.• • • • A VAWT can be located nearer the ground. which can make changing out parts nearly impossible without dismantling the structure if not designed properly. Because VAWTs are not commonly deployed due mainly to the serious disadvantages mentioned above. VAWTs may not produce as much energy at a given site as a HAWT with the same footprint or height. This has often made them the subject of wild claims and investment scams over the last 50 years. VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures are prohibited. and passes funnel the wind and increase wind velocity. While VAWTs' parts are located on the ground. VAWTs may have a lower noise signature. they are also located under the weight of the structure above it.
If the low-temperature interval is combined with a low-wind condition. and most likely a gearbox component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. England. The generator component. The structural support component. Aerodynamic modeling is used to determine the optimum tower height. which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost. Wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a large vertical solar updraft tower to extract the energy due to air heated by the sun. The rotor component. This factor affects the economics of wind turbine operation in cold climates. Leon. which include internal heaters. Manitoba project has a total rating of 99 MW and is estimated to need up to 3 MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to –30 °C. and blade shape. for internal heating. number of blades. the St. is located in Swaffham. open for visitors. A series of lighter-than-air wind turbines are in development in Canada by Magenn Power. includes the electrical generator. For example.Main article: Wind turbine design Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. Small wind turbines . Unconventional wind turbines Main article: Unconventional wind turbines One E-66 wind turbine at Windpark Holtriem. with an observation deck. Low temperature Utility-scale wind turbine generators have minimum temperature operating limits which apply in areas that experience temperatures below –20 °C. Or as part of wave powered generators where air displaced by waves drives turbines. control systems. carries an observation deck. Wind turbines must be protected from ice accumulation. the control electronics. includes the tower and rotor pointing mechanism. different lubricants. includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. Germany. Another turbine of the same type. Some turbine manufacturers offer low-temperature packages at a few percent extra cost. and different alloys for structural elements. equivalent to a few percent of its rated power. The turbine can be divided into three components. Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution. which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost. the wind turbine will require an external supply of power. They deliver power to the ground by a tether system. which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost. which can make anemometer readings inaccurate and which can cause high structure loads and damage.
alternating current output. It was demolished on June 6.2 . That is more renewable energy than any other single wind power turbine had ever produced to that date.000 ft) above sea level. they have significant disadvantages over conventional generation. Criticisms Main article: Environmental effects of wind power While wind turbines in operation can generate electricity without the emission of greenhouse gases or the consumption of fuel. Turbine type D8. Matilda was a wind turbine located on Gotland. The WKA was put into operation in December 2007 and has supplied the local gold mine with electricity since then. has an overall height of 198 m (650 ft) and a diameter of 126 meters (413 ft). . The Enercon E-126 delivers up to 6 MW. New South Wales. although a modified HR3 turbine from Northern Power Systems operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 1997 and 1998. The world's highest wind turbine of company DeWind is located in the Andes/Argentina to 4. used to power the Australian Research Division's Mawson Station. aeroelastic blades. Record-holding turbines The world's largest turbines are manufactured by the Northern German companies Enercon and REpower. direct current output. Norway. The turbines currently operating closest to the South Pole are two Enercon E-30 in Antarctica. more costly turbines generally have geared power trains. Small units often have direct drive generators. Australia Main article: Small wind turbine Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use. The turbine closest to the North Pole is a Nordex N-80 in Havøygavlen near Hammerfest. The Repower 5M delivers up to 5 MW. It produced a total of 61. has an overall height of 183 m (600 ft) and has a diameter of 126 m (413 ft).100 metres (13. This turbine has a new drive train concept with a special torque converter (WinDrive) of the company Voith and a synchronous generator.4 GW·h in the 15 years it was active. 2008. flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. Sweden.A small wind turbine being used at the Riverina Environmental Education Centre near Wagga Wagga. Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched.2000 kW / 50 Hz was used for that site. lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind. Larger.
the balance of the grid must be able to quickly compensate for this change. Perry Wind power Wind turbines (UK domestic) Windmill References 1. p. May 1991. retrieved on 2008-12-28 2. less than one bird is killed per 10. "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East".html. Donald Routledge Hill. ^ "Part 1 — Early History Through 1875".000 wind turbines annually. Donald Routledge Hill (1986). ^ Donald Routledge Hill. Danish Wind Industry Association. Wind turbines are certainly not without critics. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan. Mechanical Engineering) 5. Retrieved on 2008-07-31. 4..telosnet. ^ Alan Wyatt: Electric Power: Challenges and Choices. Brush. but may have much more favorable life cycle impacts than conventional generation technologies.com/wind/early. See also Sustainable development portal • • • • • • • • • Airborne wind turbine American Wind Energy Association Atmospheric icing Darrieus wind turbine Electrical generator Éolienne Bollée Floating wind turbine Green energy Hybrid power source • • • • • • • • List of wind turbine manufacturers Microgeneration Renewable energy Savonius wind turbine Thomas O. Book Press Ltd. http://www. In the absence of large scale energy storage. Toronto 1986. (cf. logistics and transmission capacity can introduce significant obstacles to new installations. Islamic Technology: An illustrated history.windpower. ISBN 0-521-42239-6. Scientific American. 64-69. The impact of wind turbines on wildlife has often been cited as a disadvantage of wind installations. 3.One disadvantage is that wind power is an intermittent power source. In fact. ^ A Wind Energy Pioneer: Charles F.org/en/pictures/brush. The economics of wind turbines can be challenging as well. http://www. p.htm. though the magnitude and gravity of this danger is much less than more ubiquitous threats such as house cats or plate glass. ISBN 0-920650-00-7 . With high quality wind resources often located in areas inhospitable to people. Cambridge University Press. The production from a wind turbine may increase or decrease dramatically over a short period of time with little or no warning. ^ a b Quirky old-style contraptions make water from wind on the mesas of West Texas 6. Wind turbines can pose a danger to birds and bats. 54.
html 14."Wind farms 'must take root in UK".41-42 www. ^ www.Australian Antarctic Division 20.com/vt_en_pua_windrive_project-report_2008. http://news. 2006. TeloNet Web Development. Ervin Bossanyi: Wind Energy Handbook.bwea. John Wiley & Sons. 1st edition (2001). BBC News. Affiliated Atlantic & Western Group Inc.pdf Further reading • • • BBC News. Copyright 2007 Tony Burton. 19. Dodge. The first Pole wind turbine. ^ Mawson Station Electrical Energy .htm. page 35.com/watch?v=VxYm2bWUdjo 22.bbc. ^ Kansas Wind Energy Project.com/Renewable-Energy/2008-02-01/Wind-Power- Horizontal-and-Vertical-Axis-Wind-Turbines. 2008 11.awea. ^ http://www. December.geocities.voithturbo. 21. pg. New Way Things Work. ^ "Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model.youtube.com/marine/devices.com/ozwindmills/SouthernCross.org/pubs/factsheets/MythsvsFacts-FactSheet. Early History Through 1875.5 MW Wind Turbine Technical Specifications 12.stm.com/essn/ESSN-Aug2005. David Sharpe. Boston. ^ Extract from Triumph of the Griffiths Family. ^ http://www. ISBN 0-471-48997-2 Darrell.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4560139. 2008 9.html.com/wind/early. Prairie Village.gov/docs/fy07osti/40566. Copyright 1994-1999. Copyright 1996-2001 David. ^ http://www.awea.pdf 17. Nick Jenkins.html and scroll down to SPERBOY™. ^ Bill Spindler. Kansas 66207 8.aspx 16.awea.nrel. .org/faq/vawt. http://au. ^ Magenn Power Inc. 5250 W 94th Terrace. ^ Size specifications of common industrial wind turbines 13.htm 23.org/en/tour/wtrb/comp/index.motherearthnews. ^ http://www. http://telosnet. ^ http://www. Houghton Mifflin Company. ^ http://www.Technology 18.org/pubs/factsheets/MythsvsFacts-FactSheet.7.pdf • • External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Wind turbine .rebelwolf.pdf 15. ^ see http://www. ^ 1. http://www." Technical Report NREL/TP-500- 40566.36. Bruce Millett.windpower. 1984.co. Macaulay.htm Wind turbine components retrieved November 8. ^ Molendatabase Dutch text 10. accessed January 26.
It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer) Donate to Wikimedia http://www.• • • • • • • v•d•e Photo journal and tutorial for 1.5kw residential wind turbine Domestic Wind Turbine installation and videos Wind Projects Guided tour on wind energy Wind Energy Technology World Wind Energy Association Wind turbine simulation.com Wind power Wind power · Wind turbine · Windmill · History · Environmental effects Wind power Wind Airborne · Darrieus · Design · Savonius · Unconventional · Vertical turbines axis Wind power Manufacturers · Consultants · Wind farm management · Software industry Wind farms List of offshore wind farms · List of onshore wind farms · Communityowned Betz' law · Capacity factor · EROEI · Grid energy storage · HVDC · Concept Intermittency · Net energy gain · Storage · Subsidies · Wind power s forecasting · Wind profile power law · Wind resource assessment This entry is from Wikipedia.com/topic/wind-turbine . National Geographic Domestic and Commercial wind turbine directory and information wiki. the leading user-contributed encyclopedia.answers. SustainableX.
maintenance and refurbishment.sulzerts.com/Answers Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n.com/gas_turbines Siemens answers: Efficient energy supply The world's largest gas turbine. combustion chamber. and turbine wheel that is turned by the expanding products of combustion. www.com ▼ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Home Page Browse Personalize Print page Email page Translate page Home Page Browse Recently Answered • WikiAnswers.com ▼ ○ ○ ○ . www. (C lic k to enl ar ge ) ga s tur bi ne turboj et engin e (Prec ision Grap hics) • Answers.Siemens. An internal-combustion engine consisting essentially of an air compressor.gas turbine Dictionary: gas turbine Sponsored Links Gas Turbine Sulzer Turbo Services: Repair.
0 All g a s t u r b in e Community Q&A Reference topics • Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Bottom of Form Sponsored Links Cat Gas Generator Natural gas gensets. The fuel energy is added to the working substance. Intelligent Gas Turbine Solutions Gas Turbine Overhaul. which is gaseous in form and most often air. The gas turbine is thus distinguished from heat engine types where the working substance produces mechanical power by acting intermittently on an enclosed piston. The heated working substance. either by direct internal combustion or indirectly through a heat exchanger. Sales www.. Repair.○ ○ • • Recently Asked Unanswered questions Search Help • • Search unanswered questions.com Score (Energy) Ltd.Score-Group. 9 to 6000kW High horsepower. air co-mixed with combustion products in the usual case of internal combustion. acts on a continuously rotating turbine to produce power.. .com Sci-Tech Encyclopedia: Gas turbine Top Home > Library > Science > Sci-Tech Encyclopedia One of a class of heat engines which use fuel energy to produce mechanical output power.cat-electricpower. low emissions www.. Top of Form new ansGo g a s t u r b in e • Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Bottom of Form Top of Form Enter a word or phrase. either as torque through a rotating shaft (industrial gas turbines) or as jet power in the form of velocity through an exhaust nozzle (aircraft jet engines)..
Gas turbine engines depend on the principle of the air cycle. but at a higher temperature. the high exhaust temperature represents wasted energy that will dissipate into the outside atmosphere. using some of the air itself as an oxygen source. the sequence of processes acting on the air from front to rear constitutes a full cycle. It starts with the outside air entering at its initial state. The ideal version of the gas turbine cycle is known as the Brayton cycle. where. ambient air is first compressed to a maximum pressure level. net output power remains available. From an energy accounting standpoint. which is the ratio of output power to quantity of working substance mass flow rate. at which point fuel heat energy is added to raise its temperature. which is the ratio of net output energy to fuel input energy for the cycle. The combustion products in the combustor mix with the remaining unused air to reach a uniform equilibrium temperature. also to a maximum level. while the compression process requires energy input. still high but diluted down from the reaction temperature.and from steam turbine engines where the working substance is water in liquid and vapor form. the air pressure remains higher than the outside ambient level. the turbine continuously provides energy sufficient to drive the compressor. which in turn delivers high-pressure air into the combustor section. For any completed cycle. The exhaust air leaves the engine with pressure equal to the outside. This power can be realized through the process of further pressure expansion completely down to the ambient level. Gas turbine engines. inevitable for every heat engine according to Carnot's principle. Another performance measure is the specific power. See also Compressor. Starting from the exit of the compressor drive turbine. Steam turbine. high-pressure combustor exit air enters the compressor drive turbine. In addition. This expansion process results in output shaft power that can be delivered directly to the compressor through a connecting rotating shaft. ambient level. As with any heat engine. are characterized not only by high levels of efficiency but also by very high levels of specific power. See also Internal combustion engine. Carnot cycle. By far the most common mechanical arrangement for the gas turbine is an in-line axial flow positioning of all components (see illustration). surplus energy beyond that required for compression can be extracted from the air by further expansion. The hot. The series of cycle processes includes the final outside dissipation of the wasted exhaust energy. measures the engine's ability to minimize wasted energy. In the ground-based engine. the inlet at the front guides the incoming air into the compressor. . the total energy added from the fuel sources will always be equal to the sum of the useful output energy and the wasted exhaust energy. A thermal efficiency of 60% means that for every 100 units of added energy 60 units will be available as useful output while 40 units will leave the engine as hightemperature exhaust. and is completed when the air returns again to both ambient pressure and temperature levels. The combustor burns the injected fuel at a high reaction temperature. The thermal efficiency. but stays higher than. The expansion process through the turbine extracts energy from the air. The air is then expanded from high to low pressure through a turbine. For ground-based applications. because the turbine expansion process starts from a high temperature that comes from the fuel energy released by combustion. They are especially useful for applications that need compact power. At the point where the turbine has provided sufficient energy to power the compressor. in comparison with other types of heat engines. where it expands down in pressure toward. As the air moves through the engine. See also Brayton cycle. This higher pressure represents available energy in the air that can be turned into useful output power by a final expansion process that returns the air pressure to ambient.
and compressor surge. The governing fuel control senses rotor speeds. ensure rapid accelerations and decelerations. Sponsored Links Cat Generator Sets Diesel Or Gas Powered. Simple gas turbine component arrangements. Gas turbines characteristically produce smooth and linear throttle response over their entire operating range. In the single-spool arrangement the power turbine and compressor drive turbine are indistinguishably combined into one unit which. steady power or thrust output and. burner blowout. The noun has one meaning: . to guard against harming the engine during throttle changes by governing the appropriate fuel input rate. The control is programmed. either a power turbine extracts useful power to drive a propeller through a separate shaft (turboprop). when needed. and temperatures to maintain stable. Most important. 7 To 16000kW Standby And Prime Applications.com WordNet: gas turbine Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > WordNet Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and related words. Rotor speeds normally vary continuously over this range without the need for the gear shifting and clutch mechanisms found in piston engines. For aircraft applications. together with the compressor and the output load. during throttle transients the control functions to prevent turbine overheating.the final expansion takes place through a power turbine whose output shaft is connected to the external load.com Gas Turbine Suppliers Find & Contact Low-Cost Suppliers See why so many businesses trust us Alibaba. or the expansion process takes place through a nozzle which acts to convert some of the thermal energy into velocity energy to be used for jet propulsion. Jet propulsion. See also Aircraft engine. pressures. is connected to a common shaft.catelectricpowerinfo. normally by electronic input. www.
spinning the turbine and powering the compressor. and foil bearings.libertygasturbine. ships.com Wikipedia: Gas turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia "Microturbine" redirects here. This machine has a single-stage radial compressor and turbine. (Gas turbine may also refer to just the turbine element. see small wind turbine. and used to power aircraft. and even tanks. Combustion increases the temperature. For other uses. is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. compressed air and thrust.Meaning #1: turbine that converts the chemical energy of a liquid fuel into mechanical energy by internal combustion.1 Aeroderivatives and jet engines . generators. where air is mixed with fuel and ignited. gaseous products of the fuel (which is burned in compressed air) are expanded through a turbine Sponsored Links Liberty Gasturbine NL products based on gasturbine Ground and marine applications www.) Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. This is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades. velocity and volume of the gas flow. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power. Contents [hide] • • • 1 History 2 Theory of operation 3 Types of gas turbines ○ 3. trains. in any combination. a recuperator. It has an upstream compressor coupled to a downstream turbine.com Home wind turbines 3kW to 20kW wind turbine kits Free energy from wind turbines www. also called a combustion turbine. A gas turbine. and a combustion chamber in-between.Joliet-europe.
6 Radial gas turbines 3. 1678: Ferdinand Verbeist built a model carriage relying on a steam jet for power.7 Scale jet engines 3. Hot air from a fire rose through a series of fans which connect and turn the roasting spit. • • 150: Hero's Engine (aeolipile) . 1629: Jets of steam rotated a turbine that then rotated driven machinery allowed a stamping mill to be developed by Giovanni Branca. a list.4 Industrial gas turbines for electrical generation 3.1 Compressed air energy storage 3. if necessary. Please help convert this timeline into prose or. 1551: Taqi al-Din invented a steam turbine. • • • .apparently Hero's steam engine was taken to be no more than a toy. 1500: The "Chimney Jack" was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci which was turning a roasting spit.3 Commercial use • • 6 Advances in technology 7 Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine engines ○ ○ 7.1 Advantages of gas turbine engines 7.○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 3.4.1 Tank use 5. which he used to power a self-rotating spit.8 Microturbines 4 External combustion 5 Gas turbines in vehicles ○ ○ ○ 5. and thus its full potential not realized for centuries.5 Turboshaft engines 3.3 Auxiliary power units 3.2 Disadvantages of gas turbine engines • • • • 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links History This article may contain an inappropriate mixture of prose and timeline.2 Naval use 5.2 Amateur gas turbines 3.
General Electric. A. pressure losses in the air intake. non-isentropic compression: for a given overall pressure ratio. which was considered an achievement in a time when knowledge about aerodynamics was limited. In practice. 1894: Sir Charles Parsons patented the idea of propelling a ship with a steam turbine. His invention had most of the elements present in the modern day gas turbines. for the first true gas turbine. 1903: A Norwegian. Griffith. 3. the compressor delivery temperature is higher than ideal. 1936: Hans von Ohain and Max Hahn in Germany developed their own patented engine design at the same time that Sir Frank Whittle was developing his design in England. in which air is compressed isentropically. 1872: The first true gas turbine engine was designed by Dr Franz Stolze. was able to build the first gas turbine that was able to produce more power than needed to run its own components. . The turbine was designed to power a horseless carriage. started their gas turbine division. His work was later used by Sir Frank Whittle. The first successful use of his engine was in April 1937. • • • • • • • • • Theory of operation Gas turbines are described thermodynamically by the Brayton cycle. combustor and exhaust: reduces the expansion available to provide useful work. and turbulence cause: 1. 2. 1895: Three 4-ton 100 kW Parsons radial flow generators were installed in Cambridge Power Station. but the engine never ran under its own power. combustion occurs at constant pressure. the associated pressure ratio is greater.• • • 1791: A patent was given to John Barber. an Englishman. 1920: The practical theory of gas flow through passages was developed into the more formal (and applicable to turbines) theory of gas flow past airfoils by Dr A. which decreases the expansion available to provide useful work. His work on gas propulsion relied on the work from all those who had previously worked in the same field and he has himself stated that his invention would be hard to achieve without the works of Ægidius Elling. and built a demonstration vessel (the Turbinia). This principle of propulsion is still of some use. friction. 1934: Raúl Pateras de Pescara patented the free-piston engine as a gas generator for gas turbines. 1930: Sir Frank Whittle patented the design for a gas turbine for jet propulsion. Using rotary compressors and turbines it produced 11 hp (massive for those days). Ægidius Elling. 1914: Application for a gas turbine engine filed by Charles Curtis. 1918: One of the leading gas turbine manufacturers of today. and expansion over the turbine occurs isentropically back to the starting pressure. 1913: Nikola Tesla patents the Tesla turbine based on the Boundary layer effect. non-isentropic expansion: although the turbine temperature drop necessary to drive the compressor is unaffected. and used to power the first electric street lighting scheme in the city.
which otherwise is wasted energy. . Types of gas turbines Aeroderivatives and jet engines Diagram of a gas turbine jet engine Airbreathing jet engines are gas turbines optimized to produce thrust from the exhaust gases. they have been hydrodynamic oil bearings. nickel. movable stator blades. As a general rule. higher combustion temperature means greater efficiency. Most turbines also try to recover exhaust heat. These bearings are being surpassed by foil bearings. Jet engines operate around 10. gas turbines can be considerably less complex than internal combustion piston engines. And combined heat and power (co-generation) uses waste heat for hot water production. the smaller the engine the higher the rotation rate of the shaft(s) needs to be to maintain top speed. Recuperators are heat exchangers that pass exhaust heat to the compressed air. combustors and heat exchangers. Combined cycle designs pass waste heat to steam turbine systems. Jet engines that produce thrust primarily from the direct impulse of exhaust gases are often called turbojets. Considerable engineering goes into keeping the turbine parts cool. which have been successfully used in micro turbines and auxiliary power units. Simple turbines might have one moving part: the shaft/compressor/turbine/alternativerotor assembly (see image above). Thrust bearings and journal bearings are a critical part of design.000 rpm and micro turbines around 100. Gas turbines are also used in many liquid propellant rockets. or other materials that make up the engine to withstand heat and pressure.this produces the maximum power possible independent of the size of the engine. hundreds of turbine blades. low pressure tanks. the gas turbines are used to power a turbopump to permit the use of lightweight. or from ducted fans connected to the gas turbines.000 rpm. or oil-cooled ball bearings. The limiting factor is the ability of the steel. which saves considerable dry mass. Mechanically. not counting the fuel system. whereas those that generate most of their thrust from the action of a ducted fan are often called turbofans or (rarely) fan-jets. Traditionally.Brayton cycle As with all cyclic heat engines. ceramic. prior to combustion. More sophisticated turbines (such as those found in modern jet engines) may have multiple shafts (spools). Turbine blade top speed determines the maximum pressure that can be gained. and a vast system of complex piping.
 In its most extreme form. and electrical and hydraulic power. amateurs have even rebuilt engines beyond professional repair and then used them to compete for the Land Speed Record. The simplest form of self-constructed gas turbine recycles the turbine wheel and compressor from an automotive turbocharger. where their thrust and light weight are sufficient to power large model aircraft. More sophisticated turbojets are also built. Industrial gas turbines for electrical generation . start-up power for larger jet engines. including the fabrication of a centrifugal compressor wheel from plywood. Auxiliary power units Auxiliary power units (APUs) are small gas turbines designed for auxiliary power of larger machines. Most turbojet-powered model aircraft are now using these commercial and semi-commercial microturbines. such as those inside an aircraft. these are commercial turbines acquired through military surplus or scrapyard sales. They are also used in the marine industry to reduce weight. Amateur gas turbines Increasing numbers of gas turbines are being used or even constructed by amateurs. In its most straightforward form.Diagram of a high-pressure turbine blade Aeroderivatives are also used in electrical power generation due to their ability to startup. They supply compressed air for aircraft ventilation (with an appropriate compressor design). they tend to give rise to manufacturing businesses over time. then operated for display as part of the hobby of engine collecting. Several small companies now manufacture small turbines and parts for the amateur. The GE LM2500 and LM6000 are two common models of this type of machine. rather than a Schreckling-like home-build. epoxy and wrapped carbon fibre strands. The Schreckling design constructs the entire engine from raw materials. A single separate combustion chamber is fabricated and plumbed between the compressor and turbine. Like many technology based hobbies. shut down. and handle load changes more quickly than industrial machines.
they are usually used as peaking power plants. and the compressed air released to operate the turbine when required. a gas turbine power plant may regularly operate during most hours of the day and even into the evening. A typical large simple cycle gas turbine may produce 100 to 300 megawatts of power and have 35–40% thermal efficiency. Turboshaft engines Turboshaft engines are often used to drive compression trains (for example in gas pumping stations or natural gas liquefaction plants) and are used to power almost all modern helicopters.600 rpm to match the AC power grid frequency and to avoid the need for a reduction gearbox. power. The most efficient turbines have reached 46% efficiency. Various successors have made good progress in the refinement of this mechanism.000 or 3. complex systems. Such engines require a dedicated enclosure. by separating the compressor and the turbine with a compressed air store. Their other main advantage is the ability to be turned on and off within minutes. The first shaft bears the compressor and the high speed turbine (often referred to as "Gas Generator" or "N1"). They can also be run in a cogeneration configuration: the exhaust is used for space or water heating. perhaps from a wind farm or bought on the open market at a time of low demand and low price. The power turbines in the largest industrial gas turbines operate at 3. They can be particularly efficient—up to 60%—when waste heat from the gas turbine is recovered by a heat recovery steam generator to power a conventional steam turbine in a combined cycle configuration. or drives an absorption chiller for cooling or refrigeration. Norway. Industrial gas turbines range in size from truck-mounted mobile plants to enormous. In a conventional turbine. This 480-megawatt unit has a rated thermal efficiency of 60% in combined cycle configurations. up to half the generated power is used driving the compressor. Owing to a . both to protect the engine from the elements and the operators from the noise.GE H series power generation gas turbine. Also. is used to drive the compressor. A cogeneration configuration can be over 90% efficient. Compressed air energy storage Main article: Compressed air energy storage One modern development seeks to improve efficiency in another way. while the second shaft bears the low speed turbine (or "Power Turbine" or "N2"). compared to years for base load power plants. the actual construction process can take as little as several weeks to a few months. which operate anywhere from several hours per day to a couple dozen hours per year. Because they are less efficient than combined cycle plants. supplying power during peak demand. Industrial gas turbines differ from aeroderivatave in that the frames. Jan Mowill initiated the development at Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk. Simple cycle gas turbines in the power industry require smaller capital investment than either coal or nuclear power plants and can be scaled to generate small or large amounts of power. In areas with a shortage of base load and load following power plant capacity. In a compressed air energy storage configuration. and blading is of heavier construction. Radial gas turbines Main article: Radial turbine 1963. This arrangement is used to increase speed and power output flexibility. depending on the electricity demand and the generating capacity of the region. bearings.
is small and the hot axial turbine is large experiencing more centrifugal forces. This engine can produce up to 22 newtons of thrust. With this in mind the pioneer of modern Micro-Jets. No bypass within the engine is used.configuration that keeps heat away from certain bearings the durability of the machine is improved while the radial turbine is well matched in speed requirement Scale jet engines Scale jet engines are scaled down versions of this early full scale engine Also known as miniature gas turbines or micro-jets. which is cold. Microturbines A micro turbine designed for DARPA by M-Dot Also known as: • • Turbo alternators MicroTurbine (registered trademark of Capstone Turbine Corporation) . Naturally. Many model engineers relish the challenge of re-creating the grand engineering feats of today as tiny working models. Recreating machines such as engines to a different scale is not easy. An automobile engine. such as a metal lathe. after the compressor impeller and before the turbine. Its radial compressor. for example. and at worst causing them not to work at all. fascinated hobbyists since the very first full size engines were powered up by Hans von Ohain and Frank Whittle back in the 1930s. meaning that this design is limited by Mach number. and can be built by most mechanically minded people with basic engineering tools. the FD3/67. Guiding vanes are used to hold the starter. the behaviour of many machines does not always scale up or down at the same rate as the machine's size (and often not even in a linear way). Kurt Schreckling. usually at best causing a dramatic loss of power or efficiency. Because of the square-cube law. the idea of re-creating a powerful engine such as the jet. produced one of the world's first Micro-Turbines. will not work if reproduced in the same shape at the size of a human hand.
Problems have occurred with heat dissipation in these new microturbines. reciprocating engine generators are quicker to respond to changes in output power requirement and are usually slightly more efficient. Recuperators are difficult to design and manufacture because they operate under high pressure and temperature differentials. However. This allows the generator to be integrated with the turbine shaft. Microturbines also have the advantage of having the majority of their waste heat contained in their relatively high temperature exhaust. space heating. Microturbine systems have many advantages over reciprocating engine generators. drying processes or absorption chillers. natural gas. MIT started its millimeter size turbine engine project in the middle of the 1990s when Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Alan H. rising to 1200-1500 Wh/kg in the longer term. such as higher power density (with respect to footprint and weight). propane. just like a large turbine can meet the electricity demands of a small city. to commercial sized systems that produce tens or hundreds of kilowatts. a heat exchanger is used and clean air travels through the power turbine. although the efficiency of microturbines is increasing. and kerosene as well as renewable fuels such as E85. MIT's millimeter size turbine will deliver 500-700 Wh/kg in the near term. which allows unattended operation and interfacing with the commercial power grid. the combustion products travel through the power turbine. Electronic power switching technology eliminates the need for the generator to be synchronized with the power grid. Part of their success is due to advances in electronics. diesel.) Microturbines are becoming widespread for distributed power and combined heat and power applications. External combustion Most gas turbines are internal combustion engines but it is also possible to build an external combustion gas turbine which is. which create cold for air conditioning from heat energy instead of electric energy. In the indirect system. Microturbine designs usually consist of a single stage radial compressor. a single stage radial turbine and a recuperator. coolants or other hazardous materials. Inc. such as gasoline. efficiencies of greater than 80% are commonly achieved. When in a combined heat and power cogeneration system. . however the blades are not subjected to combustion products. Typical microturbine efficiencies are 25 to 35%. moving part. External combustion has been used for the purpose of using pulverized coal or finely ground biomass (such as sawdust) as a fuel. a turbine version of a hot air engine. They range from hand held units producing less than a kilowatt. Exhaust heat can be used for water heating. External combustion gas has been used both directly and indirectly. According to Professor Epstein current commercial Li-ion rechargeable batteries deliver about 120-150 Wh/kg. or just one. effectively. Epstein considered the possibility of creating a personal turbine which will be able to meet all the demands of a modern person's electrical needs. biodiesel and biogas. Those designed with foil bearings and air-cooling operate without oil. The thermal efficiency is lower in the indirect type of external combustion. Microturbines also lose more efficiency at low power levels than reciprocating engines. whereas the waste heat of recriprocating engines is split between its exhaust and cooling system. and to double as the starter motor. extremely low emissions and few. They accept most commercial fuels. They are one of the most promising technologies for powering hybrid electric vehicles. In the direct system.• Turbogenerator (registered tradename of Honeywell Power Systems.
It averaged 107. Gas turbines are used on ships. and exhaust outlets on the top of the tail. designer F. The car ran on petrol. Rover and the British Racing Motors (BRM) Formula One team joined forces to produce the Rover-BRM. which eventually set six FIA land speed records for turbine-powered cars. which entered the 1963 24 Hours of Le Mans. . and also participated in the 1968 24 Hours of Le Mans. A number of experiments have been conducted with gas turbine powered automobiles. the Howmet TX. but fuel consumption problems proved insurmountable for a production car. a gas turbine powered coupe. The cars used Continental gas turbines. which ran several American and European events. A 1968 Howmet TX. the only turbine-powered race car to have achieved victory. with the Pratt & Whitney gas turbine shown. driven by Graham Hill and Richie Ginther.Gas turbines in vehicles The 1950 Rover JET1 The 1967 STP Oil Treatment Special on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum.R. paraffin or diesel oil. During tests.8 mph (173 km/h) and had a top speed of 142 mph (229 km/h). helicopters. American Ray Heppenstall joined Howmet Corporation and McKee Engineering together to develop their own gas turbine sports car in 1968. at a turbine speed of 50. Bell and Chief Engineer Maurice Wilks from British car manufacturers Rover unveiled the first car powered with a gas turbine engine. It is currently on display at the London Science Museum. including two wins. air intake grilles on either side of the car. The two-seater JET1 had the engine positioned behind the seats. locomotives. the car reached top speeds of 140 km/h. and in tanks. In 1950.000 rpm.
American car manufacturer Chrysler demonstrated several prototype gas turbine-powered cars from the early 1950s through the early 1980s. though this is partly because piston engines have been mass-produced in huge quantities for decades. was reportedly only enough for 15 seconds of use at a time. while small gas turbine engines are rarities. a Rolls- . A Williams International 40 kW turbine drove an alternator which powered the battery-electric powertrain. starting with HEV-1 by AVS of Chattanooga. However. particularly naturally-aspirated ones . in 1989s filmed Batman. powered by a Pratt & Whitney gas turbine. The turbine design included a recuperator. they are not as responsive and efficient as small piston engines over the wide range of RPMs and powers needed in vehicle applications. In hybrids.their superior performance at high altitude compared to piston engines. with over 30 buses in operation worldwide. In 1993 General Motors introduced the first commercial gas turbine powered hybrid vehicle—as a limited production run of the EV-1 series hybrid. powered by gas turbines. and the emergence of the continuously variable transmission may also help alleviate this. Its fuel capacity. Their turbines employed unique rotating recuperator that significantly increased efficiency. and closely followed by Ebus and ISE Research in California. Their power-to-weight advantage is far less important. the STP Pratt & Whitney powered turbine car was almost a lap ahead of the second place car when a gearbox bearing failed just three laps from the finish line. resulting in liquidation of AVS in 2003. AVS turbine hybrids were plagued with reliability and quality control problems.For open wheel racing.specifically.is irrelevant in automobile applications. The MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE appeared in 2000 (hence the designation of Y2K Superbike by MTT) and is the first production motorcycle powered by a turbine engine . but had to abandon the project because there were too many problems with turbo lag. Turbines have historically been more expensive to produce than piston engines. but turbines are mass produced in the closely related form of the turbocharger. Chrysler built fifty Chrysler Turbine Cars in 1963 and conducted the only consumer trial of gas turbine-powered cars. Tennessee in 1999. Later on in 2006 GM went into the EcoJet concept car project with Jay Leno. 1967's revolutionary STP Oil Treatment Special four-wheel drive turbine-powered special fielded by racing and entrepreneurial legend Andy Granatelli and driven by Parnelli Jones nearly won the Indianapolis 500. In 1971 Lotus principal Colin Chapman introduced the Lotus 56B F1 car. The fictional Batmobile is often said to be powered by a gas turbine or a jet engine. Chapman had a reputation of building radical championship-winning cars. Japanese car manufacturer Toyota demonstrated several gas turbine powered prototype vehicles such as the Century gas turbine hybrid in 1975. No production vehicles were made. In fact. 1956 and 1959 Motorama auto shows. and Designline in New Zealand. the Sports 800 Gas Turbine Hybrid in 1977 and the GTV in 1985. The arrival of the Capstone Microturbine has led to several hybrid bus designs. gas turbines reduce the responsiveness problem. A key advantage of jets and turboprops for aeroplane propulsion . The original General Motors Firebird was a series of concept cars developed for the 1953. the production department built a working turbine vehicle for the Batmobile prop. Gas turbines offer a high-powered engine in a very small and light package. however. The most successful design by Designline is now operated in 5 cities in 6 countries.
The Swedish Navy produced 6 Spica class torpedoboats between 1966 and 1967 powered by 3 Bristol Siddeley Proteus 1282. They were later joined by 12 upgraded Norrköping class ships. was installed and trialled in a British Conqueror tank. especially at idle. Naval use Gas turbines are used in many naval vessels. but they are more resilient if the filter does fail. specifically developed for tanks by C. Piston engines also need well-maintained filters. . Tank use The first use of a gas turbine in an armoured fighting vehicle was in 1954 when a unit. A. gas turbine engines have been used as auxiliary power units (APUs) in some tanks and as main powerplants in Soviet/Russian T-80s and U. The turbine blades are highly sensitive to dust and fine sand. gas turbines are usually multi-fuel engines. still with the same engines. among others. the testing team ran out of road during the test). PU2979. the first of which (HMS Ashanti) was commissioned in 1961. They are lighter and smaller than diesels at the same sustained power output but the models installed to date are less fuel efficient than the equivalent diesel. Several locomotive classes have been powered by gas turbines. where they are valued for their high power-toweight ratio and their ships' resulting acceleration and ability to get underway quickly. A turbine is theoretically more reliable and easier to maintain than a piston engine. were the Royal Navy's Type 81 (Tribal class) frigates.Royce Allison model 250 turboshaft engine. requiring more fuel to achieve the same combat range. Parsons & Co. the most recent incarnation being Bombardier's JetTrain. See gas turbine-electric locomotive for more information. An improperly fitted filter. with a price tag of US$185.000. M1 Abrams tanks. or a bullet or shell fragment that punctures the filter can damage the engine. T-80s can mount three large external fuel drums to extend their range. Russia has stopped production of the T-80 in favour of the diesel-powered T-90 (based on the T-72). the Fast Patrol Boats Bold Pioneer and Bold Pathfinder built in 1953 were the first ships created specifically for gas turbine propulsion. The first gas-turbine-powered naval vessel was the Royal Navy's Motor Gun Boat MGB 2009 (formerly MGB 509) converted in 1947. since it has a simpler construction with fewer moving parts but in practice turbine parts experience a higher wear rate due to their higher working speeds. so that in desert operations air filters have to be fitted and changed several times daily. each delivering 4300 hp. The Germany Navy launched the first Köln class frigate in 1961 with 2 GTs from BBC in the worlds first combined diesel and gas propulsion system. while Ukraine has developed the diesel-powered T-80UD and T-84 with nearly the power of the gas-turbine tank. The first large. gas-turbine powered ships. Speed-tested to 365 km/h or 227 mph (according to some stories. Metrovick developed the "Beryl" engine equipping an existing F2/3 jet engine with a power turbine.. Successive models of M1 have addressed this problem with battery packs or secondary generators to power the tank's systems while stationary. Like most modern diesel engines used in tanks. it holds the Guinness World Records for most powerful production motorcycle and most expensive production motorcycle. With their aft torpedo tubes replaced by antishipping missiles they served as missile boats until the last was retired in 2005. saving fuel by reducing the need to idle the main turbine.S. producing about 283 kW (380 bhp). As the test was successful. Since then.
The United States Maritime Commission were looking for options to update WWII Liberty ships and heavy duty gas turbines were one of those selected. they were the fastest vessels in the Finnish Navy. marine diesel). After 1982 the ships were sold. and Turunmaa serves as a flotating machine shop and training ship for Satakunta Polytechnical College. they regularly achieved 37 knot speeds. and Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruisers. there was a consequential loss of some cargo space.S.The Finnish Navy issued two Turunmaa class corvettes. The modifications were partially successful. Turunmaa and Karjala.000 tonne dwt. It operated for 9700 hours using residual fuel for 7000 hours. then re-engined with more economical diesel engines. However. built in 1977 and powered with two Pratt & Whitney FT 4C-1 DLF turbines.e. they have powered the U. The first U. The "John Sergeant" was scrapped in 1972 at Portsmouth PA. operations were constrained by rising fuel costs. Since then. Seatrain Container Lines operated a scheduled container service across the North Atlantic with four 26. They used 2 ft-4 main propulsion engines. Following the dramatic OPEC price increases of the mid-nineteen seventies. In 1956 The "John Sergeant" was lenghened and installed with a General Electric 6600 SHP HD gas turbine. "Eurofreighter". container ships. The Turunmaas were paid off in 2002. 2 ft-12 cruise engines and 3 Solar Saturn 750 kW generators. Some modification of the engine systems on those ships was undertaken to permit the burning of a lower grade of fuel (i. as high fuel prices made operating her unprofitable. Those ships were powered by twin Pratt & Whitney gas turbines of the FT 4 series. The earliest of these experiments may have been the oil tanker "Auris" (Anglo Saxon Petroleum) . After just . Commercial use There have been a number of experiments in which gas turbines were used to power seagoing commercial vessels. "Asialiner" and "Asiafreighter". The marine gas turbine operates in a more corrosive atmosphere due to presence of sea salt in air and fuel and use of cheaper fuels. Navy's Perry-class frigates. They operated a transatlantic container service between ports on the eastern seaboard of the United States and ports in north west Europe.circa 1949.S. It was proved that particular fuel could be used in a marine gas turbine but. savings made were less than anticipated due to increased maintenance requirements. USS Makin Island. Karjala is today a museum ship in Turku. a modified Waspclass amphibious assault ship. the Finnjet also illustrated the shortcomings of gas turbine propulsion in commercial craft. The first passenger ferry to use a gas turbine was the GTS Finnjet. Spruance-class and Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. They were equipped with one 16 000 shp Rolls-Royce Olympus TMB3 gas turbine and two Wärtsilä marine diesels for slower speeds. reduction gearing and a variable pitch propeller. in 1968. generating 55000 kW and propelling the ship to a speed of 31 knots. is to be the Navy's first amphib powered by gas turbines. The success of this trial opened the way for more development by GE on the use of HD gas turbines for marine use with heavy fuels. Between 1970 and 1982. The four ships in the class were named "Euroliner". The next series of major naval vessels were the four Canadian Iroquois class helicopter carrying destroyers first commissioned in 1972. but they are known to have achieved 45 knots when the restriction mechanism of the turbine was geared off. Before the waterjet-propulsion Helsinki class missile boats.S. gas-turbine powered ships were the U. Coast Guard's Hamilton-class High Endurance Cutters the first of which (USCGC Hamilton) commissioned in 1967. Because the new engines were much larger.
High operation speeds. Advantages and disadvantages of gas turbine engines Advantages of gas turbine engines  • Very high power-to-weight ratio. Smaller than most reciprocating engines of the same power rating. which are smaller. Delayed response to changes in power settings. On another front. Stena Voyager and Stena Discovery vessels use combined gas and gas (COGAG) setups of twin GE LM2500 plus GE LM1600 power for a total of 68. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines. In July 2000.000 kW. the challenge in technology is increasing turbine inlet temperature while reducing peak flame temperature to achieve lower NOx emissions to cope with the latest regulations. Computer design.four years of service additional diesel engines were installed on the ship to allow less costly operations during off-season. has allowed higher compression ratios and temperatures. Machining operations are also more complex. compliant foil bearings were commercially introduced to gas turbines in the 1990s. Moves in one direction only. in a Combined Gas and Steam Turbine configuration. regardless of the size and power advantages imminently available. The RMS Queen Mary 2 uses a Combined Diesel and Gas Turbine configuration. research is active in producing ever smaller gas turbines. compared to reciprocating engines. large boats and so on. specifically CFD and finite element analysis along with material advances. Usually less efficient than reciprocating engines. . microelectronics and power switching technology have enabled commercially viable micro turbines for distributed and vehicle power. Advances in technology Gas turbine technology has steadily advanced since its inception and continues to evolve. Another example of commercial usage of gas turbines in a passenger ship are Stena Line's HSS class fastcraft ferries. another victim of too high fuel costs. The Stena Discovery was withdrawn from service in 2007. uses twin ABB–STAL GT35 turbines rated at 34. On the emissions side. cheaper and follow a less regular pattern of use than tanks. Low operating pressures. Additionally. HSS 1500-class Stena Explorer. Cost is much greater than for a similar-sized reciprocating engine since the materials must be stronger and more heat resistant. They can withstand over a hundred thousand start/stop cycles and eliminated the need for an oil system. the Millennium became the first cruise ship to be propelled by gas turbines. The slightly smaller HSS 900class Stena Charisma. with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine. helicopters. do not use gas turbine engines.000 kW gross. • • • • • • • • • Disadvantages of gas turbine engines These disadvantages explain why road vehicles. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption. especially at idle. more efficient combustion and better cooling of engine parts.
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Gas turbine locomotive Gas turbine-electric locomotive Gas turbine modular helium reactor Distributed Energy Resources
1. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Taqi al-Din and the First Steam Turbine". History of Science and
Technology in Islam. http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%201.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
2. ^ "Vulcan APU startup" (video). http://www.vb.n00bunlimited.net/vBTube.php?
3. ^ "Bristol Siddeley Proteus". Internal Fire Museum of Power. 1999.
4. ^ "UK TV series, "Scrapheap Challenge", "Jet Racer" episode". 2003.
5. ^ a b Schreckling, Kurt (1994). Gas Turbines for Model Aircraft. ISBN 0951058916. 6. ^ Kamps, Thomas (2005). Model Jet Engines. Traplet Publications. ISBN 190037191X. 7. ^ Mechanical Engineering "Power & Energy," June 2004 - "A Year of Turbulence,"
8. ^ Gas Turbine Engines for Model Aircraft by Kurt Schreckling, ISBN 0-9510589-1-6
9. ^ Prime Movers in CHP - Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines, Reciprocating Engines, Spark
10. ^ Engine on a Chip - TFOT 11. ^ "The history of the Howmet TX turbine car of 1968, still the world's only turbine
powered race winner". Pete Stowe Motorsport History. June 2006. http://website.lineone.net/~pete.stowe/pete_howmet.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
12. ^ Chrysler turbine information 13. ^ 1989 Batmobile Turbine 14. ^ Richard M Ogorkiewicz, Jane's - The Technology of Tanks, Jane's Information Group,
15. ^ The first marine gas turbine, 1947 16. ^ Fast missile boat 17. ^ GE - Aviation: GE Goes from Installation to Optimized Reliability for Cruise Ship Gas
18. ^ how stuff works
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"Aircraft Gas Turbine Technology" by Irwin E. Treager, Professor Emeritus Purdue University, McGraw-Hill, Glencoe Division, 1979, ISBN 0070651582. "Gas Turbine Theory" by H.I.H. Saravanamuttoo, G.F.C. Rogers and H. Cohen, Pearson Education, 2001, 5th ed., ISBN 0-13-015847-X. R. M. "Fred" Klaass and Christopher DellaCorte, "The Quest for Oil-Free Gas Turbine Engines," SAE Technical Papers, No. 2006-01-3055, available at: http://www.sae.org/technical/papers/2006-01-3055. "Model Jet Engines" by Thomas Kamps ISBN 0 9510589 9 1 Traplet Publications Aircraft Engines and Gas Turbines, Second Edition" by Jack L. Kerrebrock, The MIT Press, 1992, ISBN 0262111624.
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Gas turbine at the Open Directory Project Technology Speed of Civil Jet Engines MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory MIT Microturbine research California Distributed Energy Resource guide - Microturbine generators First Marine Gas Turbine 1947 Introduction to how a gas turbine works from "how stuff works.com" Aircraft gas turbine simulator for interactive learning"
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Dictionary: tur·bine (tûr'bĭn, -bīn') Sponsored Links Turbine Engines
We Have Units Available For Immediate Delivery. Call Us Today! www.petersonpower.com Siemens answers: Efficient energy supply The world's largest gas turbine. www.Siemens.com/Answers Home > Library > Literature & Language > Dictionary n. Any of various machines in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted to mechanical power by the impulse or reaction of the fluid with a series of buckets, paddles, or blades arrayed about the circumference of a wheel or cylinder. [French, from Latin turbō, turbin-, spinning top, perhaps from Greek turbē, turmoil.]
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com. The most important application of the first three is the generation of electricity. www. visit Britannica. Repair. and gas. .t u r b in e • Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Bottom of Form Top of Form Enter a word or phrase.000+ Registered Buyer-Sellers.com Gas Turbines Market Locate-RFQ-Buy-Sell Free of Charge. rotary engine that uses a continuous stream of fluid (gas or liquid) to turn a shaft that can drive machinery.alxion. steam.PartsLogistics.Joliet-europe. 33. A turbine looks like a large wheel with many small radiating blades around its rim.com Columbia Encyclopedia: turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Columbia Encyclopedia turbine.com Direct Drive PM Generator Brushless alternators for Wind Turbines from 200W up to 100KW www. wind. gas turbines are most often used in aircraft.Score-Group. For more information on turbine..com Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Britannica Concise Encyclopedia Any of various devices that convert the energy in a stream of fluid into mechanical energy by passing the stream through a system of fixed and moving fanlike blades and causing the latter to rotate. 0 All t u r b in e Community Q&A Reference topics • Browse: Unanswered questions | Most-recent questions | Reference library Bottom of Form Sponsored Links Score (Energy) Ltd. There are four broad classes of turbine: water (hydraulic). Sponsored Links Home wind turbines 3kW to 20kW wind turbine kits Free energy from wind turbines www.. Sales www. Intelligent Gas Turbine Solutions Gas Turbine Overhaul.
In some steam turbines the shaft is surrounded by a drum to which the rows of blades are attached. it is sent to a condenser where it is converted back into water before being returned to the boiler. providing high-pressure gases to drive the turbine. At one end of the turbine the shaft sticks out and can be attached to machinery. causing the shaft to rotate. In a hydraulic turbine falling water strikes a series of blades or buckets attached around a shaft. At the inlet end of the turbine high-pressure steam enters from a boiler and moves through the turbine parallel to the shaft. or hydraulic. and high-speed tools. new. intermediate-pressure turbine. The steam then passes through the remaining stages. as in a gas turbine–electric locomotive. Such a unit might consist of a small. and a turbine that resembles a steam turbine. were pioneers in the building of steam turbines. forcing the disks and the shaft to rotate. Toward the end of the 19th cent. used quality at prices you can afford www.com Essay: The perfect engine: the turbine Top Home > Library > Science > Sci-Tech Essays . AMF. After the steam leaves the turbine. The first such station was built in Wisconsin in 1882. which feeds high-pressure air into the combustion chamber. Each set of stationary vanes and the bladed disk immediately next to it constitutes a stage of the turbine. In a turbojet engine only a small pressure drop is used to drive the turbine. two engineers. steel shell enclosing a central shaft along which a series of bladed disks are spaced like washers. Sponsored Links Diesel Generator Set New & Used Diesel Genset Auto Synchron. first striking a row of stationary vanes that directs the steam against the first bladed disk at an optimum speed and angle. In a turboprop engine the turbine is used to turn a propeller as well as the compressor. The three most common types of hydraulic turbine are the Pelton wheel. Continual improvements of their basic machines have caused steam turbines to become the principal power sources used to drive most large electric generators and the propellers of most large ships.dieselgenerators. low-pressure turbine. gas. P. a combustion chamber. connected to a still larger. high-pressure turbine. the majority of the pressure drop occurring as the gases are expelled directly out of the engine. biogas. this motion in turn being used to drive the rotor of an electric generator. A variation of the turbojet is known as the turbofan engine. Some are used to drive electric generators. ATS.A water. connected to a larger. Gas turbines are used mainly as aircraft engines. the gases expanding until their pressure drops to atmospheric pressure. and the Kaplan turbine. Sir Charles A. the Francis turbine. de Laval of Sweden. Cap Bank generindo. The turbine drives the compressor. A steam turbine typically consists of a roughly conical. most steam turbines are multistage engines. A large steam turbine unit may actually be composed of several turbines that are all using the same shaft and steam. The blades are curved and extend radially outward from the rim of each disk. The term gas turbine is usually applied to a unit whose essential components are a compressor. turbine is used to drive electric generators in hydroelectric power stations. Between each pair of disks is a row of stationary vanes attached to the steel shell and extending radially inward.com generators at low prices diesel. there it is mixed with a fuel and burned. Parsons of Great Britain and Carl G.
although they could be made to turn wheels with various ingenious mechanisms.000 revolutions per minute and that delivered 10 horsepower. Steam turbines can deliver much more power than reciprocating engines and need less maintenance. achieved greater power and higher rotation rates. Leonhard Euler. reciprocating steam engines proved difficult to maintain at a fixed rotation speed as the load on the generator changed. a spinning object. The first ship to be equipped with such a steam turbine. The design of steam turbines developed into a science near the end of the 19th century. Hero) used jets of steam to turn a kettle. most reciprocating steam engines were replaced by steam turbines (or by diesels). Reciprocating steam engines were bulky. applying fluid mechanics. When practical steam engines were built at the start of the 18th century. The slow-revolving turbine consisted of several sections of increasing diameter. In 1890 he built a turbine consisting of a 30-cm (12-in. and wasted much energy in the machine itself to move the heavy pistons back and forth.k. Most large modern airplanes are now powered by . When first used to drive electric generators.) disk with 200 blades mounted on a flexible axis.Turbines are devices that spin in the presence of a moving fluid. A typical turbine based on heat is the steam turbine.a. The first to build a steam turbine was the British engineer Charles Algernon Parsons. succeeded in building water turbines that by far outstripped conventional water wheels by giving the blades special shapes. almost directly turning heat into rotary motion. Parsons developed in 1894 the ship turbine engine. they are sometimes called the perfect engines. thus transferring the energy of the steam in the form of kinetic energy to the blades. immediately established a speed record with 31 knots (57. High-pressure steam is admitted to the turbine and pressure differences in each section drive the turbine blades. he derived the term from turbo. During the early years of the 20th century. In 1629 the Italian engineer Giovanni Branca depicted in his machine book Le Machine a steam turbine in which a jet of steam is directed at the vanes of the same sort of apparatus as a water wheel. mainly driven by the need for lightweight and powerful airplane engines. much progress was made toward extracting the kinetic energy of flowing water by devising water turbines. No doubt others observed that escaping steam is like the rushing wind and could be used to push mills just as the wind powers windmills. Turbines are as simple as reciprocating engines are complex.7 mi per hour). however. Because they have essentially only one moving part. Charles Curtis developed the multistage turbine in which the blades and disks become progressively larger when the steam expands. developed a water turbine as early as 1750. Better materials allowed the construction of turbine blades that are resistant to corrosion. The Swedish engineer Carl Gustav de Laval. The steam was admitted to the blades by special nozzles (Laval nozzles) that accelerated the steam to very high velocities. Around 60 BCE the Alexandrian Greek Heron (a. The idea of a steam turbine is much older than the steam engine itself. During the 18th century several engineers.5 km or 35. The term "turbine" was coined by Fourneyron's professor Claude Burdin. Steam turbines also supplanted marine steam engines on ships. experimenting with steam turbines. such as Benôit Fourneyron. The difference between water wheels or windmills and turbines is largely one of emphasis and degree. they moved a cylinder back and forth (reciprocating motion) instead of pushing a wheel around. the Turbinia. A similar evolution took place for large internal combustion engines. In 1884 he completed a small turbine that rotated at 18. During the 18th and 19th centuries. had slow rotation speeds. The most useful turbines for many purposes are those that can be propelled with energy from heat.
either turboprop or turbojet engines. turn key www. A turbine generator provides both heat and power.com wind turbines up to 3MW home. Retailers 2264 Wind Energy Businesses www. custom designs.com Word Tutor: turbine Top Home > Library > Literature & Language > Spelling & Usage IN BRIEF: Rotary engine in which the kinetic energy of a moving fluid is converted into mechanical energy by causing a bladed rotor to rotate.eneind. Sponsored Links Wind Energy Buyer's Guide Manufacturers. Sponsored Links Power Generator Singapore Genset From 28 .com Wikipedia: Turbine Top Home > Library > Miscellaneous > Wikipedia . Taiwan & HK GlobalSources. large scale solar. business.chinabestproducts. Suppliers.com Generator Find new products & quality suppliers from China.152 kVA Sales / Rental / Option to Purchase www.SourceGuides. These turbines are spun by the expansion of jet fuel instead of by the expansion of water into steam.
For other uses. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Theory of operation 2 Types of turbines ○ 2. during an 1828 engineering competition. or the blades react to the flow. Benoit Fourneyron (1802-1867). Gas. A device similar to a turbine but operating in reverse is a compressor or pump.1931). Claude Burdin (1788-1873) coined the term from the Latin turbo.A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. or vortex. The simplest turbines have one moving part. built the first practical water turbine. Credit for invention of the modern steam turbine is given to British Engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854 . A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Early turbine examples are windmills and water wheels.1 Other 3 Uses of turbines 4 Shrouded tidal turbines 5 See also 6 Notes 7 External links Theory of operation . Moving fluid acts on the blades. so that they rotate and impart energy to the rotor. which is a shaft with blades attached. and water turbines usually have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. The axial compressor in many gas turbine engines is a common example. a student of Claude Burdin. a rotor assembly. steam. see Turbine (disambiguation).
The resulting impulse spins the turbine and leaves the fluid flow with diminished kinetic energy. There is no pressure change of the fluid in the turbine rotor blades. Turbine designs will use both these concepts to varying degrees whenever possible. The pressure of the fluid changes as it passes through the turbine rotor blades. The fluid may be compressible or incompressible. A pressure casement is needed to contain the working fluid as it acts on the turbine stage(s) or the turbine must be fully immersed in the fluid flow (wind turbines).A working fluid contains potential energy (pressure head) and kinetic energy (velocity head). Newton's second law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor (this is a . Impulse turbines do not require a pressure casement around the runner since the fluid jet is prepared by a nozzle prior to reaching turbine. For compressible working fluids. maintains the suction imparted by the draft tube. multiple turbine stages may be used to harness the expanding gas efficiently. for water turbines. Several physical principles are employed by turbines to collect this energy: Impulse turbines These turbines change the direction of flow of a high velocity fluid jet. Francis turbines and most steam turbines use this concept. Before reaching the turbine the fluid's pressure head is changed to velocity head by accelerating the fluid with a nozzle. Pelton wheels and de Laval turbines use this process exclusively. The casing contains and directs the working fluid and. Reaction turbines These turbines develop torque by reacting to the fluid's pressure or weight.
form of reaction). by deflecting it at an angle. This change in speed forces a designer to change from impulse at the base. relative to the rotor. the blade height increases. Steam Turbines were traditionally more impulse but continue to move towards reaction designs similar to those used in Gas Turbines. with a nozzle. Classical turbine design methods were developed in the mid 19th century. The rotor rotates at velocity U. Velocity triangles can be constructed at any section through the blading (for example: hub . Relative to the rotor. Some of the calculations are empirical or 'rule of thumb' formulae. Under these conditions (termed Low Pressure Turbines) blading becomes strictly a reaction type design with the base of the blade solely impulse. Vector analysis related the fluid flow with turbine shape and rotation. midsection and so on) but are usually shown at the mean stage radius. Formulae for the basic dimensions of turbine parts are well documented and a highly efficient machine can be reliably designed for any fluid flow condition. As the volume increases. simplifying assumptions were made. Turbines with multiple stages may utilize either reaction or impulse blading at high pressure. Graphical calculation methods were used at first. Crossflow turbines are designed as an impulse machine. at this radius. at velocity Vr2. Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind. and others are based on classical mechanics. Mean performance for the stage can be calculated from the velocity triangles. like a traditional water wheel. and the base of the blade spins at a slower speed relative to the tip. the velocity of the gas as it impinges on the rotor entrance is Vr1. in absolute terms the rotor exit velocity is Va2. Velocity triangles can be used to calculate the basic performance of a turbine stage. The gas is turned by the rotor and exits. tip. The velocity triangles are constructed using these various velocity vectors. but in low head applications maintain some efficiency through reaction. As with most engineering calculations. At low pressure the operating fluid medium expands in volume for small reductions in pressure. The reason is due to the effect of the rotation speed for each blade. Gas exits the stationary turbine nozzle guide vanes at absolute velocity Va1. However. using the Euler equation: . to a high reaction style tip.
.Typical velocity triangles for a single turbine stage Whence: where: specific enthalpy drop across stage turbine entry total (or stagnation) temperature turbine rotor peripheral velocity change in whirl velocity The turbine pressure ratio is a function of and the turbine efficiency.
However. The specific speed. the specific speed can be calculated and an appropriate turbine design selected. Statorless turbine. eliminating aircooling.Modern turbine design carries the calculations further. Types of turbines • Steam turbines are used for the generation of electricity in thermal power plants. Conventional high-pressure turbine blades (and vanes) are made from nickel-steel alloys and often utilise intricate internal air-cooling passages to prevent the metal from melting. Shrouded turbine. possibly. This number describes the speed of the turbine at its maximum efficiency with respect to the power and flow rate. Such engines usually feature an inlet. Contra-rotating turbines. which then powers an electric motor connected to the mechanical load. Ceramic blades are more brittle than their metallic counterparts. along with some fundamental formulas can be used to reliably scale an existing design of known performance to a new size with corresponding performance. Multi-stage turbines have a set of static (meaning stationary) inlet guide vanes that direct the gasflow onto the rotating rotor blades. compressor. and carry a greater risk of catastrophic blade failure. Transonic turbines operate at a higher pressure ratio than normal but are usually less efficient and uncommon. combustor and nozzle (possibly other assemblies) in addition to one or more turbines. fan. The gasflow in most turbines employed in gas turbine engines remains subsonic throughout the expansion process. Many turbine rotor blades have a shroud at the top. Given the fluid flow conditions and the desired shaft output speed. Ceramic turbine. The primary numerical classification of a turbine is its specific speed. In a statorless turbine the gasflow exiting an upstream rotor impinges onto a downstream rotor without an intermediate set of stator vanes (that rearrange the pressure/velocity energy levels of the flow) being encountered. These tools have led to steady improvements in turbine design over the last forty years. although the downstream velocities normally become subsonic. • • • • • • . The specific speed is derived to be independent of turbine size. experimental ceramic blades have been manufactured and tested in gas turbines. but most such applications now use reduction gears or an intermediate electrical step. to increase damping and thereby reduce blade flutter. Gas turbines are sometimes referred to as turbine engines. Computational fluid dynamics dispenses with many of the simplifying assumptions used to derive classical formulas and computer software facilitates optimization. In a transonic turbine the gasflow becomes supersonic as it exits the nozzle guide vanes. They were once used to directly drive mechanical devices such as ship's propellors (eg the Turbinia). such as plants using coal or fuel oil or nuclear power. In recent years. the complication may be counter-productive. Transonic turbine. Some efficiency advantage can be obtained if a downstream turbine rotates in the opposite direction to an upstream unit. where the turbine is used to generate electricity. Off-design performance is normally displayed as a turbine map or characteristic. which interlocks with that of adjacent blades. This turbine works well in creating power from water. with a view to increasing Rotor Inlet Temperatures and/or.
Voith. typically one nozzle section and two rotors is termed a "Curtis Wheel" Pressure Compund Multistage Impulse or Rateau. typically up to ten compared with up to a hundred stages.• • • Shroudless turbine. Kaplan turbine. where possible. Francis turbine. The Rateau employs simple Impulse rotors separated by a nozzle diaphragm. ducts. thus being a true turbine. Tide Turbine Other • Velocity compound "Curtis". water turbine. Curtis combined the de Laval and Parsons turbine by using a set of fixed nozzles on the first stage or stator and then a rank of fixed and rotating stators as in the Parsons. to eliminate the rotor shroud. Water turbines ○ ○ ○ ○ Pelton turbine. thus reducing the centrifugal load on the blade and the cooling requirements. Modern practise is. compressor. which has a stator and a rotor. a type of impulse water turbine. it must be noted that the collective machine referred to as the turbine in these cases is designed to transfer energy from a fuel to the fluid passing through such an internal combustion device as a means of propulsion. fan and (in the case of one designed to produce electricity) an alternator. . A gas turbine. combustor. Bladeless turbine uses the boundary layer effect and not a fluid impinging upon the blades as in a conventional turbine. for example. a variation of the Francis Turbine. Turbines are often part of a larger machine. An exception is the Éolienne Bollée. Very high efficiency turbines harness about 40% of the thermal energy. Most jet engines rely on turbines to supply mechanical work from their working fluid and fuel as do all nuclear ships and power plants. funnel shaped with the broad end facing the previous stage and the narrow the next they are also angled to direct the steam jets onto the impulse rotor. The diaphragm is essentially a partition wall in the turbine with a series of tunnels cut into it. Note that the use of a small section of a Curtis. heat-exchanger. These normally operate as a single stage without nozzle and interstage guide vanes. and not to transfer energy from the fluid passing through the turbine to the turbine as is the case in turbines used for electricity provision etc. • Uses of turbines Almost all electrical power on Earth is produced with a turbine of some type. However. however the efficiency of the turbine was less than that of the Parsons but it operated at much lower speeds and at lower pressures which made it ideal for ships. • Wind turbine. a type of widely used water turbine. may refer to an internal combustion machine that contains a turbine. with the rest exhausted as waste heat.
is something of a misconception becase the area presented to the flow is that of the largest duct cross-section. still be strong enough to move objects with a weight of 100kg. Although situating the rotor in the throat of the duct allows the blades to be supported at their tips (thus reducing bending stress from hydrodynamic thrust) the financial impact of the large amount of steel in the duct must not be omitted from any energy cost calculations.000 hp (52. If this area is used for the calculation. The Space Shuttle's main engines use turbopumps (machines consisting of a pump driven by a turbine engine) to feed the propellants (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) into the engine's combustion chamber.Reciprocating piston engines such as aircraft engines can use a turbine powered by their exhaust to drive an intake-air compressor. however. due to frictional losses in the duct. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Turbine Turbines could also be used as powering system for a remote controlled plane that creates thrust and lifts the plane of the ground. Shrouded tidal turbines An emerging renewable energy technology is the shrouded tidal turbine enclosed in a venturi shaped shroud or duct producing a sub atmosphere of low pressure behind the turbine. The liquid hydrogen turbopump is slightly larger than an automobile engine (weighing approximately 700 lb) and produces nearly 70. This. it is unlikely that the turbine will be able to produce as much power as a free-stream turbine with the same radius as the duct.2 MW). They come in different sizes and could be as small as soda can. Turbines can have very high power density (ie the ratio of power to weight. a configuration known as a turbocharger (turbine supercharger) or.3%) because the turbine can typically produce 3 times more power  than a turbine of the same size in free stream. Further. It is often claimed that this allows the turbine to operate at higher efficiency (than the Betz limit of 59. Turboexpanders are widely used as sources of refrigeration in industrial processes. or power to volume). a "turbo". . This is because of their ability to operate at very high speeds. colloquially. it will be seen that the turbine still cannot exceed the Betz limit.
Lunar Energy ) are proposing bidirectional ducts that would not be required to turn to face the oncoming tide every six hours. it is not correct to conclude that this circumvents the Betz limit. A non-symmetrical shrouded tidal turbine (the type discussed above) is mono directional and constantly needs to face upstream in order to operate.Asymmetric airfoil As shown in the CFD generated figure. Arrayed across a seaway or in fast flowing rivers shrouded tidal turbines are easily cabled to a terrestrial base and connected to a grid or remote community. See also . as a tidal turbine it is gaining more popularity and commercial use. It can be floated under a pontoon on a swing mooring. Similarly to tidal stream open turbines they have little if any environmental or visual amenity impact. This augmentation of flow velocity corresponds to a 3-4 times increase in energy available to the turbine. fixed to the seabed on a mono pile and yawed like a wind sock to continually face upstream. However. While the shroud may not be practical in wind. Several companies (for example. Therefore a turbine located in the throat of the shroud is then able to achieve higher efficiency. Alternatively the property of the shroud that produces an accelerated flow velocity across the turbine allows tidal flows formerly too slow for commercial use to be utilised for commercial energy production. and an output 3-4 times the energy the turbine would be capable of if it were in open or free stream. as mentioned above. which is accelerated through the duct. A far-field image would show a more complete picture of how the free-stream flow is affected by the obstruction. Cabled to the mainland they can be grid connected or can be scaled down to provide energy to remote communities where large civil infrastructures are not viable. Considerable commercial interest has been shown in recent times in shrouded tidal turbines as it allows a smaller turbine to be used at sites where large turbines are restricted. This flow is drawn into the shroud and concentrated (as seen by the red coloured zone). it can be seen that a down stream low pressure (shown by the gradient lines) draws upstream flow into the inlet of the shroud from well outside the inlet of the shroud. The figure shows only the near-field flow. A shroud can also be built into a tidal fence increasing the performance of the turbines.
^ Betz Limit 2.answers. ^ Paper by Brian Kirke 3.• • • • • • • • Balancing machine RMS Lusitania Rotordynamics Secondary flow in turbines Turbinia Turbo-alternator Turboshaft Vibration of Rotating Structures Notes 1. ^  External links • • • Turbine introductory math Turbines jet powered 1/16 scale Airbus A330 Turbine working process This entry is from Wikipedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer) Donate to Wikimedia http://www.com/topic/turbine . ^ Tidal Energy 4. the leading user-contributed encyclopedia.
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