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Refrigeration system diagram
2. Explanation of the diagram The pressure of the refrigerant gas is increased in the compressor and it there by becomes hot. This hot, high pressure gas is passed through into a condenser. The refrigerant gas will be cooled by cooling water, and because it is still at a high pressure it will condense. The liquid refrigerant is then distributed through a pipe network until it reaches control valve alongside an evaporator where the cooling is required. This regulating valve meters the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, which is at lower pressure. Air from the cooled space or fan is passed over the evaporator and boils off the liquid refrigerant, at the same time cooling the air. The design of the system and evaporator should be such that all liquid refrigerators are boiled off and the gas slightly superheated before it returns to the compressor at a low pressure and be recompressed. Thus it will be seen that heat is transferred from the air to the evaporator is then pumped round the system until it reaches the condenser where it is transferred or rejected to the ambient air or water. There are five main steps to a refrigeration circuit: evaporation, compression, condensing, receiving and expansion.
the temperature and pressure in the evaporator will rise. Refrigerant flow stops and the temperature in both tank and evaporator both rise to ambient. . Because the refrigeration circuit is closed. the temperature will be just under the boiling point. It absorbs heat when it evaporates. which produces cooling. The amount of heat given off is the heat absorbed by the refrigerant in the evaporator plus the heat created by compression input. which is then sent to the receiver. Suddenly reducing the pressure in the expansion valve causes the liquid to boil and evaporate. There are many different temperatures involved in the operation of a refrigeration plant. Alternately. the pressure will fall and with it the temperature in the evaporator. The refrigerant from the evaporator is fed to a tank as a weak or saturated superheated gas. 2) Compression: To maintain the necessary lower pressures and lower temperatures. a compressor is needed to remove the vapor. The energy that a compressor requires is called compression input and is transferred to the refrigeration vapor. 5) Expansion: Before the liquid enters the expansion valve. The byproduct of this is that the vapor changes to a liquid. 4) Receiving: The pressure in the receiver is higher than the pressure in the evaporator because of compression. equilibrium is maintained.1) Evaporation: Liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator. which gives off heat that is transferred to either air or water having a lower temperature. if the load on the evaporator rises and the refrigerant evaporates quicker. and thus must be lowered to match the evaporative pressure. 3) Condensing: After leaving the compressor. This is achieved through the use of an expansion valve. The pressure in the tank rises until it equals the pressure in the evaporator. but in principle there are only two pressures: evaporating pressure and condensing pressure. That means that if the compressor removes vapor faster than it can be formed. This evaporation takes place in the evaporator and the circuit is complete. the refrigerant moves to the condenser.
The compressor also draws vapor away from the evaporator to maintain a lower pressure and lower temperature before sending it to the condenser. b) Oily water separator It is used to separate the mixture of oil and gas from the refrigerant gas. It works as a pump to control the circulation of the refrigerant. Components in refrigeration system a) Compressor A refrigerator compressor is the center of the refrigeration cycle.3. This is to improve the efficiency and performance of the refrigeration. . So iron erosion from compressor will be barred from entering the whole system and avoid maintenance which often. heating it up. and it adds pressure to the refrigerant.
Because its function is to absorb heat into the refrigeration system (from where you don't want it). Fins and tubes are made of metals with high thermal conductivity to maximize heat transfer. plastics and metals. The refrigerant vaporizes from the heat it absorbs heat in the evaporator. the evaporator is placed in the area to be cooled. an orifice of a small diameter arranged in the casing for jetting a refrigerant into the casing and an obstruction disposed in the casing at a position within a distance which is 5 times as large as the diameter of the orifice. and eventually released to the compressor. as in the case of a refrigerant jetted from a restriction or orifice into a refrigerant pipe of a refrigeration system. The obstruction can have various forms such as bar-like form. jet noise of high frequency is generated in the region around the orifice. d) Silencer When a fluid is jetted from an orifice having a small diameter into an ample space having a much greater cross-sectional area than the orifice.c) Condenser This is the part of the refrigeration system that is doing the actual cooling. disc-like form and so forth and can be made from various materials such as rubbers. which absorbs heat from the air blown through a coil by a fan. In order to suppress the generation of this jet noise. The obstruction disposed at such a position cause a change of pattern of the fluid flow to effectively suppress the generation of noise. the present invention provides a silencer which includes a casing. . The refrigerant is let into and measured by a flow control device. The evaporator consists of finned tubes.
One of the most promising alternatives is the natural refrigerant CO2 (R744). They are used in air-conditioning systems for buildings. From 2011 on. in the chemical/pharmaceutical industry. and non-halogenated hydrocarbons such as methane. storage. the European Union will phase out refrigerants with a global warming potential (GWP) of more than 150 in automotive air conditioning (GWP = 100 year warming potential of one kilogram of a gas relative to one kilogram of CO2). Carbon dioxide is non-flammable. Basic of refrigerants A refrigerant is a substance used in a heat cycle usually including. Its purpose is to store any excess liquid refrigerant and oil that may have not boiled off in the evaporator.e) Accumulator Accumulators are designed to protect against damage to the compressor. Emissions from automotive airconditioning are a growing concern because of their impact on climate change. a reversible phase change from a gas to a liquid. When the liquid refrigerant enters the accumulator it strikes a deflector plate that causes anything liquefied to rest in the holding tank. 4. Traditionally. fluorocarbons. The accumulator is situated between the evaporator and compressor in the suction line. especially chlorofluorocarbons were used as refrigerants. for enhanced efficiency. in the automotive industry and above all in the food industry (production. Other common refrigerants used in various applications are ammonia. Natural refrigerants such as ammonia. and retailing). carbon dioxide and non-halogenated hydrocarbons preserve the ozone layer and have no (ammonia) or only a low (carbon dioxide. hydrocarbons) global warming potential. has a global warming potential of . non-ozone depleting. This will ban potent greenhouse gases such as the refrigerant HFC-134a which has a GWP of 1410 to promote safe and energy-efficient refrigerants. New applications are opening up for natural refrigerants for example in vehicle air-conditioning.(pipe running between the two components). but they are being phased out because of their ozone depletion effects. Accumulators collect small amounts of oil and refrigerant into the suction line so as not to cause compressor damage. in sport and leisure facilities. sulfur dioxide.
y Scroll Compressors y Scroll compressors work by moving one spiral element inside another stationary spiral to produce gas pockets that. Dimethyl ether (DME) is also gaining popularity as a refrigerant. hot water pumps. and pharmaceutical manufacturing. 5. and vending machines. which is considered to have the highest potential for replacing R-134a. This new refrigerant has a GWP rating of 4 and is not a blend. y Reciprocating Compressors y A reciprocating compressor uses a piston-actuated unloading mechanism with spring-loaded pins to raise the suction valve plate from its seat. screw. increase the pressure of the gas. which allow the rotary to remain loaded 100 percent of the time. such as tetrafluoroethane. y Rotary Screw Compressors y Rotary screw compressors have screw spindles that compress the gas as it enters from the evaporator. R12 is compatible with mineral oil. commercial refrigeration. leading to an extremely dangerous phenomenon known as inhalant abuse. Further advantages include simple controls and the ability to control the speed through the use of belt drives. the oil filter and the air/oil separator. They are used in refrigeration. scroll and centrifugal. as they become smaller.and part-load operation. are seeing rising use as recreational drugs. Some refrigerants. GM has announced that it will start using HFO-1234yf in all of its brands by 2013. residential air conditioning. typically these compressors only require changes in oil.1. while R134a is compatible with synthetic oil. heat pumps. There are two types of rotary screw compressors: single and twin. ice rinks and arenas. R-744 can be used as a working fluid in climate control systems for cars. The screw compressor features smooth operation and minimal maintenance requirements. Microprocessor-based controllers are also available for standard rotary compressors. such as food processing. Hydrofluoric olefin (HFO)-1234yf. several pockets are compressed at once. allowing the unit to be used at any pressure ratio. This action is similar to an internal combustion engine in a car. This type of compressor is efficient at both full. The reciprocating compressor is used in low-horsepower applications. By maintaining an even number of . but is toxic and potentially lethal in concentrations above 5% by volume. During compression. and air-conditioning applications. Types of compressor y The main types of refrigeration compressors are reciprocating.
References y y y y y y http://en. Diffusers may use airfoils.com. It does this by expanding the region of the flow volume to slow the flow velocity of the working fluid.google.com/about_5079979_functions-refrigeration-compressor.org/wiki/Refrigerant http://www.google. y Centrifugal Compressors y Centrifugal compressors compress refrigerant gas through the centrifugal force created by rotors that spin at high speed.ehow. This reduces energy use.my/search?sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF8&q=refrigeration+compressor . the compression forces inside the scroll balance and reduce vibration inside the compressor. This energy is then sent to a diffuser.wikipedia.google. also known as vanes.e-refrigeration. eliminating wasted space in the compression chamber and eliminating the need to compress gas again and again during the cycle (recompression).php?page=accumulator http://www. Centrifugal compressors are suited for compressing large volumes of gas to moderate pressures. to improve this.html http://www.my/search?hl=en&q=function+of+refrigeration+silencer&aq=f&aqi= &aql=&oq= http://www.com.my/search?hl=en&q=silencer+for+refrigeration+system&aq=f&aqi= &aql=&oq= http://www. which converts a portion of it into increased pressure.com. This type of compressor uses the scroll design instead of a fixed cylinder or a piston or single-sided compression mechanism.balanced gas pockets on opposite sides.com/index.
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