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rmwdum

tcPf; (5)

0dyóem\ y&duH

tajccH½IrSwfykH

pí tm;xkwfykH

trSwf wkd;jcif;

rSwfykH tusOf;csKyf

'Gg& 6yg;üjzefYí rSwfykH

edAÁmeftm½kHokdY ul;oGm;ykH

zkdvf0ifpm;ykH

ÓPfpOfukd ½Sif;enf;

txufr*f-zkdvftwGuf tm;xkwfenf;

Oa,smZOf

txl; rSmxm;csuf
tcPf; (6)

emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPfESifh 'd|d0dok'd¨

ypö,y&d*¾[ÓPfESifh ucFg0dw&P0dok'd¨

t0dZÆm 2rsKd;

twdwf-tem*wfü tEkrmeÓPf

,kHrSm;rI 16 rsKd;

,kHrSm; uif;uGmykH

plVaomwmyef

¤if;\ *wdNrJ&m b0 tykdif;tjcm;

or®oeÓPf

or®oeESifh e,reodum& wlaMumif;

11 Xmeü tedpöor®oe

'ku©or®oe

tewåor®oe

twå [k pGJvrf;ykH

tewå xifykH

ygVdrkwåu t|uxmenf;rsm;

£a`E´xufaMumif;w&m; 9 yg;

½lyowåu ½Ienf;

tm'ge edau©ye ½Ienf;

vu©Pma&;wifí ½IykH

0a,m0k¹kw¬*Fr ½Ienf;

tm[m&r, ½Ienf;

Owkr, ½Ienf;

ur®Z ½Ienf;
pdwåZ ½Ienf;

"r®wm½kyfü ½Ienf;

emrowåu ½Ienf;

uvmy ½Ienf;

,ru ½Ienf;

cPdu ½Ienf;

y#dyg#d ½Ienf;

Mo0g'pum;

'd|dO*¢g#e ½IjrifykH

odrfarGUaom 'd|d-0dpdudpämruif;ao;aMumif;

rmeork*¢g#e ½IjrifykH

eduEdÅy&d,m'ge ½IjrifykH

O',AÁ,ÓPf

0dyóEkayu©m\ o½kyf-owdå

oEÅwdESifh cPypöKyÜef

ypöKyÜefukd pí ½ItyfaMumif; om"u

0dyóem\ npfñl;aMumif; tEÅ&m,frsm;

r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe 0dok'd¨

y#dy'gÓP'óe 0dok'd¨

tjzpf-tysufukd jrifvQif vu©Pm 3 yg;xifaMumif;om"u

b*FÓPf

b*FÓPfokdY ajymif;ul;ykH0dok'd¨r*f

txl;rSwfbG,f

b,ÓPfponf

rkOdöwkurswmÓPfponf
y#docFgÓPf

tedpö tjcif;t&m (10)yg;

'ku© tjcif;t&m (25)yg;

tewå tjcif;t&m (5)yg;

ocFg½kayu©mÓPf

'Gdaum#du ½IjrifykH

pwkauúm#dum ½IjrifykH

q tmum& ½IjrifykH ponf

txl; rSwfbG,f

tEkavmrÓPf

0k|me*grdeD 0dyóem

'Gwðå oukd jyifqifcsuf

a*gMwblÓPf

r*fÓPf - ÓP'óe0dok'd¨ESifh zkdvfÓPf

r*fÓPfjzpfykH

txl;owdjyKbG,f

ypöa0u©PmÓPf

ypöa0u©Pm wyg;xnf;om jzpfolvJ ½Sdao;aMumif;

r*fjzifh y,ftyfaom udavomrsm;

aomwmyef ppfwrf;

"r®m'gookwf ygXfteuf

t&d,m\ o'¨g ckdifNrJykH

t&d,m\ oDv ckdifNrJykH

t&d,m\ ,kHrSm;

r[mypöa0u©Pm (7) yg;


t&d,m&[ef;\ tmywf

zvormywf 0ifpm;ykH

t&d,mrSm O',AÁ,ÓPfrSpí jzpfNrJ

zkdvf0ifpm;ckdufü edAÁmefrSwyg; bmukdrQ rodaMumif;ygVd

txl; owdjyK&ef oAÁo*Fg[du pum;

rpifMu,faom zkdvform"dvJ ½SdaMumif;

txl;aumufEkwfcsuf

oww0d[m&Dyk*¾dKvfESifh aemoww0d[m&Dyk*¾dKvf

edAÁmeuxm

edAÁmefESifh tbm0ynwf rwlaMumif;

ocFg&ESifh edAÁmef ajymif;jyef qefYusifaMumif;

oOyg'daooESifh tEkyg'daoo edAÁmef

udavo-cE¨edAÁmefwkdYvJ y&rwf jzpfaMumif;

r*f-zkdvf\ tm½kHjzpfaom edAÁmef

edAÁmefonf vif;vif; 0if;0if;BuD; r[kwf


tcPf; (7)

r[m0dyóem 18-yg; ygXfteuf

tedpömEkyóem

¤if;\jzpf&m umvESifh oEÅwdCe uGJykH

0dyóemjzifh y,ftyfaom udavom

tm&r®PmEko,

oEÅmemEko,

tedpöukd odvQif 'ku© - tewåukdvJ od\

'ku©mEkyóem

tewåmEkyóem

oEÅwdCe

orl[Ce

udpöCe

tm&r®PCe

tEkyóem 3 yg;ü txl; rSwfzG,f

edAÁd'gEkyóem

0d&m*gekyóem

eda&m"mEkyóem

y#dedó*¾gEkyóem

tusOf;csKH;jyjcif;

c,mEkyóem

0,mEkyóem

0dy&dPmrmEkyóem

tedrdwåmEkyóem

tyÜPd[dwmEkyóem
oknwmEkyóem

t"dynm"r®0dyóem

,xmblwÓP'óe

tm'De0gEkyóem

y#docFgEkyóem

0d0¥mEkyóem

ed*kH;
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; (*gxm ed'gef;) 1

*gxm ed'gef;
yXrwGüJ jrefrmpum;ajy ed'gef;ESiw hf uG *gxmed'gef;ukd xnfo h iG ;f az:jycJ\
h /
þ'kw,
d wGüJ um; xk*d gxmwkYd uydk if jrefrmjyefí odvodk w
l Ydk twGuf az:jyygtH/h

{aw¬'H 0kpw
ö d *gxm½kpu
d me rw¬m, 0dñel /H

{w¬? usrf;opfxeG ;f vif;ç jzpfay:jcif;\ç aMumif;&if;rlvç yb0ukçd az:jypOfvmç þed'gef;t&mü/ *gxm


½kpu
d meH? zGUJ qko
d u dk ûf rduçf *gxmü ESpof ufjcif;½Su d ek af om/ 0dñel ?H rm*"dumç ygVdt&müç vdrm® wwfoçd ynm½Sw d Ydk
\/ tw¬m,? *Gr;f vTmqDprd çhf csKdtq D rd o
hf Ydk ç ESpo
f rd ½hf iT jf rL;ç MunfE;l tm;&jcif; tusKd;iSg/ £'H *gxmorl[0peH?
qef;tvuFmç o'´gtnDç enf;pkrH í DS ç zGUJ pDa&;om;ç *gxmtaygif; wnf;[laom þpum; uk/d 0kpw ö ?d csD;usL;
pyf[yfç >rufqt dk yfayownf;/

(1) a,m t.yÜrma'g t.rwó a0 y'H?


orÜm'aem ao| oduw © , å ómyd/
t&d,r*¾Oö tm&m"a, bm0dawm?
ua&mwd o'¨r® pd&|dwrd Üd a0/

a,m t.yÜrma'g? ajcmuf'gG &üç jzpfcu dk ½f yk ef mrfç oabmrSeu f çdk tjrefvufiif;ç ÓPf xifvif;atmifç
csufjcif;rSw½f çI rarhrI wnf;[laom tMuif tyÜrm'w&m;onf/ trwó? aojcif; uif;jywfç edAmÁ ef"mwf\/ y'H
p? a&muf&eftaMumif;ç tusifah umif;onfvnf;/ a0-{uaEÅe? pifppf{uefç trSet f m;jzif/h a[mwd? jzpfay\/
ao|oduw © , å ómyd? oDv-orm"dç todynmç xl;jrwfpmG aomç odum© ok;H yg;ç tusifw h &m;taygif;ukvd nf;/
orÜm'aem p? t&[wåzv dk w
f idk çf NyD;apEkid o
f nfvnf;/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/ bm0dawm? rem;r&yfç yGg;aptyfonf½dS
aomf/ t&d,r*¾O?ö ½Spfyg;t*Fgç pkv H ifpmG ESiçhf t&d,mr*fjirf;ç xGu&f yfvrf;ukv d nf;/ tm&m"a,-tm&m",wd? av;
Budrw f idk w
f idk çf NyD;apEkid \
f / o'¨rp® &d |dwrd ?dÜ olawmf aumif;rsm;ç jrwfw&m;[kç ok;H yg;odum© ç omoem\ç ½SnfpGm
ckid cf çhH wnfwjhH cif;ukv d nf;/ a0-{uaEÅe? pifppf{uefç trSet f m;jzif/h ua&mwd? jr§m;jruf-usL½kHç qufwnfykHokdYç
txku H ;l pufç ruG,yf sufatmifç EG,q f uf rjywfç ûyvkyw f wfygay\/ / (y- £E´0o H m? 'k-om&*F? w-o*¾P d ?D
p-0How¬0v d m/ OyZmwd*gxm wnf;/ tm&,-[laomouúwü uJo h Ydk ? t&d,-[laom rm*"üvnf;? t-ESi&hf u d dk
aygif;í? *½kwvkH;xnf;aom ,ltyf\/ waygp jA[®p&d,Oö? t&d,opöme'óeH? edAmÁ eopdu ä &d ,
d m p-[laom
r*Fvokwüf ? p&d- t&d- ud&w d Ydk u?dk *½kwvk;H wnf;pDom ,l&ouJo h Ydk rSwyf gav)/

(2) aom edAKÁ awyD." Zdae pd&H rae?


vvmo 0dñel raeu aum#de/H
ypämwG.em&m"dwwm, yg,aom?
'kaAÁma"m oGmoDç ypdrä meH ykemyd/

Zdae? tyÜrm'ç y"mejzifçh ok;H 0odum© ç omoemukd aumif;pGmwnfaxmifç ig;rm&fatmifonfçh acgif;aqmif


a½SUoGm;ç jrwfb&k m;onf/ edAKÁ awyd? edAmÁ efpcef;ç a½Tjynfeef;okYd ç <ujref;0ifpaH wmfrNl yD;aomfvnf;/ aom tyÜrma'g?
ajcmuf'gG &üç jzpfcudk ½f yk ef mrfç oabmrSwuf çdk tjrefvufiif;ç ÓPfxifvif;atmifç csufjcif;rSw½f çI rarhrw I nf;[l
aom xkt d yÜrm'w&m;onf/ £"? vlUbkXH meç þavmuü taeuaum#de?H uka#ruç rsm;vSpmG ukeaf om/ 0dñel ?H
enf;,lvsufç tqufqufygG ;ç usifah omtm;jzifçh w&m;jrifodç ynm½SdwkdY\/ rae? jzLpif jrifjh rwfç ESv;Hk "mwfü/pd&?H
ESp-f waxmifausmfrQ ½Snjf rifph mG aom umvywfv;Hk / vvm o? prÜg,fveG Yf v;l ç vGeyf sHUysL;vsufç uGeYf jrL;ude;f 0yf
cJah vowwf/ wk? a½S;umvuç tyÜrm'w&m;ç vltrsm;üç jyefYygG ;½SnMf umç wnfxeG ;f cJyh gaomfvnf;/ ypäm? ESp-f
waxmifausmfç xkad &mfcgrSç aemufumvü/ yg,aom? rsm;aomtm;jzif/h 0g? &m-axmif-ode;f -aomif;ç rsm;pGmaom
&[ef;-½Sif-vl-taygif;onf/ wó? xkt d yÜrm'w&m;\/ 0g? xkt d yÜrm'w&m;uk/d tem&m"dwwm,? wynfh
pOfqufç EG,rf ysufatmifç ,lvsufraoGç rNyD;aptyfco hJ nf\ tjzpfaMumif/h aom? xkt d yÜrm'w&m;onf/ ypärd meH?
aemifvm aemufygG ;ç yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;wkYd tm;/ 0g? aemifvm aemufygG ;ç yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;wkYd onf/ ykemyd? wzefvnf;/ 'kaAÁma"m?
w&m;usif&h efç trSev f v dk m;ç qE´rsm;vsufç vku d pf m;aomfvçJ odEidk cf o
J nf/ tmoD? 0rf;enf; pzG,çf tm;ao;i,fí ç
uG,v f rk wwfç jzpfvwfcahJ vNyD/ / (y-w-£E´0o H m? 'k-0How¬0v d m? p-a0óa'0D/ OyZmwd*gxm)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; (*gxm ed'gef;) 2

(3) wxmyd aom wd|wda,0 auokp?d


wodO® §d oDv;Hk 0edaum.od 0dóak wm/
wódó blawm p aZ,s.'d́a0rZÑ?
tm&nu0goDç wo®ð 0 &&mr/ /

wxmyd? xko d Ydk aemufygG ;ç yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;wkYd ç em;rvnfbçJ odEidk cf aJ omfvnf;/ aom? xkd tyÜrm'w&m;onf/
auokp?d pD;yGg;rSeu f çdk ½SmBuHvo dk nfçh yk*Kd¾ vftcsKdUwkYd ü/ wd|wda,0? pOfvmrysufç wnfvsuf ½Sad o;onfomwnf;/
[d? a½S;½k;d pOfvmç rSepf mG rysufç wnfwchH sufuçdk t>rufrQjzifçh vSpzf iG Ohf ;D tH/h oDv;Hk 0edaum? oDv;Hk awm&ç tm0goüç
rQwpHr;DS oDv;Hk awm& q&mawmfb&k m;BuD;onf/ wo®ð tyÜrm a'? tyÜrm'y#dywfç xkt d usifjh rwfü/ 0dóak wm? ae
-vtvm;ç xif½mS ;awmfro l nf/ tmod? jzpfcahJ yNyD/ (þq&mawmfb&k m;BuD;\ oDwif;ok;H &m oDv;Hk awm&ausmif;rSm
qdycf eG ½f mG rSm ajrmufbuf 2-rkid cf efY uGmaomt&yfü ½So d nf)/ wódóblawm? xko d v
D ;Hk q&mawmfb&k m;\ç
wynfw h yg;jzpfawmfral yaom/ aZ,s.'d́a0 rZÑ tm&nu0goDp? ppfuidk ;f awmifXme tv,fawm&üç rQwpHaysmfç
tv,fawm&q&mawmfonfvnf;/ woð® {0? tyÜrm'y#dywfç xkt d usifjh rwfüomvQi?f &&mr? raem"mwfüç rjywf
qku
d í f ç ESpûf cduf ½Tiaf ysmfç arGUavsmfawmfro l wwf/ (y-0How¬0v d m? 'k - £E´0o H m? w - om&*F? p-rPdrmvm/
OyZmwd*gxm)/

(4) v'¨nma,m po®m oE¨m*ga& aZw-


0ae 0kw¬ ykaAÁm yumaowd {wH/
om"duwðå o 0óm ybkws.ZÆy?d
ok"r®emar 0oaw yk&rSd aom/

to®m r[max&o®m? xkt d v,fawm& q&mawmfb&k m;xHr/S v'¨nma,m? vufqyk v f ufuidk çf ykid yf idk rf rd çd
&tyfaomenf; ½Sad wmfral om/ oE¨m*ga&? rif;uGe;f rnfawmifç *luav;acsmifü/ aZw0ae? aZw0eforku d çf awm
ausmif;wku d üf / 0kwy¬ ak AÁm? a½S;tcguç rQwMunfE;l ç Mumjrifph mG oDwif;ok;H bl;aom/ a,m r[maxa&m p?
rif;uGe;f -aZw0ef q&mawmfç ac:a0:ynwfç tMuif rax&fjrwfonfvnf;/ {wH tyÜrm'H? owdy|mefç "r®ue© üf ç
av;wefcjJG cm;ç þtyÜrm'w&m;uk/d om"duwðå o0óm? tESpo f ;Hk q,fç pGe;f u,fMumpGmçh tcgumvrS/ ybkw?d
pí/ yumaowd? u½kPma½SUoGm;ç ynmtm;jzifçh xif½mS ;a[mjyawmfral y\/ tZÆy?d ,ckvnf;/ aom r[maxa&m?
xkrd ax&fjrwfonf/ ok"r®emar? ok"r®[k a½S;u trnf½adS om/ 0g? oxkt H rnf½adS om/ yk&rS?d ûrdYü/ 0oaw?
aZw0eforku d f awmausmif;wku d üf ç ,mykx
d af v; vDç rQnD½iT ûf yH;ç oDwif;ok;H vsuf ½Sad wmfral y\/ (þq&mawmf
bk&m;BuD;onf 1316-ckEpS f waygif;vqkwf 10-&ufaeY toufawmf 86-ESpw f iG f uG,v
f eG af wmfral yNyD/ q|r½ku d f
ü jznfph uG of nf)/ (y-0dZmÆ "m&? 'k-bk Z*Fy, Ü mw? w-o*¾dPD? p-0How¬0v d m/ OyZmwd*gxm)/

(5) ax&ó apwó OyEÅad u t,H?


0od, oduw©d 0dyóem ea,m/
£'yÜaPwmyd [dawod om"ke?H
eda,mZaum wrSd pd&ó.umvawm/

p? jybG,v f &dk if;ç xkt d cif;ukçd ½Si;f vif;qufvu dk Of ;D tH/h {wó ax&ó? rif;uGe;f -aZw0efç trnfreG f
jzifçh xl;cRefxif½mS ;ç þq&mawmfb&k m;\/ OyEÅad u? teD;rsufarSmufç a½SUawmf atmufü/ 0od,-0odwmG ? av;v
ywfv;Hk ç oDwif;ok;H aexkid v f suf/ oduw ©d -0dyóemea,m? oif-usifh -½I-rSwfç 0dyóemç rSefpGm½Ienf;ç edó,nf;
½Sdawmfrlaom/ 0g? 0dyóem½Ienf;ç edó,nf;ukdç odrf;qnf; toifhç oif-usifch b hJ ;l onf jzpfí/ £'yÜaPwm?
0dyóemç rSepf mG ½Ivrf;ç þonfu h srf;ukçd êud;yrf;wnfxiG çf pD&ifûypkawmfral om/ (£rH *E¦H yua|e aewd ua&mwD
wd £'yÜaPwm)/ /t,Hyd r[maxa&m? t½Sif aombeç bGUJ emrjzifçh ÓP½TiMf unfç þrax&fonfvnf;/
[dawod om"ke?H r*f-zkv d -f edAmÁ efç pD;yGg;rSeu
f çdk &&efvvdk m;ç vku d pf m;oltaygif;ç olawmfaumif;wkYd u/dk wrS?d xkd
tyÜrm'pcef;ç owdy|mefvyk if ef;ü/ pd&ó-umvawm? q,fEpS af usmfrQç ½Snjf rifah om umvrS/ y|m,? pí/
eda,mZaum? tusKd; azmfvsufç EI;d aqmf jynTe;f ç wku d wf eG ;f avh ½Sad wmfral yownf;/ /(y-£E´0o H m? 'k- yd,0H 'g?
w-p-0How¬ 0dvm/ OyZmwd*gxm)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; (*gxm ed'gef;) 3

(6) ax&ód.róm.e,0dy[ Ü m,daem?


ybm0-orÇLw-0dyóem ea,m/
w.ryÜrm'H 0d'w
d Oö ok|wd ?H
ykem.ys.umod om"krmeao ta[mµ/

te,0dy[ Ü m,daem? toif-h usrf;*efç a½S;enf;rSeu f çdk xkwjf yefazmfMum;ç jyaomtm;jzifçh enf;rSm;ukd y,f
azsmufavh½adS wmfral om/ £ró ax&ó? ,lonf;uif;uGmç ½k;d &mrvku d çf trSeu f êdk uduaf omç þusrf;ûyrax&f
\/ ybm0-orÇLw-0dyóem ea,m? u½kPmESiçhf ynmp½Sçd pGr;f owdaå Mumifçh yd&ad ooyfç jzpfay:vwfonfçh
0dyóemç rSepf mG ½Ienf;ç usrf;jrwfBuD;onf/ wH tyÜrm'H? tyÜrm' y#dywfç xkt d usifjh rwf uk/d om"krmeao? rdrd
olwyg;ç ESpOf ;D om;\ç pD;yGg;rSeu
f çdk NyD;apvko
d nfçh yk*Kd¾ vftaygif;olawmfaumif;wkYd \ç &ifah nmif;jrifjh rwfç pdwEf v S ;Hk
"mwfü/ ykemyd? omoem xGe;f opfç a½S;acwfwpl mG ç wzefwcgvnf;/ 0d'w d Oö? vuf0,fwifxm;ç ywåjrm;okYd ç
xif½mS ; odtyfonfu¤dk if;/ ok|w d Oö? rvIyrf ,kid çf ckid cf idk cf chH çhH aumif;pGm wnfwo hH nfu¤dk if;/ tumod? ûyayNyD/
ta[m? vufyef;aygufcwfç aomreofjzifçh pdw"f mwf ½Tijf rL;ç tHch sD; usL;vsufç aMomf........txl;yif 0rf;ajrmufz, G f
aumif;ygaypGmwh um;/ /(y-£E´0o H m? 'k-w-0How¬0v d m? p-yOöpmr&/ OyZmwd*gxm)/

(7) oGm,Oö emaowG.pd&ókwm.e,H?


'kaAÁm" ayg&mP e,Oö 'Dya,/
om"leH pdawåç pm.yÜrm'H XayaEÅm?
ygaywk oEðÅ wk0#H [dawoauwd/

p? tmoD0gpmç r*Fvmukçd om,mMunfE;l ç qkv d u


dk Of ;D tH/h oGm,H aom t,H 0dyóeme,*aE¦m? 0dyóem
½Ienf;ç odyo f nf;uspfvpfç xku d srf;opfonf/ tpd&ókw?H rMumrDuç xGe;f yxif½mS ;cJah om/ te,H? 0dyóemç
pyfqidk &f m0,fç BuHumrwåç rwdrQjzifçh nTejf yaomtm;ç vrf;zJo h mG ;onfçh enf;rSm;[lorQu/dk emaowk? a&mifjcnfw
axmifç xde0f if;ajymifonfçh aea&miftvif;ç arSmifucdk iG ;f okYd ç y,f½iS ;f zsufq;D ygapownf;/ 'kaAÁm"-ayg&mP-
e,Oö? odEidk cf v J çS tvkad wmfusonfçh a½S;uenf;a[mif;ç rwdr;f apmif;aomç enf;aumif; vrf;rSeu f vdk nf;/ 'Dya,-
'Dy,wk? vuf0,fwifxm;ç ywåjrm;okYd xif½mS ;azmfjyygapownf;/ om"le?H rdr-d olwyg;ç ESpOf ;D om;\ç pD;yGg;
tjrwfç NyD;apwwfonfçh pdw"f mwf&ifah nmif;ç olawmf aumif;wkYd \/ pdawå p? od*Ð a½Tpifç *kPf wlqifonfhç
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omoemESpf 2489 OD;okE&´ (*P0gpu)


jrefrmESpf 1307 yd#uausmif;ç
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þusrf;ü az:jyxm;aom oauFw vu©Pmrsm;\


&nfnTef;csufrsm;

=........þ nDrQjcif;vu©Pmjzifh ol\ a½S;yk'Ef iS çhf aemufy'k ?f ol\a½S;pum;ESiçhf aemufpum;rsm;ukd t"dygÜ ,f


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¤if;? xkyd 'k çf xktd yk'd rf sm;ukd ol\ aemufteD;uyfy'k Ef iS hf rpyf&? ckeaf usmfíç qkid &f m y"meyk'rf sm;ESio
hf m pyf&onf
[lí¤if; odap\? þ aumfrm jy&mü pOf;i,f&yfwefYNyD;rS aemufy'k rf sm;ukd qufí zwfygav/

yku
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S /f þüBuHvQif [laomyk'u f dk BuHw,f [laom teD;uyfy'k Ef iS hf rpyf&?
rSw[
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f pyf&
onf}}[lí odygav? pOf;i,f jzwf&yfívJ zwfygav/

xkYd jyifç ....tifwl tm;wl jzpfaom 'Gef yk'f rsm;ukv


d J þaumfrmjzifh ykid ;f jcm;í jyxm;\/

ykHum; ...........ygVdç 0dedpä,wkdYukd Munfh½Ií - þü? ygVdEiS hf 0depd ,ä þESprf sKd;onf tifwt l m;wl jzpf\/ygVd
ukv
d MJ unf½h í
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ä ukv
d J Munf½h íI ? ¤if; 2 rsKd;vk;H ukd Munf½h í
I -[k odap&ef? aumfrm jzifh ykid ;f jcm;í jyxm;onf/

ykHpH.......BuHod&ç ½IrSwf&aom oabm-þü? BuHo&d aomoabm? ½Irw


S &f aom oabm? þokYd tifwt
l m;wl
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hf pfyif Oyrm? MuufOESiMhf uufr
Oyrm? þokYd 2yk'f 2euf[k odap\/

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f wHah om cE¨m[k 2rsK;d uGjJ ym; ap\/

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f somG ;wmu
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wnf;om zwfomG ;ygav/

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aom qkid &f mqkid &f m ygVdç 0depd , ä wkYd udk Munf½h í
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0dyóem\ y&du.H ...,ckb0rSmyif r*fç zkv d çf edAmÁ efoYdk qku


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omíaumif;\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 7

tajccH ½IrSwfykH

pí tm;xkwfykH....rdrd\0rf;Aku d u f dk pdwjf zifph ;l pku


d íf Munfah eyg/ azgif;<uvmwmç ydeu f soGm;wmukd awGU&
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d wf
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armhav/ NyD;vQif ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusuko d m jyefí rSwaf v/

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ompl;pkud í
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r½S&d /
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 8

wae&m&mü ,m;rIjzpfay:vmvQiçf xkd ,m;rIuo dk m pl;pku


d í
f ],m;w,f ,m;w,f}[k raES; rjref rSerf eS f
ykid ;f íykid ;f í rjywfrw S af v? rSwaf e,if; t,m;aysmufomG ;vQifç azgif;rI yderf u I odk m jyefí rSwaf v/ rcHomí
t,m;azsmufvv dk Qif azsmufcsiw f ,f[k jzpfapç ukycf siw
f ,f[k jzpfap rSw?f vufudk <uvkv d Qiçf <ucsiw
f ,f[k
rSwf? u < vQifç ]<uw,f <uw,f}[k rSw?f ajz;ajz;<uav/ ,m;wJh ae&mESihf xdvQifç xdw,f[k rSw?f t,m;azsmuf
aomtcg? qGw J idk ;f wGe;f wkid ;f ]azsmufw,f azsmufw,f}[k jzpfapç ]ukyw f ,f ukyw f ,f}[k jzpfaprSw?f awmfcsifvQifç
awmfcsifw,f[k rSw?f vufujdk yefcsvkv d Qifç cscsifw,f[k rSw?f csaomtcg ]csw,fcsw,f}[k rSw?f atmufü
xdvQifç xdw,f[k rSw/f NyD;vQif ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f} [k rSwaf eus uko d mjyefí rjywf rSwaf v/

uk,
d xf rJ mS emusOfrI paom rcHomwJh a0'em wrsKd;rsKd;xm½Sm; ay:vmvQif xkrd cHomrI uko d m pl;pku d íf ç
emw,f emw,f? usO;f w,f usOw f ,f? ukud wf ,f uku d w f ,f? atmifw h ,f atmifw h ,f? armw,f armw,f? rl;w,f
rl;w,fponfjzifh ac:aeustwdik ;f raES;rjref rSerf eS f ykid ;f íykid ;f í rSwaf v? xkad 0'emonf rSwaf e,if; aysmufívJ
oGm;wwf\? wk;d ívJvmwwf\/ ravQmhbJ twif;rSwaf evQifç aysmufwwfonfom rsm;yg\/ okYd aomfç rrSwEf idk f
avmufatmif rcHomrI vGeu f vJ mvQiu
f m; xkad 0'emukd ESv;Hk roGi;f ESiahf wmh? rSwaf eus azgif;rI yderf u I o
dk m txl;
*½kpu dk í f rjywf rSwyf gav? tcsKdUaom olrmS orm"d t½Sed f wufvsuf trSwf aumif;aecku d üf tvGef rcHomaom
a0'em ay:vmwwf\? &if0ü avvk;H BuD; aqmifw h ufovkv d J xif&wwf\? tom;xJü xm;cRefEiS hf xk;d vku d of vkd
vJemwwf\/ wuk, d vf ;Hk ylavmif aeovkv d J xif&wwf\? tyfzsm;ESihf xk;d qG aeovkd ûrd;ûrd;jrufjruf vJjzpfwwf
\? yk;d aumifuav;rsm; tESYH tjym;wufaeovkd ½k;d ½k;d ½G½v G J jzpfaewwf\/ tvGef ,m;jcif;ç uku d jf cif; csr;f at;jcif;
rsm;vJ jzpfwwf\/ aMumufaomaMumifh rrSwb f J &yfem;vku d v f Qiçf csujf cif;yif xkad 0'emaysmufomG ;wwf\/ wzef
rSwí f t½Sed af umif;vmjyefvQif? xkad 0'em ay:NrJyif ay:vmjyef\/ þvkad 0'emrsKd;ukad wGUvQif raMumufeYJ ?a&m*gvJ
r[kwyf g? BuD;us,w f hJ a0'emvJ r[kwyf g/ uk, d xf üJ a½S;uyifjzpfvsuf ½Sad eaom omref a0'emrQomwnf;?
rrSwb f J aepOfrmS olYxuf xif½mS ;aom tm½kaH wG½adS ewJh twGuçf olu rxifay:Ekid b f J ûryfu,G f aeayonf? trSwf
aumif;pOfrmS orm"d wnfMunfraI Mumifçh ûryfu, G af ecJah om xkad 0'emonf w&m; oabmtwkid ;f xif½mS ; ay:vm
ayonf? xkad 0'emuko d m pl;pkud íf vGeaf jrmufatmif rSwyf gav? rSww f t hJ wGuf wpkw H &m bmrQepfemjcif; rjzpfEidk f
yg/ rrSwb f J &yfem; &yfem;aevQifum; aemiftcgüvJ rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f xkrd Qavmuf orm"d aumif;vmvQifç xkd
a0'emrsKd;ESihf awGUí awGUíom aewwf\/ ravQmah om vkYH vjzifh twif; rSwaf evQiu f m; rMumrD twGi;f rSm ,lypf
vkud o f vkyd if xkd a0'em aysmufuif; oGm;onfudk awGU&ygvdrrhf nf? xkt d cgrS pí xkd a0'emrsKd; wzef rjzpfay:bJ
Nidr;f oGm;wwf\/

uk, d u
f dk ,dr;f vkv d Qifç ,dr;f csifw,f [k rSw?f ,dr;f qJü ],dr;f w,f ,dr;f w,f}[k rSw/f tcsKdYrmS rSwaf eus
twkid ;f rSwaf epOfrmS tvkv d dk ,dr;f aewwf\/ raMumufeYJ ? ,dr;f atmifvpJ w d u f dk tm;ray;eJY? rSwv f Qif aysmufomG ;
rSmbJ[k ,kMH unfpw d cf sNyD;vQifç xkd ,dr;f rIudk txl; pl;pku d í f ç ],dr;f w,f ,dr;f w,f}[k raES; rjref rSerf eS yf idk f;í
ykid ;f í rSw?f tvGef ,dr;f vmvQifum; wkid ef &H H ponfurdk í DS jzpfapç tdyí f jzpfap rSwf av? rMumrDyif xk, d rd ;f rI
onf t½Si;f aysmufomG ;ygvdrrhf nf/ wkerf jI zpfvmvQifvJ enf;wlyif rSwyf gav/ trSwaf umif;aepOfrmS zsOf;ueJ
zsO;f ueJ Muufo;D xwwf\/ ausmxJujzpfap wuk, d vf ;Hk jzpfapç pdru hf eJprd uhf eJ at;rIvjJ zpfwwf\/ raMumufeYJ ?
w&m;oabmtwkid ;f yDwd jzpfay: vmjcif;yifwnf;/ wpkw H &m toH uav;rsm;ukd Mum;&aomaMumifv h J zswuf eJ
vefYwwf\/ raMumufeYJ ç orm"d t½Sed f aumif;vmwJh twGuçf zó 'Pfjyif;ysyku H dk xif½mS ; odvmjcif;yifwnf;/
vufç ajcç uk, d tf *FgwkYd udk ûyjyifvw dk idk ;f jyifvw
dk phJ w
d uf dk rSw?f jyifwhJ uk, d t f rlt&m [lorQukv d J ac:aeustwkid ;f
ykid ;f í ykid ;f í rSwaf v/ rjrefapeJY ajz;ajz; jyifyg/

a&aomufcsiv f Qiçf aomufcsiw f ,f[k rSw?f x&ef BuHvQiçf xcsiw f ,f[k rSw?f x&ef ûyjyifaom ajcç
vufç uk, d f trlt&mrsm;ukd ac:aeustwkid ;f rSw?f wa½GUcsif; ayghayghNyD; <uwufvmaom uk, d u
f dk pl;pku
d íf ç
]xw,f xw,f}[k rSwv f suf ajz;ajz;xyg? pefYpefY &yfrad om tcgü ]&yfw,f &yfw,f}[k rSw?f vSr;f MunfvQifç
]Munfw h ,f jrifw,f}[k rSw?f oGm;vkv d Qifç oGm;csifw,f[k rSw?f oGm;qJü ajc vSr;f wkid ;f ajc vSr;f wkid ;f ç
]vSr;f w,f vSr;f w,f}[k jzpfapç ]nmvSr;f w,f b,fvrS ;f w,f}[k jzpfap rSw?f ajc <uonfrpS íç csonfwidk af tmif
ajcvSr;f &mrSm odvsuf½ydS gap? ajz;ajz;oGm;wJt h cgç pBuøomG ;wJt
h cgrsm;ü ajcwvSr;f wvSr;f rsm ]<uw,f vSr;f w,f}
[k jzpfapç ]<uw,f csw,f}[k jzpfapç ]vSr;f w,f csw,f}[k jzpfapç ESpcf suf ESpcf sufpD rSwo f mG ;yg/ xkEd pS cf sufrw
S f
ukd Ekid ef if;aomtcgü wvSr;f wvSr;f rSm ]<uw,f vSr;f w,f csw,f}[k ok;H csuf ok;H csufpD rSwyf gav/ a&tk;d
ponfudk Munfv h Qif ]Munfw h ,f jrifw,f}[k rSw?f &yfvQifç &yfw,f[k rSw?f a&cGuq f o D Ydk vufvrS ;f vQifç
]vSr;f w,f vSr;f w,f}[k rSw?f cGuEf iS xhf vd Qifç xdw,f[k rSw?f ukid v
f Qifç uk,
d wf ,f[k rSw?f a&cyfvQif cyfw,f[k
rSw?f ,lvmqJü ],lw,f ,lw,f}[k rSw?f EIwcf rf;ü xdvQifç xdw,f[k rSw?f at;vQifç at;w,f[k rSw?f aomuf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 9

qJü ]aomufw,f rsKdw,f? aomufw,f rsKdw,f}[k rSw?f v,facsmif;xJ 0rf;xJü at; at; oGm;onfudk ]at;w,f
at;w,f}[k rSw?f a&cGuu f dk jyefxm;qJü ]xm;w,f xm;w,f}[k rSw?f a&cGuu f dk jyefxm;qJü ]xm;w,f
xm;w,f}[k rSw?f vufudk atmufoYdk csvQifç ]csw,f csw,f}[k rSw?f uk, d üf xdvQifç xdw,f[k rSw?f jyefí vSYJ vdk
vQif vSYcJ sifw,f[k rSw?f vSYJ vQifç vSYw J ,f[k rSw?f oGm;jyefvQif rSwNf rJyif rSwíf oGm;av/ &yfvv dk Qifç &yfcsifw,f
[krw S ?f &yfqüJ ]&yfw,f &yfw,f}[k rSw?f twef MumMum &yfaevQifç ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f &yfw,f}[k rSw?f
xkid &f ef BuHvQifç xkid cf sifw,f[k rSw?f xkid rf nfah e&mokYd oGm;vQifç rSwNf rJyif rSwaf v? a&mufvQifç a&mufw,f [k
rSw?f vSYv J Qifç ]vSYJ w,f vSYJ w,f}[k rSw?f xkid rf nf[k BuHvQifç xkid cf sifw,f[rk w S ?f xkid q
f üJ wa½GUa½GU av;av;NyD;
usoGm;aom uk, d u f dk pl;pku
d íf ]xkid w
f ,f xkid w
f ,f}[k rSwaf v/ ajz;ajz;xkid yf g? xkid cf gpü ajc vuf ûyjyifrrI sm;
½Srd nf? ¤if;wkYd udk ac:aeustwkid ;f rSw?f txl;rSw&f ef r½Sv d Qifç ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusuko d m rjywf
rSwyf gav/

vStJ yd v
f vdk Qifç vScJ sifw,f[k jzpfapç tdycf sifw,f[k jzpfaprSw?f vS&J ef ûyjyifaom vufajc uk, d f trlt&m
wkYd udk ]<uw,fç qefYw,fç axmufw,f} ponfjzifh rSw?f vSJ tdyv f u dk af omtcgüç wa½GUa½GU vJusoGm;aom uk, d f
ukd pl;pku d íf ]vSw J ,f vSw J ,f}[k jzpfapç ]tdyw f ,f tdyw f ,f}[k jzpfap rSw?f acgif;tk;H tdy&f mwkYd EiS hf xdru I ]dk xdw,f
xdw,f}[k rSw?f vScJ gpü vufajc uk, d f a½GU½Sm; ûyjyifrrI sm;ukv
d J rSwv f suf ajz;ajz; ûyjyifyg? rSw&f ef txl;r½Sad om
tcgü azgif;rI yderf u I odk m pl;pku d íf ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rjywfrw S af v/ þokYd rSwaf epOfrmS anmif;rI ylrI
emusOrf I ,m;rIpaom a0'em txl;rsm; jzpfay:vmvQiçf xkad 0'emukd pl;pku d í
f xkid pf Ofu enf;twkid ;f yif rSwaf v/
wHaxG;rsKdrçI axG;rIç pdwu f ;l BuHpnfrçI pOf;pm;rIwYdk ukv d J enf;wlyif rSwaf v? b,fnm wapmif; ajymif;vkad om
tcgç vuf ajcauG;qefYvadk omtcg ponfüvJjzpfay:aom xkx d pdk wd t f BuHurdk w
S íf ? ûyjyifrrI sm;ukv
d J rvpfvyf&
atmif rSwaf v/ rSw&f eftxl; r½Sad om tcgrsm;ü ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusuko d m rjywf rSw&f rnf/
tdycf sifvmvQifç ]tdycf sifw,f tdycf sif w,f}[k rSw?f arS;vmvQifç ]arS;w,f arS;w,f}[k rSw?f bm0em &ifah om
tcgü þokYd rSwv f udk vf Qifç tdyf csifrI uif;vsuf wzef Munfvifvmwwf\? xkt d cg ]Munfw,f Munfw,f}[k
rSwNf yD;vQifç ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusuko d m jyefí rSwaf v/ tdrcf sifpw d f rajyaomfvçJ trSwu f dk vTwí f
um; rtdy&f ? rtdyf awmhbJ wrSwx f J rSwaf ernf[k atmufarhvsuf? azgif;rIç yderf I paom rSwaf eusukd rjywf
rSwv f suo f m ae&rnf/ uk, d yf ifyef;vQifç þokYd rSwaf eqJrmS yif wajz;ajz; arS;vsuftyd af ysmfomG ;vdrrhf nf/

tdyaf ysmf [lonfrmS b0ifpw d f oufoufrQ Mumjrifph mG jzpfaejcif;yifwnf;/ b0ifpw d f [lonfrmS vJ b0ü
tppGm jzpfay:cJah om pdwçf aemufq;Hk aoaom pkwpd w d w
f Ydk EiS hf tvm;wlaom pdwaf ywnf;/ xkYd aMumifh tvGef
odraf rGU\? bmukd tm½kûH yaeonf[í l yif rodEidk af cs/ Ek;d aepOfrmS vJ jrifrEI iS hf pdwu
f ;l rIç Mum;rIEiS hf pdwu
f ;l rI ponf
wkYd \tMum;tMum;ü xkb d 0ifpwd jf zpfay:ao;\/ okYd aomfvJ Mumjrifph mG rjzpf&aomaMumifçh ¤if;b0ifpw d f jzpfonf
uk d xif½mS ;rod&? tdyaf ysmfqüJ um; Mumjrifph mG jzpf&aomaMumifh xif½mS ;od&ayonf/ okYd aomfvJ ]]bmukt d m½kûH yonf?
b,fvdk jzpfaeonf}}[líum; rod&acs/ xkYd aMumifh tdyaf ysmfcu dk üf rrSw&f NyD? rSw&f efvJ rpGr;f Ekid Nf yD/

Ek;d aomtcgüum; ¤if; Ek;d aom pdwu f dk ]Ek;d w,f}[k rSwt f yf\/ okYd aomfvçJ tm;xkwpf ü a½S;OD;pGm Ek;d wJh
pdwu f dk rSwo f Ed idk cf \
J / Ek;d ppdwu
f dk rrSwEf idk af o;vQifç owd&aomtcgrSpí ay:&may:&mukd rjywfrw S af v/ pOf;pm;
aevQifç pOf;pm;w,f[k rSwNf yD;aemufç azgif;rIç yderf u I q
dk ufí rSw?f Mum;vsuf Ek;d vmvQifç Mum;w,f[k rSwNf yD;
aemufç azgif;rIyed rf u I dk qufí rSw?f bmrQ txl;rxif½mS ;vQifç ]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusukod m rjywfrw S f
av/ apmif;jcif; vSYJ jcif; auG;jcif; qefYjcif; ûyjyifjcif;rsm;ukv d J ac:aeustwkid ;f rSwv f suf ajz;ajz; ûyjyifyg? b,f
tcsde½f NdS yDvJ ponfjzifh pOf;pm;vQif pOf;pm;w,f[k rSw?f xvkv d Qiçf xcsiw f ,f[k rSw?f x&ef ûyjyifrrI sm;ukv d J
rvpfvyf&atmif rSwyf g? axmif<u vmaom uk, d t f rlt&mukd pl;pku d í
f ]xw,f xw,f}[k rSw?f xkid rf v d Qifç
]xkid wf ,f xkid w f ,f}[k rSw?f xkYd aemif ]azgif; w,f ydew f ,f}[k rSwaf eusuko d m rjywf rSwaf v/

rsufEmS opfaom tcgç a&csKd;aom tcgrsm;ü? Munfjh cif;ç jrifjcif;ç vuf vSr;f jcif;ç ukid jf cif;ç cyfjcif;ç
,ljcif;ç avmif;jcif;ç at;jcif;ç yGww f u
dk jf cif; ponfwYdk udk rvpfvyf&atmif tpOftwkid ;f rSwaf v/ t0wfudk jyifí
0wfrçI tdy&f mukd jyifrçI wHcg;ukd zGirhf çI ydwrf çI wpkwH ckudk ukid rf çI ,lrI ponfwYdk uv
dk J rvpfvyf&atmif rSwaf v/
xrif; pm;aomtcgü Munfv h Qiçf ]Munfw h ,f jrifw,f}[k rSw?f xrif;vkyf jyifqüJ vuf ûyjyifrrI sm;ukd ]jyifw,f
jyifw,f}[k rSw?f xrif;vkyu f dk ,lvmvQifç ],lw,f ,lw,f}[k rSw?f acgif;ikYH vQifç ikYH w,f [k rSw?f ypyfü xdvQifç
xdw,f[k rSw?f ypyfziG v hf Qiçf zGiw hf ,f[k rSw?f cGUH vQiçf cGUH w,f[k rSw?f ypyf jyefyw d v
f Qiçf ydww
f ,f[k rSw?f
vufudk atmufoYdk csvQifç ]csw,f csw,f}[k rSw?f yef;uefjym;ESihf xdvQifç xdw,f[k rSw?f acgif; jyefarmhvQifç
armhw,f[k rSw?f xkYd aemifr?S 0g;wkid ;f 0g;wkid ;f ]0g;w,f 0g;w,f}[k rSwv f sufpm;av? t&omukd odvQifç
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 10

]odw,fow d ,f}[k rSw?f rsKdvQifç rsKdw,f[k rSw?f vnf acsmif;xJ tlxüJ xdvsufqif;oGm;onfudk ]xdw,f
xdw,f}[k rSw/f þenf;jzifh xrif;vkyw f idk ;f ç [if;&nfç aomufwidk ;f ç aphaphpyfpyf rSwaf v/ tm;xkwcf gpü tpOf
usatmif rrSwEf idk b f J vpfvyfaomt&m rsm;pGmyif ½Sv d rd rhf nf? ûyjyifvadk om pdwrf sm;ukv d J rrSwEf idk b
f J rodEidk b f J
½Sw
d wfonf? pdwrf ysufvif?h ]]aphaphpyfpyfrw S rf nf}}[k oabmxm;í ½k½d adk oao pl;pku d rf w
S af evQifç rSwo f Ed idk w
f mu
rsm;írsm;í vmygvdrrhf nf? ÓPf&ifah omtcgüum; þüjyxm;aom tpOfxuf ykrd í dk tvGerf sm;pGmyif tvG,w f ul
rSwof Ed idk yf gvdrrhf nf/

trSwwf ;dk jcif; ........ wncefY w&ufcefY ponf½adS omtcgü toufwBudrf wBudrf ½SL½Iu d &f mwGif ]azgif;
w,f ydew f ,f}[k 2-csuf 2-csufrQ rSw&f wmukd ]]vG,u f al csmifcsdonf? ydew f m ESihf azgif;wm wkYd \ tMum;ü
usJaeonf}}[k xif&\/ xkt d cgü xkid af eaom uk, d f trlt&mukv d J xnfí h ç ]]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f xkid w
f ,f?
azgif;w,f ydew f ,f xkid w f ,f}}[k 3-csuf-3-csuf rSwaf v? azgif;wm ydew f mukd odouJh okYd xkid wf ,f-[k
rSwcf udk üf uk,d f xkid af ewJt h wkid ;f odap&rnf/ tdyq f üJ vJ ]]azgif;w,f ydew f ,f tdyw f ,f}} [k 3-csuf 3csuf
rSwfav/ xkd 3-csuf rSwu f v dk J usJaeonf[k xif&jyefvQifç ]]azgif;w,fç ydew f ,fç xkid f w,fç xdw,f}}[k wae
&m&mu xif½Sm; xdrIukdvJ xnfhí 4-csuf-4-csuf rSwfav/ xkdtpOfjzifh rSwfí raumif;vQifç xkdifrIukd 2-Budrf
xnfí h ]]azgif;w,f xkid w f ,f? ydew f ,f xkid wf ,f}}[k jzpfapç ]]azgif;w,f tdyw f ,f? ydewf ,f tdywf ,f}}[k jzpfapç
4-csuf-4-csuf rSwaf v/

azgif;w,f ydew f ,f ponfjzifh uk, d w


f iG ;f trlt&mrsm;ukd *½kpu dk í f rSwaf eqJrmS ? ½k;d ½k;d jrifrI Mum;rIrsm;ukd
rSw&f efrvkNd yD/ azgif;rI yderf I ponfudk pl;pl;pku d pf udk f rSwjf cif; jzifyh if? xkjd rifrI Mum;rwkYd uv dk J rSwo f rd I NyD;pD;\?
jrif½rHk Q Mum;½krH Qüomwnf\/ okYd aomf wrifMunfrh v d Qifum; ]]Munfw,f jrifw,f}}[k rSwí f ? azgif;rIpaom
rSwaf eusuko d m qufvufí rSwo f mG ;yg/ wrifrMunfah omfvçJ rde;f rç a,musfm; paom tm½kt H xl;ukd jrifaom
tcgü ]]jrifw,f jrifw,f}}[k ESpcf suf ok;H csuf rSwí f ? rSwaf eusudo k m qufrw S yf gav/ wrif em;axmifrv d Qifç
]]em;axmifw,fMum;w,f}}[k rSwí f ? rSwaf eusuko d m qufrw S yf g/ pum;oHç oDcsif;oHç jyif;xefaom toHç acG;ç
iSuçf Muufo f pH onfudk xif½mS ;pGmMum;&aomtcgü ]]Mum;w,f Mum;w,f}}[k ESpcf sufo;Hk csufrw S í f ? rSwaf eusukd
om qufrw S yf gav/ þtjrifx;l tMum;xl;wkYd udk rrSwrf v d Qifç rSwaf eusjzpfaom azgif;rI yderf pI onfudk xif½mS ;
rodEidk b f J ½Sw d wf\? pOf;pm;vsuf udavomvJ jzpfwwf\/ xko d Ydk jzpfcv hJ Qifç pOf;pm;w,f[í l vJ rSwí f ? rSwaf eus
ukod m qufvufrw S yf gav/ uk,d t f rlt&mESihf BuHpnfrw I Ydk udk rrSwrf b d J vGwo f mG ;vQifç arhw,f-[krw S í
f ? rSwaf e
usuko d m qufvuf rSwyf gav/ xGuo f uf 0ifouf odraf rGUíç azgif;rI yderf I rxif½mS ;vQifç xkid rf I tdyrf w I Ydk EiS hf
awGUxdrrI sm;ukd rSwyf gav/ þokYd rw S &f mü xdru I udk m; av;-ig;-ajcmufae&m a½TUí a½TUí rSwyf gav/

Mumjrifah om tcgü¤if;ç rwk;d bl;[k xif&aomtcgü¤if;ç ysif;&drI jzpfwwf\? ¤if;ukd ]]ysif;w,f-


ysi;f w,f}}[krw S /f owdç orm"dç ÓPf txl;rsm; rjzpfao;rDüç ]]rSwaf e&wm bmrQrxl;bl;}}[k xif&\? xkYd aMumifh
]][kwrf S [kwyf gavvm;ç jzpfrS jzpfygawmhrvm;}}[k ,krH mS ;rI jzpfwwf\? ¤if;ukd ],krH mS ;w,f ,krH mS ;w,f}[k rSw/f
trSwaf umif;rnfç w&m;xl; jzpfay:rnfudk ajr§mv f ifwh wf\? ¤if;ukd ]ajr§mw
f ,f awmifw h w,f vkcd sifw,f}[k rSw/f
,cifu rSwcf o hJ nfudk jyefíqifjcifwwf\? ¤if;ukd ]qifjcifw,f}[k rSw/f rSw&f wJh tm½ku H dk ½kyv
f m;ç emrfvm;p
onfjzifh qifjcifrw d wf\? ¤if;ukd ]qifjcifw,f}[k rSw/f trSwrf aumif;vQifç pdwyf sufwwf\? ¤if;ukd ]pdwyf suf
w,f pdwyf sufw,f}[k rSw/f aumif;vQifvJ 0rf;omwwf\ ¤if;ukd ]0rf;omw,f 0rf;omw,f}[k rSw/f þenf;jzifh
pdwt f rlt&mrsm;ukd ay:wkid ;f ay:wkid ;f rSwNf yD;vQifç azgif;rIyed rf I paomrSwaf eusuko d m qufíqufí rSwo f mG ;yg
av/ rSwf&rnfh tcsdefum; ........ tdyf&mu Ekd;wJhpdwfrpS íç rSwaf e,if; tvkv d dk tdyaf ysmfomG ;onfwidk af tmif aeYa&m
nOfyh g rsufpw d rSw d cf efYrQ rem;r&yfbJ wrSwx f J rSwaf e&rnfh tcsdecf snf;omwnf;/ tm;xkwcf gpü ]]rtdyaf wmhbJ
wrSwx f J rSwaf ernf}} [k ESv;Hk oGi;f í rjywfrw S yf gav/ ÓPf&ifah omtcgüum; tvkv d ydk if rtdycf sifbJ tNrJMunf
vifvsuf ½Sv d rd rhf nf/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 11

rSwyf Hk tusOf;csKyf .... aumif;onfjzpfapç qk;d onfjzpfapç pdwu f ;l BuHpnfwidk ;f pOf;pm;qifjcifwidk ;f pdwf
trlt&mukd rSw/f i,fonfjzpfapç BuD;onfjzpfapç ûyjyifvyI ½f mS ;wkid ;f uk, d tf rlt&mukd rSw/f uk, d x
f çJ pdwx f üJ
aumif;onf cHomonf jzpfapç qk;d onf rcHomonf jzpfapç a0'em[lorQudk jzpfay:vmwkid ;f rSw/f aumif;onf
jzpfapç qk;d onfjzpfapç pdwx f üJ xifay:vmaom tm½k[ H ol rQukd rSw/f þokYd aom rSwzf , G t f xl;rsm; r½Sad omtcgüç
azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf pI aom rSwaf eusuko d m rjywfrw S af v/ oGm;qJüvJ <urI vSr;f rI csrw I Ydkuo
dk m rjywfrwS af v/
þenf;jzifh tdyaf ysmfcu dk u
f dk csefvyS í
f aeYa&mnOfyh g rjywfrpJ wrSwx f rJ wS af evQif rMumrDyif jzpfysufwidk ;f aom
½kyfçemrf-tvk;H pku H dk ypöKyÜeu f satmif rSwo f Ed idk í
f O',AÁ,ÓPfpaom 0dyóemÓPfx;l rsm; tpOftwkid ;f jzpfay:
vmonfudk ud, k wf idk f 'd| awGU&ygvwH/h

tajccH½IrSwfykH þwGif NyD;\/

jycJo
h nfth wkid ;f rSwí f ç owdç orm"dç ÓPf xufoef tm;jynfv h Qifç azgif;wJh ½kyEf iS hf azgif; w,f[k
rSwwf phJ wd ?f ydew
f ½hJ yk Ef iS hf rSwwf phJ w
d ?f xkid wf ½hJ yk Ef iS hf rSww
f phJ w
d ?f auG;½kyEf iS hf rSwpf w d ?f qefY½yk Ef iS hf rSwpf wd ?f <u½kyEf iS hf
rSwpf wd ?f vSr;f ½kyEf iS hf rSwpf w d ?f cs½kyEf iS hf rSwpf w d -f þokYd paom tm½kEH iS rhf w S rf w
I Ydk onf twGv J u dk tf wGv J ukd f uyfae
ouJo h Ydk tHusvsuf ½So d nfudk awGU&vwH/h txl;aumif;aom rSwcf sufrsm;ü ]]azgif;wmu wjcm;+rSww f muwjcm;?
ydew
f mu wjcm;+rSww f mu wjcm;}} þokYd ponfjzifh ½kyEf iS ehf mrf wkYd udk uGjJ ym;pGm odvwH/h rSwo f rd u
I azgif;rI yderf I
paom tm½krH sm;qDoYdk ajy;íajy;í uyfuyfomG ;ovkyd if xifay:vwH/h þokYd xifay:jcif;onf emrfw&m;\
erevu©Pm=tm½kq H o D Ydk nTwjf cif;oabm xifay: jcif;yifwnf;/ þokYd ½kyu f dk rSwo f rd I oefY½iS ;f avavç
emrfw&m;wkYd tvkv d dk xifay:avav jzpfwwfaMumif; ukd 0do'k r¨d *fü atmufygtwkid ;f rdeYf qadk wmfr\ l /

,xm ,xm [d.ó ½lyH ok0u d m© vdwH a[mwd


edZ#Æ H oky&do'k ?Ḧ wxm wxm w'g&r®Pm
t½ly"r®m o,ar0 ygu#m a[mEÅ/d (2-225)

[d? emrfxifay:ap&ef ½kyu f o dk m tzefzef½t


I yfonfreS af y\/ tó? xkda,m*Dtm;/ 0g xkda,m*Donf/
,xm ,xm? tMuif tMuif ½Irw S af om tjcif;t&mjzif/h ½ly?H ½kyo
f nf/ ok0u d m© vdw?H aumif;pGm aq;aMum
okwof iftyfNyD;onf/ a[mwd?jzpf\/ edZ#Æ ?H t½Iyt f axG;r½S/d oky&do'k ?Ḧ aumif;pGm xuf0ef;usif pifMu,f\/
wxm wxm? xkx d ½dk yk u
f dk ½Irw
S rf I pifMu,fwidk ;f pifMu,fwidk ;f / w'g&r®Pm? xk½d yk u
f dk tm½kûH yukeaf om/ t½ly"r®m?
emrfw&m;wkYd onf/ o,ar0? tvkv d ydk ifvQif/ ygu#m a[mEÅ?d xif½mS ;ukef\/

½kyfemrf 2-yg; wjcm;pD uGjJ ym;vsuf xif½mS ;aom tcgü okw eJok jzpfvQif þokYd oabmus wwf\/
]]azgif;wmESihf rSww f mç ydew
f mESihf rSww f mç xkid wf mESihf rSwwf mç auG;wmESihf rSww f mç þokYd ponf jzifh 2-ck-2-ck
½SdwmbJ/ onf[m 2-cktjyif bmrQr½Sad wmhb;l / vlqkdwmvJ onf[m 2-ckb/J rde;f r a,musfm;qkw d mvJ onf[m
2-ckbJ/ onf[m 2-ckrw S yg; yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumif&,fvYdk toD;tjcm; r½Sad wmhb;l }}[lí rSwaf eqJrmS yif oabm
usvsuf qifjcifq;Hk jzwfwwf\/ okw½So d jl zpfvQifum; tm½k½H yk f rS&D m ½kyEf iS hf rSwrf I emrfwYdk uo
dk m rSww f idk ;f awGUjrif
&aomaMumifh þokYd oabmusvsuf qifjcif qk;H jzwfwwf\/ ]]½kyfçemrf 2-yg;rQom ½Sdwm [kwfrSef ygayonf/ þ
½kyfç emrf 2-rsKd;rSwyg; rde;f rç a,musfm;ç yk*Kd¾ vfç owå 0gaumif[í l toD;tjcm;r½SNd yD? rSwcf u dk rf mS rSwo f &d wJh
½kyEf iS hf rSwo f rd I emrf þESprf sKd;om ½Sod nf? rrSwb f J aeckud rf mS vJ twlwb l ?J jzpfqJ rS&D m ½kyEf iS hf BuHrpI aom emrf
þESpfrsKd;om ½Sdonf/ þ ½kyfçemrf 2-rsKd;ukyd if yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gç rde;f rç a,musfm;[k ac:a0:aeMu&ayonf?
ac:a0:½krH QombJ? trSerf mS awmh yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0g rde;f rç a,musfm; [lí toD;tjcm;r½Sad wmhNyD? ,ckrw S o f &d wJh ½kyçf
emrf oabmrsKd;rQom½So d nf}}[k þokYd ponfjzifh oabmusvsuf qifjcifq;Hk jzwfwwf\/ xko d Ydk aom qifjcifrrI sm;
ukvd J ay:wkid ;f ay:wkid ;f ]]qifjcifw,f qifjcifw,f}}[k rSwNf yD;vQifç azgif;rI yderf I paom rSwaf eusuko d m qufí
rjywfrw S yf gav/

xkxd uf bm0em &ifo h efaom tcgü? uk, d t


f rlt&m wpkw H ckudk ûyvkv d Qifç ûy&ef BuHaom xkpd w d o
f nf
tvkv d ydk if xif½mS ;ay:\/ jzpfay:vmonfEiS hf wûydief uf xkpd w d uf dk vG,uf pl mG yif rSwo f Ed idk \
f / tm;xkwfcgpurl
um; auG;rnf BuHpOfrmS ]auG;csifw,f}[k rSwcf ahJ omfvçJ xkad uG;csifwhJ pdwu f dk ½Si;f vif;pGm rodEidk cf ahJ o;/ bm0em
&ifo
h efaom xku d mvüum; auG;csifwphJ w d uf dk b,ft&mESirhf Q ra&mbJ ½Si;f vif; xif½mS ;pGm odEidk \ f / xkYd aMumifçh
uk,
d t f rlt&m ûyjyifvw dk idk ;f ûyjyif&ef BuHwphJ w
d uf dk a½S;OD;pGm rSw&f \? xkYdaemifrS ûyjyifwhJ uk, d t
f rlt&mukd qufí
rSw&f \/ tm;xkwcf gprSm rrSwrf b d J ûyjyifrwd muom rsm;aomaMumifh ]]uk, d ½f yk u
f jrefonf? rSwpf w d u f aES;onf}}
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 12

[k xif&\/ bm0emÓPf&ifah om umvüum; rSww f phJ w d uf a½SUrSq;D êudaeESihf ouJo h Ydk ½\ dS / auG;rnf qefYrnf
xkid rf nf xrnf oGm;rnf ponfjzifh BuHwhJ pdwu f vdk J rSwrf \ d ? auG;wJh trlt&m ponfuv dk J ykid yf idk Bf uD; rSwEf idk \
f /
xkYd aMumifçh ]]uk, d ½f yk u
f aES;onf? rSwpf w d uf jrefonf}}[k trSet f wkid ;f od&\/ ûyjyifvw dk phJ w
d rf sm; jzpfay:NyD;rS
xkpd w d t f m;avsmfpmG auG;rIqefYrI xkid rf pI aom uk, d t f rlt&m½kyrf sm; jzpfay:Ekid o f nfuv dk J rsufarSmufawGU&\/ tyl
tat;wkYd EiS ahf wGU&í ]]ylw,fç ylw,f? at;w,f at;w,f}}[k rSwaf epOfrmS yif tyltat;rsm; wk;d yGg;jzpfay: vm
onfuv dk J rsuaf rSmufawGU&\? pm;pOfü rSwí f ç tm;tifw;dk vmonfuv dk J rsufarSmufawGU&\? tazgif;tydepf aom
rSwaf eus tm½krH sm;wGiv f ?J wck wckudk rSwNf yD;vQifç tjcm; wck wcku tqifoifh ay:aygufvmojzifçh ay:&m
ay:&mtm½ku H dk vku d íf vkud íf rjywf rSwaf e&\? xkYd jyif bk&m;ç &[EÅm oP²mefpaom tqif; tm½kH trsKd;rsKd;ESiçhf
uk,d x f u J ,m;rI ylrI emusif uku d cf rJ I paom a0'em trsKd;rsKd;ç wkYd urdk w S af e&m rSmvJ wckwckudk rSwv f YdkrS raysmuf
ao;rD tjcm;wrsKd;wrsKd;u ay:aygufvmojzifh ay:&m ay:&mukd ajymif;í ajymif;í rjywf rSwaf e&wwf\/ þokdY
tm½kaH y:wkid ;f rSwaf e&aomaMumifçh tm½kH ½Sí d rSwo f rd I jzpf&onfuv dk J rsufarSmuf awGUí odjrifoabmuswwf\/
xkYd jyifç w&Hwcgü tazgif; tydeu f odraf rGUuG,af ysmuf aeaomaMumifh rSwpf &m r½Sw d hJ twGuf rrSwb f J ae&wwf
\? xkt d cgrsm ]]rSwpf &m tm½kH r½Sv d Qifç rSwo f rd I rjzpfEidk }f } [lí oabmuswwf\/ þokdY tazgif;tydef aysmufae
wJt h cgrSm ]]xkid w f ,f xdw,f? tdyw f ,f xdw,f}}[k rSwaf v/ txduu dk m; ajymif;íajymif;í rSw?f yku H m; .... xkid f
w,f[k rSwNf yD;vQiçf nmbufajcu xdwmukd xdw,f[k rSw?f wzef xkid w f ,f[k rSwNf yD;vQiçf b,fbufajcu
xdwmukd xdw,f[k rSw?f þ enf;jzifh txdrsm;ukd av;-ig;-ajcmufae&m a½TUí a½TUí rSwaf v/ xkYd jyifç jrifrI
Mum;rI ponfwYdk udk rSw&f mrSmvJ? ]]rsufped YJ tqif; ½Sí d jrif&onf? em;eJY toH ½Sí d Mum;&onf}} þokYd ponfjzifh
rSwcf u dk rf mS yif ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmus\/

xkYd aMumifh ]]auG;rnfç qefYrnf ponfjzifh BuHwhJ pdwt f rsKd;rsKd;½Sv


d Ydk ? auG;rIç qefYrI paom uk, d f trlt&m
½kyçf trsKd;rsKd; jzpfay:aeonf}}[lívJ rSwq f rJ mS yif oabm usvsuf qifjcifq;Hk jzwfr\ d / xkdYjyifç ]]tat;"mwf
tyl"mwfaMumif?h at;½kyf yl½yk f trsKd;rsKd; jzpfay:aeonf [lí¤if;? pm;aomufwhJ tpmt[m&½Sv d Ydk ? þ uk, d ½f yk rf sm;
wnfwv hH sufjzpfaeonf [lí¤if;? azgif;rI yderf pI aom rSwpf &mawG½v dS Ydk ? rSwo f rd rI sm; jzpfay:aeonf[í l ¤if;?
jrifp&m tqif;ç Mum;p&m toH paom tm½kaH wG½v dS Ydk ? jrifrçI Mum;rI paom pdwrf sm; jzpfay:aeonf[í l ¤if;? rsufpçd
em;paom rS&D m½ky½f v dS Ydk ? jrifrçI Mum;rIpaom pdwrf sm; jzpfay:aeonf[í l ¤if;? a½S;a½S; ESv;Hk oGi;f rIç qifjcifr½I v dS Ydk ?
aemufaemuf rSwo f rd çI BuHpnfrrI sm; jzpfay:onf[í l ¤if;? a½S;uHaMumifçh þvkd a0'emawG jzpf&onf [lí¤if;?
a½S;uH taMumif;½Sv d Ydk ? þ½kyçf þemrfawG y#doaE¨rpS í rjywfjzpfae onf[í l ¤if;? þ½kyef mrfawGudk jzpfay:atmif
zefqif;ûyvkyaf y;olum; r½SNd yD? olwYdk \ qkid &f mtaMumif;rsm;aMumifo h m jzpfay:aeonf[í l ¤if;}}-þokYd ponfjzifh
vJ oabmusvsuf qifjcifq;Hk jzwfwwf\/ þokYd aom qk;H jzwfrrI sm? ½Irw S rf u I dk &yfqidk ;f í Mumjrifph mG pOf;pm;vsuf
jzpf&onfum;r[kwaf y? rSw, f if; rSw,f if;yif ½Si;f vif;pGm tvkv d odk od o d mG ;onf[k xif&avmufatmif vsijf refpmG
jzpfay:vmaom odro I mwnf;/ þ qifjcifrrI sm;ukv d J ]]qifjcifw,fç oabmusw,fç odw,f}}[k rSwf rSwNf yD;vQifç
rSwaf eusuko d m qufí rjywf rSwyf gav/

avmavmq,f rSwo f &d aom ½kyçf emrfwYdk u?dk ]]taMumif;emrf½yk rf sm;aMumifh jzpfMuonf}}[k oabmusNyD;
aomtcgü? ]]a½S;b0 a½S;umvrsm;uvJ? onfvt dk aMumif;rsm;aMumif?h onfv½dk yk ef mrfrsm;om jzpfcohJ nf[í l ¤if;?
aemufb0 aemufumvrsm;rSmvJ? onfvt dk aMumif;rsm;aMumif?h onfvdk ½kyef mrfrsm;om jzpfomG ;rSmbJ[í l ¤if;?
yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumifvrJ ½S?d zefqif;olvrJ ½S?d taMumif;w&m;ç tusKd;w&m;rQom ½So d nf[í l ¤if;}}þokYd vJ qifjcif
qk;H jzwfrwd wf\/ þvkd qifjcifrrI sm;ukv d J rSwNf yD;vQif? rSwaf eusuko d m rjywfrw S of mG ;ygav/ þokYd aom qifjcif
rIrmS ? yifu,dk Ó
f PfvJ rxufç okwvJ eJaomol tm; eJeu J sOf;usOf;om jzpfwwfonf/ yifu, dk Ó
f Pf xufjrufoçl
okwrsm;aom olwYdkrmS um; rsm;jym; us,0f ef;pGm jzpfwwf\/ okYd aomfvçJ qifjcifru I dk tav;rûybJ rSwrf u I o dk m
tav;ûyí twif;rSwaf evQifum; xko d w
l Ydk rmS vJ eJeuJ sOf;usOf;omjzpfí ÓPftwufjrefwwf\/ ]]þt&mü
tenf;i,f qifjcif½rHk Qjzifh vJ udpNö yD;onfom}}[lí wxpfcs ,kMH unfxm;ygav/

orm"dtm; txl;aumif;vmvQifç rsm;pGmaom a,m*DwYdk rmS ? ,m;rIç ylrçI emusif uku d cf rJ çI av;vHrçI
wif;MuyfrI paom rcHomwJh a0'emtrsK;d rsK;d ukd xif½mS ; awGU&wwfuek \f / rrSwb f J &yfem;vku
d f vQifç xkad 0'emrSm
csujf cif;yif aysmufomG ;\? rSwNf rJ rSwjf yefvQiçf wzef ay:vmjyef\? þvkd a0'emrSm a&m*g r[kw?f w&m;oabm
twkid ;f xif½mS ; ay:vmwJh a0'emom jzpfonf? raMumufeYJ ? xkad 0'emuko d m pl;pku
d í
f twif; rSwaf eyg? wajz;ajz;
ao;i,fí aysmufuif;oGm;ygvdrrhf nf/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 13

xkYd jyifç trsKd;rsKd;aomtqif;oP²mef tm½krH sm;ukv d J a½SUem;wGif rsufped YJ jrif&ovkyd if txift½Sm; awGUjrif
&wwf\/ a&mifjcnfawmfrsm;ESiw hf uG tvGeo f yÜg,faom bk&m;ocif <uvmouJo h Ydk¤if;? auif;uifrS oHCmawmf
rsm; <uvmouJo h Ydk ¤if;? qif;wkawmfç apwDawmfrsm; rsufarSmufrmS ½Sad eouJo h Ydk ¤if;? MunfnKd cifrifaom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;
a&mufvmouJo h Ydk ¤if;? opfyifç awmç awmifç O,smOfç wdrw f udk rf sm;ukd awGU ae&ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? zl;zl; a,mifaom
olaoaumifç t½k;d pk aumifBuD;rsm; teD;rSm½Sad eouJo h Ydk ¤if;? tdrf wku d f ausmif;aqmif vlaumifBuD;rsm; a½SUem;wGif
z½kdz&J aMurG ysufp;D oGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? rdr\ d uk,
d rf mS azgif;yG vsufç aoG;oH&&J J jzpfvsufç ESpyf idk ;f ok;H ykid ;f jywfvsufç
t½k;d pkrQ jzpfvsufç wrsKd;wrnf azgufjyefomG ;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? uk, d x f uJ t½k;d tom; taMum tl toJ yk;d aumifrsm;
ukd wu,fjrif&ouJo h Ydk¤if; i&JbHk ewfbrHk sm; i&Jol i&Jom;rsm; Nydwmå rsm; ewfo;D® ewfom;rsm;ukd wu,f awGUae
&ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? þokYd ponfjzifh qef;qef; ½k;d ½k;d trsKd;rsKd;aom tqif;oP²meftm½krH sm;ukd xif½mS ; awGU&wwf\/
orm"dt[keaf Mumifh pdwn f wT rf w d idk ;f xifay:vmaom ynwftm½krH Qcsnf;omwnf;/ 0rf;omp&myJr[kwyf g? aMumuf
p&mvJ r[kwyf g? tdyrf uftm½kEH iS hf twlwyl if[k qk;H jzwfygav/ okYd aomfvçJ xkt d m½krH sm;ukd awGUjrifaom raem0d
nmPfum; xif½mS ;½Sad om y&rwf w&m;aywnf;/ xkYd aMumifh ½Irw S &f rnf? ½Irw S af omfç rxif½mS ;aompdwu f dk y"meûy
í ½Irw S jf cif;iSg rpGr;f Ekid af y? xif½mS ;aom tm½ku H dk y"meûyíomvQif ½Irw S Ef idk af yonf? okYd jzpfíç b,fv f dk tm½kb H jJ zpf
jzpfç jrif&wJh xkt d m½ku H o dk m pl;pku d í f ç ]jrifw,f jrifw,f}[k raysmuf rcsif; rSwyf gav/ a½GUa½GU oGm;NyD;vQif jzpfapç
ao;odrí f arS;rSed í f jzpfapç z½kzd &J usJí jzpfapç uG,af ysmuf uG,af ysmuf oGm;ygvdrrhf nf? awGUcgprSm av;-ig;-
q,fcsurf w S rf v S J aysmufomG ;wwf\? ÓPftm; aumif;vmvQifç wcsuf ESpcf sufrQjzifh aysmufomG ;vdrrhf nf/ rdru d
xktd m½krH sKd;ukd Munfv h dk pkpH rf;vkw d hJ pdwçf aMumufwhJ pdwçf ½Sad evQifum; ½kww f &uf raysmufbJ Mumaewwf\?
wrif pdwn f w T í f ,lrad om tm½kjH zpfvQifvJ om,mrI ½SNd yD;jzpfaomaMumifh raysmufEidk b f J Mumaewwf\/ okdYjzpfíç
orm"dt½Sed f aumif;aepOfü tjcm;wyg;ukd pdwrf ul;rd rnTwrf ad p&ef txl;owdûyygav? pdwu f ;l rdvQifvJ xkd
pdwu f ;l ukd csufjcif;yif rSwí f y,fazsmuf ygav/ tcsKdY yk*Kd¾ vfrmS um; tm½kH txl; a0'em txl;rsm;ukd rawGU&bJ
rSwaf eusuo dk m rSwaf e&aomaMumifh ysi;f &drI jzpfwwf\? xkd ysif;&dru I dk ]ysif;w,f ysif;w,f}[k raysmufrcsif;
rSwí f y,fazsmufygav/ þ ÓPftqifüh ? tm½kH txl; a0'em txl;rsm;ukd awGU&aomolrmS jzpfapç rawGU&aom
olrmS jzpfapç rSww f idk ;f rSww f idk ;f rSw&f aom tm½k\ H tp tv,f tqk;H wkYd udk ½Si;f vif;pGm od\/ a½S;uawmhç tm½kH
wckudk rSwaf epOfrmS ? ay:vmaom wjcm; wjcm; tm½ku H dk ajymif;í ajymif;í rSwo f mG ;&\? rlv tm½kH aysmufq;Hk
oGm;onfuu dk m; ½Si;f vif;pGm rodc&hJ acs? ,ckru l m; rSwaf eqJ tm½kH wck wck aysmufq;Hk oGm;onfudk od&NyD;rSom
vQifç topf topf ay:vmaom wjcm; tm½ku H dk rSw&f \? xkYd aMumifçh rSw&f wJt h m½k\ H tp tv,f tqk;H wkYd udk
½Si;f vif;pGm od&\?

xkt
d cgrSm txl;aumif;aom rSwcf sufrsm;ü rSww f idk ;f rSww f idk ;f zswfueJ zswfueJ ay:vmí &dyu f eJ
&dyu f eJ ukeaf ysmufomG ;onfudk ½Si;f vif;pGm od&aomaMumifh ]]tedpHö c,aXe = ukeo f mG ;aom teufoabmaMumifh
rNrJ? [kwmG t.bm0awm tedpmö = jzpfay:NyD;vQif r½Sjd cif;ç uG,af ysmuf oGm;jcif;aMumifh rNrJuek }f }[k jyqkad om
ygVdt|uxmwkYd EiS t hf nDç ]]ukeqf ;Hk oGm;wmcsn;f bJ? uG,af ysmufomG ;wmcsn;f bJ? rNrJygwum;? rNrJwm rSeyf gay
onf}}[lívJ ok;H oyfqifjcifr\ d / ]],' edpHö wH 'ku=© rNrJww hJ &m;[m qif;&Jyifwnf;/ 'kuH© b,a|e aMumufp&m
aumif;aom teufoabmaMumifh qif;&Jyifwnf;/ O',AÁ,.yÜ#yd VD eawm 'kum© = jzpfjcif; ysujf cif;u rjywf
ESyd pf uftyfaomaMumifh qif;&JwYdk yif wnf;}}[k jyqkad om ygVdt|uxmwkYd EiS hf tnDç ]]rodvYdk om om,m aysmfarGU
aeEkid Mf uwmbJ? bmrQ om,mbG,rf ½Syd gwum;? ay:NyD;awmh aysmufysuo f mG ;wmcsn;f bJ? jzpfcsnyf sucf snef YJ rjywf
ESyd pf ufaewmcsn;f bJ? aMumufp&m awGcsn;f bJ? b,ftcsdef rqkad oEkid af tmif cPrpJ aysmufysufNyD; rNrJwt hJ wGuf
qif;&Jcsnf;bJ? raumif;wmcsnf;bJ}} [lívJ ok;H oyfqifjcifr\ d / 'ku© r'u©o d v’awm? 'ku0© w¬Kwm, p 'kua© wm?
a&m* awm *@awm ov’awm-paom ygVdt|uxmwkYd EiS t hf nDç rcHomrI 'kua© 0'emtrsKd;rsKd;ukd xif½mS ;awGU&
aomaMumifçh ]]qif;&Jcsnf;bJ? raumif;wmcsnf;bJ}}[lívJ ok;H oyf qifjcifrw d wf\/ ]],H 'kuH© w'ewåm=qif;&JwhJ
w&m;[m tpk;d &wJh twåaumifr[kw?f tewåm t.om&ua|e = tESprf ahJ om teuf oabmaMumifh twåaumif
igaumif r[kw?f t.0o0wåeawm tewåm = tvkt d wkid ;f rjzpfjcif; aMumifh igaumifr[kwu f ek }f }[k jyqkad om ygVd
t|uxmwkYd EiS t hf nDç ]]rqif;&Jatmif rwwfEidk w f hJ qif;&J tpkrQom jzpfí tpk;d r&wmcsnf;bJ? jzpfNyD;vQif csufjcif;
aysmufomG ;wmcsnf;bJç bmrQ ckid rf mwJh tESpt f om; r½Sb d ;l ç bmrQtok;H rus wmcsnf;bJ? rjzpfatmifvJ rwwfEidk çf
rysufatmifvJ rwwfEidk í f tpk;d ykid w
f hJ igaumif r[kww f mcsnf;bJ? olYoabmtwkid ;f jzpfysufaewJh oabmw&m;rQ
csnf;bJ}}[lívJ ok;H oyf qifjcifr\ d / þ qifjcifrrI sm;ukv d J rSwNf yD;vQifç rSwaf eusuko d m rjywf rSwo f mG ;ygav/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 14

rsufarSmuf rSwo f &d wJh tm½kwH Ydk udk ]]rNrJ qif;&J igaumifr[kw}f }[k oabmusNyD;aom tcgüç rsufarSmuf
rod&aomw&m; tvk;H pku H v dk J ]]þw&m;rsm;ESihf twlwcl snf;bJ? rNrJqif;&J igaumif r[kww f hJ oabmw&m;csnf;
bJ}}[k ok;H oyfqifjcifr\d / þqifjcifro I nfum; ypöuÓ © PfrS qufíjzpfaom tEGrmeÓPfaywnf;/ þokYd aom
qifjcifro I nfvnf; yifu, dk Ó f Pfeo
J çl okweJoçl qifjcifrüI tav;rûybJ twif;rSwaf eolwYdk rmS eJeo J mjzpfwwf
onf/ qifjcifrüI tav;ûyolrmS rsm;rsm;jzpfwwfonf/ tcsKdYrmS rSwcf sufwidk ;f vkv d ydk if qifjcifruI vku
d yf gaewwf
\/ qifjcifraI wG rsm;rsm;jzpfaevQif a½SUokYd rwk;d wufEidk b f J tcsdeMf umaewwfonf? þÓPft&mrSm qifjcifrrI sm;pGm
rjzpfcahJ omfvçJ txufÓPfrsm;okYd a&mufvQifç ykid Ef idk ½f iS ;f vif;pGm od&rnfomwnf;? okYd jzpfí qifjcifru I dk tav;
rûyvif?h rSwrf uI o
dk m tav;ûyí qifjcifro d rQuv dk J rvpfvyf&atmif rSwyf gav/

tedpö 'ku© tewå oabmrsm;ukd qifjcifí tm;&aomtcgü ay:vmorQukd rqifjcifawmhb?J rSw½f o Hk m


rjywfrw S af e\/ xkt d cgüç ]]pdwMf unfvifrI o'¨gç tm;xkwrf I 0D&, d ç trSw&f rI owdç pl;pku d f wnfMunfrI orm"dç
oabmrSeu f dk ½Si;f vif;pGm odryI nm}}[laom þ £a`E´ ig;yg;wkYd r,kwrf vGef nDnw G f qJ cPrSm? rSww f hJ pdw
d o
f nf
qGjJ r§ií
hf wifay;vku d o f vkyd if tvGeo f u
G vf uf vsijf refpmG jzpfvmwwf\? rSwpf &m ½kyf emrf tm½krH sm;uvJ tvGef
vsijf refpmG yif xifay:uke\ f ? wBudrf wBudrf 0ifouf ½SLcku d üf azgif;<u a½GU½Sm;rIaygif; tqifq h ifh rsm;pGmjzpfvsuf
xif½Sm;\? wBudrf wBudrf xGuo f uf ½Iu d cf u
dk üf vJ yderf aI ygif; tqifq h ifh rsm;pGm jzpfvsuf xif½mS ;\? auG;&m
qefY&mvIy½f mS ;&mwkYd üvJ a½GU½Sm;rIaygif; tqifh qifh rsm;pGmjzpfvsuf xif½mS ;\? ukd,fxJü ½kd;½kd;½G½G vIyfrIuav;rsm;ç
awGUxdru I av;rsm;vJ wckNyD; wck tvGef vsijf refpmG tESUH tjym;xifay:ukef\? tcsKdY yk*Kd¾ vfrmS w&Hwcgü tvGef
rBuD;us,v f aS om ,m;rIuav;rsm;ç ûrd;ûrd; jrufjruf emusOrf u I av;rsm;vJ wckNyD;wck vsijf refxif½mS ;pGm wcP
avmuf ay:vmwwf\/ rsm;aomtm;jzifu h m; xko d Ydkaomumvü rcHomrIudk rawGU&onfuom rsm;ay\/ þokdY
tvGev f sifjrefpmG xifay:aecku d üf tm½ktH oD;toD;ukd trnfwyfí rSwaf evQif rrSED idk af wmhNyD? owdÓPfjzifh od½rHk Q
od½rHk Q vku d af erS omvQif rSED idk af yonf/ okYd jzpfíç þokYd tvGef jrefpmG tm½kH xifay:aecku d üf trnfrwyfbJ od½rHk Q
od½rHk Qom vku d rf w
S &f m\/ trnfwyfí rSwv f QifvJ tvk;H pkaH phiaS tmifum; aMumifMh urpku d vf if?h wBudrf wBudrf
trnfwyfí rSw&f mü av; ig; q,f tm½ku H dk ykid ;f jcm;íod odomG ;aomfvJ udpö NyD;onfomwnf;? tjypfr½Sad y/
aphiaS tmif trnfwyfí rSw&f ef aMumifMh u pku d af evQifum; rMumrDyif armyef; oGm;wwfonf/ okYd jzpfíç trnfjzifh
rSwfvkdvQifvJ rSerf eS o f mvku d íf rSwyf g? wBudrf wBudrf rSw&f mü av;ig; q,fcu k dk odcsifvJ od oGm;ygap? ykid ;f ykid ;f
jcm;jcm; odru I om vk&d if;jzpfygonf/ þokYd aomumvü rSwaf eustpOfudk vTwx f m;NyD;vQifç 'Gg& 6-yg;ü ay:&m
ay:&mukd tpOftwkid ;f vku d í f rSwyf gav? xked nf;jzifh rSwí f raumif;jyefvQifum; rSwaf eus tpOftwkid ;f omjyefí
rSwyf gav/

½kyef mrfwYdk onf rsufpw d rSw d cf efYç vQyfwjyufcefYumvxuf tqrsm;pGm vsifjrefuek \ f ? xkrd Qvsijf refaom
½kyef mrfwYdk udk od½rHk Q od½rHk Qjzifh vku d í f rSwaf evQifç xkrd Qavmuf ÓPf&ifah omumvü? jzpfpOftwkid ;f t<uif;r½Sd
odEidk af y\/ xkt d cgü trSw&f rIowdonf tvGex f ufoef\? ½kyef mrftm½kH wckcjk zpfay:vQifç owdu xkt d m½kx H o
J Ydk
ajy;0ifomG ;ovkyd if rSwrf v d suf½\ dS ? xkt d m½kuH vJ owday:rSm vmíusovkyd if xifay:vsuf½\ dS ? todÓPfuvJ
ay:vmorQukd wckpD wckpD ra,m,SufbJ uGJuGJ yj m;jym; jywfom; ½Si;f vif;pGm odvsuf½\ dS / xkYd aMumifçh a,m*D
onf þokYd atmufarhwwf\? ]]þ½kyef mrf awG[m &dy&f yd f &dy&f yd ef YJ tvGef vsifjrefpmG jzpfysufaeMuwmbJ?
wufwuf wufwufeYJ pufcw k af eovkyd if tvGejf refaeMuwmbJ? 'gavmuf jrefwmawGuv dk J tpOftwkid ;f tukef
vk;H odEidk w
f mbJ? 'gxuf ykNd yD;odp&mawmh ½Srd nfrxifygbl;? odp&mawmhjzifh ukeyf gNyD}}[k atmufarhrd xifrw d wf\/
tdyrf ufwiG rf Q rjrifrufb;l aom owd ÓPf txl;rsm;ukd rsuaf rSmufawGU&í xifjrifjcif;aywnf;/

xkYd jyifç 0dyóem t[keaf Mumif?h eJejJ zpfapç rsm;rsm; jzpfapç tvif;a&mifvJ xif½mS ;pGm jzpfay:wwf\/
rSw&f wJh tm½kEH iS hf rSwrf üI tm& ESpo f rd rhf I = yDwvd J vGeuf pJ mG jzpfwwf\? xkyd w D \ d tpGr;f aMumifh Muufo;D xjcif;ç
rsu&f nf,jdk cif;ç uk, d wf ek f vIyjf cif;rsm;vJ jzpfwwf\? uk, d x f üJ zsKd;zsKd; zsOf;zsOf; pdrphf rd hf pdrphf rd hf odro
hf rd hf odro
hf rd v
hf J
jzpfaewwf\? avykcufxrJ mS pD;ae&ovkyd if? uk, d af &m pdwyf g NidrNhf idrhf NidrNhf idrvhf J jzpfaewwf\? wcsKYd u? awGUcgp
ü? þNidrrhf u I ydk if ]rl;onf ,dr;f onf}[lívJ xifwwf\? aMumifMh u ylyefrI uif;vsuf uk, d f pdw\ f Nidr;f at;rI =
yó'd̈vJ xif½mS ;jzpfay:wwf\? þyó'd̈\ tpGr;f aMumif?h xkid af epOfjzpfapç tdyaf epOfjzpfapç oGm;aepOf &yfaepOf
jzpfapç ae&mwumrSm Nidr;f csr;f oufomvsuf tvGeaf exkid af umif;wwf\/ xkYd jyifç xufoefpmG jzpfaom v[kwm
ponfwYdk \tpGr;f aMumifh uk, d pf w
d f ESpyf g;vk;H tvGev f sifjref ayghyg;vsuf½Sd\? tvGeEf ;l nHh odraf rGU ajymhaysmif;\?
Mum½Snpf mG xkid v f sufç tdyv f suf rSwaf eaomfvJ trSwrf ysufbJ aumif;NrJyif aumif;ae\? anmif;jcif; yljcif;
emusijf cif; uif;aewwf\? rSwpf w d Ef iS hf tm½kw
H vhJ suf tcsKd;tpm;us\? pdwo f abmxm;ajzmifrh wfí raumif;rI
[lorQrS MuOfa½Smifv\ dk / xufoefaom o'¨g\ tpGr;f aMumifh pdwo f nf txl;Munfvifae\? wcgw&Hü rSwpf &m
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 15

tm½krH ½Sb
d J tvGeMf unfaom pdww f ckwnf;omMum½Snpf mG vJ jzpfaewwf\/ ]]jrwfpmG bk&m; tvk;H pku H dk odawmfrwl m
[kwyf gayonf? ½kyef mrf 2-yg;rQç tedpö 'ku© tewå w&m;rQ ½Sw d ,f qkw d m rSeyf gayonf}}-þokYd ponfjzifh
MunfnKdrI ,kMH unf qk;H jzwfrv I J NrJNrHpmG jzpfwwf\/ rSwaf epOfrmS qifjcifvsufvJ ½kyef mrfç tjzpftysufç tedpö
'ku© tewå oabmwkYd udk uGuu f uG f uGi;f uGi;f ½Si;f vif;pGm oabm usus oGm;wwf\? olwyg;tm; w&m;
a[mvkd wku d wf eG ;f vkad om pdwv f J rsm;pGmjzpfwwf\/ tvGev f J aMumifMh urpku
d &f bJ ysif;&davsmhayghru I if;í nDrQpGm
tm;xkwaf om 0D&, d vJxif½mS ;\/ olYtvkv d ydk if odoo d mG ;ouJo h Ydk aom 0dyóEkayu©mvJ xif½mS ;\/ 0rf;omrI
onfvnf; b,fawmhurQ rjzpfb;l aom pHcsed jf zifh vGeu f pJ mG jzpfwwf\/ xkYd aMumifçh rdr\ d jzpfyu Hk dk olwyg;tm;
tvGeaf jymcsiw f wf\/ tvif;a&mifç owdç ÓPfç yDwpd aom txl;rsm;ukd om,mESpo f uf oabmusrI= eduEÅv d J
jzpfay:wwf\? xkd eduEÅad Mumifh ]]½Irw S rf I bm0em tvkyüf txl; aysmfarGUvmonf}}[k xif&\/

txl;jzpfay:vmaom þtvif;a&mif ponfwkdYukd pOf;pm;raevif/h ¤if;wkYd uv dk J ay:vmwkid ;f ]]vif;w,f?


aumif;w,f? odw,f? qifjcifw,f? MunfnKd w,f? 0rf;omw,f? ESpo f ufw,f? oabmusw,f}} ponfjzifh rSw½f Hk
om rSwo f mG ;ygav/ vif;onf[k xifvQifç ]]vif;w,f vif;w,f}}[k? raysmufrcsif;rSw?f jrifonf[k xifvQifvçJ
]]jrifw,f jrifw,f}}[krw S yf g/ okYd aomfvçJ tvif;a&mifpaom tm½kt H xl;rsm;ukd awGUcgpü? rrSwEf idk b f J 0rf;om
vsufç oabmusvsufom aerdwwf\/ rSwyf gaomfvçJ 0rf;om ESpo f ufrEI iS hf a&maESm aeaomaMumif?h ½kww f &uf
raysmufbJ ½Sad ewwf\/ êuHawGUbefrsm;rSomvQif Ekid ef if;pGmrSwEf idk í f aysmufv, G w f wfayonf/ tvif;tm;BuD;
aom yk*Kd¾ vfrmS Mumjrifph mG rSwaf omfvJ raysmufbJ ½Sad ewwf\/ okYd jzpfvQifum; tvif;a&mifudk ESv;Hk roGi;f
*½krpkud bf J vpfvsLûyíç uk, d x
f pJ w
d x
f uJ xif½mS ;wJt h rlt&mrsm;uko d mvQif pl;pku d í f rSwo
f mG ;ygav? vif;ao;
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odatmif rSwv f u dk yf g/ tvif;a&mifrQom r[kwaf o;? xko d Ydk orm"d tm;aumif; aepOfü pdwn f wT rf v
d Qifç xl;xl;
axGaxG tm½krH sm;vJ xifay:vmwwf\/ þokYd aom pdwn f w T rf u
I udk m; rûytyf? nTwrf v d QifvJ vsifjrefpmG rSwí f
y,fazsmufvu dk yf g/ tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrsm txl;pdwrf nTwyf gbJ ryDrovSaom t&dyt f a&mif yko H P²mef tm½kH trsKd;rsKd;onf
&xm;wGrJ sm;ckwo f mG ;aeovkd wckNyD; wck &dy&f yd f &dy&f yd ef YJ xifay:aewwf\/ ]]jrifw,f jrifw,f}}[k rSwaf e vQifç
wcsurf w S f wcsurf w S jf zifh wtm½kH wtm½kH aysmufaysmufomG ;\/ ÓPf tm;avsmhvmvQifç yDyo D ovJ xifay:
vmwwf\? ]]jrifw,f jrifw,f}}[k rSwv f Qifç wcsuf wcsufrw S jf zifh wtm½kH wtm½ko H nf ay:vmwJh xkad e&mrSm
yif aysmufaysmufomG ;\? aemufq;Hk ü ray:vmawmhbJ uif;Nidr;f oGm;\/

tvif;a&mif ponfudk ESv;Hk oGi;f aewmu vrf;rSm;bJ? od½rHk Q rjywf rSwaf ewmurS 0dyóem vrf;rSeb f [
J k
qk;H jzwfíç uk, d x
f pJ w
d xf üJ wu,f jzpfay:aeaom ½kyef mrfwYdk ukd rjywfrw S af evQif odro I nf omí ½Si;f ½Si;f vm\/
½kyef mrfwYdk \ zswfueJ zswfueJ ay:rI aysmufrrI sm;ukd ½Si;f vif;pGm od\? rSww f idk ;f rSww
f idk ;f ]]xkad e&mrSmyif ay:vm
í? xkad e&mrSmyif aysmufomG ;onf}}[k od\/ ]]a½S; a½S; trlt&monf aemuf aemuf trlt&mESihf ra&mbJ tykid ;f
tykid ;f jywfvsuf ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k ½Si;f vif;pGm od&\/ xkYd aMumifçh rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü ]]rNrJ[k jzpfapç qif;&J =
raumif;[k jzpfapç igaumif r[kw[ f k jzpfap}} odvsufç oabmusvsuf ½Sad v\/ xkt d cgrSm twefMumatmif
tm;xkwNf yD;vQifç ]]'gavmuf aumif;rSmygbJ? rxl;awmhygbl;}}[k tm;&auseyfí cPcP &yfem;aerdwwfonf/
em;csifwidk ;f cP cP em;raeeJY? tcsdef em&Dw;dk í wk;d í wqufwnf; MumMumtm;xkwyf gav/

bm0emÓPf wqifw h ufí &ifo h efjyefvQif rSw&f aom tm½krH sm;\ tpjzpfay:rIudk xif½mS ; rawGU&awmh
bJç tqk;H tqk;H uko d mawGU&\? tukef taysmuf jrefjrefaeonf[k xif&\? rSww f hJ pdwrf sm;ukv d J ukeq
f ;Hk ukeq f ;Hk
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xkod w d hJ pdwvf J vsijf refpmG ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf[k odjyef\? azgif;rIEiS hf rSwo f rd I þESpcf wk Ydk udk ]]a½SUqifh aemufqifh
ukeq f ;Hk oGm;Muonf}}[k od&\/ ydew f ,f xkid w f ,f auG;w,f qefYw,f anmif;w,fponfjzifh rSwcf u dk w
f YdküvJ
yXr tm½kEH iS hf 'kw, d rSwpf w d w f Ydk udk ]]enf;wlyif a½SUqifh aemufqifh ukeq f ;Hk ukeqf ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k od&\/ tcsKdY
yk*Kd¾ vfonfum; yXr tm½kçH 'kw, d rSwpf w d çf wwd, wzef odwphJ w d çf [laom þ 3-rsKd; 3-rsKd;wkYd a½SYaemufqifh
vsuf ukeq f ;Hk oGm;Muonfuv dk J uGjJ ym;pGm odao;\/ okdYaomfvJç tm½kHESifh rSwfpdwf [laom þ 2-rsKd; 2-rsKd;ukd
a½SYaemufqifv h suf twGv J u dk f ukeq f ;Hk ukeqf ;Hk oGm;onfudk xif½mS ;odvQifyif jynfph Hk vkaH vmufawmhonfomwnf;/

tm½kEH iS rhf w
S pf w
d w
f Ydk twGv
J u
dk t
f wGv
J udk f ukeyf suaf eonfuo dk m rjywfoEd idk af tmif trSwpf ifMu,faom
tcgü? uk, d f acgif; vuf ajcpaom ocFg&edrw d =f Ceynwf=txnfj'Af yko H P²mefrxif ay:NyD? &dy&f yd f &dy&f yd Ef iS hf
wysux f J ysuyf suaf eaom oabmrQüom? rSwo f rd o
I nf wnfavawmh\/ xkYd aMumifh þÓPf jzpfay:cgpü? tcsKdY
yk*Kd¾ vfonf rSw&f wm aygh[m[mjzpfaeonf[í l ¤if;ç usJww J J jzpfae onf[í l ¤if;ç raumif;bl;[lí¤if; xifwwf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 16

\/ xko d Ydk um; rxifrw S t f yfay? pdwo f nf usufpm;aeusjzpfaom ocFg&edrw d f Ceynwf txnfj'Aftm½küH
aysmaf rGU\? xkyd nwftm½ku H dk a½S;uvkd r&onft h wGuf tm;r&bJ½adS vonf? ÓPftm;jynfv h suf wk;d wufí aumif;
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xif½mS ; od\/ þrQ ÓPf&ifah om tcgüum; &dyu f eJ &dyu
f eJ ukeyf sufaom trlt&m oabmu a½S;OD;pGm
xif½Sm;\? ukeo f mG ;onfç aysmufomG ;onfç ysufomG ;onf[k odaomÓPfu a½S;OD;pGmjzpfay:\? tzefzef pOf;pm;rS
om yko H P²mefpaom ynwfudk odEidk o f nf? rpOf;pm;bJ rSw½f o Hk m rjywfrw S af evQifum; ynwftm½ko H Ydk tvsif;
ra&mufawmhbJ ukeyf suaf om y&rwfoabmrQüom wnfavawmh\/ okdYjzpfíç ]]ynwfay:vQif y&rwf ikyo f nf?
y&rwf ay:vQif ynwf ikyo f nf}}[k qkad om ynm½Swd Ydk \ pum;rSeu f efyu
Hk dk uk,
d wf idk f awGU&\/

rSwrf t
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wwf\? todÓPf vsifjrefoefY½iS ;f aomaMumif?h a½S;aemuf 0Dxw d Ydk \tMum;üjzpfaom b0ifpw d f tcku d tf wefYuydk g
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f J Mumjrifí
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jzefYí rSwyf gav/

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wuk, d v
f ;Hk ü xif½mS ;aom xdord I rsm;pGmwkYd u¤dk if;ç Mum;rIjrifrI ponfwYdk u¤dk if;ç jzpfay:pOftwkid ;f vkud í
f ]xdw,f
rSww f ,f} ponfjzifh rjywfrw S of mG ;ygav? þokYd rSwaf e&mwGi?f todusJomG ;vQif jzpfapç ysHUvGirhf I rsm;vmvQif
jzpfapç yifyef;vQif jzpfapç azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I paom rSwaf eusuko d m jyefí rSwaf v? twefMumít½Sed f &vmjyef
vQif wzef ay:&m ay:&mukd vku d íf enf;wlyif jzefYrw S yf gav? þenf; jzifh &Hcg &Hcgü jzefYí rSw&f rnf/

rSwpf Ofrxm;bJ jzefYíjzefYí aumif;pGm rSwEf idk af omtcgü? txl;aMumifMh upku d í f rrSwaf omfvçJ Mum;Mum;
orQukd ]]a½S;aemufrpyfbJ tykid ;f tykid ;f jywfvsuf ukeu f ek f oGm;onf}}[k od&\? jrifjriforQukv d J ]]&dy&f yd f &dy&f yd Ef iS hf
ysufaeonf}}[k od&\? rSeu f efpmG odrw I Ydk aywnf;/ tcsKdYrmS pl;pl; pku
d pf u
dk Mf unfv
h udk f vQifç yDyo D o rjrif&bJ
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rku
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aemuftjrifwYdk udk ykid ;f jcm;aom todÓPfu tvkv d dk ygaeaomaMumif?h ynwf tm½kH ryDobJ ½Sjd cif;rQomwnf;/
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\? rSwo f rd uI vJ xko d cFg&wkYd udk tvkv
d ydk if odNrJovd suf ½Sw d wf\/ xkYd aMumifçh tdyyf gaomfvJ tdyrf aysmfbJ aeYa&m
nOfyh gMunfvifvsufom ½Sw d wf\/ tdyfraysmf onfhtwGuf rpk;d &drv f ifçh aexkid f raumif;jcif; ruse;f rmjcif;um;
rjzpfEidk yf g? êud;pm;íom rSwyf gav/ þÓPftm;jynfah omtcgü? rSwpf w d u f tm½kx H o J Ydk pl;0ifp;l 0if oGm;ovkv d J
xif&wwf\/

tm½kEH iS hf rSwpf w d w f Ydk rjywf rpJ wysufxJ ysufaeonfudk aumif;pGm od&aom tcgü þokYd qifjcifrw d wf
\? ]]rsufpw d rSw
d cf efYç vQyfwjyufcefYrQawmif rwnfwí hH rNrJwmcsnf;ygwum;? rodcv hJ Ydk ombJ? a½S;uvJ ,ckvdk
yif ukeyf sufaecJrh mS bJ? aemifvJ ,ckvydk if ukeyf sufaerSmbJ}}[lí qifjcifrw d wf\? xkd qifjcifrI ukv d J rSwv f u
dk yf g/
xkYd jyifç rSwrf w I Ydk \ tMum;tMum;ü aMumufp&maumif;yku H vdk J qifjcifrw
d wf\/ ykHum; ....ç rodvkdYom aysmf½TifpGm
aeEkid Mf uonf? wysux f yJ suaf ewmukd trSet f wkid ;f od&awmh aMumufp&mcsn;f ygwum;? olwYdk ysuw f idk ;f
ysufwidk ;f aoEkid w f hJ tcsdecf snf;ygwum;? þb0üpí jzpfay:cJw h mvJ aMumufp&mbJ/ rjywfrpJ rukerf qk;H Ekid f
atmif txyfxyf jzpfay:aewmvJ aMumufp&mbJ? taumiftxnfj'Afr½Syd gbJeYJ taumif txnfj'Af ½So d vkyd if
xifay:aewmvJ aMumufp&mbJ? csrf;omaumif;pm;atmif (onfvdk wysufxyJ sufaewJw h &m;awG t½Snw f nfwahH e
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xyf jzpfO;D rSmvJ) aMumufp&mbJ/ tk&d em& ao& pk;d &drf ylaqG;& ikad <u;& tjyif;txef pdwyf yl ef&wmawGvJ
aMumufp&mawG csn;f bJ[k qifjcifr\ d / þqifjcifru I v dk J rvGwaf peJY? rSwvf u
dk yf g/ xkt d cgü a,m*D\ pdwo f nf
tm;uk;d &mrJí h tm;i,fñKS ;d EGr;f aeouJo h Ydk vJ ½Sw
d wf\? vsifpmG ukeyf sufaeaom ½kyef mrfawGudk aMumuf&UHG aeouJo h Ydk
vJjzpfwwf\? 0rf;enf;ovkv d vdk J jzpfwwf\? ½Tiyf swuf<ujcif;um; r½SNd yD? pdwrf ysufeYJ ? w&m;oabmtwkid ;f
ÓPf wk;d wufvmjcif;yifwnf;? aMumufp&maumif;onfudk od&í Oayu©mpdwjf zifh r½Tif rñSK;d jzpf½rHk Qom wnf;/
qifjcifru I v
dk J rSwí f ? ay:&may:&mukd rjywf rSwaf evQifç rMumrD vGeaf jrmufomG ;ygvdrrhf nf/ okYd aomfvçJ rrSwrf í l
Mumjrifph mG qifjcifaevQiu f m; a'greójzpfvsuf raeomatmif wu,faMumufrv I J jzpfwwfao;\/ þ raeom
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 17

atmif aMumufjcif;onfum; 0dyóemÓPf r[kwNf yD? okYd jzpfí a'greó taMumufrsKd;rjzpfap&ef qifjcifrrI sm;ukd
rvGwaf tmif rSwyf gav/

xkYd jyifç rSwrf w


I Ydk \ tMum;ü? tjypfwifvsuv f J qifjcifrw d wf\? yku H m;....onf ½kyef mrfawG[m wysufxJ
ysufaeí rNrJwt hJ wGuv f J raumif;bl;? ,ckb0üpí jzpfcw hJ mvJraumif;bl;? rukerf qk;H Ekid af tmif rjywfjzpfaewm
vJ raumif;bol;? taumiftxnfj'Af r½Syd gbJeYJ taumiftxnfj'Af½o dS vkyd if xifay:aewmvJ raumif;bl;?
csr;f omaumif;pm;atmif tm;xkwûf yvkyaf ewmvJ raumif;bl;? b0topf jzpf&rSmvJ raumif;bl;? tk&d em& ao&
pk;d &drf ylaqG;& ikad <u;& tjyif;txef pdwf ylyef&wmawGvJ raumif;bl;? qif;&Jcsnf;bJ rNidr;f at;wmcsnf;bJ[í l
qifjcifrw d wf\? þqifjcifrrI sm;ukv d J rSwrf yd gap/ xkt d cgüç rSw&f wJh ½kyef mrfEiS hf rSwpf w d [f o l rQukd tvGe½f ek Yf &if;
Murf;wrf;onf[í l vJ xifjrifwwf\? tvGe, f wk n
f hH qk;d 0g;onf[í l vJ xifjrifwwf\? bmrQ tok;H rustbk;d
rwefb;l [lívJ xifjrifwwf\? ay:vku d af ysmufvu dk Ef iS hf &TrH ek ;f p&mawGucdk snf; awGUae&onf[í l vJ xifjrifwwf
\? uk, d af umifBuD;wckv;Hk yky&f ad qG;jrnfah eovkv d J xifjrifwwf\? tvGef ysufv, G f ouJoh Ydk vJ xifjrifwwf\/

xkt
d cgü ½kyef mrfwYdk udk jzpfay:pOftwkid ;f rSwo f v d suf½adS omfvçJ a,m*D\pdwo f nf xk½d yk ef mrfwYdk ü aysmfarGU
jcif;r½SNd yD? rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü ½kyef mrfwYdk \ ukeyf surf u I dk ykid ;f ykid ;f jcm;jcm;awGUvsuf rSwo f rd I aumif;jim;aomfv?J
a½S;uvkd tm;&wuf<ujcif; r½SNd yD? raysmrf arGU NiD;aiGUaom tjcif;t&mESiw hf uGomvQif jzpf\/ xkYd aMumifçh rrSwcf sif
ovkv d çdk rSw&f rSm ysif;ovkv d v dk J jzpfwwf\/ okYd aomf rrSwb f vJ J raeEkid ?f rSwvf suf rSwv f sufom½S\ d / Oyrm
....rpif ½TUH nTef vl;ayaom vrf;ay:ü rvTo J mí oGm;&vQifç eif;wkid ;f eif;wkid ;f &G½H mS NiD;aiGU ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? roGm;bJvJ
raeEkid ?f oGm;vJ oGm;&ouJo h Ydk¤if; jzpfay\/ xkt d cgüç vlUbku H dk pOf;pm;Munfrh v d Qifç wysufxJ ysufaewJh ½kyef mrf
wkYd rS ruif;Ekid [f k oabmusaomaMumifçh b,fvdk vlYtjzpfrsKd;ç b,fvdk a,musfm;rde;f rtjzpfrsKd;ç b,fvdk rif;tjzpf
ola|;tjzpfrsK;d wGirf Q aysmaf rGUbG,u f dk rjrifNyD? NiD;aiGYb,G [ f í l om xifjrif\/ ewfbHk jA[®mbkw H Ydk udk pOf;pm; Munfrh d
vQifvçJ enf;wlyif oabmus aomaMumifçh NiD;aiGUbG,[ f í l om xifjrif\/

NiD;aiGUaomaMumifçh rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f aom pdwo


f nf rSwof &d aom ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd rS twif;½ke;f uef
zJx
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okYd a&mufcsifygbdawmhw,f}}[k þokYd ponfjzif?h ocFg&wkYd rS vGwaf jrmuf&ef vkv d m;vsuf BuHpnfrw d wf\/ xkd
BuHpnfru I v dk J rvGwaf peJY? rSwv f udk yf g/ ]]onf½yk ef mrfawGuif;atmif b,fvv dk yk &f ygrnfv?J rSwNf rJtwkid ;f rSwaf e
vQiçf raumif;wmawGudk vSeaf vSmNyD; Munfah eovkd jzpfaewmbJ? raumif;wmawGucdk sn;f awGUaeawmhwmbJ?
olwYdk udk ESv;Hk roGi;f bJ rrSwb f aJ e&wmu aumif;rSmxifyg&JU}} [lívJ pOf;pm;rdwwf\/ xkpd Of;pm;rIuv dk J rSwv f u
dk f
yg/

wcsKYd rmS xkod YdkpOf;pm;rdwt


hJ wkid ;f yif rrSwaf wmhbJ &yfem;aerdwwf\? &yfem;aeaomfvJ jrifrI Mum;rI odrI
azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I auG;rI qefYrI BuHrI paom emrf½yk rf sm;u rjzpfbv J J raeacs? jzpfNrJyif jzpfay:vsufom½S\ d ?
½IrwS cf ahJ om 0dyóemt[keaf Mumifh rxifbv J rJ aeacs? xifNrJyif xifay:vsufom½S\ d ? xif½mS ;aom xk½d yk ef mrfwYdk
ukd odru I vJ tvkv d ydk if rjywfov d suf½\ dS ? xkYd aMumifçh þokYd qifjcifvsuf oabmuswwf\/ ]]rrSwb f J aeaomf
vJ ½kyef mrfawGu jzpfvjJ zpfay:aewmbJ/ xifvJ xifay:aewmbJ? odru I vJow l Ydk udk rjywf odaewmbJ? okYd jzpfíç
rrSwb f J ae½krH Qjzifh onf½yk ef mrfawGrS rvGwEf idk af o;bl;? olwYdk udk rpGeYf Eidk af o;bl;? tpOftwkid ;f rSwí f tedpö 'ku©
tewåtjzpfudk aumif;aumif; odjrifNyD;rSç olwYdk udk *½krpku d b f J vpfvsL½IEidk rf nf? olwYdk csKyfNidr;f wJh edAmÁ efuv dk J
odjrif&rnf? xkt d cg usrS aumif;aumif; Nidr;f at; oGm;rnf}}[lí oabmusNyD;vQifç rSwNf rJyif wzef jyefí rSw\ f /
uk,d wf idk f rqifjcifwwfaom olonfvnf; q&mu a[mjywJt h wkid ;f oabmusí wzef rSwNf rJ rSwjf yef\/

þokYd rw S Nf rJwidk ;f wzefrw S íf t½Sed af umif;vmaomtcgü? tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS rcHomaom a0'emrsm;ukv d J
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atmif rSwyf gav/ þokYd vGeu f aJ om 'kua© 0'emukd rawGU&aomfvçJ tedpö 'ku© tewå tjcif;t&m (40)wkYd wiG f
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aomfv?J a,m*Donfum; rSwo f rd u I dk raumif;bl;[líom xif wwf\? tm½kEH iS hf rSwpf w d w f Ydk aumif;aumif;ruyfbJ
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hJ wGuf
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 18

raumif;bl;[k xifí pBuøomG ;vkw d wf\? oGm;vsuf rSwaf e&mrSvJ raumif;bl;[k xifjyefí xkid v f w
dk wf\? wzef
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avsmif;vkw d wf\/ þokYd trsKd;rsKd; ajymif;a½TU ûyjyifí rSwaf omfvçJ b,fae&m b,ftaersKd;wGirf Q Mum½Snpf mG
rwwfEkdif? cPç cP ajymif;vJ&wwfonf/ pdwf rysufvifh/ ½kyfemrfç ocFg&wkdYukd om,mbG,f r½So d nft
h wkid ;f
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f rd u
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rSwaf evQif pdwo f nf wpwpESihf Munfí Munfí vmvdrrhf nf/ aemufq;Hk ü xiforQ odorQESihf tm;r&jcif;ç ûyjyif
vkjd cif;rSm vk;H 0 uif;Nidr;f oGm;vdrrhf nf/

ocFg&wkYd udk aMumifMh urpkud bf J vpfvsL½IEidk af tmif ÓPftm;jynfph v Hk maomtcgü rSwpf w d of nf tvGef
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odraf rGUaom ½kyçf emrfç trlt&muav;rsm;ukad omfvJ txl;aMumifMh u rpku d &f bJ odvsufov d suf½Sd\? tedpçö 'ku©ç
tewåtjcif;t&m wrsKd;rsKd;ukv d J txl;rqifjcif&bJ xif½mS ;odvsufov d suf ½S\ d ? wuk, d v
f ;Hk ü awGUxdru I av;rsm;
ukd rSwaf evQiçf uk, d af umifBuD; aysmufvsu?f awGUxdru I av;rsm;uko d m wckNyD;wck uGuu f eJ uGuu f eJ odvsuf
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 19

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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 20

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MumvQiu f m; tMum;tMum;ü qifjcifwhJ pdwrf sm; jzpfwwfao;\/ xkdpdwfrsm;ukd 4-csufç 5-csuaf vmuf rSwv f udk f
vQi?f zkv d o f Ydk wzefa&mufomG ;jyef\/ þenf;jzifh tm;&onfwidk af tmif em&Daygif;rsm;pGm wnfwH ah eonfuv dk J
awGUMu&\/ þzkv d pf w d rf sm; jzpfaepOfü ocFg&tvk;H pkH csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ eftm½krH mS omvQif pdwo f nf wnfwv hH suf
½Sd\/ xkdrSwyg; b,ftm½kHukdrQ rod/ edAmÁ ef[o l nfrmS vJ þavmuç wyg;aom avmuwkYd EiS hf qkid af om ½kyef mrf
ocFg&w&m;ç ynwfw&m;wkYd rS tvGwo f ;D jcm; oabmw&m;aywnf;/ okYd jzpfíç zkv d 0f ifpm;cku
d üf rdrcd E¨muk, d f
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 21

paom þavmuç wyg;aom avmuwkYd \ taMumif;ukd bmrQowdr&NyD? rodNyD? BuHpnfpOf;pm;rI tvk;H pku H if;\/
jrifp&mMum;p&m awGUxdp&m eHp&mtm½krH sm; xif½mS ;½Sad eaomfvJ bmukrd QrodNyD/ tyÜemZ0eH £&d,myxrÜd oEém
arwd-[lonfEiS t hf nDç £&d,mykxv f J ckid cf \
hH / xkid v
f suf 0ifpm;aevQif? xkid rf I uk, d tf rlt&monf rlvutwkid ;f
yif wnfwv hH suf½\ dS ? ,dr;f ,kid jf cif; nTwu f sjcif; ,Gi;f ysufjcif;r½SNd yD/ zkv d pf w d tf pOf jywfomG ;aomtcgü ocFg&Nidr;f
wJo
h abmç xkNd idr;f &mokYd a&mufaewJo h abmrsm;ukd qifjcifrI jzpfapç yko H P²mefpaom tm½kH wrsKd;rsKd;ukd awGUjrifrI
jzpfapç pOf;pm;rI jzpfapç a½S;OD;pGm xif½mS ; jzpfwwf\/ xkYd aemif rSwNf rJ rSwjf cif;ç Munfvifjcif;ç qifjcifjcif;ç
paom pdww f Ydkonf xku d of nftm;avsmpf mG jzpfuek \ f / rSwNf rJ rSwaf omfvJ tpü yDo Murf;wef;aom tjzpftysuf
uko
d v d suf cyfusu J so J m jzpfwwf\/ 0dyóem txl;tm;aumif;vQifum; zkv d rf S xcgpüvJ trSwrf usJbJ aumif;NrJ
yif odro f rd af rGUarGU aumif;aeonfvnf; ½Sdao;\/ txl;um; ........ zkv d o f Ydk jrefjrefa&muf&efç zkv d üf MumMumwnf
&efç aqmufwnfru I ?dk a½S;tzkYd uomûytyf\? rSwaf epOfüum; xkad qmufwnfrt I wGuf aMumifMh urI awmifw h rIudk
rûytyf/ 0dyóemtm; rjynfah o;vQif? trSwt f xl; aumif;aepOfrmS Muufo;D xjcif;ç oef;jcif;ç wkev f yI jf cif;ç ½Iu d f
jcif;rsm; jzpfNyD;vQif trSwu f sJomG ;onfvnf; ½Sad o;\/ txl;aumif;vmpOfü ]a&mufawmhrmS bJ}[k qifjcifrw d hJ
twGuf trSwu f sJomG ;onfvnf; ½Sad o;\/ rqifjcifrad peJY/ qifjcifrv d QifvJ xkq d ifjcifru
I dk rdr&d &rSwyf gav/
þokYd usJusJomG ;onfudk tBudrrf sm;pGmawGU&NyD;rS zkv d of Ydk a&mufov l ½J \ dS / orm"dç ÓPftm;eJvQif zkv d o f Ydk jrefjref
ra&mufwwf? a&mufvQiv f J MumMum rwnfwwfay/ þonfum; zkv d çf 0ifpm;ykaH ywnf;/

ÓPfpOfudk ½Si;f enf; ....tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS b, tm'De0 edA'dÁ g rkOw dö uk rswmÓPfwYdk udk Mumjrifph mG rawGUcJ&h
aomaMumifçh xkÓ d PfwYdk ü r½Si;f bJ ½Sw d wf\/ okYd jzpfí ½Si;f vif;pGm odvv dk Qifç ÓPf toD;toD;ukd tcsdejf zifh
ykdif;jcm;í ½IrSwfygav/ ykHum; .... ]]þ em&D0uftwGif;ç wem&DtwGif;ü tjzpfçtysuf 2-yg;vk;H ukd ½Irnf? O',AÁ,
ÓPfuo dk m jzpfaprnf}}[k ykid ;f jcm;írSwaf evQifç xkd tcsdeçf em&DtwGi;f ü txufÓPfoYdk rwufb?J O',AÁ,ÓPf
omvQif jzpfí aevwH?h tcsdef aphaomtcgü tysufuo dk m awGUjrifvsuf olYtvkv d bdk *FÓPf jzpfay:vmvwH?h
tu,fí olYtvkv d dk rjzpfao;ygrl ]]tysufuo dk m ½Irnf? b*FÓPfuo dk m jzpfaprnf}}[k ykid ;f jcm;í rSwaf evQifç
tysufuo dk modvsuf b*FÓPf jzpfay:aevwH/h tcsdeaf phaomtcg aemufÓPfoYdk olYtvkv d wdk uf\/ aemufü
vnf;enf;wlyifwnf;/ olYtvkv d rdk wufygrl xkÓ d Pfü tm;&aomtcgrSmç ]]aMumufz, G af b;ukjd rifvsuf b,ÓPf
jzpfygap}}[k pdwn f w
T v f u
dk v
f Qifç aMumufz, G x
f ifvsuf b,ÓPfjzpfay:vwH/hH xkÓ d Pfü tm;&jyefvQif ]]tjypfudk
jrifvsuf tm'De0ÓPf jzpfygap}}[k pdwf nTwv f udk yf g/ rSww f idk ;f rSww f idk ;f tjypfjrifvsuf tm'De0ÓPf jzpfygvdrhf
rnf/ xkÓ d Pfü tm;&jyefvQifç ]]NiD;aiGUvsuf ½Ijrifaom edA'dÁ gÓPfudk jzpfaprnf}}[k pdwn f w
T f vku d yf g? rSww f idk ;f
rSww f idk ;f ysif;&dNiD;aiGUvsuf edA'dÁ gÓPf jzpfygvdrrhf nf/ xkÓ d Pfü tm;&jyefvQifç ocFg&wkYd rS vGwv f adk om rkOw dö u k
rswmÓPf jzpfygap}}[k pdwn f wT v f u
dk yf g? ocFg&wkYd rS vGwaf jrmufvv dk sufç ocFg&wkYd udk pGeYf vw T v f vdk sufç rkOw dö u k
rswmÓPfonf rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü jzpfay:ygvdrrhf nf/ tm;&aomtcgrSm txufÓPfoYdk wuf&ef pdwf nTwv f u dk yf g/
rcHomaoma0'em xif½mS ;jcif;ç £&d,mykwf jyifvjdk cif;ç tm;r&Ekid jf cif;wkYd EiS w hf uG y#docFgÓPf jzpfay:ygvdrrhf nf/
tm;&jyefvQifç taumif;qk;H rSwo f rd I ocFg ½kayu©mÓPfoYdk wuf&ef pdwn f w T v f u
dk yf g? olY t½SdefESifh ol tvkdvkdyif
odvsuf odvsuf tvGef odraf rGUpGmaom ocFg½kayu©mÓPf jzpfay:ygvdrrhf nf/ þenf;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;í ykid ;f jcm;í
rSwaf evQifç ykid ;f jcm;xm;aom xku d mvtwGi;f ü? jzpfapvkad om ÓPfomvQif jzpfay:í aeonfu¤dk if;? xkx d Ódk Pfü
tm;&í? txufÓPfukd jzpfapvkw d thJ cg tcsdeaf phaomtcgusrS rSwo f rd o I nf txufÓPftjzpfoYdk ]'Du&D
tdraf jr§mifuo hJ Ydk } ul;ajymif; ul;ajymif; oGm;onfu¤dk if;? ½Si;f vif;pGm awGU&ygvwH/h wBudrrf Qjzifh r½Si;f ao;vQif
tBudrBf udrf tm;xkwMf unfyh gav/ þokYd rykid ;f jcm;bJ ½Irw S af evQifum; xufoefaom yk*Kd¾ vfrmS rMumrD wcP
twGi;f ç av;ç ig;ç q,frw S f twGi;f rSmaomfvJ ocFg½kayu©mÓPfoYdk omvQif a&mufomG ;wwfayonf? zkv d o f Ydk vJ
cPcP a&mufa&muf oGm;wwfayonf? Ekid ef if;aomolrmS oGm;ae,if;ç pm;aomufae,if;aomfvJ zkv d o f Ydk
a&mufomG ;wwfao;\/

txuf r*fzv dk rf sm;twGuf tm;xkwef nf; ........ &NyD; zkv d uf dk tjrefa&muf&efç Mumjrifph mG wnfwahH p&efç
tBudrrf sm;pGm avhvm0ifpm;í tm;&aomtcgüç txuf r*fç zkv d w
f &m;xl;ukd odjrif&ef &nfoef ESv;Hk oGi;f í ½Irw S f
tm;xkw&f m\/ yku H m; .... tm;xkwv f odk avmuf&ufudk uefYowfyidk ;f jcm;í ]]þrQaom &uftwGi;f ü&NyD; zkv d w
f &m;
ukd r0ifpm;vkyd g? &NyD; zkv d of Ydk ra&mufygapvif?h r&ao;aom txuf r*fç zkv d w
f &m;xl;om jzpfygap? txuf r*fç
zkv
d wf &m;xl;uko d m odjrif&ygap? a&mufygap}}[k ESv;Hk oGi;f aqmufwnfNyD;vQifç jzpfay:qJ uk, d çf pdwçf trlt&m
rsm;ukd rSwNf rJtwkid ;f om rSwt f yf\/ &uf uefYowfjcif;\ tusKd;um; .... txuf r*f zkv d of Ydk ra&mufao;vQifç
xk&d ufrsm; vGeNf yD;aomtcgü? &NyD;zkv d u f dk 0ifpm;vkyd guç vG,u f pl mG 0ifpm;Ekid \
f / okdYr[kwfbJç þaeYrSpí?
txuf r*fç zkv d tf wGuo f m tm;xkwaf wmhrnf[k ykid ;f jzwfí tm;xkwv f Qifç &NyD;zkv
d u
f dk jyefí r0ifpm;Ekid bf J
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 22

½Sdwwf\/ xkt d cgrSm txuf r*fç zkv d of Ydk vJ ra&mufEidk o f t l m; &NyD;zkv d o


f Ydk vJ jyefra&mufEidk o f jzifh tm;r&
raMueyfjcif; jzpfwwfonf/ ]&NyD;zkv d u f dk r0ifpm;vkyd g}[k aumif;pGm tmv, jzwfjcif;\ tusKd;um; .... xkd
&ufyidk ;f twGi;f ü&NyD; zkvd o f Ydk jyefra&muf&jcif; tusKd;½S\ d ? ÓPftm;jynfyh grl txufr*fzv dk o f Ydk omvQif a&muf&jcif;
tusKd;vJ½Sd\/ tmv, aumif;aumif; rjywfvQifç &NyD; zkv d o f Ydk jyefa&mufwwfonf/ xkYd aMumifçh vko d avmuf
&ufuu dk efYowfvsu?f xk&d ufrsm;twGi;f rSm? &NyD;zkv d üf aumif;aumif; tmv, jzwfí ½Irw S &f ayonf/ rSwaf om
tcgrSm O',AÁ,ÓPfrS pí 0dyóemÓPfrsm;onf a½S;uvkyd if tpOftwkid ;f jzpfay:vdrrhf nf/ ÓPfjzpfyrHk mS zkv d f
twGuf 0dyóemESirhf wlbJ r*ftwGuf tm;xkwpf Ofu jzpfcahJ om 0dyóemESihf wlpmG jzpf\/ O',AÁ,ÓPf EkpOfü
tvif;a&mifrsm;tqif;oP²mefrsm;ukv d J awGU&wwf\? 'kua© 0'emrsm;ukv d J awGU&wwf\? ½kyef mrftjzpftysufrsm;
vJ Murf;wef;yDopGmxifay:\/ zkv d t f wGuf ½Irw S pf Ofu wcPtwGi;f rSm ocFg½kayu©mÓPf zkv d Óf Pfrsm;okYd
a&mufaeusjzpfcahJ omfv?J ,ckru l m;ç tm;rjynfah o;vQi?f atmufÓPfrsm;üom Mumjrifph mG wnfaewwf\/okdYaomf
vJ tm;xkwpf uvkd Mumjrifjh cif; cufcjJ cif;um;r½Sad y/ waeYtwGi;f rSmaomfvJ ÓPftqifq h ifh &ifuh sufí ocFg
½kayu©mÓPfoYdk a&mufEidk af y\/ odro I nfvnf; a½S;uxuf ykí d txl;aumif;\? tod pdy\ f ? tjrif us,\ f ?
todtjrif txl;pifMu,f\? ½Si;f vif;\/ avmuDtm½kH oHo&m0#fqif;&JwYdk rS aMumufjcif;ç tjypfjrifjcif;ç NiD;aiGU
jcif;ç vGwv f jdk cif;ç wGeYf qw k jf cif;rsm;onf a½S;uxuf vGeu f pJ mG jzpf\/ ,cifuç wem&DtwGi;f rSm av;ig;Budrf
zkv
d of Ydk a&mufaeusjzpfaomfv?J ,ckru l m;ç txufr*ftwGuf ÓPftm;rjynfah o;vQif? ocFg½kayu©mÓPfomvQif
jzpfay:vsuf aewwf\? 1-&uf 2-&uf 3-&uf ponfjzifh &uf v ESpf rsm;pGmvJ Mumwwf\/ ÓPftm; jynfah om
tcgüum; txl; oGuv f uf xif½mS ;aom rSwo f rd rI sm; jzpfay:NyD;vQifç ocFg& csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ ef tm½ko H Ydk
a½S;uvkyd if ul;ajymif;vsuf 'kw, d r*f zkv d Óf Pfrsm; jzpfay:vdrrhf nf/ xkYd aemifç r*f zkv d f edAmÁ efudk qifjcifrçI
udavomukd qifjcifrrI sm;onf xku d o f nf tm;avsmfpmG jzpfvrd rhf nf/ xkYd aemif rSwNf rJrw S v f suf tjzpftysufudk
odaom O',AÁ,ÓPfEiS hf tvGef Munfvifaom pdwt f pOf ponfwYdk onf xku d o f nftm;avsmfpmG jzpfuek v f wH/h
þonfum; ou'g*grd r*f zkv d of Ydk a&mufNyD;onf wkid af tmif tm;xkwyf Hk rSwpf OfEiS hf ÓPfjzifh awGUjrifyaHk ywnf;/

wwd, r*fzv dk u
f dk &vkjd yefvQifç &ufuefYowfyidk ;f jcm;vsuf &NyD;zkv d u
f dk 0ifpm;rIü tmv,jzwfí ]]rod&
ao;aom txuf r*f zkv d f w&m;xl;om jzpfygap? txuf r*f zkv d f w&m;xl;uko d m odjrif&ygap? a&mufygap}}[k
ESv;Hk oGi;f aqmufwnfí jzpfay:qJ uk, d f pdwf trlt&mrsm;ukd rSwNf rJwidk ;f om rSwt f yf\/ O',AÁ,ÓPfrSpí
ÓPftqifq h ifh &ifv
h sufw;dk wufNyD;vQif rMumrDyif ocFg½kayu©mÓPfoYdk a&mufvwH/h tm;rjynfah o;vQif xkÓ d Pf
üom wefY&yfíaevwH?h xkÓ d Pftm;jynfah omtcgü ocFg&csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ eftm½ko H Ydk a½S;uvkyd if ul;ajymif;vsuf
wwd, r*f zkv d f ÓPfrsm; jzpfay:MuvwH/h qifjcifrI rSwrf I Munfrw I Ydk vJ enf;wlyif jzpfMuvwH/h þonfum;
tem*grd r*f zkv d of Ydk a&mufNyD;onf wkid af tmif tm;xkwyf Hk rSwpf OfEESihf ÓPfjzifh awGUjrifyaHk ywnf;/

pwkw¬ r*fzv dk u
f dk &vkjd yefvQiv f ?J enf;wlyif &ufuefYowfjcif;ç tmv,jzwfjcif;ç ESv;Hk oGi;f aqmufwnf
jcif;rsm;ukûd yí jzpfay:qJ uk, d pf wd f trlt&mrsm;ukd rSwNf rJwidk ;f om rSwt f yf\/ wrsKd;wrnf ûyjyifí tm;xkwzf , G f
r½SNd yD/ xkYd aMumifyh if owdy|meokwüf þ ½Irw S rf I owdudk ]]{um,aem=wckxnf;aom c&D;? waMumif;xnf;aom
c&D;}}[k a[mawmf rlayonf/ O',AÁ,ÓPfrpS í ÓPftqifq h ifh &ifu
h sufw;dk wufNyD;vQif? rMumrDyif ocFg
½kayu©mÓPfoYdk a&mufvwH?h tm;rjynfah o;vQif? xkÓ d Pfüom wefY&yfí aevwH?h xkÓ d Pftm;jynfah omtcgü
ocFg& csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ ef tm½ko H Ydk a½S;uvkyd if ul;ajymif;vsuf pwkw¬ r*f zkvd Ó
f Pfrsm; jzpfay:MuvwH/h

þ pum;&yfwYdk wiG f ]xkx d dk r*f zkv


d f ÓPfrsm; jzpfrnf}[k qkad om pum;rSm jzpfxu dk af tmif yg&rD&ifah om
yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk udk &nfí qkt d yfaom pum;aywnf;/ yg&rDÓPf r&ifo h efao;aom yk*Kd¾ vfonfum; ocFg½kayu©mÓPfü
omvQif wefY&yfvsuf wnf\/ txl;tm;jzifu h m; .... yXr r*f zkv d u f dk &NyD;aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf 'kw, d r*f zkv d o f Ydk
rMumrDyif vG,u f pl mG a&mufwwfjim;aomfv?J wwd, r*f zkv d o
f Ydkum; vsijf refpmG ra&mufEidk b f J Mumjrifí h vJ
aewwf\/ þae&mü taMumif;ukd ½SmvQif? þokYd awGU&\/ aomwmyefç ou'g*grf 2 OD;vk;H yif oDavok
y&dy&l um&D=oDvodum© ü tjynft h pkH ûyusiahf om yk*Kd¾ vfcsn;f omjzpf\? xkYd aMumifçh oDvodum© jynfph aHk om
tqifjh cif;wlaom 'kw, d r*fzv dk o
f Ydk vsifjrefv, G u f pl mG a&mufEidk af yonf/ tem*grfonfum;? orm"do®ð y&dy&l um&D
=orm"dou d m© ü tjynft h pkH ûyusifah om yk*Kd¾ vfaywnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh oDvtqifh jzpfaom 'kw, d zkvd rf S orm"dtqifh
wwd, r*f zkv d o f Ydk vsijf refpmG ra&mufEidk b f J ½So d nf jzpf&m\/ okYd aomfvçJ rnfonfh r*f zkv d o
f Ydk a&mufEidk af tmif
yg&rD &ifçh r&ifu h dk jynfph pHk mG tm;rxkwb f J rodEidk af cs/ xkYd jyifç &uf v ESpf rsm;pGm tm;xkwyf grS r*fzv dk o
f Ydk a&muf
rnfh yk*Kd¾ vfvJ ½Sad omaMumif?h &uf v tenf;i,f tm;xkw½f rHk Qjzifh r*f zkv d of Ydk ra&mufao;aomfv?J ]yg&rDÓPf
r&ifo h ef}[k rqk;H jzwfEidk af o;/ xkYd jyifç ,ck tm;xkwrf o I nfvnf; r&ifah o;aomyg&rDÓPfudk &ifo h eftm;jynfh
apEkid o f nfomwnf;? okYd jzpfíç yg&rD &ifçh r&ifu h u dk m; rcsifch sdef rpOf;pm;oifNh yD-
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 23

]]tm;rxkwb f aJ evQif yg&rDrQyif rjzpfEidk ?f yg&rD&ifNh yD;jzpfaomfvJ r*fç zkv d uf dk


,ckb0ür&Ekid /f tm;xkwv f Qifum; yg&rD&ifNh yD; jzpfygu vkt
d yfaom r*fç zkv d o
f Ydk vG,uf l
vsijf refpmG a&mufEidk \
f / yg&rDÓPf tawmftwef &ifNh yD;jzpfygu ,cktm;xkwrf jI zifh
&ifo
h efjynfph í
Hk vkt
d yfaom r*fç zkv d o f Ydk ,ckb0rSmyif a&mufEidk \ f / t,kwfqkH;tm;jzifh
aemifb0wkYd ü r*fç zkv d u
f dk vG,u
f pl mG &Ekid &f ef xufoefaom yg&rDrsKd;aphum; {uefyif
jzpfay\}}[laom

þrcRwf,iG ;f aom tcsufuo


dk m av;eufpmG ESv;Hk oGi;f í êud;pm;r,kwf tm;xkwt
f yfawmh onfomwnf;/

t&[wåzv dk f qk;H oGm;vQifç odjrif&NyD;aom r*fç zkvd çf edAmÁ efwYdk udk jyefí qifjcifr\
d / ]]udavom tvkH;pkH
uif;Nidr;f oGm;ayNyD? b,ftcgrSmrQ udavom rjzpfxu dk af wmhNyD? usifb h , G f udpö NyD;qk;H oGm;ayNyD}}[lívJ qifjcif
qk;H jzwf\/ þonfum;? &[EÅmjzpfNyD;onf wkid af tmif? tm;xkwyf Hk rSwpf OfEiS hf ÓPfjzifh awGUjrifyaHk ywnf;/

Oa,smZOf

bma0wAÁm owm ap0H? owdy|me bm0em/


0dyóem &o.óm'H? yaw¬aEÅe"D omoae/ /

p? wku
d w f eG ;f pum; ajymMum;OD;tH?h £" omoae? a*gwr[kç emr xif½mS ;ç jrwfb&k m;\ç nTeMf um;jyoç
tqk;H rwnf&mç þomoem acwftwGi;f ü/ 0dyóem &o.ó'H? 0dyóemç ÓPfynm\ç om,mbG,t f ppfç trSef
jzpfaomç qDEpS f t&omç csrf;om ok;H wefç r*f zkv d f edAmÁ efu/dk yaw¬aEÅe? awmifw h vkv d m;ç qE´rsm;aom/ owm-
oaEÅe? olawmfaumif; jzpfaom trsK;d om;ç trsK;d o®;D onf/ owdy|me bm0em? owdy|mef bm0emukd/ 0g? um,ç
a0'emç pdwçå "r®ç [laom tm½kw H Ydk ü ajy;0ifajy;0if oGm;ouJo h Ydk xifaom trSw&f rI jzpfí? owdy|mef rnfaom
rkcs yGg;apxku
d af om w&m;uk?d {0H? þtcPf;ü jyqkcd ahJ om þ½Irw S ef nf;tpOfjzif/h bma0wAÁm? yGg;aptyf\?
yGg;ap&rnf? yGg;apygavmh/

txl;rSmxm;csuf

þusrf;ü jytyfaom 0dyóem ½Irw S ef nf; tpOfonf todÓPf toift h wifh ½So d rl sm;twGuf aumif;pGm
vkaH vmuf\/ xko d Ydk aom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;onf þusrf;ukd Munfu h mrQjzifh xufoefaom o'¨g qE´ 0D&, d wkYd udk rqkwf
repfapbJ usus ee ½k½d adk oao tm;xkwf oGm;vQifç jycJo h nft
h wkid ;f yif 0dyóem ÓPf r*fç zkv d Ó f Pfrsm;okYd
{uefyif qku d af &muf Ekid &f m\/ okYd aomfvçJ tm;xkwo f wl Ydk tm; jzpfay:wwfyEHk iS hf ÓPfjzifh awGUjrifyt Hk xl;rsm;ukd
þusr;f ü pkv H ifpmG raz:jyEkid af y? rsm;pGmyif <uif;useaf o;\/ þusrf;üjyxm;aom awGUjrifyt Hk vk;H pkuH dk tm;xkwf
olwOD;xnf;u awGU&rnfvrJ [kwaf y? tm;xkwo f \l yg&rD tm;avsmfpGm todÓPf tpdyfç tusJESifh? ½Sif;ç r½Sif;vJ
xl;jcm;ao;\/ xkYd jyifç tm;xkwo f \l o'¨g qE´ 0D&, d onfvnf; tcgcyford ;f ckid Nf rJxufoefaeonfcsnf; r[kwf
acs/ q&mr½Sb d J pmawGUrQjzifh tm;xkwv f Qifç ]]roGm;bl;aom c&D;ukd wa,mufxnf; oGm;&aom oluo hJ Ydk }} ,krH mS ;
ruif;aomaMumif?h cyfqqjzpfívJ aewwf\/ okYd jzpfíç omrefy*k Kd¾ vfonf ulnt D m;ay;rnfh q&mr½Sb d J tm;xkwf
vQif? 0dyóemÓPfx;l ç r*f zkv d wf &m;xl;rsm;okYd acsmarmpGma&muf&ef rvG,u f v
l aS o;ay/ okYd jzpfíç r*fzv dk Ó
f Pf
jzifh edAmÁ efudk rsuaf rSmuf od&onf wkid af tmif wu,fwrf; tm;xkwv f adk om olawmfaumif;wkYd onf ]],xmblwH
ÓPm, ow¬m y&da,odwaAÁm=rSeu f efpmG od&ef q&mukd ½Sm&rnf}}[laom ed'ge0*¾ oH,w k yf gVdEiS thf nD? ]]usus
ee tm;xkwb f ;l í 0dyóemÓPfpOfç r*f zkv d f ypöa0u©Pm ÓPfwYdk EiS w hf uG zkv d 0f ifpm;yktH xd usrf;*efEiS n hf pD mG
nTejf yEkid af om uvsmPrdwå q&morm;xHü enf;cHí tm;xkwMf uygav/ ]]ig[m yk*Kd¾ vfx;l bJ olwyg;xHrmS enf;cH
bkYd rvkyd gbl;}}[k wuf<uvsuf½adS om rmewHceG Bf uD;ukv d J t½Sifayg|dv rax&f\ usifx h ;Hk ukd ESv;Hk oGi;f um csKd;ESrd f
Ekid yf gapukeo f wnf;? tm;xkwaf om tcgrSmvJ atmufyg bk&m;tqk;H tr rdeYf ceG ;f awmfudk av;eufpmG ESv;Hk oGi;f í
wif;wif; &if;&if; jynfjh ynf0h 0 tm;xkwf Ekid Mf uygapukeo f wnf;/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 24

e ,d'H odxv d rm&AÇ? e ,d'H tayÜe xmrom/


edAmÁ eH t"d*EÅA?HÁ oAÁ'u
k y© aÜ rmpeH/ /

(ed'g0"*¾oH,kwf 466)

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / oAÁ'u


k y© aÜ rmpeH? qif;&J tvk;H pkrH S uRwfvwG &f m jzpfaom/ £'H edAmÁ eH? þedAmÁ efu/dk
odxv
d H tm&AÇ? avsmhvsnf;pGm tm;xkwí f / e t"d*EÅA?HÁ rodEidk çf ra&mufEidk af y/ £'H? edAmÁ eH? þedAmÁ efudk/ tayÜe
xmrom? tenf;i,faom tm;pGr;f jzif/h e t"d*EÅA/HÁ rodEidk çf ra&mufEidk af y/

(BuD;us,faom tm;pGr;f jzif?h wif;wif;BuD; tm;xkwrf S odEidk çf a&mufEidk o


f nf[k qkv
d \
dk )/

tcPf; (5) NyD;\/


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 25

tcPf; (6)
ÓPfpOf tqkH;tjzwf

emr½ly y&dapä' ÓPfESifh 'd|d0dok'd¨

tcPf; (1) ü oDv0do'k u d̈ dk jycJNh yD? tcPf; (2) ü pdw0å o


d 'k u d̈ dk jycJNh yD? tcPf; (3-4-5)wkYd ü 'd|0d o
d 'k r¨d S
ÓP'óe 0do'k w d̈ idk af tmif tm;xkwyf Hk awGUjrifyu Hk dk tajctjrpfEiS w
hf uG jycJNh yD/ þ tcPf;üum; ½Irw S af om
olrmS tpOftwkid ;f jzpfay:vmaom emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPf ponfwYdk EiS hf 'd|0d o d 'k d̈ paom ynm0do'k d̈ ig;yg;wkYd udk
usrf;*efEiS hf ES;D aESmí jyaytH/h

emr½lygeH ,mxm0-'óeH 'd|d0dok'd¨ emr/


(0dok'd¨r*f 2-222)

emr½lygeH? tm½kq
H o
D Ydk nTww
f wfç oGm;wwfaom emrfoabmESi?hf tm½kq
H o
D Ydk rnTww f wfrí
l ? azgufjyef½Hk
omtxift½Sm; azgufjyefwwfaom ½kyo f abmçwkYd u/dk ,xm0'óeH? oabmrSet f wkid ;f jrifojd cif;onf/ 'd|d
0do'k e¨d mr? pifMu,faom ÓPftjrifrnf\/

tcPf; (5)ü jycJo h nft h wkid ;f ½Irw S of t l m; orm"d xufoefaomtcgü BuHpnfawG;awmrI eD0&PwkYd onf
rsm;aomtm;jzifh rjzpfay:ukeNf yD? rSwrf cI sn;f omvQif wpyfxnf; pifMu,fpmG jzpf\? &Hcgü BuHpnfrI jzpfvmaomfvçJ
csujf cif;yif rSwo f Ed idk í
f xkBd uHpnfrI Nidr;f jywf oGm;\/ xkdtcgü? azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I &yfrI oGm;rI tdyrf I auG;rI
qefYrI vIy½f mS ;rI paom uk, d t
f rlt&m 0ga,m azg|AÁblw½kyfrsm; (BuD;rm;xif½mS ;aom azgufjyefrrI sm;)ESi?hf xkrd S
wyg;ç awGUxd&aom tMurf;ç tEk? tylç tat;? twif;ç tavsmh[al om blw½kyfrsm;ç ukd ]]trsKd;rsKd;taxGaxG
azgufjyef ajymif;vJwwfaom oabmrQom}}[lí¤if;? ]]wk;H wkid f ausmufcJ oJrsm;uJo h Ydk yif tm½ku H dk rodwwfaom
oabmrQom}}[lí¤if;? rSwq f rJ mS yif odjrif oabmus\/ xkYd jyif jrif&wJh tqif;ç jrifEidk af tmif MunfvifwhJ rsufpd
½ky?f Mum;&wJt h oHç Mum;Ekid af tmif MunfvifwhJ em;½ky?f eH&wJh teHYç eHEidk af tmif MunfvifwhJ ESmacgif;½ky?f pm;od&wJh
t&omç pm;odEidk af tmif MunfvifwhJ vQm½ky?f xdoEd idk af tmif MunfvifwhJ uk, d ½f yk ?f BuHord \ I rS&D m ESv;Hk ½ky-f þokdY
tp½Sad om Oyg'g½kyf (tMurf;pm; ½kyw f Ydk udk rSaD om tao;pm; ½ky)f rsm;ukv
d ?J rSwq f rJ mS yifenf;wl odjrifoabmus
\/ þokYd rawGra0 odjrifoabmusjcif;onf ]]½kyeÜ vu©Pmç tAsmuwypöKy|mefwYdk tvkt d m;jzifh ½kyw f &m;ukd
rSeu
f efpmG odrI jzpfaomaMumif}h } ½ly ,m xm0 'óe=½kyu f dk oabmrSet
f wkid ;f odaom ÓPfaywnf;/ tAsmuw
ypöKy|mef tvkt d m;jzifh odonf [laom pum;rSm

]]tapwaem tAsmuawmwd {w¬ 0d, tem&r®Pwm 0g tAsmuwwm '|AÁm}}


[laom

rlv#Dumç (2-91) r[m#Dum (2-254) wkYd udk rSí


D qkt
d yfaom pum;aywnf;/

#Dum\ teuf ...0g? wenf;um;/ t-apwaem tAsmuawm wd {w¬ 0d,? t-


apwaem tAsmuawm [l&müuJoh Ydk / tem&r®Pwm? tm½krH ûywwfonf\ tjzpfukd/
tAsmuwwm? tAsmuw\ tjzpf=tAsmuwrnfaMumif; teuf[í l / '|AÁm?
rSwt
f yf\/

t"dygÜ ,fum; ........ £wd auom emr £roð® o&Da&yg#da,auúm aum|maom t-apwaem
tAsmuawm okanmedóawåm xa'¨g yx0D"mwk-þokYd paom "mwk00w¬mef tzGit hf |uxmü tAsmuawm-
tm½krH ûywwf [l aomteufudk od&ouJo h Ydk ? tAsmuwypöK y|meH [l&müvJ ]]tm½krH ûywwfaomw&m;[k ÓPftm;
a½S;½I xifay: onf}} [laomteufudk od&rnf[q k v
dk \
dk / þ#DumtzGiohf nf}} a,m*DwYdk \ÓPfrmS xifyEHk iS hf
txl;yif oifah vsmf ygay\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 26

xkdYjyifç rSwq
f rJ mS yif ]]azgif;rI yderf I paom tm½krH sm;qDoYdk rSww
f phJ w
d u
f ajy;í ajy;í uyf uyf oGm;ovkd
vJ}}xif&\? ]]jrifrI Mum;rI eHrI pm;odrI xdord I auG;csifrI qefYcsifrI BuHord pI aom pdwrf sm;uqkid &f m tm½krH sm;qDoYdk
a&mufa&muf oGm;Muovkv d }J } xif&\/ þokYd xifjrifjcif; odjcif;onf ]]erevu©Pmtvkt d m;jzifh emrfw&m;ukd
rSeu
f efpmG odrI jzpfaomaMumif}h } emr-,mxm0-'óe=emrfudk oabmrSet f wkid ;f odaom ÓPfaywnf;/

þokYd oabmrSet f wkid ;f odjrifot l m; ½kyf ESihf emrfwYdk onf toD; toD; uGjJ ym;vsufom xifay:uke\ f /
rrSwrf u D mvç rSwcf gp umvu uJo h Ydk wqufxnf; waygif;xnf; wckxnf; waumifxnf;taetm;jzifh rxif
ay:ukeNf yD? t,kwq f ;Hk tm;jzifh azgif;ckud üf azgif;wmu wjcm; + rSww f mu wjcm; uGjJ ym;vsuo f m xifay:\?
xkYd twlç ydecf u
dk üf ydew f mu wjcm; + rSww f mu wjcm;? xkid w f ,f[k rSwcf u
dk üf xkid w
f muwjcm; + rSww f mu
wjcm;? auG;cku d f qefYcu dk üf auG;csiçf qefYcsiw f mu wjcm; + auG;wmç qefYwmu wjcm; + rSww f mu wjcm;?
jrifcudk üf jrif&wmESihf rsupf u d wjcm; + jrifwmESihf rSww f mu wjcm;-þokYd ponfjzifh uGjJ ym;vsufom xifay:
\/ þokYd rSwq f rJ mS yif ½kyf ESihf emrf wjcm;pD uGjJ ym;vsufom xif½mS ;yku H dk &nfí 0do'k rd̈ *fü atmufyg ayg&mP
*gxmwkYd udk xkwjf yawmfral vNyD/

e pu©Kawm Zm,&d zó-yOörm?


e ½lyawm aem p ObdEé rEÅ&m/
a[wkH y#dpö yÜb0EÅd ocFwm?
,xmyd oa'´g y[wm, ab&d,m/ (2-230)

zó-yOörm? zóç a0'emç onmç apwemç pdwf [laom zóyOöru w&m;wkYd onf/ 0g? jrifawGUrIvQif
ig;ckajrmuf½adS om jrifro I abmwkYd onf/ pu©Kawm? rsufpx d rJ v
S /J e Zm,a&? xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf r[kwu f ek /f
½lyawm? tqif;xJrv S /J e Zm,a&? xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf r[kwu f ek /f ObdEHé tEÅ&mp? rsufpEd iS t hf qif; þ
ESprf sKd;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSv/J aem Zm,a&? xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf r[kwu f ek /f ocFwm? qkid &f m taMumif;wkYd u
aygif;í ûytyfaom jrifrI oabmwkYd onf/ a[wkH y#dp?ö rsufpd tqif; paom taMumif;ukd pGrJ u DS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d
jzpfay:uke\ f / ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ y[wm, ab&d,m? wD;cwftyfaom pnf\/ oa'´g? toHonf? yb0wd
,xm? pnf vufcwfpaom taMumif;ukd pGrJ í DS jzpfay:ouJoh Ydkyifwnf;/

t"dyÜg,fum; ........pnfoo H nf rwD;ao;rDu pnfxrJ mS vJ atmif;vsuf ½Scd o hJ nfr[kwf vufcwfxx k rJ mS vJ


atmif;vsuf½cdS o hJ nf r[kw?f pnf ESihf vufcwfwYdk\ tv,fMum;rSmvJatmif;vsuf ½Scd o hJ nfr[kw/f xkYd aMumifçh
wD;cku d üf jrnfaom xkpd nfoo H nf pnfxrJ v S J xGuaf y:vmonfr[kw?f vufcwfxx k rJ v
S J xGuaf y:vmonf
r[kw/f (pnf½yk çf vufcwf½yk rf sm;uyif toH½yk jf zpfvmonf r[kw-f [lv)dk / pnfEiS v hf ufcwfwYdk \ tv,fMum;rS
vJ xGuaf y:vmonfr[kw/f trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... pnf vufcwf wD;rI [laom taMumif;wkYd udk pGrJ í DS wD;wkid ;f
wD;wkid ;f topf topf jzpfay:vmaom toHrQ om[kwaf yonf/ okYd jzpfí? pnfEiS hf vufcwfwYdk u wjcm; + pnfoH
uwjcm; uGjJ ym;ouJo h Ydk? xkYd twlyifç jrifro I nf rjrifao;rDu rsufpx d rJ mS vJ atmifvsuf ½Scd o hJ nfr[kw?f tqif;
xJrmS vJ atmif;vsuf ½Scd o hJ nf r[kw?f rsufpEd iS hf tqif;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSmvJ atmif;vsuf ½Scd o hJ nf r[kw/f
xkYd aMumifçh tqif;xifcu dk f xifcu dk üf jzpfay:aom xkjd rifro I nf rsufpx d rJ v
S J xGuí f jzpfay:onf r[kw?f
tqif;xJrv S J xGuíf jzpfay:onfr[kw?f (rsufp½d yk çf tqif;½kyrf sm;uyif jrifrI jzpfvmonf r[kw[ f v
l )dk / rsufpd
ESit hf qif;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSvJ xGuí f jzpfay:onfr[kw?f trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... rsufpd tqif; tvif;a&mif
ESv;Hk oGi;f rI[al om taMumif;wkYd updk rJG í DS ? tqif;xifcu dk x
f ifcu
dk üf topftopf jzpfay:vmaom jrifrI oabmrQom
[kwaf yonf/ okYd jzpfíç rsufpEd iS hf tqif;wkYd u wjcm; + jrifru I wjcm; uGjJ ym;vsuf xifay:onf [kqv dk \
dk /
(Mum;rI eHrI pm;odrI xdrI qkid &f m *gxmwkYd ü xl;aom ygVd teufuo dk m az:jytH)h /

e aomwawm Zm,&d zó-yOörm?


e o'´awm aem p ObdEé rEÅ&m/ay/ /
e Cmeawm Zm,&d zó-yOörm?
e *E¨awm aem p ObdEé rEÅ&m/ay/ /
e Zd0aS wm Zm,&d zó-yOörm?
e &oawm aem p ObdEé rEÅ&m?ay/ /
e um,awm Zm,&d zó-yOörm?
e zóawm aem p ObdEé rEÅ&m/ay/ (2-231)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 27

zó-yOörm? Mum;awGUrIvQif ig;ckajrmuf ½Sad om Mum;rI oabmwkYd onf/ aomwawm? em;xJrv S /J e


Zm,a&? xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf r[kwu f ek /f o'´awm? toHxrJ vS /J e Zm,a&? xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf
r[kwu
f ek /f ObdEHé tEÅ&m p? em;ESihf toH þESprf sKd;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSv/J aem Zm,a&? xGuíf jzpfay:vmonf
r[kwu
f ek /f ocFwm? qkid &f m taMumif;wkYd u aygif;í ûytyfaom Mum;rIoabmwkYd onf/ a[wkH y#dp/ö em;ç
toHpaom taMumif;ukd pGrJ uDS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d jzpfay:uke\f ? ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ay/

zó-yOörm? eHawGUrIvQif ig;ckajrmuf ½Sad om eHro I abmwkYd onf/ Cmeawm? ESmacgif;xJrvS /J e Zm,a&?
uke/f *E¨awm? teHYxrJ v
S /J e Zm,a&? uke/f ObdEHé tEÅ&m p? ESmacgif;ESihf teHY þESprf sKd;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSv/J
aem Zm,a&? uke/f ocFwm? qkid &f m taMumif;wdYk u aygif;í ûytyfaom eHro I abmwkYd onf/ a[wkH y#dp?ö
ESmacgif;ç teHY paom taMumif;ukd pGrJ u
DS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d jzpfay:uke\
f / ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ay/

zó-yOörm? pm;awGUrIvQif ig;ckajrmuf ½Sad om pm;odrI oabmwkYd onf/ Zd0aS wm? vQmxJrvS /J e Zm,a&?
uke/f &oawm? t&omxJrv S /J e Zm,a&? uke/f ObdEHé tEÅ&mp? vQmESihf t&om þESprf sKd;wkYd \ tv,fMum;rSv/J
aem Zm,a&? uke/f ocFwm? qkid &f m taMumif;wkYd u aygif;í ûytyfaom pm;odro I abmwkYd onf/ a[wkH y#dp?ö
vQmç t&om paom taMumif;ukd pGrJ u
DS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d jzpfay:uke\
f / ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ay/

zó-yOörm? xdawGUrIvQif ig;ckajrmuf ½Sad om xdord o I abmwkYd onf/ um,awm? uk, d x


f rJ v
S /J e
Zm,a&? uke/f zóawm? tawGU tm½kx H rJ v
S /J e Zm,a&? uke/f ObdEHé tEÅ&mp? uk, d Ef iS t
hf awGU½kyf þESprf sKd;wkYd \
tv,fMum;rSv/J aem Zm,a&? uke/f ocFwm? qkid &f m taMumif;wkYd u aygif;í ûytyfaom xdord o I abm wkYd onf/
a[wkH y#dp/ö uk,
d çf tawGU½kyf paom taMumif;ukd pGrJ u
DS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d jzpfay:uke\
f / ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ay/

e 0w¬K½lygyb0EÅd ocFwm?
e pmyd "r®m,wae[d ed*w ¾ m/
a[wkH y#dpö yÜb0EÅd ocFwm?
,xmyd oa'´g y[wm, ab&d,m/ (2-231)

ocFwm? qkid &f mtaMumif;wkYd u aygif;íûytyfaom BuHord çI ½Irw S rf =I oabmwkYd onf/ 0w¬K½lyg? rS&D m ESv;Hk
½kyx
f rJ vS J e yb0EÅ?d xGuí f jzpfay:vmonf r[kwu f ek /f "r®m,wae[d pmyd? BuHo&d ç ½IrwS &f aom oabmtm½kH
rsm;xJrv S /J eed*w ¾ m? xGuaf y:vmMuonf r[kwu f ek /f ocFwm? BuHord çI ½Irw S rf I oabmwkYd onf/ a[wkH y#dp?ö
ESv;Hk ½kyçf oabm tm½kpH aom taMumif;ukd pGrJ u DS ek í
f / yb0EÅ?d jzpfay:uke\ f / ,xmyd? Oyrmum;/ y[wm,?
wD;cwftyfaom/ ab&d,m? pnf\/ oa'´g? toHonf/ yb0wd ,xm? pnfç vufcwf paom taMumif;ukd pGrJ í DS
jzpfay:ouJo h Ydkyifwnf;/

xko
d Ydk emrf ½kyf 2 yg;ukd uGjJ ym;pGm odaomolonf þokYd vJ qifjcifq;Hk jzwfwwf\/ ykHum; .... xkdifjcif;
xjcif; oGm;jcif; auG;jcif; qefYjcif; jrifjcif; Mum;jcif; paom trlt&m wpkw H ckudk emrf oufoufjzifv h J rNyD;ap
Ekid ?f ½kyo
f ufoufjzifv h J rNyD;apEkid ?f emrf ½kyf 2 yg;vk;H aygif;pyfíomvQif NyD;apEkid o f nf/ xko d Ydk NyD;apaom emrf½yk f
2-yg;ukyd if pGí J ? ]]ig xkid o
f nf? ig xonf? ig oGm;onf? ig auG;onf? ig qefYonf? ig jrifonf? ig Mum;onf}}
þokdYponfjzifh ac:a0: ajymqkad eMuavonf? trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... xkid rf çI xrIç oGm;rI ponfudk ûyvkyw f wf
aom igaumif=owå0gaumif [lí r½Sdacs? emrf½kyf 2-yg;rQom ½Sad yonf-[k þokYd vJ qifjcif qk;H jzwfwwf\/
atmufygrSm þokYd aom teufudk t>rufrQjyaom 0do'k r¨d *f pum;aywnf;/

txacg emrH edóm, ½lyH y0wåw?d ½lyH edóm, emrH y0wåw?d emró cg'dw-k umrwm,ç yd0w
d -k
umrwm,ç Asm[&dw-k umrwm,ç £&d,myxH uayÜw-k umrwm, owdç ½lyH cg'wdç yd0wdç Asm[&wdç
£&d,myxH uayÜw/d

txacg trSet f m;jzifah omfum;/ emrH edóm,? pm;vkrd pI aom emrfurdk í DS / ½lyH y0wåw?d pm;rIpaom ½kyf
jzpfay:\/ ½lyH edóm,? rsufpd paom½kyu f dk rSí
D / emrH y0wåw?d jrifrpI aom emrfç jzpfay:\? emró? emrf\/
cg'dw-k umrwm,? pm;vkjd cif; jzpfvwfaomf/ yd0w d -k umrwm,? aomufvjdk cif; jzpfvwfaomf/ Asm[&dw-k
umrwm,? ajymvkjd cif; jzpfvwfaomf/ £&d,myxH uayÜw-k umrwm,? xkid jf cif;ç &yfjcif;ç oGm;jcif;ç tdyjf cif;-
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 28

[laom £&d,mykxu f dk ûyvkjd cif;onf/ owd? jzpfvwfaomf/ ½ly?H ½kyo f nf/ cg'bd? pm;0g;\/ yd0wd? aomuf\/
Asm[&wd? ajymqk\
d / £&d,myxH uayÜw?d xkid jf cif;ç &yfjcif;ç oGm;jcif;ç tdyjf cif;ukd ûy\/

þygXfjzif?h pm;csifwmu emrf + pm;wmu ½ky-f [lí¤if;? aomufcsifwmu emrf+aomufwmu ½ky?f


ajymcsiw f muemrf + ajymwmu ½ky?f xkid cf siw f mu emrf+xkid w
f mu ½ky?f &yfcsiw
f mu emrf + &yfwmu ½ky?f
oGm;csifwmu emrf + oGm;wmu ½ky?f vSJ tdycf sifwmu emrf+vSJ tdyw f mu ½ky-f [lí¤if;}} þokdYpaom teufukdvJ
wkud ½f u dk xf if½mS ;jy\/ xkYd jyifç tcsKdYaoma,m*Donf OyrmwifíaomfvJ qifjcifq;Hk jzwfwwfao;\/ atmufygrSm
0do'k r¨d *f\ bmomjyefaywnf;/ (2-228)

0if½;dk ç bD;ç &xm;tdrçf &xm;oef tp½Sad om tpdwt f ykid ;f taqmuftOD;rsm;onf wckxnf; taetm;jzifh
aeom;wusaygif;pk wnfaeMuvQif? &xm;[k ac:a0:½krH Qom ½S\ d / wckwckaom tpdwt f ykid ;f uko
d m pl;pkud íf
Munf½h v I Qifum; &xm;rnfaom 0w¬Konf trSet f m;jzifh r½So
d uJo h Ydk ¤if;? opfç 0g;paom tdr\ f taqmuftOD;rsm;
onf [if;vif;jyift&yfudk um&Hvsuf wckxnf;taetm;jzifh aeom;wus aygif;pkwnfaeMuvQif? tdr[ f k ac:a0:
½kHrQom½Sd\? wck wckaom tpdwt f ykid ;f uko
d m pl;pku
d í f Munf½h v I Qifum; tdrrf nfaom 0w¬Konf trSet f m;jzifh
r½SdouJhokdY¤if;/ (ay) yifvkH;ç tukdif;ç tcufç t½Gufpaom opfyif\ tpdwt f ykid ;f rsm;onf wckxnf; taetm;
jzifh aeom;wus wnf½MdS uvQif? opfyif[k ac:a0:½krH Qom½S\ d ? wckwckaom tpdwt f ykid ;f ukod m pl;pku d íf Munf½h I
vQifum; opfyifrnfaom 0w¬Konf trSet f m;jzifh r½So
d uJoh Ydk ¤if;? þOyrmwkYd EiS w hf pl mG yif Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;=½kyf
emrf ESpfyg;wkdYonf waygif;xnf; wpOfxnf; jzpfí aeMuvQif? owå0g=yk*Kd¾ vf[k ac:a0:½krH Qom ½Sad csonf? wck
wckaom ½kyçf emrfç cE¨moabmw&m;ukd omvQif pl;pku d í f ½Irw S vf Qifum;? igbJ-[k rmejzifh pGv J rf;rIç igaumif-[k
'd|jd zifh pGv
J rf;rIç þ ESprf sKd;wkYd \ wnf&m jzpfaom (touf vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPfaumif ponfjzifh ac:a0:
pGv
J rf;tyfaom) owå0grnfonf y&rw¬tm;jzifh (rsufarSmuf odtyfaomoabm=rlv½S&d if;twkid ;f rSeaf omoabm
tm;jzif)h r½So d nfomwnf;/ rsufarSmufo&d í rlv½S&d if;twkid ;f rSeaf omoabmtm;jzifu h m; tm½kq H oD Ydk nTww f wf
oGm;wwfaomç tm½ku H dk odwwfaom emrfoabmESi?hf tm½ku H dk rodwwfbJ azgufjyef½o Hk m trsKd;rsKd; azgufjyef
ajymif;vJwwfaom ½kyo f abmrIomvQif ½Sad yonf-[lí ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\/ þokYd odjrifoabmusaom ol\tod
tjrifonf? ,xmblw 'óe=rSeu f efpmG odjrifaom ÓPf rnf\/ 'd|0d o d 'k y¨d ifwnf;/ (bmomjyef)/

okYd aomfv?J Oyrm wifjcif;onfum; vk&d if;r[kwaf y/ rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u


dk üf txl; rpOf;pm;&bJ rSw½f rHk Q
jzifyh if emrfEiS hf ½kyw
f Ydk udk uGjJ ym;pGm odjrifí ]]þuk,
d xf rJ mS tm½ku
H dk odwwfwhJ emrfEiS ?hf tm½ku H dk rodwwfwhJ ½ky-f
[laom þESprf sKd;om ½So d nf/ þESprf sKd;rS wyg; owå0gaumifç igaumifç vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPfaumifum; r½SNd yD}}
[lí? rawGra0 qk;H jzwfEidk jf cif;onfomvQif vk&d if; jzpfayonf/ okYd jzpfíç rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u
dk rf mS yif rawG;rq&bJ
tvkv d dk oabmusí þokYd qk;H jzwfaom todÓPfonf acgifxyd o f Ydk a&mufaom emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPf rnf\/
þÓPfonfyif ]igaumifç vdyjf ymaumif ½So d nf}[k xifrmS ;pGv
J rf;aom twå'|d d tnpftaMu;ukd ok"o f if y,fcgG
wwfaomaMumifh 'd|0d o d 'k v
¨d J rnf\/ atmufygrSm r[m#Dum tzGiahf ywnf;/

emr ½lygeH ,mxm0 'óeEÅd £'H emrHç {wåuH emrHç e£awm bda,sm? £'H ½lyçH {wåuH ½lyçH e £awm
bda,smwd p awoH vu©P ov’uP © rkace "r®rwåbm0'óeH twå'|d rd v 0daom"eawm 'd|0d o d 'k w
¨d d
a0'dwAÁ/H (2-367)

emr ½lygeH ,mxm0 'óeEÅ?d emrfEiS hf ½kyw f Ydk udk oabmrSet f wkid ;f jrifjcif;-[lonfum;/ £'H? rSwo f &d
aom þoabmonf/ emrH? tm½kq H oD Ydk nTww f wf oGm;wwfaomç tm½ku H dk odwwfaom emrf w&m;wnf;/ {wåu?H
rSwo f d cJ&h aom þrQavmufonf/ emrH? tm½ku H dk odwwfaom emrf w&m;omwnf;/ (rSwo f &d orQ emrfu&dk nfí?
]]þrQavmuf[m emrfcsnf;bJ? igaumif r[kw}f }[k odonfudk qkv d \dk /) £awm? rSwo f cd &hJ aom þ emrfw&m;
xuf/ bda,sm? tykt d vGejf zpfaom igaumif=owå0gaumifonf/ e? r½SNd yD/ £wd p? þokYd ¤if;/ ("r®rwåbm0'ó
eHç twå 'd|rd v0daom"eawm-þyk'w f Ydk uadk xmufí t&mtm;avsmfpmG jyeftyfaom teufreS yf ifwnf;/ cE¨"r®m
Ekyóemt&müjyaom t|uxmESihf ES;D aESmí r,krH mS ;avvif/h ) £'H? rSwo f &d aom þoabmonf/ ½ly?H azgufjyef
½ko
H m txift½Sm; azgufjyef ajymif;vJ wwfaom ½kyf w&m;wnf;/ {wåu?H rSwo f cd &hJ aom þrQavmufonf/ ½ly?H
½kywf &m;omwnf;/ £awm? rSwo f cd &hJ aom þ½kyw f &m;xuf/ bda,sm? tykt d vGejf zpfaom igaumif=owå0g
aumifonf/ e?r½SNd yD/ £wd p? þokYd ¤if;/ awoH? xkd emrfç ½kyw f kdY\/ vu©P ov’uP © rkace? obm0vu©Pm
ukd rSwjf cif;ukd t&if;cHûyojzif/h "r®rwåbm0'óeH? igaumif=owå0gaumif r[kwaf om oabmw&m;rQ\tjzpf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 29

ukd jrifç odjcif;onf/ twå-'d|rd v0daom"eawm? twå'|d -d [laom tnpftaMu;ukd okwo


f if y,fcgG wwfaom
aMumif/h 'd|0d o
d 'k ?d̈ 'd|0d o
d 'k d̈ rnf\/ £wd a0'dwAÁ?H þokYd odtyf\/

½kyÜeç uu©Vwå tp½Sdaom ½kyf\ obm0vu©PmESi?hf ereç zkoeç a0'd,eç oOÆmeeç 0dZmeeç tp½Sad om
emrf\ obm0vu©PmwkYd onf xkx d dk ½kyef mrfwYdk \ Oyg'fç XDç bif- [laom jzpfqcJ Püom xif½mS ;½Su d ek \
f ?
jzpfNyD; jzpfvwHah om cPwkYd üum; rxif½mS ;uke/f xkYd aMumifçh ½kyef mrfwYdk \ obm0vu©Pmukd jzpfqjJ zpfqüJ
rSwjf cif;jzifo
h mvQif rSeu
f efpmG odEidk of nf? þokYd obm0vu©Pmukd jzpfqüJ rSwjf cif;ukd t&if;cHa½SUoGm;ûyojzifh
]]igaumif=owå0gaumifum; r½S?d oabmw&m;rQom ½So d nf}}[k odjrifoabmusjcif;onf 'd|0d o
d 'k ¨d rnf\/
twå'|d d tnpf taMu;ukd ok"o f if y,fcgG wwfaomtod tjrif-[k qkv d \
dk /

emr½ly-y&dapä'ÓPfESifh 'd|d0dok'd¨ NyD;\/

ypö, y&d*¾[ÓPfESifh ucFg 0dw&P 0dok'd¨

{waó0 ye emr ½lyó ypö, y&d*[


¾ aPe wDok t'¨gok ucø 0dw&dwmG XdwH ÓPH ucFg0dw&P0do'k d̈
emr/

(0do'k r¨d *f-2-233)/

{waó0 emr ½lyó? ½IjriftyfNyD;aom þemrf½kyf\yifvQif/ ypö,-y&d*[ ¾ aPe? taMumif;ukd


odr;f qnf;jcif;jzif/h wDot
k '¨gok? twdwçf tem*wfç ypöKyÜef umvok;H yg;wkYd ü? ucø? ,krH mS ;jcif;uk/d 0dw&dwmG Xdw?H
vGeaf jrmufy,fcgG í wnfaom/ ÓPH? ]]taMumif; ½kyef mrfaMumifh jzpfaomtusKd; ½kyef mrfrQom½So d nf}}[k odaom
ÓPfonf/ ucFg0dw&P0do'k ¨d emr? ,krH mS ;rIudk vGeaf jrmufvsuf pifMu,faomÓPf rnf\/

jzpfqjJ zpfqüJ rSwv f suf ½kyef mrfwYdk \ oabmrSeuf dk odNyD;aomolonf xk½d yk ef mrfwYdk \ jzpfaMumif;rsm;ukv d J
rSwq f J rSmyifxu dk o f nft
h m;avsmpf mG awGUjrif&jyef\/ xkt
d cgü ]]þvkt d aMumif;rsm; aMumifo h mvQif umvok;H yg;ü
þvkd ½kyef mrfrQomjzpfvsuf ½Sad csonf}}[k odjrifoabmusaom ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPfjzpfay:\/ þÓPf jzpfyo Hk nf
yk*Kd¾ vftrsKd;rsKd;wkYd \ tZÑmo,ESihf yg&rDÓPf tm;avsmfpmG trsKd;rsKd; uGjJ ym;\/ xkYd aMumifh þÓPfjzpfyu Hk dk 0do'k rd̈ *f
ü ig;rsKd;cGjJ cm;í jyawmfral yonf/

]]igaumif=owå0gaumifum; r½SNd yD? emrfç ½kyçf ESpyf g;rQom½So d nf}}[k oabmusNyD;aom a,m*Donf rSwf
,if;yif xked mrf½yk \ f taMumif;ukd pl;prf; qifjcifwwf\/ qifjcifvQifç ]]taMumif;rJh tvkv d jdk zpfonf}}[lívJ
oabmrusEkid ?f tb,faMumifeh nf;[lrl .... tcsKdYtaMumif;rsm;ukd rsufarSmufawGU&aomaMumifah ywnf;/ awGUyko H nf
aemufü xif½mS ;vwH/h xkYd jyifç ]]xm0&bk&m;ç jA[®mç odMum;ç ewfwYdk u zefqif;onf}}[lívJ oabmrusEkid ?f
taMumif;rlum; ........ tcsKdY taMumif;rsm;aMumifh emrf½yk jf zpfay:vmonfudk rsufarSmuf awGU&onfjh yif? þokYd vJ
BuHqí odEidk af y\/ odEidk yf u Hk m; .... zefqif;ol[k xifrw S f pGvJ rf;tyfaom xkb d &k m;ç jA[®mç odMum;ç ewfwYdk v?J
iguJo
h Ydk yif emrf½yk Ef pS yf g;rQom txnfu, dk ½f MdS uonf? olwYdk \ emrf½yk v
f ?J ig\ emrf½yk u f o
hJ Ydk yif b,fou l rdk Qjzpf
atmif rzefqif;Ekid w f ef&m[lí¤if;? tu,fí zefqif;Ekid yf guç olwYdk uadk wmh b,fou l zefqif;ovJ¿ tJ'o D u l v
dk J
b,fou l zefqif;ovJ¿ þenf;jzifh zefqif;ol tqufqufudk ½SmBuHí rqk;H Ekid b f J ½S&d monf [lí¤if; þokYd
BuHqí odEidk af yonf? xkYd aMumifçh ]wpkw H a,mufu zefqif;onf} [lívJ oabmrusEkid f ayonf/

awGUjrif&ykH yXrenf; .... okYd jzpfí? tcsKdYa,m*Donf taMumif;w&m;wkYd udk þokYd awGUjrif\/ a½S;b0uNyD;cJh
aom t0dZÆmç wPSmç Oyg'gefç uH-[laom taMumif;av;yg;aMumifh y#doaE¨rpS í þ½kyw f &m;awG rjywfjzpfaeMu
onf? ,ckb0ü pm;aomuftyfaom tm[m&aMumifh þ½kyu f , dk Bf uD; tajcrysub
f J wnfNrJwnfwahH eonf?xkid cf sif
rIç auG;csifrI paom pdwaf Mumifh xkid ½f yk çf auG;½kyf- ponfwYdk jzpfay:Muonf? tyl"mwfç tat;"mwfaMumifh yl½yk çf
at;½kyf jzpfay:onf-[lí ½kyf\taMumif;wkYd udk awGUjrif\?

þtaMumif;wkYd wiG f pdwçf Owkç tm[m&-[laom ypöKyÜet f aMumif;rsm;uk?d ½Irw


S í
f rsufarSmufvJ awGUjrif
Ekid \
f / t0dZÆmç wPSmç Oyg'gefç uH-[laom twdwf taMumif;rsm;uku d m; rsufarSmuf rawGUEkid af y/ okYd aomfvJ 'd|d
p OZkum [lonfEiS hf tnDç 0dyóem ½Iow l idk ;f yif ]]ukov
dk u
f aH Mumifh aumif;aomb0ç aumif;aomtusKd; jzpfay:
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 30

onf? tukov dk u
f aH Mumifq h ;dk aomb0ç qk;d aomtusKd;jzpfay:onf}}[lí tm;rxkwrf u D yif aumif;aumif; ,kMH unf
oabmusNyD;csnf;omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh ,ck avmavmq,f jzpfay:aom t0dZmÆ ç wPSmç Oyg'gefç uHwYdk udk ½Irw S f
qifjcifí rsufarSmuf jrifNyD;aomtcgüç twdwb f 0u NyD;cJah om xktd aMumif;rsm;ukv
d J tEkrmeÓPfjzifh rSe;f q
qifjcifvsuf awGUjrifEidk af y\/

csJUíjyOD;tH?h emrfç ½kyçf b0-[lorQukd qif;&Jcsnf;[lí¤if;? xked mrfç ½kyçf b0rsm;ü vkcd sifEpS o f ufr=I wPSm
ukd qif;&JaMumif;[lí¤if;? trSet f wkid ;f rodjcif;=rxifjcif;onf tyÜ#yd wåd t0dZmÆ rnf\/ ]]'ku©opömç ork',
opömwkYd udk trSet f wkid ;f rodr}I }[k qkdvkd\/ xkYd jyif ¤if;emrf½yk f b0awGuydk if csrf;omawG taumif; tjrwfawG
[lí¤if;? vkcd sifEpS of ufru I ydk if csrf;omaumif;pm;aMumif;trI [lí¤if; xifrw S jf cif;onf rdpmä y#dywdå t0dZmÆ rnf\/
'kuo © pömç ork',opömwkYd udk ajymif;jyeford mS ;rI} [k qkv d \dk / þ t0dZÆm 2-rsKd;onf ykxZk OfwYdk \ oEÅmefü rku d rf }J
jyif;xefpmG jzpfvsuf½\ dS ? okwr,ÓPfjzifh qifjcifí ajzazsmufygaomfv?J rajyaysmufEidk b f J ½S\d / xkYd aMumifyh ifç
ESpo
f uf aysmaf rGUrIç vkcd sif awmifw h rIawGudk rsm;rsm; jzpfap&ef aeYnOfh rjywftm;ay; cs;D ajr§mufvsuf ½SMd uayonf?
vuf½dS emrfç ½kyçf b0 ckid Nf rJap&ef? aemif tcgü emrfç ½kyçf b0aumif;ESihf jynfph aHk p&ef &nf½, G í
f vJ aeYnOfh rjywf
tm;xkwv f suf ½SMd uayonf/

xkYd jyifç taMumif;udavomESihf uHcsKyfNidr;f íç y&deAd mÁ efpw k rd S aemufumvü? vl ewf rde;f r a,musfm;[lí
rjzpf&awmhbçJ emrf½yk w f Ydk \tNyD;wkid f csKyfNidr;f jcif;=wzef rjzpfay:jcif;onf tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ ef [kac:aom
eda&m"opöm rnf\/ xked Ad mÁ efudk ]aumif;onfç csrf;omonf} [lí¤if;? xked Ad mÁ efoYdk a&mufapwwfaom 0dyóemESihf
r*ftusifu h dk ]csrf;omaMumif; tvky}f [lí¤if;? trSet f wkid ;f rodjcif;=rxif jcif;onfvnf; ty#dywdt å 0dZmÆ yif
rnf\/ ]]eda&m"opömç r*¾opöm wkYd udk trSet f wkid ;f rodr}I } [k qkv d \ dk / xkYd jyifç edAmÁ efudk ]raumif;bl;} [lí¤if;?
0dyóemESihf r*f tusifu h dk ]qif;&JaMumif; tvky}f [lí¤if;? xifrw S jf cif;onfvnf; rdpmä y#dywdt å 0dZmÆ yif rnf\/
]]eda&m"opömç r*¾opömwkYd udk ajymif;jyef odrmS ;rI}}[k qkv d \
dk / þ t0dZÆm 2-yg; tm;BuD;aom olonf edAmÁ efudk
]raumif;bl;} [líomxifrw S \
f ? ]]y&deAd mÁ efpNH yD;aomtcgü bmrQrjzpf&awmhb;l wJ?h bmukrd Q rod& rcHpm;&awmhb;l
wJ?h b,foEl iS rhf Q rawGU&awmhb;l wJ}h } þokYd ponfjzifh qifjcifrv d Qifç edAmÁ efoYdk a&mufomG ;rnfuydk if aMumufwwf
ao;\? ]]taoBuD; aooGm;wmbJç bmrQ raumif;bl;}} [lívJ uJ&h UJ wwfao;\/ edAmÁ efa&mufbYdk tm;xkwaf ewJh
oluv dk J ]]uk, d pf w
d q
f if;&Jatmif vkyaf eonf? taoBuD;aobkYd tm;xkwaf eonf}}[lí xifwwfç uJ&h UJ wwfao;\/

opöm-av;yg;ukd rodrçI odrmS ;rI[al om þt0dZmÆ wkYd onf ykxZk Ofwidk ;f \ oEÅmefü Oyg'ftm;jzifh xku d o
f nf
tm;avsmfpmG jzpfay:uke\ f / tm&r®Pm Eko, tvkt d m;jzifu
h m; r½Irw
S rf ad om tm½kw
H idk ;f ü jzpfay:uke\
f / okYd jzpf
íç a,m*Donf þt0dZmÆ ukd jzpfcu dk f jzpfcudk üf rSwí
f vJ rsufarSmuf awGUjrif\? a½S;u jzpfb;l onfudk trSw&f ívJ
rsuaf rSmuf awGUjrif\/ xkYd jyifç emrf½yk b f 0awGudk taumif;trGeaf wG [k xifrmS ;aomaMumifh om,mESpo f uf\?
wPSmyifwnf;/ om,mESpo f ufaomaMumifh ]]rnfoYdk ûy&vQifç csrf;om aumif;pm;rnf}}[k pdw0f ifpm;\? pGv J rf;\?
Oyg'gefyifwnf;/ 0ifpm; pGv J rf;aomaMumifh trI wpkw H ckudk ûyvky\
f ? uHyifwnf;/ okdYjzpfíç þ wPSm Oyg'gef
uHwYdk uv dk J jzpfcu
dk f jzpfcudk üf rSwí f ¤if;? a½S;u jzpfb;l onfudk trSw&f í¤if;? rsufarSmuf awGUjrif\/ þokdY
]]uHjzpfay:vQif t0dZmÆ wPSm Oyg'gef ruif;onfu}dk } rsufarSmuf awGUjrifaomaMumifh ]]a½S;b0u ukov dk u
f H
aMumifh ,ckb0ü y#doaE¨rpS í ½kyw f &m;awG rjywf jzpfaeMuonf}}[k oabmusvku d of nfEiS hf wûydief uf? ]]t0dZmÆ
wPSm Oyg'gefwYdk aMumifv h J jzpfaeMuonf}}[k qifjcifreS ;f qí oabmusEkid af yonf/ þonfum; ½kyf\taMumif;
wkYd udk ypöuç© tEkrmeÓPfwYdk jzifh awGUjrif odr;f qnf;ykaH ywnf;/

emrf\ taMumif;ukd odr;f qnf;yku H m; .... jrifw,f[k rSwcf u dk üf ]]rsufpEd iS hf tqif; ½Sí d jrifonf}}[lí¤if;?
]]rsufptd qif;jrifrI þok;H rsKd;qkrH í d ? tm½kEH iS hf pdwaf wGUoGm;onf}}[lí¤if; odjrifoabmus\/ xkYd twlç Mum;w,f
[k rSwcf udk üf ]]em;ESihf toH½í dS ç Mum;onf? em; toH Mum;rI þok;H rsKd; qkrH í d ç tm½kEH iS hf pdwaf wGUoGm;onf}}[lí¤if;?
xdw,f[k rSwcf u dk üf ? ]]ud,
k Ef iS hf tawGU½Sí d ? xdonf? uk, d t
f awGUxdrI þok;H rsKd;qkrH í d ç tm½kEH iS hf pdwaf wGUoGm;
onf}}[lí¤if;? ]]BuHw,fç odw,fç rSwfw,f}}[k rSwfckdufü ]]ESvkH;ESifh odp&m ½Sdíç BuHonfç odonfç rSwfonf?
ESv;Hk tm½koH rd I þok;H rsKd; qkrH í d ç tm½kEH iS hf pdwf awGUoGm;onf}}[lí¤if; odjrifoabmus\/ xkYd jyifç ]]jrifw,f Mum;
w,f xdw,f BuHw,f}} ponfjzifh rSwcf u dk üf ]]tm½kEH iS hf awGU&íç uk,
d x f J pdwx f rJ mS aumif;oGm;onfç raumif;oGm;
onf}} [lí¤if;? ]]aumif;wJh twGu?f omí aumif;csifç csrf;omcsifonf? raumif;wJh rcHomwJh twGu?f xkrd cHomrI
uif;csifç csrf;omcsifonf}}[lí¤if;? ]]csrf;omcsifwt hJ wGu?f rnfoYdk ûy&vQif aumif;rSmbJ [k ajr§mv f ifh pGv J rf;onf}}
[lí¤if;? ]]pGv J rf;wJth wGuf (aumif;r,f xifvYdk )? aumif;rI raumif;rIudk ûyrd ajymrd ESv;Hk oGi;f rdonf}}[lí¤if;-
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 31

þokYd ponfjzifh emrf\taMumif;wkYd udk xku


d o
f nftm;avsmfpmG rsufarSmufawGUjrif\/ þonfum; emrf\taMumif;
wkYd udk awGUjrif odr;f qnf;ykaH ywnf;/

twdwf tem*wfü tEkrmeÓPfjzpfyHk .... þokYd awGUjrifNyD;aom a,m*Donf ]],ckb0 emrf½yk o f nf


taMumif; emrf½yk af Mumifh jzpfouJo h Ydk ? þenf;wlyifç a½S;a½S;b0awGuvJ þvkd taMumif;rsm;aMumifo h mvQif?
þvkd emrf½kyf 2-rsKd;rQom jzpfcahJ vNyD/ aemif b0awGrmS vJ þvkd taMumif;rsm;aMumifh omvQif? þvked mrf½yk f 2-
rsKd;rQom jzpfomG ;rnf}}[k tEkrme ÓPfjzifh rSe;f q qifjcifí qk;H jzwf\/

aom {0H ypö,awm emr½lyó y0wðå 'domG ç ,xm £'H {w&[d? {0H twDawyd t'¨gae ypö,awm
y0wdw
å ?¬ tem*awyd ypö,awm y0wdó
å wD wd orEkyówd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-234)

aom? xkd a,m*Donf/ {0H? þqkcd ahJ omenf;jzif/h ypö,awmtaMumif;aMumif/h emr ½lyó y0wðå 'domG ?
,ckb0ü emrf½yk \
f jzpfjcif;ukd jrifNyD;í/ ({w&[d y0wðå 'domG -#DumbGi)hf / £'H? þ emrf½yk o
f nf/ {w&[d? ,ck
tcgü/ y0wåwd ,xm? taMumif;aMumifh jzpfouJo h Ydk / {0H? þ enf;wlyif/ twDawyd t'¨gae? twdwf b0
umvüvJ/ ypö,awm y0wdw å ?¬ taMumif;aMumifh jzpfavNyD/ tem*awyd? aemifb0umvüvJ/ ypö,awm y0wd¬
ówD wd? taMumif;aMumifh jzpfvwH[ h íl / orEkyówd? ½I qifjcif\/

þokYd qk;H jzwfEidk af om a,m*Donf twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef umvok;H yg;ü taMumif; emrf½yk Ef iS hf tusKd;
emrf½yk rf Qom ½Sod nf[k odjrif oabmusaomaMumif?h twåaumif=igaumifEiS hf pyfaom ,krH mS ;rI 16-rsKd;ukd y,fcgG
vGeaf jrmuf\/

,kHrSm;rI 16-rsK;d

(1) ,ckb0 rwkid rf D a½S;umvu? igaumif ½Scd ahJ vovm;[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ / (2) ,ck b0 rwkid rf D
a½S;umvu? igaumif r½Sad o;bl;avvm;[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ / (þ 2-rsK;d wkYd wiG f y|rrSm? þb0 rwkid rf D
a½S;a½S;uyif igaumifonf tNrJwrf; ½Sad ecJah vovm;[k ,krH mS ;rI aywnf;/ 'kw, d rSm? igaumifonf a½S;u
r½Sad o;bJ? ,ckb0wGirf t S vkv d dk jzpfay:vmavovm;[k ,krH mS ;rIwnf;) / / (3) igaumifonf a½S;u b,fvdk
trsKd;tpm; jzpfco hJ vJ[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ / (rif; jzpfcahJ vovm;? ykPmÖ ; olaX; ol<u,f qif;&Jom; vl &[ef;
jrefrm ukvm; jA[®m ewf vl wd&pämef ponfwYdk wiG f b,f trsKd;tpm; jzpfco hJ vJ[k ,krH mS ;onf [lv)dk / / (4)
igaumifonf? a½S;u b,fvydk o Hk P²mef½cdS ohJ vJ[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ / (yko
H P²mef ½Snaf vovm;ç jrifah vovm;?
wkad vovm;ç ykavovm;? 0avovm;ç ydeaf vovm;? jzLavovm;ç rJavovm;? þokYd ponfjzifh ,krH mS ;onf
[lvkd)/ / wenf;um; .... igonf? a½S;u b,ftaMumif;aMumifh jzpfco hJ vJ[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ / (xm0&
bk&m;u zefqif;í jzpfcahJ vovm;? jA[®m odMum; ewfwYdk u zefqif;í jzpfcahJ vovm;? taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkvd dk
yif jzpfcahJ vovm;[k ,krH mS ;onf[v l )dk ? /(5) igaumifonf? a½S;a½S;b0rsm;u b,fvt dk rsKd;tpm;awG jzpfNyD;
vQifç b,fvdk trsKd;tpm;awGtqufquf jzpfvmcJo h vJ[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ þonf wkYd um; twdwu f mvukpd íJG
jzpfaom ,krH mS ;rI ig;rsK;d wkYd aywnf;/

(1) aoonfrS aemufumvü? igaumif ½SOd ;D rnfavm[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ /(2) aoonfrS aemufumvü
igaumif r½Sad wmhb;l avovm;[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ /(þ 2 rsKd;wkYd wiG ?f yXrrSm? bckb0u aoNyD;onfrS aemuf
umvüvJ igaumif[m rysupf ;D bJ rNrJwrf; ½Sad erSmavvm;[k ,krH mS ;rIwnf;? 'kw, d rSm? aoNyD;onfrS aemufum
vü? igaumif[mr½Sad wmhbJ aysmufu, G o
f mG ;rSmavvm;[k ,krH mS ;rIwnf;/)/ /(3) igaumifonf aemifb0umv
ü b,fvdk trsK;d tpm; jzpf&ygrnfenf;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ (rif; jzpf&rSmavvm; ponfjzifh ,krH mS ;onf)/ / (4)
igaumifonf aemifb0 umvü gb,fvdk yko H P²mef½vdS suf jzpf&rvJ[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ wenf;um; .... igonf?
aemifb0umvü b,ftaMumif;aMumifh jzpf&ygrnfenf;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ (wpkw H a,mufu zefqif;í jzpf&rSmav
vm;? taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkvd ydk if jzpf&rSmavvm;[k ,krH mS ;onf/ /(5) igaumifonf aemuf aemufb0rsm;ü
b,fvdk trsKd;tpm;awG jzpfNyD;vQifç b,fvdk trsKd;tpm;awG tqufquf jzpfomG ;&ygrnfenf;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/
þonfwYdk um; tem*wfumvukd pGí J jzpfaom ,krH mS ;rI ig;rsKd;wkYd aywnf;/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 32

(1) þuk, d x
f rJ mS owå0gaumifç twåaumifç igaumifç vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPfaumif ½Sw d m [kwaf vo
vm;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ / (2) þuk, d xf rJ mS owå0gaumifç twåaumifç igaumifç vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPfaumif
½Sw
d m r[kwb f ;l avvm;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ /(3) igaumif[m b,fvdk trsKd;tpm; jzpfaeovJ[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/
(rif; jzpfaeovm; ponfjzifh ,krH mS ;onf)/ (4) igaumif[m b,fvdk yko H P²mef ½Sad eovJ[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ /
(BuD;avovm;? i,favovm;? tvk;H vm;? tjym;vm;? av;ajr§mifyh Hk ½Sad vovm;? ajcmufajr§mifyh Hk ½Sad vovm;
ponfjzifh twåaumif\ yko H P²mefü ,krH mS ;onf)/ /wenf;um; .... igonf b,ftaMumif;aMumifh jzpfae&
oenf;[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ / (wpkw H a,mufu zefqif;í jzpfaewmvm;? taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv d ydk if jzpfaewm
vm;[k ,krH mS ;onf)/ /(5) þigaumif[m b,fb0b,fXmeu ajymif;a½TUvmcJo h vJ[k ,krH mS ;rI wyg;/ /(6)
þigaumif[m aowJt h cgrSm b,fb0 b,fXmeokYd ajymif;a½TU oGm;rSmygvdrrhf vJ[k ,krH mS ;rIwyg;/ þonfwYdk um;
ypöKyÜeu
f mvukd pGí J jzpfaom ,krH mS ;rI ajcmufrsK;d wkYd aywnf;/

,kHrSm; uif;uGmykH/

twåmbdead 0olyedó,m [d ta[modð Ek acg t[EÅd tm'de,yÜ0wåm aomVo0w¬Kum ucFg/ (r[m#Dum


2-383)

ta[moð Ek acg t[EÅd tm'de,yÜ0wåm? a½S;umvu igaumif ½Scd ahJ vovm; þokYd paomenf;jzifh
jzpfaom/ aomVo0w¬Kum? ,krH mS ;rI\ wnf&m 0w¬K 16 yg;½Sad om/ ucFg? ,krH mS ;jcif;onf/ twåmbdead 0olyed
ó,m? twåaumif ½So
d nf[k pdw0f ifpm;rI=twå'|d v
d Qif rS&D mtaMumif; ½S\
d /

þ#Dum ESihf tnD? ,krH mS ;rI 16 rsKd;onf ]]twåaumifç igaumif½o dS nf}}[k xifrwS f pGv
J rf;aom oltm;om
vQif jzpfay:Ekid \f / ]]taMumif; tusKd; emrf½yk f tqufqufrQom ½So d nf? twåaumif=igaumifum; r½SNd yD}} [lí
aumif;pGmodjrif oabmusaomoltm; xk, d rHk mS ;rIonf rjzpfay:Ekid Nf yD? 0dur© eÇ eda&m"tvktd m;jzifu
h mG vsuf Nidr;f
vsufom ½Sad y\/ Oyrm ........ ,kefowå0grSm OD;csKd r½Sd [lí rSefuefpGm rodvQifç ]],kefrSm csKd½Sdavovm;? csKd
r½Sb
d ;l avvm;? ,kecf sKdu b,fvdk aeygvdrrhf vJ}} þokYd ponfjzifh ,krH mS ;rI jzpfEidk \ f / ,kef owå0grSm OD;csKd r½S[
d k
trSetf wkid ;f odvQifum; xko d Ydk aom ,krH mS ;rI rjzpfEidk o
f uJo
h Ydk yifwnf;/ þonfum; emrfç ½ky\ f taMumif;ukd
awGUjrifí ,krH mS ;rIudk vGeaf jrmufyHk yXrenf;aywnf;/

awGUjrifyHk 'kw, d enf; .... tcsKdYa,m*Donfum; taMumif;w&m;wkYd udk þokYd awGUjrif\/ ykHum; ....
rsufpdESifh tqif;½Sdíç jrifonf? em;ESifh toH½Sdíç Mum;onf? ESmacgif;ESifhteHY½Sdíç eHonf? vQmESifh t&om½Sdíç tcsKdç
tcsOf ponfudk odonf? uk, d Ef iS t
hf awGU ½Sí
d ? xdoo d nf? ESv;Hk ESihf oabmtm½kt H rsKd;rsKd; ½Sí d ? BuHonf?
pOf;pm;onf? ½Irw S o
f nf/ oifah wmfpmG ESv;Hk oGi;f rdíç ukovdk jf zpfonf? ½Irw S o
f nf/ oifah wmfwhJ t&yfrmS ae&íç
olawmfaumif; ESiahf ygif;oif;&íç olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd emMum;&íç a½S;uH yg&rD½í dS ç ukov dk jf zpfonf?
½Irw
S rf =I 0dyóem jzpfygG ; onf/ roifrh wifh ESv;Hk oGi;f rdíç roifw h ifw
h thJ &yfrmS ae&íç vlru dk Ef iS hf aygif;rdíç
vlru dk pf um;ukd emMum;rdíç a½S;uH yg&rD eJyg;íç tukokdvf jzpfonf/ uHaumif;íç (t0dZÆmç wPSmç Oyg'gefESifh
ukov dk u f ½H í
dS ) aumif;aom tusKd;0dyguf jzpfay:onf/ (b0aumif;üjzpf&jcif;ç aumif;wmukd jrif&ç Mum;&ç eH&ç
pm;&ç xd&ç od&jcif;rsm;onf aumif;aom tusKd;0dygufrsm;yifwnf;/) uHraumif;íç (t0dZÆmç wPSmç Oyg'gefESifh
tukov dk uf ½H í dS ) qk;d aom tusKd;0dyguf jzpfay:onf/ (b0qk;d ü jzpf&jcif;ç tm½kq H ;dk ukd jrif&ç Mum;&ç eH&ç pm;&ç
xd&ç od&jcif;rsm;onf qk;d aom tusKd;0dygufrsm;yifwnf;/) a½S; b0ifpw d ½f í
dS ç qifjcifrI (tm0ZÆe;f pdw)f
jzpfay:onf/ þokYd ponfjzifh emrf\ taMumif;wkYd udk xku d o
f nf tm;avsmfpmG awGUjrif\/

½kyf\taMumif;wkYd udk awGUjrifyu Hk m; .... a½S;uHaMumifh ,ckb0ü y#doaE¨rpS í ESv;Hk ½kyçf rsufp½d yk çf em;½ky-f
paom ½kyt f aygif;rjywfrpJ jzpfay:aeonf/ xkid cf sifrçI oGm;csifrçI auG;csifrpI aom pdwaf Mumif?h xkid rf çI oGm;rIç
auG;rI-paom ½kyt f aygif;jzpfay:onf/ tylç tat;"mwf OwkaMumif?h yl½yk çf at;½kyrf sm;jzpfay:onf/ pm;aomuf
tyfaom tm[m&aMumifh þuk, d ½f yk t
f aygif; tiftm;rysufbJ jzpfay:aeonf/ þkoYdk ponfjzifh ½ky\ f taMumif;
wkYd udk xku
d o
f nftm;avsmpf mG awGUjrif\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 33

þokYd awGUjrifNyD;aom a,m*Donfvnf; ]],ckb0 emrf½yk u f o


hJ Ydk yifç a½S;a½S;b0awGuvJ? þvkt d aMumif;
rsm;aMumifhomvQif? þvkd emrf½kyf 2-rsK;d rQom jzpfcahJ vNyD/ aemifb0awGrmS vJ? þvkd taMumif;rsm;aMumifo h mvQi?f
þvkd emrf½kyf 2-rsKd;rQom jzpfomG ;rnf}}[k tEkrmeÓPfjzifh qifjcifq;Hk jzwfí qkcd NhJ yD;aom ,krH mS ;rI 16-rsKd;ukd
y,fcgG vGeaf jrmuf\/ 'kw, d enf; NyD;\/

awGUjrifyHk wwd,enf; .... tcsKdY a,m*Donfum; ypöKyÜeu f saom rSwcf sufrsm;ü? ocFg&wkYd \ jzpfrçI wnfrçI
ysufr-I [laom Zmwdç Z&mç r&PwkYd udk rsufarSmufawGUjrif\/ xkYd aMumifçh ]]þb0ü a½S;OD;pGm jzpfr=I y#doaE¨[l
onfrmS pdww f csuw f csu\ f þjzpfrrI sKd;yifwnf;/ aojcif;[lonfrmS vJ pdww f csufwcsuf\ þysufrrI sKd;yif
wnf;/ tk&d ifjh cif;[lonfrmS vJ rSwt f yfaom emrf½yk w f Ydk \wnfrI tqifq h ifyh ifwnf;}}[lí oabmus\/ xkYd aMumifçh
emrf½yk \ f taMumif;wkYd udk þokYd qifjcifvsuf awGUjrif\/ ykHum; .... tkdjcif; aojcif;onf a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:rI½Sdí
½S&d acsonf/ a½S;OD;pGm jzpfrI onfvnf; ur®b0=jzpfaMumif; uH½cdS í hJ ½S&d acsonf/ xku d oH nfvnf; þvkd ûy&vQif}
aumif;rSmbJ}[k xifrw S pf v
JG rf;rIaMumifh jzpf&acsonf/ xkd pGv J rf;rIonfvnf; emrfç ½kyw f Ydk udk om,m vkcd sifraI Mumifh
jzpf&acsonf/ xko d m,mvkcd sirf o I nfvnf; taumif;tqk;d ukd cHpm;&aomaMumifh jzpf&acsonf/ xkcd pH m;rIonf
vnf; tm½kEH iS phf w d f awGU&jcif;aMumifh jzpf&acsonf/ xkad wGUrIonfvnf; Munfvifaom rsufpçd em;ç ESmacgif;ç vQmç
uk, d çf pdw-f [laom taMumif;=tm,we½Sí d jzpf&acsonf/ (rsufpEd iS hf pdw½f í dS ç tqif;ukd jrifvsuf awGU&onf-
þokYd ponfjzifh csJUí odygav/) xkd tm,weonfvnf;rS&D m emrfç ½ky½f í dS jzpf&acsonf? (MunfvifwhJ rsufpçd
em;ç ESmacgif;ç vQmç uk, d çf ½kyw f Ydk onf rsufv;Hk om;paom rS&D mblw½kyf ½Sí d ç jzpfay:Muonf/ pdwo f nfum; rS&D m
0w¬K½kyEf iS hf ,SOb f uf emrfrsm;½SMd uíç jzpfay:onf[k qkv d \
dk /) xkd emrf½yk f onfvnf; y#doaE¨ b0if jrifrçI Mum;rI
paom 0dnmPf½í dS jzpfay:&acsonf/ xkpd w d 0f n
d mPfonfvnf; a½S;b0u aumif;pm;&ef tm;xkwrf rI sm;½Scd í hJ jzpf&
acsonf/ xkd tm;xkwrf I = ocFg&wkYd onfvnf; trSet f wkid ;f rodrçI odrmS ;rI [laom t0dZmÆ ½Sí d jzpfMu&acsonf
[lí y#davmr y#dpo ö rkygÜ 'f tvkt d m;jzifh emrf½yk \ f taMumif;wkYd udk awGUjrif\/ bk&m;tavmif;awmfpaom
yk*Kd¾ vfx;l ç yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk \ tjynft h pkaH wGUjrifyaHk ywnf;/ þokYd awGUjrifaom a,m*Donfvnf; qkcd ahJ omenf;jzifh
umvok;H yg;ü qifjcif qk;H jzwfíç ,krH mS ;rI 16-yg;ukd y,fcgG vGeaf jrmuf\/ wwd,enf; NyD;\/

awGUjrifyHk pwkwe¬ nf; .... tcsKdU a,m*Donfum; t0dZmÆ aMumifh ocFg&wkYd jzpfay:Muonf? ocFg&aMumifh
0dnmPfjzpfay:onf/ þokYd ponfjzifjh ytyfaom tEkavmr y#dpo ö rkygÜ 'f tvkt
d m;jzifh emrf½yk \
f taMumif;wkYd udk
awGUjrif\/ yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk \ tjynft
h pkaH wGUjrifyyHk ifwnf;/ þokYd awGUjrifaom a,m*Donfvnf; qkcd ahJ omenf;jzifh
umv ok;H yg;ü qifjcifq;Hk jzwfíç ,krH mS ;rI 16-rsKd;ukd y,fcgG vGeaf jrmuf\/ pwkwe¬ nf;NyD;\/

awGUjrifyHk yOörenf; .... tcsKdU a,m*Donfum; ur®0#fç 0dygu0#ftvkt d m;jzifh emrf½yk \


f taMumif;wkYd udk
awGUjrif\/ uHaMumift h usKd;=0dygufjzpfay:\? xkt d usKd;=0dygufudk rSí D uHtopf jzpfjyef\/ xku d t
H opfaMumifh
tusKd;=0dyguftopf jzpfjyef\/ þenf;jzifh uHEiS hf 0dygufwYdk wjyefpD vnfvsuf jzpfaeaomaMumifh uHudk ur®0#f-
[kac:\/ tusKd;ukd 0dygu0#f[k ac:\/ xkdwGif ur®0#f [lonfrSm t0dZÆmç ocFg&ç wPSmç Oyg'gefç ur®b0[l
aom þo½kyfw&m;ukd,fig;yg;taygif;aywnf;/ 0dygu0#f [lonfrmS 0dnmPfç emrf½yk çf tm,weç zóç a0'em
[laom þo½kyw f &m;uk, d f ig;yg; taygif;aywnf;/ tus,ftm;jzifh ½Iqifjcifaoma,m*Donf þur®0#fig;yg;ç
0dygu0#f ig;yg;wkYd udk toD;toD;cGjJ cm;í tjynft h pkH awGUjrifEidk \
f / tusO;f tm;jzifh ½Iqifjcifaom a,m*Donfum;
toD;toD; cGjJ cm;í r½INyD? ur®0#fudk taMumif;uH tjzpfjzifh wyg;wnf; ûyívJ½\ I / 0dygu0#fudk tusKd; tjzpfjzifh
wyg;xnf; ûyívJ ½I\/ ¤if;wkdY\ o½kyu f dk y#dord'Ç gr*f ygVdjzifh xkwjf ytH/h

twdwftaMumif; ur®0#f ig;yg;

yk&rd ur®b0oð® arma[m t0dZmÆ ç tm,l[em ocFg&mç eduEdÅ wPSmç Oy*reH Oyg'geHç apwem ba0gwd
£ar yOö"r®m yk&rd ur®b0oð® £" y#doE¨,
d m ypö,m/ (50)

yk&rd ur®b0oð?® a½S;b0ü jzpfaMumif;uHu/dk u&D,rmae? ûyvkyt f yfaomf/ 0g? ûyvkypf Of/ arma[m? opöm
av;wefudk trSet f wkid ;f rodrçI ajymif;jyef odrmS ;rIonf/ t0dZmÆ ? t0dZmÆ aywnf;/ tm,l[em? aumif;pm;csrf;om
&ef &nfoefí 'gerIç ygPmwdygwrI ponfudk tm;xkwrf w I Ydk onf/ ocFg&m? ocFg&wkYd aywnf;? eduEÅ?d ûytyfaom
trI\ ,ck&rnft h usKd;ç aemif&rnfb h 0tusKd;wkYd udk vkv d m;awmifw h jcif;onf/ wPSm? wPSmaywnf;/ Oy*reH?
,ck aumif;pm;rnfç aemifaumif;pm;rnfç b0jywfNidr;f rnf ponfjzifh csOf;uyf pGv J rf;jcif;onf/ Oyg'geH? Oyg'gef
aywnf;/ apwem? pD&ifcsuf csouJo h Ydk aphaqmf wkud w
f eG ;f jcif;onf/ ba0g? wzef topfjzpfay:aMumif; ur®b0
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 34

aywnf;/ £wd? þokYd / yk&rd ur®b0o®?ð a½S;b0wGif jzpfaMumif;uHudk ûypOfü/ od'g¨ ? NyD;cJu
h ek af om/ £ar yOö "r®m?
þig;yg;aomw&m;wkYd onf/ £" y#doEd̈,m? þb0ü y#doaE¨\/ ypö,m? taMumif;wkYd aywnf;/

ocFg&ESihf ur®b0wkYd \ xl;jcm;yku H dk t|uxmwkYd ü ok;H enf;jy\/ þüum;? odv, G af om yXrenf;uko d m


jytH/h ay;vªjcif;ç owfjzwfjcif; ponfudk ûy&ef BuHonfrpS íç a½S;tzkYd ü jzpfaom apwemwkYd onf ocFg&
rnfuek \f / ¤if;wkYd onf ]]jrefjrefNyD;atmifvyk v f u
dk }f }[k wku
d w
f eG ;f aeMuouJo
h Ydk jzpfay:uke\
f / trIupd u ö dk NyD;apqJ
cPü jzpfaom apwemonfum; ur®b0rnf\/ ¤if;onf? 'gerIt&mü? tvªcyH *k Kd¾ vftm; vªb, G 0f w¬Kukd ay;urf;
qJ jzpfí ]]igh Opöm tjzpfrS jywfpaJ p? tvªcH yk*Kd¾ vfyidk af p? ,lap? &ap? ok;H aqmifap}}[k pD&ifcsuf csvku d o f uJo h Ydk
udpu
ö dk tqk;H owfonfh taetm;jzifh jzpfay:\/ ygPmwdygwrIt&mü ]eif aoap}[k pD&ifcsuf csouJo h Ydk yifjzpf
ay:\/ wyg;aom ukov dk rf çI tukov dk rf I t&mwkYd üvJ enf;rSí D odygav/

þygVdü jytyfaom tpOfonfum; a'oemtpOfrQomwnf;/ jzpfpOftm;jzifu h m;? rodrçI odrmS ;rI=t0dZmÆ


aMumifh om,m awmifw h rI=wPSm jzpf\/ wPSmaMumifh ]]þtrIudk ûy&vQifç aumif;pm; csrf;omrnf}}[k xifrw S f
pGv
J rf;rI=Oyg'gef jzpf\/ Oyg'gefaMumifh BuHpnftm;xkwrf =I ocFg& jzpf\/ tm;xkwjf cif;aMumifçh udpu ö dk NyD;apaom
cPü ur®b0jzpf\/ trIuûdk yNyD;aom umvüvJ xkt d rIudk csrf;omaMumif;[lí¤if;? xkt d rIjzifh cHpm;&rnft h usKd;ukd
csrf;om[lí¤if; xifrmS ;aom t0dZmÆ jzpfjyef\/ xktd rIEiS hf &rnft
h usKd;wkYd ü om,mawmifw h rI=wPSmvJ jzpfjyef\?
xktd rIjzifh aumif;pm;&awmhrnf[k pGv
J rf;aom Oyg'gefvJ jzpfjyef\/ þokdY a½S;tzkdY aemuftzkdYwkdYü t0dZÆm wPSm
NcH&t
H yfaom uHonfomvQif? b0opf tusKd;ukd jzpfapEkid o f nf/ xkYd aMumifh y#dorÇ'd gr*f *wduxmü........

ukovur®ó Z0eu©aPç wa,m a[wl ukovm? eduEÅu d a© P (twåaem


0dyguH 'gwkH ypöKy|dw uar® 0gç wxm ypöKy|dwuuar®e Oy|mydaw ur®erd ad wå
0gç *wderd ad wå 0gç OyÜZrÆ meeduEÅd u©aP-t|uxmbGi)hf a'G a[wl tukovm?
y#doE¨u
d a© P wa,m a[wl tAsmuwm/ *wdorÜw, åd m ÓPorÜ,ak wå
(ÓPorÜ,w k yå #doE¨u
d a© P t|uxmbGi)hf £aroH t|EéH a[wleH ypö,m Oyywdå
a[mwd (266)....ponf jzif?h

eduEÅcd P[dwf 2-yg;ukv


d J xnfo
h iG ;f í jyawmfral yonf/

ypöKyÜeftusKd; 0dygu0#fig;yg;

£" y#doEd̈ 0dnmPHç MouúEdÅ emr½lyçH yoma'g tm,weHç zka|m zaómç a0',dwH a0'emç £wd £ar
yOö "r®m £"lyywåd b0oð® yka& uwó ur®ó ypö,m/ (50)

£"? ,ckb0ü/ y#doEd̈? a½S;b0ESihf qufpyfvsuf jzpfay:aom pdwo f nf/ 0dnmPH? 0dnmPfaywnf;/
MouúE?dÅ wjcm;rSvmí ouf0ifouJo h Ydk jzpfaom oabmonf/ emr ½ly?H emrf½yk af ywnf;/ yoma'g? Munfvifaom
oabmonf/ 0g? rsufpMd unfrçI em; ESmacgif; vQm uk, d f Munfro I nf/ tm,weH? tm,weaywnf;/ 0g? tm½kEH iS hf
pdwf awGUqk&H m Xmeç awGUqkaH Mumif; w&m;aywnf;/ zka|m? tm½kEH iS hf pdwf awGUjcif;onf/ zaóm? zóaywnf;/
a0',dw?H cHpm;jcif;onf/ a0'em? a0'emaywnf;/ £wd? þokYd / £" Oyywdb å 0oð?® ,ck jzpfqJ b0ü/ y0wåm?
jzpfuek af om/ £ar yOö "r®m? þig;yg;aom w&m;wkYd onf/ yka&uwó ur®ó ypö,m? a½S;b0ü ûycJah om
uH[al om taMumif;aMumif?h (O'&ó um&Pmü uJo h Ydk ? wkvsm"du&P 0daooeç 0daooswnf;)/ y0wå0yd g
uar®m? jzpfay:aom tusK;d w&m;wkYd aywnf;/

jzpfcudk f emrf ½kyu f dk rjywf rSwof v


d suf ½Sad om a,m*Dtm; jrifrI Mum;rI paom pdww f Ydk onf ]a½S;a½S; pdwf
\tjcm;rJüh pyfípyfí rjywfjzpfonft h aetm;jzif}h } xif½mS ;uke\
f / xkYd aMumifh xkad ,m*Donf ,ckb0ü píjzpfchJ
aom y#doaE¨pw d u
f vdk J ]]a½S;b0u aemufq;Hk pdw\ f tjcm;rJüh qufpyfí jzpfco hJ nf}}[k qí odEidk af y\? þokYd
odEidk yf u
Hk dk 0do'k rd̈ *fü atmufygtwkid ;f jy\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 35

,ax0 pu©K0dnmPH? raem"mwkteEÅ&/H


e ap0 tm*wH emyd? e edAw Á Hå teEÅ&/H /
wax0 y#doE¨rd ?dS 0wåaw pdwå oEÅw/d
yk&rd H bdZaÆ w pdw?Hå ypdrä H Zm,aw wawm? (2-239)

raem"mwkteEÅ&?H qifjcifaompdw\ f tjcm;rJüh jzpfavh½adS om/ pu©K0dnmPH? jrifaompdwo f nf/ wawm?


xkqd ifjcifaom pdwrf /S e ap0 tm*wH? vmonfvJ r[kwaf y/ teEÅ&?H qifjcifaom pdw\ f tjcm;rJüh / emyd e
edAwÁ Hå ,ax0? rjzpfonfvJ r[kwaf y? {uefyif jzpfouJo h Ydk / wax0? xkYd twlyif/ y#doE¨rd ?dS y#doaE¨cPü/
pdwo å EÅw?d a½S;pdwf aemufpw
d w
f Ydk \ tpOfonf/ 0wåaw? jzpf\/ yk&rd H pdw?Hå a½S;b0u aemufq;Hk pdwo f nf/
bdZaÆ w? csKyfysufav\/ wawm? xkpd w d f csKyfonfrS tjcm;rJüh / ypärd H pdw?Hå aemufb0ü tpqk;H pdwo f nf/
Zm,aw? jzpfay:av\/

rsufpd tMunfxüJ tqif;½kyf xifay: usa&mufvQifç xkt d qif;ukd bmvJ[k qifjcifaom pdwu f a½S;OD;pGm
jzpfay:\/ xkdpw d \f tjcm;rJüh jrifaompdwf jzpfay:\/ þokYd jzpf&müç qifjcifwphJ w d uf yif jrifwphJ wd f jzpfomG ;
onfvJ r[kwaf y? qifjcifwphJ w d \ f tjcm;rJüh jrifwphJ wd u
f rjzpfbv J rJ aeay? {uefyif jzpfay:ouJo h Ydk? xkYd twl
yifç a½S;b0u aemufq;Hk pkwpd w d f csKyfq;Hk oGm;vQifç b0opfü tpqk;H y#doaE¨pw d f jzpfay:\/ þokYd jzpf&mü?
pkwpd w d u
f yif y#doaE¨pw d f jzpfvmonfvJ r[kwaf y? xkpd w k d pdwo f nfum; t<uif;rJch sKyfu, G í
f om oGm;ayonf/
okYd aomfvçJ xkpd wk pd w
d f csKyfu,G o f nfEiS hf wûydief uf b0opf y#doaE¨pw d u
f rjzpfbv J J raeay? qufvufí
{uefyif topf jzpfay:ayonf/ þokYd qufpyfí pdwjf zpfyu Hk dk a,m*Du uk, d yf idk Óf Pfjzifh oabmusonf[k
qkvd \dk /

xkYd jyifç jzpfcu dk f emrf½yk u


f dk rjywfrw
S vf suf½adS om a,m*Dtm; rSwo f &d aom xked mrf½yk o
f nf pdwx
f J uk, d xf J
rSm topftopf usa&mufouf0ifvmouJo h Ydk xif½mS ;\/ xkYd aMumifçh y#doaE¨cPu jzpfcahJ om emrf½yk u f v
dk J ]],ck
rSwof &d wJh emrf½yk v f ydk if usa&mufouf0ifvmaom oabmbJ}}[k qí odEidk af y\/ tm,weç zóç a0'emwkdYukd
odyrHk mS xif½mS ;NyD/

,ckb0ü jzpfaom þtusKd; ig;yg;ukyd if rSíD ? tm,we &ifah omtcgü t0dZmÆ wPSm Oyg'gef ocFg&
ur®b0 [laom taMumif;w&m; ig;yg;wkYd onf jzpfay:jyefuek \
f /

ypöKyÜef taMumif; ur®0#f ig;yg;

£" y&dyuúwmå tm,wemeH arma[m t0dZmÆ ç tm,l[em ocFg&mç eduEÅd wPSmç Oy*reH Oyg'geHç
apwem ba0g wdç £ar yOö "r®m £" ur®b0oð® tm,wð y#doE¨,
d m ypö,m/

£"? ,ckb0ü/ tm,wemeH y&dyuúwmå ? rsufpçd em;ç ESmacgif;ç vQmç uk, d -f [laom tm,wewkYd \
&ifjh cif;aMumif/h 0g? tm,wewkYd &ifv
h wfaomf/ (þtyk'd jf zifçh b0ukjd zpfapEkid af om uH\ jzpf&mumvukjd y\/
tm,we r&ifah o;aom oli,fwYdktm;? b0ifpw d o f m tjzpfrsm;\? b0ukd jzpfapEkid af om uHonfum; jzpfEidk cf \
J ?
tm,we &ifah omolwYdktm;omvQi?f xku d rH sK;d onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh jzpfEidk o f nf-[lv/dk ) arma[m? rodrçI
odrmS ;rIonf/ t0dZmÆ ? aywnf;/ tm,l[em? tm;xkwrf w I Ydk onf/ ocFg&m? wkYd aywnf;/ eduEÅ?d vkv d m;
awmifw h jcif;onf/ wPSm? aywnf;/ Oy*reH? pGv J rf;jcif;onf/ Oyg'geH? aywnf;/ apwem? aphaqmf wku d wf eG ;f
jcif;onf/ ba0g? ur®b0aywnf;/ (teuftus,f tjynft h pku
H dk a½S;ü jyefMunfyh g/) £wd? þokYd / £" ur®
b0oð?® ,ckb0ü jzpfaMumif;uHudk ûytyfpOf/ od'g¨ ? NyD;ukeaf om/ £ar yOö "r®m? þig;yg;aomw&m;wkdYonf/
tm,wð y#doE¨, d m? aemifumvü y#doaE¨\/ ypö,m? taMumif;wkYd aywnf;/

þypöKyÜetf aMumif; ig;yg;aMumifh aemifb0ü 0dnmPfç emrf½yk çf tm,weç zóç a0'em - [laom tusKd;
ig;yg; jzpfay:jyef\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 36

tem*wftusKd; 0dygu0#f ig;yg;

tm,wð y#doEd̈ 0dnmPHç MouúEdÅ emr ½lyçH yoma'g tm,weHç zka|m zaómç a0',dwH a0'emç £wd
£ar yOö "r®m tm,wð Oyywdb
å 0oð® £" uwó ur®ó ypö,m/ (51)

tm,wð? aemifumvü/ y#doE¨?d b0a[mif;ESihf qufpyfí jzpfaom pdwo f nf/ 0dnmPH? 0dnmPfaywnf;/
MouúE?dÅ ouf0ifouJo
h Ydk jzpfaom oabmonf/ emr½ly?H emrf½yk f aywnf;/ yoma'g? MunfvifroI nf/ tm,weH?
tm,we aywnf;/ zka|m? awGUjcif;onf/ zaóm? zóaywnf;/ a0',dw?H cHpm;jcif;onf/ a0'em? aywnf;/
(teuftus,fudk jyefMunfyh g)/ £wd? þokYd / £ar yOö "r®m? þ ig;yg;aomw&m;wkYd onf/ £" uwó ur®ó
ypö,m? ,ckb0üûytyfonfh uHç [laomtaMumif; aMumif/h tm,wð Oyywdå b0o®?ð aemiftcgü jzpfvwHah om
b0ü/ 0dygu"r®m? jzpfrnfh tusK;d w&m; wkYd aywnf;/

þtaMumif; tusKd;wkYd wiG ?f twdwt


f aMumif;ig;yg;onf ypöKyÜet f aMumif;ig;yg;ESihf oabmtm;jzifh wl\
tem*wf tusKd;ig;yg;onfvnf; ypöKyÜet f usKd;ig;yg;ESihf oabmtm;jzifh wl\/ xkYd aMumifçh ypöKyÜet
f aMumif;ç tusKd;
wkYd udk rsufarSmufawGUjrifaom a,m*Donf twdwt f aMumif;ESiçhf tem*wf tusKd;wkYd uv
dk J qí odjrif oabmusEkid f
ayonf/

xkdwGif tusKd;ig;yg;-[lonfrmS rSwo f t


d yfaom pdww f csuf wcsuüf twGi;f 0ifaom oabmrsm;om
wnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh tusOf;enf;jzifh ½Iaom a,m*Donf xkt d usKd;ig;yg;ukd tusKd;tjzpfjzifh wckxnf;aom ykid ;f jcm;í
½Ijrif\/ tm½kH taumif;tqk;d ESihf awGU&íç txl; aMumifMh u rpku d &f bJ jzpfay:aom jrif½rHk Q Mum;½kHrQ eH½kHrQ pm;od½kH
rQ xd½rHk Q BuHo½d rHk Q oabmrsm;ukd ]]a½S;uHaMumifjh zpfaom tusKd;}}[líomykid ;f jcm;\/ þum; 0dnmPfç þum;
emrf½yk -f ponfjzifh cGjJ cm;ír½INyD/ xkYd twlyif taMumif;ig;yg; [lonfrmS vJ pdww f csufwcsufEiS hf qkid af omoabm
rsm;omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifh xkt d aMumif;rsm;ukv d J taMumif;uH\ tjzpfjzifh wckxnf;om ykid ;f jcm;í ½Ijrif\/ ,ck
aumif;pm;&ef jzpfapç aemifb0rsm;ü aumif;pm;&ef jzpfapç txl; aMumifMh upku d v
f suf BuHpnfrçI ajymqkrd çI ûyvkyrf I
[lorQukd ]]b0opftusKd;ukd jzpfaprnfh taMumif;u}}[líom ykid ;f jcm;\/ þum; t0dZÆmç þum; ocFg&-ponf
jzifh cGjJ cm;í r½INyD/

þokYd ½Ijrifaoma,m*Donf rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü taMumif;uHEiS hf tusKd;0dygufrQuko d m awGU&aomaMumifçh


]]a½S;a½S;b0awGuvJ þvkt d usKd;0dygufEiS hf taMumif;uHrQom jzpfcahJ vNyD? aemifb0awGrmS vJ þvktd usKd;0dyguf
ESihf taMumif;uHrQom jzpfomG ;rnf? uHEiS t hf usKd;rQom ½So
d nf? uHudk ûyvkywf wfaom owå0gaumif=igaumifvJ
r½SNd yD? tusKd;ukd cHpm;wwfaom owå0gaumif=igaumifvJ r½SNd yD}}[k qifjcif qk;H jzwfEidk í
f jycJah om ,krH mS ;rI 16-
yg;ukd y,fcgG vGeaf jrmuf\/

aom {0H ur®0¥ 0dygu0¥ 0aoe ypö,awm emr ½lyó y0wåð 'domG ,xm £'H {w&[d? {0H
twDawyd t'¨gae ur®0¥ 0dygu0¥ 0aoe ypö,awm y0wåw d ?¬ tem*awyd ur®0¥ 0dygu0¥ 0aoae0
ypö,awm y0wåó d wDw?d £wd ur®aOö0 ur®0yd gaum pç ur®0¥Oö0yd gu0¥Oöç ur®y0wåOö 0dygu y0wåOçö
ur®oEÅwd p 0dyguoEÅwd pç Bud,m p Bud,mzvOöç

ur®m 0dygum 0wåE?dÅ 0dygaum ur®orÇa0g/


ur®m ykeAÇa0g a[mwd {0H avmaum y0wåww D d
orEkyówd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f-2-237)

jrefrmjyefthH .... xkad ,m*Donf þqkcd ahJ om ur®0#fç 0dygu0#ftvkt d m;jzifh taMumif;aMumifh ypöKyÜef
emrf½yk \ f jzpfjcif;ukd odjrif oabmusNyD;vQif ]],ckb0ü þemrf½yk u f o
hJ Ydk ? enf;wlyifç twdwu f mvüvJ ur®0#fç
0dygu0#f tvkt d m;jzifo
h mvQif taMumif;aMumifh emrf½yk rf Qom jzpfavNyD? tem*wf umvüvJ ur®0#fç 0dygu0#f
tvkt d m;jzifoh mvQif taMumif;aMumifh emrf½yk rf QomjzpfomG ;rnf}}[lí ½Iqifjcif\/ þokYd odjrifoabmusvQif
uHEiS hf uH\tusKd;rQom ½So d nf[í l ¤if;ç ur®0#fEiS hf 0dygu0#frQom ½So
d nf[í l ¤if;ç uHt,OfEiS hf 0dyguft,OfrQom
½So
d nf[í l ¤if;ç (a&pD;a&,Ofuo hJ Ydk wifpm;íqko
d nf) uH tpOftqufEiS hf 0dyguftpOftqufrQom ½So d nf[lí¤if;ç
ûyrIEiS hf ûyrI\tusKd;rQom ½So d nf[í l ¤if;ç qifjcifq;Hk jzwf\/ (aumfrmjzifh ykid ;f jcm;tyfaom ig;yk'd w f Ydk wiG ?f wyk'd f
wyk'd jf zifh wOD;wOD;\ qifjcifq;Hk jzwfrI NyD;pD;\)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 37

uHaMumifh tusKd;rsm; jzpfay:Muonf? tusKd;uvJ uH\ jzpfaMumif;aywnf;? wenf;um; .... tusKd;uvJ


uHudk jzpfapjyefonf/ (orÇ0wd {awemwd orÇa0g? ur®ó orÇa0g ur®orÇa0g[k q|Dormof BuHí? o'´w¬
t"dyÜg,w¬ 2-enf;jyefonf? þyk'u f dk tnw¬ormof BuHvQifum;? þ*gxmü 3-yk'v f ;Hk yif 0dyguf\ taMumif;jy
csnf;om jzpfí? uH\ taMumif;jyrS uif;av&m\/) uHaMumifh wzef b0opf jzpfjyefonf? uHEiS hf 0dyguf wvSnphf D
taMumif; tusK;d jzpfvsuv f nfaom þenf;jzifh owåavmu -[k ac:aom emrf½yk f tpOfonf rjywfjzpfaeonf
[lívJ qifjcifq;Hk jzwf\/ (jrefrmjyef)

ur®ó um&aum ewd?¬ 0dyguó p a0'aum/


ok'"¨ r®m y0wåE?dÅ {a0wH or®'óeH/ /
{0H uar® 0dygau p? 0wårmae o-a[wkau/
ADZ½kum© 'dumeH0? ykAmÁ aum#d e em,wd/
tem*awyd oHoma&? tyÜ0wåd e 'dówd/ /(0do'k rd̈ *f)

ur®ó? ukov dk u
f çH tukov dk u
f u
H /dk um&aum? ûywwfaom yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumifonf/ ew¬?d r½Sad cs/
0dyguó? aumif;usKd;ç qk;d usKd;uk/d a0'aum p? cHpm;wwfaom yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumifonfvnf;/ ew¬?d r½Sad cs/
ok'"¨ r®m? yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumifEiS hf ra&mr,Suf oufoufaom uHEiS hf tusK;d w&m;wkYd csn;f omvQi?f y0wåE?dÅ wjyefpD
vnfywfvsuf rjywfjzpfay:uke\ f / {0H? þokYd aom/ {wH 'óeH? þtjrifonf/ or®'óeH? razgufrjyef rSeu f ef
aom todtjrifaywnf;/

{0H? þqkcd ahJ omenf;jzif/h oa[wkau 0wårmae? rS&D m0dyguf-[laom taMumif;ESiw hf uG jzpfay:aom/
uar® p? uHu¤dk if;/ oa[wkau 0wårmae? uH-[laom taMumif;ESiw hf uG jzpfay:aom/ 0dygau p? tusKd;uk¤d if;/
'da|? awGUjriftyfonf½adS omf/ ADZ½kum© 'dumeH? opfaphEiS hf opfyif-ponfwYdk \/ ykAmÁ aum#d? a½S;tpGe;f tpuk/d e
em,wd £0? rodtyf rodEidk o f uJoh Ydk / ykAmÁ aum#d? uHEiS hf tusKd;[laom emrf½yk f tpOf\ a½S;tpGef;tpukd/ e
em,wd? rodtyf rodEidk af cs/ tem*awyd? aemifumvüvJ/ oHoma&? emrf½yk t f pOf=oHo&monf/ owd?
taMumif;uHudk r*fÓPfjzifh rNidr;f apEkid af o;ojzifh ½SNd rJyif½v
dS wfao;aomf/ tyÜ0wd?å uHEiS 0hf yd guftpOf\ rjzpfjcif;
=jywfpjJ cif;uk/d e 'dówd? rjriftyf rjrifEidk af cs/

t"dygÜ ,fum; .... ay;vªcu dk üf ? ay;vªvadk om pdwf apwem jzpf\? owfjzwfcu dk üf ? owfvadk om pdwf
apwemjzpf\/ xkad pwemwkYd EiS hf avsmfaom uk, d çf EIwçf trlt&m=½kyv f J jzpf\/ þ pdwf apwemESihf uk, d çf EIwçf
trlt&m=½kyo f nfyifvQif aumif;rIuçH raumif;rIuH rnf\/ þokdY emrf½kyf 2-yg;vk;H yif uH=trI=Bud,m rnfjim;
aomfvJ ]]apwem [H bdua© 0 ur®H 0'grd=&[ef;wkYd ? apwemukd uH[k ig a[mayonf}}[laom a'oemüum;
BuD;uJjy"mef;í tusK;d ay;wwfaom apwemuko d mvQif uH[k a[mawmfral yonf/ y"me enf;aywnf;? tyÜ"me
tm;jzifu h m; .... apwemESihf wuG jzpfaom emrf½yk f 2-yg;vk;H yif uH=trI=Bud,m rnfonfomwnf;/ okYd jzpfíç
uHjzpfcu dk üf ûyvkad om pdwaf pwemESihf uk, d çf EIwçf trlt&m-[laom emrf½kyf 2-yg;rQom jzpfay:vsuf ½S\ d ? xkd
emrf½yk u
f ydk ifprJG í
DS yk*K¾ v
d u
f vªonfç yk*Kd¾ vfuowfonf[k ac:a0:ajymqk&d ayonf? ajymqk½d rHk Qomwnf;/ trI=
Bud,m=uHrnfaom xked mrf½yk u f dk ûywwfç NyD;apwwfç jzpfapwwfaom yk*Kd¾ vfç owå0gaumifum; toD;tjcm;
r½Sad wmhonf omwnf;/ xkYd jyifç jrifcu dk çf Mum;cku d pf onfü? tm½kH taumif; tqk;d ukd odrçI cHpm;rI-[laom tusKd;
rQom jzpfay:vsuf½\ dS ? xkd tusKd;=emrf½yk u f ydk if pGrJ í
DS ]yk*Kd¾ vfu cHpm;onf}[k ac:a0: ajymqkd &ayonf? ajymqkd
½krH Qomwnf;/ xkt d usKd;=emrf½yk u
f dk jzpfay:apvsuf cHpm;wwfaom yk*Kd¾ vfowå0gaumifum; toD;tjcm; r½Sad wmh
onfomwnf;/ okYd jzpfíç a½S;b0u uHudk ûypOfrmS aumif;rIuçH raumif;rIurH Qom jzpfc\ hJ / ,ckb0ü y#doaE¨
b0if jrifcu dk f Mum;cku d f ponfrmS xku d aH Mumifçh cHpm;rI tusK;d rQom jzpfay:\? þ tusKd; 0dygufuydk if rSí D ? ,ck
b0ü aumif;rI raumif;rI uHrQom jzpfay:jyef\/ þ uH topfaMumifh aemifumvü cHpm;rI tusKd;rQom jzpfomG ;
OD;rnf/ þenf;jzifh uHEiS t hf usKd;rQom wjyefpv D nfvsuf jzpfaeonf/ um&u twå=uHtrIudk ûywwfaom
igaumifum;r½SNd yD/ a0'u twå=tusKd;ukd cHpm;wwfaom igaumifum; r½SNd yD [lí -þokYd odjrif oabmusjcif;
onf or®m'óe [kac:aom ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf rnf\/

þokYd odjrifoabmusvQifç ]]opfaph½u dS ç xkt d aph\ oD;cJ&h m tyifvJ ½Scd \ hJ ? xkt


d yif\ aygufc&hJ m
opfaphvJ ½Scd \
hJ ? þenf;jzifh opfaphEiS hf opfyifwYdk\ tpukd ½Smí rawGUEkid o f uJo
h Ydk ¤if;? MuufO ½Su
d ç ¤if;\ trd
MuufrvJ ½Scd \ hJ ? xkd Muufr\ aygufc&hJ m OvJ ½Scd \ hJ ? xkOd \ trd MuufrvJ ½Scd jhJ yef\/ þenf;jzifh MuufOESifh
MuufrwkYd \ tpukd ½SmírawGUEkid o f uJo h Ydk ¤if;}} xkYd twlyif? ,ckb0ü tusKd;jzpfay:vsuf ½Sjd cif;aMumif?h xk\ d
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 38

taMumif;uHonf a½S;b0u ½Scd \ hJ ? xku


d \
H rS&D m tusKd;w&m;vJ xkb d 0u jzpfay:cJ\
h ? xkt
d usKd;\ taMumif;u
vJ xkx d ufa½S;usaom b0u½Scd \hJ / þenf;jzifh emrf ½kyf tpOf[al om oHo&m\ a½S; tpGef;tpukd ½SmírawGU
Ekid Nf yD/

þt&mü ]]bk&m;ocifu zefqif;aomaMumifh pí jzpfonf}}[k qkjd im;tH/h xkb d &k m;ocifuadk wmh b,fou l
zefqif;oenf;¿ olonf b,fumvu? b,ftaMumif;aMumifh jzpfay:vmoenf;¿ þokYd ponfjzifh t&if;tjrpf
ukd tqifhqifh vkdufí ½Smtyf\/ xkdtcgü? tpukd ½Smí rawGUbJom ½SdvwHh/ xkdYaMumifhç ]]bk&m;ocifu pí
zefqif;onf}}[lívJ r,kMH unfxu dk o
f nfomwnf;/ okYd r[kwf .... ]]tOD;tpumvu? taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv d ydk if
jzpfco hJ nf}}[k qkjd im;tH/h tpu taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv
d jdk zpfay:cJyh gvQifç ,ckvJ taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv d o dk mjzpfay:
av&m\/ okYd aomfvçJ ½Irw S rf =I ypöuÓ © Pfjzif¤h if;? qifjcifr=I tEkrmeÓPfjzif¤h if;? taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv d dk jzpfay:
Ekid af om emrf½yk u f dk rawGU&acs/ xkYd aMumifçh ]]taMumif;r½Sb d J tvkv d ydk if pí jzpfco hJ nf}}[lívJ r,kMH unfxu dk o f nf
omwnf;/ þt&mü? jycJah omopfaphEiS hf opfyifç MuufOESihf Muufr OyrmwkYd uv dk J ]Oyar,sESihf tvk;H pkw H n l o D nf}
[k rrSwt f yfuek /f jrwfpmG bk&m;\ rsufEmS awmfudk ]Mumyef;uJo h Ydk wifw h ,fonf}[k csD;rGr;f &mü uJo h Ydk ]wpdwrf Qom
wlno D nf}[k rSwt f yfuek \
f / tb,fah Mumifeh nf; [lrl .... opfaphEiS hf opfyifç MuufOESihf MuufrwkYd udk uyÜgOD;upí
jzpfco hJ nf[k odtyfaomfv?J uHEiS hf 0dyguf[al om emrf½yk t f pOf=oHo&m\ tpuku d m; rnfonfeh nf;jzifrh Q rodtyf
aomaMumifh aywnf;/

xkYd jyifç aemifumvüvJ ]]opfyifrS taph jzpfrnf? xkt d aphrS tyif jzpfjyefrnf? xkt d yifrS taph jzpfjyefrnf?
þenf;jzif?h tEÅ&m,fr½Syd guç opfyifEiS hf opfaphwYdk \ jywfpjJ cif;uk½d mS í rawGUEkid o f uJoh Ydk ¤if;? MuufrrS O jzpfrnf?
xkOd rS Muufr jzpfjyefrnf? xkMd uufrrS O jzpfjyefrnf/ þenf;jzifh tEÅ&m,f r½Syd guç MuufrESihf MuufOwkYd \
jywfpjJ cif;ukd ½Smí rawGUEkid f ouJo h Ydk ¤if;}} xkYd twlyif? ,ckb0ü ûyNyD;aomuHaMumif?h aemifb0ü y#doaE¨rpS í
tusKd;w&m; jzpfay:rnf? xkt d usKd;ukyd if rSí D ? xkbd 0üvJ aumif;rIuçH raumif;rIuH jzpfay:OD;rnf? xku d aH Mumifv
h J
wzef b0opf jzpfay:OD;rnf/ þenf;jzifh uHEiS hf tusKd;[laom emrf½yk w f Ydk \ jywfpjJ cif;ukd ½Smí rawGUEkid Nf yD/
taMumif;uHudk r*fÓPfjzifh rNidr;f apEkid v f Qiçf b,ftcgrSmrQ jywfpaJ wmhrnf r[kw?f wckcak om b0rS aemufq;Hk
pkwpd wd cf sKyfvQi?f xkpd w
d \
f tjcm;rJüh yif b0opf y#doaE¨0n d mPf paomtusKd;w&m;onf jzpfay:vsuf jzpfay:
vsufomvQif ½Sad wmhrnf[í l - þokYd vJ odjrif oabmusEkid o f nf-[lvkd/

ur®H ew¬d 0dygurS?d ygaum uar® e 0dZw


Æ /d
tnrnH Oabm oknm? e p ur®H 0dem zvH/
ur®Oö acgOyg'g,? wawm edAw Á aå w zvH/ /
e a[w¬ a'a0g jA[®m 0g? oHom&ó}wd¬ um&aum/
ok'¨ "r®m y0wåE?dÅ a[wk.orÇm& ypö,m/ /

(0do'k r¨d *f 2-238)/

ur®?H taMumif; uHonf/ 0dygurS?d tusKd;xJü/ ewd?¬ ½Sad wmhonf r[kwaf y? (taMumif;jzpfaom csnfrQif
rsm;onf tusKd;jzpfaom t0wftxnfxüJ rysufp;D bJ wnf½adS eovk?d uHonfum; tusKd;0dygufxrJ mS wnf½adS e
awmhonfr[kw?f uHuyif rysupf ;D bJ tusK;d jzpfvmonf r[kw[ f k qkv
d \dk )/ /ygaum? tusKd;onf/ uar®?
taMumif;uHxüJ / e 0dZw Æ ?d ½SEd iS o
hf nf r[kwaf y/ (pyg;ESo
H nf taMumif;jzpfaom pyg;yifxüJ tzk;H tvk;H jzpfvsuf
wnf½dS aeESio hf vk?d tusKd; 0dygufonfum; uHjzpfpOfuç xku d x H üJ ude;f atmif;vsuf ½SEd iS o
hf nf r[kw?f ,ckrS
topf topf jzpfay:onf[k qkv d \
dk )/ / Oabm? uHESifh tusKd; 2-rsKd;aom w&m;wkYd onf/ tnrnH oknm?
tcsif;csif;rS uif;qdwu f ek \f / p? okYd aomfv/J ur®H 0dem? uHEiS hf uif;í/ zvH? tusKd;onf/ e? rjzpfEidk af y/ acg?
trSetf m;jzif/h ur®Oö Oyg'g,? uHudk pGrJ í DS omvQif/ zvH? tusKd;onf/ wawm? xku d rH /S 0g? xkud aH Mumif/h edAw
Á å
aw? jzpfay:ay\/

{w¬? þavmu=þowå0gtrsm;xJü/ oHom&ó? ]]wb0NyD;vQif wb0ç wrsKd;NyD;vQif wrsKd;tm;jzifh


ajymif;a½TUvsuf jzpfay:aom}} emrf½yk t
f pOf=oHo&muk/d um&aum? ûywwf zefqif;wwfaom/ a'a0g 0g? ewfonf
¤if;/ jA[®m 0g? jA[®monf¤if;/ 0g? xm0& bk&m;onf¤if;/ e [d twd?¬ r½So d nfomwnf;/ a[wkorÇm&ypö,m?
taMumif;&if; uHEiS hf taxmuftyHh 0dyguf [laom taMumif; 2 rsKd;aMumif/h (a[wkypö, edrw
d Hå 0g-þtzGifhukd
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 39

rS\
D )/ ok'¨ "r®m? uHEiS hf tusKd; [laom emrf½yk w
f &m; oufoufwYdk onf omvQif/ y0wåE?dÅ wjyefpD vnfywfvsuf
rjywf jzpfay:uke\f / (þokYd vJ odjrif oabmusonf[k qkv d \
dk )/

uHEiS hf tusKd;tvkt d m;jzifh emrf½yk \ f taMumif;ukd awGUjrifNyD;aom a,m*Donf b0a[mif; pkwEd iS hf b0opf
y#doaE¨wYdk \ jzpfyu Hk v dk J þokYd oabmus\/ rsufpx d üJ tqif;½kyf xifay:vQifç xkt d qif;ukd ]]bmvJ[k qifjcif
ouJo h Ydk aom}} ESv;Hk oGi;f rIjzpf\/ xkEd v S ;Hk oGi;f rI\ tjcm;rJüh jrifrI jzpf\? okYd jzpf&müç ESv;Hk oGi;f rIEiS hf jrifrwI Ydkonf
tjcm;r½Su d ek o
f uJoh Ydk ? xkYd twlyif pkwpd w d Ef iS hf y#doaE¨pw d w
f Ydk onfvnf; tjcm;r½Su d ek ?f b0a[mif;u aemufq;Hk
pdwf csKyfq;Hk oGm;vQifç a½S;uHaMumifh b0opfü tpqk;H pdwf jzpfay:vmonf-[lí oabmuswwf\/ okwrsm;olwYdk
ESiq
hf idk \
f / okweJaomolonfum; ]]jrifrI Mum;rIponf\ tjcm;rJüh rSwo f rd I jzpfouJo h Ydk ¤if;? rSwo
f rd \I tjcm;rJüh
jrifrMI um;rI ponfwzef jzpfouJo h Ydk¤if;? ]aow,f} qkw d mvJonfvdk pdww f csuf ukeq f ;Hk oGm;wmbJ? b0opfrmS
jzpfw,f} qkw d mvJ onfvpdk w d wf csuf jzpfay:vmwmbJ/ b0a[mif;u aemufq;Hk pdwf jywfomG ;onfEiS w hf ûydief uf?
a½S;uHaMumifh b0opfXmerSm tpqk;H pdww f ck jzpfay:vm½krH QbJ}}[lí oabmuswwf\/ pkwd y#doaE¨wYdk \ csKyfyçHk
jzpfyuHk dk þrQavmuf odjrif oabmusvQifyifç ]]twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜew f &m; tvk;H pku H dk taMumif;ESiw hf uG
odjrifNyD}}[k qk&d \/ xkYd aMumifyh if? 0do'k rd̈ *fü atmufygwkYd udk rdeYf qadk wmfral vNyD/

oaAÁ twDwmem*wypöKyÜEmé "r®m pkwyd #doE¨0d aoe


0d'w
d m a[mEÅ/d (2-238)
{0H pkwyd #doE¨0d aoe 0d'w
d oAÁ"r®ó oAÁmuma&e emr
½lyó ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPH xmr*wH a[mwd/ (2-239)

oaAÁ twDwmem*wypöKyÜEmé "r®m? tvk;H pkaH om twdwçf tem*wfç ypöKyÜew f &m;wkYd u/dk pkwyd #doE¨0d aoe?
pkwEd iS hf y#doaE¨wYdk tvkt
d m;jzif/h 0d'w
d m? xif½mS ; odtyfuek f NyD;onf/ a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \
f /

{0H? þqkcd ahJ omenf;jzif/h pkwyd #doEd̈0aoe? pkwEd iS hf y#doaE¨wYdk tvkt


d m;jzif/h 0d'w
d oAÁ"r®ó? xif½mS ;
odtyfNyD;aom w&m;tvk;H pk½H adS om/ 0g? w&m;tvk;H pku H dk xif½mS ; odNyD;aom ol\/ emr½lyó ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPH?
emrf½yk \
f taMumif;ukd odr;f qnf;aom ÓPfonf/ oAÁmuma&e xmr*wH? cyford ;f aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh
tm;pGr;f ESihf jynfph o
Hk nf/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/

½Si;f jycsuf .... txufyg t|uxmwGif w&m;tvk;H pku H dk xif½mS ;odonf [l&mü? ]]oAÁñw k ÓPfuo hJ Ydk
w&m;tvk;H pku H dk aphiaS tmif taMumif;tusKd; pyfvsuf odonf[í l um; rqkv d adk y? pkwEd iS hf y#doaE¨wYdk \ csKyfyçHk
jzpfyu
Hk dk odaomaMumifo h mvQif w&m;tvk;H pku
H dk odonf-[k qkv
d adk yonf}} þ teufudk pkwyd #doE¨0d aoe-[l
aom 0daooejzifh az:jy\/

pkwçd y#doaE¨wYdk \ csKyfyçHk jzpfyuHk dk oabmus NyD;aom þa,m*Donf ]]b0a[mif;u emrf½yk f wpkw H ckrQ
b0opfoYdk ajymif;a½TUvmonfr[kw?f xkb d 0a[mif;üom t<uif;rJh csKyfq;Hk oGm;avonf/ b0opfü a½S;uHaMumifçh
emrf½yk t
f opfrsm;om jzpfay:Muonf}}[lí odjrif oabmusaomaMumifh ]]twdwb f 0u emrf½yk wf Ydk onf xkt
d wdwf
b0üomvQif csKyfq;Hk cJMh uíç rNrJuek f [lí¤if;? ,ckb0 emrf½yk w f Ydk vJ ,ckb0üomvQif csKyfq;Hk Muíç rNrJuek f
[lí¤if;? aemifb0ü emrf½yk w f Ydk vJ xkbd 0üyif csKyfq;Hk Murnfjzpfíç rNrJuek -f [lí¤if;}} þokYd vJ qifjcifrwd wf\/
þqifjcifro I nfum; or®oeÓPf\ tpaywnf;/

okYd jzpfíç jzpfcu


dk f emrf½yk u
f dk ½Irw
S pf OfrmS yif? jycJah om enf;ig;yg;wkYd wiG f wenf;enf;jzifh emrf½yk \
f
taMumif;wkYd udk xku d of nftm;avsmfpmG awGUjrifí ]]umv 3-yg;ü taMumif;emrf½yk af Mumifh tusKd;emrf½yk rf Qom
jzpfay:vsuf ½Sad eonf}}[k oabmusvsuf NrJNrHpmG qk;H jzwfEidk af om todÓPfonf acgifxyd o f Ydk a&mufaom ypö,
y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf rnf\/ þÓPfonfyifvQif jycJNh yD;aom ,krH mS ;rI (16)yg;wkYd u¤dk if;? bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCmç odum©
ok;H yg;ç twdwf emrf½yk çf tem*wf emrf½yk çf ypöKyÜef emrf½yk çf tcsif;csif;qufpyfí jzpfaom taMumif; tusKd;w&m;-
[laom þXme½Spyf g;üjzpfaom ,krH mS ;rI (8) yg;wkYd u¤dk if;? vGeaf jrmuf y,fcgG Ekid af omaMumifh ucFg0dw&P 0do'k v d̈ J
rnf\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 40

plVaomwmyef

£rdem ye ÓaPe orEém*awm 0dyóaum Ak'o ¨ moae v'¨.ómaom v'¨ywda|m ed,w*wdaum


plVaomwmyaEémemr a[mwd/ /(0do'k rd̈ *f 2-240)/

ye? ucFg0dw&P 0do'k \ d̈ tusKd;um;/ £rdem ÓaPe? ucFg0dw&P 0do'k d̈ rnfaom þÓPfEiS /hf
orEém*awm? jynfph aHk om/ 0dyóaum? 0dyóem ½Iaom olonf/ Ak'o ¨ moae? jrwfpmG bk&m;\ tqkH;tr=
omoemawmfü/ v'¨.ómaom? &tyfNyD;aom oufom&m ½So d nfjzpfí/ &tyfNyD;aom axmufwnf&m ½Sod nfjzpfí/
ed,w *wdaum? ude;f aoNrJaom ok*wd½adS om/ plVaomwmyaEém emr? plVaomwmyef=aomwmyefi,f rnfonf/
a[mwd? jzpf\/

t&d,mzkvd o
f nf omoemawmfü oufom&m tppfaywnf;? t&d,mr*fonf axmufwnf&m tppfay
wnf;/ þa,m*Donfum; xkt d &d,m r*fç zkv d w f Ydk udk r&ao;ay/ okYd aomfvçJ xkrd *fzv dk u
f dk {uef&apEkid af om
½IrwS rf t I usifüh wnfaomaMumifh ]]oufom&m axmufwnf&mwkYd udk &aom ol}}[lí qkt d yfayonf/ wenf;um;-
emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPf jzifh emrf½yk w f Ydk udk trSet f wkid ;f od&íç omoemü w&m;ESiq hf idk af om ygrkZÆ=tenf;i,f ESpo f rd hf
tm;&rIudk &ay\/ xkYd aMumifçh ]oufom&mukd &onf}[k qkad yonf/ ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf jzifh ]]taMumif;aMumifh
jzpfaom emrf½yk rf Qom ½So d nf}}[k odNyD;jzpfaomaMumifçh igaumif½o dS nf [lí¤if;? owå0gawGudk bk&m;ocifu
zefqif;onf[í l ¤if;? taMumif;rJh tvkv d ydk if igaumif jzpfay:vmonf [lí¤if;}} þokYd ponfjzifh xifrmS ; ,lrmS ;
aom'd|d rjzpfEidk Nf yD? xk'd |d rd sm;aMumifçh ,kMH unfr=I o'¨gw&m; rysuEf idk Nf yD/ omoemü rysuEf idk f rvIyEf idk af tmif
NrJcidk w
f nfwahH om þo'¨gESihf jynfph aHk omaMumifh ]]axmufwnf&mukd &onf}}[k qkad yonf/ *wdNrJyçHk plVaomwmyef
rnfyu Hk dk atmufyg r[m#Dumjzifh odtyf\/

t-y&d[eD -ucFg0dw&P0do'k a¨d um 0dyóaum avmud,m[d oDvorm"dynmorÜ'g[d orEém*wwåm


Owå&d tyÜ#d 0dZÑaEÅmyd ok*wdy&m,aem a[mwDwd 0kwHå ]]ed,w*wdaum}} wd/ wawm {0 plVaomwmyaEém emr
a[mwd/ (2-385)

t-y&d[eD -ucFg0dw&P0do'k a¨d um? rqkw, f w


k f rysufp;D aom ucFg0dw&P0do'k d̈ ½Sad om/ 0dyóaum?
0dyóema,m*Donf/ avmud,m[d oDvorm"dynmor®'g[d? jynfph =Hk pifMu,faom avmuD oDvç orm"dç ynm
wkYd EiS /hf orEém*wwåm? jynfph jHk cif;aMumif/h Owå&d tyÜ#0d Zd ÑaEÅmyd? txuf ÓPfx;l w&m;xl;ukd rodjim;aomfv/J
ok*wdy&m,aem? ok*wdvQif vm;&m½So d nf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ £wd? xkYd aMumif/h ed,w*wdaumwd? NrJaom*wd
½Sdonf[lí/ 0kwåH? rdefYqkdtyf\/ wawm{0? xk*d wdNrJjcif;aMumifyh ifvQi/f plVaomwmyaEém emr? *wdNrJyHk
tenf;i,fwrl Qí plVaomwmyef rnfonf/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/

þ#DumwGif t-y&d[eD -ucFg0dw&P0do'k a¨d um [laomyk'jf zifh þokYd aom teufujdk y\/ 'd|Ed iS hf 0dpu d pd mä
uif;NrJyif uif;uGmqJjzpfí þucFg0dw&P0do'k d̈ rqkw, f wk rf ysufp;D aom oltm;omvQif ]*wdNrJonf}[kwu dk ½f udk f
jy\/ xkYd jyifç þ0do'k o d̈ nf avmukw&å m r[kwaf o;? avmuDrQ omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh qkw, f w
k yf sufp;D Ekid af o;\?
rdrt
d vkv d dk roifph mG ESv;Hk oGi;f rdjcif;aMumif; jzpfapç rdpmä w&m;ukd emMum; rdjcif;aMumifh jzpfapç ,krH mS ;rI=0dpu d pd mä vJ
jzpfEidk af o;\? xifrmS ;rIç ,lrmS ;rI='d|v d J jzpfEidk af o;\/ xk'd |d 0d pd u
d pd mä wkYd NrJNrHpmG jzpfaomtcgü þ0do'k o ¨d nf
qkw, f w k f ysufp;D av\/ xkt d cgüum; ]*wdNrJonf}[k rqkt d yfaMumif;ukv d J Aswad &u=ajymif;jyefenf;jzifjh y\/

oDvorm"dynmorÜ'g[d orEém *wwåm [laom tyk'd jf zifv h J þokYd jy\/ tm;xkwq f üJ ç pifMu,faom
oDvç orm"dç ynm þok;H yg;vk;H ESihf jynfph aHk omaMumifh *wdNrJonf}}[k wkduf½kdufjy\/ xkdYjyif ]]0dyóemtvkyfukd
pGeYf vw T vf su?f oDvç orm"dç ynmwkYd ysufp;D aecku d üf um; *wdNrJonf}}[k rqkt d yfaMumif;ukv
d J ajymif;jyefenf;jzifh
jy\/ okYd jzpfíç þ0do'k Ed̈ iS hf jynfph aHk om olonf 0dyóem ½IqaJ omfvJ jzpf&rnf? 0dyóem½IqrJ [kwyf guç
'd|0d pd u d pd mä wkYd uif;NrJyif uif;uGmqJjzpfí? t,kwq f ;Hk tm;jzifh oDv pifMu,fqaJ omfvJ jzpf&rnf/ okYd jzpfro S mvQif
]*wd NrJonf}[k ,kMH unfpw d cf soifah yonf/ ]]ig plVaomwmyefjzpfNyD? *wd NrJNyD}}[k xkÓ d PfrQjzifh tm;&auseyf
NyD;vQifç 0dyóemtvkyu f dk pGeYf vw
T í f oDvodum© rQukyd if pifMu,fpmG rapmifah ½SmufbJ ayghavsmhpmG aejcif;iSgum;
roifo h nfomwnf;/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 41

*wdNrJ&m b0 tykdif;tjcm;

þplVaomwmyef\*wdonf tpOfxm0& b0wkid ;f ü NrJoavm¿ okYd r[kw.f ...'kw, d b0üom NrJoavm¿


[ljim;tH/h 'kw, d b0üom ]]{uefNrJonf}}[k pdwcf s&\/ wwd,b0ponfüum; ]]{uefNrJonf}}[k pdwrf cs&ao;
ay/ taMumif;rlum; .... jycJah om #Dumü ]]ucFg0dw&P0do'k d̈ rqkw, f w k yf grS *wdNrJonf [lí¤if;? avmuD oDvç
orm"dç ynmwkYd EiS hf jynfph aHk omaMumifh *wdNrJonf [lí¤if;}} rdeYf qadk om pum;wkYd jzifh ]],ck b0üaomfvJ oDvç
orm"dEiS hf ucFg0dw&P ÓPfynmwkYd ysufp;D cRwf,iG ;f Ekid af o;onfu¤dk if;? xkt d cgrSm 'kw, d b0üaomfvJ *wdNrJ&ef
taMumif;r½Sdonfukd¤if;}} xif½Sm;az:jy\/ 'kw, d b0 ponfü xko d v D ç orm"dç ynmwkYd ysufp;D Ekid í f ? wwd,b0
ponfü {uef*wdNrJ&ef taMumif;r½So d nfrmS qkbd , G yf ifr½Sad wmhNyD/ þrQom ruao;? axmufxm;bG,f taMumif;
wyg;vJ ½Sdao;\? igwkYd \ bk&m;tavmif;awmfonf vGecf ahJ om uyÜgaygif; 3-toacFsxufu yGiahf wmfral om
aum@n jrwfpGmbk&m;rS pí? 9-qlaom bk&m;½Siw f Ydk \xHawmfü 9-b0wkid w f idk f &[ef;ûycJb h ;l onf-[k Ak'0¨ ifygVd
üvm\/ jrwfpmG bk&m;xHü &[ef;ûyaom bk&m;tavmif;awmf[o l rQonf *wypöm*w 0wfudk jznfu h sivhf suf
0dyóemukd yGg;apí tEkavmrÓPfwidk af tmif qku d af &mufí wnfonf[k rZdÑryPÖmo C#Dum&okwt f zGihf
t|uxm ponfwYdk ü rdeYf q\ dk / ]]okre jrwfpmG bk&m;ç 0dyóD jrwfpmG bk&m;wkYd \ vufxufrmS igwkYd \ bk&m;
tavmif;awmfonf e*g;rif;jzpfvsuf Asm'dwcf cH o hJ nf? y'kr jrwfpmG bk&m;\ vufxufrmS jcaoFrh if;jzpfvsuf
Asm'dwcf cH o
hJ nf}}[k Ak'0¨ ifygVdü vm\/ þuyÜgü jzpfaom Zmwfç edygwfç 0w¬K rsm;pGmwkYd ü bk&m; tavmif;awmf
onf wd&pämeftjzpfoYdk a&mufvsuf½o dS nfudk awGU&\/ awrd,ZmwfwiG f i&Jü jzpfco hJ nfuv dk J awGU&\/xkYd aMumifçh
þygVdt|uxm pum;tvk;H pku H dk pyfíMunfv h Qif ucFg0dw&P0do'k x d̈ uf vGeu f jJ rifjh rwfvpS mG aom ocFg½kayu©m
ÓPfoYdk a&mufNyD;aom bk&m;tavmif;awmfjrwfaomfrS ok*wdü xm0&rNrJaMumif;ç tyg,*wdrS rvGwaf o;
aMumif;ç ukd xif½mS ; od&\/ bk&m;tavmif;awmfuo hJ Ydk o'¨gç 0D&,d ponfvJ rxufoef ocFg½kayu©matmufvJ
rsm;pGm atmufwef;usvsuf ucFg0dw&PÓPfrQESio hf m jynfph aHk om omrefy*k Kd¾ vftm; tpOfxm0& *wdNrJjcif;onf
tb,frmS jzpfEidk yf gawmhtehH nf;¿/ okdYjzpfíç tyg,fbrHk S tpOfxm0& vGwu f if;í *wdNrJjcif;ukd vkv d m;aom ol
onf aomwmywdrå *fjzifh ouúm,'d|u d dk t<uif;rJyh ,fEidk &f ef xufoefaompdwx f m;jzifh rem;rqkwf qufvufí
om tm;xkw&f m\/ ucFg0dw&P0do'k r¨d Qjzifh pdwcf svufcs tm;&í aejcif;iSgum; roifo h nfomwnf;/

oH,kwf ygVd Mo0g' rdefYcGef;awmf

owd,
å m 0d, Mora|m? ',Srmaem0 rw¬au/
ouúm,'d|yd [mem,? oawm bduK© y&dAaÁ Z/

owd, å m? vSjH zif/h Mora|m 0d,? &if0 v,fEu dI çf xk;d pku


d f cH&ç emusifvaS om olonf? xkv d u
HS odk mç vsifpmG
EIwf&efç BuHzef raES;ç pdwrf at;bJç ta&;wBuD;ç okwo f ;D okwjf ymç tm;xkw&f m ouJo h Ydk ¤if;/ rw¬au? OD;acgif;ü/
',Srmaem £0? &J&J ajymifajymifç rD;avmifc&H ç ylavmifvaS om olonf? xkrd ;D uko d mç vsipf mG Nidr;f &efç BuHzefraES;ç
pdwrf at;bJç ta&;wBuD;ç okwo f ;D okwjf ymç tm;xkw&f m ouJo h Ydk ¤if;/ bduK© ? oHo&mab;ç aemifta&;ukçd
BuHawG;arQmfaxmufç &GUH aMumufavh½adS om olonf/ ouúm,'d|d y[mem,? xif½mS ;½Sad om emrf½yk t f aygif; tpOfrQü
twåta,mifç igaumif taetm;jzifh xifrmS ;aom ouúm,'d|u d dk t&d,mr*fÓPftvif;jzifh t<uif;rJh y,fjcif;iSg/
oawm? trSw&f rI-rarhr-I [laomowdEiS hf jynfph o Hk nfjzpfí/ y&dAaÁ Z? r&yfrem;ç vGwaf jrmufatmif xGuo f mG ;&m
\/ 0g? acgif;u rD;vQHç &ifuvSu H çdk y,f&efrtm;ç vspfvsLxm;íaomfvçJ rem;rqkwçf tm;yg;xkwí f ç okwo f w k f
vsifpmG ç ½Irw
S &f mawmhownf;/

ypö,y&d*¾[ÓPfESifh ucFg0dw&P0dok'd¨ NyD;\?


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 42

or®oeÓPf

twDwmem*wypöKyÜEmé eH "r®meH ocÐyw


d mG
0yw¬mae ynm or®oae ÓPH/ (y#dord'Ç gr*f-1)

twDwmem*wypöKyÜEmé eH? twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef jzpfuek af om/ "r®meH? emrf½yk w


f &m;wkYd u/dk ocÐyw
d mG ?
csKH;í/ 00w¬maeynm? ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwfaom todynmonf/ or®oae ÓPH? ok;H oyf qifjcifaom ÓPfrnf\/

ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf acgifxyd o f Ydk a&mufvQif ypöKyÜeu f saom rSwcf sufrsm;ü rSwrf ad om ½kyef mrf\ jzpfryI surf I
wkYd udk xif½mS ;awGU&\? jzpfay:NyD;vQif wcP twGif;rSmyif ukefqkH;oGm;onfukd rsuaf rSmuf awGU&\/ xkYd aMumifçh
rSwrf ad om ½kyef mrfwYdk udk ]]jzpfay:NyD;vQif ukeu f ek of mG ;aomaMumifçh rNrJ[í l ¤if;? jzpfryI sufruI rjywfEydS pf ufaom
aMumifçh qif;&J[í l ¤if;? tvkt d wkid ;f rjzpfaomaMumifçh twåaumif=igaumifr[kwf [lí¤if;}} odjrifoabmus\/
]]rNrJwm rSeyf gayonf? qif;&Jwm raumif;wm rSeyf gayonf? igaumif r[kww f mç igaumif r½Sw d m rSeyf gayonf}}
[lívJ qifjcifrw d wf\/ þokYd wBudrrf Q jzpfapç tBudrrf sm;pGm jzpfapç oabmusNyD;aom tcgüç rsufarSmuf
jrifNyD;aom xked mrf½yk Ef iS hf EIid ;f qí? tvk;H pkaH om twdwf emrf½yk çf tem*wfemrf½yk çf ypöKyÜeef mrf½yk f w&m;wkYd uv dk J
]]onfvw dk &m;rsKd;csnf;bJ? rNrJwmcsnf;bJ? qif;&Jwmcsnf;bJç raumif;wmcsnf;bJ? igaumif r[kww f hJ oabmrQ
csnf;bJ}}[k waygif;xnf; tusOf;csKH;í ½Iqifjcif\/ jzpfcu dk ef mrf½yk u
f dk toD;toD; obm0vu©Pmtm;jzifh
tus,f½IrSwfovkd r[kwrf í l twdww f &m;tvk;H pkçH tem*wfw&m;tvk;H pkçH ypöKyÜew f &m;tvk;H pkwH Ydk udk waygif;xnf;
tusOf;csKH;vsuf qifjcif qk;H jzwfaom þÓPfonf or®oeÓPf rnf\/ rSwo f rd -I ypöuÓ
© Pfuo hJ Ydk toD; toD;
r½Irí l ? taygif;vku d t
f m;jzifh ½IqifjcifaomaMumif?h þÓPfuydk if uvmy or®oeÓPf [lí¤if;ç rsufarSmuf
jrifNyD;aom emrf½yk rf S enf;rS;D í ½IqifjcifaomaMumifh e,0dyóem [lí¤if;ç 0do'k rd̈ *fü rdeYf qadk vonf/ e,
reodum&ç e, 'óe [lívJ ac:tyfao;\/ atmufyg uxm0w¬Kt|uxmjzifh odygav/

{uocFg&ómyd tedpb
ö m, 'd|m, ]]oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpmö }} wd t0aoaook e,awm reoduma&m
a[mwd/

]]oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpmö }}wd tm'd0peH e,awm 'óeH oE¨m,0kw?Hå e {uu©aP tm&r®Pawm/ (251)

{uocFg&ómyd? wckaomocFg&\aomfv/J tedpö wm,? rNrJonf\tjzpf=rNrJjcif;[laom tedpv ö u©Pm


uk/d 'd|m,? rSwo f rd =I ypöuÓ © Pfjzifh jriftyfNyD;vwfaomf/ ]]oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpmö }}wd? tvk;H pkaH omocFg&wkYd
rNrJuek [f íl / t0aoaook? <uif;aomocFg&wkYd ü/ 0g? rsufarSmufrjrif&aom ocFg&wkYd ü/ e,awm reoduma&m?
enf;rS;D aomtm;jzifh ESv;Hk oGi;f jcif;onf/ a[mwd jzpf\/

]]oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpmö }}wd tm'd0peH? }}oaAÁ ocFg &mtedpmö ç ,'g ynm, yówd? oaAÁ ocFg&m
'kum© wdç ,'g ynm,yówd? oaAÁ "r®m tewåmç ,'g ynm, yówd}} þokYd tp½Sad om pum;uk/d e,awm
'óeH oE¨m,? enf;rS;D aomtm;jzifh ½Ijrifjcif;uk&d nf&,
G í
f / 0kw?Hå a[mawmfrt
l yf\/ {uu©aP? wBudrx f nf;aom
pdwfcPü/ tm&r®Pawm 'óeH oE¨m,? rsufarSmuf tm½kûH yojzifh ½Ijrifjcif;ukd &nf&, G í
f / e 0kw?Hå a[mtyfonf
um; r[kwaf y/

txufyg t|uxmjzifh þokYd aom teufudk xif½mS ;odtyf\/ e,reodum&ç e,0dyóem rnfaom
or®oeÓPfonf aMumifMh upku d í
f a½S;OD;pGm jzpfapEkid af umif;aom ÓPfr[kwaf y? ½IrwS af om ypöuÓ© Pfjzifh
wBudrrf Q jzpfapç tBudrrf sm;pGmjzpfapç tedpçö 'kuç© tewå vu©PmwkYd udk aumif;pGm odjrif oabmusNyD;rS omvQif?
oabmusonf tm;avsmfpmG qifjcifq;Hk jzwfvsuf tvkv d jdk zpfay:vmaom todÓPfom jzpfonf[al om þ
teufudk xif½mS ;odtyf\/

þor®oeÓPfonf yifu, dk Óf PfxufoEl iS hf okwrsm;olwYdk rmS qifjcifru


I t
dk av;ûyvQif us,f0ef;pGmjzpf
wwf\? us,f0ef;pGmjzpfaevQif qifjcifru I omrsm;í? ½IrwS rf u
I eJaomaMumif?h txufÓPfrsm;okYd rwk;d wufEidk b f J
xkÓ
d Pfüom tcsed u f mv Mumjrifah ewwf\/ owdûyyg/ yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;pGmwkYd \ tvkt d m;avsmfpmG þÓPfjzpfyu Hk dk
y#dord'Ç g r*fü us,0f ef;pGm a[mawmfr\
l / tcsKdU tenf;i,frQuko d m þü xkwjf yaytH/h
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 43

,H udOdö ½lyH twDwmem*wypöKyÜEéHç tZÑwåH 0g A[d'¨g 0gç MoVm&duH 0g okckrH 0gç [DeH 0g yPDwH 0gç ,H
'la& oEÅdau 0g/ oAÁH ½lyH tedpaö wm 00w¬aywd? {uH or®oeH/ 'kua© wm 00w¬aywd? {uH or®oeH/ ttew¬
awm 00w¬aywd? {uH or®oeH/

(yXr0g& ygVd-51)

twDwmem*wypöKyÜE?Hé vGeNf yD; twdw½f yk jf zpfapç jzpfvwHh tem*wf½yk jf zpfapç jzpfqJ ypöKyÜe½f yk jf zpfap/
tZÑwåH 0g A[d'¨g 0g? uk, d wf iG ;f ½kyjf zpfapç ud,k yf ½kyjf zpfap/ MoVm&duH 0g okcrk H 0g? BuD;us,f Murf;wef;aom½kyf
jzpfapç ao;i,f odraf rGUaom½kyjf zpfap/ [DeH 0g yPDwH 0g? qk;d 0g; ,kwn f ahH om½kyf jzpfapç aumif;rGejf rifjh rwfaom
½kyjf zpfap/ ,H 'la& oEÅad u 0g? a0;aom½kyjf zpfapç eD;aom½kyfjzpfap/ ,H udOdö ½lyH? trSwfr½Sd tvkH;pkHaom ½kyfonf/
twd¬? ½Sd\/ wH oAÁH ½ly?H xkt d vk;H pkaH om ½kyu f /dk tedpaö wm 00w¬aywd? rNrJ[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\/ {uH or®oeH?
ok;H oyfqifjcifrI ÓPfwckaywnf;/ wH oAÁH ½ly?H xkt d vk;H pkaH om ½kyu
f /dk 'kua© wm 00w¬aywd? qif;&J-[k ykid ;f jcm;
qk;H jzwf\/ {uH or®oeH? ok;H oyfqifjcifrI ÓPfwckaywnf;/ wH oAÁH ½ly?H xkt d vk;H pkaH om½kyu
f /dk tewåawm
00w¬aywd? igaumif r[kw[ f k ydik ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\/ {uH or®oeH? ok;H oyfqifjcifrI ÓPfwckaywnf;/

½lyH twDwmem*wypöKyÜEHé tedpHö c,a|eç 'kuH© b,a|eç tewåm t.om&ua|em wd ocØyw


d mG 00w¬mae
ynm or®oae ÓPH/ ('kwd, 0g&-51)

twDwmem*wypöKyÜE?Hé vGeNf yD;½kyçf jzpfvwH½h yk çf jzpfq½J yk o


f nf/ c,a|e? ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aom teufoabm
aMumif/h tedpEö ?dÅ rNrJ-[lí¤if;/ b,a|e? aMumufz, G af umif;aom teufoabmaMumif/h 'kuE© ?dÅ qif;&J-[lí¤if;/
t.om&ua|e? igaumif[k qkb d ,
G &f m tESprf ygaom teufoabmaMumif/h tewåm wd? igaumifr[kwçf igaumif
r½Sd-[lí¤if;/ ocØyw d mG 00w¬maeynm? tusOf;csKH;í ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwfaom todynmonf/ or®oae ÓPH?
or®oeÓPf rnf\/

½lyH twDwmem*wypöKyÜEHé tedpHö ocFwH y#dpo


ö rkyEÜ Hé c, "r®H 0,"r®H 0d&m*"r®H eda&m""r®EdÅ ocØyw
d mG
00w¬mae ynmor®oae ÓPH/ (wwd, 0g&-52)

twDwmem*wypöKyÜE?Hé vGeNf yD;½kyçf jzpfvwHh ½kyçf jzpfq½J yk o


f nf/ tedp?Hö rNrJ/ ocFw?H qkid &f m taMumif;wkYd u
nDnw
G í
f ûytyfaom w&m;wnf;/ y#dpo ö rkyEÜ ?Hé taMumif;ukd rSí
D jzpfaom w&m;wnf;/ c,"r®?H ukeq f ;Hk oGm;jcif;
oabm½Sd\/ 0,"r®?H ysufjcif;oabm½S\ d / 0d&m*"r®?H aysmufjy,fjcif; oabm½S\ d / eda&m""r®?H csKyfu, G jf cif;
oabm½Sd\/ £wd? þokYd / ocØywd mG ? 00w¬mae ynm? tusOf;csKH;í ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwfaom todynmonf/or®oae
ÓPH? or®oeÓPf rnf\/

emrfcE¨m 4-yg;ESifh? 'Gg& 6-yg;? tm½kH 6-yg;? 0dnmPf 6-yg;? zó 6-yg;? a0'em 6-yg;-ponfwYdküvJ
enf;wlyif 3-0g&pD a[mawmfr\ l / us,fveG ;f rnfaMumif?h xkd 0g&rsm;ukd þusrf;ürjyNyD? ÓPfjzpfyu
Hk o
dk m jyaytH/h

ypöKyÜeuf satmif rSwEf idk af omtcgü azgif;½kyyf ed ½f yk f xkid ½f yk af uG;½kyf qefY½yk v f yI ½f mS ;½kypf onfwYdk udk ]]zswfueJ
zswfueJay:í ukeq f ;Hk ukeq f ;Hk oGm;Muonf}}[k xif½mS ;od&\/ xkYd aMumifçh rSwo f &d wJh xk½d yk rf sm;ukd ]rNrJwmcsnf;bJ}
[k oabmus\? xkt d cgü ]]a½S;b0u ½ky[ f ol rQvJ ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyrf sm;ESihf twlwb l ?J þ½kyrf sm;vkyd if ukeq f ;Hk
oGm;cJw
h mcsn;f bJ? ,ckb0okYd wpkw H ckrQ ra&mufvmEkid ?f jzpfay:&mXme xkad ½S;b0üomvQif ukeq f ;Hk cJah omaMumifh
rNrJwm csn;f bJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\? þonfvnf; or®oeÓPf wckyifwnf;/ xkYd jyifç ]]a½S;umvu ½kyf
[lorQvJ ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyrf sm;vkyd if ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;cJw
h mcsnf;bJ? ,ck rSwq f J cPwkid af tmif wpkw H ckaom ½kyrf Q
rwnfwEhH idk ?f olwYdk \ jzpfay:&m cPüomvQif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;cJah omaMumifh rNrJwmcsn;f bJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\?
or®oeÓPf wckyifwnf;/

xkYd jyifç ]]aemifb0ü jzpfay:rnfh ½kyf [lorQvJ ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyrf sm;ESihf twlwb
l ?J þ½kyrf sm;vkyd if
wcPcsi;f ukeq f ;Hk oGm;rSm csn;f bJ? wjcm;b0okYd wpkw H ckrQ a&mufEidk rf nfr[kw?f jzpfay:&mXme xkb d 0rSmyif
ukeqf ;Hk oGm;rnf jzpfaomaMumifh rNrJwmcsn;f bJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\? or®oeÓPf wckyifwnf;/ xkYd jyifç
]]aemufumvü jzpfrnfh ½kyf [lorQvJ ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyrf sm;vkyd if ukeq f ;Hk oGm;rSmcsnf;bJ? wjcm;wyg;aom cP
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 44

wkid af tmif wpkw


H ckaom½kyrf Q wnfwEhH idk rf nfr[kw?f olwYdk \jzpfay:&m cPüomvQif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;Murnf jzpfaom
aMumifh rNrJwm csn;f bJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\? or®oeÓPfwckyifwnf;/

xkYd jyifç ]],ck b0½Sd ½kyf [lorQvJ aemifb0okYd wpkw H ckrQ a½TUajymif; oGm;a&mufEidk rf nf r[kw?f ,ck
rSwfod&wJh ½kyfrsm;vkdyif ,ck b0wGio f m ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;rnf jzpfaomaMumifh rNrJwmcsn;f bJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\?
or®oeÓPf wckyifwnf;/

xGuo f uf ½ªpOfç aq;vdyf aomufpOfç wHawG; axG;pOfç usifBuD; usifi,f pGeYf pOfç ponfü ½IrwS í
f ]]xkx d dk
cPrSmyif ukefqkH;oGm;onf}}[k oabmusaomtcg ]twGi;f u ½ky[ f ol rQonf tjyifoYdk ra&mufrí
l twGi;f rSmyif
ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\? ÓPfwckyifwnf;/

0ifouf ½ªpOfç aq;vdyf aomufpOfç pm;aomufpOfç wHawG;rsKdpOfç ponfü ½ªrw S í


f ]]xkx d dk cPrSmyif
ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k oabmusaomtcg ]]tjyifu ½ky[ f ol rQonf twGi;f okYd ra&mufrí
l tjyifrmS yif ukeqf ;Hk oGm;
aomaMumifh rNrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/

BuD;us,fxif½mS ;aom tqif; toH teHY t&om tawGUwkYd u wajz;ajz; ao;i,f odraf rGU oGm;&mü ½Irw S f
í ]]xkdxkdcPrSmyif ukeq f ;Hk ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k oabmusaomtcg ]]BuD;us,f Murf;wef;wJh ½kyf [lorQonf
ao;i,f odraf rGUwJ½h yk t
f jzpfoYdk ra&mufrí l jzpfcudk jf zpfcu
dk rf mS yif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifrh NrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf
\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/

ao;i,f odraf rGUaom tqif; toH teHY t&om tawGUwkYd u wajz;ajz; BuD;rm; xif½mS ;vm&mü ½Irw S í
f
]]xkx
d cdk PrSmyif ukeq f ;Hk ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k oabmusaomtcg ]]ao;i,f odraf rGUwJh ½kyf [lorQonf BuD;us,f
Murf;wef;wJ½h yk t
f jzpfoYdk ra&mufrí l jzpfcu
dk f jzpfcu
dk rf mS yif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifrh NrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\?ÓPf
wckyifwnf;/

rusef;rrm av;vHxidk ;f rIid ;f &mrS usef;rmayghyg; MunfvifomG ;aomtcg ponfü ½Irw S rf í


d ]]xkx
d dk cPrSm
yif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k oabmusvQif? ]]qk;d 0g; ,kwn f w hH hJ ½kyf [lorQonf aumif;rGef jrifjh rwfwhJ ½kyf tjzpfoYdk
ra&mufríl qk;d 0g;,kwn f q
hH rJ mS yif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/

usef;rmayghyg; Munfvifae&mrS rusef;rm rMunfvif av;vH xkid ;f rIid ;f oGm;aomtcg ponfü ½Irw S rf í
d
]]xkx
d dk cPrSmyif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[k oabmusvQif? ]]½kyfaumif; ½kyfoefY [lorQonf ½kyfqkd; ½kyfnHh tjzpfokdY
ra&mufrí l aumif;rGeq f rJ mS yif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/

qefYaom vufajcwkYd udk auG;pOf ponfü ½Irw S rf í


d ]]wa&GUrS wa&GUokYd ra&mufbJ ukeuf ek f oGm;onf}}[k
od&aomtcgü ]]ta0;u ½ky[ f ol rQonf teD;okYd ra&mufvm ra&TUvmbJç ta0;rSmyif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh
rNrJ}}[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/

auG;aom vuf ajcwkYd udk qefYpOf ponfü ½Irw


S rf í
d ]]wa&GUrS wa&GUokYd ra&mufbJ ukef ukeo f mG ;onf}}[k
od&aomtcgü ]]teD;u ½ky[ f o
l rQonf ta0;okYd ra&mufbçJ a½TUroGmG ;bJç teD;rSmyif ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifrh NrJ}}
[k ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwf\? ÓPf wckyifwnf;/ tedpö or®oe NyD;\/

(rSmxm;csuf) þt&mü? MoVm&du okcrk ½kyf tppfwYdk ü¤if;ç vu©Pm tvkt d m;jzifh
'l&oEÅu
d ½kyw f Ydk ü¤if;ç or®oeÓPf jzpfyu
Hk dk todcufrnfaMumifh >cif;csefvu
dk af y
onf/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 45

'ku© or®oe

ysK,
d ,G f use;f rmpOfü? ysK,d ,G f use;f rmaom olwYdkEiS o hf m awGUqkv H suf aysm½f iT pf mG aexkid &f aom olonf
rdr\ d ½kyef mrfrsm;ukd ]aMumufp&maumif;onf}[k xifjrifEidk cf \ J / okYd aomfv?J BuD;&ift h rdk if;aom olonf yvdyaf &m*g
0rf;a&m*g ausmufa&m*gponfaMumifh vltrsm; aoaMuysupf ;D onfudk rMumcPawGUjrif&onfjh yif? rdru d ,dk w
f idk f
vJ aeraumif; xkid rf om jzpfygrlum;? ]igvJ olrsm;vkyd if ao&awmhrnf xifyg&JU}[k awG;awmNyD;vQi?f emwwf
aowwfaom rdr\ d ½kyef mrfrsm;ukd ]aMumufp&maumif;onf}[k vG,u f pl mG yif xifjrifwwf\/ þOyrm twlyif?
½kyef mrfwYkd \ rjywfjzpfysufyu Hk kd ud,
k yf ikd Ó
f Pfjzifh rawGY&ao;vQif? xd½k yk ef mrfwYkd ukd ]aMumufp&maumif;onf} [k
xifjrifEikd cf \ J / odYk aomfvJ jzpfysufq½J yk ef mrfwYdk ukd rjywf½rI w
S í f ? rsufpw d rSw d cf efYrQyif rwnfwb hH J rjywfjzpfysuf
aeonfukd rsufarSmuf awGY&aomtcgüum; xd½k yk ef mrfrsm;udk ]]jzpfcsnf ysufcsnfeYJ rwnfrNrJ waoxJ aoaeaom
aMumifh aMumufp&maumif;onf? jzpfcsnf ysucf snef YJ rjywf ESyd pf ufaeaomaMumifv h J aMumufp&maumif;onf?
&GrH ek ;f p&maumif;onf? raumif;wmcsn;f bJ? qif;&JawGcsn;f bJ}}[k vG,u f pl mG yif odjrifoabmusEidk af y\/ ½kyfemrf
a[mif;rsm; ukeyf sufomG ;wkid ;f ½kyef mrftopf rjzpfay:vmygu? aornfh tcdsefcsnf;om jzpfí? raoEdik af o;bl;
pdwcf s&wJh tcsdeu f mv r½Sad omaMumifv h J ]aMumufp&m aumif;onf} [k odjrif oabmusEidk af y\/ rcHomaom
a0'emtrsdK;rsdK;udk xif½mS ; awGY&ojzifv h J qif;&J tpkta0;rQ [k oabmusEkid af y\/

xdUk aMumifh azgif;½kyf yde½f yk f xdik ½f yk af uG;½kyf qefY½yk f vIy½f yk f ponfwYdk ukd ]]rSwcf u
kd f rSwcf u
kd rf mS yif vsipf mG
ukeyf suf ukeyf sufomG ;onf}} [k rsufarSmufawGY&aom a,m*Donf xd½k yk rf sm;udk ]]jzpfryI sufru I rjywfEydI pf ufjcif;
aMumifh aMumufp&maumif;onf? wysux f yJ suçf waoxJaoaeaomaMumifv h J aMumufp&maumif;onf? rcHomrSk
wkYd \wnf&m jzpfaomaMumifv h J aMumufp&maumif;onf? raumif;wmcsnf;bJ? qif;&JawGcsnf;bJ}} [lí odjrif
oabmus\/ þokYd rsufarSmuf odjrifNyD;aom tcgü? twdw½f yk f tem*wf½yk f ponfwYdk uv kd J ]]þ ½kyv f ykd if rjywf
ESydk pf ufjcif;ç waoxJ aoaejcif;aMumifh aMuufp&mcsnf;bJ? raumif;wmcsnf;bJ? qif;&JawGcsnf;bJ}} [lí ydik ;f jcm;
qk;H jzwf\/ tus,fudk tedpo ö r®oerSm uJo h Ydk odygav/ 'kuo © r®oeNyD;\/

tewå or®oe

twå[k pGv J rf;ykH .......... ½kyfemrfwdkY\oabmrSeu f dk ud,


k yf idk Ó
f Pfjzifh rod&ao;aom AmvykxZk OfwYdkonf cEÅmuk, f f
xJü ]]twåaumif wu,fyif ½Sad eonf}} [k xifrw S f pGv
J rf;uke\ f / xdYk aMumifçh avmuD usrf;q&mwkYd u xdt k wå\
o½kyf owdu å tdk rsdK;rsdK; jyqkud ek \f / xdkwGif 0daoodu 'óeç Esm,'óe usrf;q&mwkYd u ]]twå [lonfrmS
omrDyif}} [lí qku d ek \ f / em; ta& rsufpd vQm ESmacgif; [laom Ak'ad̈ `E´ ig;yg;ç cHwiG ;f vuf ajc t*FgZmwf 0pör*f
[laom ur®a`E´ ig;yg;ç pdw[ f al om Ob,daNE´wyg;ç þokYd tp½Sad omud, k \
f tpdwt f ykid ;f [lorQud¤k if;? ud,
k f
aumifBuD; wckv;Hk uk¤d if;? tpk;d &ol cE¨mtdr\ f t½Sio f nf twåaumifyif [lí qkv d \
dk / þokdYaom twåpJG ukyd if
y,fazsmufjcif;iSg? ]]½lyH bdu©a0 tewåm? ½lyOö [d'H bdua© 0 twåm tb0dó? e ,d'H ½lyH tmAm"m, oH0awå,s?
varÇx p ½lay{0H ar ½lyH a[mwkç {0Har ½lyH rm ta[moDw}d } þokYd tp½Sad om tewåvu©Pokwu f kd a[mawmfrl
ayonf/

rDro H m usrf;q&mwkYd u ]]twå [lonfrmS um&u yif}} [líqkdukef\/ "m; vT paom u½kP d ;f jzifh jzwfjcif;
cGjJ cif;paom trI=Bud,mudk yk*Kd¾ vf uwåm;u NyD;apouJo h Ydk ? rsufpd em;paom u½kP d ;f ? ajc vufpaom u½kP d ;f
wkYd jzifçh jrifjcif; Mum;jcif; paom trI=Bud,m? oGm;jcif; &yfjcif; xkid jf cif; tdyjf cif; auG;jcif; qefYjcif; paom trI=
Bud,mwkdYudk twåaumif uwåm;uNyD;aponf? ud, k f EIwf pdwf trlt&m [lorQukd `ykwwfNyD; apwwfaomolonf
twåaumifyif[í l qkvd \kd / þum&utwåukd y,fjrpfjcif;iSg? #Dumausmfü ]]wxmed'óeH ye "r®obm0 0derd w k å
ó uwå'ad em tbm0'DewåEdÅ a0'dwAÁ}H } [kred Yf qadk vonf/ orÜZnyAÁtzGihf t|uxmwkYd üvJ? ]],xm tE©Amv
ykxZk eÆ m tbdurú m'Dok twåm tbdurú wdç twåem tbduaú rm edAw Á adå wmwd0gç t[H tbdurú mrdç r,m tbduú
arm edAw Á adå wm wd 0gç or®K,SEdÅ wxm tor®K,SaEÅm}} [lí¤if;? ]]tAÇEaÅ & twåm emr tmavmauwm 0g0davm
au wm0g ew’}d } [lí¤if;? ]]tAÅEaÅ & twåm emr aum0d ordÍaÆ EÅm0g yoma&aEÅm 0g ew’}d } [lí¤if;? rdeYf qadk v
onf/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 46

rDro
H mç ocsFm usrf;q&mwdYk u ]]twå [lonfrmS a0'u=taumif; tqk;d ukd cHpm;wwfoyl if}} [lí qku
d ek f
\/ a0'emudyk if twåaumif[k qk&d ma&muf\/ þa0'u twåukd y,fjrpfjcif;iSg? owdy|meokwf t|uxmwkYd ü
]]aum a0',wDw?d eaumpd oawåm0g yk*a¾ vm 0ga0',bd/ ay/ wo®m{o {0HyZmemwd wHwH okcg'DeH 0wåKH
tm&r®PH uwGma0'em0 a0',wd? wHye a0'emy0wåð Oyg'g, t[H a0',mrDwad 0g[m&rwåH a[mwDw}d } [lí
rdeYf qadk vonf/ ¤if;\ #DumüvJ ]]"r®0ed rd wk ó
å tnó uwåK tbm0awm "r®aó0uwåKbm0H 'aómaEÅm .....
a0'em0 a0',wDwd tm[}} [k rdeYf qadk vonf/ þ#Dumjzifh um&u twåuv kd J y,fjrpf\/

xdak vmuDusrf;q&m tm;vk;H wkYd u ]]twå [lonfrmS ed0goD=cE¨mtdrf ysufp;D oGm;aomfvçJ olu rysufbJ
tNrJwrf;wnf½adS eol [lí¤if;? o,H0oD=rdru d olwyg;\ tvdo k Ydk rvdu
k b
f çJ £a`E´paom tpdwt
f ykid ;f wkYd EiS w hf uG
wuk,d v
f ;Hk ukd rdrt
d vdt
k wkid ;f NyD;apEkid o
f [
l í
l ¤if;? t"d|m,u=cE¨mtdr\ f tBuD;tuJjzpfí t&m&mudk pDrcH efYcw JG wf
ol [lí¤if;}} qdkukef\/ þ ed0goD twåponfuv kd J y,fjrpfjcif;iSg qquúow k çf tewåvu©Pokwçf ponfwYdk udk
a[mawmfral yonf/

twåaumif[k þ pGv J rf;rIrsm;onf? &HcgrSm cE¨m wyg;yg;tay:ü usa&muf\/ &HcgrSm cE¨m 2-yg;? 3-yg;?
4-yg;tay:ü usa&muf\/ &HcgrSm cE¨mig;yg;vk;H tay:ü usa&muf\/ jrwfpmG bk&m;\vufxufawmfu xifay:
ausmaf pmaom opöuy&AdZk f BuD;onfum; cE¨mig;yg;vk;H ukyd if twåaumif[k pGv J rf;\/ xkYd aMumifçh olonf jrwfpmG
bk&m;\xHawmfü ]]t[H [dabm a*gwr {0H 0'grdç½lyH ar twåmç a0'em ar twåmç onm artwåmç ocFg&m ar
twåmç 0dnmPHartwåmç wd}} [k0efcHav\/ cE¨m ig;yg;rS tvGwf jzpfaom uodP k ;f ½kypf aom ynwf
oufoufuv kd J twå [kpv JG rf;rI½adS o;\/ okYd aomfvçJ xkpd v
JG rf;rIuvkd J ]cE¨mig;yg;tay:üyif usa&mufonf} [krw S f
tyf\/ avmuDusrf;q&mwkYd ynwftyfaom twåaumif\ yko H @efuv kd o
J vd vdk Qif? tb,m&mrq&mawmf\
tbd"mefeo d sopfrmS Munf½h yI gav/

jrefrmwkYd uvJ ]]igaumifuyif jrifonf? Mum;onf? þokYd ponfjzif¤h if;? igaumifuyif oGm;onf?
&yfonf? xkid o f nf? tdyo f nf? auG;onf? qefYonf? ajymqko d nf? þokYd ponfjzif¤h if;? igaumifuyif qif;&J
csrf;omudk cHpm;onf? þokYd ponfjzif¤h if;? tvd½k w dS idk ;f jrifEidk cf oJ nf? oGm;Ekid o
f nf? þokYd ponfjzif¤h if;}} xifrw S f
pGv
J rf;Mu\/ rysuf rpD;bJ tNrJ wnfwahH om toufvyd jf ymaumif 0dnmPfaumif igaumif wu,fyif ½Sad eonf
[lívJ xifrw S Mf u\/ xkYd aMumifçh jrefrmwdYk rmS vJ avmuDusrf;q&mwkYd qdo k nft
h wkid ;f yif xdu
k o
f nftm;avsmfpmG
twå[k pGv J rf;rI ½So d nfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç ]]rjywfjzpfysufaewJh ½kyef mrf tpOfrQom½So d nf? tvkt
d wkid ;f NyD;ap
Edik af om xko d Ykd aom igaumifum; r½Sb d ;l }} [lí okwr,ÓPfjzifh tzefzefqifjcifum ajzazsmufygaomfvçJ xko d Ydk
aom xifrw S f pGv J rf;rIukd vk;H 0 uif;aysmufap&efum; rpGr;f Ekid b f J ½SMd uavonf/

tewå xifyHk ........ ay:vmwkdi;f aom ½kyef mrf trlt&mwkYd udk ½Irw S íf ? cPrpJ jzpf ysufvsuf ½Sad om ½kyef mrfrQudk
om rsufarSmufawGU&aom a,m*Donfum; ]]igaumif [kac:p&m tvdt k wkid ;f NyD;apEdik w
f hJ tESpt f om;uk}d } rawGU&
aomaMumifçh ]]igaumifum;r½S?d rf jywf jzpfysufaeaom ½kyef mrf 2 rsKd;rQom ½So d nf? igaumifum; r[kw?f rjywf
jzpfysufaeaom ½kyef mrf 2 rsKd;rQom [kwo f nf}}[k aumif;pGm qk;H jzwfEidk af y\/ xkYd aMumifçh taMumif;tm;avsmfpmG
zswfueJ zswfueJ jzpfay:í ukeyf suf ukeyf suf oGm;aom azgif;½kyf yde½f yk f xkid ½f yk f auG;½kyf qefY½yk f vIy½f mS ;½kyf
ponfwYdk ukd xif½mS ;pGm awGU&aomtcgü þokYd oabmuswwf\/ ykHum; ..... þ½kyfrsm;u? rjzpfapvkdaomfvJ
raeMu? taMumif;nDñw G v f Qif jzpfay:vmwmcsn;f bJ/ rysuaf pvdak omfvrJ &? olUtcsed u f svQif ysuo f mG ;wmcsn;f
bJ/ onfvdk jzpfysufaewJh ½kyw f &m;rSm igaumif[k ac:p&m tpk;d ykid w f hJ tESpt f om;vJr½S?d tjrJwnfah eEdik w f hJ tESpf
tom;vJr½S?d tvdt k wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f hJ tESpt f om;vJr½S/d xk½d yk wf &m;uvJ? igaumif[ak c:p&m tpd;k ydik w f hJ tESpf
tom;vJr[kw?f tNrJwnfaeEkid w f hJ tESpt f om;vJr[kw?f tvdt k wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f t hJ ESptf om;vJr[kw/f xkYd aMumifçh
]]tpd;k r&bl;? igaumifr½Sb d ;l ? igaumifr[kwb f ;l ? tewåoabm w&m;rQom ½So d nf}}[k qdw k mrSeyf gonf-[lí
oabmuswwf\/ þokYd oabmusjcif;rSm rjzpfapvdw k hJ ½kyt
f rlt&m wpkw H ck jzpfay:vmwmudk awGU&wJt h cgrSm
vJ píjzpfwwf\/ tNrJwnfwahH eapvkw d hJ ½kytf rlt&m wpkw H ck ysufomG ;wmukd awGY&wJt h cgrSvJ pí jzpfwwf\/
rSwqf rJ mS yif? rSwo f &d wJh ½kyef mrf\tjzpftysufukd xif½mS ;awGU&í ]]tpd;k ydik w f hJ igaumifr½S?d tNrJ wnfaeEkid w f hJ
igaumifr½S?d tvdt k wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f hJ igaumifr½S?d rjywf jzpfysufaewJh oabmw&m;rQom ½So d nf}} [k odjrif
oabmusjcif;onf tewåvu©Ptppfukd rsufarSmufawGUjrifaom tewåor®peOmPf tppfaywnf;/xkYd aMumifyh ifç
]]tewåmtom&ua|emwd ocøyw d mG 00w¬mae ynm or®oae ÓPH}} [laom yg|d\tzGihf 0do'k rd̈ *fü atmufyg
twkid ;f rdeYf qadk vNyD/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 47

oAÁrdÜ wH tewåm tom&ua|e? tom&ua|emwd twåmomrD ed0goD um&aum a0'aum o,H0oD wd


{0H y&duyÜw
d ó twåom&ó tbma0e/ ,OSd tedpHö 'ku?H© wH twåaemyd tedpw
ö 0H g O',AÁ,yDVeH 0g 0ga&wkH e
oauúmwd? ukawmwó um&um'd bma0g/ (2-245)

wH oAÁr?dÜ rNrJ qif;&Jaom xd½k yk f tvk;H pko H nfvnf;/ t-om&ua|e? tESprf ahJ om teuf oabmaMumif/h
tewåm? twåaumifç igaumifr[kw/f t.om&ua|emwd? t.om&ua|e [l onfum;/ twåm? twå [lonfrmS /
omrD? cE¨mtdr\ f ykid ½f iS w
f nf;/ ed0goD? rysufp;D bJ tNrJwnfaeolwnf;/ um&aum? trlt&m [lorQudk ûywfol
NyD;apwwfow l nf;/ a0'aum? taumif;tqd;k udk cHpm;wwf olwnf;/ o,H0oD? olwyg;tvko d Ydk rvdu
k b f J
ud, k tf vdtk wkid ;f NyD;apwwfow l nf;/ £wd{0H? þokYd / y&duyÜw d ó? AmvykxZk OfwYdk MuHqtyfaom/ twåom&ó?
twåaumif igaumif [laom tESpt f om;\/ t-bma0e? r½Sjd cif;aMumif?h £wd/ þum; t-om&ua|e-
yk'\ f teufwnf;/ [d? rSeaf y\/ ,H? tMuif w&m;onf/ tedp?Hö rNrJ/ 'ku?H© qif;&Jwnf;/ wH? rNrJ qif;&Jaom
xdw k &m;onf/ twåaemyd? rdr\ d aomfv/J tedpw ö 0H g? rNrJonf\ tjzpfu¤kd if;/ O',AÁ,yDVeH 0g? jzpfrI ysufru I
ESyd pf ufjcif;ud¤k if;/ 0ga&wk?H wm;jrpf jcif;iSg/ e oauúmwd? rpGr;f Ekid /f wó? rdr\ d rNrJjcif;ç tEdyS pf ufc&H jcif;udrk S
rwm;jrpfEidk af om xkw d &m;\/ 0g? rdru d rkd Q NrJatmifç csrf;omatmif rûyvkyEf ik af omxkw
d &m;\/ um&um'd bma0g?
olwyg;udk ûywwfol ponf\ tjzpfonf/ ukawm? tb,frmS ½SEd idk af wmhtehH nf;/ (ukawm wó omrd eda0god
um&'dbma0g [k ½Sv d Qifç omí jynfph \
Hk )/

xdYk jyifç awmav;q,f ygVdqidk &f m? oknawmç tewåawm yk'w


f Ydk uv
kd J 0do'k rd̈ *fü atmufygtwkid ;f zGijhf y\/

omrd ed0god um&u a0'um "d|m,u 0d&[dwwm, oknawm/ o,Oö tómrd bm0g'dwm,
tewåawm? (2-247)

omrd ed0god um&ua0'u "d|m,um 0d&[dwwm,? cE¨mtdru f t dk pd;k &ol ykid ½f iS çf rysufq;D bJ tNrJ
wnfaeolç trlt&m [lorQudk ûywwf NyD;apwwfoçl taumif;tqk;d ukd cHpm;wwfoçl t&m&mudk pDrcH efYcw JG wfoçl
wkYd ru
S if;onf\ tjzpfaMumif/h oknawm? twåaumifç igaumifrS qdwo f nf[k ½I\/ o,H p? cE¨m ig;yg;[laom
rdrd uk,d wf idk v
f /J tómrdbm0g'dwm,? ydik ½f iS rf [kwo
f nf\tjzpf ponfEiS o hf m qdik af omaMumif?h 0g? ykid ½f iS tf jzpf
ponf r½Sjd cif;aMumif/h tewåawm? twåaumif r[kw?f igaumifr[kw[ f ½k \
I /

þt|uxmbGiw hf Ydk ukd axmufrí


DS ]]uk,d f taumiftxnf ykoH @mefr½S[ d k ESv;Hk oGi;f ½krH Qjzifh tewåOmPf
tppfrjzpfao;? omrDe0d goDponfjzifh xifrw S t f yfaom twåaumif igaumif r½So d nfukd odjrif oabmusrSom
vQif tewåOmPftppfjzpfonf}} [kNrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/ t½lyjA[®m wkYd rmS ud,
k yf o
Hk @mef rxifaomfvJ twå'|d d
jzpfEidk o
f nfuv
kd J txl; owd½ydS gap/

rsufarSmuf rSwo f &d wJh ½kyu


f ?kd jycJo
h nfth wkid ;f oabmusNyD;aomtcgü? twdwf ½kyf ponfwYdk uv kd J ]]þ
½kyv
f ydk if tpd;k rykid ?f tNrJrwnf? tvdt k wkid ;f rNyD;apEkid af omaMumifçh igaumif r½S?d igaumifr[kw?f oabmw&m;rQ
csnf;om}} [lí ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwf\/ tus,fudk tedpo ö r®oe enf;wlyif odygav/

a0'emonm ocFg& 0dnmPfwYdk üvJ or®oeÚmPf jzpfyu Hk kd þ½kyüf uJo


h Ydk yif csJUí odygav/ todcufaom
tZÑwå A[d'¨ ponfüum; pdwu
f kd y"mexm;í t>rufrQ az:jyOD;tH/hH

uk,
d wf iG ;f ü tm½kûH yvsuf rSwv f sujf zpfaom pdwo f nf tZÑwåpwd f rnf\/ ud, k yf ü tm½kûH yvsuf rSwv f suf
jzpfaom pdwo f nf A[d'p¨ w d f rnf\/ rSwo f rd I pifMu,faom tcgü xkd tZÑwåA[d'¨ pdww f Ydk ukd ]]xdk xdk cPrSmyif
ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}}[ko\ d / xkYd aMumifçh ud,k wf iG ;f uk,
d yf ajymif;vJí tm½kûH yrdwidk ;f rSwrf w
d idk ;f ]]twGi;f u pdwo f nf
tjyifoYdk ra&muf? twGi;f rSmyif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ}}[k oabmus\/ ]]tjyifu pdwv f J twGi;f odYk ra&muf?
tjyifrmS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ\}} [k oabmus\/

MoVm&du okcrk ü ½IyHk .... Murf;wef;wJph w


d çf odraf rGUwJph w
d f wkYd ajymif;vJaom tcgü ]]Murf;wJh pdwu f yif
odraf rGUoGm;onfr[kw?f odraf rGUwJph w
d u
f yif Murf;wef;oGm;onfr[kw?f xko d Ydk cPrSmyif ukeu
f ek o
f mG ;aomaMumifh
rNrJ}} [k oabmus\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 48

[De yPDwü ½IykH ..... tukokdvfpdwf ponfwkdY ajymif;vJí jzpfaomtcgü ]]tukov dk pf w


d çf raumif;wJh
pdwçf qif;&JwphJ w d çf npfErG ;f wJph w d rf sm;uyif ukov dk pf w
d çf aumif;wJph wd çf csrf;omwJph w
d çf MunfvifwphJ w d rf sm;
jzpfvmonfr[kw/f ukov kd pf w
d çf aumif;wJph w
d çf csrf;om MunfvifwphJ w d rf sm;uyif tukov dk pf w
d çf raumif;wJph w d f
qif;&JnpfErG ;f wJph wd rf sm; jzpfomG ;Muonf r[kw?f xkx d kd cPrSmyif ukeu f ek o
f mG ;aomaMumifh rNrJ}} [k oabmus\/

'l& oEÅu d ü ½lyHk ..... ta0; teD;ukd ajymif;vJí ESv;Hk oGi;f rdrw
S rf ad om tcgü ]]ta0;okYd oGm;wJh pdwu f yif
teD;okYd a&mufvmonfr[kw?f teD;pdwu f yif ta0;okYd a&mufomG ;onfr[kw?f xko d YdkcPrSmyif ukeu
f ek o
f mG ;aom
aMumifh rNrJ}} [k oabmus\/

,H ye tedp?Hö wH ,o®m ed,rawm ocFwm'dab'H a[mwd? aweó y&d,m,'óew¬çH ememuma&[d


0g reodum&yÜ0wå'd óew¬çH ]]½lyH twDwmem*wypöKyÜEHé tedpHö ocFwH y#dpo
ö rkyEÜ Hé c,"r®H 0,"r®H 0d&m*"r®H
eda&m" "r®E}dÅ } yke ygVd 0kwmå -[laom 0do'k rd¨ *fEiS hf tnD-

a½S;üxkwjf ycJNh yD;aom ygVdo;Hk 0g&wkYd wiG ?f wwd,0g&udk xyfí a[mawmfrjl cif;rSm? ]]tedpo ö '´g\ teuf
t"dygÜ ,fwl ygVduyJG &d,m,fwYdk ukd jyjcif;iSg¤if;? tjcif;t&m trsKd;rsKd;jzifh ESv;Hk oGi;f rIjzpf wwfonfudk jyjcif;iSg¤if;}}
jzpfayonf/ okYd jzpfíç ocFw=taMumif;nDñw G íf jzpfonf[í l ¤if;? y#dpo ö rkyEÜ =é taMumif;udrk í
DS jzpfonfç
taMumif;½Srd S jzpfonf [lí¤if;? c,"r®=ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf [lí¤if;? 0,"r®=ysufomG ;onfç aysmufu, G o
f mG ;onf
[lí¤if;? 0d&m*"r®=jy,fomG ;onf [lí¤if;? eda&m""r®=csKyfNidr;f oGm;onf [lí¤if;-þokYd odjcif;oabmusjcif;rsm;
udv
k ?J tedpo ö r®oeÓPfcsnf;om[lí odtyf\/ xdYk jyifç tedpaö wm 'kua© wm a&m*awm tp½Sad om tjcif;t&m
av;q,fwYdk jzifh odjcif; oabmusjcif;rsm;vJ? tedpö 'ku© tewåmEkyóemwkYd ü xku d o
f nftm;avsmpf mG 0ifaMumif;
udk y#dorÇ'd gr*fç 0do'k rd¨ *fwYkd ü jyqkad o;\/ xkt d jcif;t&m av;q,fwYdk ukd y#docFgÓPft&mü tusOf;tm;jzifh
xkwfjyygtHh/

jzpfcu
dk f ½kyef mrfu½kd rI w
S v f suf? jzpfrw
I nfrI ysufrw I Ydk ukd ½Si;f vif;pGm od&aomtcgü ]]Zmwdypö,m Z&mr&
PH? towdZmwd,m ewåd Z&mr&PEÅd ocØyw d mG 00wåmae ynm or®oaeÓPH? þokYd tp½Sad om y#dorÇ'D gr*f
pwkw0å g& ygVdEiS thf nD}} jzpfr½I í dS ç wnfrI ysufrI ½S&d onf? tdrk I aorI ½S&d onf? jzpfrI r½Sv d Qifum; wnfrI ysufrçI
tdkrI aorIç r½SdEkdif [lí¤if;? a½S;b0awGuvJ jzpfrI ½Sdíç tdrk I aorI ½Scd &hJ onf? okYd r[kwv f Qifç r½SEd idk [
f íl ¤if;?
aemifb0awGrmS vJ jzpfrI ½Sí d ç tdrk I aorI ½SEd ikd rf nf? odYk r[kwv f Qifç r½SEd ikd [
f í
l ¤if;-þokYd ponfjzifh y#dpo ö rkygÜ 'f
t*Fg 2-&yfukd taMumif;tusdK; pyfvsufpyfvsuf umvok;H yg;ü csKH;í qifjcifq;Hk jzwfaom ÓPfvJ jzpfwwf\/
þÓPfonfum; or®oeÓPftppfr[kwaf y? ypö,y&d,*¾[ÓPfom[l\/ xkYd aMumifh y#dorÇ'gr*f t|uxmü
(1-234)

Zmwdypö,m Z&mr&PEÅt
d m'd e 0dyóem0aoe 0kw?Hå au0vH y#dpo
ö rkygÜ
'ó {auut*F0aoe oHcyd w d mG 00wåmeawm or®oeÓPH emr a[mwDwyd &d,m
a,e 0kw?Hå e yaewH uvmyor®oeÓPH? "r®|w d Ó
d Para0wH a[mwDwd ....... [k
rdeYf qadk wmfr\
l /

þqkcd NhJ yD;aom pum;vk;H tvk;H pko


H nf? y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmfü wku
d ½f u
dk f jytyfaom or®oeÓPf jzpfyHk
tvk;H pku
H kd tusOf;csKH;í jyqkcd sufaywnf;/

ygVdrkwåu tVuxmenf;rsm;

0do'k rd̈ *füum; y#doaE¨rS pí ½kyef mrf jzpfyuHk dk ½Ienf;ç ½lyowåu ½lenf;ç emrowåu ½lenf;wkYd uv kd J
jyqkad o;\/ xked nf;wdYk wiG f y|renf;rSm jycJNh yD;aom ygVdenf;wkYd ü xku
d o
f nftm;avsmfpmG tusOf;tm;jzifyh g0ifNyD;
jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;? okwudrk í DS qifjcifrrI Qom rsm;aomaMumif¤h if;? tvGef us,0f ef;aomaMumif¤h if;? þusr;f ü
¤if;enf;udrk jyrlí? a,m*DwYdk odoifah om £a`E´xufaMumif; 9-yg;ESifh? ½lyowåuç t½lyowåu ½Ienf;wkdYudk
omvQif tusOf;tm;jzifh jyygtH/h
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 49

£a`E´xufaMumif; 9-yg;

e0[muma&[d £`Ed, ´ med wdum© edb0EÅ/d OyÜEKé yÜEmé eH ocFg&meH c,ar0 yówd? wwå p ouúpö
ud&,
d m, orÜga'wd? omwpö ud&, d m, orÜga'wd? oyÜg, ud&, d m, orÜga'wd? orm"dó p edrw d *å g¾ a[e?
aAmZÑ*gF eOö tEky0wåewm,? uma, p ZD0ad wpteayu©wH Oy|maywd? ww¬ p tbdb, k s aeu©"r®e? tEÅ&m p
taAsmomaeemwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-248)/

e0wd tmuma&[d? 9-yg;aom taMumif;wdYk aMumif/h £`E´, d med? ig;yg;aom £a`E´wYdk onf/ wdum© ed b0EÅ?d
xufuek Mf u\/ OyÜEKé yÜEmé eH? jzpfwikd ;f jzpfwidk ;f ukeaf om/ ocFg&meH? ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd \/ c,ar0? ukejf cif;
ysufjcif;udo
k mvQif/ yówd ½l\/

(ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onfç ysufomG ;onf [kOmPfü rxifao;rDuvJ? jzpfwidk ;f aom ocFg&wkYd ukd ukeyf sufaeonf csnf;om
[k ESv;Hk oGi;f xm;&rnf? rukerf ysufbJ NrJonft h aetm;jzifh rMuHq&? ½lrw S rf =I OmPfxüJ ]]ukeof mG ;onfç ysufomG ;
onf}} [kxifaom tcgrSmvJ xdk xifwt hJ wkid ;f yif ]]ukeo
f mG ;onfç ysuf oGm;onf}} [líom qk;H jzwf&rnf? rukef
rysufwhJ bufuaeí taMumif; ,kwdå ½SmMuHvsuf ckcH rae&/ þokYd ûyjcif; aMumifv h J ynda`E´rpS í £a`E´ig;yg;vk;H
xufoef oGm;wwfonf [k qkv d \
dk )/

wwå? xku d ek jf cif; ysujf cif;uk½d &l mü/ ouúpö ud&,


d m, p? ½kad opGm ûyjcif;jzifv
h /J orÜga'wd? 0dyóem
ÓPfukd NyD;ap\/

(ukejf cif; ysufjcif;udk awGYjrifEidk af tmif ½kad oav;pm;vsuf ½lrw


S &f rnf[k qkv
d \
dk )/

omwpö ud&, d m,p? rjcm; rjywf wpyfwnf; ½lrw


S jf cif;jzifv
h /J orÜga'wd? 0dyóem ÓPfukd NyD;ap\/
(rqkid ;f r&yfbJ rjywfrwS &f rnf[k qkv
d \
dk )/

oyÜg, ud&, d m, p? oifah vsmfonfuo kd m ûyjcif;jzifv


h /J orÜga'wd? 0dyóemÓPfukd NyD;ap\/
(tm0gaomç a*gpa&mç bóHç? yk*a¾ vmç tx abmZeHç? Owkç £&d,myaxm ap0? oyÜga,m ao0dwAÁaum-
þOy&dyPf t|uxmESihf tnDç tMuif ausmif; ponfukd rS0D v J sufç rjzpfao;aom 0dyóemOmPfukd jzpfapEkid t f ?hH
jzpfNyD;udv
k J wk;d wufapEdik t f ?hH xko
d Ydk aom ausmif;ç usufpm;oGm;vm&m paom (7)yg;onf oyÜg, rnf\/ xdkodkY
aom ausmif;üom ae&rnf? xko d Ydk aom t&yfoYdk om oGm;vm&rnf? xko d Ydk aom pum;uko
d m ajym& emMum;&rnf?
xko
d Ydk aom yk*K¾ v
d Ef iS o
hf m qufq&H rnf/ xko d Ydk aom tpmç tat;tyl Owkç £&d,mykwçf wkYd uo kd m rS0D &J rnf [k
qkv
d \ dk )/

ormrdó? 0dyóem orm"d\/ edrw d *å g¾ a[ep? jzpfaMumif;udk rSwof m;jcif;jzifvh /J orÜga'wd? NyD;ap\/
(rnfoYdk ½lrw
S Ef v
S ;Hk oGi;f rdwt
hJ wGuf orm"d aumif;vmonf [k rSwo f m;NyD;vQif xko
d Ydk aom rSwrf çI ESv;Hk oGi;f rIukd
jzpfap&rnf [k qkv d \ dk )/

aAmZÑ*FgeH tEky0wåewm, p? aAmZÑifwYdk ukd avsmfpmG jzpfapjcif;jzifv h /J orÜga'wd? NyD;ap\/ (bm0empdwf


avsmhvQif? yDwçd 0D&, d "r®0pd , aAmZÑifwYdk uykd gG ;ap&rnf? wuf<uysHUH vGiv
hf Qif? yó'd̈ç orm"dç Oayu©mç wkYd ukd
yGg;ap&rnf [k qkv d \
dk )/

uma, p? uk, d üf ¤if;? Zd0ad wp? toufü¤if;? teayu©w?H riJu h u


G f rwG,w
f mjcif;ud/k Oy|maywd? jzpfap
\/ (uk,
d Ef iS hf toufukd riJu
h uG b
f J tjyif; tm;xkw&f rnf [k qkv
d \
dk )/

ww¬? xko d Ydk u,


kd Ef iS hf toufukd riJb
h J tm;xkw&f mü/ OyÜEKé yÜEHé 'ku?H© jzpfwidk ;f jzpfwidk ;f aom qif;&Ju/kd
aeu©ar®e? ysif;&drrI S xGuaf jrmufaom 0dyóem 0D&, d jzif/h tbdb,
k sp? vTr;f rd;k y,fazsmufívJ/ orÜga'wd?bm0em
udk NyD;ap\/ (tm;xkwjf cif;aMumifh jzpfay:vmaom yifyef; qif;&JrI [lorQukd ravQmah om vkYH vjzifh pl;pl;pku d pf u
kd f
rSwíf y,fazsmuf&rnf [k qkv d \
kd )/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 50

tEÅ&m? r*f zdv


k o
f Ykd ra&mufao;rD twGi;f ü/ taAsmomaeep? tqk;H rowfbJ rjywf tm;xkwjf cif;jzifv h /J
orÜga'wd? bm0emudk NyD;ap\/ (vdt k yfaom w&m;xl;okYd ra&mufao;rcsif; ½Irw
S rf u
I kd rpGeYf &? rr®|mef;rS rxGu&f ?
rjywf tm;xkwaf e&rnf [k qkv d \
dk )/

£wd? þonfwYdk um; £a`E´xufaMumif; 9-yg;wkYd aywnf;/ (ÓPf rwk;d wufEidk af om tcgü þtaMumif;
9-yg;wGif vd&k m&mudk txl; jynfph aHk pvsuf tm;xkwt
f yf\)/

½lyowåu=½kyfwkdYü ESvkH;oGif;ykH (7)yg;

tm'ge edau©ye½Ienf; ..... y#doaE®onf b0opf cE®m0efukd ,lrjI zpfaomaMumifçh tm'ge rnf\/ pkwo d nf
b0a[mif;cE®m0efukd pGeYf rI jzpfaomaMumifçh edau©ye rnf\/ xkyd #doaE® pkww d Ydk jzifh ykid ;f jcm;í? ,ckb0½Sd ½kyw f Ydk ukd
]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k ½ljrifjcif; oabmusjcif;onf tm'ge edau©yetm;jzifh ½lonfrnf\/ xdk½kyfwkdY
ü vu©Pa&;ok;H yg;wifonfrnf\/ ykHum; ... rSwo f &d aom ½kyw f Ydk \ tjzpftysufukd rsufarSmuf awGYNyD;aomtcg
ü? ,ckb0wGif y#doaE®rS pí aoonfwidk af tmif þtwGi;f ü jzpf jzpforQ ½kyw f Ydk onfvnf; ,ckrw S of &d wJh ½kyf
rsm;vkyd ifç jzpfjcif;ysufjcif; ½Sad omaMumifv h J rNrJuek ?f rlv½S&d if;twdik ;f rwnfbJ ajymif;vJ azgufjyefaomaMumifv h J
rNrJuek ?f NrJwhJ oabmrS ajymif;jyef qefYusifí? NrJonft h jzpfukd y,fjrpfaomaMumifv h J rNrJuek /f þtaMumif;
av;yg;aMumifh rNrJuek f [lívJ½q l ifjcif\/ (NrJonft h jzpfukd y,fjrpfyu Hk m; ..... rNrJ [k odjrif&aom w&m;u?
odjrifot l m; þodYk 0efco H nfEiS w hf al y\? ]]owå0gtrsm;u uREkyf u f Nkd rJonf [k txifBuD;aeaonfvJ uREkyf rf mS awmh
toif odjrifwt hJ wkid ;f ygbJ? rNrJwmtrSeyf gbJ}} [k 0efco H nfEiS w hf al y\? NrJonft h jzpfukd y,fjrpfvsuf ajzmifch suf
ay;onfEiS w hf al y\/ xkYd aMumifçh ]]edpö y#dau©y=NrJonft h jzpfukd y,fjrpfonf}} [k qkad yonf/ csrf;om\ tjzpfukd
y,fjrpfonfç igaumif\ tjzpfukd y,fjrpfonf [l&mwkYd üvnf; enf;wlyif odygav)/ / xdYk jyifç jzpfNyD;aom ½kyf
wkYd onf wnfjcif;=tk&d ifjh cif;okYd a&muf&uke\ f ? tk&d ifNh yD;aom ½kyw f Ydk onf ysufp;D &uke\ f / okdYjzpfíç raorDtwGif;
½Sd ,ckb0 ½ky[ f o l rQwkYd onfvnf; ],ckrw S o f &d wJh ½kyrf sm;vdyk if} jzpfrI ysufru I rjywfEydS pf uftyfaomaMumifv h J
qif;&JwYdkomwnf;? jzpfcsnf ysucf snEf iS hf rwnfwí hH ç rcHomaomaMumifv h J qif;&JwYdkomwnf;? ud, k q f if;&J pdwf
qif;&JwYdk \ wnf&m jzpfygG ;&m jzpfaomaMumifv h J qif;&JwYdkomwnf;? csr;f omrS ajymif;jyef qefYusií f ç csr;f om\
tjzpfukd y,fjrpfaomaMumifv h J qif;&JwYdk omwnf;[k þokYd vJ ½Iqifjcif\/ / xdYk jyifç jzpfay:rnfh ½kyu f kd
rjzpfygapvif[ h k pDraH wmifw h ír&? jzpfNyD; ½kyu f vkd J rtdrk &ifyh gapvif[ h k pDraH wmifw h ír&? td&k ifNh yD; ½kyu f v kd J rysuf
pD;ygavh[k pDraH wmifw h ír&/ okYd jzpfíç raorDtwGi;f ½Sd ,ckb0 ½ky[ f o l rQwkYd onfvnf; ,ckrw S of &d wJh ½kyrf sm;
vdyk if ]]igaumif[m tNrJ½adS ewmbJç trlt&m [lorQudv k J igu ûyvkyw f wfw,fç taumif;tqd;k udv k J cHpm;wwf
w,fç t&m&mudv k J pDrH cefYcEJG idk w f ,f}} [k xifrw S xf m;wJh igaumifrS uif;qdwaf eaomaMumifv h J igaumif r½Su d ek ?f
(vlr½Sad om ½Gmysufuo hJ Ydk ? xd½k yk rf sm;xJü igaumifr½Sd [kqv dk \
dk )/ ydik ½f iS f r½Sad omaMumifv h J igaumifr½Su d ek /f (xkd
½kyrf sm;udk ykid q
f idk af om igaumif [lí? igaumif\ ykid ef uf Opömrsm; r[kwMf u[k qkv d \kd )/ tvdt k wkid ;f rjzpfaom
aMumifv h J igaumifr[kwu f ek ?f tvd½k w dS idk ;f NyD;apEkid of nf þokYd ponfjzifh xifrw S x f m;aom igaumifrS ajymif;jyef
qefYusifíç igaumif\ tjzpfukd y,fjrpfaomaMumifv h J igaumif r[kwu f ek f [k þokYd vJ ½lqifjcif\/ (þt&mü?
tewåm-yk'u f ?kd ew¬d twåm {awo`EÅd tewåm [lí¤if;? e twåm tewåm [lí¤if; 0pew¬d ESpef nf; ûy&m\)/ yX½l
enf; NyD;\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 51

vu©Pma&; wifí½IykH

þt&mü tcsKdYu ]]½kyfemrfwkdY\ jzpfrI ysufru I kd rsufarSmufrod&ao; ygbJvsufç okw pdEmÅ rQjzifh rSe;f qí
]tedpö 'ku© tewå}[k &Gwq f dk ESv;Hk oGi;f &rnf? xkYd oYdk ½Gwq f dk ESv;Hk oGi;f rS vu©Pma&; wifrI udpNö yD;onf}} [k
xifrw S v
f suf ½SMd u\/ xko d Ydk um; rxifrw S t
f yfay? trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... ½lrw S t
f yfqJ ½kyef mrfwYdk \ tjzpf
tysufukd rsufarSmuf awGU&aomtcgü xk½d yk ef mrfukd ]]jzpfay:NyD;vQif r½Sjd cif; uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;aMumifh rNrJ[í l
¤if;? jzpfryI surf u
I rjywfEydS pf ufjcif;aMumifh qif;&J[í l ¤if;? tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpfjcif;aMumifh tpd;k &wJh igaumifr[kwf
[lí¤if;}} þokYd odjrifoabmusjcif;onf ypöuÓ © Pfjzifh vu©Pa&; wifí ½ljcif;aywnf;/ xdYk jyifç ypöuÓ © Pfjzifh
odjrifoabmusNyD;aomtcgü rsufarSmufrod&aom ½kyef mrfwYdk uv kd J ]]rsufarSmuf od&wJh ½kyef mrfEiS t hf wlwcl snf;bJ?
jzpfay:NyD;vQirf ½Sjd cif; uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;aMumifh rNrJwmBuD;bJ? jzpfryI surf u I rjywfEydS pf ufjcif;aMumifh qif;&J
csnf;bJ? tvdt k wkid ;f rjzpfjcif;aMumifh tpd;k &wJh igaumifr[kww f mcsnf;bJ? oabmw&m;rQcsnf;bJ}} [líoabmus
vsuf qifjcifjcif;onfvnf; tEkrmeÓPfjzifh vu©Pma&;wifí ½ljcif;aywnf;/ wifí ½lonf [kqjkd cif;\
taMumif;um; ... [kwmG tbm0=jzpfay:NyD;vQif r½Sjd cif;ç uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif; [laom tedpv ö u©Pm/ O',AÁ
,yÜ#yd VD e=jzpfrI ysurf u I rjywfEydS pf uf jcif; [laom 'kuv © u©Pm/ t0o0wåe =tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpfjcif; [laom
tewåvu© Pmç-þ omrnvu©Pm ok;H yg;wkYd onf emrf ½kyf w&m;wkYd ü tNrJ wufvsufç tNrJ xifvsuf ½SMd u
uke\ f / okYd aomfvçJ r½lrw S rf D umv ½lrw S pf umvwkYd ü? xkd vu©Pm ok;H yg;udk rod&ao;ay? bm0emÓPf &ifah om
tcgusrSomvQif? xkv d u©Pm ok;H yg;udk rsufarSmufawGYvsuf od&ayonf/ xkYd aMumifçh a,m*Donf a½S;u rrSw&f
rod&bl;ao;aom xdk vu©Pm ok;H yg;udk xdt k cgrSm ½kyef mrfrsm;tay:okYd ÓPfjzifh wifí ½l&ouJh okYd ½Sad v\/
okdYjzpfíç ]]vu©Pm okH;yg;udkwifí½lonf}} [k usrf;*efwkdYürdefYqkdayonf/ atmufygrSm r[m#Dum pum;aywnf;/

½ly"ar® ed½Vl H vu©Pwå,H ykaAÁ twåem tov’uw


d© o
H v’au©wmG or®oaEÅm wH wwå tma&m aywDwd
0kpw
ö d/ (2-407)

½ly"ar®? ½kyw f &m;ü/ (½lyor®oe t&m jzpfí þokYd qadk yonf? emrfw&m;üvJ enf;wlyifwnf;)/ ed½Vl ?H
tNrJwufvsufç tNrJ xifvsuf ½Sad om/ ykaAÁ twåem tov’uw d© ?H a½S;u rdrd rrSwb
f ;l ao;aom/ vu©Pwå,?H
vu©Pm ok;H yg;ud/k ov’au©wmG or®oaEÅm? rSwv f suf ok;H oyf qifjcifaomol ud/k wHww¬ tma&maywDw?d
xkv
d u©Pmok;H yg;udk xk½d yk üf wifonf[í
l / 0kpw
ö ?d t|uxmq&m qkt d yf\/ (rkcspum;r[kw?f o'doyl pm [lv)dk /

xdYk jyif uu©Vwå=Murf;wef;cufrmjcif;? a0'd,e=cHpm;jcif;? oOÆee=rSwo f m;jcif;? zkoe=tm½kEH iS phf w


d f
awGYjcif;? 0dZmee=tm½ku H o kd jd cif;-þokdY tp½Sdaom (½kyfemrfwkdY\ yifu, kd &f if;abm) obm0 vu©PmwkYd onf
Oyg'fXb D if [laom cP ok;H yg;vk;H ü½SdMu\? ¤if;wkYd ukd cP ok;H yg;vk;H ü rSwo f Ed idk \
f ? toD; toD;½Sdaom ½kyfemrf\
oD;jcm; ude;f aooabmtjzpfjzifh xif½mS ;odtyfuek \ f ? tm;xkwcf gpüaomfvJ xdo k bm0vu©Pmudk xif½mS ;
odEidk \
f / wifí ½l&ouJo h Ydk od&onfum; r[kwaf y/ xkad Mumifçh xdo k bm0 vu©Pmudu k m; }wifí ½lonf} [k
usrf;*efwYdk ü rqkad y/ tedpw ö m paom omrnvu©Pm 3-yg;wkYd uu kd m; cP ok;H yg;vk;H ü rSwo f Ed idk o
f nfvrJ [kw?f
toD;toD;aom ½kyef mrf\ oD;jcm;ude;f ao oabmtjzpfjzifh xif½mS ;odtyfonfvnf;r[kw?f tm;xkwcf gpüvJ
rodEidk af cs/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... ½kyw f &m;wkid ;f ç emrfw&m;wkid ;f tedpo ö abm½S\ d ? xkYd twl 'kuo © abmçtewå
oabmvJ½Sd\? ÓPf &ifah omtcgü ]]rSwo f &d wJh ½kyef mrf\ ysufaom trlt&mç tjzpftysufu ESyd pf ufaeaom
trlt&mç tvdt k wkid ;f rjzpfaom trlt&mwkYd uv kd }J } od&jyefojzifh xk½d yk ef mrfukd ]]rNrJygwum;? qif;&Jygwum;?
tpd;k r&ygwum;}} [k od&\/ þokYd od&jcif;onf a½S;uodtyfNyD;aom obm0 vu©Pmay:ü omrnvu©Pmudk
qifí h wifí od&ouJo h Ydk yif jzpfay\/ xkYd aMumifv h J ]]vu©Pmwifí ½lonf}} [k usrf;*efwYdk ü rdeYf qadk yonf/
atmufyg om"uvJ r[m#Dum pum;yifwnf;/

,xm yx0d zóm'DeH uu©V zkoem'd vu©Pmed wDoyk d caPok ov’uw d© AÁmed y#de,
d w ½lywm,
obm0 od'g¨ &ae0 [kwmG *,SE?dÅ e{0H tedpw ö m'dvu©Pmed? wmed ye b*kF ', AÁ, yDVm0oowåemum&rkace
*a[wAÁawm orma&mydw ½lyged0, d *,SEw DÅ d 0kwHå omrnvu©PH tma&maywGmwd/ (2-387)

yx0D zó'DeH? yx0D zótp½Sad om ½kyef mrfwYdk \/ uu©Vzkoem'd vu©Pmed? Murf;wef; cufrmjcif;ç
awGUxdjcif;ç paom obm0vu©PmwkYd u/kd (*,SE-dÅ üpyf)/ wDoyk d caPok? Oyg'fXD bif[al om cP ok;H yg;vk;H wkYd
üvJ/ ov’uw d© AÁÁ ed? rSwt f yf rSwEf idk af umif;ukeaf omaMumif/h (a[wkrEÅ 0daooewnf;? ydo'´gjzifh cP wyg;
ESpyf g;üvJ rSwrf Ed idk o
f nf[k jy\/ y#de, d w ½lywm,? ½kyf emrf w&m;wkYd \ toD; toD; ude;f aoNrJaom txnf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 52

ud,
k \ f tjzpfjzif/h obm0 od'g¨ ed{0 [kwmG ? yifu, kd o
f abm tm;jzifNh yD;pD; xif½mS ;ukeof nfomjzpfí/ *,SE, dÅ xm?
,ltyf odtyfuek o f uJo
h Ydk / tedpw
ö m'd vu©Pmed? tedpw ö m paom omrnvu©PmwkYd u/kd {0H? þobm0
vu©Pmenf;wl/ e * ,SE?dÅ r,ltyfç rodtyfuek /f 0g? rodEidk u f ek /f ye? trSet f m;jzifah omfum;/ wmed? xktd edpö
'ku© tewå vu©PmwkYd u/kd (*,SEüdÅ pyf)/ b*Fk ',AÁ,yDVm0oowåemum& rkace? ysufaom trlt&mç jzpfrI
ysufrIu ESdyfpufaom trlt&mç tvdt k wkid ;f rjzpfaom trlt&mwkYd ukd cHwiG ;f ç rsufEmS ûyojzif/h 0g? y"me a½SUoGm;
t&if;cHxm;ojzif/h *a[wAÁawm? ,ltyf odtyfaomaMumif/h orma&mydw ½lyged 0d, [kwmG ? obm0vu©Pm
ay:ü wiftyfaom oabmwkYd uo hJ Ydk jzpfí/ *,SE?dÅ ,ltyf odtyfuek \ f / £wd? þokYd obm0vu©Pmay:ü wifí
odonfEiS hf wlaomaMumif/h omrnvu©PH tma&maywGm wd? omrnvu©P ok;H yg;udk wifí -[l aom pum;ud/k
0kw?Hå t|uxmq&m qkt d yfay\/

þ#Dumü ]]ysufaom trlt&mç jzpfrI ysufru I ESyd pf ufaom trlt&mç tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpfaom trlt&mç
tvdktwdkif; rjzpfaom trlt&mwkYd ukd a½S;OD;pGm odNyD;rS? tedpö 'ku© tewå vu©Pm wkYd ukd odEidk af yonf? xko d Ydk
odjcif;onf obm0 vu©Pmay:rSm omrnvu©Pmudk qifí h wifí odonfEiS hf wlonf/ xkYd aMumifçh ]omrn
vu©Pudk wifí ½lonfç [k t|uxmq&m qkt d yfayonf}} [laom þpum;wkYd ukd av;eufpmG owdûyygav?
okdYjzpfíç vu©Pma&; wifí ½I- [l&mü }}tjzpftysufukd rawGY&ao;rDu? rxifao;aom vu©Pmrsm; xif½mS ;
vmap&ef rSe;f qí ½Gwq f jdk cif; ESv;Hk oGi;f jcif;ud}k } qkv d o
dk nf r[kwaf y? trSet
f m;jzifah omfum; ..... ½kyef mrfwYdk \
yifu, dk &f if; oabmudk jzpfay:wJt h wkid ;f ½Irw
S pf OfrmS yif wu,f jzpfrI ysufrw I Ydk uykd g od&í? rSwo f t
d yfqJ xkd
½kyef mrfu¤kd if;ç xk½d yk ef mrfEiS hf EIid ;f qí wyg;aom ½kyef mrfwYdk u¤kd if; ]]rNrJygwum;? qif;&Jygwum;? tpd;k r&wJh
oabmw&m;ygwum;}}[k ypöuç© tEkrme ÓPfwYdk jzifh odjrifjcif;ç qifjcifjcif;ç oabmusjcif;udo k m qkvd akd yonf
[k ,krH mS ;r½Sd rSwo
f m;ygav/

0a,m0k¹w¬*rF ½Ienf; ..... t,G,ftm;jzifh BuD;&if;aom ½kyf\ csKyfysujf cif;onf 0a,m0k¹w¬*rF rnf\? ¤if;\
tvdktm;jzifh ½kyfwkdYudk tydkif;BuD;ç tydkif;i,f trsKd;rsKd; ydkif;jcm;í ]tedpö 'ku© tewå} [k ½Ijrif oabmusjcif;onf?
0a,m0k¹w¬*rF tm;jzifh ½Ionfrnf\/ ykHum; ..... rSwfod&aom½kyfwkdY\ tjzpftysuu f kd rsuaf rSmuf awGUjrifNyD;aom
tcgü þodYk ½Iqifjcifrw d wf\/ yXr t,G,u f ½kyo f nf ,ckrw S o
f &d wJh ½kyv f ydk if 'kw, d t,G,o f Ydk ra&mufrí l ?
xkd yXr t,G,rf mS yif csKyfysuf oGm;aomaMumifh ]]rNrJ qif;&J igaumifr[kw}f } [k ½I qifjcif\/ 'kw, d t,G,u f
½kyv f J wwd,t,G,o f Ykd ra&muf? wwd, t,G,u f ½kyv f J aemifb0opfoYdk ra&muf? xdk wwd, t,G,rf mS yif
,ckrw S o f &d wJh ½kyv
f ydk if csKyfysufomG ;aomaMumifh ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k ½I qifjcif\/ ,ckumvü
tESpw f &mwkid af tmif touf½n S o
f u
l m;½Sm;\? okYd aomfvçJ t|uxmü jyonft h wkid ;f yif toufwrf; w&mxm;í
jyygtH/h toufwrf; tESpw f &mudk 10-ESppf D 10-ykid ;f ykid ;f jcm;í ]]yXr 10-ESpf twGi;f u ½kyo f nf 'kw, d 10-ESpf
twGi;f okYd ra&muf? xkd yXr 10-ESpf twGi;f rSmyif ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyv
f ydk if csKyfysuo f mG ;aomaMumifh rNrJ? qif;&J?
igaumifr[kw}f } [k ½I qifjcif\/ 'kwd, 10-ESpyf ikd ;f ponfü ½Iyu Hk kd enf;wl odygav/ xkYd jyifç tESpf w&mudk
ig;ESppf D tydik ;f 20? av;ESppf D 25-ykid ;f ? 2-ESppf D tydik ;f 50-? wESppf D tydik ;f w&m ykid ;f jcm;ívJ ½I qifjcif\/
wESpu f vkd ?J wOwkpD 3-ykid ;f ? 2-vpD 6-ydik ;f ykid ;f jcm;ívJ ½I qifjcif\/ wvudv k J vqef; vqkwf 2-ydik ;f
ykid ;f jcm;ívJ ½I qifjcif\/ w&ufuv kd J aeY nOfY tm;jzifh 2-ydik ;f ? eHeuf aeYv,f nae nOfOh ;D oef;acgif
rkd;vif;,mrf tm;jzifh 6-ykid ;f ykid ;f jcm;ívJ ]]wckcak om tydik ;f rS tjcm; tydik ;f okYd ra&mufrD ,ck rSwo f &d wJh ½kyvf ydk if
csKyfysuf oGm;aomaMumifh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k ½I qifjcif\/ þqkcd hJ aom ½I qifjcifyHk tvk;H pko H nf?
ypöuÓ © PfrS qufvufíjzpfaom tEkrmeÓPf jzpfycHk snf;omwnf;/ qkv d wHah om ½IyrHk sm;onfum; ypöuÓ © Pf\
t&mvJ jzpfonfomwnf;/

tbduaú r y0wå½yl H y#durú H ryÜwmG waw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd? y#duaú r y0wå½yl H tmavmueH? tmavmuae
y0wå½yl H 0davmueH? 0davmuae y0wå½yl H ordOeÆ ?H ordOaÆ e y0wå½yl H yom&PH tyÜwmG waw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd? wo®m
tedpHö 'kuH© tewåmwd wdvu©PH tma&maywd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-256)

a½SUoGm;qJü jzpfaom ½kyo f nf aemufjyefqo J Ydk ra&mufrí l ? xkd a½SUoGm;qJrmS yif csKyf\/ aemuf jyefqüJ
jzpfaom ½kyo f nf wJw h hJ Munfqh o
J Ydk ra&mufrí l csKyf\/ wJw h hJ Munfqh üJ jzpfaom ½kyo f nf apmif;iJh Munfq
h oJ Ydk
ra&mufrí l csKyf\/ apmif;iJh Munfq h üJ jzpfaom½kyo f nf auG;qJoYdk ra&mufrí l csKyf\/ auG;qJü jzpfaom½kyo f nf
qefYqoJ Ydk ra&mufríl ? xkad uG;qJrmS yif csKyf\/ xkYd aMumifçh ]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f [k vu©Pm ok;H yg;udk
wifvsuf ½I\/ (jrefrmjyef)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 53

txufyg t|uxmü jytyfaomtpOfrmS a'oemtpOfrQomwnf;? þtpOftwkid ;f usufrw S í


f qifjcif&
rnf[k jyvk&d if;um; r[kwaf y/ taMumif;rlum; .... aemufoYdk jyefqw k Nf yD;wkid ;f wJw
h hJ Munfrh cI snf;om jzpfwwf
onfr[kw?f a½SUokYd oGm;jcif;ç ,dr;f jcif;ç apmif;iJMh unfjh cif;ç auG;jcif;ç qefYjcif;rsm;vJ jzpfwwfonfomwnf;/
wJw
h hJ MunfNh yD;wkid ;f vJ apmif;iJMh unfrh o I m jzpfwwfonfr[kw?f a½SUokYd omG ;jcif; ponfvJ jzpfwwfonfomwnf;/
xkYd jyifç apmif;iJh MunfNh yD;wkid ;f vJ auG;rIrjzpf? auG;NyD;wkid ;f vJ qefYro
I m jzpfwwfonf r[kw?f a½SUokYd ,dr;f jcif;
ponfvJ jzpfwwfao;onf omwnf;/ þokYd trlt&m wckc\ k tjcm;rJüh trSwrf ½Sad om trlt&m wrsKd;rsKd;
jzpfwwf&mwGif jzpfpOftwkid ;f ½Iyu Hk kd pkv
H ifpmG rjyrlí od em;vnf½rHk Qom az:jyaomaMumifh txufyg tpOfukd
a'oem ptOfrQom[k od&ayonf/

0dyóem a,m*Donfum; xkx d kd ½kyf trlt&mwkYd ukd jzpfay:pOftwkid ;f omvQif ½Irw


S t
f yf\? xkdokdY ½IrSwfíç
xdx
k tkd cku
d tf wefYrmS yif xdx
k kd ½kyt
f rlt&mwkYd \ ukeq f ;Hk oGm;jcif;udk rsufarSmufawGU&aomtcgü xdx k kd ½kyt
f rlt&m
udk rNrJ[lí¤if;ç qif;&J[lí¤if;ç igaumif r[kwf[lí¤if;ç þokdYaom todÓPfonf rawG; rq&bJ rSw½f rHk Qjzifh
yif ½Si;f vif;pGm jzpfay:\/

oGm;qJüç ]]nmvSr;f pOfu ½kyo f nf b,fvrS ;f okYd ra&muf? b,f vSr;f pOfu ½kyv f J nmvSr;f okYd ra&mufrí l ?
wvSr;f wvSr;f twGi;f ü omvQif tykid ;f tydik ;f jywfvsuf ukeq f ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifçh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f }
[k rawG;rq &bJ rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;pGm od\/ xkYd jyifç ]]ajcwvSr;f wvSr;f twGi;f rSmvJ <upOf ½kyo f nf
vSr;f cku d of Ydk ra&muf? vSr;f pOfu ½kyvf J cscku
d o f Ydk ra&muf? cspOfu ½kyv f J wzufajc <ucku d o
f Ydk ra&mufrí
l ? xkx
d kd
<ucku d çf vSr;f cku d çf cscduk üf omvQif ukeqf ;Hk oGm;aomaMumifçh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k rawG;rq&bJ
rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;pGm od\/ or®oeÓPf acgifxdyf okdY a&mufaomtcgüum; ajcwvSrf; wvSrf;ü 6-ykid ;f
6-ykid ;f aomfvJ jywfvsuf xifwwf\/

6-ydik ;f jywfyHkum; þokdYwnf;/ 1-O'¨&P=<uckduf? 2-twd[&P=wzufajcqDoYdk a&mufatmif qGaJ qmif


ckduf? 3-yDw[ d &P=wzufajcudk vGeí f a½SUokYd vSr;f cdu k ?f (rlv#Dumç r[m#DumwkYd ukd rSí D cGjJ cm;onf/ t|uxm
tvdt k m;jzifu h m; ..... twd[&P=vSr;f cdu k ?f 0Dw[ d &P=ql;ajimifh ponfrS a½Smifz,fcu dk -f þokdY cGJav)/ 4-
a0goZÆe=vSrf;aom t[kefudk pGefYvTwfckduf? 5-oEéad u©ye=ajrjyifü csxm; cku d ?f 6-oEéd½krÇe=zdíeif;ckduf/ þ 6-
ydik ;f wkYd wiG f <ucku d uf ½kyo f nf qGcJ u
dk o f Ydk ra&muf? qGcJ u dk u
f ½kyv f J vSr;f cku d o f Ydk ra&muf? vSr;f cku d u f ½kyv f J
vTwcf u dk o f Ydk ra&muf? vTwcf u dk u
f ½kyv f J cscku d of Ydk ra&muf? cscku
d u f ½kyv f J eif;cku d o f Ydk ra&muf? eif;cku d u f ½kyv
f J
wzufajc <ucku d o f Ydk ra&mufríl ? xkx d dk cPüomvQif tqpfqpf tydik ;f tydik ;f tuefYtuefY tjywf tjywf
jzpfvsuf ukeq f ;Hk csKyfysuf oGm;aomaMumifçh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw[ f k ajcvSr;f wkid ;f ü rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if rawG;
rq&bJ ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmus\/ qkid &f m yVdEiS hf jrefrmjyefukd tcPf; (4) ur®|mef;ESihf owdy|mefbm0em
t&wlyu Hk kd jy&mü az:jycJNh yD? 0do'k rd¨ *fü ½lyor®oe t&mjzpfí ½kyo f ufoufudk jyqkjd cif;rQomvQif xkyd gVdrS
xl;awmhonf/ jzpfay:wkid ;f aom trlt&mud½k rI w S íf þrQavmuf ½Si;f vif;pGm; odjrifvQif or®oeOmPfacgifxyd o f Ydk
a&mufNyD? O',AÁ,OmPf\tpokYd a&mufNyD[k rSwt f yf\/ xdYk aMumifçh 0do'k rd̈ *fü þokYd rdeYf q\ kd /

waó0H yAÁ yAÁ *aw ocFga& 0dyóawm ½lyor® oeH okcrk H a[mwD/ (2-257)

{0H? þokYd aom enf;jzif/h yAÁ yAÁ *aw? tydik ;f tydik ;f tuefY tuefY jk zpfuek af om/ ocFga&? ocFg& wkYd u/kd
0dyóawm? ½ljrifEidk v f wfaomf/ 0g? ½ljrifEidk af om/ wó? xkad ,m*D\/ ½ly or®oeH? ½kyu f o
kd ;Hk oyfaom ÓPf
onf/ okcrk ?H odraf rGUonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/

t"dygÜ ,fum; ..... ]]a½SUoGm;qJü jzpfaom½kyo f nf aemuf jyefqo


J Ydk ra&muf}} [k ½ljrifyrHk pS í? ajcwvSr;f wvSr;f ü
6-ydkif; 6-ykid ;f jzwfí odjrifyHk txd jycJNh yD;aom enf;twkid ;f ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmusvQif ½lyor®oeÓPf
odraf rGUNyD;qk;H \/ xdYk xuf rodraf rGUEkid Nf yD? or®oeÓPf qk;H NyD[k qkv d \ dk / tm[m& or®oeenf; ponfwYdk ukd
aemufrS jyqkad omaMumifh xdek nf;rsm;t&odjcif;u omíodraf rGU&monf r[kwaf vm¿ [ljim;tH/h xko d Ykd um; r,lq
tyfç rrSwt f yfay/ taMumif;rlum; .... usrf;*eft&mü waygif;xnf; a&maESmjy&ef rjzpfEidk af omaMumifh xked nf;rsm;
udk aemufrS toD;toD; cGjJ cm;í jyqk&d ayonf? tm;xkwaf omtcgü wenf;NyD;rSwenf;tm;jzifh tpOftwkid ;f ½I&ef
jyxm;onfum; r[kwaf y/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum; .... þqkcd o hJ nfth wkid ;f ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrifEidk v
f Qif xked nf;rsm;
t&vJ odjrifNyD;omvQif jzpfavawmh\/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç okcrk aH [mwd [k rdeYf qadk yonf/ xkw d iG f ]]a½SUoGm;qJü
jzpfaom½kyo f nf aemufjyefqo J Ydk ra&muf}} þokYd ponfjzifh ]oabmwlaom ½kyt f pOfoEÅw\ d tptqk;H uk}d ykid ;f jcm;
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 54

vsuf odEidk v f Qif ÓPfEaHk omolrmS or®oeÓPf NyD;qk;H NyD ,l&m\/ ÓPfxufaom olrmS um; ajcwvSr;f wvSr;f ü
6-ydik ;f 6-ykid ;f aomfvjJ zwfvsuf or®oeÓPf jzpfonf[k ,l&m\/ xkYd jyifç t|uxmü emrowåuudk aemufrS
jyqkjd cif;rSmvJ usrf;*ef pum;jzpfí ½Si;f vif;ap&ef twGuo f mwnf;/ tm;xkwaf om umvüum; ½kyef mrf ra½G;bJ
jzpfpOftwkid ;f xif½mS ;&mudo k m ½IrSwftyf\/ xkYd aMumifçh a,m*Donf ½kyu f kd oefY½iS ;f pGm rSwo f Ed idk o
f avmuf emrf
udv
k J oefY½iS ;f pGm;rSwo f Ed idk af yonf/ þokYd ½kyu f rkd w
S ,
f if;yif xif½mS ;aom emrfuv kd J rSwt f yfonfom jzpfaom
aMumifh ]]emrowåu t&mü ½kyu f kd rSwo f wd hJ pdwuf ykd if qufí ½IrwS t f yfaMumif;ud}k } jyqkv d suf½adS yonf? okYd jzpfíç
þt&mü ]]½lyor®oeÓPf NyD;qk;H aomfvJ emror®oeÓPfum; rjynfph aHk o;}} [lí þokUd vJ r,ltyfç
rqktd yfonfomwnf;/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum; ]]½lyor®oeÓPf odraf rGUoefY½iS ;f onfEiS t hf rQyifç emror®oeÓPf
vJ odraf rGUoefY½iS ;f onf/ NyD;pD; jynfph o Hk nf}} [líom NrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/ 'kw, d ½lenf; NyD;\/

tm[m&r, ½Ienf; ........ t[m&r,H ½lyH qmw ok[w d 0aoe ygu#H a[mwd/ qmwumav ork|w d H &yO§d§
pswåH a[mwd udvEÅ?H psmrcgPkaum0d, t*Fg& ypä, d eH v
d eD umaum 0d, p 'kAP Á HÖ 'kó@dw/H ok[w d umav
ork|w d H "mwH yDPw
d H rk'k ode'd H¨ zó0EÅaH [mwd/ aom wH y&d*a¾ [wGm qmwumav y0wå½yl H ok[w d umvH
tyÜwGm {aw¬0 ed½kZÑwd (2-258) þokYd tp½Sad om 0do'k rd̈ *fEiS hf tnDç tm[m&aMumifNh yD;aom ½kyo f nf
qmavmifjcif;ç tpm0jcif;wkYd tvdt k m;jzifh xif½mS ;\/ xif½Sm;ykHum; .... qmaom tcgü jzpfaom ½kyo f nf ñI;d EGr;f
yifyef;\/ rD;avmifiw
k uf ohJ Ydk ¤if;ç rD;aoG;awmif;xJü 0yfaeaom usD;uef;uJo h Ydk ¤if;ç tqif;o@mef rvSy/ tpm0
aomtcgü jzpfaom ½kyo f nfum; jynf0h pkyd sKd\? EI;nHh nufanm\? aumif;aom tawGU½S\ d / a,m*Donf qmqJç
tpm0qJü xl;jcm; xif½mS ;aom xk½d yk u f kd ½IrwS f odr;f qnf;í ]]qmpOfu ½kyof nf tpm0pOfoYdk ra&muf? xkd qmpOf
rSmyifcsKyf\? tpm0pOfu½kyv f J wzefqmpOfoYdkra&muf? xk0d pOfrmS yifcsKyf\? xkYd aMumifçh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif
r[kw}f } [k tm[m&aMumifh NyD;aom ½kyu f kd ½Ijrif oabmus\/ wwd, ½Ienf;NyD;\/

Owkr, ½Ienf; ..... Owkr,H ½lyH oDwP k 0S aoe ygu#H a[mwd/ OPSumav ork|w d H ½lyO§d pswåH a[mwd
udvEÅ'H Ak P
Á /HÖ oDwOwkem ork|w d H ½lyH "mwH yDPw d H ode'd aḦ [mwd/ aom wH y&d*a¾ [wGm OPSumav y0wå½yl H
oDwumvHtyÜwmG {aw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd (2-259) þokYd tp&Sad om 0do'k rd̈ *fEiS t hf nDç OwkaMumifv h J NyD;aom ½kyo
f nf
tat;"mwfç tyl"mwfwYdk tvkt d m;jzifh xif½mS ;\/ xif;½Sm;yku H m; .... ylaom umvüjzpfaom ½kyo f nf ñI;d EGr;f
yifyef;\? tqif; rvS/ at;aom OwkaMumifh jzpfaom ½kyo f nf jynf0h pkyd sKd\? nufanm\? a,m*Donf ylqçJ
at;qJü xl;jcm; xif½mS ;aom xk½d yk u f kd ½Irw
S of rd ;f qnf;í ]]ylpOfu ½kyo f nf at;cku d o
f Ydk ra&muf? xkd ylpOfrmS yif
csKyf\? at;pOfu ½kyv f J ylcu dk o
f Ydk ra&muf? xkad t;pOfrmS yif csKyf\/ xkYd aMumifçh rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k
OwkaMumifh NyD;aom ½kyuf kd ½Ijrifoabmus\/ pwkw¬ ½lenf;NyD;\/

ur®Z½Ienf; ..... ur®ZH tm,we'Gg&0aoe ygu#H a[mwd/ pu©L'Gg&odO® d§ pu©K-um,-bm0-'ou 0aoewðo


ur®Z½lygedç OyxrÇumed ye awoH Owk pdwmå [m& ork|emed pwk0oD wDwd pwkyP Ü mÖ o a[mEÅ/d wxmaomw
Cme Zd0gS 'Gga&ok/ um,'Gga& um,-bm0-'ou 0aoe ap0 Owkork|mem'd 0aoe p pwkpw ö må vDo/
raem'Gga& [',0wåK-um,-bm0-'ou 0aoe ap0 Owkork|mem'd 0aoe p pwkyP Ü mÖ o ar0 (0do'k rd¨ *f 2-
259)

jrefrmjyefEiS hf t"dygÜ ,f..... uHaMumifh jzpfaom ½kyo


f nf zójzpfaMumif; 'Gg&wkYd tvkt d m;jzifh xif½mS ; \/ (
]]tm½kEH iS hf pdwaf wGUaMumif; jzpfaom rsufpd MunfvifrçI em; ESmacgif; vQm ud, k f MunfvifrçI ESv;Hk ½kyçf wkYd
xif½mS ;ojzif?h ¤if;wkYd EiS hf waygif;wnf;jzpfaom ur®Z½ky[
f o
l rQ xif½mS ;&ma&mufonf}} [kqv dk \dk /) xif½mS ;yku
H m;
... pu©K'Gg&ü/ pu©K'ouç um,'ouç bm0'ouwkYd tvdt k m;jzifh ur®Z½kyf (30) + xkYd jyifç ¤if;wkYd ukd axmufyhH
aom OwkZç pdwåZç tm[m&Z ½kyf (24)yg;[laom ½kyfaygif; (54)yg; xif½Sm;ukef\/

«jrifEidk af tmif rsufpd Munfch u


dk =f jrifcudk üf ? xkd rsufpd Munfr½I o dS nfukd xif½mS ;odojzifh ]]rsufv;Hk om;xJrmS xkd
rsupf d MunfrEI iS whf uG waygif;xnf;jzpfay:aom}} ½kyf (54)yg;vk;H xif½mS ;&ma&mufonf[k qkv d \ dk / okYd aomfv?J
tbd"r®m o½kycf MJG uHpOfrmS uJoh Ydk ? ]]rsufv;Hk xJü uvmyfaygif; rnfrQç ½kyaf ygif; rnfrQç rnfonfh uvmyfrsm;ç
rnfonfh½kyfrsm; jzpfay:Muonf}} [líum; xif½Sm;onf r[kwfay? xkdokdY xif½mS ;onfuv kd J qkv
d o dk nf r[kwaf y/
xkYd aMumifyh ifç tm,we'Gg&0aoe=tm,we'Gg& tvkt d m;jzifh xif½mS ;onf[k 0daooeESihf wuG qkad yonf/
þt&mü tcsdKUu ]]uvmyf 6-pnf;ç ½kyf 54-yg;wkYd ukd trnf ocFsmESiw hf uG pkv
H ifpmG a&wGuf qifjcifí odygrS
twdtus trSefod jzpfonf}} [k rSwx f if&m\/ xkdokdYum; rxiftyfay? tb,faMumifhenf;[lrl ...... uvmyf 6-
pnf;ç ½kyf 54 yg;wkYd ukd trnfocFsmESiw hf uG pkv
H ifpmG a&wGuq f ifjcifaomfvJ twdtus trSeo f d rjzpfao;aom
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 55

aMumifhaywnf;/ xif½Sm;apOD;thH ..... uvmyf 6 pnf; [lonfrmS trsKd;wl uvmyfrsm;pGmudk waygif;wnf; a&wGuf
íjytyfaom ta&twGuaf ywnf;/ toD;toD; &oifo h rQ a&wGuí f jytyfaom ta&wGuu f m; r[kwaf o;/
xkYd aMumifçh jrifcu dk üf rsuv f ;Hk xJrmS pu©K'ou uvmyfaygif; rnfrQ jzpfonf [lí¤if;? um,'ou ponf
wdYk wiG v f J toD; toD; uvmyfaygif; rnfa&GU rnfrQpDjzpfMuonf [lí¤if;? bk&m;rS wyg;ç rnforl Q? twdtus
rSeu f efpmG rodEidk &f m? oAÁñw k ÓPf\ t&momjzpfxu dk af yonf/ okYd jzpfíç uvmyf 6-pnf; ½kyf 54-yg;[k
a&wGuf qifjcifí odaomfvJ twdtus trSeo f u
d m; rjzpfao;onf omwnf;/ xkYd jyifç wBudrf wBudrf jrifcu dk üf
xku d vmyfaygif; ½kyaf ygif;wkYd ukd trnf ocFsmESiw hf uG pkv H ifpmG a&wGuf qifjcif&efvJ rpGr;f Ekid o f nfomwnf;/
pGr;f Ekid af pumrlç 0dyóemjzifh tEko, udavom\ jzpf&mbkt H jzpfukd zsuq
f ;D &efom vkad yonf? jrifcu
dk üf xif½mS ;
aom rsufpMd unfrI ½kyu f kd ]tedpö 'ku© tewå} [k rSeu f efpmG odvQifç ¤if;ESit hf wlwuG jzpfaom rsufv;Hk om; ½kyf
[lorQü ]edpö okc twå} [k pGv J rf;rI rusa&mufEidk of nfomjzpfí? xkd uvmyf 6-pnf;ç ½kyf 54-yg;\ tEko,bkH
tjzpfukd zsufq;D rIvJ NyD;pD;awmhonfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç 0dyóemqkid &f m okwyf gVdawmfwYdk ü uvmyfEiS hf
½kyfwkdY\ trnf ocFsmudk od&ef rñTejf yrlí pu©KOö yZmemwd? pu©LH tedpEö dÇ ,xmblwH yZmemwd ponfjzifh xk½d yk f
54-yg;xJu pu©Kyom' ½kyu f o kd mvQif od&ef ñTejf yawmfral y onf? 0do'k rd¨ *füvJ tm[m&r,ç Owkr,ç pdwZå
½lenf;wkYd t&mü uvmyf½yk w f Ydk \ trnfocFsmudk od&efrñTejf yrlí? omreftm;jzifo h mvQif od&efñeT jf yawmfral y
onf/ okYd jzpfíç þur®Z½Ienf;t&mrSmvJ ]]jrifwidk ;f jrifwidk ;f aomcPü rsufpMd unfr=I pu©K'Gg&½kyw f ck\ xif½Sm;
jcif;aMumif?h rsufv;Hk xJü waygif;wnf; jzpfay:Muaom uvmyf 6-pnf;ç ½kyf (54)yg;vk;H xif½mS ;&m a&mufonfukd
om jyvk&d if;jzpfonf}} [l í NrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/ aemuf pum;rsm;üvJ enf;wlyif odygav»

(jrefrmjyeftquf)

aomw'Gg&ç Cme'Gg&ç Zd0gS 'Gg& wkYd ü (Mum;cku d çf eHcu


dk çf pm;odcu
dk f wkYd ü) xkYd twlyif ½kyaf ygif; 54-yg;pD
xif½mS ;uke\
f / um,'Gg&=awGYxcd u dk üf um,'ouç bm0'ouç OwkZuvmyf ponfwYkd tvdt k m;jzifh ½kyaf ygif;
44-yg; xif½Sm;ukef\/ raem'Gg&=MuHocd u dk üf [',ow¬K'ouç um,'ouç bm0'ouç OwkZuvmyf ponf
wkYd tvktd m;jzifh ½kyaf ygif; 54-yg;yif xif½mS ;uke\
f /

aom oAÁ"dÜ wH ½lyH y&d*a¾ [xGm pu©K'Gga& y0wå½yl H aomw'Gg&H tyÜwmG {aw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd? aomw'Gga&
y0wå½yl H Zd0gS 'Gg&H? Zd0gS 'Gga& y0wå½yl H um,'Gg&H? um,'Gga& y0wå½yl H raem'Gg&H tyÜwmG {aw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd/ woGm
wHtedpHö 'kuH© tewåmwd {0H ww¬ wdvu©PH tma&maywd/ (a½S;pum;vk;H \ tquf 0do'k rd¨ *fyif)

aom? xkad ,m*Donf/oAÁ"w dG H ½ly?H jrifcu dk f ponfü xif½mS ;onfh rsufpMd unfrI paom xk½d yk f tvk;H pku H v kd /J
(yd-o'´gjzifh wpkw H ckaom ½kyuf kd qnf;\)/ y&d*a¾ [wGm? ½Irw S f odr;f qnf;í/ pu©K'Gga& y0wå½0l ?H pu©K'Gg&=
jrifcu dk üf jzpfaom½kyo f nf/ aomw'Gga& tyÜwmG ? aomw'Gg&=Mum;cku d o f Ydk ra&mufrí l / {aw¬0 ed½kZÑwd? þ
jrifcudk rf mS yif csKyf\/ aomw'Gga& y0wå½yl ?H Mum;cku d üf jzpfaom ½kyo f nf/ Cme'Gg&H? eHcu dk o
f Ydk ra&mufbJ
Mum;cku d rf mS yif csKyf\/ Cme'Gga& y0wå½yl ?H eHcu dk üf jzpfaom ½kyo f nf/ Zd0gS 'Gg&H? pm;odcu dk o
f Ydk ra&mufbJ eHcu dk f
rSmyifcsKyf\/ Zd0Sg'Gga& y0wå½yl ?H pm;odcu dk üf jzpfaom ½kyo f nf/ um,'Gg&H? xdocd u dk o
f Ydk ra&mufbJ pm;odcu dk rf mS
yifcsKyf\/ um,'Gga& y0wå½yl ?H xdocd u dk üf jzpfaom ½kyo f nf/ raem'Gg&H tyÜwmG ? MuHocd u dk çf rSwo f cd u dk o f Ydk
ra&mufrí l / {aw¬0 ed½Zk Ñwd? þxdocd u dk rf mS yif csKyf\/ wo®m? xkdokdY rj ifcu dk çf Mum;ckud çf paom xkx d dk cPrSmyif
csKyfysufaomaMumif/h wH? xkd rsufpMd unfrI paom ½kyo f nf/ tedpHö 'kuH© tewåmwd? rNrJ qif;&J igaumif r[kwf
[lí/ {0H? þokYd / ww¬? xdu k r®Z&yfü/ wdvu©P?H vu©P ok;H yg;uk/d tma&maywd? wif\/

txufyg pum;ü jyxm;aom tpOfonfvnf; a'oem tpOfrQomwnf;/ usufrw S í


f þ tpOftwkid ;f
½l&rnf[k jh yvkad om y#dywåu d rú =usifph Ofum; r[kwaf o;ay/ taMumif;rlum; .... jrifr\ l tjcm;rJüh Mum;rIom
xif½mS ;wwfonfvrJ [kw?f Amv ykxZk OfwYdk uvJ ]]jrifcu dk uf ½kyo f nf Mum;ckud of Ydk a&mufomG ;onf=Mum;cku d f
wkid af tmif wnf½dS aeonf? jrifEidk af tmif MunfwmESihf Mum;Ekid af tmif Munfwm[m waumifxnf;bJjrifwmESihf
Mum;wm[m wa,mufxnf;bJ}} [k þokYd omvQif xifrw S f pGv
J rf;Muonf vJ r[kwaf cs/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum;
jrifr\ I tjcm;rJüh eHrv I J xif½mS ;wwf\? xkt d cgü AmvykxZk Of wkYd onf ]]jrifcu dk uf ½ky[ f m eHcu
dk of Ydk a&mufomG ;
onf=eHcu dk w
f idk af tmif wnf½adS eonf? jrifru I yif eHrI jzpfomG ;onf? jrifEidk af tmif MunfwmESihf eHEidk af tmif
Munfwm[m waumifwnf;bJ? jrifwmvJigyif + eHwmvJigyif? wa,mufxnf;ubJ jrifvJ jrifonf + eHveJ H
onf}} [k þokdYvJ xifrw S f pGv
J rf;Muao;\/ þrQom ruao;? jrifr\ I tjcm;rJüh pm;odrçI xdord çI MuHord rI sm;vJ
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 56

xif½mS ;wwfao;\/ xkt d cgü? Amvyk xkZOfwYdk onf ]]jrifru


I yif pm;rI xdrI MuHrI jzpfomG ;onf? jrifwmvJ igyif +
pm;wm xdwm MuHwmvJ igyifç wa,mufxnf;bJ}} [k þokYd vJ xifrw S f pGv J rf;Muao;\/ Mum;rI ponfwYdk \
tjcm;rJüh vJ? jyxm;onft h pOfrS wyg;aomtjcif;t&mtm;jzifh xif½mS ;jzpfwwfyçHk xifrw S pf v
JG rf;wwfywHk Ykd ukd enf;rS;D
íodygav/ 0dyóem [lonfrmS vJ ½kyef mrf wkYd ukd xif½mS ; jzpfay:pOftwkid ;f ½ljrifvsuf AmvykxZk OfwYdk \ pGv J rf;rIç
pGv
J rf;&m tEko,bkçH wkYd ukd y,fazsmuf zsufq;D NrJaywnf;/ okYd jzpfíç wckcak om 'Gg& xif½mS ;onf\ tjcm;rJüh
jzpfpOftwdik ;f xif½mS ;Ekid af om 'Gg& [lorQudk pkvH ifpmG az:jyoifah y\/ okYd jzpfygvsufç tpkt H vif rjyrlí a'oem
pOf twkid ;f omvQif az:jyxm;jcif;aMumif?h xkt d pOfukd a'oemtpOfrQom [lí od&ay onf/

y#dywåu d rú =usiphf Ofum; þokYd wnf;/ jrifrçI Mum;rI ponfwYdk ukd jzpfay:pOftwkid ;f rvpf vyf&atmif
½lrw S v f suf ½Sad oma,m*Donf jrifNyD;wJah emufü Mum;vQifç ]]jrifpOfu ½kyo f nf? Mum;cku d o f Ydk ra&muf? jrifcu dk rf mS yif
ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}} [k od\/ xkYd twlç jrifNyD;wJah emufü eHvQifç pm;odvQifç xdod vQifç MuHov d Qifç ]]jrifpOfu½kyf
onf eHcu dk çf pm;cku d çf xdcu dk çf MuHcu dk of Ydk ra&muf? jrifcu dk rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm; onf}} [k od\/ xkYd twlç Mum;NyD;wJh
aemufüjrifvQifç eHvQifç pm;vQifç xdvQifç MuHvQifç ]]Mum;pOfu ½kyf onf jrifcu dk çf eHcu dk çf pm;cku d çf xdcu dk çf MuHcu dk f
okYd ra&muf? Mum;cku d rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf[}k } od\/ eHNyD; aemufü jrifvQifç Mum;vQifç pm;vQifç xdvQifç
MuHvQifç ]]eHpOfu ½kyo f nf jrifcu dk çf Mum;cku d çf pm;cku
d çf xdcu dk çf MuHcudk o f Ydk ra&muf? eHcu dk rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}}
[k od\/ pm;odNyD;wJah emufü jrifvQifç Mum;vQifç eHvQifç xdvQifç MuHvQifç ]]pm;odpOfu ½kyo f nf jrifcu dk çf
Mum;cku d çf eHcu kd çf xdcu dk çf MuHcu dk f okYd ra&muf? pm;odcu dk rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}} [ko\ d / xdoNd yD;wJah emufü
jrifvQifç Mum;vQifç eHvQifç pm;vQifç MuHvQifç ]]xdpOfu ½kyo f nf jrifcu dk çf Mum;cku d çf eHcu dk çf MuHcu dk o f Ydk ra&muf?
xdocd u dk rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf}} [ko\ d / MuHod ½lrw S Nf yD;wJh aemufü jrifvQifç Mum;vQifç eHvQifç xdvQifç ]]MuHpOf
rSwpf Ofu ½kyo f nf jrifcu dk çf Mum;cku d çf eHcu dk çf pm;ckud çf xdcu dk çf okYd ra&muf? MuHcu dk f rSwcf u kd rf mS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;
onf}} [kod\/ txyfxyfjrif&mç txyfxyf Mum;&m ponfüvJ yXr jrifpOfu ½kyo f nf 'kw, d jrifcu dk o f Ydk
ra&muf? 'kw, d jrifpOfu ½kyo f nf wwd, jrifcu dk o f Ydk ra&muf? yXr Mum;pOfu ½kyo f nf 'kw, d Mum;cku d f
okYd ra&muf? 'kw, d Mum;pOfu ½kyo f nf wwd, Mum;cku d o f Ydk ra&muf? xdx k dk cPrSmyif ukeu f ek of mG ;onf [k þokYd
ponfjzifh od\/ þokYd wckcak om tcku d t f wefYu ½kyo f nf tjcm;wyg; tcku d t f wefYoYdk ra&mufbJ xkd xkd rdr\ d
tcku d t f wefYrmS yif ukef ukef oGm;onf[k rsufarSmuf awGY&aomaMumifh xif½mS ;aom xk½d yk f taygif;udk ]rNrJ?qif;&J?
igaumif r[kw}f [k rawG;rq&bJ rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmus\/ yOör½lenf;NyD;\/

pdwåZ ½lenf; ...... pdwåork|meH aomreódw a'greódw 0aoe ygu#H a[mwd (2-259) ponfEiS t hf nDç
pdwaf Mumifjh zpfaom ½kyo f nf 0rf;ajrmufwhJ pdwçf ESv;Hk romwJph w d w
f Ykd tvdt k m;jzifh xif½mS ;\/ tvGef xif½Sm;aom
a0'emjzifh jyvkí d om þokYd qkad yonf/ r½Tirf ñI;d aom pdwjf zifh xkid v f dk xvkd auG;vkd qefYvadk omtcg ponfwYdk ü
r½Tirf ñI;d aom pdw\ f tvkdtm;jzifv h J xif½mS ;ao;onfomwnf;/ okYd jzpfí a,m*D onf 0rf;omrIç ESv;Hk romrIwYdk
ajymif;vJ oGm;aom tcgrsm;ü 0rf;omwJph w d Ef iS hf ½Tiv f ef;wuf<uwJh ½kyw f Ykd ukd ¤if;? ESv;Hk romwJph wd Ef iS hf ñI;d EGr;f wJh
½kyw
f Ydk u¤kd if;? jzpfcudk f jzpfcu dk üf rSwrf í d þokYd o\ d / 0rf;ompOfu ½kyf onf ESv;Hk romcku d of Ydk ra&muf? ESv;Hk
rompOfu½kyo f nf 0rf;omcku d of Ydkra&muf? xko d Ydk 0rf;ompOfç ESv;Hk rompOfrmS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf[o k \ d / xkdifvkd
xvkd auG;vdk qefYvadk om tcg ponfü? MuHpnfwhJ pdwf rsm;ESi?hf xkid ½f yk f x½kyf auG;½kyf ponfwYdk ukd jzpfcu dk f
jzpfcudk üf rSwrf í d ? xdx k kd tcku d tf wefYrmS yif ukeq f ;Hk oGm;onf[k od\/ xkYd aMumifçh pdwf trlt&mtm;avsmfpmG jzpf
aom ud, k t f rlt&m ½kyw f Ydk ukd ]]rNrJwmcsnf;bJ? qif;&Jcsnf;bJ=raumif;wmcsnf;bJ? tvdt k wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f hJ
igaumif r[kww f mcsnf;bJ}} [k rawG;rq &bJ rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmus\/ q|½lenf; NyD;\/

þqkcd ahJ omenf;jzif?h pdwZå ½kyw


f Ydk ü? vu©Pm ok;H yg;udk ½Ijrifaom oltm; qkv d wHaom *gxmwkYd jzifh jytyf
aom teuftwkid ;f ocFg&wkYd \ toufwydk kH xif½mS ;onf[k 0do'k rd̈ *fü rdeYf q\
dk / (0do'k d̈ 2-260? r[meda'´o 32)

ZD0w
d H twåbma0g p? okc'kum© p au 0 vm/
{updwo å rm,kwmå ? v[kaom 0wåaw caPm/ /

ZD0wd Oö? toufonf¤if;/ twåbma0gp? uk, d af umif [k xifrw


S f ajymqk&d avmufatmif aygif;pkvsuf
jzpfay:aeaom ½kyf emrf taygif;onf¤if;/ okc'kum© p? csrf;omrIç qif;&JrI wkYd onf ¤if;/ au0vm? igaumif
tjzpfç NrJonft h jzpfEiS hf ra&mr,Suf oufouf oD;jcm; oabm w&m;rQwYk d om wnf;/ {updwo å rm ,kwmå ? pdwf
wcsuf wcsuEf iS o hf m ,SOûf ydiv
f suf jzpfay:uke\
f / caPm? touf ½Snf ckduf cPonf/ v[k aom? vsijf ref
wkad wmif;pGm/ 0wåaw? jzpf\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 57

toufç csrf;omç qif;&Jç ud, k af umif[k xif&wJh w&m;rsm;ç þtvk;H pko H nf igaumifvJ r[kw?f igaumif
ESiv
hf rJ pyfqidk ?f NrJvrJ NrJ? olYtaMumif;tm;avsmpf mG jzpfysuaf eaom oufoufo;D jcm; oabmw&m;rQ csn;f om
wnf;/ pdww f csuf wcsufrQ twGi;f üomvQif wnfEidk t f ouf½iS Ef idk af omaMumifçh touf½iS &f m cPonf tvGeyf if
vsijf ref wkad wmif;vSpmG \- [k qkv d \
dk /

pkvm’ oDwd o[óed? uyÜH wd|EÅd a, r½l/


e awG0 awyd wd|EÅ?d 'Gw
D d pdawå[d oarm[dwm/ /

a,r½l? tMuif ae0onm jA[®mwkYd onf/ pkvm’ oDwd o[óed uyÜ?H uyÜgaygif; ½Spaf omif; av;axmif
ywfv;Hk / wd|EÅ?d touf½iS v f suf wnfMuukeí f / aw0d? xdk jA[®mwkYd onfvnf;/ 'G[D d pdawå[d oarm[dwm? pdwf
ESpcf w
k Ydk EiS hf wuG jzpfuek í
f / 0g? pdwf ESpcf sufcefY wnfwu hH ek í
f / e awG0 wd|EÅ?d touf ½Siuf m rwnfEidk u
f ek o
f nf
omwnf;/ / (xdjk A[®mrsm;vJ vlrsm;vkyd if pdwf wcsuf wcsuf cefYrQom touf ½Siv f suf wnfaeMuonf [k
qkvd \ kd / eda'´oygVdawmf pmtkyw f Ydk üum; e awG0 awyd ZD0EÅ-d [k½Sd\/

a, ed½'k g¨ r&EÅó? wd|rmeó 0g £"/


oaAÁ0d o'dom cE¨m? *wm tyÜ#o
d E¨u
d m/ /

r&EÅó? aoqJ jzpfaomol\/ a, cE¨m? tMuif aemufq;Hk cE¨mwkYd onf/ ed½'k g¨ ? csKyfysufavuke\ f / £"
wd|rmeó 0g? ,ckb0ü touf½iS v f suf wnfqjJ zpfaom ol\vJ/ a,cE¨m? jrifrI Mum;rI auG;rI qefYrI paom
tMuif cE¨mwkYd onf/ ed½'k g¨ ? rSwcf u dk f rSwcf ukd rf mS yif csKyfysuaf vuke\
f / oaAÁ0?d tvk;H pkv
H J jzpfuek af om/ aw cE¨m?
aoolç ½Siof El pS Of ;D wkYd \ csKyfysufomG ;aom xdck E¨mESprf sKd;wkYd onf/ o'dom? csKyfysufyt Hk m;jzifh wluek \f / tyÜ#doEd̈
um? wzef jyefvmí rpyfuek =f rjzpfuek b f /J *wm? tNyD;wkid f uif;aysmuf oGm;ukeo f nfcsn;f omwnf;/

raorDumv ½Irw S q
f J umvü? rSww f ikd ;f rSww
f idk ;f ]ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onf} [k od&onhf jrifrçI Mum;rIç auG;rIç
qefYrpI aom emrf½yk wf Ydk onf ]]aoaomtcgü aemufq;Hk csKyfysufomG ;wJh emrf½yk w f Ydk EiS }hf } csKyfysufy=Hk uG,af ysmufyHk
tm;jzifwh Ml u\? rxl;MS uNyD? wzef jyefípyfjcif;ç wzef ay:vmjcif; r½Sad wmhb?J tNyD;wkid f uG,af ysmuf oGm;Muonf
csn;f om-[k qkv d \
kd /

teEÅ&m p a, b*¾g? a, p b*¾g tem*aw/


w'EÅ&m ed½'k g¨ eH? a0orH ewåd vu©aP/

a, p? tMuif cE¨mwkYd onfvnf;/ teEÅ&m? a½S;tjcm;rJüh / b*¾g? csKyfysufavukeNf yD/ a, p? tMuif cE¨m
wkYd onfvnf;/ tem*aw? tjcm;rJrh S pí aemif umvü/ b*¾g? csKyfysufuek v f wH/h awoH p? xkd ysufvwHh
cE¨mwkYd \¤if;/ w'EÅ&m ed½'k g¨ eH p? xdt
k wdwf tem*wf cE¨mwkYd \ tv,fMum;wGif rSwq f J cPü csKyfysuaf om
cE¨mwkYd \¤if;/ vu©aP a0orH? ysufjcif; vu©PmaMumifh rwljcif;=xl;jcm;jcif;onf/ 0g? ysufyt Hk m;jzifh xl;jcm;
jcif;onf/ewå?d r½Sad cs/

ysufavNyD;wJh ½kyef mrfç ysufvwHh ½kyef mrfwYdk \ ysufyEHk iS çhf rSwq f J ½kyef mrfwYdk \ ysufyo
Hk nf xl;jcm;jcif; r½Sd?
twlwyl if [k qkv d \ kd / xkYd aMumifyh ifç rSwq
f ½J yk ef mrf\ ukeyf suf oGm;yku
H dk rsuaf rSmuf awGY& aom a,m*DwYdkonf
ypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfEiS hf EdiI ;f qí? ]]a½S;uvJ onfvckd snf; ysufaecJrh mS bJ? aemufvJ onfvckd snf; ysufomG ;rSmbJ}} [lí
twdwfç t em*wf b0 ½kyef mrfwYdk ukd aomfvJ qk;H jzwfEidk Mf uayonf/

t-edAaÁ wåe e Zmawm? ypöKyÜaEée ZD0wd/


pdwb
å *Fgrawm avmaum? ynwåd y&rw¬, d m/

t-edAaÁ wåe? rjzpfao;aompdwjf zif/h 0g? jzpfrnfh pdwjf zif/h eZmawm? jzpfEiS o hf nfç touf ½SiEf iS o hf nf
r[kw/f ypöKyÜaEée? jzpfqJ pdwjf zifh omvQif/ ZD0wd? touf½iS \ f / pdwb å *Fg? pdw\ f ysujf cif; aMumif/h avmaum?
owå0gonf/ rawm? aoav\/ {0rÜ?d þokYd pdw\ f csKyfysufwidk ;f csKyfysyfwidk ;f owå0g aojim;aomfv/J ynwå?d
i`zl touf ½Siaf eonf ponfjzifh ajymqkt d yfaom oEÅmeynwf onf/ y&rw¬, d m? ajymqkcd u
dk üf ypöKyÜepf w
d jf zifh
touf½iS q
f J [kwrf eS af omaMumifh y&rwfuo hJ Ydkyif jzpfay\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 58

jzpfrnfh pdwf wckco k nf? rjzpfao;rDu ½Sad eonf r[kw?f xdYk aMumifçh owå0gonf rjzpfao; wJph w d jf zifh
touf½iS o f nf r[kw/f jzpfqJ wnfqJ pdwo f mvQif xif½mS ;½S\ d ? xkad Mumihçf jzpfqJ jzpfqJ pdwjf zifo h mvQif
touf½iS &f ayonf/ jzpfNyD; pdwo f nfvnf; uG,af ysmufomG ;wJt h cgü b,fae&mrSmrQ ½Sad wmhonf r[kwaf cs?
aoaomol\ pkwpd w d v
f ykd if wzefjyefíray:vmawmhbJ tNyD;tNidr;f uG,af ysmufavawmhonfomwnf;/
xkYd aMumifçh pdwwf ckwck ysufomG ;wkid ;f ysufomG ;wkid ;f owå0gonf aoonfomrnf\/ okdYaomfvJ ]]i`zl touf½Sif
aeonf? irJtouf½iS af eonf}} þokYd ponfjzifh ajymqkt d yfaom oEÅmeynwfonfum; y&rwf oabmrSeu f o hJ Ydk yif
jzpfay\/ tb,fah Mumifeh nf; [lrl ... xko d Ydk ajymqkcd u
dk rf mS topftopf jzpfqpJ w d jf zifh ajymqkw d t
hJ wkid ;f yif touf
½Siaf eqJ [kwrf eS af omaMumifah ywnf;/ tu,fíç pdwf wckck ysufomG ;wJah emufü pdwt f opf rjzpfay:vmyg rlum;
owå0gonf wu,fyif aoavawmh\/ þokYd pdww f ck wck ysufq;D oGm;wkid ;f aoEkid yf u Hk v
kd J a,m*Donf odjrif
oabmus\/ xkYd aMumifh ]]aow,f-qkd wmvJ? ,ckrw S of &d wJh pdww f csuwf csu\ f ysufrEI iS hf twlwb l ?J onfvdk
ysufrrI sKd;bJ}} [lí qk;H jzwfEidk af yonf/

t-ed"me*wm b*¾g? ykaÍÆm ewåd tem*aw/


edAw
Á må a,0d wd|EÅ?d tm&a*¾ omoyl yrm/

b*¾g? ysufNyD;aom w&m;wkYd onf/ t-ed"me *wm? b,fae&mrSmrQ pka0; wnfaeMuonf r[kwu f ek /f 0g?
tvQif;yif r½Sad wmhbJ uG,af ysmuf oGm;avuke\ f / tem*aw? rjzpfao;rD tem*wf tcdu k t
f wefYü/ XdwmeH?
wnfuek af om w&m;wdYk \/ykaÍÆm? tpk tyko H nf/ ew¬?d r½Sad cs/ a,0d? tMuif w&m;wkYd onfvnf;/ edAw Á må ?
jzpfay:qJwYdk wnf;/ awyd? xkjd zpfay:qJ w&m;wkYd onfvnf;/ tm&a*¾ omoylyrm? tvGef odraf rGUaom pl;zsm;
tyfzsm;ü wifxm;vku d af om rkeñf iS ;f aphozG,f ysufu,
G vf ek ;D jzpfuek v
f suf/ wd|EÅ?d wcPrQom wnfwu hH ek \f /
(eda'´o ygVdawmf pmtkyüf edAw Á må a,0-[k ½Sd\/ /edAw Á må a,0? jzpfqJ w&m;wkYd onf omvQif/ tm&a*¾
omoylyrm? ukev f su/f wd|EÅ?d uke\f / / þokdY teuf jyefav)/

ysufomG ;aom w&m;[lorQonf b,fae&mrSmrQ t<uif;tusefr½Sad wmhbJ t½Si;f uG,af ysmufomG ;onf
csnf;omwnf;/ jzpfay:rnfh w&m;rsm;vJ b,fae&mrSmrQ pka0; yke;f atmif;vsuf ½Sad eESio hf nf r[kw?f rjzpfru D yifç
jzpfay:&ef tqifoifh ½SEd iS o
hf nf r[kw?f jzpfqJ jzpfqJ w&m;rsm;omvQif xif½mS ; wnf½MdS uayonf? xkw d &m;rsm;vJ
Mumjrifph mG um;rwnfMu? ]]tvGef xufjruf odrahf rGUaom tyfzsm;ay:ü? rkeñ f iS ;f aphukd wifvudk v
f Qi?f xkd rkeñf iS ;f aph
onf wcPcsif;yif vdrhf usoGm;ouJo h Ykd }} jzpfay:NyD;vQif? wcPcsif;yif uG,af ysmuf ysufp;D oGm;onf [k qkv d \ kd /

edAw
Á må eÍö "r®meH? ba*Fg aeoH yk&u©awm/
yavmu"r®m wd|EÅ?d yka&maPwd t-rdów d m/

p? xkYd jyifv/J aeoHeAd w


Á må eH "r®meH? xkjd zpfqJ w&m;wkYd onf/ ba*Fg? ysufjcif;ud/k yk&u©awm? a½S;½I ûytyf
\/ aw? xkd jzpfqJ w&m;wkdYonf/ yk&maPwd t-rdów d m? ta[mif; twdwf w&m;wkYd EiS vhf J ra&maESmukeb
f /J
yavmu"r®m? ysufjcif;oabm½Su d ek v
f suf/ 0g? ysufvek ;D yg; jzpfuek v
f suf/ wd|EÅ?d wcPrQom wnfuek \ f /

t-'óeawm tm,EÅd? b*¾g *päEÅ s'óeH/


0dZKÆ yÜga'g0 tmumao? OyÜZEÆ dÅ 0,EÅd p/

ocFg&m? ocFg&w&m;wdkYonf/ t-'óeawm? rjrif&aom t&yfr/S 0g? rjrifrawGY&aom tzdYk r/S tm,EÅ?d
vmuke\ f / 0g? jzpfay:uke\ f / / (rjzpfay:rDu b,fae&mrSmrQ pka0; yke;f atmif;vsuf ½Sad ecJo h nfr[kw?f
xkYd aMumifçh jzpfay:wJh tcgrSmvJ b,fae&murQ xGuaf y: ajymif;a½TUvm&onf r[kwNf yD? xkjd zpf&m XmeüomvQif
taMumif;tm;avsmfpmG bGm;ueJ jzpfay:vmMuonf/ okYd jzpfíç rjrif&wJt h &yfrS vmMuonf [kqadk yonf/ wenf;
um; ...... rjzpfru D ? bmrS oabmtxnfu, dk f r½Sad o;í rjzpfao;aom ocFg&wkYu d kd rjrifrawGUEkid /f jzpfay:vm
aomtcgusrSom? oabmtxnfu, dk ½f ídS awGUjrifEidk af yonf/ okYd jzpfíç rjrifrawGU&aomtzdYk rS jzpfay:vmMu
onf[k qkad yonf)/ /b*¾g? ysufNyD;aom ocFg&wkdYonf/ t-'óeH? rjrif&aomt&yfoYdk / 0g? rjrifrawGY&jcif;
okYd / *päE?dÅ a&mavuke\ f / / (ysufNyD; aom tcgrSmvJ? b,fae&mrSmrQ pka0;wnf½dS aeMuonfr[kw?f xkyd sufwhJ
ae&mrSmyif bmrQoabm txnfu, dk rf ½Sad wmhb?J vk;H vk;H uG,af ysmufomG ;Muonf [k qkv d \dk )/ / tmumao?
aumif;uifü/ 0dZKÆ yÜg a'g£0? vQyfp;D jywfouJo h Ydk / OyÜZEÆ dÅ p? tpu bmrQ r½Syd gbJvsuf topfvJ jzpfay:uke\ f /
0,EÅd p? bmrQ t<uif;tusef r½Sb d J uG,v f J uG,af ysmuf avuke\ f /
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 59

þ*gxmwkYd ü jyonft h wkid ;f ocFg&wkYd \ toufwydk =Hk vsifpmG csKyfysufyuHk kd trsm;tm;jzifh O',AÁ,ÓPf
oefoefBuD; jzpfonfrpS í oefY½iS ;f pGm odjrifwwfay\/ ÓPfEUHk aom olonfum; txuf txuf ÓPfrsm;okYd
a&mufrS omí oefY½iS ;f pGm odjrifwwfay\/ okYd aomfv?J ÓPfxufjrufaom olonfum; þor®oeÓPf &ifo h ef
onfrpS íaomfvJ oefY½iS ;f pGm odjrifwwf ao;\/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç þt&mü? t|uxmq&m xkwjf yawmfral yonf/
yk*Kd¾ vfwidk ;f rSm þÓPft&mrS pí oefY½iS ;f pGmcsnf; odjrifjcif; jzpfvrd rhf nf-[líum; r,lqtyfay/

"r®wm½kyüf ½Ienf; ..... t0wf zsm tk;d cGuf ajr a& av rD;wk;H wkid f opfyif ausmufcJ a½T aiG þokYd tp ½Sad om
uk,kd yf 0w¬K wkYd üom wnf½í dS ? ZD0w
d ad `E´EiS rhf Q rpyf,u S af omaMumifh ted`E´, d A'¨ [lívJ ac:tyfaom A[d'½¨ yk f
[lorQonf "r®wm½kyf rnf\/ ¤if;½kyw f Ydk u?kd jrifcu
dk çf Mum;cku d çf eHcu dk çf pm;odcu
dk çf awGYxcd u dk üf ½Irw
S í
f ?
a½S;aemuf rpyfbJ jzpfysufrjI zifh jywfvsuf jywfvsuf xifaomumvü ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? owå0gaumif r[kw}f } [k
qk;H jzwfjcif;vJ "r®wm½kyüf ½IrNI yD;\/ xkYd jyifç rsufarSmuf rSwo f &d aom tZÑwå A[d'¨ ½kyw f Ykd EiS hf EdiI ;f qí? rsufarSmuf
rjrif&aom A[d'½¨ yk f [lorQudk ]]þ½kyrf sm;vkyd if jzpfysufaewm csnf;bJ? rNrJwmcsnf;bJ? qif;&Jcsnf;bJ? raumif;
wmcsn;f bJ? om,mbG,f r[kww f m csn;f bJ? owå0gaumif r[kww f hJ oabmw&m;awG csnf;bJ}} [lí ykid ;f jcm;
qk;H jzwfjcif;jzifv
h J "r®wm½kyw
f Ydk ü ½IrI udpö NyD;pD;\/ owår ½Ienf;NyD;\/

½lyowåu NyD;\/

emrowåu=emrfwkdYü ESvkH;oGif;ykH (7) yg;

uvmy½Ienf; ....... ½lyowåuü jycJhonfhtwdkif;? ½kyf wrsKd;rsKd;udk ½IrSwfí ½IrSwfí NyD;onf\ tjcm;rJüh ? xdrk w
S f
odru
I ykd if ]½Iw,f}[k jzpfapç ]rSww
f ,f}[kjzpfapç ]odw,f} [kjzpfapç wzef rSwv f suf rSwv
f suf ]]rNrJ? qif;&J?
igaumif r[kw}f } [k odjrifoabmusjcif; = ykid ;f jcm;qk;H jzwfjcif;onf uvmy=taygif;vku d t
f m;jzifh ½Ionf
rnf\/

,ru ½Ienf; ...... ½kyf wrsKd;rsKd;udk rSwí f NyD;wkid ;f NyD;wkid ;f xkd rSww f hJ pdwuf ykd if wzef rSwv f suf rSwvf suf ]]rNrJ
qif;&J? igaumifr[kw}f }[k odjrif oabmusjcif;=ydik ;f jcm; qk;H jzwfjcif;onf ½kyrf w S f wBudrçf emrfrwS f wMudrt f m;
jzifh tpktH pkH wGíJ ½IrI jzpfaomaMumif?h ,rutm;jzifh ½Ionf rnf\/ þuvmyç ,ru ½Ienf; 2-rsKd;wkYd \ txl;
um; ...... ½kyu f kd rSwv f suf jzpfaom pdwf owdÓPf orm"d 0D&, d zó apwem a0'em ponfwYdk wiG f wckcu k rkd Q
½Si;f vif;pGm rod&bJ xkrd w S o
f rd I emrfw&m;wkYd ukd omref taygif;vdu k t
f m;jzifoh m ½Ijcif;onf uvmyor®oe
rnf\/ rSwcf sufü yg0ifaom emrfw&m; wckcu k kd ½Si;f vif;pGm od&í? txl;xif½mS ;aom xked mrfw&m;udyk if y"me
ûyvsuf ½Ijcif;onf ,ru or®oe rnf\/ þ emrowåu t&mü ]]pdwu f kd ½Irw S of nf}}[k qkad om pum;rSm
jy|mef;aom pdwu f kd acgif;wyfí qkt d yfaom pum;aywnf;/ okYd jzpfíç pdw\ f ,SOb f ufjzpfaom zó a0'em
apwem onm owd ÓPf orm"d 0D&, d paom apwodww f Ydk uvkd J ½Ityfao;onf omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç
#Dumü? pdwo å aD oe [d eda'´aom - [k rdeYf qadk vNyD/

cPDu ½Ienf; ...... ½kyf wrsKd;rsdK;udk rSwí f NyD;wkid ;f NyD;wkid ;f ? xkrd w


S w
f hJ pdwu
f kd 'kw,
d pdwjf zifh rSw\ f / xkd 'kw, d
pdwu f kd wwd,pdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xkw d wd,pdwu f kd pwkwpå w d jf zifh rSw\f ? xkd pwkwpå w d uf kd yOörpdwjf zifh rSw\ f ?
þokYd ½kyu f kd wMudrw f Mudrf rSw&f mü? rSww f hJ pdwf tqifq h ifu
h kd av;Mudrf av;Mudrf wkid w f idk f qifu h mqifu h m
rSwv f suf ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumifr[kw}f }[k odjrif oabmusjcif;=ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwfjcif;onf cPdutm;jzifh ½Ionf
rnf\/ rSwo f v
d suf jzpfaom a½S;a½S;pdwu f kd aemufaemuf tjcm;rJrh mS yif jyefí jyefí av;Mudrw f idk w
f idk f rSwo
f jd cif;
jzifh pdww f Ydk \ tckud t
f wefYrQom wnfyu Hk kd xif½mS ; odjrif&\/ xkYd aMumifçh þokYd aom ½Irw S jf cif;udk cPduor®oe
[k qkad yonf/

y#dyg#d ½Ienf; ...... ½kyf wrsKd;rsKd;udk rSwíf NyD;wkid ;f NyD;wkid ;f ? xkrd w S w


f hJ pdwu f kd 'kw,
d pdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xkd 'kw,
d pdwf
udk wwd,pdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xkw d wd,pdwu f d pwkwpå w d jf zifh rSw\ f ? xkpd wkwpå w d u f kd yOörpwfjzifh rSw\ f ?
xkyd Oörpdwu
f kd q|pdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xdqk |pdwu f kd owårpdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xko d wårpdwu f kd t|rpdwjf zifh rSw\ f ?
xktd |rpdwu f kd e0rpdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xked 0rpdwu f kd 'órpdwjf zifh rSw\ f ? xk'd órpdwu f kd {um'orpdwjf zifh
rSw\ f ? þokYd ½kyu f kd wMudrf wMudrf rSw&f mü? rSww f phJ w
d f tqifq h ifuh kd aemufaemuf tjcm;rJrh mS yif 10-Mudrf 10-
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 60

Mudrw f idk w
f idk f qifu
h m qifu
h m ½Irw S v
f suf ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f }[k odjrif oabmusjcif;=ykid ;f jcm;
qk;H jzwfjcif;onf rSwrf I rsm;pGmwkYd \ tpOf jzpfaomaMumihf y#dyg#d=tpOf twef;vkud t
f m;jzifh ½Ionfrnf\/

{0H 0dyóem y#dyg#d,m ouvrÜd 'd0obm*H or®ow d Hk 0a¥,s? ,m0 'órpdwå or®oem ye ½lyur®
|merÜd t½lyur®|merÜd y*kPH a[mwd/ wo®m 'oar a,0 XaywAÁE0dÅ w
k /Hå (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-262)

{0H? þqkcd ahJ om enf;jzif/h 0dyóem y#dyg#d,m? 0dyóem tpOftm;jzif/h ouvrÜd 'd0obm*H? waeYv;Hk
aomfv/J or®ow d ?Hk ok;H oyf ½Irw S jf cif;iSg/ 0g? ok;H oyf ½Irw S jf cif;onf/ 0a¥,s? jzpfEidk af y\? (orÇa0,s-#Dum
bGi)hf / ye? xko d Ydk yif jzpfEidk af omfv/J ,m0 'orpdwo å r®oem? q,fMudraf jrmuf 0dyóem pdwu f kd ok;H oyf ½Irw
S rf I
wkid af tmif/ (tbd0"d -d t0"d aywnf;)/ tm&bd,rmeH? tm;xkwt f yfvQif/ (vu©P0EÅ 0daooe xnfo h nf)h /
½lyur®|merÜ?d ½kyu f kd rSwrf I ur®|mef;onf¤if;/ t½lyur®|merÜ?d emrfukd rSwrf I ur®|mef;onf¤if;/ y*kPH?
avhvmaus>yefonf/ ,o®m? tMuifaMumif/h a[mwd? jzpfay\/ wo®m? xkYd aMumif/h 'oara,0? q,fMudraf jrmuf
pdwüf omvQif/ or®oeH? ok;H oyf ½Irw S rf u
I /kd XaywAÁE?dÅ &yfwefY xm;&rnf [lí/ 0kw?Hå t&d,m0Houxmü rdeYf qdk
tyf\/ /(q,fMudrf ajrmuf pdwu f kd rSwNf yD;vQifç xif½Sm;aom ½kyfudkom jyefí½IrSwf&rnf/ xkd ½kyfrSwf pdwfrS
pí q,fMudraf jrmufpw d of Ydk a&mufjyefvQifç wzef ½kyu f jkd yefí ½Irw S &f rnf? þenf;jzifh ½kyu f wkd Mudrf wMudrrf w S f
&mü? pdwt f qifq h ifuh kd 10-Mudrf 10-Mudro f m rSw&f rnf? 11-Mudraf jrmuf pdwu f kd ½Irw
S jf cif; ponfjzifh xdx k uf
tvGef pdwu f kd pdwcf sif; vku d í f r½IrwS &f [k qkv d \
kd /)

Mo0g'pum; ...... þt&mü rSmoifh rSmxku d af om pum;ud?k t|uxmq&mrsm; uJo h Ydk yif rSmxm;OD;tH/h þtcPf;ü
jytyfaom ½IyHk ½Ienf; tvk;H pko H nfç twk,í l tm;xkw&f ef ñTejf ytyfonf r[kwaf y/ trSeftm; jzifhaomfum; ......
tcPf; (5) ü jycJo h nft h wkid ;f ½Irw S of rl mS jzpfay:vmaom todÓPfrsm;ESiw hf udk q f idk f ED;S aESmMunf&h ef tvdYk igS
omvQif &nf½, G í f ñTejf ytyfayonf/ odYk jzpfíç tm;xkwq f J yk*K¾ v d o f nf? tcPf; (5)ü jyxm;onft h wkid ;f ay:vGif
xif½mS ;&m ½kyef mrfuo kd mvQif jzpfay:pOftwdik ;f xif½mS ;odatmif ½Irw S \f / ½lyowåuç emrowåu enf;rsm;xJrS
rnfonfeh nf;t& jzpfatmif ½Irw S rf nf [líum; aMumifMh urpku d f tyfonfomwnf;/ tjypfum; ...... tm;xkwpf
yk*Kd¾ vfrmS xku d o hJ Ydk aMumihMf upku d af evQifç aMumifMh updu k w f hJ pdwrf sm;ESiçhf enf;vrf; usç rusudk pOf;pm;wJh pdwrf sm;
onf cP cP rsm;pGmyif jzpfay:wwf\? xkpd w d rf sm;udv k J rrSwEf idk ?f rodEidk o f nfuom rsm;vsuf ½Sw d wf\/ þ
rod&wJh pdwrf sm;ujcm;vsuf jcm;vsuf ½Sjd cif;aMumifh rSwo f rd =I 0dyóemonf wpyfxnf; qufpyfvsuf rjzpf&awmh
acs/ xkYd aMumifçh owd orm"d 0dyóemÓPfrsm;onf tcdsefMumjrifah omfvJ r&ifo h ef rwd;k wufbJ ½Sw d wf\/
txl;ojzifu h m; ...... tm;xkwpf yk*Kd¾ vfrmS a½S;½S; 0dyóempdwu f kd aemuf aemuf pdwjf zifh tMudrrf sm;pGm tqifq h ifh
½Irw S af evQif? rSw&f wJh xkpd w d t f m½ko H nf wajz;ajz; arS;rSed u f m rxifr½Sm;jzpfí jzpfí oGm;wwf\? xkdtcgü
rSwfp&m tm½kHtopfudk ½Smí ½Smí rSwf&jyef\/ þokYd topf ud½k mS í rSw&f wkid ;f bm0emudk topftopf wnf
axmif&ouJo h Ydk jzpfav\? xkYd aMumifçh r&ifo h ef rwk;d wuf ½Sw d wfonf/ þodYk bm0em topf topf jzpfí
rwd;k wufEidk o f nfukd wxm owd ur®|meH e0H e0ar0 od,m-[laom r[m#Dumjzifh NrJNrHpmG ,kMH unftyf\/
okYd jzpfíç tcPf;(5)ü jyxm;onft h wkid ;f om tm;xkwyf gav/ tcsdew f efaom tcgüç ½kyu f kd wMudrf wMudrf rSw&f m
wGif rSww f phJ w d f tqifq h ifu
h kd wMudrf ESpMf udrjf zpfapç xkx d uftvGejf zpfapç qifu h m qifu h m rSwo f jd cif;onf
tvdv k ykd if oefY½iS ;f pGm jzpfygvwH/h okYd aomfvçJ b*FÓPfjzifyh u Hk kd jyqk&d m yg|dç t|uxmwkYd ü ½kyrf w S f wMudrf
wMudrrf mS emrfrw S f wMudrf wMudrf jzpfjcif;udo k m jyqdv k suf ½Sad yonf/ xkYd aMumifh ½kyu f kd wMudrf wMudrf rSw&f mü?
xkrd w S w f hJ pdwu f kd wMudrf wMudrrf Q rSwo f Ed idk vf Qifyif r*fzv kd o f Ydk a&mufapEkid af tmif 0dyóemÓPf jynfph NHk yD
[líomvQif ,krH mS ;r½Sd NrJjrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/ r*fzv kd o f Ydk a&mufNyD;í zdv k uf kd tvd½k w dS idk ;f 0ifpm;Edik af tmif 0dyóem
ü aumif;pGmEkid ef if;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk onfum; prf;oyfMunhv f ydk gu pdwt f qifq h ifu
h dk tvd½k w dS idk ;f ½IrwS f MunhEf idk yf g
\/ xdo dk Ykd aom yk*Kd¾ vfrmS 0dyóempdwf tqifq h ifu h kd tMudr&f maxmifruvku d í f ½Irw S af eaomfvJ aumif;NrJyif
aumif;vsufç xif½mS ;NrJyif xif½mS ;vsuf ½Sw d wfay\/ okYd jzpfíç þokYd Ekid ef if;NyD;aom olrsm;omvQif prf;oyfvydk g
uç prf;oyf ½Irw S Ef idk af yonf/ r*fzv kd of Ydk ra&mufao;aom tm;xkwpf yk*Kd¾ vfonfum; pdwt f qifqh ifuh kd ½IrwS f
jcif;ü? tvQi;f yif aMumifMh urpdu k t f yfonf omwnf;/

'd|Od *¢g#e ½IjrifyHk ..... igu ½IrSwfaeonf [lí¤if;? ½IrSwfrI[m igh trIbJ[lí¤if;? þokdYtm;jzifh ]]rSwaf ewJh
yk*Kd¾ vfaumif ½Sad eovd}k } xifjrif pGv
J rf;rI ruif;ao;vQif? xkad ,m*D\ ½Irw
S rf oI nf ]]xko d Ydk xifjrif pGv
J rf;rI 'd|u
d kd
rcGgEkid af omaMumif}h } 'd|Od *¢g#e rrnfao;/ atmuf 0do'k d̈ 2-yg;jzifh 'd|ud kd y,fcgG cJNh yD;aomfvJ r*fjzifh t<uif;rJh
ry,f&ao;aomaMumifh þokYd aom 'd|d jzpfEidk af o;omwnf;/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 61

odrfarGUaom 'd|dç 0dpdudpäm ruif;ao;aMumif;

umrOöm,H 'd|0d o
d 'k -d¨ ucFg0dw&P0do'k -d̈ or"d*are 0do'k ¨ 'd|ad um? ra*¾e ye tork*g¢ #dwwåm
taem|m&dum, 'd|,
d m 0aoae0H 0kw/Hå (r[m#Dum 2-415)

t,H? or®oeÓPfEiS hf jynfph aHk om þa,m*Donf/ 'd|0d o d 'k d̈ ucFg0dw&P0do'k -d̈ or"d*are? 'd|0d od 'k çd¨
ucFg0dw&P0do'k d¨ wkYd ukd &jcif;aMumif/h umrOö 0do'k '¨ |d ad um? pifMu,faom tjrif t,l½o dS nfum; rSeyf gay\/
ye? okYd aomfv/J ra*¾e tork*g¢ #d wwåm? r*fjzifh t<uif;rJrh Ekwf ry,f&ao;aomaMumif/h taemVm&dum, 'd|, d m
0aoe? odraf rGUaom 'd|\ tvdt k m;jzif/h {0H? ]]t[H 0dyóem? rr 0dyóemwd *PSawm=igu½Ionf? ig\
½Ir[
I k xifjrif pGv
J rf;onf}} [laom þpum;ud/k 0kw?Hå t|uxmq&m qkt d yf\/ /(þ#Dumukyd if axmufrí DS
]]or®oeÓPf ponfEiS hf jynfph aHk om oltm; aomfvJ odraf rGUaom ,krH mS ;rIvJ jzpfEidk af o;onf}}[k ,kMH unftyf\)/

igaumif r[kww f hJ ocFg& w&m;wkYd u omvQif igaumifr[kwwf hJ ocFg&w&m;awGukd ½IrwS f od jrifaeMu


onf [k? rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u
dk üf xifjrif oabmusvQi?f xkad ,m*D\ ½IrSwfrIonf ]]'d|dudk y,fEw
I Ef idk f aomaMumif}h }
'd|Od *¢g#e rnf\/ txl;xufoefpmG jzpfaom tewåmEkyóemyifwnf;/

{0H ocFga& tewåawm yó 'd|o


d rk*g¢ #eH emr a[mwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-264)

{0H? þokYd / ocFga& rSww


f wfç rSwt
f yfç ESp&f yfaom ocFg&wkYd u/kd tewåawm yóEÅó? igaumif r[kw?f
oabmw&m;rQom[k ½Ijrifaom a,m*D\/ 0dyóem? ½Ijrifro I nf/ 'd|o d rk*g¢ #eHemr? 'd|o
d rk*g¢ #e rnfonf/
a[mwd? jzpf\/

,'g tewåmEkyóem wdum© ol&m0do'g y0wåw?d £w&ma'Gyd w'Ek*wdum/ w'g.aee 'd|Od *¢g#eH uwH
a[mwd/ (r[m#Dum 2-416)

,'g? tMuiftcgü/ tewåmEkyóem? tewåmEkyóemonf/ 0g? twåaumifr[kwçf igaumif r[kw[ f k


½Ijrifro
I nf/ wdum© ol&m 0do'g? xufjruf &J&ifo
h efY½iS ;f onfjzpfí/ yowåw?d jzpf\/ £w&m a'Gy?d tedpmö
Ekyóemç 'ku©mEkyóemç 2-yg;wkYd onfvnf;/ w'Ek*wdum? xkd tewåmEkyóemokYd vdu k íf jzpfuek \
f / (a½S;OD;pGm
tewå[k odjrif oabmusonf? aemufrS tedpö 'ku© [k qifjcifonf[k qkv d \dk )/ w'g? tewåmEkyóem
txl;oefpmG jzpfaom xkt d cgü/ taee? þa,m*Donf/ 'd|Od *¢g#eH? 'd|u d kd y,fEw
k jf cif;ud/k uwH? ûytyfonf/
a[mwd? jzpf\/

rmeork*g¢ #e ½IjrifyHk ..... ig rSwEf idk w f ,f? ig rSww f wfw,f[k xifjrifpv JG rf;ao;vQif? xkad ,m*D\ ½Irw
S rf o
I nf
]]axmifvmT ;wuf<urIrmeudk rEkwrf cGgEkid af omaMumif}h } rmeork*g¢ #e rrnfao;/ rNrJwhJ ocFg& w&m;awGuomvQif
rNrJwhJ ocFg& w&m;awGu½kd rI w S f odjrifaeMuonf[?k rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u
dk üf xifjrif oabmusvQi?f xkd a,m*D\
½Irw
S rf o
I nf ]]rmeudk y,fEw k Ef idk af omaMumif}h } rmeork*g¢ #e rnf\/ txl;oefpmG jzpfaom tedpmö Ekyóem
yifwnf;/

tedpaö wm yóEÅó rmeork*g¢ #eHemr a[mwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f) ,'gye tedpmö Ekyóem wdum© ol&m 0do'g
y0wåw?d £w&m a'Gyd w'Ek*wdum/ w'g.aee rmeork*g¢ #eH uwHa[mwd/ (#Dum)

eduEÅd y&d,m'ge ½IjrifyHk ....... aumif;aumif; odjrifw,f? ½Irw S rf I aumif;w,f? trSwaf umif;w,f[k om,m
ESpo
f ufvQi?f xkad ,m*D\ ½Irw S rf o
I nf ]]Niduyf wG,w f mrI eduEÅu d kd ry,fEidk af omaMumif}h } eduEÅd y&d,m'ge rrnf
ao;? rjywfjzpfysuaf ewJh ocFg&w&m;awGuomvQif rjywfjzpfysuaf ewJh ocFg&w&m;awGukd ½Irw S f odjrifaeonf
[k? rSwcf udk f rSwcf u
dk üf xifjrif oabmusvQi?f xkad ,m*D\ ½Irw S rf oI nf ]]Niduyf wG,wf mrI wPSmudk y,fazsmuf
ukecf ef;apEkid af omaMumif}h } eduEÅyd &d,m'ge rnf\/ txl;oefpmG jzpfaom 'kum© Ekyóem yifwnf;/ t|uxmüum;
]]ok|K0dyómrd/ remyH 0dyómrd [k,v l Qif? rme jzpfonf? 0dyódwHk oauúmrd [k om,mvQif? eduEÅd jzpfonf}}
[lí rdefYqkdvsuf ½Sd\/ #DumüvJ? xkEd iS ahf vsmfpmG yif zGijhf yvsuf½\
dS /

'kua© wm yóEÅó eduEÅyd &d,m'geH emr a[mwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f)


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 62

,'g ye 'kum© Ekyóem wdum© ol&m0do'g y0wåw?d £w&ma'Gyd w'Ek*wdum/ w'g.aee eduEÅd
y&d,m'geH uwH a[mwd/ (#Dum)

emrowåu NyD;\/

or®oeÓPf NyD;\/

O',AÁ,OmPf

,m ]],'wåd ,H blw?H wH yZ[wd? Oayu©H y#dvbwD wd}} {0rm*wm 0dped ae rZÑwb å w


l m Oayu©m? t,H
0dyóEkayu©m emr/ ay/ ynm {0 [d om? udp0ö aoe 'G"d m bdEmé / ,xm[dyo k ó om,H a*[H y0d|H oyÜH
tZy'.'@H *a[wGm y&da,ormeó wH xkoaum|mao edyEéH 'domG oayÜg Ek acgç aem wd t0avmauEÅó
aom0wåu d wå,H 'domG edaAÁrwd uóoayÜgç e oayÜgwd 0dped ae rZÑwåwm a[mwd? {0ar0,m
tm&'¨0yd óuó 0dyóemÓaPe vu¨Pwåa, 'da| ocFg&meH tedpb ö m0g'd 0dped ae rZÑwåwm OyÜZw
Æ ?d t,H
0dyóEkayu©m/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 1-157-ESihf t|omvded 218)

0dyóEkayu©m\ o½kyfowåd

,'wå-d y-y#duvwDw?d [lí/ {0H tm*wm? þokYd Oy&dyPÖmoç t*Fw k &å yg|dwYdk üvmaom/ 0dped ae?
tedpö 'ku© tewåavvm; [k pl;prf; qifjcifrüI / rZÑwåbw
l m? tv,f tvwf nDrQaom oabm jzpfí jzpfaom/
0g? tvGeaf MumifMh urpku
d af om oabmjzpfíjzpfaom/ ,m Oyau©m? 0dyóemÓPfwnf;[laom tMuifOyau©m
onf/ twåd? ½Sd\/ t,H? þ Oayu©monf/ 0dyóEkayu©m emr? 0dyóEkayu©m rnf\/

,'wåd paom yg|dawmf\ teufum; ..... ,H? tMuif cE¨m ig;yg;onf/ twåd? y&rwåtm;jzifh ½SdqJwnf;/
,H? tMuif cE©m ig;yg;onf/ blw?H taMumif;aMumifh jzpfay:qJwnf;/ (,H twå?d ,H blwH {w&[d cE¨yOöu-H
Oy&dyH t|uxm/ / ,'w¬d ,H blwH ypöKyÜEu é E© y¨ Oöu-H t*Fw&å t|uxm/ Oy&dyH #Dumü? ,H tw¬-d ud?k ,H
cE¨yOöuH y&rw¬awm tw¬-d [kziG \
hf /) /wH? xkd y&rw¬tm;jzifh xif½mS ; ½Sq d çJ jzpfqJ ypöyeÜ f cE¨m ig;yg;ud/k
yZ[bd? y,f\/ OayuḦ? txl;aMumifMh u rpku
d &f bJç ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumifr[kw}f } [k ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrifaom
0dyóEkayu©mud/k y#dvbwd? &\/

(yg#dawmf pmtkyw f Ydk üum; .... wHyZ[mrD wd Oayu©H y#dvwwd- [k½Sd\/ /wH? xkd ½Sq d çJ jzpfqJ cE¨m
ig;yg;ud/k yZwmrd? y,fpeG Yf \/ £wd? þokYd y,fpeG Yf aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzif/h Oayu©?H 0dyóemayu©u/kd
y#dvbwd? &\/ þokdY teufjyefav/ /wH yZwmrD wd Oayu©H y#dvbwDwd ww¬ qE´&m*yÜ[maee
yZ[mrDwd 0dyóEkayu©H y#dvbwd - ow¬*w kF &å t|uxm/ / tm;xkwpf ÓPfEpk Of umvü jzpfcu dk f ½kyef mrf
ypöKyÜef cE¨mwkYd ukd ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f } [k aumif;pGm rykid ;f jcm;Ekid af o;/ xkYd aMumifçh xkcd E¨mwkYd ü ]edpö okc
twå} [k xifrw S vf sufç vdck sif wyfrufrI qE´&m* jzpfEidk af o;\/ or®oeÓPf jynfph aHk tmif ÓPf&ifNh yD;aom
umvüum; txl; aMumifMh u rpdu k &f bJ? rSw½f rHk Qjzifçh jzpfcu
dk f ½kyef mrf ypöKyÜef cE¨mwkYd ukd ]]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif
r[kw}f } [k ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrifoabmus\/ xkYd aMumifçh xkcd E¨m wkYd ü ]edpö okc twå} [k xifrw S vf sufç vkcd sif
wyfrufrI qE´&m*onf rjzpfEidk af wmhNyD/ þokYd qE´&m* rjzpfEidk af tmif odjrifrjI zpfaomaMumifçh ]]jzpfcu dk f jzpfcu dk f
½kyef mrfukd txl;aMumifMh urpdu k &f bJ? ]rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kw}f [k rSwo f jd cif;onf}} xk½d yk ef mrfü jzpfxu dk af om
qE´&m*udv k J y,fpeG Yf onf rnf\? xk½d yk ef mrf cE¨mudv k J y,fpeG Yf onf rnf\/ 0dyóEkayu©vJ rnf\- [k
qkvd \ kd / odcpJ /G r[m#Dumü? ]],'w¬d ,H blwEÅd cE¨yOöw?H wH rkOw dö u
k rswmÓaPe yZ[wd}} [laom tzGiu hf kd
um;? Ouú|enf; [k ,ltyf\/ þokYd ,lro S mvQif O',AÁ,ÓPf t&mü? 0dyóEkayu©ujkd yaom 0do'k rd¨ *fEiS hf
nDrnf)/

om? 0dyóEkayu©ç ocFg½kayu©m [laom xkd Oayu©m 2-rsdK;onf/ ynm {0? w&m;ud, k tf m;jzifh ynmom
wnf;/ udp0ö aoe? vu©Pm 3-yg;udk pl;prf; qifjcifrüI trQ½Ijcif; udpçö ocFg&wkYd ü trQ½Ijk cif;wY\ kd tvkdtm;jzifh/
'G"d m? ESprf sKd; jzpfí/bdEmé ? uGjJ ym;\/ [d? csJUí xifpmG jytH/h om,H? naecsrf; arSmif&cD sdeüf / a*wH y0d|H oyÜ?H
tdrx f o
J Ydk 0ifvmaoma>rud/k tZy'-'@H *a[wGm y&da,ormeó? qdwcf gG o@ef½adS om wkwu f u kd ikd í
f ½Smvwf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 63

aomf/ wH? xkad >rud/k xkoaum|maoedyEéH 'domG ? zGyJ üHk tdyaf eonfukd awGUjrif í/ oayÜg Ekacgç aem wd
t0avmauEÅó? a>r [kwaf vovm;ç r[kwaf vovm;[k Munf½h I pl;prf;vwfaomf/ aom0wåu d wå,H 'domG ?
vnfa&; ok;H wefYukd awGYjrifí/ edArÁ wduó? a>ryifwnf; [k ,krH mS ;r½Sd qk;H jzwfEidk af om/ yk&o d ó? a,mufsm;tm;/
oayÜgç e oayÜgwd 0dped ae? a>r avvm;ç a>rr[kwb f ;l avvm; [k pl;prf; qifjcifrüI / rZÑwåwm? txl; aMumifMh u
rpdkufbJ tnDtrQvspfvsL½Ijcif;onf/ a[mwd ,xm? zj pfouJo h Ydk / {0H {0? þenf;wlyifvQif tm&'¨0yd óuó?
or®oeÓPfjzifh tm;xkwpf ûycJNh yD;aom 0dyóem a,m*Dtm;/ 0dyóem ÓaPe? or®oe 0dyóemÓPfjzif/h
vu©Pwåa, 'da|? vu©Pm 3-yg;udk awGYjriftyfNyD;vwfaomf/ ocFg&meH tedpw ö m0g'd0pd ed ae? ocFg&wkYd \
rNrJonfth jzpfponfukd pl;prf;qifjcifrüI / ,mrZÑwåwm? tMuif txl;aMumifMh urpku d rf íl tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ijcif;
oabmonf/ OyÜZw Æ ?d jzpf\/ t,H? þ aMumifMh urpku d v
f eG ;f aom odro I abmonf/ 0dyóEkayu©m? 0dyó
Ekayu©m rnf\/

rsufarSmuf rSwo f &d wJh jzpfq½J yk ef mrfwYdk ü¤if;? xk½d yk ef mrfrsm;ESihf EIid ;f qíç rsufu, G f ½kyef mrfwYdk ü ¤if;? jzpfrI
ysufrI tedp'ö u k t
© ewå vu©PmwkYd ukd ok;H oyfqifjcifí? ,krH mS ;r½Sd qk;H jzwfEidk af omoltm;/ qkcd ahJ om t|uxm
wkYd EiS hf tnD rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kwo f nf\ tjzpfukd pl;prf;qifjcif&ef? txl;aMumifMh urpku d f awmhb?J jzpfcu dk f
jzpfcu dk f ½kyef mrfukd rSw½f rHk Qom rSwv f suf? tpESit hf qk;H [laom tjzpftysufukd ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrifaom 0dyó
Ekayu©monf jzpfay:\/ xkt d cgrSpí? jzpfcu dk f ypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfwYdk \ tjzpftysufuo kd d jrifaom O',AÁ,ÓPf
jzpfay:onf[k odtyf\/ xkd ÓPf\ jzpfyu Hk kd y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdwYdk jzifh jyayth/H

ypöKyÜEmé eH "r®meH 0dy&dPmrmEkyóae ynm O',AÁ,mEkyóae ÓPH/ (u#do-H 1)/

ypöKyÜEmé eH? taMumif;udk pGíJ jzpfay:qJ jzpfuek af om/ "r®meH? ½kyef mrf w&m;wkYd \/ 0dy&dPmrmEkyóae
ynm? jzpfp=jzpfcu dk u
f ESihf rwlbJ ajymif;vJ ysufp;D onfukd ½Ijrifaom ynmonf/ O',AÁ,mEkyóae ÓPH?
tjzpftysufukd ½Ijrifaom ÓPfrnf\/

rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f ]]bGm;ueJ bGm;ueJ ay:vmouJo h Ydk ¤if;? acgif;`ylí acgif;jyLí 0ifvmouJo h Ykd ¤if;}}
rSwt
f yfwhJ ½kyef mrf\tp=jzpfay:rIonf rSwo f w d hJ pdwxf J ÓPfxrJ mS xif½Sm;\? ]]&dyu f eJ &dyu f eJ vGiahf ysmufomG ;
ouJoh Ydk ¤if;? za,mif;wkid rf ;D awmufuav;rsm; [kwu f eJ [kwu f eJ Nidr;f aysmufomG ;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;}} rSwtf yfwhJ ½kyef mrf
\ tqk;H =ysufro I nfvnf; rSwo f w
d hJ pdwx f J ÓPfxrJ mS xif½mS ;\/ þokdYxif ½Sm;aom tcgü rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f
rSwt
f yfaom ½kyef mrf\ xkt d p=jzpfrEI iS çhf tqk;H =ysufrw I Ydk ukd odjrif jcif;onf O',AÁ,OmPf rnf\/

ZmwH ½lyH ypöKyÜE?Hé wó edAw


Á v
då u©PH O'a,m? 0dy&dPmr vu©PH 0a,m? tEkyóem ÓPH/ (y#doH 52)

ZmwH ½ly?H jzpfqJ (Oyg'f XD bifoYdk a&mufq)J ½kyo


f nf/ ypöKyÜE?Hé ypöKyÜef ½kyrf nf\/ wó? xkd jzpfqJ½kyf\/
edAw
Á v
då u©P?H tp=jzpfay:jcif; vu©Pmonf/ O'a,m? jzpfjcif;rnf\/ 0dy&dPmr vu©P?H jzpfpuESirhf wlbJ
ajymif;vJaysmufu, G jf cif; vu©Pmonf/ 0a,m? ysujf cif;rnf\/ tEkyóem? xkd jzpfryI sufrw I Udk udk odjrifjcif;
onf/ ÓPH? O',AÁ,OmPf rnf\/

oEÅwd ypöKyÜaEé cPypöKyÜaEé 0g "ar® O',AÁ,'óembd eda0aom umwaAÁm? e twDwmem*aw wd0w


k Hå
]]ypöKyÜEmé eH "r®me}} EÅ/d

ZmwEÅd edAwÁ Hå y#dv'¨wb å m0H /y/ ypöKyÜE½é yl H emr ZmwH cPwå,y&d,myEéEdÅ taw¬m/ wH ye tm'dawm
'ky&Ü *d [
¾ EÅd oEÅwd ypöKyÜE0é aoe 0dyóembd eda0aom umwaAÁm/ (r[m#Dum 2-419)

oEÅwyd pöKyÜaEé 0g"ar®? oEÅwyd pöKyÜef w&m;üjzpfap/ cP ypöKyÜaEé 0g "ar®? cPypöKyÜef w&m;üjzpfap?
O',AÁ,'óem bdead 0aom? tjzpftysufukd ½Irw S f ESv;Hk oGi;f jcif;ud/k umwaAÁm? ûytyf\/ e twDwmem*aw?
twdwf tem*wf w&m;ü pí ESv;Hk roGi;f tyf/ £wd? xkad Mumif/h ypöKyÜEmé eH "r®meEÅ?d [lí/ 0kw?Hå a[mawmfrt
l yf\/

ZmwEÅ?d ZmwH [lonfum;/ edAw Á ?Hå jzpfay:aom/ y#dv'¨wb


å m0H? &tyfaom txnfu, kd f oabm½Sad om
w&m;wnf;/ y/ ypöKyÜE½é yl H emr? ypöKyÜef ½kyf rnfonfum;/ ZmwH? jzpfay:qJ ½kyw
f nf;/ cPwå,y&d,myEé?H Oyg'f
XDbif [laom cPok;H yg; taygif;ü twGi;f 0ifaom ½kyw f nf;/ £wd taw¬m? þum; ]ZmwH ½lyH ypöKyÜE}Hé [laom
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 64

tyd'k \
f teufwnf;/ ye? okYd aomfv/J wH? xkd cPypöKyÜef ½kyu f /kd tm'dawm? O',AÁ,ÓPf jzpfay:pü/ 'ky&Ü *d [
¾ ?H
odr;f qnf; ½IrwS Ef idk cf \
J / £wd? xkYd aMumif/h oEÅ wd ypöKyÜE0é aoe? oEÅwyd pöKyÜe\
f tvdt
k m;jzif/h 0dyóem
bdead 0aom? 0dyóemudk pí ESv;Hk oGi;f jcif;ud/k umwaAém? ûytyf\/

þ#DumESit
hf nD? ZmwH½yl H ypöKyÜWEéH paom ygVdawmfjzifh jytyfaom ypöKyÜew
f &m; [lonfrmS Oyg'fXb
D ifoYdk
a&mufqJ cPypöKyÜef w&m;omwnf;/ t'¨gypöKyÜef oEÅwyd pöKyÜew f &m; r[kw[f í
l odtyf\/ xkYd jyifç O',AÁ,ÓPf
jzpfay:cgpü oEÅwyd pöKyÜew
f &m;\ tjzpftysufuo kd m odEidk o
f nf? xku
d mvrSpí Ekaom O',AÁOmPf jzpfay:onf/
O',AÁÓPf&ifah om tcgüum; cPypöKyÜef w&m;\ tjzpftysufukd odjrifvsuf jzpfonf[í l vJ odtyf\/

oEÅwdESifh cPypöKyÜef

ZmwH ½lyH ypöKyÜEéH ponfü t"dyÜg,fum; .... azgif;½kyf ydef½kyf xkdif½kyf x½kyf vSrf;½kyf auG;½kyf qefY½kyf
paomud, k t f rlt&m½kyf [lorQonf jzpfqJ ûyqJ ½Sq d J cPü ypöKyÜe½f yk cf snf;omwnf;/ xk½d yk w f Ydk \ tp [laom
jzpfay:rIonf O',=jzpfraI ywnf;/ tqk;H [laom uG,af ysmufro I nf 0,=ysurf aI ywnf;/ wMudrf wMudraf om
azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I xrI vSr;f rI auG;rI qefYrI vIyrf I a½TYrI ûyjyifrwI Ydk ukd tp=jzpfrI wMudrpf çD tqk;H =ysufrI wMudrpf D
jzifo
h m ydik ;f jcm;í odjrifjcif;onf oEÅwyd pöKyÜe½f yk \f tjzpftysufukd odjrifaom jzpfcgp O',AÁ,OmPfaywnf;/
þrQavmuf odvQiyf ifç azgif;rIuwjcm; + yderf u I wjcm; + xkid rf u I wjcm;? auG;rIu wjcm; + qefYru I wjcm;?
b,fvrS ;f u wjcm; + nmvSr;f uwjcm;-þokYd ponfjzifh tydik ;f tykid ;f jywfvsufom xifay:aomaMumifçh
]]wckwckaom ud, k f trlt&monf wjcm; wyg;aom ud, k f trlt&mESihf ra&maESmbJ xkx d dk tcku
d t f wefYüomvQif
ay:í ay:í ukeq f ;kH ukeqf ;Hk oGm;Muonf}} [k? rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if rawG; rq&bJ ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrif oabmus\/

O',AÁÓPf xufoefaom tcgüum; wMudrf wMudrf touf½&ª mü? azgif;<u vIy½f mS ;rI uav;aygif;
tqifq h ifh rsm;pGmjzpfvsuf xif½mS ;\/ xkv d yI ½f mS ;rIuav;rsm;onf ]]a&jyifay:rSm rk;d aygufuav;rsm; uswkid ;f
uswkid ;f jzpfay:NyD;vQifç wcPcsif; ysufysufomG ;wJh a&yGuu f av;rsm;vkyd if}} wvIyrf S wvIyo f Ykd ç wqifrh S wqifh
okYd ra&mufb?J xkx d dk cPrSmyif &dyu f eJ &dyu f eJ ay:vmí? aysmuf ysuf oGm;Mu onf[k xif½mS ;\/ wMudrw f Mudrf
aom yderf I xkid rf I ajcvSr;f rI auG;rI qefYrI vIyrf I ûyjyifrI wkYüd vJ enf;wlyif tqifq h ifh tpdwt f ykid ;f rsm;pGm tykid ;f
tykid ;f jywfvsufom xif½mS ;uke\ f / xkt d cgü ay:csnf aysmufcsnfEiS hf rjywf jzpfysufvsuf ½Sad om uk, d tf rlt&m
rsm;\ tpjzpfrçI tqk;H ysufrw I Ydk udk rawG;rq&bJ rSw½f rHk Q rSw½f rHk Qjzifyh if ½Si;f vif;pGm odjrifjcif;onf ygVdawmf
ESifhtnDç cPypöKyÜef½kyf\O',ç 0,wkYd udk odjrifaom Av0 O',AÁ,ÓPfaywnf;/ jrifcu dk f Mum;cku d f ponfü
vJ? jrif&wJh tqif;½ky?f Mum;&wJh toH½yk f ponfwYdk u¤dk if;ç MunfvifwhJ rsufp½d yk f em;½kyf ponfwYdk u¤dk if; xkx d dk
cPrSmyif zswfueJ zswfueJ ay:vmí ukeaf ysmuf ukeaf ysmuf oGm;Muonf [k od&\/ þcPypöKyÜefukd
ykid ;f jcm;Ekid af tmif tod vsifjrefaom umvü trnf wyfí rSwaf evQif? jzpfwidk ;f ysufwidk ;f aom ½kyu f dk rrSED idk b
f J
½Sdwwf\/ od½rHk Q od½rHk Qom tpOfvu dk af erS tvk;H pku H dk aphXatmif oufouf omomESihf rSwo f Ed idk af yawmhonf/

Zmwm a0'em ypöKyÜEmé ? Zmwm ocFg&m ypöKyÜEmé ? ZmwH 0dnmPH ypöKyÜE?Hé wó edAw
Á v
då u©PH O'a,m?
0dy&dPmrvu©PH 0a,m? tEkyóem ÓPH/ (¤if; 52)

Zmwm a0'em? jzpfqJ cHpm;rIonf/ ypöKyÜEmé ? ypöKyÜef rnf\/ Zmwm onm? jzpfqJ rSwo f m;rIonf/
ypöKyÜEmé ? ypöKyÜef rnf\/ Zmwm ocFg&m? jzpfqJ tm;xkwrf w I Ydk onf/ ypöKyÜEmé ? ypöKyÜef rnfuek \
f / ZmwH 0dnmPH?
jzpfqJ pdwo f nf/ ypöKyÜE?Hé ypöKyÜerf nf\/ wó? xkd ypöKyÜef pdw\ f / edAw
Á v
åd u©P?H tp=jzpfay:jcif; vu©Pmonf/
O'a,m? jzpfjcif;rnf\/ 0dy&dPmrvu©P?H jzpfpuESihf rwlb?J ajymif;vJ uG,af ysmufjcif; vu©Pmonf/ 0a,m?
ysujf cif; rnf\/ tEkyóem? xkd jzpfrçI ysufrw I Ydk udk odjrifjcif;onf/ ÓPH? O',AÁ,ÓPf rnf\/

jrifqJ Mum;qJ eHqJ pm;odqJ xdqJ BuHqJ ½Irw S qf üJ yg0ifaom cHpm;rIonf ypöKyef a0'emyifwnf;?
rSwo
f m;rIonf ypöKyÜef onmyifwnf;? tm½ku H dk odumrQ tm½kûH yumrQ jzpfaom pdwo f nf ypöKyÜef 0dnmPfyifwnf;?
<uif;aom emrfw&m;wkYd onf ypöKyÜef ocFg&wkYd yifwnf;? jrifjcif; Mum;jcif; paom trlt&m Bud,mukd NyD;pD;atmif
ûyvkyqf J tm;xkwq f J w&m;rsm;[k qkv d \
dk / ¤if;ocFg&wkdYrSm .... ]]tm½kHqDokdY pdwu f a&mufomG ;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? pdwf
qDoYdk tm½ku H a&mufvmouJo h Ydk ¤if;}} tm½kEH iS hf pdw\
f awGUxdr-I [laom zó? ]]tm½kq H o
D Ydk w[kex
f nf;ajy;oGm;
ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? jrifap Mum;ap auG;ap ponfjzifh pD&ifwu dk wf eG ;f ouJo h Ydk ¤if;}} tm½kEH iS hf pdwuf dk qufpyf aphaqmfrI
[laom apwem? BuHpnfr=I 0dwuf? pOf;pm; qifjcifr=I 0dpm&? ESpo f rd hf tm;&rI=yDw?d Nidr;f at;rI=yó'd̈? ,kMH unfrI
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 65

Munfñrdk I Munfvifr=I o'¨g? trSw&f rI=owd? tm;xkwrf I aMumifMh upku d rf =I 0D&,


d ? pl;pku
d f wnfMunfr=I orm"d?
½Si;f vif;pGmodr=I ynm? vkcd siEf pS o
f ufr=I avmb? pdwq f ;dk rI pdwyf surf =I a'go? ½kyef mrfwYdk uydk if? taumif;trGef
awG[k xifrmS ;rI=arm[? axmifvmT ; EIid ;f ûydirf =I rme? ysUH vGirhf =I O'¨p?ö ½kyef mrfwYdk u?dk owå0gaumif[k xifrmS ;rI='d|?d
,krH mS ;rI=0dpu
d pd mä ? .... þokYd paom w&m;wkYd yifwnf;/ toD;toD;aom þemrfcE¨mwkYd \tp=jzpfay:rIonf
O',aywnf;/ tqk;H =ysufro I nf 0,aywnf;/ jrifcu dk pf onfü ½Irw S í
f þemrfcE¨mwkYd \ tjzpftysufudk oEÅwd
tm;jzifh jzpfapç cPtm;jzifh jzpfapç ykid ;f jcm;í odjrifjcif;onf O',AÁ,ÓPf rnf\/

oEÅwt d m;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;yku


H m;....anmif;rI jzpf&mrS tanmif;ajyí aexkid f aumif;\/ aexkid f aumif;&mrS
wzef anmif;rI jzpfapç ylrI jzpfapç emusirf I jzpfapç ,m;rIjzpfapç jzpfay:jyef\/ þokYd jzpfay:&mü? anmif;prS
tanmif; ajyonftxd? anmif;rIaygif;rsm;pGmyif jzpfjim;aomfvJ O',AÁ, ÓPf EkpOfü xkad nmif;rIrsm;ukd
toD;toD; ykid ;f jcm;í rodEidk af o;? oabmwlaomaMumif?h ]wanmif;xnf;} [líom xifrw S v
f suf ½S\ d ? þokYd
wckxnf;taetm;jzifh xifrw S &f aom oabmwl anmif;rItpOfonf oEÅwyd pöKyÜef a0'emrnf\/ xkdYtwlyif? tp
rStqk;H wkid af tmif? wckxnf; [k xifrw S &f aom oabmwl aexkid af umif;rI ylrI emusirf I ,m;rIwdYk \ tpOfonf
vnf; oEÅwyd pöKyÜeaf 0'emyif rnf\/ okYd jzpfí O',AÁ,ÓPfEpk Ofü ]]anmif;wmu wjcm; + tanmif;ajyí
aexkid f aumif;wmu wjcm; + wzef anmif;wm ylwm emusiw f m ,m;wmu wjcm;}} þokYd ponfjzifh 'ku© okc
a0'emwkYd udk tuefYtuefY tykid ;f tydik ;f jzwfvsuf odjrifoabmus\/ xkYd jyifç wrsKd;xnf;aom tqif; toH
ponfudk rSwo f m;rI tpOfonf oEÅwyd pöKyÜef onm rnf\/ wrsKd;xnf;aom tqif; toH paom tm½ku H dk odrI
tpOfonf oEÅwyd pöKyÜef 0dnmPfrnf\/ wrsKd;xnf;aom trlt&mukd ûyvkyrf I tm;xkwrf I tpOfonf oEÅwd
ypöKyÜeo
f cFg& rnf\/ þ onm 0dnmPf ocFg&wkYd uv dk J oabm rwlaom onm 0dnmPf ocFg&wkYd ajymif;vJwidk ;f
]]a½S;a½S; oabmu wjcm; + aemufaemuf oabmu wjcm; + aemufaemuf oabmu wjcm;}}[k ykid ;f jcm;vsuf
odjrif oabmus\/

cPtm;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;yku


H m; .... wpOfxnf;qufí jzpfaomanmif;rI wrsKd;xnf;rSmyif yXrwBudrf
anmif;wmuwjcm; + 'kw, d wBudrf anmif;wmuwjcm; wwd,wBudrf anmif;wmuwjcm; þodYkponfjzifh
weifu h eJ eifu
h eJ ay:í uG,af ysmuf oGm;aom anmif;rIaygif;rsm;pGm wkYd udk ay:wkid ;f aysmufwidk ;f toD; toD;
ykid ;f jcm;í odjrif oabmus\/ tanmif; ajyí aexkid f aumif;rI ponfwYdk üvJ enf;wlyifwnf;/ xkYd jyifç tqif;
wrsK;d xnf;ukd rSwo f m;&müvJ yXrrSwo f m;wmu wjcm; + 'kw, d rSwo f m;wmu wjcm;-þokYd ponfjzifh toD;
toD; ykid ;f jcm;í od\/ tqif; wrsK;d xnf;ukd jrif&müvJ yXr jrifwmu wjcm; + 'kw, d jrifwmu wjcm;-þokdY
ponfjzifh toD;toD; ykid ;f jcm;í od\/ trlt&m wrsKd;xnf;ukd BuHpnf tm;xkw&f müvJ yXr BuHpnf tm;xkwf
wmuwjcm; + 'kw, d BuHpnf tm;xkww f mu wjcm; - þokYd ponfjzifh toD;toD; ykid ;f jcm;í od\/ þokdY
ygVdawmfEiS t hf nDç emrfw&m;wkYd udk cPtm;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;Ekid af tmif tod vsifjrefaom tcgüvJ trnfwyfí rSwv f Qif
ay:wkid ;f aysmufwidk ;f aom emrfudk rrSED idk b
f J ½Sw
d wf\/ wufwuf wufwufeYJ pufomG ;aeovkyd if tvGef vsifjref
pGmjzpfysufaeaom emrfw&m;wkYd udk od½Hk od½rHk Qom tpOfvu dk af eygrS aphXatmif vG,u
f pl mG rSwo
f Ed idk w
f wfayonf/

y#dord'Å gr*f ygVdawmfü 'Gg& 6-yg;? tm½kH 6-yg;? 0dnmPf 6-yg;? zó 6-yg;? a0'em 6-yg; ponf
wkYd uv
dk J ]]ZmwH pu©KypöKyÜE?Hé ZmwH aomwH ypöKyÜE}Hé } ponfjzifh toD;toD; a0befí us,f0ef;pGm a[mawmfral o;
\/ þüum; us,fveG ;f rnfaMumifh ¤if;wkYd udk rxkwjf yawmhNyD/

jycJNh yD;aom enf;jzif?h cPypöKyÜef jzpfcu dk f ½kyef mrfudk ay:wkid ;f aysmufwidk ;f rSaD tmif vku d íf odaomolonf
þokYd vJ qk;H jzwfoabmusEkid af y\/ yku H m;....,ck rSwo f &d wJh jzpf ysufcu dk f ½kyef mrfonf ray:vmrDuç b,fae&m
rSmrQ pka0;wnf½cdS o hJ nfr[kw?f ay:vmaomtcgüvJç b,fae&murQ a½TUajymif;xGuaf y:vmonfr[kw?f uG,f
aysmufomG ;aomtcgüvJ b,fae&mokYd rQ a½TUajymif;oGm;onf r[kw?f uG,af ysmufNyD;aom tcgüvJç b,fae&mrSmrQ
ûryfu, G v
f suf pka0; wnf½dS aeawmhonfr[kw?f trSet f m;jzifah omfum; olUtaMumif;tm;avsmpf mG onfae&mrSmyif
ay:vmí onfae&mrSmyif vk;H vk;H uG,af ysmufomG ;onf-[k þokYd vJ qk;H jzwf oabmusEkid af y\? ajymif;jyef Oyrm
um;... xkÓ d Pf tqifo h Ydk ra&mufao;rDu ]]auG;rnfh vufonf rauG;rDuyif ½Sad eonf[í l ¤if;? auG;qJüvJç xkd
½SNd yD;om;vufuyif a½TUvmonf [lí¤if;? auG;rI NyD;qk;H oGm;wJh tcgüvJç xkad uG;wJh vufuyif csxm;&mokYd a&muf
oGm;onfç csxm;&mrSm ½SNd rJyif ½Sad eonf [lí¤if;}} jzpfjcif; ysufjcif; r½Sb d J NrJwt hJ aetm;jzifh xifrwS vf suf ½Scd \
hJ /
,ckru l m; xku d o
hJ Ydk xifrw S rf mS ;jcif; r½Sad wmhNyD[k qkv d \ dk / azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I ajc<urI vSr;f rI csrI Mum;rI jrifrI
ponfwYdk üvJenf;wlyifç ajymif;jyefOyrmjzifh EIid ;f ,SOí f odygav/ þodyo Hk nf O',AÁ,ÓPft&mü ta&;tBuD;qk;H
aywnf;/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 66

az:jycJNh yD;aom ygVd teuf t"dygÜ ,fwYdk onfomvQif O',AÁ,ÓPf jzpfyu Hk dk qk;H jzwf&ef vk&d if; tcsKyfwYdk
aywnf;/ jyvwHah om ygVdteuf t"dygÜ ,fwYdk onfum; ¤if;ÓPf jzpfyu Hk dk qk;H jzwf&ef jyonf r[kw/f ¤if;ÓPf\
tpGr;f owduå o
dk m jyvkad om pum;wkYd aywnf;/

O',AÁ,ÓPf\ owdåjypum;

yOöEHé cE¨meH O',H yóaEÅm yOö0o


D wd vu©Pmed yówd? 0,H yóaEÅm yOö0o
D wd vu©Pmed yówd?
O',0,H yóaEÅm yPÖmo vu©Pmed yówd/ ( y#dord'Ç gr*f 53 )

yOöEHé cE¨meH? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \/ O',H yóaEÅm? jzpfru I dk jrifaom olonf/ 0g? jzpfruI dk jrifvwfaomf/
yOö0o
D wd vu©aEÅm? ysufru I jdk rifaomolonf/ 0g?ysufru
I dk jrifvwfaomf/ yOö0o D wd vu©Pmed yówd? 25-yg;
aom vu©PmwkYd ujdk rif\/ O',0,H yóaEÅm? jzpfryI sufru I dk jrifaomolonf/ 0g? jzpfrI ysufru I dk jrifvwfaomf/
yPÖmo vu©Pmed yówd? 50-aom vu©PmwkYd udk jrif\/

t0dZmÆ ork',m ½lyork'a,mwd ypö,ork',a|e ½lyu©Eó¨ O',H yówd? wPSmork',m? ur®


ork',m? tm[m&ork',m ½lyork'a,mwd ypö,ork',a|e ½lyu©Eó¨ O',Hyówd? edAw
Á v åd u©PH yóaEÅmyd
½lyu©Eó
¨ O',H yówd? ½lyu©Eó
¨ O',H yóaEÅm £rmed yOö vu©Pmed yówd/ (y#dord'Å gr*f 53)

t0dZmÆ ork',m? t0dZmÆ ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h (t0dZmÆ ,OyÜg'g? twdb


¬ m0g wd taw¬m-r[m#DumbGi)hf / ½lyork'
a,mwd? ½ky\ f jzpfr½I o
dS nf [lí/ 0g? ½kyjf zpfay:&onf [lí/ ypö,ork',a|e? taMumif; ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h
(ypö,ó OyÜEb é ma0e? twdb ¬ m0 awmwd taw¬m-r[m#DumbGi)hf / ½lyu©Eó ¨ O',H? ½lyu©Em¨ \ jzpfjcif;uk/d
yówd? odjrifoabmus\/ wPSmork',m? wPSm ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h ur®ork',m? uH ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h tm[m&
ork',m? pm;tyfaom tm[m& ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h ½lyork'a,mwd? ½ky\ f jzpfrI ½Sod nf=½kyjf zpfay:onf[íl / ypö,
ork',a|e? taMumif; ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h ½lyu©Eó ¨ O',H? ½lyu©Em¨ \ jzpfjcif;uk/d yówd? odjrif oabmus\/
edAw
Á våd u©P?H jzpfay:jcif; vu©Pmuk/d yóaEÅmyd? jzpfqüJ jrifonfjzpfívJ/ ½lyu©Eó ¨ O',H? ½lyu©Em¨ \
jzpfjcif;uk/d yówd? odjrif\/ ½lyu©E¨ó O',H? ½lyu©E¨m\ jzpfru I /dk yóaEÅm? jrifaom olonf/ £rmed
yOövu©Pmed? þ ig;yg;aom vu©PmwkYd u/dk yówd? jrif\/

vu©Pm ig;yg;[lonfum;....a½S;b0ü uHukd ûypOfu NyD;cJhaom t0dZÆm ½Sdjcif; 1-yg;? wPSm ½Sdjcif; 1-
yg;? uH ½Sdjcif; 1-yg;? ,ckb0ü pm;tyfaom tm[m&½Sdjcif; 1-yg;? rSwo
f t
d yfqJ ypöKyÜe½f yk \
f jzpfay:jcif; 1-yg;?
þ ig;yg;wkYd aywnf;/

t0dZmÆ eda&m"m ½lyeda&ma"mwd ypö,eda&m"a|e ½lyu©Eó


¨ 0,H yówd/ wPSmeda&m"m? ur®ead &m"m?
tm[m&eda&m"m? ½lyeda&ma"mwd ypö,eda&m"a|e ½lyu©Eó ¨ 0,H yówd? 0dy&dPmr vu©PH yóaEÅmyd
½lyu©E¨ó 0,H yówd/ ½lyu©E¨ó 0,HyóaEÅm £rmed yOö vu©Pmed yówd/ ( y#dordÇ'gr*f 53)

t0dZmÆ eda&m"m? t0dZmÆ \ csKyfjcif;=rjzpfjcif;=uif;jcif;aMumif/h ½lyeda&ma"mwd? ½ky\f csKyfjcif;=rjzpfjcif;=


uif;Nidr;f jcif; jzpfonf [lí/ 0g? ½kyrf jzpfvwH[ h íl / ypö,eda&m"a|e? taMumif;\ csKyfjcif;=r½Sjd cif; uif;jcif;
aMumif/h ½lyu©Eó ¨ 0,H? ½lyu©Em¨ \ ysufjcif;=r½Sjd cif;=uif;jcif;uk/d yówd? odjrif oabmus\/ / (t*¾r*¾Om
aPe t0dZmÆ , tEkygÜ 'eda&m"awm tem*wó ½lyó tEkygÜ 'eda&ma"m a[mwd- þr[m#DumESit hf nDç eda&m"
=csKyfjcif;? tEkygÜ '=rjzpfjcif;? 0,=ysujf cif;? tbm0=r½Sjd cif;- [laom þpum; tvk;H pko H nf þt&mü teuf
t"dygÜ ,ftm;jzifh twlwyl if/ rjzpfay:í r½Sjd cif;uko d m jy\/ jzpfay:NyD;rS ysujf cif; uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;ukud m;qkd
vkod nf r[kwaf y)/ / wPSmeda&m"m? wPSm uif;jcif;aMumif/h ur®ead &m"m? uH uif;jcif;aMumif/h tm[m&
eda&m"m? tm[m& r½Sjd cif;aMumif/h 0g? tm[m& r½Sv d wfaomf/ (y0wdå ypö,ó uAVDum&m [m&ó tbma0-
#DumbGifh)/ ½lyeda&ma"mwd? ½kyf rjzpfvwHh [lí/ ypö,eda&m"a|e? taMumif;\ r½Sjd cif;aMumif/h ½lyu©Eó ¨ 0,H?
½lyu©Em¨ \ ysufjcif;=r½Sjd cif;=uif;jcif;uk/d yówd? odjrif oabmus\/ 0dy&dPmrvu©P?H jzpfpuESihf rwlbJ
ajymif;vJ uG,af ysmufjcif; vu©Pmuk/d yóaEÅmyd? ysufqüJ jrifonfjzpfívJ/ ½lyu©E¨ó 0,H? ½lyu©E¨m\
ysufjcif;=uG,af ysmufjcif;uk/d yówd? odjrif\/ (þaemufq;Hk 0,vu©Pmonfum;? jzpfay:NyD;aom w&m;\
ysufjcif;=uG,af ysmuf oGm;jcif; [laom bifvu©Pmaywnf;)/ ½lyu©Eó ¨ 0,H? ½lyu©Em¨ \ ysufjcif;=r½Sjd cif;uk/d
yóaEÅm? jrifaomolonf/ £rmed yOö vu©Pmed? þ ig;yg;aom vu©PmwkYd u/dk yówd? jrif\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 67

vu©Pm ig;yg; [lonfum;....t&[wår*fjzifyh ,fNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh t0dZmÆ uif;jcif; 1-yg;? wPSm


uif;jcif; 1-yg;? uHuif;jcif; 1-yg;? pm;tyfaom tpmr½Sdjcif; 1-yg;? rSwo
f t
d yfqJ ypöKyÜe½f yk \
f ysufjcif; 1-yg;?
þig;yg;wkYd aywnf;/

emrfcE¨m av;yg;wkdYüvJ þ½kyfcE¨mü uJhokdYyif O',vu©Pm 5-yg;pDç 0,vu©Pm 5-yg;pD a[mawmfrl


\? txl;um;....a0'em onm ocFg&u©Em¨ wkYd ü pwkwv ¬ u©Pmukd zóork',mç zóeda&m"m-[lí¤if;/
0dnmPu©Em¨ ü pwkwv
¬ u©Pmukd emr½lyork',mç emr½lyeda&m"m - [lí¤if; a[mawmfrjl cif;rQom xl;onf/

þokYd cE¨m wyg; wyg;ü O',vu©Pm ig;yg;pD? 0,vu©Pm ig;yg;pD jzpfí? ESp&f yf aygif;vQifvu©Pm
10-yg;pD jzpf\/ cE¨m ig;yg;vk;H ü O',vu©Pm 25-yg;? 0,vu©Pm 25-yg;jzpfí? ESp&f yf aygif;vQif vu©Pm
50-jzpf\/ xkd 50-wkYd wiG ?f edAw Á v
åd u©Pmig;yg;onf jzpfqJ cE¨mig;yg;wkYd \ jzpfay:rIOyg'faywnf;/ 0dy&dPm
rvu©Pm ig;yg;onf ysufqcJ E¨mig;yg;wkYd \ ysufrb I ifaywnf;/ okYd jzpfíç xked Ad wÁ vdå u©Pmç 0dy&dPmrvu©Pm
wkYd udk ½Irw
S v f sufomvQif rsufarSmuf od\/ <uif;aomtaMumif; vu©PmwkYd uu dk m; a½S;tzkYd u jzpfapç rSwrf w
I Ydk \
tMum; tMum;ü jzpfapç oabmusonftm;avsmpf mG qifjcifvsuo f mvQif od\/ xkd odyrHk sm;ukd tcPf; (4)
cE¨mukd odyt Hk &mü jycJNh yD/ okYd aomfvçJ qifjcifvsuf odcu
dk rf mS jzpf ysufqJ ½kyef mrf cE¨mwkYd \ wu,f jzpfrI ysurf I
ukd odonfum; r[kwaf y/ t0dZmÆ ponf ruif;ao;aomaMumifh ½kyf a0'em ponfwYdk\ jzpfay:Ekid jf cif;uk¤d if;?
t0dZmÆ ponfuif;vQif ½kyf a0'emponfwYdk \ rjzpfay:Ekid jf cif;uk¤d if;? qifjcifvsuf oabmus½krH Qomwnf;/
xkYd aMumifh r[m#Dumü? þokYd rdeYf qadk wmfr\ l /

{w¬ p aupd wm0 tm[k ]]t½lyu©Em¨ eH O',AÁ,'óeH t'¨g-oEÅw0d aoae0? e cP0aoem}}wd? awoH
rawe cPawm O',AÁ,'óear0 e od,m/ tya& yem[k ]]ypö,awm O',AÁ,'óae twDbm'd0b d m*H
temrodwmG oAÁom"m&Pawm t0dZmÆ 'dypö,m a0'em'DeH orÇ0H vAÇrmewHyówd? e OyÜg'H/ t0dZmÆ 'dtbma0 p
aooH torÇ0H tvAÇrmewH yówd? e b*ø/ cPawm O',AÁ,'óae ypöKyÜEmé eH OyÜg'H b*FOö yówD}}wd/ wH
,kw?Hå oEÅw0d aoe [d ½lyg½ly"ar® O',awm 0,awm p reodua&mEÅó tEkuaú re bm0em,
AvyÜwu å mav ÓPó wdu0© o d ' bm0yÜw, åd m cPawm O',AÁ,m Oy|[EÅD wd/ (2-422)

p? qufí qkdOD;tHh/ {w¬? þt&mü/ wm0? a½S;OD;pGm/ aupd? tcsKdUq&mwkYd onf/ tm[k? qku d ek Nf yD/
(qkyd u
Hk m;)/ t½lyu©Em¨ eH O',AÁ,'óeH? emrfcE¨mwkYd \ tjzpf tysufudk ½Ijrifjcif;onf/ t'¨g-oEÅw0d aoae0?
t'¨gypöKyÜeçf oEÅwyd pöKyÜew f Ydk \ tvkt d m;jzifo
h mvQif jzpfEidk \
f / e cP0aoe? cPypöKyÜef tvkt d m;jzifu
h m;
rjzpfEidk /f £wd? þokYd qku d ek Nf yD? (þaupd0g'ukd y#dord'Ç gr*f t|uxmü ou0g' tjzpfjzifh jyxm;\/) awoH?
xkd tcsKdUq&mwkYd \/ rawe? tvkt d m;jzif/h cPawm O',AÁ,'óe ar0? jzpfcu dk f ysufcu
dk f cPtm;jzifh tjzpf
tysuu f dk ½Ijrifjcif;onfyifvQi?f e od,m? rjzpfEidk &f m/

cPypöKyÜef emrfcEÆmwkYd [lonfrmS ½IqJ 0dyóem pdwKå yÜg'fyifwnf;/ okYd jzpfíç ½IqJ pdwKå yÜg'f\ tjzpf
tysufudk xkd pdwKå yÜg'fjzifyh if ½IjrifEidk yf grSomvQif? ]]cPypöKyÜef emrfcE¨mwkYd \ tjzpftysufudk jrifEidk f onf}}[k
qko d ifah yonf? xko d Ydk ½IjrifEidk jf cif;onfvnf; ]]vufñ;dI \tzsm;ukd xkv d ufñ;dI \tzsm;jzifyh if xd&efrjzpfEidk o f uJh
okYd }} rjzpfEidk af umif;onfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumif?h aupdq&mwkYd u ]]cPypöKyÜef tvkt d m;jzifh emrfcE¨mwkYd \ tjzpf
tysufudk rjrifEidk }f }[k qkMd uayonf/ þaupd0g'ukd vk;H 0roif[ h k qkí d y,f&efum; rpGr;f Ekid af y/ okYd aomfvJ
]]edAw Á v åd u©PyH óaEÅmyd? 0dy&dPmrvu©PH yóaEÅmyd}}-[laom y#dord'Ç gr*fç ]]ws.ó "r®m 0d'w d m OyÜZEÆ ?dÅ
0d'w d m Oy|[EÅ?d 0d'w d m tAÇwH¬ *päE}dÅ }- [laom tEky'okwçf -þokYd aom ygVdawmfwYdk onf cPypöKyÜet f vkt d m;jzifh
xifyo Hk yd u
Hk dk jyqkv d suf ½SdMu\? t|uxmwkYd üvJ ]]rS&D mESihf tm½ku H dk odr;f qnf;NyD; jzpfaomaMumif?h a½S;tjcm;rJw h iG f
jzpf ysuo f mG ;aom emrfw&m;wkYd \ Oyg'f XD bifonf avmavmq,f jzpfqJ wnfqJ ysuq f J uJo h Ydk a,m*Dtm;
xif½Sm;\? xkYd aMumifçh 0d'w d m OyÜZEÆ -dÅ ponfudk a[mawmfro l nf}}[k zGijhf yawmfr\ l / a,m*DwYdk \ rSwo f rd =I ÓPfü
vJ a½S;tjcm;rJw h iG f jzpfysuo f mG ;aom emrfw&m;rsm;onf avmavmq,f jzpfaeqJ ysuaf eqJ uJo h YdkomvQif ay:vGif
xif½Sm;\/ okdYjzpfíç ]]aupd0g'onf a,m*DwkdY\ ÓPfjzpfyEHk iS v hf rJ uku
d ?f ygVd t|uxmwkYd \ &nf½, G cf sufEiS v hf J
rnD}}[k tjypfudk az:jyí y,fawmfrv l adk omaMumifh ]]awoH rawe cPawm O',AÁ,'óear0 e od,m}}[k
#Dumq&m rdeYf qadk wmfral yonf/ t"dygÜ ,fum; .... xkad updq&mwkYd \ tvkt d m;jzifh qkv
d Qifç cPypöKyÜef emrfw&m;
wkYd \ tjzpftysuu f dk odjrifjcif;rQyif rjzpfEidk af wmhNyD? xko
d Ydkaom ½Ijrifyu Hk dk ygVd t|uxmwkYd ü jyqkb d , G uf m;
tb,frmS ½SEd idk af wmhtehH nf;/ okYd aomfv?J ygVdt|uxmwkYd ü xko d Ydk aom jyqkcd sufv½J adS y\? jyqko d nfh twkid ;f yif
a,m*DwYdk \ xifjcif;ç odjcif;vJ ½Sad y\/ okYd jzpfí? xkad upd0g' roifyh g[k qkv d \dk /
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 68

tya& ye? aupdwYdk rS wyg;aom q&mwkYd onfum;/ ypö,awm O',AÁ,'óae? taMumif; tvkt d m;jzifh
tjzpftysufudk ½Iqifjcif&mü/ twDwm'd0b d m*H temrodwmG ? twdww f &m;ponfjzifh cGjJ cif;ukd rok;H oyfrí l / 0g?
twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜerf cGrJ í l / oAÁom"m&Pawm? twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef tvk;H pkw H Ydk ESihf oufqidk af omtm;
jzif/h t0dZmÆ 'dypö,m? t0dZmÆ paomtaMumif;aMumif/h a0'em'DeH orÇ0H vAÅrmewH? a0'emponfwYdk\ jzpfoifjh cif;
jzpfEidk jf cif;ç &oifjh cif; &Ekid jf cif;uk/d yówd? awGUjrif\? oabmus\/ OyÜg'H? jzpfqJ emrfwYdk \ wu,f
jzpfay:jcif;uku d m;/ e yówd? awGUjrifonf r[kw/f t0dZmÆ 'd tbma0 p? t0dZmÆ ponfwYdk r½Sv d Qifv/J awoH
torÇ0H tvAÅrmewH? xkad 0'empaom emrfcE¨mwkYd \ rjzpfEidk jf cif; r&Ekid jf cif;uk/d yówd? awGUjrif\? oabmus
\/ b*ø? ysufqeJ mrfwYdk \ wu,fysufjcif;uku d m;/ e yówd? awGUjrifonf r[kw/f cPawm O',AÁ,'óae?
jzpfcu dk f ysucf u dk f cP tvktd m;jzif?h tjzpf tysuu f dk jrif&müum;? ypöKyÜEmé eH? jzpf ysuq f J ypöKyÜef emrfw&m;wkYd \/
OyÜg'Oö? wu,fjzpfay:jcif;uk¤d if;/ b*FO?ö wu,fysufjcif;ukd ¤if;/ yówd? rsufarSmuf awGUjrif\/ £wd tm[k?
þokYd qku d ek Nf yD/ wH? xkd tya&q&mwkYd \ pum;onf/ ,kw?Hå oifjh rwfygay\/ (tbd"r®m0wm& #Dumopfü?
t,kw-Hå [k ½So d nfrmS um;? tqufquf a&;ul; ykEH ydS &f mü cRwf,iG ;f cJah om yrm'avc omwnf;/ ,kw-Hå [k ½SdrSom
vQi?f axmufco H nfh aemufquf pum;ESiv hf J nDnw G o f nf? oifo h nf0h g'ukd 0efc&H m a&mufaomaMumifh oifv h J
oifah vsmfayonf)/ [d? tya&0g' oifyh u Hk m;/ oEÅw0d aoe? oEÅwyd pöKyÜef tvkt d m;jzif/h ½lyg½ly"ar®? ½kyf emrf
w&m;wkYd u/dk O',awm p? jzpfrt I m;jzif¤h if;/ 0,awm p? ysufrt I m;jzif¤h if;/ reodua&mEÅó? ESv;Hk oGi;f aom
a,m*Dtm;/ tEkwaå re? tpOftwkid ;f / bm0em, AvyÜwu å mav? bm0em\ tm;½Sjd cif;okYd a&mufaom umvü/
ÓPó? rSwfodrI ÓPf\/ wdu© 0do' bm0yÜw, åd m? xufjrufpifMu,fjcif;okYd a&mufjcif;aMumif/h O',AÁ,m?
jzpfryI sufrw I Ydk onf/ cPawm? cPypöKyÜet f vkt d m;jzif/h 0g? jzpfcu
dk yf sufcudk t
f vkt d m;jzif/h Oy|[EÅ?d xifay:uke\ f /
£wd? þum; tya&0g' oifyh u Hk dk axmufccH suaf ywnf;/

y#dord'Ç gr*f t|uxmüum; þtya&0g'ukd aupd0g'tjzpfjzifh az:jyxm;\/ þtya&0g'ü t"dyÜg,f


um;-t0dZmÆ ruif;ao;íç cHpm;rI jzpfay:onf? t0dZmÆ uif;vQifum;ç cHpm;rI rjzpfay:Ekid Nf yD-þokYd ponfjzifh emrf
cE¨mwkYd \ tjzpftysufudk taMumif; tvkt d m;jzifh ½I qifjcif&mü jzpfqJ ysuq f J emrfwYdk\ wu,f jzpfrI ysurf u I dk
½Irq
d ifjcifrod nfum; r[kwaf y? twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef rcGjJ cm;rlí omrntm;jzifh ]]t0dZmÆ ponf ½Sjd cif;aMumifçh
a0'em ponfwYdk jzpfay:Ekid jf cif;rQuk¤d if;? t0dZmÆ ponfr½Sv d Qifç a0'emponfwYdk rjzpfay:Ekid jf cif;rQuk¤d if;}}
½Iqifjcifr½d rHk Qom jzpfayonf/ ypöKyÜef emrfcE¨mwkYd \ jzpfryI sufruI dk jzpfcu
dk f ysufcudk f cPtvkt d m;jzifh rSwo
f &d mü
um; wu,fjzpfay:rI Oyg'fç wu,fysufrI bifç wkYd udk rsufarSmuf odjrifayonf-[k qkv d \
dk / þt&mü aupdç
tya&ç 2-rsKd;wkYd wiG ?f aupdrS <uif;aomq&mwkYd onf tya&t&ü yg0ifuek \ f / r[m#Dum q&monfvnf; aupd
0g'ü tjypfjyí tya&0g'ukd oifah yonf-[k 0efcaH omaMumifh tya& t&ü yg0ifav\/ okdYjzpfíç þ tya&0g'
onf aupdrS <uif;aom q&mtm;vk;H wkYd oabmwl vufct H yfaom orme0g'aywnf;/ /(O',AÁ,ÓPf\
owåjd ypum;NyD;\/)

tEkrmeÓPf jzpfykH

jzpfysufqJ ypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfwYdk \ tjzpftysufudk aumif;pGm rsufarSmuf awGUjrifNyD;aom olonf ]]a½S;umv
a½S;b0awGuvJonfvydk if jzpf ysuaf ecJrh mS bJ? aemufumv aemufb0awGrmS vJ? onfvydk if jzpfysuf oGm;rSmbJ}}
[lí twdwt f em*wf ½kyef mrfwYdk uvdk J rsufarSmuf awGUjrif&wJh ypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfrsm;ESihf EIid ;f qí qifjcifq;Hk jzwf\/

ypöKyÜefukd pí ½ItyfaMumif;

yXrOSd ypöKyÜE"é r®meH O',AÁ,H 'domG tx twDwmem*awe,H aewd/ (r[m#Dum 2-423)

ypöKyÜE"é r®meH? jzpfqJ ypöKyÜef w&m;wkYd \/ O',AÁ,?H tjzpftysufu/dk yXrH 'domG ? a½S;OD;pGm jrifNyD;í/ tx?
xkrd aS emufü/ twDwmem*aw? twdww f &m; tem*wfw&m;ü/ e,H? enf;rS;D EIid ;f qí qifjcif qk;H jzwfjcif;uk/d
aewd? aqmif\/ 0g? jzpfap\/ (þygVdonfvnf; ypöKyÜeüf a½S;OD;pGm 0dyóem½ItyfaMumif;ukd wku d ½f udk jf yaom
om"u wckyifwnf;)/

cPypöKyÜef ½kyef mrfwYdk \ tjzpftysufudk jzpfpOftwkid ;f rSaD tmifvu


dk í
f vsifjrefpmG rSwo
f Ed idk af om tcgü
]]rjzpfb;l ao;wJh w&m;rsm; omvQif jzpfay:vmMuonf? jzpfNyD;wJw h &m; [lorQvJ bmrQ ruse&f pfbJ vk;H 0 csKyfysuf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 69

uG,af ysmuf oGm;Muonf}}[k odjrif oabmusaomaMumif?h ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd onf rSwo f rd I ÓPfü topf topf
csnf;om jzpfvsuf xifay:uke\ f / a&jyifay:ü rkC d ;f aygufusíjzpfay:aom a&yGuu f av;rsm;ç a&jyifü wkwjf zifh
a&;qGt J yfaom ta&;taMumif;ç wdrw f u
dk rf S xGuaf y:aom vQyfp;D a&mifç 'kw'f w k f 'kw'f wk ef YJ jrnfaom tif*sif
pufoçH þokYd paom t&m0w¬KwkYd onf umvtenf;i,frQomwnfí vsifpmG ysufp;D uG,af ysmuf oGm;MuouJo h Ydk ?
ocFg&w&m;wkYd onf tvGef wkad wmif;aom cPrQom wnfí vsifpmG ukeq f ;Hk aysmufysuf oGm;Muonf [lívJ
rSwo f rd Ó
I Pfü xif½mS ;uke\ f / a½T aiG ausmuf yef;yGiphf onf xifrw S &f atmif rEÅef aq;0g;wkYd jzifh zefqif;
vSnphf m;í jytyfaom rsufvn S 0hf w¬Kç t[kwf wu,fyif xif&avmufatmif jrif&aom tdyrf ufç nOfah rSmifxüJ
0kid ;f í jytyfaom rD;p puf0idk ;f ç [if;vif;jyif t&yfü *E¨AeÁ wf Muwfo&l w J Ydk zefqif;í jytyfaom ûrdY½mG ? a&jr§Kyf
qkid çf iSuaf ysmwk;H ç þokYd paom t&m0w¬KwkYd onf ,liifí tok;H csavmufwhJ tESpt f om;rS uif;MuouJo h Ydk ? ocFg&
w&m;wkYd onf ckid rf mwJh tESpf tom;ç tok;H usavmufwhJ tESpt f om;rS uif;Muonf-[lívJ rSwo f rd I ÓPfü
xif½mS ;uke\ f / rSwof rd Ó
I Pfü þrQavmuf xif½mS ;í odjrifaom olonf O',AÁ,mEkyóem rnfaom tpyXr
jzpfaom w½kP0dyóemÓPfudk &\/ ½Irw S rf =I 0dyóemukd tm;xkwpf ûycJNh yD; jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;ç 0dyóem
½Irw S of l jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;ç tm&'¨ 0dyóuyk*Kd¾ vfvJ rnfay\/ (tm&wDwd tm&a'¨g? 0dyówDwd 0dyóaum?
tm&a'¨g p aom 0dyóaum pmwd tm&'¨0yd óaum-[k 0 pew¬ûy)/

{wåm0wm aee ]]0,"r®ar0 OyÜZw


Æ ?d OyÜEOé ö 0,H OaywD}}wd £rdem tmuma&e orynmo vu©Pmed
y#d0Zd ÑdwmG XdwH O',AÁ,mEkyóem emr yXrH w½kP0dyóemÓPH t"d*wH a[mwd? ,óm"d*rm
tm&'¨0yd óaumwd ocø *päwd/

(0do'k r¨d *f 2 -269)

{wåm0wm? ]]ZmwH ½lyH ypöKyÜEéH}}-paom ygVdenf;ESihf avsmn


f pD mG odjrifaom þrQavmufjzif/h 0,"r®ar0
OyÜZw Æ ?d ysuwf wfaom w&m;=ysurf nfh w&m;omvQif jzpfay:vmonf/ OyÜEOé 0ö ,H OaywDw?d jzpfNyD; w&m;vJ
ysujf cif; uG,af ysmufjcif;okYd a&mufomG ;onf [lí/ £rdem tmuma&e? rsufarSmuf odaom þ tjcif;t&mtm;
jzif/h orynmo vu©Pmed y#d0Zd ÑdwmG Xdw?H ig;q,f wdwad om vu©PmwkYd udk odvsuf wnfaom/ / (£rdem
tmuma&em wd £rdem, xm0kawåe ypöuu © &Pmuma&e-vk&d if;#DumbGi/hf jzpfryI sufru
I dk rsufarSmuf odjcif;jzifh
yif vu©Pm 50-ukd odrNI yD;pD;onf[k qkv d \dk )/ / O',AÁ,mEkyóem emr? O',AÁ,mEkyóem rnfaom/
yXrH? 0dyóemÓPftppfwYdk wiG f tpqk;H jzpfaom/ w½kP0dyóemÓPH? Ekaom 0dyóemÓPfu/dk taee? þ
a,m*Donf/ t"d*wH? &tyfNyD;onf/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/ ,ó t"d*rm? ,if;ÓPfudk (¤if;ÓPfu)dk &jcif;aMumif/h
tm&'¨0yd óaum wd ocø? tm&'¨0yd óuyk*Kd¾ vf [k ac:qkt d yfjcif;okYd / *päw?d a&muf\/

uvmyor®oem'da0aoe y0wåH or®oeH e edy&Ü ,


d ma,e 0dyóemornH vbwd? O',AÁ,mEkyóem
'd0aoe y0wåar0 vbwd/ (r[m#Dum 2 - 426 7)

uvmyor®oe ponfwYdk tvkt d m;jzifh jzpfaom ok;H oyfr=I ÓPfonf rkcstm;jzifh 0dyóem trnfudk
r&ao;? O',AÁ,mEkyóem ponfwYdk tvkt d m;jzifjh zpfaom ok;H oyfr=I ÓPfonfomvQif rkcstm;jzifh 0dyóem
trnfudk &onf/ (jrefrmjyef)

0dyóEkyuúdavo=0dyóemnpfñl;aMumif;

O',AÁ,ÓPf jzpfay:p umvü a,m*D yk*Kd¾ vftm; 10-yg;aom 0dyóem npfñ;l aMumif; w&m;wkYd onf
jzpfay:uke\
f / rnfonfh yk*Kd¾ vftm; jzpfwwfonfç rjzpfwwfonfudk atmufyg 0do'k rd̈ *fjzifh odtyf\/

0dyóEkyudúavom [d y#da0"yÜwåó t&d,om0uóap0 0dyÜ#dyEéuó p eduw d© u å r®|meó ukowD


yk*v
¾ ó EkyZÜ EÆ /dÅ or®my#dyEéuó ye ,kwyå ,
Ü w
k ó
å tm&'¨0yd óuó ukvykwó
å OyÜZEÆ dÅ a,0/ (2 - 269)

0dyóEkyuúad vom? 0dyóem\ npfñ;l aMumif; w&m;wkYd onf/ y#da0"yÜwó å ? r*f zkv d o f Ydk a&mufNyD;
aom/ t&d,om0uó ap0? t&d,m om0utm;¤if;/ 0dy#Ü yd Eéuó p? rSm;,Gi;f pGm usifo h tl m;¤if;/ eduw d© å
ur®|meó p? ur®|mef;ukd csxm;vsuf &yfem;aeoltm;¤if;/ ukow D yk*v
¾ ó p? ysif;ysif;&d&Ed iS hf cyfayghaygh
tm;xkwaf eaom yk*Kd¾ vftm;¤if;/ e OyÜZEÆ ?dÅ rjzpfay:uke/f ye? jzpfay:wwfonfudk jytH/h or®my#dyEéuó?
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 70

enf;vrf;rSepf mG tm;xkwv f suf/ ,kwyå Ü ,kwó


å ? rjywf rpJtm;xkwv f suf/ tm&'¨0yd óuó? O',AÁ,ÓPfoYdk
a&mufí tm&'¨0yd óu rnfaom/ ukvykwó å ? trsKd;om; trsKd;orD; a,m*Dtm;/ OyÜZEÆ dÅ {0? jzpfay:ukeo
f nf
omwnf;/ (rjzpfay:bJraeMu-[lv/dk Av0 0dyóutm;vJ þOywúad vowkYd rjzpfwwfaomaMumifçh t&d,
om0uó-[laom pum;ukd Ouú| eda'´otm;jzifh qko d nf[k r[m#Dumü rdeYf \/ xkYd aMumifh edA'dÁ gÓPfponfEiS hf
jynfph o
Hk t
l m;vJ Oywúad votppfwYdk rjzpfwwf[k rSwtf yf\)/

Mobmao ap0 ÓaP p? yDw, d mp 0durÜw/d


yó'd,¨ m okac ap0? a,[d pdwHå ya0"wd/
t"darmau© p y*¾a[? Oy|mae p urÜw/d
Oayu©m0ZÆem, p? Oayu©m, eduEÅ, d m/ (y#doH 292)

Mobmao ap0? jzpfay:aom tvif;a&mifaMumif¤h if;/ ÓaP p? tvGef xufjrufvsifjrefaom todÓPf


aMumif¤h if;/ yDw, d m p? ESpo f rd hf tm;&rI=yDwad Mumif¤h if;/ pdw?Hå rSwo f rd =I bm0empdwof nf/ 0durÜw?d vIy½f mS ;
ysupf ;D wwf\/ yó'd, ¨ m p? uk, d f pdwf Nidr;f at;rIaMumif¤h if;/ okac ap0? pdwcf srf;omrI 0rf;omrIaMumif¤h if;/
a,[d? ,if; taMumif; 2-yg;wkYd aMumifv h /J pdw?Hå rSwof rd =I bm0em pdwo f nf/ ya0"wd? vIy½f mS ; ysufp;D wwf\/
t"darmau© p? tvGef Munfvifaom o'¨gaMumif¤h if;/ y*¾a[ p? txl; aMumifMh u rpku d bf J nDrQpGm tm;xkwrf =I
0D&,
d aMumif¤h if;/ Oy|mae p? tm½küH ajy;0ifí ajy;0ifí oGm;ouJo h Ydk xifaom owdaMumif¤h if;/ Oayu©m 0ZÆem,?
tm½kuH dk r½SmBuH&bJ tnDtrQ qifjcifEidk af om tm0ZÆe;f Oayu©mESihf wuGjzpfaom/ Oayu©m,p? 0dyóEkayu©m
aMumif¤h if;/ (Oayu©m [laom Oywúad vo o½kyf wrsKd;xnf; &ap&ef Oayu©m0ZÆem,-yk'u f dk 0daooeûyí
t"dygÜ ,w¬ teufjyefonf)/ eduEÅ, d m p? 0dyóemü om,m Niduyfr=I wPSmaMumif¤h if;/ pdw?Hå rSwo f rd =I bm0em
pdwof nf/ urÜw?d vIy½f mS ; ysufp;D wwf\/

(1) Mobmo....tvif;a&mifonf orm"doufoufaMumifv h J jzpfay:wwf\? 0dyóem ÓPfaMumifv h J jzpfay:wwf


\/ xkw d iG ?f Ak'g¨ Ekówd paom orxbm0emukd tm;xkwq f J yk*Kd¾ vftm;¤if;? jzpfysufwidk ;f aom ½kyef mrfwYdk udk
tpOftwkid ;f rSaD tmif vsifjrefpmG rrSwof Ed idk f rykid ;f jcm;Ekid af o;aom 0dyóema,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vftm;¤if;? jzpfay:vmaom
ta&mif tvif;trsKd;rsKd;onf orm"d oufoufaMumifh jzpfaom ta&mifrsm;aywnf;/ þpum;ukd temxydPf
olaX;BuD;\ 0w¬Kjzifh ,kMH unfpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/

temxydPf olaX;BuD;onf &mZû*d[f olaX;tdrüf a&mufaecku d w


f iG f bk&m;yGiahf wmfral Mumif;ukd Mum;od&í
csujf cif;yif bk&m;zl;oGm;&ef BuHpnfav\? okYd aomf nOft h csdef jzpfaeí oGm;cGihf r&aomaMumifh ]]eHeufvif;rSbJ
apmapmx oGm;&awmhrnf}}[k BuHBuD;vQif? bk&m;bk&m; [k tm½kûH yvsuf tdypf uf&av\? tdyaf ysmf&mrS ok;H Budrf
wkid wf idk f Ek;d av&mç Ek;d wkid ;f yif Ak'g¨ Ekówdbm0em t[keaf Mumifh tvif;a&mif jzpfay:vsuf½adS v\/ xkYd aMumifçh
xdex f ed Bf uD; vif;oGm;NyD[k xifrw S í f tdy&f mrS xNyD;pkpH rf;av&m rvif;ao;aMumif;ukd od&í? yXr 'kw, d tBudrf
rsm;rSm jyefítdy&f \/ wwd,tBudrüf um; wu,fyifeeH ufvif;NyD[k xifrw S af omaMumif?h bk&m;xHoYdk wa,muf
xnf;yif xoGm;av\/ ûrdYjyifoo k mefoYdk a&mufvQifç olaoaumifEiS hf wku d rf í
d ? aMumuf½UHG vsuf pdwyf sHUvGi\
hf /
xkt d cgü? Ak'g¨ Ekówdu tm;enf;oGm;aomaMumif?h tvif;a&mif uG,af ysmufomG ;av\? arSmiftwd usvsuf
½Sdav\/ xkYd aMumifçh olaX;BuD;onf tdro f Ydk jyef&ef BuHpnfrad v\/ xkdtcgü okomefapmifh ewfu....

owH [w¬D owH tóm? owH tów&D&xm/


owH unm o[ómed? tmrkwå rPd uk@vm/
{uó y'0Dw[d m&ó? uvH e.*¢EdÅ aomVoð/

owH [w¬D o[ómed? qifwode;f wkYd onf¤if;/ owHtóm o[ómed? jrif; wode;f wkYd onf¤if;/ owH
tów&D&xm o[ómed? tówk&d jf rif; (vm;jrif;) &xm; wode;f wkYd onf¤if;/ tmrkwå rPd uk@vm? ywåjrm;
em;uyfç pdeef m;uyfpaom 0wfpm; wef;qm pkv H ifpmG qif,if tyfuek af om/ owH unm o[ómed? o®;D unm
wode;f wkYd onf¤if;/ {uó y' 0Dw[ d m&ó? bk&m;zl;&ef oGm;aom ajcwvSr;f wvSr;f \/ aomVoðuvH?
wqJah jcmufyHk wykuH rdk Q/ e t*¢E?dÅ rxku
d w
f efyguke/f
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 71

oGm;om oGm;yg olaX;BuD;? rjyefygvif?h oGm;wmu aumif;ygonf? jyefwmu raumif;yg[k þokYd


tm;ay;\/ xkt d cg? olaX;BuD;onf? ]]ig wa,mufxnf;bJvYdk xifaew,f? r[kwb f ;l ? igESihf twl taz:awGvJ
ygvmMuom;bJ}}[k atmufarhNyD;vQifç &J&ifh tm;wufvmjyefí? bk&m;*kPu f dk atmufarhNrJyif atmufarhjyefav\/
tm;aumif;aom Ak'g¨ Ekówdt[keaf Mumif?h tvif;a&mifvJ ay:NrJyif ay:vmjyef\/ þenf;jzifh ok;H Budrw f idk w
f idk f
tvif;a&mif uG,af ysmuf\/ ewf\ tm;ay;pum;aMumifh &J&ifh m;wufum bk&m;*kPu f dk ESv;Hk oGi;f Ekid w
f thJ wGu?f
ok;H Budrwf idk w
f idk f tvif;a&mif jyefíjzpfay:\/ aemufq;Hk ü bk&m;xHoYdk acsmarmpGm a&mufomG ;av\/ þokdY
oH,w k yf gVd t|uxmponfwYdk ü vm\/ þ0w¬Kjzifh orm"d oufoufaMumifv h J tvif;a&mif jzpfay:wwfonfudk
,kMH unfpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/

okYd jzpfí? 0dyóem a,m*Dtm; emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPf tawmftwef tm;jynfah om umvrS pí? tcsKdYrmS
awGU&wwfaom ûyd;ûyd; jyufjyuf 0if;vufvuf ta&mifuav; rsm;uk¤d if;? ypö,y&d*[ ¾ ÓPf t&mrS pí? tcsKdYrmS
awGU&wwfaom tpdr;f teD tjym t0g paom a&mifpt Hk qif;rsm;ESiçhf rD;yef;uJo
h Ydk 0if;vufaom ta&mifuav;rsm;
uk¤d if;? þokYd aomta&mifrsm;ukd orm"dta&mif[k qk;H jzwftyf\/ ta&mifrQom r[kwaf o;? xkx d o
dk rm"dtm;avsmf
pGm bk&m;&[EÅmoP²mefpaom trsKd;rsKd;aom tqif; oP²mefwYdk uv dk J emr½ly y&dapä'ÓPf tawmftwef&ifo h nfrS
pí awGU&onfrmS orm"d\ tpGr;f aMumifyh if [k qk;H jzwftyf\? or®oeÓPft&mü ¤if;wkYd udk rsm;pGm awGU&wwf
\/ O',AÁ,ÓPf EkpOfüvJ tenf;i,f awGU&wwf\/ txl;um;....emr½ly y&dapä' t&mü xkdoP²mefwkdY\
ay:pç aysmufq;Hk ç wkYd udk ½Si;f vif;pGm rodEidk af o;? ypö,y&d*[¾ t&mü ay:pukd odEidk af omfvJ tqk;H aysmufru I udk m;
½Si;f vif;pGm rodEidk af o;? topftopf ay:&mokYd vku d í f vku
d íf rSw&f ojzifh omvQif rlvtm½kH aysmuf aysmuf
oGm;wwfayonf/ or®oe t&mü tpç tv,fç tqk;H ç ok;H yg;vk;H xif½Sm;\/ ay:vmNyD;vQif? xif½mS ;yDopGm
wnfaeNyD;rS? ae&m a½TUíç ao;i,fíç arS;rSed í f ç aysmufaysmuf oGm;wwfayonf/ O',AÁ, t&müum; wcsuf
wcsufrw S jf zifh wtm½kH wtm½kH aysmuf aysmuf oGm;\/ rrSwv f u dk &f bJ od½rHk Qjzifh csufjcif; aysmufaysmufomG ;
onfvJ½Sd\/ ae&m a½TUjcif;vJ r½S?d wajz;ajz; ao;i,f arS;rSed f ae&onfvJ r½S?d zswfueJ ay:vmNyD;vQifç xkad e&m
rSmyif csujf cif; aysmufaysmufomG ;wwf\/ yDopGm xifay:vsuf wnfwahH eaom tv,fyidk ;f [lí rawGU&NyD/ þokYd
xl;jcm;ay\/ xkYd jyif? emr½ly y&dapä'ç ypö, y&d*[ ¾ ç or®oeç ÓPfwYdk \ t&mü? yDwd yó'd̈ okc o'¨gwkYd vJ
orm"d oufoufaMumifh xl;jcm;pGm jzpfwwfao;onf [k rSwo f m;yguke/f

tvGev f sifjrefpmG jzpfysufvsuf xifay:aom ½kyef mrfwYdk udk jzpfysufwidk ;f rSaD tmifvu dk íf vSpv
f pS f vSpv f pS f
ESihf tvGev f sijf refpmG yif rSwo f Ed idk af omumvü jzpfay:aom 0if;0if;ajymifajymif tvif;a&mifonfum; 0dyóem
ÓPfaMumifjh zpfaom Mobmoaywnf;/ xkt d vif;a&mifonf tcsKYd a,m*DrmS tenf;i,frQomjzpfwwf\/ wcPrQ
om wnfwwf\? vufEydS "f mwfr;D ESihf xk;d xm;ovkv d J awGU&wwf\/ oydwv f ;Hk BuD;vkvd J 0if;0if;vk;H BuD;ukd
awGU&wwf\/ vifyef;BuD;vkd csmcsmvnfaeaom 0kid ;f 0kid ;f tvif;a&mifBuD;ukv d J awGU&wwf\/ tcsKdYa,m*DrmS
ausmif;cef;wckv;Hk jzpfapç xkx d uf us,fjyefYpmG jzpfapç tBuD;tus,f vif;vsuf ½Sw d wf\/ Mumjrifph mG vJ wnfae
wwf\/ rSwaf omfvJ raysmufEidk b f J ½Sw
d wf\/ pOf;pm; qifjcif aeqJrmS vJ? vif;NrJyif vif;vsuf ½Sw d wf\/
um;rD;ESihf xk;d xm;ovkçd vufqJG "mwfr;D BuD; xGe;f xm;ovkçd v0ef; ae0ef;BuD; vif; aeovkçd ponfjzifh trsKd;rsKd;
yif awGU&wwf\/ xkt d vif;a&mifonf uk, d xf u
J xGuv f monf [lí¤if;ç a½SUem; ab;em;wGif ay:vmonf [lí
¤if;ç txufuç atmufu ay:vmonf [lí¤if;ç trsKd;rsKd;yif xif&wwf\/ tvif;a&mif ysHUES YHS &m t&yftwGi;f ü
½Sad om t&m 0w¬Krsm;ukv d ?J nOft h cgyif jzpfaomfvJ aeYtcgrSmvkyd if xif½mS ;awGUjrif&\/ aeYtcgrSmyif jzpfaomfvJ
þtvif;a&mifudk xl;jcm; xif½mS ;pGm od&\/ yuwdrsufpjd zifh rjrifEidk af tmif uG,jf cm; a0;uGmvsuf ½Sad omfv?J
[if;vif;tjyif rsuaf rSmufrmS vkyd if jrif&wwf\/

þt&mü yuwdrsufpjd zifh jrifoavm¿ okYd r[kw.f ..raem0dnmPf[k ac:aom pdwu f ;l rQjzifh jrifoavm¿-
[lr.l ..'dApÁ u©K tbdnmjzifh jrifjcif;uJo h Ydk ? pdwu
f ;l raem0dnmPfjzifh jrifonf[k ,loifo h uJoh Ydk ½Sad Mumif;ukd
r[m#Dumü rdeYf q\ dk / yuwdrsupf jd zifh jrifaumif;&m t&yfüum;? yuwdrsupf jd zifv h J jrifEidk &f monf[k xifrad y\?
uk,
d w f idk t
f m;xkwí
f tvif;a&mif jzpfay:vmaom tcgü pl;prf; qifjcifí uk, d w
f idk yf if qk;H jzwfMuygav/

þtvif;a&mif jzpfay:aomtcgü? a,m*Donf ]]r*f zkv d f edAmÁ ef w&m;xl;ukd &aomaMumifh tvif;a&mif


jzpfay:onf}}[lívJ xifrw S w
f wf\/ xkt d vif;a&mifuydk if edAmÁ ef w&m;xl; [lívJ xifrw S w
f wf\/ w&m;xl;[k
rxifaomfv?J xkt d vif;a&mifudk om,m ESpo f uf oabmusvsuo f m aerdwwf\/ þokYd xifrw S o
f m,m aeolrmS
½Irw
S rf yI suf\? ½Irw
S yf gaomfvJ rSwt
f yfaom tm½kH ocFg&wkYd onf a½S;uvkd oefY½iS ;f pGm rxif½mS ;ukeNf yD/ xkYd aMumifçh
tvif;a&mifuydk if 0dyóem\ npfñ;l aMumif; w&m;wck[k qkad yonf/ rkcstm;jzifrh u l m; tvif;a&mifEiS hf pyfí
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 72

jzpfaom om,mrI=wPSmç EIid ;f ûydif axmifvmT ;rI=rmeç xifrmS ;rI='d|çd [laom þudavom w&m;qk;d rsm; omvQif
0dyóem\ npfñ;l aMumif; ab;&ef tppfaywnf;/

(2) OmP....'Gg& 6-yg;ü tvGejf refpmG jzpfysufvsuf xifay:aom ½kyef mrfwYdk udk tpOftwkid ;f rSaD tmifvu dk í
f vSpf
vSpf vSpfvSpfESifh rSwfvsuf rSwfvsuf ½Si;f vif; jywfom; xif½mS ;pGm odro I nf OmPf rnf\/ xufpmG aom "m;jzifh
Al;oD; c&rf;oD;rsm;ukd vS;D jzwf&mü wdueJ wdueJ oefY½iS ;f pGmjywfjywf oGm;ouJo h Ydk ? ay:vmorQ ½kyef mrfudk rSwf
wkid ;f rSwwf idk ;f þÓPfaMumifh wdueJ wdueJ ½Si;f vif; jywfom;pGm ykid ;f jcm;vsuf od od oGm;\? xkYd tjyifç rSwf
,if; rSw, f if; ½kyef mrf tjzpftysuf tedpö 'ku© tewå oabmrsm;ukd qifjcifvsufvJ ½Si;f vif;pGmyif od odomG ;\/
þokYd od&mrSmvJ? qifjcifro d nf [líyif rxifEidk af y? rSw,f if; rSw,
f if;yif tvkv d dk od od oGm;onf[í l om
xif&\/ þtodÓPfukdvJ w&m;xl; [lí¤if;ç w&m;xl;ukd &wJt h wGuf þokYd vsifjref xufjruf ½Si;f vif;pGm
odEidk of nf [lí¤if;ç xifrw S of m,mwwf\/ þokYd xifrw S f om,mvQif trSwf ysuf\/ xkdYaMumifhç þtodÓPf
ukvd J 0dyóEkywåad vo[k qkad yonf/ rkcstm;jzifrh u l m; xktd odÓPfEiS hf pyfí jzpfaom wPSm rme 'd|w d Ydk om
vQif Oywåad vo tppfaywnf;/ yDwrd S píOayu©mwkid af tmif <uif;aom Oywåad vo (7)yg;wkYd üvJ Oywåad vo
rnfjcif;\ taMumif;ukd enf;wlyif odygav/

(3) yDwd....ck'u
d́ myDwçd cPdumyDwd MouúEu dÅ myDwçd OaAÁ*gyDwçd z&PmyDwçd [laom þyDwd ig;rsKd;onfvnf; rSwf
csufrsm;ü yg0ifvsujf zpfuek \ f / O',AÁ,ÓPfjzpfonfrpS í tpOftwkid ;f wk;d wufNyD;vQifç O',AÁ,ÓPfxuf
oefaom tcgü z&PmyDwo d m jzpfwwfaMumif;ukd r[m#Dumü rdeYf q\ dk / þ yDwd ig;rsKd;wkYd wiG çf uk, d x f üJ
zsOf;ueJ Muufo;D xjcif;ç tom; ta& qk;d qk;d qwfqwf vIyjf cif;ç rsuf&nf,x dk u
G jf cif;ç &ifxJ ESv;Hk xJü zku d eJ
vIu
d uf eJ wuf<ujcif; uk, d xf üJ pdru hf eJ ndru hf eJ aumif;oGm;jcif;ç wkYd udk jzpfapvsu?f wBudrrf QEiS hf aysmufNidr;f
oGm;aom ESpo f rd hf tm;&rIonf ck'u d´ m yDwd rnf\/ ao;i,faom ESpo f rd t hf m;&rI[k qkv d \dk / zsOf;zsOf; zsOf;zsOf;ESihf
Muufo;D xjcif; ponfwYdkudk qifu h m qifu h m tBudrrf sm;pGm jzpfapvsu?f vQyyf suo f vkyd ifcP cP txyfxyf
jzpfay:aom ESpo f rd hf tm;&rIonf cPdum yDwd rnf\/

,m yaeom "r®H uaxEÅó 0g okPEÅó0g 0gapEÅó 0g taEÅm OyÜZrÆ mem yDwd O'*¾bm0H Zaewd/
tóleyd 0awåw?d avmr[HoH Zaewd? om,H oHom& 0¥ó tEÅu H wGm t&[wå y&da,momem a[mwd? wo®m
oAÁ&wDeH {0½lyg"r®&wd a,0 ao|m/ ("r®y't|uxm 2-353)

baEÅ em*aoe a,m p rmw&d rwm, a&m'wd? a,m p "r®ayare a&m'wd? ObdEHé awoH a&m'EÅmeH
uó tók aboZÆH? uó tók e aboZÆEÅd/ {uó acg r[m&mZtók &m*a'gao[d orvH OPS?H {uó
("r®ayrjzifh ikad omol wa,muf\rsuf&nfonf) yDwad omreaóe (yDwad omreójzif)h 0drvH oDwvH (tnpf
taMu;uif;\? at;csrf;\) ,H acg r[m&mZ oDwvH? wH aboZÆH (xkd at;aom rsuf&nfonf a&m*gudavom
uif;aMumif;aq; jzpfay\)? ,H OPS?H wH e aboZÆE/dÅ (rdvEd y´ OSm 81)

þygVdt|uxmwkYd uadk xmufí? yDwad Mumifh rsuf&nf,jdk cif;ç ikjd cif;rsm;vJ jzpfwwfonfudk rSwo
f m;tyf\/

wuk, d v f ;Hk ukd vTr;f ûcH oGm;awmhrnfh taetm;jzifh uk, d x f üJ zsOf;zsOf; zsOf;zsOf;ç pdrphf rd hf pdrphf rd çhf NidrNhf idrhf
NidrNhf idrEhf iS hf vIu d v f u dI v f v JS JS jynfw h uf ysUH ESYH vmNyD;vQif aysmufjy,f oGm;aom ESpo f rd t
hf m;&rIonf MouEÅu d myDwd
rnf\/ urf;ukd zkv H rT ;f awmhrnft h aejzifh twif; ajy;vmaom yifv,f vIid ;f vk;H BuD;rsm;onf urf;pokYd a&mufvQif
aysmufjy,fomG ;ovkyd if? uk, d x f üJ vIu d v f jJS yif;xefpmG ouf0ifvmNyD;vQif ysujf y,fomG ;aom tm;&ESpo f rd rhf [
I q k dk
vk\ d ? rdrd uk, d u f , dk yf if b,fvadk eonf[k rodEidk af vmufatmif zsOf;zsOf; zsOf;zsOf;ç pdrphf rd hf pdrphf rd Ehf iS t hf m;aumif;pGm
jzpfay:vmNyD;vQif wuk, d vf ;Hk ukd jzpfapç uk, d t f *Fg wpdww f ykid ;f ukd jzpfapç wuf<uvIy½f mS ; vGiphf if oGm;apEkid af om
ESpo f rd t hf m;&rIonf OaAÁ*gyDwd rnf\/ oD[Vdk u f Ref;ü apwDawmfudk tm½kûH yvsuf Munfñadk eaom rax&fwyg;
onf¤if;? trsKd;o®;D wOD;onf¤if;? tm½kûH yrdaom xkad pwD,ifjyifoYdk ? aumif;uifc&D;jzifh vGiphf ifí? þ OaAÁ*gyDwd
aMumifh wcPcsi;f a&mufomG ;bl;aMumif;rsm;ukd t|uxmwkYd ü xkwjf y\/ ,ckumvüvJ? þowdy|mef ½Irw S f
enf; t&½Irw S af om olwYdk wiG f tcsKdYrmS uk, d tf *Fg wpdww f ydik ;f ajrmuf wufomG ;onfudk awGUMu&\? tcsKdYrmS
uk, d f wpdww f ykid ;f <u wufaeonfudk awGUMu&\? vuf ajc acgif;rsm; qwfueJ zsyfueJ tvkv d dk vIy½f mS ;oGm;
onfuv dk J awGUMu&\? wOD;rSmrlum; xkid jf cif; £&d,mykxf rysuyf gbJ wawmifcefY jrifah tmif tBudrrf sm;pGm
ckev f suf ckev f suf jzpfaebl;\/ OaAÁ*gyDwd\ tpGr;f yif [k ,kMH unftyf\/ wuk, d v f ;Hk ü pdrv hf suf at;vsuf
tvGecf o H mç tvGeaf umif;aom tawGUtxd yDwZd ½kyw f Ydk udk ysHUESYH apvsuf? tvGef tm;BuD;pGm jzpfay:aom ESpo f rd hf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 73

tm;&rIonf z&PmyDwd rnf\/ þyDwjd zpfcu dk üf avtjynfo h iG ;f xm;aom abmhv;Hk uJo


h Ydk ? uk,
d x
f üJ tawGUaumif;
rsm;jzifh tjyefY tESYH jynfMh uyfaeonf[k xif&\/ xkt d cku
d üf wpkw H ckaom uk, d f eIwf trlt&mukrd Q rûyEkid b f J
Nidro
f ufvsufom ½Sw d wf\/ rsufawmifrQ rcwfcsifavmufatmifç rsufprd Q rzGichf sifavmufatmif Nidro f uf odraf rGU
pGm yDwd t&omuko d m cHpm;aerdwwf\/

þ yDwid g;rsKd;wkYd tvGef xufoef tm;aumif;pGm jzpfaomolrmS vpfueJ wcPrQ arhovkjd zpfjzpf oGm;wwf
\/ bk&m;yGiahf wmfral Mumif;ukd Mum;&aom okar"m½Si&f aohç temxydPo f al X;BuD;ç r[muyÜed rif;BuD;wkYd \ yDwd
rsKd;yif [k ,kMH unf qk;H jzwftyf\/ þt&müom þokYd jzpfwwfonf r[kwaf o;? b*FÓPf paom txuf
ÓPfwkdY\ t&müvJ? rSwí f aumif;aeqJrmS yif vpfueJ rku d uf eJ wrSwf ESprf wS pf mcefYrQ jzpfjzpfomG ;wwfao;\/
xkYd aemifvJ trSwrf mS aumif;NrJ jzpfapç txl; jzpfapç aumif;oGm;wwf\/ xkx d dk ÓPftm;jynfí h xufoefpmG yDwd
jzpfonf[k ,lqtyf\/ xkYd jyifç yó'¨t d m;BuD;aom olrmS oufoufomomESirhf w S í
f aumif;ae&mrS bmrQrrSw&f ç
ESv;Hk roGi;f rBuHpnf&bJ ai;aeovkv d dk twefMumatmif vpfvpfaewwf\? owd&í rSwjf yefvQi?f aumif;NrJyif
aumif;oGm;jyef\/ tcsKYd y*k Kd¾ vfrmS aMumifMh urpku d &f awmhbJ oufoufomomESihf rSwaf umif;ae&mrS zsyu f eJvpf
ovkv d dk jzpfjzpf oGm;wwf\/ NyD;vQifç trSwrf mS aumif;NrJyif qufí aumif;oGm;\/ wMwrZÑwåwm Oayu©m\
tpGr;f aMumif[ h k ,lqtyf\/ tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS oufoufomomESihf rSwf aumif;ae&mwGif tm½kEH iS hf rSwo f rd o
I nf
wajz;ajz; arS;arS; oGm;NyD;vQif rku d u
f eJ vpfí oGm;wwf\/ wcgw&HrmS tawmfMumatmifvJ tdyaf ysmf oGm;wwf
\? owd&í aumufNyD;rSwjf yefvQi?f aumif;NrJyif aumif;oGm;\? xkid ;f rIid ;f jcif; awGa0jcif;um;r½S/d þokYd jzpfjcif;
rSm tm½krH sm;pGmukd aMumifMh upku d íf rSwjf cif;ç pl;pl;pku
d pf udk f rSwjf cif;wnf;[laom 0D&, d u tm;enf;vsuf? orm"d
vGeo f mG ;jcif;aMumifh jzpfay:aom xderd'¨ [lí qk;H jzwftyf\/ þt&mü rSwcf suf rsm;rsm;xm;í jzpfapç txl;
pl;pkud íf jzpfapç rSwv f Qif? yó'dç¨ Oayu©mç xderd'w ¨ Ydk aMumifh jzpfaom þvpfjcif;rsm;ukd vGeaf jrmufEidk \ f /

(4) yó'd̈....aMumifMh upku d v f suf ysHUvGijhf cif;ç ylyefjcif;wkYd ru S if;onf jzpfí? uk, d xf J pdwx f üJ Nidr;f at;jcif;
oabmonf yó'd̈ rnf\? þyó'd̈onfvnf; yltu dk &f mrS tat;xJoYdk ½kyw f &uf a&mufomG ;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;?armyef;
ae&mrS ½kww f &uf tarmtyef; ajyoGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? xif½mS ;jzpfay:\/ þyó'd̈aMumifçh txl;jzpfwwfyu Hk dk
a½S;em;wGijf ycJNh yD/ yó'd̈ jzpfvQif? ol\ wGb J ufrsm;jzpfaom v[kwmç rk'w k m ur®nwmç yg*knwmç OZkuwm
wkYd vJ xif½mS ;jzpfay:ukeo f nfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vf\ uk, d f pdwf ESpyf g;vk;H yif xko d Ydk aom umvü
av;vHjcif; r½S?d tvGeyf if ayghyg;\? rSwo f rd u I av;rsm;onf tvGef ayghyg; vsifjrefpmG jzpf\? pdwu f ;l rdvQiv f J
tvGef oGuv f uf vsijf ref\/ oGm;&mrSm ajcrsm;u r½So d vkyd if ayghyg;aewwf\/ xkid &f m tdy&f m auG;&m ponfwYdk
rSmvJ uk, d f vuf ajcrsm;u r½So d vkyd if ayghyg; aewwf\/ oGm;vku d &f vQif? a0;aom c&D;ukad omfvJ cPuav;
ESihf a&mufomG ;rnf[k xifwwf\? vsijf refpmG ajy;oGm;vkad om pdwv f J jzpfwwf\/ pdwt f vkt d wkid ;f rûyrdap&ef
owdûyyg/ uk, d af &m pdwyf g Murf;wef; cufxefjcif; r½Srd í l ? tvGeEf ;l nHh ajymhaysmif;\/ ½kdao ukdif;ñTwf&ef
0efrav;? vk&d m vk&d mü pdwu f dk xm;Ekid \f ? ½Irw S v f &dk mukd wJw h rhJ wfrwf ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw S Ef idk \
f ? Murf;wef;aom
tm½kHrsm;ç vlrsm;ESihf rawGUvkb d ?J at;at;omomESihf ½Irw S í f om aevkw d wf\/ ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw S &f ef uk, d af &m
pdwyf gtxl;yifcefYusef;avsmufywf\? wem&D ESpef m&D Mumatmif wxkid x f nf;jzifh ½Irw S af eaomfv?J uk, d xf üJ
anmif;jcif; yljcif; emusijf cif; armyef;jcif; r½Srd í l ? yuwdtwkid ;f yif aeomvsuf ½Sw d wf\? trSwyf sufjcif;ç
pdwyf sUH vGijhf cif; r½Srd í l ? trSwrf mS vJ aumif;NrJyif Mumjrifph mG aumif;aewwf\/ uk, d f pdwf ESpyf g;vk;H tvGef
oefprG ;f \? uk, d rf mS tm;tif rysufrí l ? rSwpf w d rf mS vJ ]]aus>yefaeaom Moumo bk&m;½Scd ;dk ? earmwó paom
pmyk'd rf sm;ukd ½Gwq f &dk mü txpf t&pf trSm; t,Gi;f r½Sb d J acsmarmouJo h Ydk }} rSwo
f ifah om tm½krH sm;ay:ü tpOf
twkid ;f usa&mufvsuf tcsKd;us\/ wGeYf jcif; &yfjcif; ysufjcif; r½Srd í l ? rSwrf o I nf wcsKd;xnf; t½Sed f aumif;ae\/
raumif;rIwYdkü pdw0f ifpm;jcif;ç rdrd tjypfudk zk;H uG,v f jdk cif;ç r½Sad om *kPu f dk az:jy [efaqmifvjdk cif;ç wnf;[laom
aumufuspv f jdk cif;rsm;rS vk;H 0uif;\/ pdwEf v S ;Hk rSm tvGeaf jzmifph if;ae\/ xkt d aetwkid ;f woufywfv;Hk pifMu,f
pGm aexkid o f mG ;vkw d wf\/ þ yó'd¨ paom w&m; 6-rsKd;wkYd \? xufoefpmG jzpfjcif;aMumifh xkid f ae&mrSm jzpfapç
&yfae&m oGm;ae&m tdyaf e&mrSm jzpfapç auG;&m qefY&mrSm jzpfapç ½Irw S &f mrSm jzpfapç raumif;onfudk rawGU&bJ?
tNrJwrf; aumif;aeonf[í l om xif&wwf\/ uk, d af &m pdwyf g Nidr;f csrf; oufomí? tvGef aexkid af umif;onfç
tvGef csrf;omonf [lí xif&wwf\/

(ww¬ um,*¾[aPe ½lyum,ómyd *[PHa0'dwAÁ?H ea0'em'duE© w ¨ å ,aó0 um,yó'd̈tm'a,m


[d ½lyum,ómyd '&xm'd-edr'® u ´d mwd-þr[m#DumESit
hf nD? ½kyu
f ,
dk \
f Nidr;f at;jcif; ponfuv
dk ?J yó'd¨
ponfwYdk \ tpGr;f aMumifh jzpfonf[k rSwo
f m;tyfay\)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 74

(5) okc....½IrSwfaompdwEf iS hf ,SOw f vJG suf ½Tiv


f ef;csr;f omrIonfvnf; tvGex f ufoefpmG jzpfay:\? þ pdwcf srf;
omrIaMumif?h uk, d cf sr;f omrIvJ rsm;pGm jzpfwwf\/ xkYd aMumifçh tawmftwef a&m*grsm;onf xkt d cku
d üf aysmuf
uif;vsuf ½Sw d wf\/ xkYd jyif pOf;pm; qifjcifvsuf 0rf;omrIvJ tvGet f uJ zj pfwwf\/ xkYd aMumifçh rdr\d jzpfyu
Hk dk
oabmwly*k Kd¾ vfrsm;tm; rajymbJyif raeEkid af wmhNyD/ þ okcç yDwçd yó'dp¨ onfEiS hf jynfph aHk om a,m*Donf xkd
tckud f umvü omref vl ewfwYdk\ aysmaf rGUjcif;xuf vGeu f J xl;jrwfaom aysmaf rGUrIudk cHpm;&av\/ þokdYaom
aysmaf rGUrIudk &nfí atmufyg*gxmwkYd udk a[mawmfro l nf[k t|uxmwkYd ü rdeYf q\ dk /

okn*g&H y0d|ó? oEÅpw d ó


å bduK© aem/
t.rmEkoD &wd a[mwd? or®m"r®H 0dyóawm/
,awm ,awm or®owd? cE¨meH O',AÁ,/H
vbaw yDwyd grkZ?HÆ trwH wH 0dZmewH/

("r®y' ygVdawmf 67)

okn*g&H? qdwNf idraf om ur®|mef;ausmif;okYd / y0d|ó? 0ifvsuf/ oEÅpw d ó


å ? yó'd̈\tpGr;f aMumifh
Nidr;f at;aom pdw½f o
dS nf jzpfí/ "r®?H ½kyf emrf w&m;uk/d or®m 0dyóawm? rSeu
f efpmG awGUjrifaom/ bduK© aem?
&[ef;tm;/ 0g? oHo&m ab;ukd ½Iaom a,m*Dtm;/ t.rmEko?D omref vl ewfwYdk \aysmfarGUjcif;ukd vGeaf om/0g?
omref vl ewfwYdk rawGUEkid f ra&mufEidk af om/ &wd? yó'dp¨ onfwYdk u axmufyt hH yfaom 0dyóemç yDwçd okc
wnf;[laom aysmaf rGUjcif;onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/

,awm ,awm? tMuif tMuif ½kyt f zkYd emrftzkYd r/S cE¨meH O',AÁ,?H cE¨mig;yg;wkYd \ tjzpf tysufu/dk
or®owd? ok;H oyf\/ wawm wawm? xkx d dk ok;H oyf wkid ;f aom ½kyt f zkYd emrftzkYd r/S yDw.d ygrkZ?HÆ rsm;pGm ESpof rd hf
tm;&rI [laom yDwEd iS çhf tenf;i,f ESpo f rd hf tm;&rI [laom ygrkZu Æ /dk vbaw? &av\/ (tpöw d yÜo&H ykA-HÁ
[laom o'´genf;t& ylaZmftyfaom teuf½jdS cif;ç o&enf;jcif;wkYd aMumif?h yDw-d yk'u f dk a½S;xm;í 'Gew f o
JG nf?
jzpfpOfr[kw/f jzpfpOftm;jzifuh m; ygrkZu
Æ a½S;OD; jzpfwwf\)/ wH? xkd yDwçd ygrkZo Æ nf/ 0dZmewH? tjzpf tysufudk
odaom 0dyóem a,m*DwYdk \/ trwH? aojcif;uif;aom edAmÆ efoYdk {uef a&mufaMumif; jzpfí tûrduef Ad mÁ efBuD;
ygaywnf;/ (þ*gxmwkYd udk Oy&dyPÖmo t|uxmü ed&mrdookc t&mwGif az:jy\/ xkEd iS v hf J nDap&ef þü
okc\ tjcm;rJw h iG f xkwjf ytyfayonf)/

(6) t"darmu©....½IrSwfaom pdwfESifh ,SOfwGJvsuf tvGeMf unfvifaom o'¨g=t"darmu© onfvnf; xif½mS ;pGm
jzpfay:\/ xufoefpmG jzpfaom þo'¨gaMumifh rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f pdwof nf npfñ;l jcif;r½Sb
d J tvGef Munfvif\/
rrSwb f J &yfem;aecku d üf vJ Munfvifvsuo f m ½S\
d / Mobmoç ÓPf ponfwYdk aMumif¤h if;? þ 0dyóem o'¨g\
tpGr;f aMumif¤h if;? uHç uH\tusKd;ç &wem 3-yg;\ *kPw f Ydk ü ,kMH unfrI o'¨gonfvnf; xkt d cgü xufoefpmG
jzpfwwfao;\/ xkYd aMumifçh rdru d ,
dk w
f idk f qufvuf tm;xkw&f efvJ tm;wufoa&m BuHpnfrw d wf\? olwyg;ukd
vJ tm;xkwaf p&efç wku d w
f eG ;f a[majym&ef BuHpnfrw d wf\? w&m; tm;xkwf olrsm;ESiçhf q&mwkYd uv dk J txl;
Munfñw dk wf\/

(7) y*¾[b....rSwo f ifah om jzpfcu


dk f jzpfcudk f ½kyef mrfudk rSwrf ad p&ef txl;vJ aMumifMh urpku
d çf vk;H 0vJ aMumifMh u
pku
d rf I ruif;rlí? tv,ftvwf nDrQpGm rSerf eS f tm;xkwaf om 0D&, d onf y*¾[ rnf\/ ravsmh rwif; nDrQaom
þ tm;xkwrf o I nfvnf; xif½mS ;pGm jzpf\/ xkYd aMumifçh a,m*Donf xko d Ydk aom umvü txl; aMumifMh u
rpkud &f bJ rSwof ifo
h rQukd olYtvkvd ydk if rSwo f vd suf rSwo f v
d suf ½Sad eonf[k xif&avonf/

(8) Oy|me....jzpfcu dk f jzpfcudk f ½kyef mrfrsm;u rSww f hJ pdwx f o


J Ydk tvkvd ydk if 0ifa&muf 0ifa&muf vmouJo h Ydk¤if;?
rSwwf phJ wd u
f vJ xk½d yk ef mrfrsm;xJoYdk tvkv d ydk if 0ifa&muf 0ifa&muf oGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;? xifay:aomowdonf
Oy|mernf\/ tm½ku H dk ay:vGif xifvif;apwwfaom þowd\ xufoef xif½mS ;pGm jzpfay:jcif;aMumif?h tvGef
odraf rGUwJh ½kyef mrf trlt&muav;rsm;aomfvJ ûryfu, G jf cif;r½Sb
d J tvGef xif½mS ;vsuf½\ dS / a½S;trSwf qkH;onfESihf
wûydief uf? rSwo f o
d ifah om aemuftm½ko H nf toifyh if xifay:vsuf½\ dS / (a½S;u awGUêuHb;l onfudk pOf;pm;rdvQifç
xkt
d m½ko H nf rsufarSmuf awGU&ovkyd if tvGef xif½mS ; yDopGm xifay:vsuf ½Sw d wf\/ þokYd aom pOf;pm;rIudk
um; rûytyfay/)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 75

(9) Oayu©m....a½S;ü jycJNh yD;aom 0dyóEkayu©mESiçhf xk\ d a½SUoGm;jzpfaom tm0ZÆe;f onf Oayu©mrnf\/ xif½Sm;ap
OD;tH/h jrifrMI um;rI ponfjzpfapç ½Irw S rf jI zpfapç pdww f pkw H ck jzpfvv dk wfaomf? tm½ku H pdk í qifjcifr=I tm0ZÆe;f pdwu f
a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:vm\/ xkpd w d u
f aumif;wJt h jcif;t&mjzifh qifjcifvQi?f aemufpw d rf sm;vJ aumif;wJh tjcif;t&m
jzifo h m jzpfuek \ f / xkpd w d u f raumif;wJh tjcif;t&mjzifh qifjcifvQiu f m; aemufpw d rf sm;vJ raumif;wJh tjcif;
t&mjzifo h m jzpfuek \ f / a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vfrmS rlum; ]]jzpfysufwidk ;f aom ½kyef mrfrsm;ukd ½Irw S rf nf}}[k a½S;tzkYd uyif pdwu f dk
uefYowfxm;NyD;vJjzpf\? tBudrrf sm;pGm ½Irw S v f suf avhusifo h m;&NyD;vJjzpf\? þtaMumif; 2-yg;aMumif?h jzpfysuf
cku
d f ½kyef mrfrsm;ukd ]]jzpfonfçysufonf}}[k trSet f wkid ;f om qifjcifvsuf qifjcifvsuf tm0ZÆe;f pdwu f a½S;OD;pGm
jzpf ay:\/ rSwo f rd =I 0dyóemaZmonfvnf; xko d Ydk qifjcifrwd hJ twkid ;f yif ]]jzpfonfç ysufonf}}[k odvsuf
odvsu?f aemufu vku d í f jzpfay:\/ þokYd yif jzpfwwfjim;aomfvJ tm;xkwpf bm0em EkpOfüum;? ½Irw S o f ifw h hJ
jzpfcu dk t
f m½ku H dk wJw h rhJ wfrwf qifjcifrçd ½Irw S rf ad p&ef tNrJaMumifMh upku d &f \/ tNrJ ½SmBuHae&ouJhokdY ½Sd\? wjcm;
wyg;ukd qifjcifro d nfvnf; rsm;pGmyif½\ dS / pdwo f nf rSw&f rnfh tm½kq H oD Ydk omG ;&ef wGeYf qw k q f w k f jzpfaeouJo h Ydk
¤if;ç ajz;aES; av;uef aeouJo h Ydk ¤if;ç ½S\ d / O',AÁ,ÓPf aumif;pGmjzpfaom xku d mvüum; txl; aMumifMh u
pku
d &f jcif;ç ½SmBuH&jcif; r½Sb d J a½S;a½S; rSwcf suf\ tjcm;rJrh mS yif? jzpf ysucf u dk f ½kyef mrfudk wJw h rhJ wfrwf qifjcifvJ
qifjcifr\ d / xkt d m½kq H o D Ydk w[kex f nf; ajy;oGm;ouJo h Ydk odvJ od\/ þokYd ajzmifrh wfpmG qifjcifvsuf jzpfaom
tm0ZÆe;f onf tm0ZÆEak yu©m rnf\/ xkt d m0ZÆe;f tm;avsmfpmG txl;aMumifMh urpku d &f bJ jzpfysufcu dk f xk½d yk ef mrfudk
yif rSwo f vd sufrw S o f v d suf jzpfaom 0dyóemÓPfonf 0dyó Ekayu©m rnf\/ txl; aMumifMh u rpku d &f bJ
olYtvkv d ydk if qifjcifvsufç olY tvkv d ydk if rSwo f v d sufç aeouJo h Ydk jzpfaom þ Oayu©m ESprf sKd;vk;H ukyd if rSwcf suf
wBudrf wBudrüf yg0ifvsuf jzpf\/ þ Oayu©mESprf sKd;ukyd if þt&mü 0dyóem\ npfñ;l aMumif; Oayu©m[k qkd
onf/ r[m#Dumüum; ]]0dyóEkayu©m [lonfrmS ? w&m;uk, d t f m;jzifh wMwrZÑwåwmyif}}[lí zGijhf y\? ÓP
Oywúad voESihf w&m;uk, d f uGjJ ym;ap&ef zGijhf yjcif;aywnf;/ y#dord'Ç gr*f t|uxmüum;? xkt d zGirhf sKd;ukd tmp&d,
0g'tjzpfjzifh xkwjf yNyD;vQi?f rdr\ d oabmus ou0g'tm;jzif?h nDrQpmG jzpfaom orm"dudk t&aumufí jyav\/
y#dord'Ç gr*f *P²yd 'k üf um;? ]]0do'k rd̈ *fü zGijhf yonft h wkid ;f 0dyóEkayu©m\ t&ÓPfyif jzpfjim;aomfv?J ocFg&wkYd
ukd pl;prf; qifjcifjcif;ü nDrQjcif; udpt ö m;jzifh ÓPOywúad vorS xl;jcm;aomaMumif?h wpkw H &mrQ rqefYusi}f } [lí
rdeYf qadk v\/ igwkYd v?J þ*P²yd 'k f pum;ukd ESpo f uf\/ xkYd aMumifçh ÓPfuydk if 0dyóEkayu©m\ t&ûyí jycJah y
onf/

(10) eduEÅ.d ...tvif;a&mif ponfwYdk EiS hf wuG jzpfvsufx;l jcm;pGm rSwo f Ed idk o
f nfh 0dyóemü om,m ESpo f uf
oabmusaom wPSmonf eduEÅd rnf\? þom,mrIonf tvGeo f rd af rGU\/ ¤if;ukd udavom[k rxifEidk b f ?J
bm0emü aysmaf rGUrI=bm0em&wd[í l xifrw S w
f wf\/ xkYd aMumifçh xko d m,mrIuydk if? w&m;xl;[lí¤if;? w&m;xl;ukd
&wJt
h wGuf bm0emü þokYd aom aysmfarGUrIjzpfonf[í l ¤if;? xifrmS ;wwfMuayonf/ þeduEÅo d nfum; Oywúad v
o tppfyifwnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh eduEÅd jzpf½rHk Qjzifv
h ?J 0dyóem ysufp;D wwf\/ xked u d EÅu
d dk wPSmç rmeç 'd|çd jzifh
xifrmS ; pGv
J rf;jcif;aMumifh 0dyóemysufp;D wwfonf uku d m; qkb
d ,
G yf ifr½Sad wmhNyD/

þOywdaú vowkYd onf rSwo f rd I pdwf wcsuf wcsufü trSwrf ½Sd wckcsif;vJ jzpfwwfuek \
f / 2-ck? 3-ck?
4-ck ? 5-ck-ponftm;jzifh trsm;vJjzpfwwfuek \ f / eduEÅdrS<uif;aom Oywdúavo 9-yg;vk;H vJ wûydief uf jzpfay:
Ekid u
f ek \
f / qifjcifrpI v
JG rf;rIonfum; toD;toD; wckcsif;üom jzpf\/ xkYd aMumifçh jycJah omtpOfudk ]]jzpfpOf
r[kw?f a'oem tpOfrQom}}[k odtyf\/

e0gyd [d Oywdaú vom {uu©aPyd OyÜZEÆ ?dÅ ypöa0u©Pmye 0doHk 0doHk a[mwd/ (r[m#Dum 2-432)

e0tyd? 9-yg;vJ jzpfuek af om/ Oywdaú vom? eduEÅrd S <uif;aom Oywúad vowkYd onf/ {uu©aP yd?
wckxnf;aom cPüaomfv/J OyÜZEÆ ?dÅ jzpfwwfuek \f / ypöa0u©Pm ye? qifjcifro I nfum;/ 0doHk 0doHk a[mwd?
toD;toD;jzpf\/ (þü e0gyd-rS tydo'´gjzif?h Oywúad vo½Spyf g;ç ckepfyg;ç ajcmufyg;ç ponfvJ jzpfwwfao;
onfudk aygif;qnf;íjy\? {uu©aPyd-rS tydo'´gjzif?h wûydief uf rjzpfrí
l ? txl;xl;aom cPüvJ jzpfwwfao;
onfudk aygif;qnf;í jy\/)

a½S;u rjzpfb;l í xl;qef;aom tvif;a&mif ÓPf yDwpd onfwYdk uydk if? w&m;xl;[lí¤if;? w&m;xl;ukd
&íom þokYd x;l jcm;pGm jzpfonf[í
l ¤if;? xifjrif,q
l aomoltm;? ½Irw
S rf [
I al om 0dyóemvrf;onf acsmfvo JG mG ;
av\/ txufÓPfx;l w&m;xl;rsm;uk&d atmif êud;êud;pm;pm; r½Irw S af wmhbjJ zpfapç vk;H vk;H r½Irw
S af wmhbjJ zpfapç
jzpfay:aom tvif;a&mifponfwYdkuo dk mvQif om,mpGv J rf;vsuf tzefzefpOf;pm;vsuaf eavawmh\/ xkdtvif;
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 76

a&mifponfwYdk wiG f wyg;yg;ü om,mESpo f ufvQifç wPSmpGjJ zpf\? ]]ighrmS om þokYd x;l jcm;pGmjzpfonf? ig[m
olrsm;xuf xl;onf}}[k txifBuD;vQifç rmepGjJ zpf\/ ]]iguvif;onf? vif;wm[migbJ ig\ta&mifb?J ig\
tpdwftykdif;bJ}} þokdYponfjzifh ,lq pGv J rf;vQiçf 'd|pd JG jzpf\/ þokYd Oywúad vo0w¬K wyg; wyg;ü *g[=tpGJ
ok;H yg;pD ok;H yg;pDjzpf\/ aygif;vQifç Oywúad vo0w¬K(10)yg;ü? *g[ (30) jzpfuek \ f / 0w¬K toD; toD;üjzpfaom
*g[ 3-yg;? 3-yg;uk?d wrsKd;xnf; wrsKd;xnf; ûyí ,lvQif? Oywúad vo (10)yg;rQom jzpf\/

{w¬ p Mobmom'a,m Oywúad vo0w¬Kwm, Oywúad vom wd 0kwmå ? e tukovwåm/ eduEÅd ye


Oywúad vaom ap0Oywúad vo0w¬K p/ 0w¬K0aoae0 apaw 'o? *g[0aoe ye orwåoð a[mEÅ/d (0do'k r¨d *f
2-273)

{w¬ p? þOywúad vo (10)yg;wkYd wiG v


f /J Mobmom'a,m? Mobmotpç Oayu©mtqk;H ½Sad om Oywúad v
o (9) yg;wkYd u/dk Oywúad vo 0w¬Kwm,? wPSmç rmeç 'd|çd [laom npfñ;l aMumif;wkYd \wnf&m taMumif;jzpf
aomaMumifoh mvQi/f Oywúad vomwd 0kwmå ? Oywúad vo [k a[mtyfuek \ f / e tukovwåm? tukov dk f jzpfaom
aMumifh a[mtyfonfum; r[kwfay/ eduEÅd ye? eduEÅo d nfum;/ Oywúad vaom ap0? Oywúad votppfvJ [kwf
\/ Oywúad vo0w¬Kp? Oywúad vowkYd \ wnf&mtaMumif;vJ[w k \
f / p? qufO;D tH/H {aw?þOywúad vowkYd onf/
0w¬K0aoae0? Mobmo paom wnf&m 0w¬KwkYd tvkt d m;jzifh omvQi/f 'o? q,fyg; jzpfuek \
f / *g[0aoe ye?
pGv
J rf;wwfaom wPSmç rmeç 'd|çd wkYd tvkt
d m;jzifh aomfum;/ orwåo ð a[mEÅ?d ok;H q,f wdwd jzpfuek \ f /

þt|uxmukyd ifrí DS þokYd aom teufuv dk J rSwo f m;tyf\/ Mobmotpç Oayu©mtqkH;½Sdaom þ


Oywúad vo0w¬K (9)yg;onf wPSmç rmeç 'd|çd jzifh pGv J rf;tyfaomfomvQif Oywúad vornf\? rpGv J rf;tyfvQifum;
Oywúad vorrnf/ xkYd aMumifçh b*FÓPf ocFg½kayu©mÓPft&mwkYd ü xif½mS ;pGmjzpfaom owdpaom aAmZÑif w&m;
wkYd u¤dk if;? xkad AmZÑif wkYd EiS ahf vsmfpmG jzpfaom okcç o'¨gç wkYd u¤dk if;? Oywúad vo[k rqkt d yfuek /f xkYd jyifç t&d,mwkYd
tm; tm;xkwpf umv O',AÁ,ÓPftcku d üf awGU&aomtvif;a&mifuv dk J Oywúad vo [krqkt d yf[al om þ
teufuv dk J rSwo
f m;tyf\/

q&mhxrH eS nf;ukd aumif;pGm &aom a,m*Donfum; xkt d vif;a&mif ÓPf yDwd ponfwYdk jzpfay:vmvQi?f
]]q&m ajymxm;wJh 0dyóem npfñ;l aMumif; ab;&efawGjzpfay:vmMuNyD? 'gawG[m w&m;xl;vJ r[kwu f ek ?f w&m;
xl;ukd &wJt h wGuf jzpfay:vmMuwmvJ r[kwu f ek ?f 'gawGudk pOf;pm;qifjcifwmuvJ 0dyóemvrf;rSerf [kw?f þ
tvif;a&mif ponfwYdk [m a½S;ur½Sb d J ,ckrS topfjzpfvmMuwJt h wGuf rNrJ? qif;&J? igaumif r[kww f mawG
csnf;bJ? ½Irw S &f rnfh w&m;awGcsnf;bJ? ay:wkid ;f ay:wkid ;f ukd ½Scd u dk ½f cdS u
dk üf rSwo f jd cif;onfomvQif txufÓPfx;l
w&m;xl;rsm;ukd &aMumif; jzpfaom 0dyóemvrf;rSeb f }J }[lí qifjcif qk;H jzwfNyD;vQif? ay:vmwkid ;f aom ½kyf emrf
trlt&m[lorQukd rSwo f ½d oHk mrSwo f v
d sufae\/ tvif;a&mifÓPfyw D pd onfwYdk udk tav;tjrwfûyvsuf rpOf;pm;
rqifjcifNyD/ þokYd rSwo f rd u
I o dk m tav;*½k ûyí rjywf rSwo f v d suf aeaomoltm; emrf½yk w f Ydk \ jzpfrI ysurf o I nf
txl; oefY½iS ;f pifMu,fpmG xifay:\/ jzpfay:NyD;vQif uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;[laom tedpv ö u©Pm? jzpfrI ysufru I
rjywfEydS pf ufjcif;[laom 'kuv © u©Pm? tvkt d wkid ;f rNyD;apEkid jf cif; [laom tewåvu©Pm? þvu©Pm ok;H yg;wkYd
onfvnf; txl; oefY½iS ;f pifMu,fpmG xifay:uke\ f / xkt d cg? rSww f idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f jzpfrI ysufrw I Ydk udk ½Si;f vif;pGm
odjrifjcif;onf npfñ;l aMumif; Oywúad vowkYd rS vGwaf jrmufNyD;aom O',AÁ,ÓPf rnf\/

r*¾gr*¾OmP'óe0dok'd¨

þokYd ½&I mü? ]]tvif;a&mif ponfwYdk uvJ t&d,mr*fr[kw?f xkt


d vif;a&mifponfudk pOf;pm; qifjcifru I
vJ 0dyóemvrf;rSef r[kw/f ¤if;wkYd udk tav;tjrwf rûybJ ay:vmwkid ;f aom ½kyef mrfudk rjywf ½Irw
S jf cif;onf
omvQif 0dyóemvrf;rSef jzpfonf}}[lí qifjcif qk;H jzwfaom ÓPfonf r*¾gr*¾OmP'óe0do'k d̈ rnf\/

O',AÁ,ÓPfESifh r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe0dok'd¨ NyD;\/


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 77

b*FOmPf ponfESifh y#dy'gOmP'óe0dok'd¨

jzpfysufwidk ;f aom ½kyef mrfudk rSw½f rHk Qom rSwo f v


d suf tpOfvu dk af eaom todÓPfonf tvif;a&mif
ponfudk tav;rûy rpGv J rf;jcif;aMumifOh ywúad vowkYd rv
S J vGwaf jrmuf\? odoifah om jzpfryI sufrw I Ydk udk odvsuf½dS
aomaMumifh vrf;rSeu f saom O',AÁ,ÓPfvrJ nf\/ þÓPfrSpí tEkavmrÓPfwkdifatmif 0dyóemÓPf 9-
yg;onf y#dy'gOmP'óe0do'k d̈ rnf\/ ]]t&d,mr*foYdk a&mufaMumif; tusifjh zpfaom pifMu,faom todtjrif}}
[k qkv d \dk / þ0do'k o d̈ nf rSwt f yfaom ½kyef mrfwYdk \ tjzpftysufudk ½Si;f vif;pGm od&ojzifh tedpö 'ku© tewå
vu©PmwkYd udk aumif;pGmodjrifaom umvrSpí jzpfay:\/ tjzpftysufuo dk ½d rHk Qjzifh tedpö 'ku© tewå vu©Pm
wkYd \ xif½mS ;yku
H dk tcPf; (7)ü jyvwHah om om"u wkYd jzif¤h if;? atmufygr[m#Dumjzif¤h if; ,kMH unftyf\/

tjzpftysuf xifvQif vu©Pm 3-yg; xifaMumif;

O',0a, ye y#d0ad '¨ tedpv


ö u©PH ygu#H [kwmG Oy|mwd? wawm ,'edpHö wH 'ku?H© ,H 'kuH©
w'ewåmwd £w&vu©PrÜ/d tx0g O',AÁ,*¾[aPe [kwmG twm0guma&mç tbdPo S rÜ#yd VD emuma&mç t
0o0wåemuma&m pç 0dbw
l wa&ma[mwd/ (2-436)

O',0a, y#d0ad '¨? tjzpftysufudk rsufarSmuf odtyfNyD;vwfaomf/ tedpv ö u©P?H rNrJ[rk w S af Mumif;
vu©Pmonf/ ygu#H [kwmG ? xif½mS ;onf jzpfí/ Oy|mwd? xifay:\/ wawm? xkrd S aemufü/ ,H tedp?Hö tMuif
w&m;onf rNrJ/ wH 'ku?H© xkw d &m;onf qif;&Jyifwnf;/ ,H 'ku?H© tMuifw&m;onf qif;&Jwnf;/ wH tewåm?
xkw
d &m;onf tpk;d &wJh igaumifr[kw/f £wd? þokYd / £w&vu©Prd?Ü 'kuv © u©Pmç tewåvu©Pmonfvnf;/
ygu#H [kwmG Oy|mwd? xif½mS ;pGm jzpfvsuf xifay:\/ tx0g? wenf; xif½mS ;yku H m;/ O',AÁ,*¾[aPe?
tjzpftysufudk rSwo f jd cif;aMumif/h [kwmG tbm0guma&m? jzpfay:NyD;vQifr½Sjd cif;ç uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;[laom
tedpvö u©Pm tjcif;t&monf¤if;/ tbdPo S rÜ#yd VD emuma&m? jzpfryI sufru
I rjywfEydS pf ufjcif;[laom 'ku©
vu©Pm tjcif;t&monf¤if;/ t 0o0wåemuma&m p? rjzpfapvkad omfvrJ &? rysuaf pvkad omfvJ raeojzifh tvkd
twkdif; rjzpfjcif; [laom tewåvu©Pm tjcif;t&monf¤if;/ 0dbw l wa&m? txl;ojzifh xif½mS ;onf/ a[mwd?
jzpf\/

b*FÓPf

jzpfysufwidk ;f aom ½kyef mrfurdk w S o


f í d tedpö 'ku© tewå vu©PmwkYd aumif;pGmxif½mS ;NyD;aomoltm;
O',AÁ,ÓPftjynft h pkH &ifo h efvwfaomf rSwo f rd o
I nf vsijf refxufoefpmG jzpf\/ olYtvkv d ydk ifovd suf
odvsuf aqmifomG ;ouJo h Ydk jzpf\/ todvsifjrefaomaMumifçh rSwo f o d ifwh hJ jzpfcudk f tm½ko H cFg&wkYd onf vsifjrefpmG
xifay:uke\ f / xkt d cgü? jzpfap=Oyg'fEiS çhf tv,fyidk ;f wnfr=I XDwYdk uv dk J ESv;Hk roGi;f rdNyD? rjywf pD;aeaoma&,mOf
uJoh Ydk wpyfxnf; qufpyfvsufjzpfaeaom ½kyef mrftpOftwef;ukv d J ESv;Hk roGi;f rdNyD? (a½S;a½S;½kyEf iS hf aemufaemuf
½kywf Ydk onf¤if;ç a½S;a½S;pdwEf iS hf aemufaemuf pdww f Ydk onf¤if;ç rjywf rjcm;bJ wom;xnf; uJo h Ydk ÓPfü rxifMuNyD
[k qkv d \dk )/ / taumiftxnf yko H P²mefj'Af½odS vkyd if xifay:aom ocFg&edrw d u
f vdk J ESv;Hk roGi;f rdNyD? (Oyrm...
auG;pOf qefYpOfü a½S;umvu vufajcyko H P²mefxifay:ouJo h Ydk ,ckru l m; rxifay:awmhNyD[k qkv d \ dk )/ /
rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u
dk rf mS yif? ukeyf suf ukeyf suf oGm;onf[k odr=I ÓPfonfomvQif jzpfay:\/ xkdtcgü b*FOmPf
ay:\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 78

b*FOmPfokdY ul;ykH txl; rSwfzG,f

w,d'H oAÁrÜd t,H a,m*g0pa&m Oywúad vo 0derd ak wåe 0Dxyd #dyEé0yd óemocFgawe O',AÁ,m
EkyóemÓaPe ,mxm0 o&oawm ov’au©w/d waó0H ov’au©wmG ykeyÜKeH tedpHö 'kuH© tewåm wd
½lyg½ly"ar® wkv,awm wD&,awm wHÓPH wduH© [kwmG 0[wd? ocFg&m v[kH Oy|[EÅ/d ÓaPwdau© 0[aEÅ
ocFga&ok v[kH Oy|[aEÅok OyÜg'H 0gXdwð 0g y0wåH 0g edrw
d Hå 0g e orÜgykPmwd? c,-0,-ab'-eda&ma"a,0
owd oEÅ|d wd/ waó0H OyÜZw dÆ mG {0H emr ocFg&*wH ed½Zk ÑwDwd yóawm {uo®ð Xmae b*FgEkyóem
emr0dyóemÓPH OyÜZw Æ /d (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-277)

wH £'H oAÁr?dÜ cE¨m ig;yg;ESiçhf vu©Pmok;H yg; [laom xkt d vk;H pku
H v
dk /J t,H a,m*g0pa&m? þa,m*D
onf/ Oywúad vo 0derd ak wåe? npfñ;l aMumif;wkYd rS vGwaf jrmufNyD;aom/ 0Dxyd #dyEé 0dyóemocFgawe? vrf;rSeu f s
aom 0dyóem[kqt dk yfaom/ O',AÁ,mEkyóemÓaPe? tjzpftysufudk ½IjrifaomÓPfjzif/h ,mxm0-o&o
awm? rSeaf om oabmtm;jzif/h 0g? oabmrSet f wkid ;f / ov’au©w?d aumif;pGmrSw\ f / {0H ov’au©wmG ? þokYd
aumif;pGmrSwí f / ½lyg½ly"ar®? ½kyef mrf w&m;wkYd u/dk tedpHö 'kuH© tewåmwd? rNrJç qif;&Jç igaumif r[kwçf [lí/
ykeyÜKeH? tzefzef/ wkv,awm wD&,awm? EIid ;f csdef qk;H jzwfaom/ wó? xkad ,m*D\/ wH ÓPH? xkrd w S of rd I
ÓPfonf/ wduH© [kwmG ? xufjrufonf jzpfí/ 0[wd/ aqmifomG ;\/ 0g? aqmif oGm;ovkyd if jzpf\/ ocFg&m?
½Ixu dk af om ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd onf/ v[kH Oy|[EÅ?d vsifjrefpmG xifay:ukef\/ ÓaPwdau© 0[aEÅ? ÓPfu
xufjrufí tvkv d dk aqmifomG ;ovkyd if jzpfvwfaomf/ ocFga&ok v[kH Oy|[aEÅo?k ocFg&wkYd u vsifjrefpmG
xifay:ukev f wfaomf/ OyÜg'H0g? rSwt f yfaom½kyef mrf\ tpjzpfr=I Oyg'foYdk ¤if;/ Xdwð 0g? tv,fyidk ;f wnfr=I XDoYdk
¤if;/ y0wåH0g? rjywfjzpfaom ½kyef mrf t,OfoYdk ¤if;/ edrw d Hå 0g? taumiftxnf yko H P²mef j'Af½o
dS vkyd if xifay:
aom ocFg&edrw d of Ydk ¤if;/ e orÜgykPmwd? ra&muf/ (ESv;Hk roGi;f rd rqifjcifrNd yD[k qkv d \dk )/ owd? trSw&f rI owd
onf/ 0g? rSwo f rd ÓI Pfonf/ c,-0,-ab'-eda&ma"a,0? ukejf cif; aysmufjcif; ysujf cif;[laom csKyfjcif;üom
vQif/ oEÅ|d wd? aumif;pGm wnf\/ / (tEkygÜ 'eda&m" r[kw[ f k odap&ef c,ç 0,ç ab'ç yk'w f Ydk jzifh eda&m"-yk'f
uktd xl;ûyonf/ owdoaD oe OmP rm[-r[m#Dum)/ / wó? xkad ,m*Dtm;/ ocFg&*wH? ocFg&w&m;onf/
{0H OyÜZw dÆ mG ? þokYd jzpfay:í/ {0H emr ed½ Zk ÑwD wd? þokYd csKyfysuf oGm;onf [lí/ yóawm? ½IjrifpOf/ {wo®ð
Xmae? þt&mü/ b*FgEkyóem emr? b*FgEkyóe, rnfaom/ 0dyóemÓPH? 0dyóemÓPfonf/ OyÜZw Æ ?d jzpf
ay:\/ (þygVdEiS t hf nD? O',AÁ,OmPf tqifrh S b*FOmPftqifo h Ydk ajymif;ul;oGm;yku H dk txl;tav;ûytyf\)/

þb*FÓPfjzpfyu Hk dk y#dord'Ç gr*fü us,f0ef;pGm a[mawmfr\


l / þüum; odom½kH tcsKdY tenf;i,frQukd
om xkwfaqmifí jyygtHh/

tm&r®PyÜ#o
d cFg b*FgEkyóae ynm 0dyóae ÓPH/ (y#do-H ygVd 1)

tm&r®PyÜ#o
d cFgwd ,H udOdö tm&r®PH y#docFg, ZmedwmG ? c,awm 0,awm 'domG wd taw¬m/ b*Fg
Ekyóae ynmwdwó ]]tm&r®PH c,awm 0,awm y#docFg, OyÜEó é }}ÓPó b*ø tEkyóae ,m ynm?
£'H 0dyóae ÓPH/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-278)

ygVdawmf\ teuf....tm&r®PyÜ#o
d cFg? wckcak omtm½kuH dk ukeo
f mG ;onf ysufomG ;onf[k odjrifNyD;í/ b*FgEkyó
ae ynm? odjrifaom xkÓd Pf\ ukejf cif; ysufjcif;ukd wzefojd rif&mü ynmonf/ 0dyóae ÓPH? b*FÓPf[k
ac:aom 0dyóemÓPfrnf\/

0do'k r¨d *f\ teuf....tm&r®PyÜ#docFgwd? [lonfum;/ ,H udOdö tm&r®PH? trSwfr½Sd wckckaom ½kyftm½kH emrftm½kH
uk/d y#docFg, ZmedwmG ? odNyD;í/ c,awm? ukeo f mG ;onf[/k 0,awm? ysuf oGm;onf[/k 'domG ? jrifNyD;í/ £wd
taw¬m? þum; y#docFgyk'\ f teufwnf;/ / b*FgEkyóae ynmwd? [lonfum;/ tm&r®PH c,awm 0,awm
y#docFg, OyÜEó é ? tm½kH wckcu
k dk ukeo
f mG ;onfç ysufomG ;onf[k odjrifvsuf jzpfay:NyD;aom/ wó ÓPó?
xkdyXr ÓPf\/ b*ø? ukejf cif; ysufjcif;uk/d tEkyóae? wzefojd rif&mü/ ,m ynm? tMuif odjrifryI nmonf/
tw¬d? ½Sd\/ £'H? þ todtjrifonf/ 0dyóae ÓPH? 0dyóemÓPf rnf\/ (y#dord'Ç gr*f t|uxmüvJ enf;
wlyif zGi\ hf )/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 79

½Si;f vif;csuf .... þ 0do'k rd̈ *fü y#docFg, ZmedwmG -[laom tzGijhf zif?h ]]y#docFg-yk'üf odNyD;í-[laom teufudk
om ,lav? qifjcifí -[laom teufuu dk m; r,lavvif}h }[k az:jy\/ c,awm 0,awm 'domG wd taw¬m-
[laom 'kw, d tzGijhf zifh ]]odNyD;í-[l&mrSmvJ b*FÓPf\ t&mjzpfaomaMumif?h omreford u I dk r,l&? rSwo
f rd jI zifh
]ukeo f mG ;onfç ysufomG ;onf}[k jrifjcif;uko d m ,lav}}[k xif½mS ;az:jy\/

þ ygVdt|uxmwkYd ü t"dygÜ ,fum; ... b*FÓPfoYdk a&mufaom a,m*Donf azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I &yfrI
oGm;rI auG;rI qefYrI jrifrI Mum;rI BuHrpI aom jzpfcu dk f ½kyf emrf tm½kw H ckcu k dk ]]rSwcf u
dk f rSwcf u
kd rf mS yif?ukeo
f mG ;onfç
aysmuf ysufomG ;onf}}[k odjrif\/ þodjrifru I vdk J ]]ukeo f mG ;onfç aysmufysufomG ;onf}}[k wzef qifí h odjrif
jyef\/ þokYd tm½kw H ckck xifay:vmwkid ;f xktd m½kEH iS çhf rSwof rd w
I Ydk udk ]]a½S;aemuf qifv h suf ukeyf suf oGm;Muonf}}
[k odjrifaom þÓPf 2-yg;onf b*FgEkyóem[k ac:aom 0dyóemÓPf rnf\[k qkv d o dk nf/

½lyg&r®Pwm pdwHå OyÜZw


dÆ mG bdZw
Æ ?d wH tm&r®PH y#docFgwó pdwó å b*ø tEkyówd/ a0'em
&r®Pwm? onm&r®Pwm? ocFg&m&r®Pwm? 0dnmP&r®Pwm pdwHå OyÜZw dÆ mG bdZw
Æ ?d wH tm&r®PH y#docFg wó
pdwåó b*ø tEkyówd? (y#doH ygVd 55)

½lyg&r®Pwm pdw?Hå ½kyu f dk tm½kûH yaom pdwof nf/ (½lyg&r®PH pdwHå tzGi)hf / OyÜZw dÆ mG bdZw
Æ ?d jzpfNyD;í ysuf
\/ wH tm&r®P?H xk½d yk t
f m½ku
H /dk y#docFg? ukeo f mG ;onfç ysufomG ;onf [k odjrifNyD;í/ wó pdwó å ? ukef
oGm;onfç ysufomG ;onf[k odjrifaom xk0d yd óempdw\ f / b*ø? ukejf cif;ysufjcif;uk/d tEkyówd? wzef ½Ijrifjyef
\/

(wH ½lyg&r®PH y#docFg, ZmedwmG ? c,awm 0,awm 'domG wd taw¬m=xkd ½kyf tm½ku H dk odNyD;í? ukeo
f mG ;
onfç ysufomG ;onf [k jrifNyD;í? þonfum;? wH tm&r®PH y#docFg-[laom tyk'd \ f vk&d if;teufaywnf;/ /
a,e pdawåe wH ½lyg&r®PH c,awm 0,awm 'd|?H wó pdwó å tya&e pdawåe b*ø tEkyówD wd taw¬m=
xk½d yk tf m½ku
H dk ukeo
f mG ;onfç ysufomG ;onf [k tMuif 0dyóempdwjf zifh jriftyfNyD? xk0d yd óempdw\ f ukejf cif;
ysujf cif;ukd wyg;aom aemufpw d jf zifh wqifh ½Ijrifjyef\/ þonfum; wópdwåób*øtEkyówd-[laom
tyk'd \ f vk&d if;teufaywnf;/ / 0do'k rd̈ *f tzGirhf sm;yifwnf;/ (2-278)

a0'em&r®Pwm pdw?Hå a0'emukd tm½kûH yaom pdwo f nf/ onm&r®Pwm pdw?Hå onmukd tm½kûH yaompdwf
onf/ ocFg&m&r®Pwm pdwåH? ocFg&wkdYukd tm½kûH yaom pdwo f nf/ 0dnmPm&r®Pwm pdw?Hå 0dnmPfudk tm½kûH yaom
pdwof nf/ OyÜZwdÆ mG bdZw
Æ ?d jzpfNyD;íysuf\/ wH tm&r®PH y#docFg? xkd 0dnmPftm½ku H dk ukeo f mG ;onf ysufomG ;
onf[k odjrifNyD;í/ wó pdwó å ? odjrifaom xk0d yd óempdw\
f / b*ø? ukejf cif; ysufjcif;uk/d tEkyówd? wzef
½Ijrifjyef\/

t"dygÜ ,fum; ... azgif;½kyf ydef½kyf xkdif½kyf auG;½kyf qefY½kyf rsufpd tMunf½kyf tqif;½kyf ponfwkdYukd jzpfckdufü
½Irw
S vf suf ]]ukeq
f ;Hk oGm;onfç uG,af ysmuf ysufp;D oGm;onf}}[k odjrif\? þodjrifro I nf Omw rnfaom tm½kH\
tysufudk odaom yXrb*FOmPf rnf\/ þ odjrifru I vdk J ]]ukeqf ;Hk oGm;onfç uG,af ysmuf ysufp;D oGm;onf}}[k
tjcm;rJüh yif wzef odjrifjyef\/ þ wzefojd rifro I nf OmP rnfaom yXrb*FOmPf\ tysufudk wzefoad om
'kw,d b*FOmPf rnf\/ 0dyóemukyd ifxyfqifí h ½IjrifrI jzpfaomaMumif?h ¤if;ÓPfudk y#d0dyóem [lívJ ac:\/
½kyftm½kH xif½Sm;wkdif; þenf;csnf;omwnf;/ ½kyf\ tysuu f dk odjrifaom yXrb*FÓPfÓ xko d jd rifr\
I tysufudk
wzef odjrifaom 'kw, d b*FÓPfç tm;jzifh b*FÓPf 2-qifh 2-qifch sn;f jzpf\/

emusirf pI aom a0'em xif½mS ;cku d üf ? emw,f ponfjzifh rSwv f suf xkd a0'emukd ]]ukef ysuf oGm;onf}}[k
odjrif\? Omw=tm½kH\ tysufudk odaom yXrb*FOmPfaywnf;/ xko d jd rifru
I v dk J ]]ukef ysuf oGm;onf}}[k
tjcm;rJrh mS yif wzefojd rifjyef\? OmP=yXrb*FÓPf\ tysufuo dk ad om 'kw, d b*FÓPfç y#d0yd óemaywnf;/
þokYd a0'em xif½mS ;cku d üf ? b*FÓPf 2-qifh? 2-qifjh zpf\/ wyg;aom emrfw&m;wkYd xif½mS ;cku d üf vJ enf;wlyif
b*FÓPf 2-qifh? 2-qifch sn;f jzpf\/ xkt d cgü tm½kH wckck ay:vmwkid ;f ay:vmwkid ;f ? rSwo f &d wJh xktd m½kEH iS çhf xkd
rSwof rd [
I al om þESprf sKd;vk;H yif a½S;aemufqifv h suf tvGev f sifjrefpmG ukeq f ;Hk uG,af ysmufomG ;onfudk rjywfojd rif
vsuf ½Sdav\/ þokdY tm½kHwckck\ tysufEiS çhf rSwo f rd I 0dyóempdw\ f tysufwYdk udk tpOfrjywf odjrifEidk v f Qif
b*FOmPf jzpfNyD[k ,kMH unfq;Hk jzwftyf\/ þt&mü tysuf-[lonfrmS zGmusv J suf upOfu h &J jzpfomG ;jcif;ukd
qkv
d odk nfr[kw?f trSet f m;jzifah omfum; ukeq f ;Hk oGm;jcif;ç uG,af ysmufomG ;jcif;uko d m qkv d odk nf[k NrJNrHpmG rSwf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 80

om;ygav/ xkYd aMumifyh if t|uxmü c,-0,-ab'-eda&ma"a,0-[lí¤if;? c,awm 0,awm 'domG -[lí¤if;?


rdeYf qadk wmfral yonf/ av;eufpmG owdûyyg/

ygVdawmfü 'Gg& 6-yg;? tm½kH 6-yg;? 0dnmPf 6-yg;ponfwYdk uv dk J pu©m&r®Pwm pdwpHå onfjzifh toD;
toD;xkwí
f us,f0ef;pGm a0befziG jhf y\? tEkyówd-yk'u f v
dk J tEkyóem (7)yg;wkYd jzifh zGijhf yao;\/ xkd
tEkyóem (7)yg;wkYd uu
dk m; tcPf;(7)ü xif½mS ; jyygtH/h

0w¬KouFrem ap0? ynm, p 0d0¥em/


tm0ZÆem AvaOö0? y#docFg 0dyóem/ (y#doH 56)

0w¬KouFrem ap0? rSwo f &d aomtm½k\ H tysufr?S rSwo


f ad om 0dyóempdw\ f tysufoYdk ajymif;a½TUvsuf
odjrifEidk jf cif;¤if;/ ynm, 0d0¥emp? rSwo f rd I ynm\? tjzpfrS qkwef pfí? tysufüom wnfjcif;¤if;/ tm0ZÆem
AvaOö0? tm½kH wckck\ tysufudk rSwo f Nd yD;onf\ tjcm;rJüh yifvQi?f xkd rSwo f rd I pdw\
f tysuu f dk odjrifEidk &f ef?
ajzmifrh eS pf mG qifjcifEidk af omtm0ZÆe;f tm;pGr;f ¤if;/ {om? þt*Fgok;H yg;ESihf jynfph aHk om ÓPfonf/ y#docFg0dyóem?
tm½kH\ tysufudk odjrifNyD;vQif 0dyóem\ tysufudk wzef odjrifaom b*FÓPf rnf\/

tm½kHwckck\ tysuu f dk odjrifNyD;onf\ tjcm;rJrh mS yif? odjrifwx hJ pdk w


d \
f tysufudk ajymif;a½TUí odjrifjyef
jcif;ç t*Fgwyg;/ O',AÁ,ÓPf jzpfpOfuvkd jzpfru I ydk g r½Iawmhb?J tysuf oufoufuo dk m ½IjrifEidk jf cif;ç t*Fg
wyg;/ tm½kHwckck\ tysuu f odk jd rifNyD;vQi?f odjrifwhJ xkpd w
d \
f tysuu f dk wzefojd rifEidk &f ef tjcm;rJrh mS yif wJw h hJ
rwfrwf qifjcifEidk af om (a,medaomreodum& [k ac:aom) tm0ZÆe;f jzpfay:vmjcif;ç t*Fgwyg;/ þt*Fg
ok;H yg;nDvQif b*FÓPfjzpfNyD[k qk;H jzwftyf\/ þ t*Fg 3-yg;wkdYwiG f wwd, t*FgESiçhf yXrt*FgwkYd rmS rSwo f rd I
wBudrx f nf;ü yg0ifaom a½S;oGm;ESihf aemufvu dk w
f Ydk aywnf;/ tm0ZÆe;f u tjcm;rJüh wJw h rhJ wfrwf qifjcifrv d Qif?
odr=I ÓPfuvJ wJw h rhJ wfrwf ajymif;a½TUí odjrifawmhonf omwnf;/

0w¬KouFremwd ½lyg'Dok {auuó b*ø'o d mG ç yke a,e pdawåe ba*Fg'da|m? wómyd b*F'óe0
aoe yk&rd 0w¬Kawm tn0w¬KouFrem/ ynm, p 0d0¥emwd O',H y[m, 0a, oEÅ|d em/ tm0ZÆemAvaOö0gwd
½lyg'Dok {auuó b*ø'o d mG ç yke b*Fg&r®Pó pdwó å b*F'óew¬H teEÅ&ar0 tm0ZÆeorw¬wm/
(y#dord'Ç gr*f t|uxm 1-240)

0w¬KouFrem wd? [lonfum;/ ½lyg'Dok {auuó? ½kypf onfwYdk wiG f wckcak omtm½k\ H / (0do'k r¨d *füum;
½lyó-[k ½Sd\/ Oyvu©Pç ed'óe enf;wkYd jzifh qko d nf[k ,lav)/ b*ø 'domG ? tysufudk jrifNyD;í/ a,e
pdawåe ba*Fg 'da|m? tMuif rSwrf I pdwjf zifh tysufudk jriftyfNyD/ wómyd? xkd rSwrf I pdw\ f vJ/ yke b*F'óe0
aoe? tysufudk wzefjrifonfh tvkt d m;jzif/h yk&rd 0w¬Kawm? tm½k\
H tysuf[al om a½S;0w¬KrS/ tn0w¬KouFrem?
rSwwf phJ w
d \
f tysu[ f al om aemuf0w¬KokYd ajymif;a½TUjcif;wnf;/ / ynm, p 0d0¥emwd? [lonfum;/ O',H
y[m,? jzpfru I dk y,fpeG Yf í/ 0a, oEÅ|d em? ysurf üI om wnfjcif;wnf;/ (jzpfruI dk ESv;Hk roGi;f bJ ysurf u
I o
dk m ESv;Hk
oGi;f odjrifonf[k qkv d \ dk )/ / tm0ZÆemAvaOö0gwd? [lonfum;? ½lyg'Dok {auuó? ½kypf onfwYdk wiG f wckck
aomtm½kH\/ (0do'k rd̈ *fü ½lyó[k ½So d nfrmS Oyvu©Pç ed'óeç yifwnf;)/ b*ø 'domG ? tysufudk jrifNyD;í/
b*Fg&r®Pó pdwó å ? tysufudk tm½kûH yaom rSwrf I pdw\ f / yke b*F'óew¬?H tysufudk wzef jrifjcif;iSg/
teEÅ& ar0? tm½k\ H tysufudk rSwo f Nd yD;onf\ tjcm;rJüh yifvQi/f tm0ZÆeorw¬wm? qifjcifprG ;f Ekid jf cif;yif
wnf;/

txl; rSwb f ,G f .... tjcm;rJhüyif qifjcifEidk o


f nf[&l mü b0ifrjcm;bJ tm0ZÆe;f rjzpfEidk af omaMumifçh wjcm;ukd tm½kH
ûywJ0h x
D jd zifh rjcm;onfuo dk m,ltyf\/ xkdYjyifç 0w¬KouFrem [laom ygVdEiS ?hf teEÅ&ar0 [laom t|uxmwkYd udk
rSDí ]]wckxnf;aom tm½kHukd tBudrfrsm;pGm xyfqifhí 0dyóem ½I&efrvkd? tm½kH wck wckudk wBudrf wBudro f m
½I&ef vko d nf}}[lívJ NrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/ xkYd jyifç þb*FÓPfqidk &f m ygVd t|uxmwkYd udk axmufí? ]]wBudrf
wBudraf om ½kyef mrf trlt&mü yg0ifaom w&m; [lorQukd toD;toD; aphiaS tmif cGjJ crf; a&wGuí f ½I&efum; rvk?d
xif½mS ;aom w&m;wckcu k o dk mvQif y"meûyí ½I&efvo dk nf}}[lí¤if;? ]]w0Dxt d wGi;f ü yg0ifaom a½S;pdwf aemuf
pdwrf sm;ukv d J toD;toD;cGjJ crf;í ½I&efum;rvk?d w0Dxv d ;Hk uko
d m odr;f usKH;í½I&ef vkod nf}}[lí¤if;? ]]twdwf
tem*wfESifh rxif½Sm;aom w&m;wkdYukd ½SmBuHrSef;qí ½Ityfonfum;r[kwf? txift½Sm; avmavmq,f jzpfysuf
oGm;aom ½kyef mrfudk omvQif rsufarSmuf½t I yfayonf}}[lí¤if;-þ tcsufrsm;ukd av;eufpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 81

tm&r®P tEGa,e? Oabm {u 00w¬em/


eda&ma" t"drw
k w
å m? 0,vu©Pm 0dyóem/ /(ygVd)

tm&r®P tEGa,e? ½Irw S v


f suf rsufarSmuf jriftyfNyD;aom ypöKyÜet f m½ko
H Ydk tpOfavsmufí EIid ;f qaom
tEkrmeÓPfjzif/h Oabm? rsufarSmufjriftyfaom ypöKyÜet f m½kEH iS ?hf rsufarSmuf rjriftyfaom twdwt f em*wf tm½kH
[laom 2-rsKd;aomtm½kw H Ydk u/dk (Oabmwd 'd|'d|bma0e a'Gyd tm&r®Pmed-r[m#Dum)/ {uy0w¬em? ysujf cif;
[laom wlaom oabmjzifo h mvQif ykid ;f jcm;Ekid jf cif;¤if;/ 0g? wcPcsif; ysufwwfonf\ tjzpfjzifh oabmwlMu
\[k ykid ;f jcm;Ekid jf cif;¤if;/ (cPb*F&k wm, ormemwd 00w¬myem-r[m#Dum)/ eda&ma"? csKyfjcif;ysujf cif;ü/
t"drw
k w
å m? av;av;pm;pm; ESv;Hk oGi;f ñTwu f idk ;f jcif;¤if;/ {om? þt*Fg 2-yg;ESihf jynfph aHk omÓPfonf/ 0,
vu©Pm 0dyóem? tysufvu©Pmukd ½Ijrifaom b*F0yd óemÓPf rnf\/

tm&r®P tEGa,e Oabm {u 00w¬emwd ypöua© wm 'd|ó tm&r®Pó tEGa,e tEk*raee ]],xm
£'H? wxmtwDawyd ocFg&*wH bdZw dÆ ?¬ tem*awyd bdZó
dÆ wDw}d } {0HObdEHé {uobma0ae0 00w¬myeEÅd
taw¬m/ 0kwårdÜ apwHayg&maP[d....

oH0Zd rÆ merSd 0do'k ¨ 'óaem?


w'EG,H aewd twDw.em*aw/
oaAÁyd ocFg&*wm yavmudaem?
Oóm0AdEL´ ok&ad ,m O*¾awwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-280)

tm&r®P -ay- 00w¬em[d? [lonfum;/ ypöua© wm? rsufarSmuftm;jzif/h 'd|ó? ½Irw S f odjriftyfNyD;
aom/ tm&r®Pó? ypöKyÜet f m½ko
H Ydk / tEGa,e tEk*raee? tpOfvu dk í
f EIid ;f qaom tEkrmeÓPfjzif/h £'H ,xm?
þ ysufqJ ocFg&uJo h Ydk ? wxm? xkt d wl/ twDawyd? twdwf umvüvJ/ ocFg&*wH? ocFg& w&m;taygif;onf/
bdZw
dÆ ?¬ ysufcahJ vNyD/ tem*awyd? tem*wfumvüvJ/ ocFg&*wH? ocFg& w&m;taygif;onf/ bdZó dÆ wD wd? ysuf
vwH[ h íl / {0H? þokYd / ObdE?Hé rsufarSmufjriftyfç rsufarSmufrjriftyfçaom ocFg& 2-rsKd;wkYd u/dk {u obma0ae0?
ysujf cif;[laom wlaomoabmjzifo h mvQi/f 00w¬myeH? ykid ;f jcm;jcif;wnf;/ £wdtaw¬m? þum;vk&d if;teuf
wnf;/ p-opö?H rSeaf y\/ ayg&maP[d yd? a½S;q&mwkYd onfvnf;/ oH0Zd rÆ merS?d -ay- O*¾awwd? O*¾aw [laom/
{wH? þ*gxmuk/d 0kw?Hå rdeYf qt dk yfay\/

ayg&mP*gxm\ teufum; ... oH0Zd rÆ merS?d ½Sq d J jzpfaom ypöKyÜef ocFg&ü/ 0g? rsufarSmuf &tyf odtyf
aom ypöKyÜef ocFg&ü/ 0do'k ¨ 'óaem? txl; pifMu,faom b*FÓPf tjrif½adS om? (ypöua© wm OyvAÇrmae
ypöKyÜaEé/ ok0o d 'k ¨ b*F'óaem-#DumzGirhf sm;)/ a,m*g0pa&m? a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vfonf/ w'EG,?H ypöKyÜef ocFg&\
tysufujdk rifaom xkyd pöuÓ © PfoYdk tpOfvu dk í f jzpfaom tEkrmeÓPfu/dk twDw.em*aw? twdwo f cFg&çtem*wf
ocFg& w&m;taygif;ü/ aewd? aqmif\? jzpfap\/ /(wó ypöKyÜEéocFg& b*F'ódaem OmPó tEG,H
tEk*wblwOH mPHy0awåw-d #DumzGi)hf uxH? tb,foYdk jzpfapoenf;¿[lr/l ol&ad , O*¾aw? aexGuv f wfaomf/
Oóm0AdEL´ ? ESi;f aygufwYdk onf/ yavmudaem £0? aoGUajcmuf aysmufysuf ukeo f uJoh Ydk / oaAÁy?d twdwf
tem*wfypöKyÜet f m;jzifh tvk;H pkv
H nf; jzpfuek af om/ ocFg&*wm? ocFg&w&m;wkYd onf/ yavmudaem? aysmufu, G f
ysufp;D jcif; oabm½Su d ek \
f / £wd? þokYd tEkrmeÓPfudk jzpfap\/

txl; rSwb f ,G f ... þ ygVd t|uxm #DumwkYd uadk xmufí? ]]0dyóema,m*Donf twdwt f em*wfw&m;wkYd udk tp
ûyír½Ityf? avmavmq,f jzpfysufqJ ypöKyÜew f &m;uko d mvQif tpûyí½Ityf\? ypöKyÜew f &m;ukd oefY½iS ;f pifMu,fpmG
rsufarSmuf odjrifNyD;aomtcgü? ÓPfouf0ifoabmusonf tm;avsmfpmG twdwf tem*wf w&m;wkYd udk qifjcif
qk;H jzwfaom tEkrmeÓPfonf w&m;oabm twkid ;f tvkv d ydk if jzpfay:\? þokYd tvkv d jdk zpfay:vmaom tEkrme
ÓPfomvQif twdwf tem*wf w&m;t&mü vko d nf/ xkt d wdwf tem*wf w&m;wkYd udk wrif½mS BuHíjzpfapç wrif
aMumifMh upku
d íf jzpfapç ½I qifjcif ae&efum; rvkNd yD}}[laom þteufuv dk J NrJNrHpmG rSwo
f m;tyf\/

b*FÓPf xufoefpmG jzpfvsuf½adS om yk*Kd¾ vfonf? ]]tk;d uif;xJü xnfí h avSmt f yfaom ESr;f aphwYdk \
zsufzsuf zsufzsufjrnfvsuf aygufujJG cif;uJoh Ydk }} rSwt
f yfaom tm½ko H cFg&ESihf rSwo
f rd I 0dyóem ocFg&wkYd \
a½SUqifh aemufqifvh u dk í
f wukex
f J ukeaf ejcif;ç wysux f J ysuaf ejcif;ukd omvQif apmifNh yD; Munfah e&ovkyd if
rjywfawGUjrifvsuf ½Sad v\/ onf;xefpmG ½Gmaom rk;d a&aygufrsm;aMumifh a&jyifay:ü jzpfay:Muaom a&yGuu f av;
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 82

rsm;onf vsifjrefpmG ysufí ysufí oGm;Muovkyd if tm½ko H cFg&ESiçhf rSwo


f rd I ocFg&wkYd uv dk J a½S;aemufqifv
h suf
vsifjrefpmG ysufí ysufí oGm;Muonfuo dk m rjywf awGUjrifvsuf ½Sad v\/ &dy&f yd f &dy&f yd ef YJ vsifjrefpmG vIy½f mS ;
ysupf ;D aom wHvQyu
f o
hJ Ydk &dyu
f eJ &dyu
f eJ vsijf refpmG aysmufu,G f oGm;Muonfuo dk m rjywf awGUjrifvsuf ½Sad v\/
þokYd jrifaom a,m*Dudk &nfí atmufyg "r®y' *gxmukd a[mawmfro l nf[k 0do'k r¨d *fü rdeYf q\
dk /

,xm ykyKæ VuH yaó? ,xm yaó r&Dpu d /H


{0H avmuH ta0u©E?HÅ rpöK&mZm e yówd/

ykyKæ VuH? a&yGuu


f /dk yaó ,xm? vsifpmG ysufí ysufí oGm;onf[k awGUjrif&ouJo h Ydk ¤if;/ r&Dpu
d ?H
wHvQyfu/dk yaó,xm? vsifpmG ysufí ysufí oGm;onf[k awGUjrif&ouJo h Ykd ¤if;/ {0H? þtwl/ avmuH? cE¨m
ig;yg;[laom avmuuk/d ta0u©E?HÅ vsifpmG ysufí ysufí oGm;onf[k odjrifaom olu/dk rpöK&mZm? aorif;onf/
e yówd? rawGU rjrifEidk /f

ysufomG ;onf[k b*FÓPfjzifo h jd riftyfNyD;aom tm½kw H idk ;f tm½kw


H idk ;f ESiphf yfvsOf;í? t0dZmÆ ç wPSmçOyg'gefç
uHç b0opf cE¨mç wkYd rjzpfxu dk u
f ek Nf yD/ xkYd aMumifçh rjzpfxu
dk af om xkb d 0opf cE¨mwkYd twGuf tao Nidr;f onfudk
¤if;/ tysufudk jrifaom b*FÓPf ponfjzifh tpOftwkid ;f ½Ijrifí t&[wåzv dk of Ydk a&mufaomtcgü b0opfEiS hf
qkid af om aorI vk;H 0uif;Nidr;f onfu¤dk if; &nf½, G í
f ]]aorif;u rjrifEidk }f }[k a[mawmfral yonf/

b*FÓPf NyD;\/

b,ç tm'De0ç edAÁd'gOmPf

b*FÓPfacgifxdyfokdY a&mufí ]]a½S;u ½kyef mrfrsm;vJ csKyfysuf oGm;MuavNyD? ,ckvJ csKyfMuqJyif? aemifvJ
onfvydk if csKyfysuf aeMurSmbJ}}[k aumif;aumif; oabmusaomtcgü? ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd udk ]aMumufp&maumif;
onfç [k odjrifvsuf b,OmPf jzpfay:\/

wó twDwm ocFg&m ed½'k g¨ ? ypöKyÜEmé ed½Zk ÑEÅ?d tem*aw edAw Á eå u ocFg&myd {0ar0 ed½Zk ÑdóEÅw
D d
yóawm {wo®Xð mae b,wky|meÓPH emr OyÜZw Æ /d (0do'k rd̈ *f) 2-2r2

wó? b*FÓPf acgifxyd o f Ydk a&mufaom xkad ,m*Dtm;/ twDwm ocFg&m? twdwf ocFg&wkYd onf/ ed½'k g¨ ?
csKyfysufavukeNf yD/ ypöKyÜEmé ? ypöKyÜeof cFg&wkYd onf/ ed½Zk ÑEÅ?d csKyfysufuek q
f /J tem*aw edAwÁ eå uocFg&myd? aemif
tcgü jzpfrnfo h cFg&wkYd onfvnf;/ {0ar0? þenf;wlyif/ ed½Zk ÑdóEÅ?d csKyfysufuek v f wH/h £wd? þokYd / yóawm?
jrifvwfaomf/ {wo®ð Xmae? þt&mü/ b,wky|meÓPH emr? aMumufp&m[k xifjrifaom b,ÓPfrnfonf/
OyÜZwÆ ?d jzpfay:\/

xkt
d cgü? rSww
f idk ;f rSww
f idk ;f vJ ysufí ysufí oGm;aom ocFg&wkYd ü aMumufaom tjcif;t&mESiw hf uG
todÓPfjzpf\? qifjcifrad om tm½kw H YdküvJ aMumufp&maumif;onf[k xifjrifvsuf todÓPfjzpf\/ xkYd aMumifçh
rSwwf phJ w
d o
f nf O',AÁ,ÓPfç b*FÓPf jzpfpOfuuJo h Ydk ? Munfom ½Tiyf s wuf<ujcif;r½Srd í l tm;i,fovkyd if
jzpfwwf\/ okYd aomfvçJ &eforl sm; wapäo&l rJ sm;ukd aMumufovkd pdwEf v S ;Hk rom jzpfvsuf aMumufjcif;rsK;d um;
r[kwaf y? aMumufp&maumif;onfudk trSet f wkid ;f od&í r½Tirf ys jzpf½rHk Qomwnf;/

b,wky|meÓPH ye bm,wd e bm,wDw?d e bm,wd? wOSd twDwm ocFg&m ed½'k g¨ ? ypöKyÜEmé ed½Zk ÑEÅ?d
tem*wm ed½Zk ÑdóEÅw
D d wD&Prwåar0 a[mwd/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-283)

b,wky|meÓPH? b,ÓPfonf/ bm,wd e bm,wDw?d aMumufwwfovm;ç raMumufwwfb;l vm;


[lr/l e bm,wd? wu,f aMumufwwfonfum; r[kw[ f k ajztyf\/ [d? rSeaf y\/ wH? xkd b,ÓPfonf/
twDwm-ay-ed½Zk ÑdóEÅw
D ?d twdwo f cFg&wkYd csKyfuek Nf yD? ypöKyÜeo
f cFg&wkYd csKyfuek q
f ?J tem*wfocFg&wkYd csKyfuek f
vwH[ h í
l / wD&Prwåar0? qifjcif qk;H jzwf½rHk Q omvQif/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 83

þb,ÓPf &ifo h efvQi?f tm'De0ÓPf jzpfay:\/ xkt d cgrSm rSwrf w


d o
hJ cFg&wkYd ü¤if;? qifjcifrw
d hJ ocFg&
bkH b0wkYd ü¤if;? om,mbG,f taumif;trGef tESpt f &om ½Sod nf [k rxifjrifNyD? rSwrf w
d idk ;f qifjcifrwd idk ;f ½GrH ek ;f
bG,wf Ydkuo
dk m awGUae&onf[k xifjrif\/ raumif;wmawG ½keYf &if; Murf;wef;wmawGuo dk m awGUae&onf[k
xifjrif\/ atmufygrSm b,ç tm'De0ÓPf jzpfyu Hk dk jyaom y#dorÇ'd gr*faywnf;/ (56)

OyÜga'g b,EÅd b,wky|mae ynm tm'Dea0 ÓPH/ y0wåH b,EÅ?d edrw d Hå b,EÅ?d tm,l[em b,EÅ?d
y#doE¨b
d ,EÅ?d *wd? edAw
Á ?då Oyywå?d Zmwd? Z&m? Asm"d? r&PH? aomaum? y&da'a0g? Oyg,maom b,EÅd
b,wky|mae ynmtm'Dea0 ÓPH/ (yXr0g&)/

OyÜga'g 'kuE© dÅ b,wky|mae ynm tm'Dea0 ÓPH/ y0wå-H ay-Oyg,maom 'kuE© dÅ b,wky|mae ynm
tm'Dea0ÓPH/ ('kw, d 0g&)/

OyÜga'g omrdoEÅd -ay- Oyg,maom omrdoEÅd b,wky|mae ynm tm'Dea0 ÓPH/ (wwd, 0g&)/

OyÜga'g ocFg&mwd -ay- Oyg,maom ocFg&mwd b,wk y|mae ynm tm'Dea0 ÓPH/ (pwkw¬ 0g&)/

OyÜga'g? ,ckb0ü píjzpfcjhJ cif;onf/ b,EÅ?d aMumufp&maumif;onf[/k b,wky|mae ynm? aMumuf


zG,af b; [kxifaom odr=I ynmonf/ tm'Dea0 ÓPH? tm'De0ÓPfrnf\/ (y0wå-H paom aemufy'k w f Ydk üvJ ygVd
teuf tjynft h pku
H edk nf;wlyifcsJUí odygav)/ / y0wå?H rukeq f ;Hk Ekid af tmif rjywf jzpfaejcif;onf/ b,EÅ?d
aMumufp&maumif;onf[/k (ta[mif; ta[mif; csKyfaysmuf oGm;aomfvJ topf topf jzpfay:vsuf½ad S omaMumifh
rSwwf idk ;f rSwwf idk ;f rjywfxifay:vsuf½adS om ½kyef mrftpOfudk aMumufp&m[k xifjrifonf)/ / edrw d ?Hå taumif
txnf j'Af r½Syd gbJvsuf? taumiftxnf j'Af ½So d vkyd if xifay:vsuf½adS om? azgif;rI yderf I xkid rf I auG;rI qefYrI
jrifrI Mum;rI paom ocFg&edrw d o
f nf/ (edrwd Eå o dÅ AÁrdÜ ocFg&edrw d -Hå t|uxm/ / ocFg&edrw d Eå dÅ ocFg&meH
orl[m'dCe 0aoe oudpyö &dapä'wm, p o-0d*[ ¾ meH 0d, Oy|meH-#Dum)/ / tm,l[em? csr;f om aumif;pm;
&ef &nfoefí tm;xkwrf I [laom ukov dk u
f çH tukov dk uf o
H nf/ y#doE¨?d aemifwzef jzpf&jcif;onf/ *wd? i&Jç
wd&pämefç Nydwmå ç vlç ewfç tjzpf[al om vm;&m*wdonf/ edAw Á ?då a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif;onf/ Oyywå?d uyfa&muf
tyfaomb0onf/ Zmwd? jzpfjcif;onf/ Z&m? tkjd cif;onf? Asm"d? ruse;f rrm emzsm;jcif;onf/ r&PH? aojcif;
onf/ aomaum? pk;d &drf ylaqG;jcif;onf/ y&da'a0g? ikad <u;jcif;onf/ Oyg,maom? jyif;pGm ylyefjcif;onf/ b,EÅ?d
aMumufp&maumif;onf[/k b,wky|mae ynm? aMumufz, G af b;[kxifaom odr=I ynmonf/ tm'Dea0 ÓPH?
tm'De0ÓPfrnf\/ (yXr 0g&ü teuf NyD;\)/

OyÜga'g? ,ckb0ü píjzpfcjhJ cif;onf/ 'kuE© ?dÅ qif;&Jyifwnf; [lí/ b,wky|mae ynm? aMumufz,
G af b;
[k xifaom odr=I ynmonf/ tm'Dea0ÓPH? tm'De0ÓPf rnf\/ (<uif;aom ygVd teufudk yXr 0g&üuJo h Ydk
csJUav/ 'kw,d 0g&NyD;\)/

OyÜga'g? ,ckb0ü píjzpfcjhJ cif;onf/ omrdoEÅ?d 0#fqif;&Jç umr*kPçf udavomç [laom tpmESihf
a&maESmaeonf[í l / b,wky|mae ynm? aMumufz, G af b; [k xifaom odr=I ynmonf/ tm'Dea0 ÓPH? tm'D
e0ÓPf rnf\/

(aEGOwkü? rD;avmifpmrsm;ESihf a&m,Suaf eaomtdru f dk rD;avmifrnfrS pk;d &dr&f ouJo


h Ydk? udavomrD;\ tpm
jzpfaom 0#fqif;&J umr*kPw f YdkEiS hf wuGjzpfaomaMumifh pk;d &drf aMumuf½UHG bG,af umif;onf [lí¤if;? xrif; [if;
tpmvl;vJaom vufuo hJ Ydk? vlvJ npfayapwwfaom udavomtpmESiw hf uG jzpfaomaMumifh pufqyk zf ,G f ½GUH bG,f
aumif;onf[í l ¤if;? xifjrifonf[v l /dk <uif;aom ygVdteufudk yXr 0g&enf;wlyif odav/ wwd, 0g& NyD;\)/

OyÜga'g? ,ckb0ü pí jzpfcjhJ cif;onf/ ocFg&mwd? rNidr;f at;wJh ocFg&wkYd [í


l / b,wky|mae ynm?
aMumufz,
G af b;[k xifaom odr=I ynmonf/ tm'Dea0 ÓPH? tm'De0ÓPfrnf\/ (<uif;aom ygVd teufudk
yXr 0g& enf;wlyif odav/ pwkw0¬ g& NyD;\)/

t"dygÜ ,fum; ... rSwfod&wJh ½kyfemrfEiS çhf rSwo


f rd I 0dyóemwkYd \ wysux
f J ysuaf ejcif;uko
d m rsuaf rSmufawGUjrif&í
]aMumufp&mawGcsnf;bJ}[k oabmusNyD;aom olonf ]]xk½d yk ef mrfwYdk \tp jzpfay:cJ&h if;jzpfaom ,ckb0 y#doaE¨
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 84

ukd qifjcifrv
d Qif}} xkt
d pjzpfay:rIuv dk J ]aMumufp&maumif;onf}[líom xifjrif\/ þokdYxifjrifaom todÓPf
onf b,ÓPfç tm'De0ÓPfrnf\/ þokYd aomenf;jzifh ÓPfjzpfyu Hk dk odtyf\/ txl;um; y0wå edrw
d w
å Ydk ü
oD;jcm; rqifjcif&bJ? rSw½f rHk Qjzifah omfvJ aMumufp&maumif;onf[k xifjrifEidk af o;\/

OyÜg' tpç Oyg,mo tqkH;ç ½Sdaom 15-yk'fwkdYwGif OyÜg'? y0wå? edrw d ?å tm,l[em? y#doE¨d [laom þ
ig;yk'o f nf omvQif? b,ç tm'De0ÓPfwYdk \jzpf&m vk&d if;tm½kjH ypum;wnf;/ *wdpaom 10-yk'w f Ydk uu
dk m; ygVd
a0g[m&rQjzifh xl;aomaMumif¤h if;? ÓPfus,faomoltm; xkad 0g[m& txl;wkYd jzifv h J qifjcifvsuf jzpfwwfaom
aMumif¤h if;? tykxd yfrí
H jyawmfral yonf/ xkd 10-yk'w f Ydk wiG f edAw
Á çåd Zmwdç þ 2-yk'w f Ydk onf OyÜg'ç y#doEd̈ç þ 2-
yk'v
f ;Hk ESihf t& wluek \f / *wdç Oyywådç þ 2-yk'w f Ydkonf y0wå-yk'Ef iS hf t& wluek \ f / Z&mpaom 6-yk'w f Ydk onf
edrw
d üå twGi;f 0ifuek \ f / xkYd aMumifh OyÜg' paomig;yk'f t& xifjrifvQiyf if jynfph NHk yD[k rSwt f yf\/

ww¬ b,muma&e y0wåH ÓPH b,wky|meÓPH? £w&mum&0aoe y0wåH tm'De0ÓPEÅd '|AÁ/H


(r[m#D 2-451)

ww¬? xkbd ,mum& ponfwYdkwiG /f b,muma&e? aMumufz, G [ f k xifjrifaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzif/h y0wåH


ÓPH? jzpfaom ÓPfonf/ b,wky|meÓPH? b,ÓPf rnf\/ £w&mum &0aoe? þrS wyg;aom 'kuç©
omrdoç ocFg&ç [k xifjrifaom tjcif;t&mwkYd \ tvkt
d m;jzif/h y0wåH ÓPH? jzpfaomÓPfonf/ tm'De0ÓPH?
tm'De0ÓPf rnf\/ £wd '|AÁ?H þokYd rSwtf yf\/

þ#DumESit hf nD ygVdav;0g&wkYd wiG f b,EÅ[ d al om yk'Ef iS w


hf uGaom yXr0g&jzifh b,ÓPfjzpfyu
Hk jdk yonf/
usefo;Hk 0g&jzifh tm'De0ÓPf jzpfyu
Hk dk jyonf[k cGjJ cm;í ,ltyf\/

OyÜg' ponfwYdk udk b,ç 'kuç© omrdoç ocFg&ç [k xifjrifaom a,m*Dtm; ]]a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:rI uif;jcif;ç
rjywf jzpfrI uif;jcif;ç ocFg&edrw d f uif;jcif;ç tm;xkwrf =I uHr½Sjd cif;ç wzef rjzpf&jcif;ç wkYd u ab;uif;ayonf?
csrf;omaumif;rGeaf yonf? 0#fqif;&Jç umr*kPçf udavomç [laomtpmrS uif;vGwaf yonf/ Nidr;f at;ayonf}}[k
edAmÁ efudk rSe;f qvsuf ajymif;jyeftm;jzifh qifjcifaom todÓPfvJ jzpfay:\/ xkYd aMumifh y#dorÅd'gr*fü....

tEkygÜ a'g acrEÅd oEÅyd a' ÓPH-ponfjzif¤h if;?


tEkygÜ a'g okcEÅd oEÅyd a' ÓPH-ponfjzif¤h if;?
tEkygÜ a'g ed&mrdoEÅd oEÅyd a' ÓPH-ponfjzif¤h if;?
tEkygÜ a'g edAmÁ eEÅd oEÅyd a' ÓPH ponfjzif¤h if;?

oEÅyd 'ÓPf av;0g&wkYd uv


dk J qufí a[mawmfral yonf/ þav;0g&wkYd jzifh jytyfaom oEÅyd 'ÓPfonf
um; b,ç tm'DeyÓPf r[kwaf y? ¤if;ÓPfwYdk rS qufvufí w&m;oabmtwkid ;f jzpfay:aom tmedoo H ÓPfrQ
omwnf;/

tm'De0ÓPf &ifo h efvQif? edA'dÁ gÓPf jzpfay:\/ xkdtcgü tm'De0ÓPfjzifh tjypfjrifNyD;onftm;avsmf


pGm rSww f idk ;f rSww
f idk ;f vJ ysi;f &d NiD;aiGUbG,[ f í
l om xifjrif\/ pOf;pm;qifjcifMunfv h Qifv?J ysif;&dNiD;aiGUbG,f [lí
omxifjrif\/ t,kwq f ;Hk tm;jzifh BuHpnf pdwu f ;l ae&onfuydk if ysi;f &d NiD;aiGUbG,[f k xifjrifwwf\/ þÓPf
jzpfyu
Hk dk "r®y'ü þokYd a[mawmfr\ l /

oaAÁ ocFg&m tedpmö wd? ,'g ynm, yówd/


tx edAEdÁ w
´ d 'kau©? {o ra*¾g 0do'k ,
¨d m/

oaAÁ ocFg&m 'kum© wd? ,'g ynm, yówd/


tx edAEÁd w
´ d 'kau©? {o ra*¾g 0do'k ,
¨d m/

oaAÁ "r®m tewåm wd? ,'g ynm, yówd/


tx edAEdÁ w
´ d 'kau©? {o ra*¾g 0do'k ,
¨d m/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 85

oaAÁ ocFg&m? tvk;H pkaH om ½kyf emrf ocFg&wkYd onf/ tedpmö wd? rNrJuek [ f íl / ,'g? b*FÓPf acgifxyd o
f Ydk
a&mufaom tMuiftcgü/ ynm,? ypöuÓ © PfrS tpOfavQmufí jzpfaom tEG,0dyóem ÓPf ynmjzif/h yówd?
jrif\/ tx? xko d Ydk jrifaom tcgü/ /(r[m#Dum tvkt d m;jzifuh m; ... ,'g? tMuiftcgü? ynm,? or®oe
OmPfynmjzif/h yówd-or®owd? ½Ijrif ok;H oyf\? tx-ypäm? ok;H oyfNyD;í O',AÁ,OmPfponfwYdk jzpfonfrS
aemufumvü/ þokYd teufjyefav)/ /'kau©? b,ÓPf tm'De0ÓPfwYdk jzif?h ab;[k xifjriftyfNyD;ç
tjypfjriftyfNyD;aom ½kyef mrf qif;&Jü/ edAEdÁ w
´ ?d raysmrf arGU NiD;aiGUav\/ {o? þNiD;aiGUaom ÓPfonf/0do'k , d̈ m?
udavom tnpftaMu;rS pifMu,fjcif;iSg/ (0do'k w ¨ m¬ , a0g'gew¬m,-t|uxmbGi)hf / ra*¾g? taMumif;aywnf;/

oaAÁ ocFg&m? tvk;H pkaH om ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd onf/ 'kum© wd? qif;&JwYdk wnf;ç raumif;ukef [lí/ (t<uif;
yXr*gxmESihf wlNyD)/

oaAÁ "r®m? tvk;H pkaH om ½kyef mrf oabmw&m;wkYd onf/ tewåm wd? tpk;d ykid af om igaumif r[kwu
f ek çf
igaumifr½Su
d ek f [lí/ (t<uif; yXr*gxmESihf wlNyD)/

b,ç tm'De0ç edA'dÁ gç [laom þÓPf ok;H rsKd;onf tEkç tvwfç t&ifph m;ç tm;jzifo h mvQif 3-yg;
uGjJ ym;onf? ocFg&wkYd \ tjypfudk xif½mS ;odjrifaom oabmvu©Pmtm;jzifu h m; wrsKd;wnf;aom ÓPfom
wnf;/ xkYd aMumifyh if tcsKdYaomoltm; b,ÓPfjzpfay:vQif rMumrD wcPtwGi;f rSmaomfvJ tm'De0ç edA'dÁ gÓPf
rsm; qufvufí jzpfay:wwfayonf/ xkYd jyifç txufÓPfoYdk vsifjrefpmG wufomG ;aom tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vftm; b,
tm'De0 edAEdÁ ´ tjcif;t&mwkYd wiG f wyg; ESpyf g;rQom xif½mS ;onfvJ ½Sad yonf/

awem[k ayg&mPm b,wky|meH {uar0 wDPd emrmed vbd? oAÁocFga& b,awm t'´omwd b,wk
y|meH emrZmwH/ awok a,0 ocFga&ok tm'De0H OyÜga'oDwd tm'De0g Ekyóem emr ZmwH? awok a,0
ocFga&ok edAEdÁ r´ meH OyÜEEé dÅ edA'dÁ gEkyóem emr ZmwEÅ/d ygVd,rÜd 0kw?Hå ,m p b,wky|mae ynmç ,Oö tm'Dea0
ÓPHç ,m p edA'dÁ g? £ar "r®m{uw¬m? AsOÆear0 emeEÅ/d (0do'k r¨d *f 2-288)

awe? xkYd aMumif/h ayg&mPm? a½S;q&mwkYd onf/ tm[k? qku d ek Nf yD/ b,wky|meH {uar0? b,ÓPf
wckxnf;uyifvQif/ wDPd emrmed? trnf ok;H rsKd;wkYd u/dk vbd? &avNyD/ oAÁocFga&/ tvk;H pkaH om ocFg&wkYd u/dk
b,awm t'´o? aMumufz, G [
f jk rifNyD/ £wd? þtaMumif;aMumif/h b,wky|meH emr ZmwH? b,ÓPf rnfonf
jzpfav\/ awok a,0 ocFga&ok? aMumufz, G [f k jriftyfNyD;aom xko d cFg&wkYd üyifvQif/ tm'De0H? tjypfu/dk
OyÜga'od? xif½mS ;apNyD/ (ygwGmumod 0dbma0od-#DumtzGi)hf / £wd? þtaMumif;aMumif/h tm'De0gEkyóem emr
ZmwH? tm'De0ÓPf rnfonf jzpfav\/ awok a,0 ocFga&ok? tjypfjriftyfNyD;aom xko d cFg&wkYd ü yifvQif/
edAEdÁ r´ meH OyÜE?Hé NiD;aiGUvsufjzpfavNyD/ £wd? þtaMumif;aMumif/h edA'dÁ gEkyóem emrZmwH? edA'dÁ gÓPf rnfonf
jzpfav\/ £wd? þokYd a½S;q&mwkYd u qku d ek Nf yD/ ygVd,rÜ?d y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdawmfüvJ/ ,m p b,wky|mae
ynm? tMuif b,ÓPfonf¤if;/ ,Oö tm'Dea0ÓPH? tMuif tm'De0ÓPfonf¤if;/ ,m p edA'dÁ g? tMuifeAd 'dÁ g
ÓPfonf¤if;/ tw¬d? ½Sd\/ £ar "r®m? þÓPfwYdk onf/ {uw¬m? wlaom oabmw&m;uk, d f ½Su
d ek \
f / AsOÆear0?
trnfo'´grQonf omvQi/f emeH? xl;jcm;\/ £wd 0kw?Hå þokYd a[mawmfrt l yf\/

b,ç tm'De0ç edAÁd'gÓPf NyD;\/


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 86

rkOödwkurswmç y#docFgç ocFg½kayu©mOmPf

£rdem ye edA'dÁ gÓaPe £ró ukvykwó å edAEdÁ E´ ó Å OuúPE² ó


Å tebd&rEÅó oAÁb0 a,med*wd
0dnmP|dwd owåm0go *awok o.ab'auok ocFga&ok {uocFga&yd pdwHå e oZÆwd e v*¾wd e AZÑwd?
oAÁom® ocFg&*wm rkpw öd uk mrH edó&dwu k mrH a[mwd/ tx.ó {0H oAÁocFga&ok 0d*wmv,ó oAÁocFg&
*wm rkpw
öd u
k mró OyÜZw Æ d rkOw
dö u
k rswmÓPH/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-288)

£rdem ye edA'dÁ gÓaPe? þ edA'dÁ g ÓPfjzif/h edAEdÁ E´ ó Å OuúPE² ó Å tebd&rEÅó? NiD;aiGU ysif;&d raysmf
arGUaom/ £ró ukvykwó å ? þ trsKd;om;ç trsKd;o®;D tm;/ oAÁ b0 -ay- ocFga&ok? tvk;H pkaH om b0 3-yg;ç
a,med 4-yg;ç *wd 5-yg;ç 0dnmP|dwd 7-yg;ç owåm0go 9-yg;üwnfuek af om ysufp;D jcif;½So d nfh ocFg&rsm;pGm
wkYd wiG /f {uocFga&yd? wckaom ocFg&ü aomfv/J pdw?Hå pdwo f nf/ e oZÆwd e v*¾wd eAZÑwd? ruyf rNid rwG,/f
oAÁom® ocFg&*wm rkpw dö uk mrH? ocFg& tvk;H pkrH S vGwvf \dk / edó&dwu k mrH a[mwd? a½SmifcgG xGuo f mG ;vk\
d /
tx? xkt d cgü/ oAÁocFga&ok {0H 0d*wmv,ó? ocFg& tvk;H pkw H Ydk ü þqkcd ahJ omenf;jzifh wG,w
f mrIuif;vsuf/
oAÁom® ocFg&*wm {0H rkpw dö u
k mró? ocFg& tvk;H pkrH S þqkcd ahJ om enf;jzifh vGwv f adk om/ tó? þtrsKd;om;ç
trsKd;o®;D tm;/ rkOw
dö u
k rswmÓPH OyÜZw Æ ?d rkOw
dö u
k rswmÓPf jzpfay:\/

b0 ok;H yg; [lonfum; umrb0ç ½lyb0ç t½lyb0ç wkdYaywnf;/ a,medav;yg; [lonfum; t@Z-
OrSaygufzmG ;aom owå0grsKd;? ZvmAkZ-oli,ftrd rf S aygufzmG ;aom owå0grsKd;? oHao'Z-tñSüd jzpfygG ;aom
owå0grsKd;? Moyygwdu-teD;ü ½kww f &uf usvmouJo h Ydk ? uk,d xf if½mS ; tjynft h pkH bGm;ueJjzpfay:aom owå0g
rsKd;? þav;rsKd;wkYd aywnf;/ *wdig;yg; [lonfum; i&Jç wd&pämefç Nydwmå ç vlç ewfç þ ig;yg;wkYd aywnf;/
0dnmP|dw(d 7)yg; [lonfum; vlEiS hf umrm0p& ewfwYdkonf tcsi;f csi;f uk, d f um,tm;jzifv h J xl;jcm;uke\ f /
y#doaE¨ onmtm;jzifv h J xl;jcm;uke\f ? vltcsif;csif; ewftcsif;csif; rwlMuuke/f xkYd aMumifçh emewåum,-
emewåonD rnfuek \ f / (1)/ /yXrpsmefjA[®m wkYd onf¤if;ç tyg,fowå0g wkYd onf¤if;ç tcsif;csif;uk, d f xl;jcm;í
onm wlaomaMumifh emewåum, {uwåonD rnfuek \ f (2)/ /'kw, d psmefjA[®mwkYd onf tcsif;csif;uk,d w f í l
onm xl;jcm;aomaMumifh {uwåum,-emewåonD rnfuek \ f (3)/ /wwd,psmefjA[®mwkYd onf¤if;ç a0[yæKd vf
jA[®mwkYd onf¤if;ç tcsif;csif; uk,d çf onmç ESprf sKd;vk;H wlaomaMumifh {uwåum,-{uwåonD rnfuek \ f (4)/ /
ok'g¨ 0gojA[®mwkYd vJ þpwkw0¬ n d mP|dwüd 0ifoifu h ek \ f / /tmumomeOöm,wejA[®mwkYd onf tmumom
eOöm,weonD rnfuek \ f / (5)/ /0dnmPOöm,wejA[®mwkYd onf 0dnmPOöm,weonD rnfuek \ f (6)/ /
tmudOn ö m,wejA[®mwkYd onf tmudOn ö m,weonD rnfuek \ f (7)/ þ (7)yg;wkYd aywnf;/ ¤if;(7)yg;wkYd ü?
tonowfEiS hf ae0onmwkYd udk xnfv h Qif owå0gwkYd \ae&m owåm0go 9-yg; jzpfuek \ f / a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vf\
todÓPfonfum; avhvm rSwo f m; emMum;bl;orQüom qifjcifvsuf usupf m;Ekid af yonf? rrSwo f m;bl;aom
trnfjzifu h m; udavomvJ rjzpfEikd ?f ÓPfvJ rjzpfEidk o f nf omwnf;/ okYd aomfvçJ t,kwq f ;Hk tm;jzifbh 0ok;H rsKd;ü
NiD;aiGUrIÓPfjzpfvQifyif 0dyóemjynfph aHk wmhonfomwnf;/ tb,fah Mumifeh nf;[lrl ... a,med*wdpaom trnfwYdk
rSm xkb d 0ok;H rsKd;\ y&d,m,fa0g[m& trnfx;l rQom jzpfaomaMumifh aywnf;/

wae&m&mü tjypfjrifí raysmrf arGU NiD;aiGU ysi;f &daomoltm; xkad e&mrS xGucf gG oGm;vkjd cif;ç xkad e&mukd
pGeYf vw T v
f jdk cif;onf jzpfNrJ"r®wmaywnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh rSw&f wJt h m½kH ocFg&ESiçhf rSwrf I 0dyóem ocFg&wkYd ü aMumuf
zG,x f ifvsuf tjypfjrifNyD;í NiD;aiGUrI=edA'dÁ gÓPf xufoefpmG jzpfvsuf ½Sad om a,m*Dtm; rSw&f wJh tm½ko H cFg&ç
rSwrf I 0dyóemocFg&ç wkYd r¤S if;? qifjcifrad om b0 a,med *wdpaom ocFg&wkYd r¤S if;? vGwaf jrmufvjdk cif;=xkd
ocFg&wkYd udk pGeYf vw T vf jdk cif; oabmonf rMumrDyif jzpfay:\/ þ vGwaf jrmufvçdk pGeYf vw T vf adk omoabmonf
rkOwdö uk rswmOmPfaywnf;/ xkt d cgü a,m*Donf oGm;rIxidk rf I tdyrf aI uG;rI qefYrpI aom uk, d f trlt&m[lorQukd
¤if;? jrifrI Mum;rI xdrI BuHpnfrI ½Irw S rf I paom pdwt f rlt&m [lorQuk¤d if;? vlU tjzpfç ewf tjzpfç a,musfm;rde;f r
tjzpfç jA[®m tjzpfç paom b0[lorQu¤dk if;? vGw&f mwjcm;okYd pGeYf om pGeYf ypfvadk wmh\? ¤if;wkYd rS vGwu f if;&mokYd
om a&mufvadk wmh\/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç tcsKdUyk*Kd¾ vfonf ]]ESv;Hk roGi;f bJrrSwb f J ae&wmu aumif;rSmavvm;}}[k
qifjcifrw d wfayonf? xko d Ydk qifjcifrw
d hJ twkid ;f vJ rrSwaf wmhbJ &yfem; aerdwwfayonf/

y#docFgOmPf ... aom {0H oAÁ b0 a,med *wd Xdwd ed0go *aw[do ab'au[d ocFga&[d rkpw dö u
k marm
oAÁom® ocFg&*wm rkpw dö Hk yke aw {0 ocFga& y#docFgEkyóemÓaPe wdvu©PH tma&maywGm y&d*P¾ mS wd/
(0do'k r¨d *f 2-289)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 87

oAÁ b0-ay-ocFga&[d? tvk;H pkaH om b0 a,med *wdXw d d owåm0gowkYd ü wnfuek af om ysufp;D jcif;
½So
d nfo
h cFg&wkYd r/S {0H rkpw dö u
k marm? þokYd qkcd ohJ nft
h wkid ;f yif vGwaf jrmufvadk om/ aom? xkd trsKd;om; trsKd;o®;D
a,m*Donf/ oAÁom® ocFg&*wm rkpw dö ?Hk ocFg& tvk;H pkrH S vGwaf jrmuf&ef/ aw {0 ocFga&? rSwo f t
d yfNyD;aom xkd
ocFg&rsKd;wkYd uydk ifvQif/ y#docFgEkyóemÓaPe? wzef ½Ir=I y#docFgÓPfjzif/h wdvu©PH tma&maywGm? vu©Pm
3-yg;ukd wifí/ yke y&d*P ¾ Smwd? wzef odr;f qnf; ½Irw S \ f /

ocFg& w&m;wkYd ü edpö okc twå [k pGv J rf;rI vk;H 0 uif;vQif ocFg& Nidr;f aom edAmÁ efudk rsufarSmufûyvsuf
qkud af &muf\/ xko d Ydk aomyk*Kd¾ vfonf y&deAd mÁ ef rûy&ao;rDüvJ xko d cFg&wkYd EiS phf yfí pk;d &draf MumifMh ujcif;ç pdwq f if;&J
jcif; r½SNd yDjzpfí? xko d cFg&wkYd rS vGwv f vJ w G af jrmuf\? y&deAd mÁ ef pHNyD;aomtcgü xko d cFg&wkYd rS vGwaf jrmufonf
rSmum; qkb d ,
G yf ifr½SNd yD/ xkYd aMumifçh ocFg&wkYd rS vGwv f v dk Qif? wjcm;wyg;ukd ûy&efrvk?d xko d cFg&wkYd uydk if tedpö
'ku© tewå[k Ekid ef if;pGmodjrifí vspfvsL½IEidk af tmifrw S Nf rJyif rjywfrw S b
f Ydk omvkad yonf/ okYd jzpfíç rkOw dö u
k rswm
ÓPf\tpGr;f aMumifh ocFg&wkYd rS vGwv f adk oma,m*Donf jzpfysufwidk ;f aom xko d cFg&wkYd uydk if wzefqufí rSwNf rJ
rSw&f ayonf/ þokYd wzefrw S af omtcgü tedpt ö jcif;t&m (10)yg;? 'ku© tjcif;t&m (25)yg;? tewåtjcif;t&m
(5)yg;? þtjcif;t&m (40)wkYd wiG f wyg;yg;ukd rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü xku d of nftm;avsmfpmG xif½mS ;odvsuf½\ dS / tusOf;
tm;jzifhum; tedpv ö u©Pmç 'ku©vu©Pmç tewåvu©Pmç [laom þvu©Pm 3-yg;wkYd wiG f xku d o
f nftm;avsmf
pGm wyg;yg;ukd rSwcf sufwidk ;f ü xif½mS ;odvsuf½Sd\/ þ todtjrifonf wzef½rI =I wzef odjrifrjI zpfaomaMumifh
y#docFgOmPf rnf\/

tedpö tjcif;t&mrsm; ... a,m*Donf w&Hwcg rSwcf sufü? ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd udk tedpEö u dÅ =tqk;H ukd rvGeEf idk b f ;l =
qk;H oGm;wmcsn;f bJ=ukeo f mG ;wmcsn;f bJ[í l odjrif oabmus\ (u)/ w&Hwcgü? wm0umvdu=tcku d t f wefYrQ
wnfwmbJ=wcPuav; wnfwmbJ [lí odjrif oabmus\ (c)/ w&Hwcgü? O',0,y&dpEdä =é jzpfrI ysurf jI zifh
ykid ;f jcm;tyfonf=tpESit hf qk;H þ 2-ckwYdk \ tMum;rSmbJ ½So d nf=ay:NyD;awmh aysmufomG ;onf=rjzpfru D vJ r½Sd
ao;ç ysufomG ;wJh aemufrmS vJ r½Sad wmhb;l ç olwYdk EpS cf \ k tv,frmS om ½So d nf[í l odjrifoabmus\ (8)/ &Hcgü
tedp=ö rNrJ[o k \d (1)/ /&Hcgü? yavmu=tk&d em& ao&ESihf tBuD;tus,f ysufp;D wwfonf[k od\/ oJurf;yg;
rsm; NydKí NydKí oGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;ç puúLukd qkwyf pfaomtcgü xif½mS ;pGm pkwjf ywfí pkwjf ywfí oGm;ouJhokdY¤if;ç
rD;ukd a&jzifh Nidr;f owfaomtcgü [ke;f ueJ [ke;f ueJ Nidr;f Nidr;f oGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;ç rD;ck;d ukd avwku d af omtcgü vGií hf
vGií hf aysmufysuf oGm;ouJo h Ydk ¤if;ç rSwcf udk f rSwcf u dk rf mS yif? rSw&f wJh tm½k\ H tBuD;tus,f ysufp;D jcif;ukd
odjrifjcif;onfvnf; þyavmumEkyóemü 0ifoif\ h (2)/ / &Hcgü? pv=tkv d u dk f emvku d f aovku d ef YJ rwnfwhH
bJ wvIyx f J vIy½f mS ;aeonf[o k \ d / ay:vku d f aysmufvu dk ef YJ wysufxJ ysufaeonfuo dk m rSwcf sufwidk ;f eJY awGU&
í ]]bmrQ rckid cf hH rwnfwyhH gwum;? wvIyx f J vIy½f mS ; aewmcsnf; ygwum;}}[k odjrifjcif;ukv d J pvmEkyóemyif
[líqkdoifh\ (3)/ /&Hcgü? yw*F=k tvGef ysuv f ,G o f nf = rrSwrf u D yif aysmufaysmufomG ;ESio hf nf[k od\ (4)/
/&Hcgü? t'¨K0=b,ftcsderf qkd ysufwufí rckid Nf rJb;l [k od\ (5)/ /&Hcgü? 0dy&dPmr"r®=yuwd yifu&dk if; twkid ;f
rwnfbJ tkv d sufaovsuf ajymif;vJazgufjyefwwfonf=jzpfpuESirhf wlbJ &ifah &mfysupf ;D vsuf ajymif;vJazgufjyef
oGm;onf[k od\ (6)/ /&Hcgü? tom&u=ckid rf mwJh tESprf ½Sd [k od\ (7)/ /&Hcgü? 0db0 = pnfyifBuD;yGg;jcif;
r½Sd[kod\/ (t"dyÜg,fum; ... oEÅwdCe ruGJrDu ]]opfaphrStyif? ¤if;tyifrS tñTefY t½Guf tcufrsm; jzpfvsuf
wckxnf;taejzifh pnfyifBuD;yGg;ovkyd if þud, k Ef iS hf þpdwo f nf i,fi,fuav;b0uxJu ½Scd o hJ nf? wajz;ajz;
pnfyif BuD;yGg;vsuf ,ckxufwidk f wnfNrJ wnf½dS aeonf}}[k xifc\ hJ ? oEÅwC d e uGNJ yD;aom ,ckru l m; xku d o hJ Ydk
rxifawmhNyD? a½S;a½S; uk, d f pdwf trlt&mu wjcm;+aemufaemuf trlt&mu wjcm;? a½S;a½S; trlt&monf aemuf
aemuf trlt&mtjzpfoYdk ra&mufbJ ukeyf suf ukeyf suf oGm;onf? aemufaemuftrlt&mvJ a½S;a½S; trlt&mxJrS
xGuaf y:vmonf r[kw?f wckcak om ½kyf emrfuyif wjcm; wyg;aom ½kyf emrf jzpfvsufpnfyif BuD;yGg;jcif; r½Sd[k
odjrif\/ þokYd odyu Hk o dk m qkv d adk yonf/ taMumif; ½kyef mrfaMumifh tusKd; ½kyef mrf rjzpfygG ;[líum; rqkv d adk y)
(8)/ /&Hcgü? ocFw=uH pdwf Owk tm[m&paom qkid &f mtaMumif;rsm;u nDñw T í f ûytyfonf=taMumif;
nDñw T í
f jzpfay:onf[o k \ d (9)/ /w&Hwcg rSwcf sufü r&P"r®=aowwf ysuw f wfonf[k odjrif oabmus
\(10)/ þonfwYdk um; xku d o f nftm;avsmfpmG odjriftyfaom tedpö tjcif;t&m wkYd aywnf;/

xkw
d iG f tedpö paom 10-yk'w f Ydk onf omvQif y#dorÇ'd gr*fü? tedpö tjcif;t&m tjzpfjzifh tpOftwkid ;f
a[mtyfaom yk'w f Ydk aywnf;/ (u-c-*) trSww f Ydkjzifjh yxm;aom tp ok;H yk'o
f nfum; t|uxmü jytyfaom
yk'rf sm;aywnf;/ xko d ;Hk yk'u
f dk tedpyö 'k üf xnfo h iG ;f í tedpö tjcif;t&m (10) yg;ukd a&wGuf rSwo f m;tyf\/ 'ku©
tewå tjcif;t&mwkYd üvJ tp tp ok;H yk'u f dk enf;wlyif odygav/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 88

'ku© tjcif;t&mrsm; ... a,m*Donf w&Hwcg rSwcf sufü? ½kyef mrfocFg&wkYd udk tbdPo S rÜ#yd VD e=jzpfryI surf u I
rjywfEydS pf ufaeonf=jzpfvu dk yf suv f u dk ef YJ rjywfEydS pf ufaeonf[k odjrifoabmus\(u)/ &Hcgü 'kur© =rcHombl;
[ko\ d (c)/ &Hcgü? 'ku0© w¬K=qif;&J trsKd;rsKd;\ wnf&m jzpfay:&mbJ[k od\ (*)/ &Hcgü? 'ku=© qif;&J[o k \ d ?
raumif;bl; [k od\(1)/ /&Hcgü? a&m*=tjrpfjywf raysmufEidk b f J wa½Smifa½Smif jzpfaewJh a&m*gESihf wlonf? rlv
&if;a&m*gESihf wlonf[o k \ d (2)/ /&Hcgü? *@=tzl;tvk;H aygufvmaom tempdr;f ESihf wlonf[o k \d / (rcHom
jcif; rNrJjcif; azgufjyefjcif;[laom emusifuu dk cf rJ EI iS hf ,SOw f aJG eaomaMumifv h çJ tempdr;f ESiw hf o l nf? rSwo f &d wJh
½kyef mrfonf jzpfay:NyD;vQif cPrQomwnfí ysufomG ;aomaMumifv h çJ tzl;tvk;H ay:NyD;vQif rSYJ &ifí h jynfaygufomG ;
wJh temESihf wlonf? oeH&nf jynfyyk Ef iS hf wlaom udavomwkYd udk ,kx d uG f jzpfygG ;apwwfaomaMumifv h J temESiw hf l
onf-[lv/dk ) (3)/ /&Hcgü? ov’=pl;0ifaewJh jr§m;ajimifEh iS hf wlonf[o k \
d / (rcHomatmifEydS pf ufwwfaomaMumifh
¤if;? uk, d x f J pdwxf rJ mS twGi;f 0ifvsuf xk;d qG ESyd pf ufwwfaomaMumif¤h if;? y,fEw k f ypf&ef cJ,Of;aomaMumif¤h if;?
pl;0ifaewJh jr§m;ajimifEh iS w hf o l nf-[lv)dk (4)/ /&Hcgü? tC=raumif;rIvydk if raumif;wJw h &m;[k od\/ (t&d,m
wkYd uJ&h t J yfaomaMumifv h J raumif;rIEiS hf wlonf? tusK;d pD;yGg;rJu h dk jzpfapwwfaomaMumifv h J raumif;rIEiS w hf o l nf?
raumif;rItrsKd;rsKd;\ jzpf&mwnf&m jzpfaomaMumifv h J raumif;rIEiS hf wlonf-[lv/dk ) (5)/ /&Hcgü? tCrlv=
raumif;rI trsKd;rsKd;\ taMumif;&if;bJ[k od\ (6)/ /&Hcgü? tmAm"=tema&m*gESihf wlonf? tema&m*g
tpkta0;BuD;bJ[o k \d (uk, d t hf vkt d wkid ;f vGwv f yfciG rhf &atmif ESyd pf ufwwfaomaMumif¤h if;? emzsm; rusef;rmrI
trsKd;rsKd;ukd jzpfapwwfwhJ teD;qk;H taMumif;jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;? tema&m*gESihf wlonf-[lv/dk ) (7)/ /&Hcgü?
þwd=ÓwdAsoe paom ysupf ;D jcif; rsm;pGmwkYd udk jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh qku d af &mufvmwJh ab;&efEiS hf wlonf
[k od\(8)/ /&Hcgü? Oy'´0=BuD;rm;pGmaom tusK;d rJw h Ydk udk todray;bJ jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh ½kww f &uf
uyfa&mufí ESyd pf ufrI Oy'´aygESiw hf o l nf? rif;'PfponfwYdk \ wnf&mjzpfaomaMumifh rif;paom vlEidk w f Ydk\
n§O;f qJrI Oy'´a0gESihf wlonf[k od\(9)/ /&Hcgü? b,=aMumufp&maumif;onf[k od\ (aMumufz, G f ab;
trsKd;rsKd;wkYd \ jzpfygG ;&m ab;wGi;f ESiw hf al omaMumif¤h if;? qif;&JNidr;f &m jzpfí oufom&m tppf jzpfaomedAmÁ efrS
ajymif;jyef qefYusib f uf jzpfaomaMumif¤h if;? aMumufp&maumif;onf-[lv/dk ) (10)/ /&Hcgü? Oyo*¾=aqGrsKd;wkYd \
ysufp;D jcif; paom jyifyu tusKd;rJçh a&m*gqk;d paom twGi;f u tusKd;rJw h Ydk EiS hf yl;wGaJ eonfç pyfqidk af eonf? &m*
paomtjypfwYdkEiS hf yl;wGaJ eonf? &u©Kd ofbv D ;l r Opömapmifrh paom ewfq;dk rsm;\ jzm;a,mif;rIaMumifh jzpfaom
tusKd;rJv h ydk if vufccH sifb, G rf aumif;wJt h wGuf tarSmifyh a,m* yl;uyfEydS pf ufrEI iS hf wlonf[o k \ d (11)/ /&Hcgü?
t.wmP=qif;&J ab;&efra&mufatmif rapmifah ½Smuf rumuG,w f wf[k od\ (12)/ /&Hcgü? t.avP=qif;&J
ab;&efrS yke;f atmif;&m r[kw[ f o k \d (13)/ / &Hcgü? t.o&P=qif;&J ab;&efudk ry,frowfwwfaomaMumifh
tm;xm; uk;d uG,&f mr[kw[ f o k \ d / (14)/ (b,favmufreG jf rwfwhJ ½kyef mrfjzpfapumrl qif;&Jab;&efwYdkudk rNidr;f ap
Ekid /f xkYd aMumifçh ½kyef mrf ocFg&m [lorQonfwmPç avPç o&Pç r[kw?f qif;&Jab;&ef uif;vkad omoludk
apmifv h J rapmifah ½Smufwwf? qif;&Jab;&ef uif;vkad omol\ vkûH cHaomyke;f atmif;&mvJr[kw?f tm;uk;d &mvJ r[kwf
[k qkv d \ dk /) &Hcgü? tm'De0=rjywfjzpfay:aewJh qif;&JrQom jzpfaomaMumifh tjypftpkrQom? rNrJqif;&J azgufjyef
wwfaomaMumifh tjypf½o dS nf? tvGef EkcH smEkwpf w k o f nf[k od\(15)/ /&Hcgü? 0"u=olwYdk ysufwidk ;f aoEkid af om
aMumifh olowfom® ;awGb[ J o k \ d / (16)/ /&Hcgü/ omo0=tmoa0gwkYd \ tm½kHtaxmuftyHb h J [ko\ d (17)/ /
&Hcgü? rm&mrdo=aojcif;w&m;\ owfp&mbJç udavom\ tpmbJ [k od\(18)/ /&Hcgü? Zmwd"r®=jzpfjcif;
oabm½So d nfç jzpfwwfonf [k od\(19)/ /&Hcgü? Z&m"r®=tkjd cif; aqG;jrnfw h wfonf [k od\(20)/ /&Hcgü?
Asm"d"r®=emzsm;wwfonf[k od\/ (21)/ /&Hcgü? aomu"r®=pk;d &dryf al qG;jcif;ukd jzpfapwwfonfç pk;d &dryf al qG;
p&mbJ[k od\(22)/ /&Hcgü? y&da'0"r®=ikad <u;jcif;ukd jzpfapwwfonfç ikad <u;p&mbJ[k od\(23)/ /&Hcgü?
Oyg,mo"r®=jyif;pGmylyefjcif;ukd jzpfapwwfonfç jyif;pGmylyefp&mbJ[k od\(24)/ /&Hcgü? oHuad vodu"r®=ylyef
apwwfwhJ udavomwkYd \pGrJ &DS m tm½kb H çJ pdwf tnpftaMu;wkYd \ vl;vJ&mbJ[k odjrifoabmus\(25)/ þonf
wkYd um; xku d of nftm;avsmfpmG odjriftyfaom 'ku© tjcif;t&m25 yg;wkYd aywnf;/

txl; rSwb f ,G u f m; ... atmuf or®oeÓPf jzpfcu dk üf ¤if;ç þy#docFgÓPf EkpOfü¤if;ç BuD;rm;xif½mS ;pGm
jzpfay:vmaom rcHomrI trsKd;rsKd;ukd rsufarSmufawGU&í ]]'kur© awm 'ku0© w¬Kawm 'kua© wm a&m*awm *@awm
ov’awm tCawm tmAm"awm}}ponfwYdk EiS t hf nD a,m*Donf 'kut © jcif;t&mrsm;pGmwkYd udk odjrifoabmuswwf
ay\/ xkYd aMumifyh if 0do'k r¨d *fü? or®oeÓPfç y#docFgÓPfç [laom þESpXf merSm þtjcif;t&mwkYd udk tus,fjy
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d o
hJ Ydk olwyg;
u aMumifMh upku d zf ,
G jf zpfaom igaumifum;r½Sad y}}[lívJ odjrifoabmus\/ þokYd odjrifjcif;onfvnf; wck
aom tzkYd tm;jzifh twårS uif;qdwo f nfudk ½Ijrifjcif;aywnf;/

(udOeö -yk',
f í
l teufjyef&mü ]]wpkw H a,mufaom olwyg;\ tb} om;ç tpfuçdk nDç wlç ponfjzpfaom
igaumif[ol nfrmS wpkw H ckrQ r½Syd gwum;? bmrQ r½Syd gwum;? olwyg;ESihf ig[m bmrQ rpyfrqkid yf gwum;}}[k
odjrifonf-[lí t"dygÜ ,f,al v)/ 'kw, d tzkYd tm;jzifh ½IjrifyHk NyD;\/

xkYd jyif olwyg;\tqif;ukd jrifcu dk çf toHudk Mum;cku


d f ponfü rSwíf jzpfapç rSwo
f rd o
I Ydk tpOfvu dk uf m;
qifjcifíjzpfapç þokYd ojd rif\/ yku H m;...]]olwyg;[k ac:tyfaom twåaumif=owå0gaumifonf uk, d w
f iG ;f rSmvJ
r½S?d uk,
d yf rSmvJr½S?d b,ft&yfrSmrQr½Sd/ a½S;uvJr½Sd? ,ckvJr½Sd? aemifvJr½Sd? b,fumvrSmrQr½Sd/ ½kyfxJrSmvJr½Sd?
emrfxrJ mS vJr½S?d jrif&wJth qif;xJrmS vJr½S?d Mum;&wJth oH ponfxrJ mS vJr½S?d b,fw&m;xJrmS rQ olwyg; taumif
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 92

rnfonfr½S}d }[k ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk f odjrifoabmus\/ þokYd ojd rifjcif;onfvnf; wckaomtzkYd tm;jzifh twåru
S if;qdwf
onfudk ½Ijrifjcif;aywnf;/ wwd,tzkYd tm;jzifh ½IjrifyHk NyD;\/

xkYd jyif ]]onfvdk ysufaewJh oabmrQom ½So d nf? twåaumif owå0gaumifum; r½S}d }[lí a½S;u rodcw hJ hJ
twGuf ]]ig\aMumifMh u pku d zf ,
G f jzpfaom trdç tbç tpfuçdk nD om;ç o®;D ç paom olwyg; taumiftxnfonf
wu,fyif ½Sad eonf}}[k xifrw S cf rhJ ad yonf? ]]trSetf m;jzifrh u
l m; ,ckvydk sufaewJh oabmrQom ½Syd gwum;? ig\
aMumifMh upku
d zf , G jf zpfaom olwyg;taumiftxnfrnfonf? bmrQr½Syd gwum;}}[lívJ odjrifoabmus\/ þokdY
odjrifjcif;onfvnf; wckaom tzkYd tm;jzifh twårS uif;qdwo f nfudk ½Ijrifjcif;aywnf;/

(udOeö -yk'f [k,í


l teufjyef&mü? ]]igESiphf yfqidk af om olwyg; taumiftxnfrnfonfrmS ?b,ftaMumif;
aMumifrh Qr½S?d wpkw
H &m tenf;i,frQr½S}d }[k odjrifonfu, dk al v)/ pwkw¬ tzkYd tm;jzifh ½IjrifyHk NyD;\/

tusOf;tm;jzifu h m; ... ]]tvkt d wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w


f hJ igaumifvJ r½S?d olwyg;aumifvJ r½S?d igESihf qkid w f hJ olwyg;vJ
r½S?d olwyg;ESiq hf idk w
f hJ igvJr½S}d }[lí odjrifoabmusjcif;onf av;yg;aom tzkYd tpGe;f tm;jzif?h twåaumifrS uif;
qdwo f nfudk ½Ijrifjcif;aywnf;/ þ tzkYd av;yg;wkYd wiG v f ?J ]igaumifr½S}d [k ykid Ef idk pf mG odjrifoabmusjcif;onfom
vQif vk&d if;y"meaywnf;/ tb,faMumifeh nf; [lrI ... rsufarSmufot d m;jzifh ]igaumif r½S}d [k ykid Ef idk pf mG odjrifvQif?
]]igaumifr½Sdovkdyifç olwyg;aumifvJr½Sd? igeJYqidk w f hJ olwyg;vJr½S?d olwyg;ESiq hf idk w
f hJ igvJr½S}d }[lí? vG,uf pl mG
yif ykid ;f jcm; qk;H jzwfEidk af omaMumifh aywnf;/

qtmum& ½IjrifyHk ... qtmum& ½IjrifyHk ponfwYdk u?dk eda'´o ygVdawmfrS xkwaf qmifí? 0do'k rd̈ *fü jy\/ ¤if;wkdY
uk?d þusrf;ü? ygVdteuf wGv
J sufjytH/h

pu©K? rsufpod nf/ tawåe 0g okn?H igaumif\ tjzpfrv S J qdw\f / twåeda,e 0g oknH? ighOpömç igykdif
tjzpfrv
S J qdw\ f / edapöe 0g okn?H NrJonfh tjzpfrv
S J qdw\
f / "ka0e 0g? ckid o
f nft
h jzpfrv S J qdw\ f / oóawe
0g? xm0& ½Sad eonfh tjzpfrv S J qdw\ f / t0dy&dPmr"ar®e 0g okn?H rajymif;rvJ yifut dk wkid ;f wnfNrJ wnfonfh
tjzpfrv
S J qdw\ f / £wd/ þokdY ½Ijrif\/

(þum; pu©K'Gg&ü ½IjrifyaHk ywnf;? <uif;aom 'Gg& tm½k0H n


d mPf zóa0'em ponfwYdk üvJ? ½IjrifyrHk mS
enf;wlyifwnf;)/

t"dygÜ ,fum; ... jrifcu kd f jrifcu


dk üf rSwv f suf? ]]jrifr\ I rS&D mjzpfaom? MunfvifwhJ rsufp½d yk o f nf? tvkt d wkid ;f
jzpfjcif; [laom igaumif\ tjzpfrv S J qdw\f ? igaumifvJ r[kw/f igaumif\ tpdwt f ykid ;f tjzpfrv S J qdw\f ?
ighOpömvJr[kw/f NrJjcif;rSvJ qdw\ f ? NrJvJ rNrJ/ ckid v
f rJ ckid /f xm0&vJ½ad S eonf r[kw/f yifut dk wkid ;f vJ rwnf}}[k
odjrif oabmus\/ Mum;cku d f ponfrmS rSwv f suf? em;½kyf ponfü odjrifyu Hk v
dk ?J enf;rS;D í csJYygav/ þ½IjrifyüHk ?
edpö "k0 oów t 0dy&dPmr"r® [laom þav;yk'w f Ydk onf? a0g[m& o'´grQom xl;uke\ f / vk&d if; teuf
tm;jzifu h m; wluek o
f nf omwnf;/ tjcif;t&m 6-rsKd;jzifh twårS qdwo f nfudk ½IjrifyHk NyD;\/

t|tmum& ½IjrifyHk ... ½ly?H ½kyof nf/ edpoö m& oma&e 0g? NrJwt hJ ESpf [laom tESpt f m;jzifv h /J t om&H edóm&H
om&my*wH? tESprf [kwçf tESprf ½Sçd tESprf u S if;\/ "k0om& oma&e 0g? ckid w f thJ ESp[ f al om tESpt f m;jzifv
h ?J
tESpfr[kwfç tESpfr½Sdç tESpfrSuif;\/ okcom& oma&e 0g? csrf;omwJt h ESp[
f al om tESpt f m;jzifv
h ?J tESprf [kwçf
tESpfr½Sdç tESpfrSuif;\/ twåom& oma&e 0g? igaumiftESp[ f al om tESptf m;jzifv h ?J tESprf [kwçf tESprf ½Sçd
tESprf u
S if;\/ edapöe0g? NrJjcif;tESptf m;jzifv
h ?J tESprf [kwçf tESprf ½S?d tESprf u S if;\/ "ka0e 0g? ckid jf cif; tESpf
tm;jzifvh ?J tESprf [kwçf tESprf ½Sçd tESprf u
S if;\/ oóawe 0g? xm0&½Sjd cif; tESpt f m;jzifv
h ?J tESprf [kwçf
tESpfr½Sdç tESpfrSuif;\/ t0dy&dPmr"ar®e 0g? yifut dk wkid ;f wnfwjhH cif; tESpt f m;jzifv h ?J tESprf [kwçf tESprf ½Sçd
tESprf u
S if;\/ £wd? þokdY ½Ijrif\/

(þonfum;? ½kycf E¨mü tjcif;t&m ½Spyf g;wkYd jzifh qdwof Ok ;f onfudk ½IjrifyaHk ywnf;/ emrfcE¨m 4-yg;ESihf
'Gg&tm½kH 0dnmPfzó a0'emponfwYdk üvJ½jI rifyrHk mS enf;wlyifwnf;/ þ½IyüHk ? edpoö m& "k0om& edpö "k0 oów
t0dy&dPmr "r® [laom þ 6-yk'of nf a0g[m&rQom xl;\)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 93

'otmum& ½IjrifyHk ...½lyH? ½kyfukd/ &dwaå wm yówd? NrJjcif;ç aumif;pm;csrf;omjcif;ç wifw h ,fjcif;ç tpk;d ykid jf cif;ç
wkYd rS uif;qdwo f nf[jk rif\/ wkpaä wm? NrJjcif;ç aumif;pm; csrf;omjcif;ç wifw h ,fjcif;ç tpk;d ykid jf cif;ç [laom tESpf
tom;r½Sad omaMumifh tcsnf;ES;D tok;H rus[kjrif\/ 0g? bmtaumiftxnf j'AfrQr[kwf ao;Ekw, f w k n
f ahH om
aMumifh tvum;oabmw&m;[kjrif\/ oknawm? tvkt d wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f hJ igaumiftESprf S qdwo f Ok ;f onf [k jrif
\/ tewåawm? tvkt d wkid ;f NyD;apEkid w f hJ igaumif r[kw[ f k jrif\/ tedó&d,awm? tpk;d r& [k jrif\/ tumr
um&d,awm? tvkt d wkid ;f rNyD;apEkid çf tvkrd Qjzifh NyD;apEkid af om trlt&mr½Sçd [kjrif\/ /(a&jr§Kyfpidk jf zifh cGupf onf
vkyv f adk omoltm; xkcd u G f ponfrNyD;pD;Ekid o f uJo h Ydk ? ½kywf &m;ukd NrJatmif aumif;pm; csrf;omatmif wifw h ,fatmif
igaumif jzpfatmif ûyvkad om oltm; xkd NrJrI aumif;pm;csr;f omrI wifw h ,frI igaumif jzpfro I nf rNyD;pD;Ekid af cs/
xkYd aMumifçh ½kyo f nf tumrum&d,=tvk½d w dS idk ;f rûyEkid f rNyD;apEkid af umif;aom w&m;rnf\/ wenf;um;...qkdif&m
taMumif;rsm; nDnw G rf o S m oGm;jcif; &yfjcif; xkid jf cif; tdyjf cif; auG;jcif; qefYjcif; yljcif; at;jcif; rsupf d Munfjcif;
paom ½kyt f rlt&mwpkw H ck jzpfay:Ekid af yonf/ rdrt d vkrd Qjzifu h m; xko d Ydk aom ½kyt f rlt&m wpkw H ckurdk Q rjzpfay:ap
Ekid af cs/ xkYd aMumifvh ?J ½kyo f nf tumr um&d,=tvkrd Qjzifh NyD;apEkid w f hJ trlt&m r½Sad om w&m;rnf\/ #DumtzGihf
t"dygÜ ,fcsnf;yif)/ /tvAÇe, D awm? onfvo dk m jzpfygapç [kv d adk wmh rjzpfygapeJY[k awmifw h í r&tyf r&Ekid [ f k
jrif\/ t0o0wåeawm? tvkt d wkid ;f vJrjzpfç tvkt d wkid ;f vJ rjzpfapEkid çf [kjrif\/ y&awm? pDrcH efYcí JG r&aom
aMumifh olprd ;f jyifyw&m;bJ [kjrif\/ 0d0w d aå wm yówd? taMumif;xJrmS vJ tusKd;r½Sçd tusKd;xJrmS vJ taMumif;
r½Sçd aomaMumifh taMumif;ESit hf usKd; tcsif;csif;rS uif;qdwaf eonf [kjrif\/ /(ur®m'd 0d,ç um&aP[d zave
p 0d0w d aå wm? e [d um&aPe zvHç zave 0g um&PH o * AÇH wd|wd=uHEiS 0hf yd gufonf ]]ur®eH w¬d 0dygurS?d
ygaum uar® e 0dZw Æ /d tnrnH Oabmoknm? e p ur®H 0dem zvH}}[k jyqkcd o hJ nfh twkid ;f yif? tcsif;csif;rS
uif;qdwaf eouJo h Ydk ? taMumif;wkYd r¤S if;? tusKd;rS¤if;? tcsif;csif; uif;qdwaf eonf [kjrif\/ þum; teuf?
rSeaf y\/ tusKd;w&m;onf taMumif;w&m;ESiw hf uG uk, d 0f efaqmifvsufç NrHKatmif;vsuf wnfonfvrJ [kwaf y/
#DumzGiahf ywnf;/ t"dygÜ ,f ½Si;f vif;ap&ef ypö,y&d*[ ¾ OmPf t&mü *gxm\ teufudk jyefMunfyh gav/ a0'em
onm ponfwYdk üvJ ½IjrifyrHk mS enf;wlyifwnf;)/

eda'´o ygVdawmfüum; ... tydp 'o[muma&[d oknawm avmuH ta0u©w?d ½lyH &dwaå wm wkpaä wm
oknawm tewåawm t.om&uawm 0"uawm 0db0awm tCrlvawm omo0awm ocFwawm-þokYd 'o
tmum& ½Ijrifyu
Hk dk jyvsuf½\
dS / t|uxmüjytyfaom tmum& 10-yg;wkdYwGif? tp 4-yg;omvQif þygVdawmfEiS hf
xyfwu
l sonf? aemuf 6-yg;onfum; o'´gteuf 2-rsKd;vk;H yif uGjJ ym; xl;jcm;vsuf ½S\
d /

txl; rSwb f , G f ... þygVdawmfudk yifrí DS 'otmum&½Iyu Hk dk xkwjf yaom t|uxmü? ygVdawmfEiS hf
xyfwrl [kwb f ?J xl;uGaJ om tmum&wkYd ujdk y&mwGi?f þokYd aomteufx;l ukd rSwo f m;tyf\/ ]]ygVd t|uxmwkdYü
jytyfaom ½IjrifyHk tjcif;t&m [lorQuk?d jyonft h wkid ;f usufrw
S íf ? twdtus½IEidk rf ?S udpNö yD;onfvJ r[kwaf y/
xko
d Ydk usufrw S íf twdtus½I&ef jyonfvJ r[kwaf y/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum;? tedpö 'ku© tewå vu©PmwkYd ü
twGi;f 0ifaom xkd jytyfonfh tjcif;t&mwkYd wiG ?f tjcif;t&m wyg;yg;jzifjh zpfapç tjcif;t&mrsm;pGmwkYd jzifh jzpfapç
aumif;pGmxifjrif oabmusvQif udpNö yD;onfcsnf;omwnf;/ yk*Kd¾ vftrsKd;rsKd;wkYd \ yg&rDÓPfEiS hf tZÑmo, ponf
tm;avsmpf mG xifjrifyHk odyrHk sm;ukd jyqkjd cif;omvQif jzpfayonf}}[laom þteufx;l ukd NrJNrHpmG rSwo f m;tyf\/

twdtus usufrw S í
f ½I&efjyonf[k ,ljim;tH?h okYd jzpfvQifç þt&mü? t|uxmenf;t& ½Iaomoltm;?
ygVdawmfenf;t& tmum& 10-yg;vk;H rpkv H ifaomaMumif?h udprö NyD;bJ ½Sad v&m\/ xko d Ydk udprö NyD;Ekid yf gu?ygVdawmf
enf;rS xl;jcm;aom tmum&wkYd udk t|uxmü rjywefav&m/ ,ckrmS ç jyvJ jyvsuf ½Sad y\/ xkdYaMumifhç twdtus
usufrw S í
f ½Iqifjcif&ef jyaompum;rsm; r[kwaf y/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum;? ½Irw
S af om a,m*D\ÓPfrmS xku d f
onftm;avsmpf mG jzpfay:wwfaom xifyo Hk jd rifyw
Hk Ydkuo
dk m jyaompum;rsm; jzpfayonf[í l ckid Nf rJpmG rSwo f m;tyf
\/

'Gg'o tmum& ½IjrifyHk ... ½ly?H ½kyo


f nf/ e oawåm? twåç toufç vdyjf ymç 0dnmPfaumifponfjzifh xifrw S f
pGv
J rf;tyfaom owå0g r[kw/f e ZDa0g? toufç vdyjf ymaumif r[kw/f e ea&m? vlaumif r[kw/f e rmPa0g?
vkvifaumif r[kw/f e £w¬?D rde;f raumif r[kw/f e yk&ad om? a,musfm;aumif r[kw/f e twåm? tpk;d ykid af om
igaumif r[kw/f e t[H? igr[kw/f e twåe, d ?H igaumif\ tpdwt f ykid ;f Opöm r[kw?f igaumifEiS hf bmrQ rqkid /f
e rr? ig\ tpdwt f ykid ;f Opöm r[kw?f igESihf bmrQ rqkid /f e tnó? olwyg;\ tpdwt f ykid ;f Opömr[kw?f
olwyg;ESihf bmrQrqkid /f (eda'GoygVdawmfüum;? þt&mwGi?f ]]e aumpd-wpkw H a,mufrQ r[kw}f }[k ½S\ d ) e
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 94

uópd? wpkw
H a,muf\ tpdwt f ykid ;f Opöm r[kw?f wpkw
H a,mufEiS hf bmrQ rqkid /f £wd? þokYd ½Ijrif\/ /
(þonfum;½kyüf ½Ijrifyw
Hk nf;/ a0'em onm ponfwYdküvJ ½IjrifyrHk mS enf;wlyifwnf;)/

þ½IjrifyüHk ? e t[H-wkid af tmif a½S; (8)yk'w f Ydk onf? ]]jzpfjcif; ysufjcif; r½Sb d J cE¨mtdrx f üJ tNrJ wnf½adS e
onf[í l ¤if;? oGm;jcif; xkid jf cif; auG;jcif; qefYjcif; jrifjcif; ponfudk tvkt d wkid ;f NyD;apEkid o
f nf[í l ¤if;? þokYd
ponfjzifh xifrw S pf v
JG rf;tyfaom}} twåç toufç vdyjf ymç 0dnmPfaumifç owå0gaumifuo dk m y,fjrpfví dk jytyf
aomyk'w f Ydk aywnf;? avmuü ajymqk½d ;dk rQ jzpfaom owå0g ponfuu dk m; y,fjrpfví dk jytyfonf r[kwaf y/ e
twåe,d -H paom aemufav;yk'w f Ydkjzifv
h J xkt
d wåaumif\ tpdwt f ykid ;f r[kw?f xktd wåaumifEiS hf bmrQrqkid o f nfudk
om jyvkad yonf/ avmuü ajymqk½d ;dk rQ jzpfaom olY Opömç igh Opömç olY vuf ajcç igh vuf ajcç olY om; o®;D ç igh
om; o®;D ç þokYd paom a0g[m&uku d m; y,fjrpfvodk nfr[kwaf y/

tcsKdYu þokdYaom t|uxmpum;rsm;ukad wGU&í þokYd ajymqkMd u\/ bk&m;a[m ygVdwYdk ü? omrD ed0goD
ponfjzifh pGv J rf;tyfaom twåuo dk my,fonf? t½SiAf 'k a¨ Cmo\ t|uxmüum;? vlwYdk\ ajymqk½d ;dk rQjzpfaom
rde;f ra,musfm; owå0gponfwYdk uv dk J y,fjrpfonf? xkYd aMumifçh t|uxmonf ygVdawmfEiS hf rnD[í l tjypfwif
vsuf ajymqkMd uuke\ f / t|uxm\rS&D mjzpfaom eda'´o ygVdawmf\ &nf½, G cf sufudk rodjcif;ç t|uxmq&m\
tvku d dk rodjcif;ç rsm;aMumifh tjypfwifrmS ;jcif;ç ajymqkd rSm;jcif;rQomwnf;? trSet f m;jzifah omfum; t|uxmwkYd ü?
tewåt&mwGijf yqkad om pum;[lorQonf? omrDe0d goDponfjzifh pGv J rf;tyfaom xkt d wåuo
dk m y,fjrpfonfh
pum;csnf;omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç 0do'k rd̈ *f or®oeÓPft&mü...tom&ua|emwdomrD ed0goD um&aum
a0'aum o,H0oD wd {0H y&duyÜw d ó twåom&ó t.bma0e/ /omrd eD0god um&ua0'um "d|m,u
0d&[dwwm, oknawm? o,Oö t.ómrdbm0g'dwm, tewåawm...[k aocsmpGmyif zGijhf yawmfral vNyD/
þt&müvJ ygVdt|uxmwkYd \ &nf½, G cf suftvku
d odk ad om r[m#Dumq&monf atmufygtwkid ;f zGijhf yawmfral v
NyD/

]½lyH e oawåm}wd tm'Dok a,m avmua0g[ma&e oawåm? ½lyH aom e a[mwD wd t,raw¬m £" em
"dayÜawm? wóm.0kwå od'w ¨ må / e [d avmaum ½lyrwåH ]oawåm}wd a0g[&wd/ Am[d&uy&durÜad wm ye twåm
]oawåm}wd t"dayÜawm/ aom [d aw[d ½lyg'Dok owå 0dowåwm,ç ya& p oOÆmyea|e ]oawåm}wd 0kpw ö /d ½lyH
aom e a[mwDwd taw¬m/ oknwm y&d*P ¾ eS aO§wEÅ/d {o ea,m ]e ZDa0g}wd tm'Doyk /d (2-457)

½lyH e oawåmwd tm'Do?k ½kyo f nf owå0g r[kw?f þokYd paom ½Ijrifyw Hk Ydk ü/ avmua0g[ma&e a,m
oawåm? vlwYdk\ajymqk½d ;dk tm;jzifh tMuifowå0gonf½\ dS / ½lyH aom e a[mwDw?d ½kyo f nf xkad jymqk½d ;dk owå0g
r[kw[ f al om/ t,Htaw¬m? þteufu/dk £"e t"dayÜawm? twårq S w d of nfudk ½Ijrifaom þt&mü rqkv d t
dk yf
ay/ uo®m? tb,faMumifh rqkv d odk enf;[lr/l wó t0kwo å 'd w ¨ må ? ½kyo f nf ajymqk½d ;dk owå0gr[kwf [laom xkd
teufu? rqkb d yJ if tvkv d dk NyD;pD; xif½mS ;jcif;aMumifah ywnf;/ [d? xif½mS ;onf rSeaf y\/ ½lyrwåH? ½kyfrQukd/
oawåmwd? owå0g[lí/ avmaum e a0g[&wd? vltaygif;uac:a0: ajymqko d nf r[kwaf y/ ye? trSet f m;jzifh
aomfum;/ Am[d&uy&duyÜad wm? bk&m;omoemawmfrS tjyifyüjzpfaomvlwYdku BuHqpGv J rf;tyfaom/ twåm?
toufç vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPfaumif [laom twåaumifu/dk oawåmwd t"dayÜawm? owå0g[k qkv d adk yonf/
[d? rSeaf y\/ ½lyg'Do?k ½kypf onfwYdk ü/ owå 0dowåwm, p? uk, d w f idk f uyfNid wG,w f mwwfaomaMumif¤h if;/ ya&
oOÆmyea|e p? olwyg;wkYd udk rdrüd uyfNidw, G wf mapwwfaomaMumif¤h if;/ aom? toufç vdyjf ymaumifç 0dnmPf
aumif[k qkdtyfaom xkdtwåaumifukd/ oawåmwd? owå0gaumif[lí/ aw[d 0kpw ö ?d xko d moemy vlwYdk u ac:qkd
tyf\/ ½ly?H rSwcf u dk rf mS yif ysufomG ;onf[k odjriftyfaom½kyo f nf/ aom e a[mwd? xkt d wåaumifç owå0g
aumifr[kw/f £wd taw¬m? þum; qkv d &dk if; teufaywnf;/ [d? xkpd um;rSeaf y\/ {wH? ]]½lyH e oawåm=½kyf
onf owå0gr[kwf[lí}} þ½Ijrifjcif;onf/ oknwmy&d*P ¾ eS ?H twåaumifç igaumifrS qdwo f Ok ;f onfudk odr;f
qnf;odjrifaom ÓPfaywnf;/ £wd? þokYd odtyf\/ e ZDa0gwd tm'Doyk ?d touf r[kw-f þokYd paom
½Ijrifyw
Hk Ydk üvJ/ {o ea,m? e oawåm-ü jyNyD;aom þenf;yifwnf;/ /'Gg'o tmum& ½IjrifyHk NyD;\/

uwH rkOwdö u
k rswm y#docFg oEÅ|d em ynm ocFg½kayu©m ok ÓPH/ OyÜg'H rkOwdö uk rswm y#docFg oEÅ|d em
ynm ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH? y0wå?H edrw
d ?Hå tm,l[eH? y#doE¨/ð ay/ Oyg,moH rkOwdö u k rswm y#docFg oEÅ|d em
ynm ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 95

OyÜga'g 'ku©EÅd/y/ b,EÅd/y/ omrdoEÅ/d y/ OyÜga'gocFg&mwd/ y/ Oyg,maom ocFg&mwd rkOw


dö u
k rswm
y#docFgoEÅ|d em ynm ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH/ (ÓPf 3-rsK;d jzpfyu
Hk dk jyaom y#dorÇ'd gr*f 58)

rkOwdö u
k rswm y#docFg oEÅ|d em ynm? tpü pGeYf vw T vf vdk sufç tv,fü pGeYf vw T Ef idk &f ef wzef ½Irw S íf ç
tqk;H ü txl;aMumifMh u rpku d &f bJ tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ivsufç tpOftwef;tm;jzifh aumif;pGmwnfwahH om odryI nm
onf/ ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH? ocFg½kayu©mÓPf rnf\/ wH? xkÓ d Pfonf/ uxH? tb,foYdk jzpfoenf; [lr/l
OyÜg'H? a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif;uk/d 0g? a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif;½Sad om ocFg& taygif;uk/d rkOw dö uk rswm y#docFg oEÅ|d em
ynm? tpü pGeYf vw T vf v
dk sufç tv,fü pGeYf vw T Ef idk &f ef wzef ½Iíç tqk;H ü txl; aMumifMh u rpku d &f bJ tnDtrQ
vspfvsL ½Ivsufç tpOftwef;tm;jzifh aumif;pGm wnfwahH om odro I nf/ ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH? ocFg½kayu©mÓPf
rnf\/ y0wå?H rukerf qk;H Ekid af tmif rjywfjzpfaeaom ocFg&aygif;uk/d edrw d ?Hå taumiftxnf j'Af½o dS vkyd if
xifay:vsuf½adS om ocFg&taygif;uk/d tm,l[eH? csrf;omaumif;pm;&ef &nfoefí tm;xkwrf I ocFg&taygif;uk/d
y#doE¨?ð qufpyfíjzpfay:jcif;½Sdaom b0opfocFg&taygif;ukd/ay/ Oyg,moH? yj if;pGmylyefro I cFg&uk/d rkOw dö u
k rswm
y#docFg oEÅ|d em ynm? tpü pGeYf vw T vf vdk sufç tv,fü pGeYf vw T Ef idk &f ef wzef½íI ç tqk;H ü txl;aMumifMh u rpku d &f
bJ tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ivsufç tpOftwef;tm;jzifh aumif;pGmwnfwahH om odro I nf/ ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH? ocFg
½kayu©mÓPfrnf\/

OyÜga'g? b0üpí jzpfay:jcif;onf/ 0g? píjzpfjcif;½Sad om ,ckb0 ocFg&taygif;onf/ 'ku?H© qif;&Jwnf;/


£wd? þokYd ojd rifí/y/ b,EÅ?d aMumufz, G [
f ok jd rifí/y/ omrdoEÅ?d 0#fqif;&Jç umr*kPçf udavom[laom
tpmESihf a&maESmaeonf[k odjrifí/y/ ocFg&mwd? rNidr;f at;aom ocFg&wkYd [o k jd rifí/ rkOw
dö u
k rswm y#docFg
oEÅ|d em ynm? tpü pGeYf vw
T v
f v
dk sufç tv,fü pGeYf vwT Ef idk &f ef wzef ½Irw
S í
f ç tqk;H ü txl; aMumifMh u rpku
d &f bJ
tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ivsufç tpOftwef;tm;jzifh aumif;pGmwnfwahH om odryI nmonf/ ocFg½kayu©mok ÓPH? ocFg
½kayu©mÓPf rnf\/

ww¬ rkOw dö uk rswm p om y#docFg p oEÅ|d em pmwd rkOw dö u


k rswm-y#docFg-oEÅ|d em/ £wd ykAb
Á ma0
edA'dÁ gÓaPe edAEdÁ E´ óÅ OyÜg'g'Ded y&dpZö w
d u
k mrwm rkOw
dö u
k rswm? rkOeö ó Oyg,u&Pw¬H raZÑ y#docFgeH
y#docFg? rkOw
dö mG t0omae tZÑayu©Pm oEÅ|d em/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-299)

ww¬? xkd y#dorÇ'd gr*fygVdü/ rkOw dö u k rswm p? vTwv f adk om ynmvJ[w k \f / om? xkyd nmonf/ y#docFg
p? wzef ½Irw S af om ynmvJ [kw\ f / oEÅ|d em p? aumif;pGm wnfwahH om ynmvJ [kw\ f / £wd? þok;H yg;aom
owåad Mumif/h rkOw dö u k rswm y#docFg-oEÅ|d em? rnf\/ £wd? okdYjzpfí/ ykAÁbma*? a½S;tzkdYü/ edAÁd'gÓaPe
edAEdÁ E´ ó
Å ? edA'dÁ gÓPfjzifh NiD;aiGYaomol\/ OyÜg'g'De?d OyÜg' ponfjzifh jytyfaom ocFg&wkYd u/dk ig? OyÜg'ponfEiS hf
pyfqidk af om ocFg&wkYd u/dk y&dpZö w d u k mrwm? pGeYf vw T vf o dk nf\ tjzpfonf/ rkOw dö u
k rswm? rnf\/ /(OyÜg'
y0wåm'dtya'aoe 0kawå ocFga&? wyÜ#Ad E¨qE´&m*yÜ[maee 0doZÆw d u k mrwm=OyÜg' ponfudk pGeYf v-dk [l&mü
OyÜg'rQ y0wårQ ponfuo dk m pGeYf vo dk nf[k r,ltyf? OyÜg' y0wåponfwYdk EiS hf pyfqidk af om ocFg&wkYd udk pGeYf vo dk nf
[líom ,ltyf\/ pGeYf v-dk [lonfrmS vJ xko d cFg&wkYd EiS phf yfaom ESpo f ufvv dk m;rI aMumifMh upku d vf rdk u
I dk pGeYf vjdk cif;
yifwnf;-#DumzGit hf "dygÜ ,f/ / þt|uxm #DumzGirhf sm;uk¤d if;? OyÜg'Hpaom uHy'k Ef iS w hf uG a[maom ygVdawmfudk
¤if;? axmufí? o.ur®u "mwfjzifNh yD;aom rkOw dö u
k rswm yk'u f o dk m yk'&f if;[kot d yf\)/ /rkOeö ó Oyg,u&P
w¬?H pGeYf vw T Ef idk jf cif;\ taMumif;ukd ûyjcif; NyD;apjcif;iSg/ raZÑ y#docFgeH? tv,fü wzef ½Irw S jf cif;onf/ y#docFg?
ÓPfrnf\/ rkOw dö mG ? pGeYf vw T Nf yD;í/ / (ed&mv,bm0yÜw, då m tayu©m0doZÆe0aoe 0doZÆw d mG -#DumzGi/hf y#docFg
OmPf &ifo h efvQif? ocFg&wkYd ü a½S;uvkid u hJ uG f wG,w f mrIç aMumifMh upku d v f rdk o
I nf r½Sad wmhNyD? uif;aysmufav\?
þokYd iJu h u G rf u I if;jcif;onfyif? iJu h u G rf u
I ¤dk if;ç iJuh uG rf \I rS&D mocFg&wkYd u¤dk if;ç y,fpeG Yf jcif;rnf\)/ /t0omae?
tqk;H ü/ tZÑKayu©Pm? aMumifMh urpku d rf í l ? tpOftwef;tm;jzifh od½rHk Q od½rHk Q jzpfvsufvspfvsL½Ijcif;onf/
oEÅ|d em? aumif;pGmwnfwahH om ynmrnf\/ / (,m0 edAmÁ eorÜuE© e´ m e £ZÑw?d wm0 0dped aeyd O'godewm,
ÓPó oEÅme0aoe y0wåð oE¨m,m [=y#docFgÓPf vk;H 0&ifo h efonfrpS í? edAmÁ efoYdk ajy;0ifonfh a*gMwbl
rjzpfao;rDtwGi;f ü? ocFg&wkYd udk pl;prf;qifjcifrüI aomfvJ txl;aMumifMh u rpku d af wmhb?J od½Hk od½rHk Q vspfvsL½I
vsuf? tpOftwef;vku d t f m;jzifh worwfxnf; Mumjrifph mG todÓPf jzpfay:aejcif;uk&d nfí ]]tZÑKayu©Pm
oEÅ|d em}}[k t|uxmü rdeYf qo dk nf-[lv)dk /
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 96

þÓPf 3-yg;onf? tpç tv,fç tqkH;ç tEkç tvwfç t&ift h m;jzifo


h mvQif uGjJ ym;\? tm½kEH iS rhf w
S o
f rd I
wkYd u?dk ocFg&oabmrQ[k odjrifoabmusjcif; vu©Pmtm;jzifu
h m; wrsKd;xnf;aom ÓPfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumifçh
y#dorÇ'd gr*frmS yif atmufygukv
d J a[mawmfral yonf/

,m p rkOw
dö u
k rswm? ,m p y#docFgEkyóem? ,m p ocFg½kayu©m? £ar "r®m {uw¬m? AsOeÆ ar0 emeH/
(259)

,m p rkOw
dö u
k rswm? tMuif rkOwdö u
k rswm ÓPfonf¤if;/ ,m p y#docFgEkyóem? tMuif y#docFg
ÓPfonf¤if;/ ,m p ocFg½kayu©m? tMuif ocFg½kayu©mÓPfonf¤if;/ tw¬d? ½Sd\/ £ar "r®m? þÓPfwkdYonf/
{uw¬m? wlaom oabmw&m;ukd,f ½Sdukef\/ AsOÆear0? trnf o'´grQonf omvQif/ emeH? xl;jcm;\/

oabmtm;jzifh ÓPfwrsKd;xnf; jzpfaomaMumifyh ifvQif? tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS ? rkOw dö u


k rswmç y#docFgÓPfrsm;
jzpfay:NyD;vQif? rMumrD wcPtwGi;f rSm aomfvJ ocFg½kayu©m ÓPf jzpfay:wwfayonf/ þocFg½kayu©mÓPfokdY
a&mufaomtcgüum;? tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS omvQif? tEkavmrç a*gMwblç r*fç zkv d Ó
f Pfrsm; vsifjrefpmG jzpfay:wwfay
onf/ tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vfrmS um;? ocFg½kayu©mÓPfonfomvQif? txl;aumif;csnf wvSYJ ç rSerf eS af umif;csnf wvSYJ tm;
jzif?h Mumjrifph mG vJ jzpfaewwfao;\/ xkYd aMumifçh 0do'k rd̈ *fü? atmufygtwkid ;f rdeYf qadk wmfr\l /

{0ar0 oap ocFg½kayu©mÓPH oEÅyd 'H edAmÁ eH oEÅawm yówd? oAÁH ocFg&yÜ0wåH 0doaZÆwmG edAmÁ ear0
yu©Ew ´ ?d aem ap yówd? ykeyÜKeH ocFg&m&r®Par0 [kwmG y0wåw/d w'd'H okyaÜ *¾ yd|H 0¥d,rmeH 0d,ç edy¥Ü wd
uyÜgoH 0d[#d,rmeH 0d,ç ememyÜum&awm ocFga& y&d*a¾ [wGm b,Oö eE´Od yö [m, ocFg&0dped ae rZÑwåH [kwmG
wd0"d mEkyóem0aoe wd|wd/ (2-295)

{0ar0? a½S;acwfumvu yifv,fc&D;oGm; oabFmom;wkYd onf eD;aomyifv,furf;ukd rrSe;f qEkid af om


tcgü? eD;aomuRef; urf;ukpd pHk rf;&ef usD;iSuu f dk oabFmrSvw T v f udk v f Qif? xku d sD;onf urf;ukad wGUjrifygu? xku d rf;
qDoYdkomvQif yso H mG ;avonf? urf;ukd rjrifygu? xko d abFmokYd omvQif jyef jyef uyfonf-[laom þOyrm twl
yifvQif/ ocFg½kayu©mÓPH? ocFg½kayu©m ÓPfonf/ oEÅyd 'H? ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd Nidr;f onfjh yif? r*fzv dk Ó
f Pfjzifh
a&mufvJ a&muftyfaom/ 0g? ocFg&vJ Nidr;f ç a&mufvJ a&mufxu dk çf aom/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efu/dk oEÅawm? ocFg&Nidr;f
jywfaomtjcif;t&mjzif/h oap yówd? tu,fí jrifEidk jf im;tH/h {0H owd? þokYd jrifEidk v f Qif/ oAÁ?H tvk;H pkaH om/
ocFg&yÜ0wå?H rjywfrpJ wjzpfxjJ zpfaeaom ocFg&t,Of[al om tm½ku H /dk 0doaZÆwmG ? pGeYf vw T íf / edAmÁ ear0?ocFg&
Nidr;f aom edAmÁ eftm½ko H Ydk omvQif/ yu©Ew ´ ?d ajy;0ifomG ;av\/ (edAmÁ ef tm½kx H oJ Ydk ? 0g? ocFg&Nidr;f jcif;-ocFg&
uif;jywfomG ;jcif; oabmxJoYdk ajy;0ifomG ;ovkyd if? pdwf jzpfomG ;onf-[lv)dk / / aem ap yówd? ocFg&Nidr;f
aomedAmÁ efu?dk ocFg&Nidr;f onft h aetm;jzifh rjrifEidk af o;jim;tH/h {0H owd? þokYd rjrifEidk af o;vQif/ ocFg&m&r®P
ar0 [kwmG ? jzpfysufaom ocFg&uko d m tm½kûH yvsuf=rSwo f v d suf jzpfí/ ykeyÜKeH y0wåw?d tzefzef jzpfay:\/
w'd'?H xkd ocFg½kayu©m ÓPfonf/ 0¥d,rmeH yd|H 0d,? 0kid ;f tyfç qift h yfaom rkYH reI Yf onf? 0kid ;f avç qifah v omí
omí odraf rGUEl;nHah vouJo h Ydk ¤if;/ 0d[#d,rmeH edy¥Ü w d uyÜgoH 0d,? zwftyfaom (taphxw k Nf yD; 0g) *Gr;f onf
zwfavzwfav omíomí odrfarGUEl;nHhavouJhokdY¤if;/ [w k mG ? jzpfí/ /(þ Oyrm ESpcf jk zif?h ½Irw S zf ef rsm;av
av? OmPfonf omíomí xufjruford af rGU oGm;avav jzpfonfudk jy\)/ / ocFga&? rSwcf u dk f rSwcf u dk rf mS yif?
ysuf ysuf oGm;aom ocFg&wkYd u/dk ememyÜum&awm y&d*a¾ [wGm? trsKd;rsKd;aom tjym;tm;jzifh odr;f qnf;rSwo f í d /
b,Oö? umrtm½kH 0w¬K\ ysufp;D rIEiS hf pyfí aMumuf½UHG pk;d &drjf cif;ç b,ÓPf tvkt d m;jzifh aMumufjcif;çuk¤d if;/
eEd́O?ö umrtm½kH 0w¬K\ jynfph rHk EI iS phf yfí tm;&ESpo f ufjcif;ç rSwo f rd I aumif;jcif;aMumifh jzpfay:wwfaom tm;&
ESpof ufjcif;ç uk¤d if;/ y[m,? y,fpeG Yf vGeaf jrmufí/ ocFg&0dped ae-ocFg&0dped aeyd? ocFg&wkYd udk pl;prf; rSwo f rd I
üvJ/ rZÑwåH [kwmG ? txl;vJaMumifMh urpku d çf vk;H 0vJaMumifMh upku d rf I ruif;ojzifh tv,ftvwf nDrQaomoabm
½Sdonfjzpfí/ /(y0dp,ó odcgywåwm, ocFga&ok 0d, awoH0pd ed aeyd O'godeH [kwmG -ocFg½kayu©mOmPf
xufoeftm;jynfah eaomtcgü? pl;prf;½Irw S rf u
I acgifxyd o f Ydk a&mufaeNyDjzpfaomaMumih?f txl;aMumifMh urpku d &f
awmhb?J rSwo f pd &m ocFg&tm½krH sm;uvJ tvkv d ydk if xifay:vsuf xifay:vsuf½\ dS ? ¤if;wkYd udk pl;prf; rSwo f rd u I
vJ tvkv d ydk if jzpfvsuf jzpfvsuf ½S\ d ? odp&m tm½krH sm;vJ tvkv d dk xifay:í? odru I vJ olYt½Sed ef YJ oltvkv d ydk if
jzpfaeonf[k xif&\? xkYd aMumifçh ]]ocFg&wkYd ü txl;aMumifMh urpku d &f bJ? ajumufcspfuif;yvsuf nDrQpGm½IEidk f
ouJo h Ydk }} xko d cFg&wkYd \ ysurf I rNrJrI ponfudk od&efvJ txl;aMumifMh u rpku d &f awmhb?J nDrQpmG ½IEidk o f nf[k qkv d dk
\-#Dum)/ / wd0"d mEkyóem0aoe? tedpö 'ku© tewåm Ekyóem[laom tEkyóem 3-yg;wkdY\ tvkdtm;jzifh/
wd|wd? wnfav\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 97

þt|uxmü? ocFg½kayu©mÓPfu edAmÁ efudk jrifEidk o f nf[q k o


dk nfrmS ? tEkavmrÓPf jzpfay:Ekid af vmuf
atmif? 0k|me*grdeD tjzpfjzifh xufoefpmG jzpfonfudk &nfí qkad yonf/ ¤if;ÓPfuyif edAmÁ efoYdk ajy;0ifomG ;onf
[k qkjd yefonfrmS vJ? tEkavmrç a*gMwblÓPfrsm;ESihf wuG? waygif;xnf; wÓPfxnf;ûyí? {uwåenf;jzifh
qkad yonf/ tajzmift h m;jzifuh m; ocFg½kayu©m ÓPfonf? tBudrrf sm;pGm jzpfNyD;í? txl; xufjrufoefY½iS ;f &J&ifph mG
jzpfvsuf? acgifxyd o
f Ydk a&mufvQif? tEkavmrÓPfudk jzpfap\/ xkdtEkavmrÓPf\ t[keaf Mumif?h a*gMwbl
ÓPfjzpfay:vsuf? edAmÁ efujdk rifonf? xked Ad mÁ eftm½kx
H o
J Ydk vJ ajy;0ifomG ;onf[k qkv d adk y\? atmufygrSm r[m#Dum
aywnf;/

wdu-© 0do'-ol&bma0e ocFga&ok tZÑKayu©aP odZÑrmae wH ocFg½kayu©mÓPH taeu0g&H y0wårmeH


y&dygu *raee tEkavmrÓPó ypö,bm0H *päEHÅ ]]edAmÁ eH oEÅawm yówd emr}}/ wxmblwOö ]]ocFg&.yÜ0wåH
0doaZÆwmG edAmÁ ear0 yu©Ew
´ d emr}}/ w,d'H £" ÓPH tEkavmr-a*gMwblÓaP[d o'¨ð {uwåH aewGm 0kwHå
{uwåe,0aoe/ (2-459)

wdu-© 0do'-ol&bma0e? xufjruf oefY½iS ;f &J&ifo h nf\ tjzpfjzif/h ocFga&ok tZÑKayu©aP odZÑrmae?
tm½koH cFg&ç 0dyóemocFg&çwkYd ü? txl;aMumifMh u rpkud &f bJ? aMumufcspfuif;y nDrQpGm ½IrI NyD;pD; jynfph v
Hk wfaomf/
wH ocFg½kayu©mÓPH? xko d cFg½kayu©m ÓPfonf/ taeu0g&H y0wårmeH? tBudrrf sm;pGm jzpfay:vsuf/ y&dygu
*raee? vk;H 0&ifuh sufjcif;okYd a&mufojzif/h tEkavmrÓPó ypö,bm0H *päE?HÅ tEkavmrÓPftm; aus;Zl;ûywwf
aom taMumif;tjzpfoYdk a&mufvwfaomf/ edAmÁ eH oEÅawm yówd emr? edAmÁ efudk ocFg&Nidr;f aom tjcif;t&mjzifh
jrifonf rnf\/ p? onfrQom ruao;/ wxmblw?H xko d Ydk aom ÓPfonf/ ocFg&.yÜ0wåH 0doaZÆwmG edAmÁ ear0
yu©Ew ´ d emr? rjywfjzpfaeaom ocFg&t,Ofudk pGeYf vw T íf edAmÁ efoYdkomvQif ajy;0if oGm;onfvJ rnf\/ w,d'H
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tm&r®PH uk½rk meH OyÜZw
Æ d raem'Gg&m0ZÆe?H wawm b0*ø tm0a¥wGm OyÜEó é wó Bud,pdwó å m eEÅ&H t0Dpu d H
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ö /d (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-
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f k
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ocFga& tm&r®P.rumod? wax0/ (r[m#Dum 2-479)

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owåuw © Kå ?H ckepfBudr/f y0wåw
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 100

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f v
l /dk tb,fah Mumifh
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d uJo h Ydk /
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 102

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d f jzpfcudk üf ? ]]{wH oEÅH {wH yPDw}H }[k txl; qifjcif ½Gwq
f adk eonfum; r[kwaf y/ ocFg& csKyfNidr;f
uif;jywfaom oabmukd ]]0ifa&mufvsuf awGUod&ovkyd if}} Nidro f ufaumif;jrwfonfh taetm;jzifh rsufarSmuf
awGUodvsuf jzpf½rHk Qomwnf;/ ]]ocFg& csKyfNidr;f uif;jywfaom oabmu Nidro f ufayonf? rGejf rwfayonf?
aumif;ygayonf}}[k þokYd aom todrsKd;onfum; jyefíqifjcifrI ypöa0u©Pm umvüomvQif xif½mS ;jzpfay:ay
onf/ atmufygrSm yPÖmo t|uxmaywnf;/

r*¾pw
d Hå edAmÁ eH tm&r®Pu&P0aoae0/ {wH oEÅH {wH yPDwEÅd e {0H 0'wd? £rdem ye tmuma&e wH
y#d0Zd ÑaEÅmww¬ pdwHå OyoH[&wd/ (r| 3-103)

edAmÁ eH tm&r®Pu&P0aoae0? edAmÁ efudk tm½kH ûyonft h vkt


d m;jzifo
h mvQif/ r*¾pw d Hå OyoH[&wd?
r*fpw d u
f adk qmifyYdkoiG ;f xm;onf rnf\/ (edAmÁ efut dk m½kûH yvsuf r*fpw d f jzpfay:onfuydk if ]]edAmÁ efoYdk pdwu f adk qmif
ykYd onf}}[k qko d nf-[lv)dk / / {wH oEÅH {wH yPDwEÅ?d þedAmÁ efu Nidro f ufayonf? þedAmÁ efu aumif;rGeaf y
onf[í l / {0H? þokYd um;/ e 0'wd? r*fpw d f jzpfcudk üf ½Gwqf adk eonf r[kwaf y/ ye? xko d Ydk yif rqkjd im;aomfv/J
£rdemtmuma&e? Nidro f uf aumif;rGeaf om þ tjcif;t&mtm;jzif/h wH? xked Ad mÁ efu/dk y#d0Zd ÑaEÅm? wJw h hJ rsufarSmuf
xGi;f azguf odjrifaom olonf/ ww¬ pdwHå OyoH[&wd? xked Ad mÁ efoYdk pdwu f dk aqmifyYdk onf rnf\/

y#dorÇ'd gr*fü tedpt ö mum& 10-yg;? 'kut © mum& 25-yg;? tewåtmum& 5-yg;[laom þtjcif;t&m
(40) wkYd wiG ?f wyg;yg;\ tvkt d m;jzifh ½Ijrifvsuf? tEkavmrÓPf jzpfay:NyD;vQif? xkt d jcif;t&m\ajymif;jyef
qefYusifbuftm;jzifh edAmÁ efuo dk jd rifvsuf? r*fÓPf jzpfyu Hk ?dk tyk'd f (40) wkYd jzifh a0befí a[mawmfr\ l / xkd tykd'f
40-wkdYrS 6-yk'd rf Quko
d mvQif xkwaf qmifí þü jyygtH/h

yOöua© E¨ tedpaö wm yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd? yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m edpHö edAmÁ eEÅd yóaEÅm
or®weå ,
d mrH Mouúrwd/ (411)

yOöu©aE¨? 5-yg;aom cE¨mwkYd u/dk tedpaö wm? rNrJ[/k yóaEÅm? jrifqaJ om olonf/ 0g? jrifvsufç jrifpOf/
tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd? tEkavmrÓPfukd &\/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \ csKyfu, G jf cif;
onf/ tedpHö edAmÁ eEÅ?d NrJaomedAmÁ efwnf; [k/ yóaEÅm? jrifqaJ om olonf/ 0g? jrifvsufç jrifpOf/ or®weå ,d mrH
Mouúrwd? t&d,mr*foYdk oufa&muf\/

þygVdü ]yOöua© E¨}[k omrntm;jzif?h waygif;wnf; a[mtyfaom pum;onf? oAÁo*Fg[du=yk*Kd¾ vf


trsKd;rsKd;wkYd ½Ijriftyfaom cE¨m tvk;H pkw H Ydk udk aygif;½kí
H jyaom pum;rQ omwnf;/ cE¨m ig;yg;vk;H ukd waygif;wnf;
wûydief uf ½Ijrifonf[í l um; rqkv d adk y/ trSet f m;jzifah omfum;? cE¨mig;yg;xJu? wyg;yg;aomcE¨mç wyg;yg;aom
½kyw f &m;ç wyg;yg;aom emrfw&m;ç uko d mvQif rsufarSmuf½jI rifvsuf? tEkavmrÓPf jzpfonf[í l om jyqkv d adk y
onf/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç xkwjf ycJah om 0do'k rd¨ *fü ½ly&ZÆKH 0g a0'em'Dok tnw&'@H0g-[laomygXfjzif?h ]]½kyu f odk m
jzpfapç a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmPfwYdk wiG f wyg;yg;aomemrfuo dk mjzpfapç ½Ijrifvsuf? tEkavmrÓPfjzpfaMumif;
uk}d } jyqkad vNyD/ xkYd jyifç rsm;pGmaom t|uxmwkYd üvJ? ½lyg0k|mwdç t½lyg 0k|mwdç-[laom ygXfwYdk jzifh ½kyu f dk ½Iaom
tEkavmrÓPfç emrfu½dk aI om tEkavmrÓPfwYdk \ aemuftjcm;rJüh ? a*gMwblç r*fÓPfwYdk jzpfay:aMumif;ukd
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 104

omjyqkad vonf? ½kyef mrftvk;H pku


H dk waygif;xnf; ½IaomÓPf\tjcm;rJüh ? a*gMwblç r*fÓPf jzpfaMumif;ukud m;?
rkcstm;jzifh rjyqkad cs/ {uyÜ[ma&e yOö[d caE¨[d 0k|mwd-[laom pum;onfvnf;? edy&Ü , d m, rkcspum; r[kwf
ay/ ÓPfx;l uJaomyk*Kd¾ vftm; wxkid t f wGi;f ç wcPtwGi;f ü vsifjrefpmG ? 0dyóemÓPfç r*fÓPfjzpfonfuo dk m
&nfí qkt d yfaom oE¨m, bmodw=y&d,m,fpum;rQ omwnf;/ þteufudk r[m#Dumü? ]]tnxm {auae0
avmud,pdawåe yOöEHé cE¨meH y&d*[ ¾ y&dZmeem'DeH torÇ0awm? e [d o-ed'óe-oyÜ#C d m'd {uZÑH tm&r®PH
umwkH ouúm}}[k Aswda&u taMumif;ESihf wuG zGijhf yawmf rlavNyD/

okYd jzpfí? þy#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVdü? qkvd &dk if; t"dygÜ ,fudk þokYd ot d yf\/ jzpfysufqJ ½kyef mrf cE¨m wyg;yg;ukd
rNrJ[½k jI rifvsuf tEkavmrÓPf jzpfay:onf/ xkÓ d Pf\tjcm;rJüh xkrd NrJaom½kyef mrf[o l rQ\ csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwf
aomoabmukd NrJonft h aetm;jzifh rsufarSmufojd rifvsuf a*gMwblEiS w hf uG r*fÓPfjzpfay:onf-[laom þ
t"dyÜg,fukd odtyf\/ 0dyóemÓPfjzpfcu dk üf rSwo f &d wJh ½kyef mrf\ tpç tqk;H =tjzpfç tysufudk rsufarSmuf
awGU&í rNrJ[k odomxif½mS ;\/ edAmÁ efudk tm½kûH yaom a*gMwblç r*fç zkv d çf tcku
d üf um; tjzpf tysufudk rawGU&
NyD? ocFg& csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwaf om oabmrQom xif½mS ;awmh\/ xkYd aMumifçh edAmÁ efoabmukd jzpfjcif;ç ysufjcif;r½Sd
bJ NrJonft h aetm;jzifh odjrifEidk af yonf/ aemuf tyk'd w f Ydk üvJ tEkavmrÓPfç r*fÓPf jzpfay:yku H dk enf;wlyif
odygav/

yOöua© E¨ yavmuawm yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m tyavmu"ar®m
edAmÁ eEÅd yóaEÅm or®weå ,
d mrH Mouúrwd/ (412)

yOöua© E¨?ig;yg;aomcE¨mwkYd u/dk yavmuawm? txift½Sm;ysufonf=tBuD;tus,f ysufonf[/k yóaEÅm?


jrifvsuf/ tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ tEkavmrÓPfudk &\/ yOöEcHé E¨meH eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \
csKyfu,
G jf cif;onf/ tyavmu"ar®m edAmÁ eEÅ?d ysujf cif; oabmr½Sad om edAmÁ ef=ysujf cif;uif;aom edAmÁ efwnf;[k/
yóaEÅm? jrifvsu/f or®weå , d mrH Mouúrwd? t&d,mr*foYdk oufa&muf\/

yOöua© E¨ 'kua© wm yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m okcH edAmÁ eEÅd yóaEÅm
or®weå ,
d mrH Mouúrwd/ (411)

yOöua© E¨? ig;yg;aom cE¨wYdk u/dk 'kua© wm yóaEÅm? qif;&J[k jrifvsuf/ tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd? tEk
avmrÓPfukd &\/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \ csKyfu, G jf cif;onf/ okcH edAmÁ eEÅ?d csr;f omaom
edAmÁ efwnf;[k/ yóaEÅm? jrifvsuf/ or®weå , d mrH Mouúrwd/ t&d,mr*foYdk oufa&muf\/

yOöua© E¨ b,awm yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m tb,H edAmÁ eEÅd
yóaEÅm or®weå , d mrH Mouúrwd/ (412)

yOöua© E¨? ig;yg;aomcE¨mwkYd u/dk b,awm yóaEÅm? aMumufz, G af b;[k jrifvsuf/ tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#d
vbwd? tEkavmrÓPfukd &\/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \ csKyfu, G jf cif;onf/ tb,H edAmÁ eEÅ?d
ab;uif;aom edAmÁ ef [k/ yóaEÅm? jrifvsuf/ or®weå ,
d mrH Mouúrwd? t&d,mr*foYdk oufa&muf\/

yOöua© e¨ tewåaum yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m y&rw¬H edAmÁ eEÅd
yóaEÅm or®weå , d mrH Mouúrwd/ (413)

yOöua© E¨? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd u/dk tewåawm? tpk;d ykid o


f l igaumifr[kww
f hJ oabmw&m;rQ [k/ yóaEÅm?
jrifvsuf/ tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd? tEkavmrÓPfudk &\/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \ csKyf
uG,jf cif;onf/ y&rw¬H edAmÁ eEÅ?d tvGejf rifjh rwfaom oabm edAmÁ efwnf; [k/ yóaEÅm? jrifvsuf/ or®weå ,
d mrH
Mouúrwd? t&d,mr*foYdk oufa&muf\/

(ajymif;jyef odjrifvsufr*fOmPf jzpfonf[?k a½S;ü qkcd o hJ nfrmS a,bk,somwnf;/ þ tewåawmtyk'd üf


y&rw¬H edAmÁ eH[k ajymif;jyef r[kwb f aJ [mouJo
h Ydk? y&awmtyk'd üf ty&ypö,H edAmÁ eH=wyg;aom taMumif;r½Sad om
edAmÁ ef [lí¤if;/ oknawm tyk'd üf y&roknH edAmÁ eH=ocFg&wkYd rS tvGef qdwo f Ok ;f aom edAmÁ ef[í
l ¤if; ajymif;jyef
r[kwb f J a[mao;\)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 105

yOöua© E¨ wkpaä wm yóaEÅm tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dvbwd/ yOöEHé cE¨meH eda&ma"m twkpHä edAmÁ eEÅd yóaEÅm
or®weå ,
d mrH Mouúrwd/ (413)

yOöua© E¨? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd u/dk wkpaä wm? tcsnf;ES;D tok;H rus tbk;d rwefaom oabmrQ[k/ yóaEÅm?
jrifqaJ omolonf/ 0g? jrifvsufç jrifpOf/ tEkavmrduH cEÅð y#dbvwd? tEkavmrÓPfu&dk \/ yOöEHé cE¨meH
eda&ma"m? ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd \ csKyfu, G jf cif;onf/ t.wkpHä edAmÁ eEÅ?d tcsnf;ES;D ESihf qefYusifç tok;H 0if tbk;d wefç
jrifjh rwfaom edAmÁ ef[/k yóaEÅm? jrifqaJ om olonf/ 0g? jrifvsufç jrifpOf/ or®weå , d mrH Mouúrwd? t&d,m
r*foYdk oufa&muf\/

þ ygVd 6-yk'd w f YdkwiG f yXr 2-yk'd o


f nf tEkavmrÓPfjzifh tedpv ö u©Pmukd jrifí tedrwd rå *f jzpfyu
Hk dk
jy\/ 'kwd, 2-yk'd o
f nf 'kuv © u©Pmukjd rifí tyÜP[d wd r*fjzpfyu Hk jdk y\/ wwd, 2-yk'd o
f nf tewåvu©Pmukd
jrifí oknwr*fjzpfyu Hk dk jy\/ <uif;aomygVd 34-yk'd w f Ydk udk y#dorÇ'd gr*f 0dyóemuxmü Munf½h í I rSwo f m;yg
av/ tusOf;tm;jzifo h v d v dk Qifum; y#docFgÓPft&müjycJah om tjcif;t&mav;q,fudk Munf½h yI gav/xkad v;q,f
onf tEkavmrÓPfjzifh odjriftyfaom tjcif;t&mrsm;yifwnf;/

rdvEd y´ O§mü edAmÁ efudk rsuaf rSmufûyvsuf r*f zkv


d f jzpfyu
Hk dk atmufygtwkid ;f a[mMum;awmfr\
l /

wó wH pdwHå ty&my&H reodua&mawm y0wåH orwdurú w d mG t.yÜ0wåH Mouúrwd? t.yÜ0wå rEkyaÜ wåm
r[m&mZ or®my#dyaEém edAmÁ eH opäu
d a&mwDwd 0kpw
ö /d (311)

ty&my&H? tqifq h if/h reodua&mawm? ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw S pf Of/ 0g? ESv;Hk oGi;f ½Irw
S af om/ wó? xkad ,m*D
\/ wH pdw?Hå xkEd v S ;Hk oGi;f aom pdwo
f nf/ y0wå?H rukerf qk;H Ekid af tmif rjywfjzpfaeaom ½kyef mrft,Ofu/dk orwduú
rdwmG ? vGeaf jrmufí/ t.yÜ0wå?H rjywfjzpfaeaom ½kyef mrft,OfrS ajymif;jyefqefYusifaom oabmokYd / 0g? jzpfay:rI
uif;aomoabmokYd / Mouúrwd? oufa&muf\/ r[m&mZ? jrwfaomrdvEd r´ if;BuD;/ or®my#dyaEém? enf;vrf;rSepf mG
usifo h nfjzpfí/ t.yÜ0wåH tEkyaÜ wåm? jzpfrI uif;onfh oabmokYd qku d af &mufaom yk*Kd¾ vfu/dk edAmÁ eHopäu
d a&mwDw?d
edAmÁ efudk rsufarSmuf ûyonf [lí/ 0kpw ö ?d qkt
d yfay\/

woGio f iG f rjywfp;D aeaom jrpfa&t,Ofudk Munf½h aI e&ouJo h Ydk? 0dyóemÓPfjzpfqüJ wckNyD;wck rukef
qk;H Ekid af tmif jzpfysufvsuf xif½mS ;aeaom ½kyef mrft,Ofudk tqifq h ifh ESv;Hk oGi;f ½IMunfh rSwo
f v
d suf½\
dS ? xko
d Ydk
rSwo f ad eqJrmS yifç txl; oGuv f ufxif½mS ;pGmaom 0k|e*grdet D odrsm; jzpfay:NyD;vQif? a,m*D\pdwo f nf rSwo f d
aeusjzpfaom ½kyef mrft,Ofudk ESv;Hk roGi;f rdawmhbJ xkrd jywfjzpfaewJh ½kyef mrft,OfrS ajymif;jyefqefYusifaom
oabmxJoYdk 0ifomG ;ovkyd if usa&mufomG ;\/ rjywfjzpfaewJ½h yk ef mrft,OfrS ajymif;jyefqefYusiaf om oabm[l
onfrmS rjywfjzpfaeaom ½kyef mrftm½kEH iS çhf rSwo f rd w
I Ydk \ csKyfNidr;f jcif; uif;qdwjf cif;yifwnf;/ usa&mufomG ;aom
pdw[ f o l nfrmS vJ a*gMwblpw d çf r*fpw
d çf zkv
d pf w
d çf yifwnf;/ þokYd usa&mufomG ;vQif xkyd *k Kd¾ vfonf edAmÁ efudk rsuf
arSmuf ûy&onfrnf\-[lvkd/

rsm;pGmaom okwyf gVdawmfwYdk ü r*fÓPfjzpfyu


Hk dk ]]"r®pu©KOH 'yg'd ,H udOdö ork',"r®?H oAÁEHÅ eda&m""r®E}dÅ }[k
a[mawmfr\
l / ('D 1-102-ponf)

ork',"r®?H jzpfjcif;oabm ½Sad om/ 0g? jzpfay:wwfaom ,HuOd ?dö tMuif trSwrf ½Sd wpkw H ckaom w&m;
onf/ tw¬d? ½Sd\/ wH oAÁ?H xkjd zpfay:orQ w&m;tvk;H pkoH nf/ eda&m""r®?H csKyfu,
G jf cif;oabm½S\
d / 0g? csKyfu,
G f
onfcsnf;yifwnf;/ £wd? þokYd ojd rifaom tjcif;t&mjzif/h "r®pu©K?H r*ftodtjrifwnf;[laom ÓPfrsufpo d nf/
O'yg'd? jzpfay:av\/

r*fjzpfqcJ Pü ]]jzpfjcif; oabm ½Sad om w&m; tvk;H pko H nf csKyfu, G jf cif; oabm½So d nf}}[lí ESv;Hk oGi;f
qifjcifro d nfum; r[kwaf y? trSet f m;jzifah omfum; jzpfjcif;oabm½Sad om ocFg&tvk;H pkw H Ydk \ csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwf
aom edAmÁ efudk rsufarSmuf od½rHk Qom jzpfayonf/ okYd aomfç r*fcPü? xko d Ydk ov
d suf jzpfjcif;aMumifh ypöa0u©Pm
cPqifjcifcu dk üf ]]tm½kEH iS çhf rSwo
f rd 0I yd óemçwnf;[laom jzpfay:wwfwhJ ocFg&tvk;H pkw H Ydk \ csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwf
&mokYd a&mufomG ;onf}}[lívJ odEidk \ f / ]]tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ e"mwfoYdk a&mufaom tcgü jzpfay:wwfwhJ ocFg&
tvk;H pkH csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwo f nf}} [lívJ odjrifoabmusEkid \ f ? xkYd jyifç ]]jzpfay:orQ ocFg& tvk;H pko H nf csKyfysuf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 106

uG,af ysmufonfcsnf;yif}}[lívJ odjrifEidk af y\/ xkYd aMumifyh ifç r*fzv


dk o
f Ydk a&mufNyD;aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf qifjcifNyD;
onfah emufü rSwNf rJqufírSwv
f sif tjzpftysufuo dk jd rifaom O',AÁ,ÓPfü wnfayonf/ atmufygrSm? xkyd gVd
\ tzGihf t|uxm aywnf;/

"r®pu©KEÅd {w¬ aomwmywård a*¾g t"dayÜawm/ wó OyÜwdå tmum&'óew¬H ]],H udOdö ork',"r®?H oAÁEHÅ
eda&m""r®}}EÅt
d m[? wO§d eda&m"H tm&r®PH uwGm udp0ö aoe {0H oAÁocFwH y#d0Zd ÑEÅH OyÜZw
Æ /d ('D | 1-248-
ponf)

"r®pu©KEÅ?d "r®pu©K-H [laom yk'jf zif/h {w¬? þtrÁ|okwüf ? aomwmywård a*¾g? aomwmywård *fu/dk t"dayÜ
awm? qkv d tdk yf\/ /(jA[®m,kow k üf atmufr*f ok;H yg;ukçd &m[kavm0g'okwüf r*fav;yg;vk;H ukd "r®pu©K[k
a[mao;\)/ / wó? xkdr*f\/ OyÜwt då mum&'óew¬?H jzpfyHk tjcif;t&mukd jyjcif;iSg/ ,H udOdö ork',"r®?H
oAÁEHÅ eda&m""r®E?dÅ [lí/ tm[? a[mawmfr\ l / / (r*fonf tocFww&m;uko d m tm½kûH y\? ocFwuku d m; tm½kH
rûy? okYd jzpfygvsuf ]],HuOd o dö rk',"r®H oAÁEHÅ eda&m""r®}H } [k odjrifvsuf? r*fjzpfaMumif;ukd tb,fah Mumifq h ydk g
oenf;[laom þtar;ukd wO§-d paom0gusjzifah jz\)/ / [d? OyÜwdå tmum&'óew¬-H [k qk&d jcif;\ taMumif;
um;/ wH? xkrd *fÓPfonf/ eda&m"H? ocFg& tvk;H pk\ H csKyfNidr;f uif;qdw&f m jzpfaom edAmÁ efu/dk tm&r®PH uwGm?
tm½kûH yí/ udp0ö aoe? rawGra0 odjcif;udpö NyD;onfh tvkt d m;jzif/h oAÁocFw?H tvk;H pkaH om ocFg& w&m;uk/d {0H?
,H udOdö ork',"r®?H oAÁEHÅ eda&m""r®-H [k odaom þtjcif;t&mjzif/h y#d0Zd ÑEÅ?H wJw h hJ xGi;f ayguf odrI NyD;ajrmuf
vsuf/ OyÜZw Æ ?d jzpfay\/

txl; owdjyKbG,f ... r*¾0x D d usyku H dk jyqkjd cif;rSm? t|uxmwkYd ü¤if;ç þusrf;ü¤if;ç A[ków k tvkYd igS omwnf;?
w0Dxt d wGi;f ü? tm½kw H al om pdwt f Budrrf sm;uk?d rnfa½GUrnfrQjzpfonf[k toD;toD; ykid ;f jcm;a&wGuí f ypöu©
tm;jzifh od&efum; rjzpfEidk af y/ xkYd aMumifçh r*¾0x D d jzpfpOfü rnfonfh aZmpdwu f rnfrQjzpfoenf; ponfjzifh
rpDppftyfNyD/ a½S;tzkYd u tEkavmrÓPfwidk af tmif 0dyóemÓPfrsm; tpOftwkid ;f jzpfay:vmcJyh u Hk ¤dk if;ç xl;jcm;
aom 0k|me*grdeD 0dyóem\ jzpfyu Hk ¤dk if;ç tEkvHk [kac:aom aemufq;Hk rSwo f rd \
I tjcm;rJüh edAmÁ eftm½ko H Ydk tvkvd dk
ul;ajymif; usa&mufomG ;yku H ¤dk if;ç xkYd aemif qifjcifrI ypöa0u©Pm jzpfay:vmyku H ¤dk if;ç xkYd aemif rSwNf rJ rSwv f suf
O',AÁ,ÓPf tqifüh wnfyu Hk ¤dk if;ç þtcsufrsm;uko d mvQif txl; tav;ûyí? ygVd t|uxmwkYd EiS hf nDonfç
rnDonfudk pOf;pm; EIid ;f csdef tyfayonf/

tEkavmrç a*gMwblç r*fç zkdvfÓPf NyD;\/

ypöa0u©PmOmPf

r*fÓPfç zkv d Ó
f Pfjzifh edAmÁ efudk rsuaf rSmuf awGUjrifNyD;aomyk*Kd¾ vfonf rdrd a&mufNyD;aom r*fç zkv
d çf edAmÁ ef
wkYd udk a½S;OD;pGmjyefí qifjcifr\
d / okw ½So d l jzpfvQifum; y,fNyD; uif;NyD;aom udavomç ry,f&ao; ruif;ao;
aom udavom wkYd uv dk J qufvufí pOf;pm; qifjcifrw d wfao;\/ þqifjcifrw I Ydk ü yg0ifaom todÓPfonf
ypöa0u©PmOmPf rnf\/ atmufygrSm tusOf;csKyf rSwo f m;&ef tbd"r®w¬ o*F[usrf; vm *gxmaywnf;/

r*¾H zvOö edAmÁ eH? ypöa0u©wd y@dawm/


[Dae udavao aoao p? ypöa0u©wd 0g e 0g/

y@dawm? edAmÁ efudk rsuaf rSmuf odNyD;aom ynm½So d nf/ r*¾O?ö a½S;tzkYd u rSwo f cd ahJ om 0dyóemr*fEiS hf
wuGç ocFg&csKyfNidr;f uif;qdw&f mokYd qku d af &mufomG ;aom t&d,mr*fw&m;uk¤d if;/ zvOö? r*f\tjcm;rJüh tvm;
wl qufíjzpfay:aom zkv d wf &m;uk¤d if;/ edAmÁ eOö? ocFg&tm;vk;H qdwo
f Ok ;f csKyfNidr;f &m Nidrof ufpmG aom edAmÁ efw&m;
uk¤d if;/ ypöa0u©w?d jyefí qifjcif\/ [Dae-y[Dae? y,ftyfuek Nf yD; uif;ukeNf yD;aom/ udavao p? udavomwkYd
uk¤d if;/ aoao p? <uif;usefao;aom udavomwkYd u¤dk if;/ ypöa0u©wd 0g? qifjcifro d nfvJ ½S\ d / e ypöa0u©wd
0g? rqifjcifro d nfvJ ½S\
d /

r*fudk qifjcifrçI zkv


d u
f dk qifjcifrçI edAmÁ efudk qifjcifrçI [laom þ ypöa0u©Pm 3-rsKd;onf {uefyif
jzpfay:NrJwnf;/ y,fNyD; udavomukd qifjcifrçI ry,f&ao;aom udavomukd qifjcifrçI [laom þ ypöa0u©Pm
2-rsKd;onfum; jzpfay:onfv½J \ dS / rjzpfay:onfvJ½Sd\? {uef jzpfNrJum; r[kw?f taeuefomwnf;/ rnfonfh
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 107

r*fu rnfonfh udavomwkYd udk y,fowfonf [k rSwo f m;bl;aom olrmS om jzpfwwfonf? rrSwo f m;bl;aom
olrmS um; rjzpfwwfbv
J J ½Sw
d wfonf [líqkv d \ dk / rsm;pGmaom t|uxmBuD;wkYd üvJ þtwkid ;f om jyqku d ek \
f /
tcsKdYaom ypöa0u©Pmrsm;rjzpfbJ ½Sw
d wfonfudk atmufyg rlvPÖmoplV'kuu © E© o
¨ w
k f ygVdt|uxmwkYd jzifh odtyf
\/

wó r,SH baEÅ {0H a[mwd? aumok emr ar "ar®m tZÑwåH tyÜ[aD em? a,e ar {u'g avmb"r®myd
pdwHå y&d,m'g, wd|EÅ?d a'go"r®myd pdwHå y&d,m'g, wd|EÅ?d arm["r®myd pdwHå y&d,m'g, wd|EÅw
D /d aom {0 acg
aw r[memr "ar®m tZÑwåH tyÜ[aD em/ (ygVd 126)

baEÅ? jrwfpmG bk&m;/ wó r,S?H avmb a'go arm[wkYd u pdwu f dk vTr;f rk;d vsuf½adS om xkt d uREkyf t
f m;/
{0H? þokYd ,krH mS ; awG;awmjcif;onf/ a[mwd? jzpfygonf t½Sib f &k m;/ udE?dÅ tb,foYdk jzpfygoenf;[lr/l a,e?
ry,f&ao;aom tMuif udavom w&m;aMumif/h {u'g? w&Hwcgü/ avmb"r®myd? avmb w&m;wkYd onfvnf;/
ar? ig\/ pdw?Hå Munfvifaom pdwu f /dk y&d,m'g,? ukef aysmufapvsuf/ wd|EÅ?d wnfuek \ f / a'go"r®myd-ay-
wd|EÅ?d a'gow&m;wkYd uvJ Munfvifaompdwu f dk ukeaf ysmufapvsuf wnfuek \ f / arm["r®myd-ay-wd|EÅ?d arm[
w&m;wkYd uvJ Munfvifaompdwu f dk ukeaf ysmufapvsuf wnfuek \ f / ar tZÑwå?H ig\ uk, d w f iG ;f oEÅmefü/ tyÜ[D
aem? ry,f&ao;aom/ aom"ar®m? xku d ad vom w&m;onf/ aum emr? tb,f w&m;ayenf;/ {0H a[mwd? þokYd
,krH mS ;awG;awmjcif; jzpfygonft½Sib f &k m;/ £wd? þokYd ar;jref;avQmufxm;\/ r[memr? r[memrfrif;/ aw
tZÑwå?H oif\ uk, d w
f iG ;f oEÅmefü/ tyÜ[aD em? ry,f&ao;aom w&m;onf/ aom {0 acg "ar®m? Munfvifaom
pdwu f dk ukeaf ysmufapaom xkad vmb a'go arm[ w&m;yifwnf;/ þokYd ponfjzifh jrwfpmG bk&m;u ajzMum;
a[mjyawmfr\ l /

ypöa0u©Pm 1-yg;xnf;vJ jzpfaMumif;

t,H ud& &mZm ou'g*grdra*¾e avmba'goarm[m ed&0aoom y[D,EÅd wd onD ta[mod? t,H
tyÜ[eD H artw¬w
D yd d Zmemwd? tyÜ[eD uH Oyg'g, y[DeuH yke ypäawm 0g0wåww D d onD a[mwd/ t&d,om0u
ó {0H oaE´a[m OyÜZw Æ w
D ?d tmr OyÜZwÆ ?d uo®m ... yPÖw,
då m t.aum0d'wåm/ t,H udavaom tokur*¾
0aZÑmwd £rdóm yPÖwdå ,m t.aum0d'ó [d t&d,om0uómyd {0H a[mwd/ uðwó ypöa0u©Pm ew¬w D ?d
tw¬?d om ye e oaAÁoH y&dyP k mÖ a[mwd? {aum [d y[Deudavoar0 ypöa0u©w?d {aum t0od|udavoar0?
{aum r*¾ar0? {aum zvar0? {aum edAmÁ ear0/ £rmok yOöok ypöa0u©Pmok {um 0g a'G 0g aem v'¨KH e
0¥EÅ/d (t|uxm 1-366)

t,H &mZm? ou'g*grfjzpfaom þr[memrfrif;onf/ ou'g*grdra*¾e? avmba'goarm[m eD&0ao


om y[D,EÅw D d onD? avmb a'go arm[wkYd udk ou'g*grdr*fu t<uif;rJh y,ftyfuek \ f [k trSwf½Sdonf/
ta[mod ud&? jzpfowwf/ t,H? þrif;onf/ tyÜ[eD H ar tw¬w D yd ?d ighrmS ry,f&ao;aom udavom ½Sad o;
onf[í l vJ/ Zmemwd? od\/ tyÜ[eD uH Oyg'g,? ry,f&ao;onfudk pGrJ í DS / y[DeuH? y,ftyfNyD;aom udavom
onf/ yke ypäawm 0g0wåww D d onD? wzef aemufumvü vnfíjzpfonf=jyefjzpfonf[k trSw½f o dS nf/ a[mwd?
jzpf\/ t&d,om0uó? t&d,mom0utm;/ {0HoaE´a[m? þokYd aom ,krH mS ;jcif;onf/ OyÜZw Æ wD ?d jzpfwwfyg
ao;oavm[lr/l tmr OyÜZw Æ ?d jzpfwwfonf rSeaf y\/ uo®m? tb,fah Mumifh jzpfygoenf;[lr/l yPÖw, då m
t.aum0d'wåm? a'oem ynwfü ruRr;f usif em;rvnfjcif;aMumifah ywnf;/[d? csJUí jyOD;tH/h t,H udavaom
tokur*¾0aZÑmwd £rdómyPÖw, då m t.aum0d'ó? þudavomukd þrnfaom r*fuowftyfonf[al om
þa'oemynwfü em;rvnfaom/ t&d,om0uómyd? t&d,m om0utm;aomfv/J {0H? þokYd aom ,krH mS ;onf/
a[mwd? jzpfwwf\/ wó? xkt d &d,mom0utm;/ ypöa0u©Pm? qifjcifrI ypöa0u©Pmonf/ ew¬d udE?dÅ r½Sd
oavm[lrl/ tw¬d? ½Sday\/ ye? okYd aomfv/J om? xkyd pöa0u©Pmonf/ oaAÁo?H tvk;H pkaH om t&d,mwkYd tm;/
y&dyP k mÖ e a[mwd? jynfph o Hk nfcsnf; r[kwaf y/ [d? rjynfph yHk u Hk dk jytH/h {aum? wOD;aom t&d,monf/ y[De
udavoar0? y,ftyfNyD; udavomuko d mvQi/f ypöa0u©w?d qifjcif\/ / (þü {0-o'´gjzifh <uif;aom av;Xme
ukd rqifjcif[jk y\/ aemuftyk'd w f Ydk üvJ enf;wlyifwnf;)/ / {aum? wOD;aom t&d,monf/ t0od|udavo
ar0? <uif;aomudavomuko d mvQif qifjcif\/ {aum? wOD;aomt&d,monf/ r*¾ar0? r*fuo dk mvQif qifjcif\/
{aum? wOD;aom t&d,monf/ zvar0? zkv d u f o
dk mvQif qifjcif\/ {aum? wOD;aom t&d,monf/ edAmÁ ear0?
edAmÁ efuo dk mvQif qifjcif\/ £rmok yOöok ypöa0u©Pmok? þig;yg;aom ypöa0u©PmwkYd wiG /f {um 0g? wyg;
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 108

jzpfap/ a'G 0g? ESpyf g;wkYd jzpfap/ (0¥EÅ-d \uwåm;wkYd aywnf;)/ aem v'¨KH e 0¥EÅ?d r&jcif;iSg rjzpfuek ?f &jcif;iSg
omvQif jzpfuek \
f / / (ypöa0u©Pm wyg; jzpfapç ESpyf g; jzpfapç {uef rkcs jzpf&rnf[k qkv d \ dk )/

wyg;aom t|uxmwkYd ü ]]r*fç zkv d çf edAmÁ efwYdk udk {uefqifjcifonf/ y,fNyD;ry,fao;aom udavom
wkYd uu
dk m; taeuefomqifjcifonf}}[lí wnDxnf;omvQifred Yf qu dk ek \
f / þyPÖmot|uxmüum; ypöa0u©Pm
wyg;xnf;om jzpfjcif;ukv d J jyqk\
d / xkYd aMumifçh wyg;aom t|uxmwkYd rS xl;jcm;\/ okYd aomfvçJ ypöa0u©Pm
wyg;xnf;om jzpfaom t&d,m½So d nfç r½So d nfudk rSeu f efpmG qk;H jzwfjcif;onf omref yk*Kd¾ vf\t&m r[kwaf y/
womoemvk;H ½Sd t&d,m [lorQ\ pdwf jzpfyu Hk dk tuket f pif odjrifEidk af om yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk \ t&momvQif
jzpfayonf/ okYd jzpfíç þyPÖmot|uxm pum;ukv d J ½kad opGm rSwo f m;tyfonf omwnf;/

y,ftyfaom udavom

þt&mü? yPÖwadå um0d'jzpfjcif;tusKd;iSg r*fav;yg;wkYd u xku d o


f nftm;avsmfpmG y,ftyf Nidr;f aptyfaom
udavomwkYd udk odom½krH Q tusOf;tm;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;í jyOD;tH/h

oHa,mZaeok wm0 ouúm,'d|d 0dpu d pd mä oDvAÁwy&mrmaom tyg,*reD,m p umr&m*y#dCmwd


{aw yOö "r®myXrÓP0ZÑm? aoom umr&m*y#dCm MoVm&dum 'kw, d ÓP0ZÑm? okcrk m wwd,ÓP0ZÑm?
½ly&m*g'a,m yOöyd pwkwÓ
¬ P0ZÑm {0/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-325)

oHa,mZOf 10-yg;xJu ouúm,'d|çd 0dpu d pd mä ç oDvAÁw y&mrmoç tyg,foYdk vm;apEkid af om umr&m*


ESihf y#dC[laom þoHa,mZOfig;yg;ukd yXrr*fuy,f\/ tyg,fokdY rvm;apEkid af om umr&m*ESiçhf y#dCwkYd wiG f
um; ½keYf &if; Murf;wef;aom umr&m*ESihf y#dCwkYd udk 'kw,
d r*fu y,f\/ odraf rGUaom umr&m*ESiçhf y#dCwkYd udk
wwd,r*fu y,f\/ ½ly&m*ç t½ly&m*ç rmeç O'¨pçö t0dZÆm [laom þ oHa,mZOf ig;yg;wkdYukd t&[wår*fu
omvQif y,f\/

rSmxm;csuf ... ygVdü {0-o'´gç jrefrmü omvQif o'´gwkYd jzifh ruefYowfrí


l txufr*fu y,fonf[q k &dk mü ]]xkd
udavom\ tyg,*reD,tzkYd udk yXrr*fuy,fonf? tyg,*reD, r[kwo f nfh Murf;wef;aomtzkYd udk 'kw, d r*f
u y,fonf? odraf rGUaom tzkYd udk wwd,r*fu y,fonf/ þokYd y,foifah om tzkYd udk atmufatmuf r*frsm;uvJ
y,fNyD;om jzpfonf}}[k odygav/

udavaook 'd|0d pd u
d pd mä yXrÓP0ZÑm? a'gaom wwd,ÓP0aZÑm? avmb arm[ rmexde O'¨pö
t[d&u
D taemwåygÜ ed pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑmed/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-325)

udavom 10-yg;xJu 'd|dESifhç 0dpdudpämukd yXrr*fu y,f\/ a'goukd wwd,r*fu y,f\/ avmb?
arm[? rme? xde? O'¨p?ö t[d&u
D ? taemwåyw
Ü Ydkudk t&[wår*fu y,f\/

(þü {0-o'´gç omvQifç o'´gwkYd jzifh ruefYowfaomaMumifçh a'go\ tyg,*reD,tzkYd ½keYf &if;aom
tzkYd wYdk u?dk yXrç 'kw,
d r*fwYdk u y,fonf? avmbç arm[ paom udavom ckepfyg;wkYd \ tyg,*reD,tzkYd ?
½keYf &if;aomtzkYd ? umrESihf qkid af om odraf rGUaomtzkYd wYdk udk atmufr*f 3-yg;wkYd u y,fonf [k odtyf\/ aemuf
tyk'd wf Ydk üvJ enf;wlyif odygav)/

rdpaä wåok rdpmä 'd|d rkom0ga'g rdpmä ur®aEÅm rdpmä tmZDa0gwd £ar yXrÓP0ZÑm/ rdpmä ouFayÜg ydoP
k 0gpm
z½ko0gpmwd £ar wwd,ÓP0ZÑm/ apwema,0 apw¬ 0gpmwd a0'dwAÁm/ oræyvmy rdpmä 0g,mr owd
orm"d 0drw
k då ÓPmed pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑmed/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-325)

rdpaä wåo?k rdpmä 'd|çd rdpmä ouFyçÜ rdpmä 0gpmç rdpmä ur®EçÅ rdpmä tmZD0ç rdpmä 0g,mrç rdpmä owdç rdpmä orm"dç
rdpmä ÓPfç rdpmä 0drw k çdå [laom rdpw ä wå &m; 10-yg;wkYd wiG /f rdpmä 'd|d rkom0ga'g rdpmä ur®aEÅm rdpmä tmZDa0g-wd £ar?
rdpmä 'd|çd rdpmä 0gpmxJu rkom0g'ç rdpmä ur®EçÅ rdpmä tmZD0ç [laom þw&m;wkYd u/dk yXrÓP0ZÑm? yXrr*fÓPfu
owftyfuek \ f / rdpämouFayÜg ydoP k 0gpm z½ko0gpm-wd £ar? rdpmä ouFyçÜ rdpmä 0gpmxJu ydoP k 0gpmç z½ko
0gpmç [laomþw&m;wkYd u/dk wwd,ÓPyZÑm? wwd,r*fÓPfu owftyfuek \ f / p? a½S;pum;ü xifrmS ;bG,u f dk
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 109

y,fvu
dk Of ;D tH/h {w¬? þrdpmä 0gpmç ydoP
k 0gpmç z½ko0gpmç [l&mü/ apwema,0? tusKd;rJh jzpfatmif ajymvkad om
apwemuko d mvQif/ 0gpmwd? pum; [lí/ a0'dwAÁm? odtyf\/

(ajymqkad om pum;oHonf yifvQif rkcstm;jzifh 0gpm rnf\? okYd aomfvçJ xkpd um;oH ½kyf 0gpmonfum;
r*fu y,ftyfaom y[mwAÁ w&m;r[kwaf y? xkpd um;oHudk jzpfapaom tukov dk f apwemonfomvQif y[mwAÁ
w&m; [kwaf yonf/ okYd jzpfíç þt&mü þ tukov dk f apwemukd omvQif rdpmä 0gpmç ydoP k 0gpmç z½ko0gpmç [k
qko
d nf? þapwemuko d mvQif r*fuy,fonf? oufoufaom pum;oHuu dk m;? rdpmä 0gpmç ydoP k 0gopmç z½ko
0gpmç [krqkv d ?dk ¤if;pum;oH oufoufudk r*fuvJ y,fonf r[kw[ f k qkvd \dk / okYd aomfvçJ apwemr½Sv d Qif xkd
apwemESiqhf idk af om ajymqkrd v I J trsm;tm;jzifh uif;Nidr;f wwfay\/ t½Siyf vd Ed 0´ pärax&fuo hJ Ydk aom tcsKdYy*k Kd¾ vf
tenf;i,frmS omvQif tukov dk f pdwf apwem rygbJ 0goem tavsmuf ajymqkrd I jzpfwwfayonf)/

oræyvmy rdpmä 0g,mr owd orm"d 0drw k då ÓPmed? rdpmä 0gpmxJu oyæyvmyç rdpmä 0g,mrç rdpmä owdç
rdpmä orm"dç rdpmä 0drw
k çdå rdpmä ÓPfwYdk u/dk pwkwÓ
¬ P0ZÑmed? t&[wår*fÓPfu owftyfuek \ f /

þ rdpäwå (10)yg;wkdYwGif? 0pD'kp½ö kduf 4-yg; tukov dk f apwemonf rdpmä 0gpmrnf\/ um,'kp½ö kduf 3-yg;
tukov dk af pwemonf rdpmä ur®EÅ rnf\/ toufarG;rIEiS hf qkid af om um,ç 0pDç 'kp½ö u dk f (7) yg; tukov dk f
apwemonf rdpmä tmZD0rnf\/ om;r,m;ukd owd&jcif;ç aysmfyg; cHpm;cJb h ;l onfudk owd&jcif;ç &efjzpfcb
hJ ;l onf
ukdowd&jcif;ç ponfjzifh avmuD tm½kH 0w¬K trI udprö sm;ukd wzefowd& atmufarhaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpf
aom tukov dk f pdwKå yÜg'fonf rdpmä owdrnf\/ raumif;rIt&mwkYd ü NyD;pD;aMumif; enf;vrf;ukd BuHonf\tpGr;f jzifh
raumif;rIudk ûyvkyNf yD;vQif xkûd yyku H ydk if aumif;aypG[k jyefvnfqifjcifvsuf jzpfaomarm[onf rdpmä ÓPfrnf\/
udavomrS rvGwaf o;ygbJvsu?f vGwNf yD [k xifjcif;onf¤if;ç udavomrS rvGwaf om w&m;ukyd if? vGwaf om
w&m;xl;[k xifjcif;onf¤if;ç rdpmä 0drw k rdå nf\/ w&m;uk,d t f m;jzifh avmbrl pdwKå yÜg'fyifwnf;/ tyg,*reD,
jzpfaom þrdpmä 0drw k u då dk yXrr*fuy,f\/ tyg,*reD, r[kwaf om MoVm&duç okcrk ç umr&m* qkid &f m rdpmä 0d
rkww då Ydk u?dk 'kw, d ç wwd,ç r*fwYdk u y,fuek \ f / b0&m* qkid &f m rdpmä 0drwk u då dk t&[wår*fu y,f\/ <uif;aom
rdpw
ä w å Ydk \ w&m;uk, d rf sm;rSm xif½mS ;uke\f /

avmu"ar®ok y#daCm wwd,ÓP0aZÑm/ tEkea,m pwkwÓ


¬ P0aZÑm? ,ao p yoHom, p
tEkea,m wwd,ÓP0aZÑmwd {au/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-325)

avmu"H ½Spyf g;xJu? vmbfr&jcif;ç ta>ct&H eJyg; ysufp;D jcif;ç qif;&Jjcif;ç tuJ&h UJ cH&jcif;ç wkYd aMumifh
jzpfwwfaom a'goukd tem*grdr*fuy,f\/ vmbf&jcif;ç ta>ct&Hrsm;jcif;ç uk, d pf w d cf srf;omjcif;ç csD;rGr;f cH&jcif;ç
wkYd aMumifh jzpfwwfaom om,mrIavmbukd t&[wår*fuy,f\/ {au0g' t&tm;jzif?h ta>ct&Hrsm;jcif;ç csD;rGr;f
cH&jcif;ç wkYd ü om,mrI avmbukd wwd,r*fu y,fonf[k rSw&f m\/ pmtkyw f Ydk üum; þ {au0g't&mrSmvJ
pwkw¬ÓP0aZÑm [líyif ½Sd\/ xkyd gXf t&tm;jzifh orme0g'rS xl;jcm;aomteufudk r&Ekid /f xkYd aMumifçh þt&mü
wwd,ÓP0aZÑm-ukd omvQif rlv&if; ygXfreS [ f k rSw&f m\/

ausmif;wku
d f y&0kPf ausmif;aqmif ausmif;cef; paom rdrd aexkid &f mt&yfü wyg;aomyk*Kd¾ vf vma&muf
aexkid rf nfudk onf;rcHEidk jf cif;ç rvkv
d m;jcif;ç vma&muf aexkid q f J yk*Kd¾ vfuv dk J wjcm;okYd oGm;apvkjd cif;ç rsm;onf
tm0go rpä&, d rnf\/ okYd aomfç &efjzpfwwfot l p½Sad om qk;d oGr;f aomyk*Kd¾ vf\ vma&mufaexkid jf cif;ukd rvkv d m;
jcif;onfum; rpä&, d r[kwaf y/

(b@eum&um'DeH ye ww¬ 0goH tedpaä wm tm0gorpä&,


d H emr e a[mwd-t|omvdeD/)

tvkyt f auR; 'g,umç 'g,dumrç aqGrsKd;paom cifrif&if;ES;D aom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;xHoYdk wyg;aomyk*Kd¾ vf
csO;f uyf0ifa&mufonfudk onf;rcHEidk jf cif;ç rvkv d m;jcif;onf ukvrpä&, d rnf\/ okYd aomfç ,kwrf mqk;d oGr;f aom
yk*Kd¾ vf\ csO;f uyf 0ifa&mufjcif;ukd rvkv d m;jcif;onfum; rpä&, d r[kwaf y/ (ygyyk*v ¾ ó ye OyouFreH
tedpaä EÅmydrpä&eD mr e a[mwd-¤if;yif)/ / ypön;f rsm;ukd rdro d m &vkí d olwyg;tm; r&apvkjd cif;onf vmb
rpä&, d rnf\/ okYd aomfç o'¨ga',s 0deyd gwe ponfjzifh ypön;f wkYd udk tusKd;rJh ysufp;D apaom yk*Kd¾ vftm;¤if;ç
ypön;f aygrsm; jynfph v
Hk Qif? olwyg;ukd vTr;f rd;k ESyd pf ufjcif; ponfjzifh rawmfroifûh yrnfh yk*Kd¾ vftm;¤if;ç r&apvkjd cif;
onfum; rpä&, d r[kwaf y/ xkYd jyifç rdrrd mS toif&h ½SNd yD;aom ypön;f ukd ay;vªoifah om oDv0EÅ oDwif;ok;H abmfwYdk
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 110

tm; ray; rvªEidk jf cif;onfvnf; þvmbrpä&, d yifwnf;/ okYd aomfç tvGef cifrif jrwfE;dk tyfaom 0w¬Kukd ray;
rvªEidk jf cif;rSm rpä&, d aMumifh r[kwb f çJ avmbaMumifv h J jzpfEidk af o;\/ ]]rdryd pön;f ukd olwyg; ykid q f idk f ok;H pGrJ nfü
onf;rcHEidk jf cif;onf rpä&, d \vu©Pmaywnf;/ rdryd pön;f ukd rpGeYf vw T Ef idk af tmif cifrif wG,w f mjcif;onfum;
avmb\ vu©Pmaywnf;}}/ þtxl;ukdvJ odtyf\/ xkYd jyifç rvTrJ a½Smifomatmif wu,ftok;H usaeaom 0w¬K
jzpfí rpGeYf Eidk jf cif;rSm y#docFgÓPfaMumifv h J jzpfEidk af o;\? tcPf; (4) oHa,mZOfudk odyt Hk &mü jyefí Munfyh g
avOD;/ /olwyg;\ tqif;vSyjcif;ç tusifah umif;jcif;ç paom*kPu f dk rajymapvkjd cif;ç rMum;remvkjd cif;onf¤if;ç
rdrrd mS ½Sad om *kPrf sm;ESihf olwyg;tm; rjynfph aHk pvkjd cif;onf¤if;ç 0PÖrpä&, d rnf\/ okYd aomfç r[kwrf rSeaf om
*kPjf zifh cs;D rGr;f pum;ukd rajymapvkjd cif;ç rMum; remvkjd cif;onfum; rpä&, d r[kwaf y/ /rdrw d wfoad om w&m;
usrf;*efudk olwyg;tm; rwwf rodapvkjd cif;onf "r®rpä&, d rnf\/ okYd aomfç pdwo f abmxm; rajzmifrh wfaom
oltm; rwwf rodapvkjd cif;onfum; rpä&, d r[kwaf y/ þ ig;yg;aom rpä&, d wkYd udk aomwmywård *fu y,f\/
rpä&, d med yXrÓPmZÑmed-(0do'k rd¨ *f 2-325)

0dyv’maook tedapö edpEö dÅ tewåed twåmwd p onm pdw'å |d d 0dyv’momç 'kau© okcEÅd tokab okbEÅd
'd|d 0dyv’maom pmç wd £ar yXrÓP0ZÑm/ tokab okbEÅd onmpdw0å yd v’m om wwd, ÓP0ZÑm/
'kau©ock EÅd onm pdw0å yd v’mom pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑm/ (0do'k rd¨ *f 2-326)

0dyv’mo 12-yg;xJu rNrJwhJ ½kyef mrfü? NrJonf [k trSwrf mS ;ç todrmS ;ç t,lrmS ; 3-yg;ç igaumif r[kwf
wJh ½kyfemrfü? igaumif [k trSwfrSm;ç todrSm;ç t,lrSm; 3-yg;? qif;&JwhJ ½kyef mrfü? csrf;om [k t,lrmS ;rI 1-yg;?
rwifw h ,fwhJ ½kyw f &m;ü? wifw
h ,fonf [k t,lrSm;rI 1-yg;? þ0dyv’mo½Spyf g;ukd yXrr*fu y,f\/ rwifw h ,f
wJh ½kyw f &m;ü? wifw h ,fonf[k trSwrf mS ;ç todrmS ;ç [laom þ0dyv’mo ESpyf g;ukd wwd,r*fuy,f\/ qif;&J
wJh ½kyef mrfü? csrf;om[k trSwrf mS ;ç todrmS ;ç [laom þ 0dyv’mo ESpyf g;ukd t&[wår*fu y,f\/

aomwmyef ou'g*grfwYdk rmS rdr\ d uk,


d cf E¨mç olwyg;\ uk, d cf E¨mwkYd ü ]]wifw
h ,fonf? csrf;om aumif;
pm;onf}}[k xifrw S rf mS ;rI onm0dyv’moESiçhf odrmS ;rI pdw0å yd v’mowkYd ruif;Muao;? xkYd aMumifçh umr*kPf tm½kH
0w¬Krsm;ESihf cHpm;arGUavsmf ½Tiaf ysmfEidk Mf uavonf/ okYd aomfvçJ ]]wu,fyif wifw h ,fonf? wu,fyif csrf;omonf}}
[lí NrJNrHpmG pGvJ rf;,lqrSm;aom 'd|0d yd v’mo w&m;onfum; r½Sad wmhNyD? xkYd aMumifçh pOf;pm; qifjcifMunfah om
tcgü? ]]wifw h ,f csrf;omonf}}[k ac:avmufaom t&mukd rawGUjrif&bJ ½Sad yonf/ tem*grfrmS vJ ]]csrf;om
aumif;pm;onf}}[k xifrw S rf mS ;rI onm 0dyv’moç odrmS ;rI pdw0å yd v’moç wkYd ruif;Muao;? xkYd aMumifçh rdr\
d
uk,
d cf E¨mü cifrif wG,w f mvsuf ½lyb0ç t½lyb0wkYd ü aysmfarGUEkid Mf uavonf/

w&m; pD&if qk;H jzwfjcif;ç ypön;f a0befjcif;ç cs;D rGr;f uJ&h UJ jcif; qk;H rjcif;ç cs;D ajr§mufjcif;ç ponfwYdkuûdk yaom
tcgü cspfoUl bufoYdk vku d í
f rw&m; ûyjcif;onf qE´m*wd rnf\/ rke;f olY bufudk ESyd í f rw&m; ûyjcif;onf
a'gom*wd rnf\/ rodem;rvnfojzifh rSm;,Gi;f í rw&m; ûyjcif;onf arm[m*wd rnf\/ aMumufoYl bufoYdk
vku
d í
f rw&m;ûyjcif;onf b,m*wdrnf\/ þt*wd 4-yg;ukd aomwmywård *fuy,f\/ (t*wd yXrÓP
0ZÑm0-0do'k rd¨ *f)/

umro0ESihf b0go0wkYd udk okweå ef nf;t&tm;jzifh þokYd yidk ;f jcm; rSwo


f m;&m\/ ig;yg;aom umr*kPf
tm½k0H w¬KwkYd ü vkcd siw
f yfruf ESpo
f ufom,mrI avmbonf umrmo0rnf\/ ½lyb0ç t½lyb0ç ½lypsmefç t½ly
psmefwYdk ü ESpof uf om,mrI avmbonf¤if;ç oów'd|Ed iS hf wuG jzpfaom avmbonf¤if;ç vl ewf e*g; *VKef
tjzpf? rde;f r a,musmf ; tjzpfpaom umrb0ü awmifw h om,mrI avmbonf¤if;ç b0go0 rnf\/ þum;
okweå ef nf; t&tm;jzifh ykid ;f jcm;ykw H nf;/ tbd"r®menf;t&tm;jzifrh u l m; ]]b0goa0g pwlok 'd|*d w0dy,Ü w
k å
avmbo[*wpdwKå yÜga'ok OyÜZw Æ }d }[laom "r®o*FPD ygVdç ]]½lyg ½lyocFgaw ur®awm Oyywåad wm p 'k0ad "
ba0 tmoa0g b0goa0g}} [laom t|omvdeDwkdYESifh tnD ½lyb0ç t½lyb0ç ½lypsmefç t½lypsmefwkdYü ESpfouf
om,mvsujf zpfaom 'd|0d yd , Ü wk af vmbonfomvQif b0go0rnf\/ tem*grf\ oEÅmefüaomfv½J í dS ? t&[wå
r*fjzifh y,ftyfaom b0&m*yifwnf;/

]]umrmoa0g t|ok avmbo[*wpdwKå yÜga'okOyÜZw


Æ }d }[laom "r®o*FPyD gVdç ]]yOöumr*kPu
d &ma*gwd
Ouú|0aoe 0kwHå b0go0H xaywGm oaAÁm avmabm umrmoa0gwd ,kwHå od,m}}[laom rlv#Dumç ]]ww¬
umrb0yw¬em, wm0 umrmo0bma0g a[mwk? ½lyg½lyba0ok oówmbd eda0o o[*w&m*ó uxEÅ¿ d
aomyd ,xm 0kw0å o
d a, umre0aoe y0wåad wm umrmoa0ga,0 emr? oaAÁyd [dawblrum "r®m ureD,a|
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 111

e umrmwd/ e apw¬ ted|yÜoa*Fg? 'd|0d yd ,


Ü w
k aå vmbó b0go0bma0e 0doHk O'¨#wåm/ t0óaOöwar0H
0dnmwAÁ?H £w&xm ½lyg-½lyba0ok Oapä' 'd|o d [*wómyd avmbó b0go0bma0g tmyaZÆ,smwd}}
[laom tEk#uD mwkYd EiS t
hf nDç

xkbd 0go0rS <uif;aom avmb[lorQonf umrmo0csn;f omwnf;/ 'd|o d nf 'd|mo0rnf\/ arm[


onf t0dZmÆ o0rnf\/ þ tmoa0gw&m;av;yg;wkYd wiG f 'd|mo0ukd yXrr*fu y,f\? umrmo0ukd wwd,r*f
uy,f\? b0go0ç t0dZmÆ o0wkYd udk t&[wår*fu y,f\/

tmoa0ok 'd|moa0g yXrÓP0aZÑm? umrmoa0g wwd,ÓP0aZÑm? £wa& a'G pwkwÓ


¬ P0ZÑm/
(0do'k rd¨ *f 2-326)

eD0&P ig;yg;xJu 0dpu d pd mä ukd yXrr*fu y,f\? okweå ef nf;t& jzpfaom Ouú| umrpäEE´ iS çhf Asmyg'ç
ukuKú pöwYdk udk wwd,r*fu y,f\? xdeç rd'ç¨ O'¨pw ö Ydk udk t&[wår*fu y,f\/ tbd"r®müum; ½ly&m*ç t½ly&m*
wkYd uv
dk J umrpäE[´ k a[mawmfr\
l / tbd"r®menf;t& xku d mrpäEu
´ u
dk m; t&[wår*fu t<uif;rJyh ,f\/

eD0&aPok 0dpud pd mä eD0&PH yXrÓP0ZÑH? umrpäaE´m Asmyga'g ukuKú pöEdÅ wDPd wwd,ÓP0ZÑmed? xde-
rd'-¨ O'¨pmö ed pwkwÓ
¬ P0ZÑmed/ (0do'k rd¨ *f)

umrpäEó ´ tem*grdra*¾e y[meH Ouú|eD0&P0aoe 0kwEå dÅ a0'dwAÁ?H ay? wo®m oaAÁm avmabm
umrpäEe´ 0D &PEÅd t&[wåra*¾eó y[me0peH ,kw/Hå (rlv#Dum)-

Oyg'gaeok oaAÁorÜd avmud,"r®meH 0w¬Kumr0aoe umrmwd tm*wwåm ½lyg½ly&ma*gyd umrkyg'gae


ywwd? wo®m wH pwkwÓ
¬ P0ZÑH/ aoomed yXrÓP0ZÑmed/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-326)

0w¬Kumr rnfaom avmuDw&m; [lorQü wyfruf om,maom avmbonf umrkyg'gef rnf\? ¤if;ukd
t&[wår*fu y,f\/ EGm;ç acG; ponfwYdk \ tavhtusifu h dk usifjh cif;jzifh oHo&mrS vGwaf jrmuf pifMu,fí tpOf
xm0& aumif;pm;csr;f omonf[k ,lqaom 'd|o d nf oDvAÁwyk g'gef rnf\/ t&d,mr*¾if ½Spfyg;ESifh uif;í
avmuDov D ç tusirhf Qjzifh oHo&mrS vGwaf jrmuf pifMu,fonf[k ,ljcif;onfvnf; þoDvAÁwyk g'gefü 0if\/
ouúm,'d|d (20)[laom twå'|d o d nf twå0g'kyg'gefrnf\/ <uif;aom rdpmä 'd|d [lorQonf 'd|Kyg'gef rnf\/
þ 'd|dOyg'gef 3-rsK;d ukd yXrr*fu y,f\/

tEkoa,ok 'd|0d pd u
d pd mä Eko,m yXrÓP0ZÑm0? umr&m*y#dCmEko,m wwd,ÓP0ZÑm? rmeb0&m*g
0dZmÆ Eko,m pwkwÓ
¬ P0ZÑm/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-326)

tEko, ckepfyg;xJu 'd|t d Eko,ç 0dpud pd mä tEko,ç wkYd udk y|rr*fu y,f\/ umr&m*tEko,ç y#dC
tEko,ç wkYd udk wwd,r*fuy,f\/ rmetEko,ç b0&m*tEko,ç t0dZmÆ tEko,ç wkYd udk t&[wår*fu y,f
\/ þtEko,wkYd Nidr;f onfç rNidr;f onfuu
dk m; y&d,|k mef rjzpfay:jcif;ç jzpfay:jcif;wkYd jzifh odtyf\/

tukovur®yaxok ygPmwdygawm t'dEmé 'geH rdpmä pma&m rkom0ga'g rdpmä 'd|w


D d £ar yXrÓP0ZÑm/
ydoP
k 0gpm z½ko0gpm Asmyga'gwd wa,m wwd,ÓP0ZÑm/ oyæyv Ü myg.bdZÑm pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑm/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-
326)

tukovur®yaxok? tukovur®yx 10-yg;wkYd wiG /f ygPmwdygawm? owå0gukd owfjcif;/ t.'dEmé


'geH? t½Siu f ray;tyfaom Opömukd ck;d ,ljcif;/ rdpmä pma&m? rykid rf qkid af om arxkeu
f mrwkYd ü rSm;,Gi;f usL;vGejf cif;/
rkom0ga'g? vdrv f nfí ajymqkjd cif; (olwyg;\ tusKd;ysufrS ur®yx ajrmufonf[\ l )/ rdpmä 'd|?d uHEiS hf uH\
tusKd; r½S[ d k rSm;,Gi;f pGm ,lqjcif;/ £wd? [luek af om/ £ar? þ ur®yx ig;yg;wkYd onf/ yXrÓP0ZÑm?
aomwmywård *fÓPfu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd aywnf;/ ydoP k 0gpm? cspfMunfaeol 2-OD;ukd uGjJ ym;atmif
*k;H wku
d f ajymqkjd cif; (xko d l 2-OD;wkYd uGjJ ym;rS ur®yxajrmufonf [l\)/ z½ko0gpm? em;rcHomaom qJa&; usdeq f dk
pum;wkYd uq dk jdk cif;/ Asmyga'g? olwyg;ukd aoysufapvkjd cif;/ £wd? [luek af om/ wa,m? ok;H yg;aom ur®yxwkYd
onf/ wwd,ÓP0ZÑm? tem*grdr*fu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd aywnf;/ oyæyv Ü myg.bdZÑm? xk;d Zmwf 0w¬Kpaom
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 112

tESprf phJ um;ukd ajymjcif;[laom oyæyv


Ü myESiçhf olUOpömukd &vko
d rI uk,
d yf idk ûf yí a½S;½IBuHpnfjcif; [laom tbdZÑm
wkYd onf/ pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑm? t&[wår*fÓPfu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd aywnf;/ (oræyv Ü myrSm olwyg;u ,krH S
omvQif ur®yx ajrmufonf [l\/)

þt&mü wwd,ç pwkwç¬ ÓP0ZÑç ur®yxwkYd u?dk {0o'´gjzifh ruefYowfaomaMumifh tyg,*reD,


jzpfaom ydoPk 0gpmç z½ko0gpmç Asmyg'ç oræyv
Ü myç tbdZÑmç wkYd udk yXrr*fu y,fonf/ tyg,*reD, r[kwf
aom ¤if; 5-yg;wkYd udk MoVm&du umr&m*ç Asmyg'ç wkYd \ qkid &f mü 'kw, d r*fu y,fonf/ okcrk umr&m*ç
Asmyg'ç wkdY\ qkid &f mü wwd,r*fu y,fonf/ b0&m*qkid &f m oræyv Ü myç tbdZÑmç wkYd udk t&[wår*fu
y,fonf[í l ykid ;f jcm; rSwo
f m;&m\/

tukovpdwKå yÜga'ok pwåma&m 'd|od rÜ,w


k må ç 0dpu
d pd mä orÜ,ak wåmpmwd yOö yXrÓP0ZÑm0? a'G y#dC
orÜ,w
k må wwd,ÓP0ZÑm? aoom pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑm/ (0do'k rd̈ *f 2-326)

tukovpdwKå yÜga'ok? tukov dk f pdwKå yÜg'f 12-ckwYdk wiG /f pwåma&m 'd|o


d rÜ,w k må ? 'd|o
d rÜ,w
k f pdwKå yÜg'f
av;ckwYdk ¤if;/ 0dpud pd mä orÜ,ak wåm p? 0dpu d pd mä orÜ,wk f pdwKå yÜg'f wck¤if;/ £wd? þokYd tm;jzif/h yOö? ig;ckaom
tukov dk f pdwKå yÜg'fwYdk onf/ yXrÓP0ZÑm {0? yXrr*fÓPfu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd omwnf;/ a'G y#dC
orÜ,wk må ? y#dCorÜ,w k f pdwKå yÜg'f ESpcf w k Ydk onf/ wwd,ÓP0ZÑm? wwd,r*fÓPfu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd ay
wnf;/ aoom? <uif;ukeaf om 'd|0d yd , Ü wk f pdwKå yÜg'fav;ckEiS hf O'¨po
ö [*kwf pdwKå yÜg'fwYdk onf/ pwkwÓ ¬ P0ZÑm?
pwkwr¬ *fÓPfu owftyfaom w&m;wkYd aywnf;/

þüvJ wwd,ç pwkwç¬ ÓP0ZÑ pdwKå yÜg'fwYdk udk {0o'´gjzifh ruefYowfaomaMumifh ]]tyg,*reD,jzpf
aom 'd|0d yd , Ü wk f 4-ckç a'gorl 2-ckç tm;jzifh þ 6-yg;aom tukov dk f pdwKå yÜg'fwYdk udk yXrr*fu y,fonf/
tyg,*reD, r[kw&f mü MoVm&du umr&m*ç y#dCç wkYd EiS , hf OS af om xkpd w d Kå yÜg'f 6-yg;uk¤d if;? xkMd oVm&du umr
&m*ç y#dCwkYd EiS hf y[maeu| jzpfaom O'¨po ö [*kwf pdwKå yÜg'fu¤dk if;? 'kw, d r*fuy,fonf/ okcrk umr&m*y#dCç
wkdYESifh,SOfaom xkdpdwåKyÜg'f 6-yg;uk¤d if;? xkud mr&m*ç y#dCç wkYd EiS hf y[maeu| jzpfaom O'¨po ö [*kwf pdwKå yÜg'f
uk¤d if;ç wwd,r*fuy,fonf/ b0&m*ESi, hf OS af om 'd|0d yd , Ü w k f pdwKå yÜg'fav;cku¤dk if;ç <uif;aom O'¨po ö [*kwf
pdwKå yÜg'fu¤dk if; t&[wår*fu y,fonf}}[lí ykid ;f jcm; rSwo f m;&m\/ y[maeu|-[lonfrmS yk*Kd¾ vfwOD;xnf;\
oEÅmefü r*f\tpGr;f aMumifh wckaom udavom Nidr;f vQi?f xku d ad vomESihf tqift h wef;wlaom udavomwkYd onf
wygxnf; Nidr;f avuke\ f ? ,SOaf bmf,OS bf uf r[kwyf gbJ þokYd ûydiw f l Nidr;f aom tqift h wef;wl udavomwkYd udk
y[maeu|[k qko d nf/ ]]wOD;xnf;\ oEÅmefü ûydiw f Nl idr;f aom w&m;}}[k qkv d \ dk /

pwåma&m 'd|*d w0dy, Ü w k å avmbo[*wpdwKå yÜg'gç a'G a'greó o[*wpdwKå yÜg'g? £ar "r®m od,m
'óaee y[mwAÁm-[laom "r®o*FPD ygVdEiS hf tnD tyg,*reD, jzpfaom 'd|0d yd , Ü w
k Ef iS çhf a'gorlpw
d Kå yÜg'fwYdk udk
vJ aomwmywård *fu y,fonf[k jytyf\/ uwar "r®m e'óaee y[mwAÁm? O'¨po ö [*awm pdwKå yÜga'g/
/uwar "r®m bm0em, y[mwAÁm? O'¨po ö [*awm pdwKå yÜga'g-[laom "r®o*FPD ygVdEiS hf tnDç O'¨po ö [*kwf
pdwKå yÜg'fuu
dk m; bm0emrnfaom txufr*f 3-yg;u omvQif y,fonf/ þygVdjzifh ]]t&[wår*fuom y,fonf}}
[líum; r,loifah y/ ,kwt då m;jzifv
h J ou'g*grf tem*grfwYdk \ oEÅmefü ½Sad om O'¨po ö [*kwf pdwo f nf?
ykxZk OfaomwmyefwYdk rmS uJo
h Ydk rMurf;wef; rxufoefav&m/ okYd jzpfíç O'¨poö [*kwf pdwKå yÜg'fudk bm0emrnfaom
txufr*f ok;H yg;wkYd u toD;toD; y,fonf[k þü jycJah yonf/

0do'k rd̈ *fü¤if;ç þusrf;ü¤if;ç wku d ½f udk f rjytyfaom y[mwAÁ tukov dk w f &m;wkYd onf rsm;pGmyif ½Su d ek f
ao;\/ xkt d ukov dk wf Ydk wiG f w&m;uk,
d f oD;jcm;½Sad om tukov dk w
f &m;wkYd udk jycJNh yD;aom oHa,mZOf ponfwYdk EiS hf
twlyif y,fyt Hk m;jzifh odtyf\/ w&m;uk, d o f ;D jcm; r½Sad om tukov dk f w&m;wkYd uu dk m; qkid &f m qkid &f m tukovdk f
pdwKå yÜg'fü xnfo h iG ;f í r*fav;yg;u y,fyu Hk dk xku d o
f nft h m;avsmfpmG ,ltyf\/ xkYd aMumifçh r[m#Dumü atmufyg
twkid ;f rdeYf rmS awmfral y\/

pdwKå yÜg'*¾[aPe apw¬ ru© yVmo rm,m omaX,s yrm' xrÇ om&rÇm'DeH o*Fa[m uawmwd '|AÁ/H
(2-498)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 113

p? w&m;uk, d f oD;jcm;r½Sad om tukov dk w f &m;wkYd ü y,fyu Hk dk tb,foYdk odtyfygoenf;[laom þ


ar;bG,t
f wGuf qufí½Si;f vku d Of ;D tH/h {w¬? 0do'k rd̈ *fü jytyfaom þoHa,mZOfponfwYdk wiG /f 0g? y[mwAÁudk
jyaom þ 0do'k rd¨ *fpum;&yfü/ pdwKå yÜg'*¾[aPe? pdwKå yÜg'o'´gjzif/h 0g? tukov dk f pdwKå yÜg'fu,
dk jl cif; qkjd cif;jzif/h
ru© yVmo rm,m omaX,s yrm' xrÇom&rÇm'De?H ru©ç yVmoç rm,mç omaX,sç yrm'ç xrÇç om&rÇçtp½Sad om
y[mwAÁ tukov dk f w&m;wkYd u/dk o*Fa[m? aygif;,l xnfo h iG ;f jcif;uk/d uawmwd? t|uxm q&m ûytyfayonf
[lí/ '|AÁ?H rSwt
f yf\/

rlvyPÖmo 0w¬ow k f ponfwYdk ü? tbdZÑm0doravmbç Asmyg'ç aum"ç Oyem[ç ru©ç yVmoç £ómç
rpä&, d ç rm,mç omaX,sç xrÇç om&rÇç rmeç twdrmeç r'ç yrm'ç [laom 16-yg;aom y[mwAÁ Oyuúad vo
wkYd udk a[mawmfr\ l / xkYd jyifç wyg;aom okww f Ydk ü¤if;ç tbd"r®m ck'u ´ 0w¬K 0dbif;ü¤if;ç waxmifru rsm;vSpmG
aom y[mwAÁ tukov dk w
f &m;wkYd udk a[mawmfr\ l / xkt d ukov
dk wf Ydk wiG f w&m;uk, d f oD;jcm;r½Sad om ru©ç yVmo
ponfwYdk ü qkid &f mqkid &f m tukov dk pf wd Kå yÜg'fuydk if t&aumuf,í l ? xkpd w d Kå yÜg'fudk y,fowfEidk af om r*fw&m;wkYd u
y,fonf[k od&rnf-[lvkd/

xkwd iG f ru©-[lonfrmS aus;Zl;ûybl;aom oltm; aus;Zl;uef;vsuf ajymqkad omtcgü olûybl;aom


aus;Zl;ukd azsmufzsufaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom a'greó o[*kwf pdwKå yÜg'faywnf;/ (tw¬awm ye
ya&oH *kaP ru©emuma&e y0awåm a'greóo[*wpdwKå yÜga'gwd '|AÁ-H £wd0w k f t|uxm)/ yVmo-[l
onfrmS o'¨g oDv paom *kPjf zifh rdrx d uf xl;jrwfaom oludk xl;jrwfreS ;f odygvsuf? xko d \
l *kPu f dk odrzf sif;
ao;Ekwo f mG ;atmif rdrEd iS w
hf ef;wlxm;í zufûydiaf jymqkv d adk om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifjh zpfaom a'gorlpw d Kå yÜg'fay
wnf;/ rm,m-[lonfrmS rdr\ d tjypfudk zk;H vTr;f vkad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom avmbrlpw d Kå yÜg'faywnf;/
omaX,s-[lonfrmS rdrüd xif½mS ;r½Sad om *kPu f adk z:jy 0g<um;yvTm;vkad om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifjh zpfaom avmbrl
pdwKå yÜg'f aywnf;/ xrÇ- [lonfrmS ½kad oxku d af om olwYdk udk r½kad o rñTwu f idk ;f Ekid af tmif ½kid ;f pkid ;f cufxefaom
tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom rmeorÜ,w k f pdwKå yÜg'faywnf;/ (pdwó å x'¨wm wxmy0wåpw d aå r0gwd 0'EÅ?d
rme0daoaom 0g '|aAÁm-þrlv#DumESit hf nDç rmetxl; [lívJ qko d if\
h )/ om&rÇ-[lonfrmS olrsm;xuf ausm
atmifomatmif ûyvsuf? tEkdiftom &vkd vTr;f rk;d csKyfcs,v f adk om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom rme jy"mef;aom
'd|0d yd ,
Ü w
k f pdwKå yÜg'faywnf;/ yrm'-[lonfrmS umr*kPf ig;yg; 'kp½ö u dk w
f &m;ç wkYd ü pdw0f ifpm;vsuf? ukov dk f
w&m;wkYd ü arhavsmah om tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaom avmbrl a'gorl pdwKå yÜg'faywnf;/

aomwmywård a*¾e rau©m yVmaom £óm rpä&,d H rm,m omaX,sEdÅ £ar q y[D,EÅ?d tem*grdra*¾e
Asmyga'g auma"m Oyema[m yrma'gwd £ar pwåma&m/ t&[wåra*¾e tbdZÑm 0doravmabm xarÇm
om&arÇm rmaem twdrmaem ra'gwd £ar q y[D,EÅ/d (r | 1-175)

þ rlvyPÖmo t|uxmESihf tnD ru©ç yVmoç £ómç rpä&, d ç rm,mç omaX,sç [laom þ
Oyuúdavo 6-yg;ukd aomwmywård *fu y,fonf/ Asmyg'ç aum"ç Oyem[ç yrm'ç [laom þ Oyuúad vo 4-
yg;ukd tem*grdr*fu y,fonf/ tbdZÑm0doravmbç xrÇç om&rÇç rmeç twdrmeç r'ç [laom þ 6-yg;ukd
t&[wår*fu y,fonf[k rSw&f m\/ þt&mü tem*grdr*fç t&[wår*fwYdk u y,fonf [k qkjd cif;rSm t<uif;rJh
y,fjcif;uko
d m &nfí qkad yonf/ okYd jzpfí tem*grdr*fç t&[wår*fwYdk u y,ftyfaom xkOd yuúad vo 10-
yg;wkdY\ tyg,*reD, tzkYd ponfwYdk udk atmufr*frsm;u y,fonf [lívJ rSw&f m\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 114

aomwmyef ppfwrf;
("r®m'gookwf)

wo®m wd[m.eE´ "r®m'goH emr "r®y&d,m,H a'aoómrd? a,e orEém*awm t&d,om0aum tmucF
rmaem twåem0twåmeH Asmua&,s ]]cDPed&a,mrSd cDPwd&pämea,med cDPaywå0d od a,m cDPmyg,'k*w ¾ 0d ed yd g
awm? aomwmyaEém [.ro®d t.0deyd gw"ar®m ed,awm oarÁm"dy&m,aemwd}}/ uwarm p aom tmeE´
"r®m'gaom "r®y&d,ma,m? £"m.eE´ t&d,om0aum Aka'¨ ta0pö yoma'e orEém*awma[mwd ]]£wdyad om
b*0g t&[H or®morÁKa'¨g 0dZmÆ p&PorÜaEém ok*awm avmu0d'l tEkwaå &m yk&o d 'r®om&xd ow¬m
a'0rEkómeH Aka'¨g b*0gwd}}/ "ar® ta0pöyoma'e orEém*awm a[mwd ]]oGmu©mawm b*0wm "ar®m
oEd́|ad um t.umvdaum {[dyódaum Moyae,sdaum ypöwHå a0'dwaAÁm 0dñ[ l w
D }d }/ oHaC ta0pöyoma'e
orEém*awm a[mwd ]]ok.yÜ#yd aEém b*0awm om0uoHaCm? OZk.yÜ#yd aEém b*0awm om0u oHaCm?
Ó,.yÜ#yd aEém b*0awm om0uoHaCm? omrdp.d yÜ#yd aEém b*0awm om0uoHaCm? ,'d'H pwåm&d yk&o d ,k*ged
t| yk&o d yk*v
¾ m? {o b*0awm om0uoHaCm tm[kaea,sm? yg[kaea,sm? 'u©ad Pa,sm? tOÆvu d &PDa,m?
tEkw&å H yknau©wHå avmuómwd}}/ t&d,uaEÅ[d oDav[d orEém*awm a[mwd tca@[d tpäad '´[d
t.oAav[d t.ur®mao[d bkZad ó[d 0dñ.k yoaw¬[d t.y&mra|[d orm"do0H wåead u[d/ t,H acgaom
tmeE´ "r®m'gaom "r®y&d,ma,m? a,e orEém*awm t&d,om0aum tmucFrmaem twåem0 twåmeH
Asmua&,s ]]cDPed&a,mrS/d ay/ oarÁm"dy&m,aemwd/

('D 2-79? oH 3-311)

tmeE´? tmeE´m/ wo®m? aoqk;H oGm;aomvl\ *wd ÓPfudk ar;avQmufaevQifç igbk&m;ukd yifyef;ap&m
a&mufjcif;[laom xkt d aMumif;aMumif/h "r®m'goH emr? w&m;rSejf yif rnfaom/ "r®y&d,m,H? w&m;a'oemuk/d
a'aoómrd? a[maytH/h a,e? aMu;rk-H rSejf yifEiS w hf al om tMuifw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph aHk om/ t&d,om0
aum? t&d,m om0uonf/ tmucFrmaem? tvk½d ydS grl/ twåem {0? rdrd uk, d w f idk yf ifvQif/ twåmeH? rdru d ,dk uf ?dk
Asmua&,s? ajymMum;&m\/ 0g? ajymMum;Ekid af y\/ (udE?dÅ tb,foYdk ajymMum;Ekid o f enf; [lru l m;)/ t[H?igonf/
cDP-ed&a,m trS?D ukeNf yD;aom i&J½\ dS / 0g? i&JoYdk usa&mufrI ukeNf yD/ cDP-wd&päme-a,med? wd&pämef jzpfru I ek Nf yD/
cDP-aywå-d 0doa,m? Nydwmå jzpfrI ukeNf yD/ cDPmyg,-'k*w ¾ 0d ed yd gawm? tyg,f 'k*w ¾ o d Ydk ysufp;D í usapwwfonfh
oabmukeNf yD/ t[H? igonf/ aomwmyaEém? aomwmyefonf/ to®?d jzpf\/ t-0dedygw-"ar®m? tyg,foYdk usap
Ekid o
f nfh oabmr½SNd yD/ ed,awm? t&d,mr*fjzifh *wdÓPf NrJ\/ oarÁm"d-y&m,aem? txuf r*fÓPfrsm;vQif
tqk;H owf ude;f ao vm;&m½S\ d / £wd? þokYd ajymMum;Ekid af y\/ /tmeE´? tmeE´m/ "r®m'gaom/ w&m;rSejf yif
rnfaom/ aom "r®y&d,ma,m? xkd w&m; a'oemonf/ uwarm p? tb,fygenf; [lr/l tmeE´? tmeE´m/ £"?
þomoemawmfü/ t&d,om0aum? t&d,mom0uonf/ Aka'¨? jrwfpmG bk&m;ü/ ta0pö-yoma'e? rSepf mG odí
jzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyf ouf0ifí ,kMH unfaom o'¨gw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf/a[mwd?
jzpf\/ (udE?dÅ tb,foYdk ouf0ifí ,kMH unfoenf; [lru l m;)/ aom b*0g? igwkYd \ q&m jzpfawmfral om xkd
bk&m; ocifonf/ £wdy?d þokYd aom oDvç orm"dç ynmç 0drw k çdå 0drw k Ó då P'óe *kPf txl;tjrwfwYdk EiS hf
jynfph aHk wmfral om taMumif;aMumifv h /J t&[H? vlrif; ewfrif; jA[®mrif; paom wavmuvk;H \ ylaZmf txl;ukd
cHawmfrx l u
dk yf gay\/ t&[H? 0goemESiw hf uG avmba'goarm[tp½Sad om udavomtnpftaMu;wkYd rS uif;a0;
pifMu,fawmfryl gay\/ or®morÁKa'¨g? cyford ;f aom w&m;wkYd udk uk, d yf idk f ÓPfjzifrh eS u f efpmG odawmfryl gay\/
0dZmÆ -p&P-orÜaEém? r*f zkv d f edAmÁ efoYdk a&muf&ef tajccH p&P oDv paom tusift h rsKd;rsKd;ç 0dyóem paom
ÓPfrsufpt d rsKd;rsKd;ç wkYd EiS hf vk;H 0ukv H Hk jynfph aHk wmfryl gay\/ ok*awm? rSeu f efí tusKd;rsm;onfh pum;aumif;ukd
om ajymqkad wmf rlwwfygay\/ ok*awm? aumif;rGef wifw h ,f Munfñb dk , G f jzpfaom uk, d f EIwf pdwf
trlt&mESihf jynfph aHk wmfryl gay\/ avmu0d'?l avmu\ taMumif;t&m tvk;H pku H dk tuket f pif odjrifawmfryl gay
\/ tEkwaå &m? tjrift h jrwfq;Hk yk*Kd¾ vfygaywnf;/ yk&o d 'r®om&xd? qk;H rxku d af om yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;tm; tusKd;pD;yGg;okYd
a&muf&ef tjrefarmif;ESif yJjh yifq;Hk rawmfrw l wfygay\/ tEkwaå &m yk&o d 'r®om&xd? qk;H rxku d af om yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;tm;
tusKd;pD;yGg;okYd a&mufatmif ykYd aqmif armif;ESirf üI twkr½Sd tjrift h jrwfq;Hk q&mygaywnf;/ a'0rEkómeH ow¬m?
ewfvt l rsm;wkYd \ wyg;xnf;aom q&mtppfygaywnf;/ Aka'¨g? ½S½d o dS rQ w&m;tvk;H pku H dk tukef odawmfryl gay\/
Aka'¨g? opömav;wef w&m;rSeu f dk uk,d af wmfwidk f odNyD;í? a0ae,s owå0gwkYd tm;vJ a[mMum;xkwaf z: odapawmf
rlwwfygay\/ b*0g? rEIid ;f ,SOrf a&wGuEf idk af om bke;f awmfuaH wmf yg&rDawmfwYdk EiS hf jynfph aHk wmfryl gay\/ b*0g?
vl ewf jA[®m owå0gtrsm;\ ñTww f mG ;qnf;uyf ½kad otyfonfh yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfBuD;ygaywnf;/ £wd? þokdY/ ta0pö
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 115

yoma'e? rSepf mG odí jzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyf ouf0ifí ,kMH unfaomo'¨gw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm?
jynfph o
Hk nf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ /(þbk&m; *kPüf ,kMH unfrI Munfñrdk v I J w&m;rSejf yif\ t*Fgwckaywnf;)/

"ar®? w&m;awmfjrwfü/ ta0pöyoma'e? rSepf mG odíjzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyf ouf0ifí
,kMH unfaom o'¨gw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ (udE?dÅ tb,foYdk ouf0ifí ,kMH unf
oenf; [lru l m;)/ b*0wm? jrwfpmG bk&m; ocifonf/ tu©mawm? a[mMum;tyfaom/ "ar®m? r*fç zkv d çf edAmÁ efç
a'oemç w&m;awmfjrwfonf/ oGmu©mawm? aumif;rGef rSeu f efpmG a[mMum;tyfaom w&m;awmfjrwfygaywnf;/
oE´|d ad um? usifrh wS f tm;xkwv f Qif t[kwf uk, d wf idk f awGUjrifEidk af om w&m;awmfjrwfygaywnf;/ t.umvdaum?
tcsdef tcGiçf rqkid ;f vifb h çJ toifh vufiif;ç csufjcif;tusKd;ay;wwfaom w&m;awmfjrwfygaywnf;/ {[dyód
awm? vmygç usifMh unfph rf;ygç[k wku d w
f eG ;f xku d o f nfh w&m;awmfjrwfygaywnf;/ Moyae,sdaum? uk, d x Jf J
pdwx f üJ pGNJ rJ 0ifa&mufatmif usifah qmifxu dk o f nfh w&m;awmfjrwfygaywnf;/ 0dñ[ l ?d w&m;jrifoçd t&d,m
ynm½Sw d Ydk onf/ ypöw?Hå toD; toD;aom rdro d EÅmefü/ a0'dwaAÁm? odjrif cHpm;tyfaom w&m;jrwfygaywnf;/
£wd? þokYd / ta0pöyoma'e? rSepf mG odíjzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyo f uf0ifí ,kMH unfaom o'¨g
w&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ /(þw&m; *kPüf ,kMH unfrI Munfñrdk v I J w&m;rSejf yif\
t*Fg wckaywnf;)/

oHaC? oHCmawmfü? ta0pöyoma'e? rSepf mG odí jzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyo f uf0ifí
,kMH unfaom o'¨gw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf? a[mwd? jzpf\/ (udE?dÅ tb,foYdk ouf0ifí ,kMH unf
oenf;[lru l m;)/ b*0awm? jrwfpmG bk&m;\/ om0uoHaCm? wynfo h m;tppfjzpfaom oHCmawmfonf/ ok.yÜ#d
yaEém? avmb a'go arm[ uif;aMumif;aumif;rGepf mG usiahf wmfryl gay\/ (t*Fw k &å ygVdawmfEiS t hf nD jyefqadk om
teufaywnf;)/ OZky#Ü yd aEém? uk, d f EIwf pdwx f m;ç taumufo;Hk yg; uif;atmif ajzmifph if;pGm usifah wmf rlygay\/
Ó,yÜ#yd aEém? odxu dk v f pS mG edAmÁ eftvkYd igS omvQif usifah wmfryl gay\/ Ó,.yÜ#yd aEém? qif;&JNidr;f &efç avsmfuef
oifw h ifçh r*¾itf usifu h dk jznfu h sifah wmfryl gay\/ omrdp.d yÜ#yd aEém? olrsm;u ûyç ½kad orIEiS hf xku d o f ifah vsmfpmG ç usifh
awmfryl gay\/ omrdpd.yÜ#yd aEém? avmukwu f ;dk &yfç w&m;jrwfEiS çhf avsmufywfoifw h ifçh r*¾it f usifu h dk jznfuh sifh
awmfryl gay\/ ,'d'H-,med £rmed pwåm&d yk&o d ,k*ged? r*¾|mefEiS hf zv|mef tpkt H pkH wGaJ omtm;jzifh tMuif
av;yg;aom yk*Kd¾ vftpkw H Ydk onf/ t| yk&o d yk*v ¾ m? toD;toD;tm;jzifh ½Spyf g;aom t&d,m yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk onf/
a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \ f / b*0awm? jrwfpmG bk&m;\/ om0uoHaCm? wynfo h m;tppf t&d,m oHCmawmf jzpfaom/
{o? tpkt H m;jzifh avpkçH toD;toD;tm;jzifh ½Spyf g;ç ta&twGuf ½Sad om þoHCmawmfonf/ tm[kaea,sm? t&yf
a0;rSaqmif,í l ay;vªonfuadk omfvJ cH,al wmfrx l u dk yf gay\/ tm[kaea,sm? yifzh w d íf aomfvJ ylaZmfv'ª gef;xku d f
ygay\/ (tmraEÅwmG [0eH 'g[eH tm[ke-H r[m#Dum)/ /yg[kaea,sm? cspfcifav;pm;ç {nfo h nfrsm;bkYd çoD;jcm;
&nf½, G çf pm;ok;H bG,u f adk omfvJ ylaZmf vªxu dk cf ,
H al wmfrx l udk yf gay\/ yg[kaea,sm? vufO;D aqmifumç ½kdaopGm
jzifçh o'¨gMunfjzLç ay;vª ylaZmfxu dk yf gay\/ 'u©ad Pa,sm? csrf;om wk;d yGg;ç tusKd;rsm;&efç &nfoef qufuyf
onfh jrifjh rwfaom tvªudk cH,al wmfrx l udk yf gay\/ tOÆvu d &PDa,m? aumif;usKd;arQmfumç vufEpS jf zmukçd xdyrf mS
csDrkd;íç ½Sdckd;uefawmhxkdufygay\/ avmuó? aumif;usKd; vkv d m;aom owå0gtrsm;\/ tEkw&å H yknau©w?Hå
aumif;rIrsKd;wkYd \ pku d yf sKd;BuD;yGg;ç toD;rsm;&mç v,f,majr taumif;qk;H ygaywnf;/ £wd? þokYd /ta0pöyoma'e?
rSepf mG odíjzpfaom ,kMH unfrEI iS /hf 0g? rwkerf vIyf ouf0ifí ,kMH unfaom o'¨gw&m;ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph Hk
onf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ (þ oHCmh*P k üf ,kMH unfrI Munfñrdk v I J w&m;rSejf yif\ t*Fgwckaywnf;)/

t&d, uaEÅ [d? t&d,mwkYd onf b0wyg;üaomfvJ rvGeu f sL;&ufatmif ESpo f uf jrwfE;dk tyfuek af om/
oDav[d? ig;yg;aom oDvwkYd EiS /hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ (uD'ad o[d? tb,foYdk aom
oDvwkYd EiS hf jynfph o
Hk enf; [lrul m;)/ tca@[d? tpç tqk;H ç odum© yk'w f Ydk rysufojzifh rusKd;ukeaf om/ tpäad '´[?d
tv,fu odum© yk'f wckcrk Qrysufojzifh raygufuek af om/ t.oAav[d? odum© yk'f ESpcf o k ;Hk ck wpyfxnf;rysuf
ojzifh raMumif rusm;ukeaf om/ tur®mao[d? odum© yk'f wckjcm; rysufojzifh tajymuf tuGuf tpGe;f tpuf
r½Sdukefaom/ bkZdaó[d? wPSm\ uReftjzpfrS vGwo f jzifh awmfveS vf w G v f yfuek af om/ (avmuDcsrf;om twGuf
awmifw h í apmifah ½Smufaom oDvr[kw[ f k qkv
d \
dk /) 0dñyk oaw¬[?d bk&m; tp½Sad om ynm½Sw d Ydk csD;rGr;f xku
d f
ukeaf om/ ty&mra|[d? 'd|[ d al om y&mrmow&m;u igaumifç ighov D ç [k rSm;,Gi;f pGmrok;H oyf rpGv J rf;tyfuek f
aom/ orm"do0H wåead u[d? Oypmorm"dç tyÜem orm"dç cPdu 0dyóem orm"dç r*f orm"dç zkv d f orm"dç ukd
jzpfapEkid u
f ek af om/ oDav[d? xuf0ef;usif pifMu,faom ig;yg;oDvwkYd EiS /hf orEém*awm? jynfph o Hk nf? a[mwd?
jzpf\/ /(þoDvvJ w&m;rSejf yif\ t*Fg wckaywnf;)/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 116

tmeE´? tmeE´m/ "r®m'gaom? w&m; rSejf yif rnfaom/ aom"r®y&d,ma,m? a[mMum;&ef 0efccH ahJ om xkd
w&m;a'oemonf/ t,H acg? þ o'¨g ok;H yg;ESihf oDv w&m;yifwnf;/ /(#Dumü t&d,mr*fOmPfç r*fw&m;ç
wkYd udk "r®m'go[k t&aumufjy\? taMumif;&if;ukd zGijhf yjcif;rQom[k ,l&m\/ t&d,monfum;? xkt d aMumif;&if;
"r®m'go t"d*ro'¨gç oDvç wkYd \tpGr;f aMumifjh zpfaom tusKd; o'¨gç oDvçwkYd \ ckid Nf rJyHk pifMu,fyu Hk dk omvQif
qifjcifí xif½mS ;odEidk f qk;H jzwfEidk af yonf/ xkYd aMumifh tusKd;o'¨gç oDvç wkYd uo dk m,lí þü teuf jyefayonf)/
/ a,e? tMuif ckid Nf rJaom o'¨gç pifMu,faomoDvç ESi/hf orEém*awm? jynfph aHk om/ t&d,om0aum? t&d,m
om0uonf/ tmucFrmaem? tvk½d ydS grl/ twåem {0? rdru d ,
dk w
f idk yf ifvQif/ twåmeH? rdru
d ,
dk u
f /dk Asmua&,s?
ajymMum;Ekid af y\/ (udE?dÅ tb,foYdk ajymMum;Ekid o f enf; [lru
l m;)/ t[H? igonf/ cDPed&a,m trS?D ukeNf yD;aom
i&J ½Sd\/ 0g? i&JoYdk usa&mufrI ukeNf yD/ay/ oarÁm"dy&m,aem? txuf r*fÓPfrsm;vQif tqk;H owf ude;f ao
vm;&m ½S\ d / £wd? þokYd / Asmua&,s? ajymMum;Ekid af y\/

þ "r®m'gookwEf iS hf tnDç taMumif; "r®m'go t"d*r\ tpGr;f aMumifh ckid Nf rJ pifMu,fpmG jzpfaom tusK;d
"r®m'go w&m;av;yg;vk;H rdrüd jynfph o Hk nfudk tzefzef pl;prf; Munf½h I NyD;vQiçf vl0wfaMumif jzpfaom aomwmyef
yk*Kd¾ vfonf obm* yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;tm; ajymMum;vkyd gu? rdru d ,
dk w f idk yf if aomwmyef tjzpfudk qk;H jzwf ajymMum;&m\/
olwyg; txHü tqk;H tjzwf cHae&efvJ rvkNd yD/ bk&m;rS wyg;aom yk*Kd¾ vf wpkw H a,mufuvJ qk;H jzwfajymMum;&ef
tcGirhf ½SNd yD/ okYd &mwGif q&mjzpfow l Ydk rmS rlum;? 0dyóemÓPfrsm;ESihf r*fç zkv d çf ypöa0u©Pmç ÓPfwYdk \ jzpfyrHk sm;ukd
¤if;? þ "r®m'gookwf paom qkid &f mokwf a'oemrsm;uk¤d if;? wynfh a,m*Dtm; a[mjy&ef wm0ef ½Sad yao;\/
tb,faMumifh a[mjy&oenf;[lr.l ..omref om0urQjzpfaom t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfonf? rdrüd jzpfay:aom ÓPfwYdk \
trnfynwfrsm;uk¤d if;? jynfph o Hk nfh *kPx f ;l ta&twGurf sm;uk¤d if;? uif;Nidr;f NyD;ç ruif;Nidr;f ao;aom udavomwkYd
\ tykid ;f tjcm;uk¤d if;? remrMum;&bJ uk, d yf idk Ó
f Pfoufoufjzifh jynfph pHk mG rodEidk &f maomaMumifh a[mjy&ayonf/
xkwd iG ?f ÓPfwYdk \ trnf ynwfudk rodEidk &f mü ] roGm;bl;ao;aom c&D;ukd oGm;aom olonf? awGU&aom ½Gmrsm;
\ tajctaeukd aocsmpGm od&aomfvçJ xk½d mG rsm;\ trnfuu dk m;? rMum;&bJ tvkv d dk rodEidk o
f uJo h Ydk yif}} rSwtf yf
\/ jynfph aHk om*kPx f ;l rsm;ukd pkvH ifpmG rod&mü? temxydPo f al X;BuD;paom t&d,mwkYd tm; *kPx f ;l rsm;ukd pkv H ifpmG
odap&ef? aomwmywå, d *F paom w&m;rsm;ukd a[mMum;awmfral yonf/ emMum;NyD;aom tcgü? xk*d P k x
f ;l rsm;ESihf
rdrrd mS jynfph aHk eaMumif;ukv d ?J xkt d &d,mwkYd u 0efcaH jymqkMd u\/ xkt d cgrSm t½Sio f m&dyMk wm paom rax&frsm;u
]]'g,um oifonf aomwmywåzd v dk u f dk ajymMum;tyfay\}} ponfjzifch sD;rGr;f awmfrMl u\/ aomwmyefçou'g*grfç
tem*grfç wkdY? tyg,f 4-yg;rS vGwaf Mumif;ukd bk&m;½Siu f a[mawmfrrl S odMu&\? aemufü om"uukd jytH/h
þokYd a[mjy&onfudk axmufí? omref om0uonf t&d,m\ *kPx f ;l rsm;ukd rdrtd vkv
d dk pkvH ifpmG rodEidk [ f k
rSwo f m;tyf\/ uif;Nidr;f NyD;ç ruif;Nidr;f ao;ç aomudavomwkYd \ tykid ;f tjcm;ukd rodEidk o f nfrmS um; jycJNh yD;aom
ygVd t|uxmwkYd jzifh xif½mS ;avNyD/ okYd jzpfíç ÓPfpOf trnfponfwYdk udk q&mwkYd u tm;xkwNf yD;aom wynfh
a,m*Dtm; a[mjyuke&f m\/ &[ef;awmf jzpfaom t&d,monfum; blwma&mpe odum© yk'Ef iS hf rqefYusi&f mü
omvQif rdr\ d t&d,m tjzpfudk ajymMum;Ekid af yonf/

t&d,m\ o'¨g ckid Nf rJyHk ... t&d,mwkYd \ ,kMH unfrI Munfñrdk o


I '¨gonf jzm;a,mif;í zsufaomfvJ rysuf?
Ncdr;f acsmufí zsufaomfvJ rysuf? vdrv
f n
S í
hf zsufaomfvJ rysuf/ xkw
d iG f jzm;a,mif;í rzsufEidk o
f nfudk okyAÜ 'k \
¨
0w¬Kjzifh odtyf\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 117

okyÜAk'¨0w¬K

okyAÜ 'k o
¨ nf wuk, d vf ;Hk ü Elem ESyd pf ufaomaMumifh rjywf atmf[pf nnf;wGm; ae&\? cku d ;dk &m r½Sad y?
oli,fb0rS pí cGuf vufpu JG m? wuk, d x f nf; awmif;&rf; pm;aomuf ae&\? tvGef qif;&Jaom olaywnf;/
olonf waeYoü jrwfpmG bk&m;w&m; a[maepOfrmS ? y&dowftpGeüf aeíw&m;em\? w&m;empOf aomwmyefjzpfí
rdr&d aomw&m;xl;ukd bk&m;tm;avQmufxm;&efBuH\/ y&dowfrsm;½Spd OfrmS ravQmuf0í hH ? y&dowfrsm;ESihf twla&m
aESmum twefi,f jyefvu dk of mG ;NyD;rS bk&m;xHoYdk jyefvmcJ\h / xkt d cku
d üf odMum;rif;onf pkpH rf;vkí d aumif;uif
rSm &yfwnfvsuf þokYd ajym\? tkd okyAÜ 'k µ¨ oif[m tvGef qif;&JErG ;f yg;wJv h l jzpfw,f? ckud ;dk &m rJw h hJ vl jzpfw,f?
tvGe, f w k n
f w hH hJ vl jzpfw,f? oiftm; rEIid ;f ,SOEf idk af tmif rsm;pGmaom pnf;pdrOf pömukd ig ay;urf;rprnf? ]]bk&m;
onf bk&m;ppfr[kw?f w&m;onf w&m;ppfr[kw?f oHCmonf oHCmppf r[kw?f igonf bk&m; w&m; oHCmukd
tvkrd ½S}d }[k þpum;ukd qkyd gavm[k odMum;rif;uajym\/ oifb,fov l [J k okyAÜ 'k u
¨ ar;\/ ig odMum;rif;yg[k
ajzqk\ d / tkd rkdufuef;í t½SufrJhwJh odMum;rif; rajymoifw h hJ pum;ukd oifajym&ufayw,f? oif[m igESiphf um;
ajym&efyif rxku d w
f efyg? NyD;awmhvJ ighudk vlqif;&J vlrcJG u dk ;dk &mrJo
h l [k oif tb,faMumifq h ydk goenf;? igonf
jrwfpmG bk&m;\ om;awmfppf jzpfonf r[kwyf gavmµ olqif;&J vlrJG cku d ;dk &mrJo
h l r[kwyf g? trSet f m;jzifh qkvd Qif
igonf taumif;tjrwfq;Hk csrf;omjzifh aumif;pm; csrf;om olç <u,f0aygrsm;ol jzpfygonf [k qkí d atmufyg
*gxmwkdYukd ½GwfqkdowJh/

o'¨g"eH oDv"eH? [d&D Mowåy,dÜ H "eH/


okw"eOö pma*g p? ynm a0 owårH "eH/
,ó {aw "em tw¬?d £w¬, d m yk&o d ó 0g/
t.'vda'´gwd wH tm[k? t.armCH wó ZD0dwH/

o'¨g"eH? o'¨g wnf;[laom Opöm¤if;/ oDv"eH? oDvwnf;[laom Opöm¤if;/ [d&"D eH? [d&D wnf;[laom
Opöm¤if;/ MowåydÜ ,H "eH? MowåyÜ wnf;[laom Opöm¤if;/ okw"eOö? okw wnf;[laom Opöm¤if;/ pma*gp?
pGeYf BuJjcif;[laom Opöm¤if;/ (yXrr*fjzif?h ol\ qkid &f m udavom tbdocFg&wkYd udk y,fpeG Yf jcif;onf pm* rnf\/
þpm*aMumif?h t&d,mwkYd rmS ? vªb, G w f Ydkudk ay;vªaomtcgürkwpå m* jzpfEidk af yonf? r*fjzifNh yD;aom þ t"d* r
pm*onf t&d,mwkid ;f ü jynfph \ Hk / okyAÜ 'k r¨ mS vJ jynfph aHk y\/ t|uxmtzGiyhf ifwnf;)/ a0?pifppf/ ynm? ynm
wnf;[laom/ owårH "eH? ckepfcak jrmuf Opöm¤if;/ {aw "em? þckepfyg;aom OpömwkYd onf/ ,óm £w¬, d m0g?
tMuif rde;f r\ oEÅmefü¤if;/ ,ó yk&o d ó 0g? tMuif a,musfm;\ oEÅmefü¤if;/ tw¬?d ½Su d ek \
f / wH? xkrd ed ;f r
xkad ,musfm;uk/d t.'vda'´gwd? vlqif;&J r[kwçf vlcsrf;om [lí/ tm[k? bk&m; paom olawmfaumif;wkYd u
rdeYf qudk ek \
f / wó? xko d Ydk aom yk*Kd¾ vf\ ZD0w d ?H touf½iS jf cif;uk/d t.armCH? tcsnf;ES;D r[kwçf tusKd;rsm;aom
touf½iS ;f jcif;[lí/ tm[k? rdeYf qu dk ek \f /

xkt d cgç odMum;rif;onf bk&m;xHoYdk a½S;OD;pGm oGm;í xkt d aMumif;ukd avQmuf\/ ]]bk&m; w&m; oHCm
r[kw[ f ak jymqkad p&ef okAAÁ 'k u ¨ dk oifoYdkaomol w&mç waxmifaomfvJ rjzm;a,mif;Ekid }f }[k jrwfpmG bk&m;u rdeYf
awmfr\ l / okyAÜ 'k o ¨ nfvnf;bk&m;xHoYdk omG ;í xkt d aMumif;tvk;H pku H dk avQmufxm;NyD;í jyefvmaomtcgrSm &efûid;½Sd
aom bDv;l ru EGm;ra,mif zefqif;í a0SYowfaomaMumifh ao½SmavvQif? w&m;empOfrmS píjzpfygG ;cJah om o'¨gç
oDvç okwç pm*ç ynmwkYd \ tpGr;f aMumifh wm0wðomü wefc;dk BuD;rm;aom ewfom;BuD; jzpfav\/ vlUjynfwek ;f
u tvGef atmufwef;usol jzpfcahJ omfvJ t&d,mr*f\tpGr;f aMumifh tcsKdU ewfrsm;xuf wefc;dk BuD;vsuf ½Sad v\?
xkad Mumifh tcsKUd ewfrsm;u remvkí d apmif;ajrmif;jiLplMu\? xkpd um;ukMd um;&í? odMum;rif;u... ]]tcsif;ewfrsm;wkYd
µ þ okyAÜ 'k ¨ ewfom;ukd remvk0d efwjdk cif; r½SMd uukev f if?h olonf vlUb0u jrwfpmG bk&m;\ omoemawmfrmS
o'¨gç oDvç okwç pm*ç ynmwkYd udk aqmufwnf qnf;yl;cJo h nft h wGuf ,ckvdk wefc;dk BuD;rm;ayonf}} þokYd
ponfjzifh qk;H rajyma[mav\/ t&d,mr*f\ wefc;dk onf tvGeyf if tm;aumif;ygaypG µ/ þ0w¬Konf O'gef; ygVd
t|uxmç "r®y' t|uxmESihf ouúo, H w
k f ygVdwYdk ü vm\/ þ0w¬Kü jyqkx d m;onfEiS thf nDç bk&m; w&m;
oHCmtppfwYdk udk ]]r[kw[ f í l ¤if;ç r½S[
d í
l ¤if;}} ajymqkad p&efç pGeYf vw T af p&efç avmuD *kPo f &d f pnf;pdrf OpömwkYd jzifh
b,fvydk if jzm;a,mif;aomfvJ t&d,mtppf jzpfaom olonf xko d Ydkaom pum;ukd rajymqkEd idk f onfom jzpf&m\?
bk&m; w&m; oHCmtppfwYdkudk rpGeYf Eidk o f nfom jzpf&m\/ rdrd tvkv d dk pOf;pm; qifjcifMunfv h QifvJ b,fvdk
pnf;pdrf *kPo f &d Ef iS rhf Q rvJEidk b
f J &wemok;H yg; tay:ü ,kMH unfrI Munfñrdk I ckid Nf rJaeonfuo dk m awGUav&m\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 118

"eOÆmeD0w¬K

Ncdr;f acsmufí rzsufEidk o f nfudk "eOÆmeD rnfaom ykaH P;r\0w¬Kjzifh odtyf\/ waeYoü cifyeG ;f onf
jzpfaom bm&'GgZykP H m;u "eOÆmeDtm; þokYd ajym\? ½Sirf a&µ eufjzefcg igwkYd trd rf mS ykP H m;ig;&mukd xrif;auR;bkYd
zdwx f m;w,f? rif;uvJ&yf&if; jzpfapç xkid &f if; jzpfapç acsí jzpfapç acsmif;qk;d í jzpfapç ae&mwumrSm ]earm
Ak'ó¨ }[k qkq d Ndk yD; OD;jynf&h [ef;ukd ½Scd ;dk ½Scd ;dk aewmbJ? eufjzef w&ufawmh awmif;yefyg&apuG,?f {nfo h nfawmf
ykP
H m; q&mrsm; pm;yGx J idk f aewke;f rSm tJonfvq dk Ndk yD; ½Srd ck;d rdatmif apmifph nf;apcsifygw,f/ ½Sdckd;wmukd olwkdYu
jrifMum;oGm;vQif? igh tay:rSm txifvNJG yD; oabmuGu J ek yf gvdrrhf ,f [k ajym\/ tkµd ½Si[ f m ykP
H m;awGeYJ uGjJ ym;vJ
usrrwwfEidk b f ;l ? ewfawGeYJ uGjJ ym;vJ rwwfEidk b f ;l / bk&m;ukd owd&vQifawmh? usru ½Srd ck;d bJawmh raeEkid b f ;l [k
"eOÆmeDu jiif;y,f ajym\/ ½Sirf a&µ pOf;pm;ygOD;uG,?f ½GmwHcg;ukad wmifrS ydwx f m;vkYd jzpfao;wmbJ? ykP H m;awG
pm;yGxJ idk f aewke;f wcPuav; twGi;f rSm vufEpS o f pfavmuf½w dS hJ ypyfaygufuav;ukd ydwx f m;bkYd rcufygbl;
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bm&'GgZonf oHvsuf xm;vG,Bf uD;ukd ukid í f ]]a[h½iS rf µ onfrmS Munfph rf;? eufjzefcg ykP H m;awG pm;yGx J idk f
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tykid ;f jzpfatmif ckwjf zwf ypfrnf}}[k Ncdr;f acsmuf ajymqk\ d / xkdtcgç "eOÆmeDu-

oap ar t*Fr*Fged? umrH aqZÆod jAm[®P/


ae0g[H 0d&rdómrd? Ak'a¨ o|ó omoem/

jAm[®P? tkd ykP


H m;/ wG?H oifonf/ ar? ig\/ t*Fr*Fged? t*FgBuD;i,fwkdYukd/ umrH? tvkd½Sdwkdif;/ oap
aqZÆo?d tu,fí ckwjf zwfapumrl/ t[H? igonf/ Ak'a¨ o|ó? bk&m;jrwf\/ omoem? tqk;H tr omoem
awmfr/S ae0 0d&rdómrd? a½SmifMuOfrnf r[kwo
f nf omwnf;/

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oabmtwkid ;f bJ}}qkí d tavQmhay;vku d &f owJ/h aemufaeYü {nfo h nfyP Hk m;wkYd tm; pm;yGcJ if;usif;í auR;arG;aepOf
rSm "eOÆmeDonf cvkww f u dk rf í
d acsmfvoJ mG ;½Smav\? wku d cf u
dk rf ad om 'Pf&maMumifh emusirf I 'kua© 0'em jzpfay:
vmaom tcgü "eOÆmeDonf jrwfpmG bk&m;ukd owd&í OD;acgif;xufü vuftyk cf sDum bk&m; ½Sad wmfr&l m a0VK0ef
ausmif;awmfqo D Ydk ñTww f mG ;vsuf? earm wó b*0awm t&[awmor®morÁK'¨ó ¨ [ko;Hk Budrw
f idk w
f idk f O'gef;
usL;qkv d suf uefawmhrad v\/ xkt d cgrSm {Ofo h nfyP
Hk m;wkYd onf? ]]t,lZmwfujJG ym;aom ol\xrif;ukid gwkYd rpm;
vk}d }[k ajymqkpd w d q f ;dk vsuf xíoGm;avuke\ f / bm&'GgZ ykP H m;vJ trsufa'go acsmif;acsmif; xvsuf ykaH P;rukd
trsKd;rsKd; qJqNdk yD;vQif? rauseyfao;aomaMumifh ]]olU q&mbk&m;ukd ar;cGe;f ar;jref;í 0g' wifrnf}}[k BuHpnfum
bk&m;xHoYdk oGm;í ar;av\/ jrwfpmG bk&m;u ajzqkd a[mMum;aom tcgü xkyd P Hk m;onf tuRwfw&m; &í
omoemawmfwiG f &[ef;ûyavvQif rMumrDyif &[EÅm jzpfavonf[k jAm[®PoH,w k f ygVdawmfü vm\/ okdYjzpfíç
]]bk&m; w&m; oHCm Ak'b ¨ momukd pGeYf &rnf? rpGeYf vQif owfypfrnf}}[k owfEidk o f u l Ncdr;f acsmuf ajymqkad omfvJ
t&d,m tppf jzpfaom olonf þ"eOÆmeD ykaH P;ruJo h Ydk yif rpGeYf vw T Ef idk b
f J ckid Nf rJaom o'¨gESihf jynfph aHk eonfom
jzpf&m\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 119

ol&rÁ| 0w¬K

vdrvf nS í hf zsufaomfvJ o'¨g¨ rysufonfudk ol&rÁ|\ 0w¬Kjzifh odtyf\/ (ol&-trÁ| [lí¤if;? ok&AE¨¨
[lí¤if; tcsKdUpmü½Sd\) uyÜgwode;f xuf y'krw k &å jrwfpmG bk&m; vufxufu ta0pöyoEé {w'*fqu k dk yefcahJ om
ol&rÁ|onf þbk&m; vufxufü om0w¬jd ynfrmS olaX;om; jzpfvm\/ olonf jrwfpmG bk&m;ukd yifí h qGr;f
uyfv\ ª / qGr;f bkO;f ay;NyD;aomtcgü jrwfpmG bk&m;u w&m;a[m\? a'oem\ tqk;H ü ol&rÁ|onf aomwmyef
jzpfav\? jrwfpmG bk&m; jyef<uoGm;NyD;aom tcgü rm&fewfrif;onf ol&rÁ|ukd pkpH rf;vkad omaMumifh bk&m;a,mif
[efaqmif zefqif;í ol&rÁ|\ tdrw f cH g;0ü &yfwnfvm\/ xkt d cg ol&rÁ|onf ]]rMumrDyif jrwfpmG bk&m; jyef<u
vmonfrmS taMumif;xl;½Sí d jzpfayvdrrhf nf}}[k qifjcifNyD;vQif vsifjrefpmG oGm;í bk&m;[laom trSwjf zif½h cdS ;dk vsuf
taMumif;ukd ar;avQmuf\/ xkt d cg bk&m;a,mifaqmifaeaom rm&fewfu...]]tkd ol&rÁ|µ igonf oift h m; w&m;
a[mpOfu wckudk rqifjcifrb d J a[mcJrh \ d / bmvJ qkv d Qifç cE¨m¨ ig;yg;vk;H yif tedpö 'ku© tewå [k ig a[mcJrh \ d /
okYd aomfvJ þcE¨mig;yg;wkYd onf tukev f ;Hk yif tedpö 'ku© tewåcsnf; r[kwMf uay/ trSerf mS awmh tcsKdU cE¨mrsm;u
edpö "k0 oów jzpfMuayonf}}[kq\ dk / xkdtcgü ol&rÁ|\ qifjcifyrHk mS ...þpum;[m tvGe0f efav;wJph um;bJ/
bk&m;wkYd \ pum;rnfonfrmS ESpo f ,G f ESpcf G jzpf½;dk r½Sad y? ]]rm&fewfonf bk&m;\ qefYusifbuf}}[k ig Mum;bl;\?
þol[m {uefyif rm&fewf jzpfayvdrrhf nf [k pOf;pm;NyD;vQif ]]toif rm&fewf r[kwaf vm}}[k ar;\/ [kwfyg
w,f[k rm&fewfu0efc&H \/ ]]oifvrdk m&fewfawG w&mwaxmifaomfvJ ig\o'¨gukd rvIy½f mS ; rzsufq;D Ekid b f ;l vkYd
rSwx f m;yg? r[ma*gwr jrwfpmG bk&m;onf ightm; w&m;a[mpOfu ocFg& tvk;H pkyH if? tedpcö snf;[k odapvsuf
a[moGm;avNyD? toif ig\ tdrw f cH g;ü &yfwnfraeygvif}h }[k vufazsmufw;D í ol&rÁ|u rm&fewfudk ESix f w k f
vkud af v\/ þtaMumif;ukyd if tw¬KyÜwûdå yawmfrí l þomoemawmfü &wemok;H yg;\ *kPfukd trSeftwkdif; odí
rwkerf vIyf ouf0if,MHk unfaom OygoumwkYd wiG f ol&rÁ|ukd txl;tjrwfq;Hk yk*Kd¾ vf[k {w'*ft&mü jrwfpmG bk&m;
u wifxm;awmfral y\/ þ0w¬Konf t*Fw k &å t|uxmüvm\/ okYd jzpfí t&d,mtppfjzpfaomolonf ol&rÁ|uJh
okYd {w'*f&avmufatmif ,kMH unfrI rvGeu f aJ omfvJ bk&m; w&m; oHCm Ak'ó ¨ moemukd rpGeYf vw T Ef idk af tmif ckid Nf rJ
aom o'¨gESirhf u l m; jynfph o Hk nfom jzpf&m\/ rnfrQavmuf tvdraf umif;aom olu vdrv f n
S hf ajyma[mapumrl?
&wem ok;H yg;tay:ü ,kMH unfru I m; rysuo f nfom jzpf&m\? tcsKdU ocFg&rsm;udk edpö okc twå [k bk&m;a[m
aMumif;ukd wpkw H a,mufu ajymcJv h Qif xkpd um;ukd bk&m;\ pum;r[kw[ f k qk;H jzwfEidk &f m\/ xkdjyifç ]]avmuü
w&m;tvk;H pku H dk odEidk af om bk&m;rnfonfr½S[ d íl ¤if;? jrwfpmG bk&m;onf tcsKdU w&m;rsm;ukd rodEidk [ f íl ¤if;? r*f
zkv
d ef Ad mÁ efrnfonf r½S[ d í
l ¤if;? usifBh uHtm;xkwaf omfvJ udavom uif;Nidr;f jcif;ç avsmhjcif; rnfonf r½S[ d íl ¤if;?
txl;pdww f nfMunfjcif;ç ½kyef mrf tedpö 'ku© tewåwYdk udk uk, d yf idk Ó
f Pfjzifh txl;odjcif;ç rnfonf r½Sd [lí¤if;
udavom uif;Nidr;f atmif usifq h çJ usifNh yD; jzpfaom t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfrnfonf r½S[ d í l ¤if;?}} þokYd aompum;ukd wpkH
wa,mufu ajymqkcd v hJ Qi?f xkpd um;ukv d J ajymif;jyef rSm;,Gi;f aom pum;[k qk;H jzwfEidk &f m\/

t&d,m\ oDv ckid Nf rJ pifMu,fyHk ... t&d, uaEÅ[w


D d t&d,meHuaEÅ[d yda,[d remay[d? yOö oDvmed [d
t&d,om0umeH uEÅmed a[mEÅd b0EÅa&yd t.0dZ[dwAÁawm? wmed oE¨ma,wH 0kw/Hå ("r®m'gookwf tzGihf
t|uxm 'D| 2-134)

t&d,uaEÅ[w D ?d [lonfum;/ t&d,meH? t&d,mwkYd onf/ uaEÅ[d yda,[d remay[d? ESpo f uf cifrif
jrwfE;dk tyfuek af om (oDvwkYd EiS hf jynfph \
Hk )/ [d? rSeaf y\/ yOöoDvmed? ig;yg;oDvwkdYonf/ b0EÅa&yd t.0dZ[dwAÁ
awm? b0wyg;ü aomfvJ t&d,mwkYd rpGeYf tyfaomaMumif/h t&d,meH uEÅmed? t&d,mwkYd ESpo f uftyfuek of nf/
a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \ f / wmed oE¨m,? xkid g;yg;oDvwkYd udk &nfí/ {wH? t&d,uEÅov D wkYd EiS hf jynfph o
Hk nf [laom
þpum;uk/d 0kw?Hå þ"r®m'gookwüf a[mtyfay\/

oapyd b0EÅ&*wH t&d,om0uH twåaem t&d,bm0H t.ZmeEÅrdÜ aumpd {0H 0a',s ]]£rH ukEu ¦ yd v
d u
d’ H
ZD0w
d m a0ga&maywGm ouvpuú0gV*aAÇ puú0wå&d ZÆH y#dyZÆm[Dw/d ae0 aom wH ZD0w
d m a0ga&may,s/ txmyd
eH {0H 0a',sKH ]]oap £rH e Cmawówd oDoH aw qdEó d́ mrm}}wd/ oDoar0.ó qdaE´,sK?H ae0 aom wH
Cmaw,s/

(oar®m[0daem'eD 406? Oy&dyPÖmo t|uxm 75)


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 120

b0wyg;ü wnfonfjzpfí rdr\ d t&d,mtjzpfudk rodonfaomfvjJ zpfaom t&d,mom0uukd wpkH


wa,mufu ]]þyk;d &G y&Guq f wd uf dk toufrcS sí (owfjzwfí) pMu0Vm wwku d vf ;Hk ü pMu0aw;rif; tjzpfudk
ûyyg}}[k þokYd tu,fíajymqkad pumrl xkt d &d,mom0uonf ¤if;yk;d &Gy&Guqf w d u f dk toufrrS csEkid &f m (rowfEidk f
&m)/ okYd r[kwf wenf;tm;jzifv h J ]]þyk;d &Gy&Guq f wd u
f dk tu,fí oifrowfjim;tH?h okYd jzpfvQif oif\ OD;acgif;ukd
igwkYd jzwfuek t
f }hH }[k þokYd xkt d &d,mom0uukd tu,fíqkMd uapumrl xko d Ydk qadk omolwYdk onf xkt d &d,mom0u
\ OD;acgif;ukd omvQif jzwf&avuke&f m\? xkt d &d,mom0uonfum; ¤if;yk;d &Gy&Guq f w d u
f dk rowfEidk af v&monf
omvQifwnf;/ (t|uxm\ jrefrmjyef)

olwyg; Opömukd ck;d ,lrçI rqkid af om arxkeu


f mrwkYd ü usK;vGerf çI olwyg;\ tusKd;rJh jzpfatmif vdrv
f nfrçI
aot&ufudk aomufpm;rIwYdk uv dk ?J ygPmwdygw enf;wlyif t&d,monf rûyvkyEf idk o f nfom jzpf&m\/ olaX;
pnf;pdrçf rif;pnf;pdrçf uk,
d cf E¨mç toufç wkYd xuf aomfvJ ig;yg;oDvukd cifrifjrwfE;dk onfomvQif jzpf&m\/

okYd jzpfí aomwmyef t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfonf rdrt d vkv


d dk qifjcifMunfah om tcgü¤if;ç udavom jzpfaMumif;
rsm;ESihf awGUêuH&aomtcgü¤if; jycJNh yD;aom "r®m'gookwEf iS t hf nD o'¨gESio hf v
D ckid Nf rJ pifMu,faeonfuo
dk m
awGU&ayvwH/h xkYd jyifç yXrr*fjzifh y,fxu dk af om udavomrsm;onf tm½kH taMumif;rsm;½Sad omfvJ rjzpfay:vmbJ
tvkv d ydk if uif;Nidr;f aeonfuv
dk rJ suaf rSmuf xifxif awGUjrif&ayvwH/h

t&d,m\ ,kHrSm;

t&d,m[lorQonf oOyg'daooyk*Kd¾ vfyifjzpfaomfvJ tyg,fav;yg;rS vk;H 0vGwaf jrmufonf csnf;om


wnf;? oOyg'daoo t&d,mwkYd wiG f aomwmyefç ou'g*grfwYdk onf umrok*wdEiS çhf ½ly t½ly bkw H Ydk üomvQif
jzpfuek \f ? umrok*wdüvJ ,kwn f ahH o;odraf om trsK;d wkYd üum;rjzpfuek ?f jrifjh rwfBuD;us,af om trsK;d wkYd üomvQif
jzpfuek \f / tem*grfwYdk onfum; ½ly t½lybkw H Ydk üomvQif jzpfuek \ f / þt&mü xkt d &d,mwkYd onf rdrw d Ydk tyg,
y&drwk =å tyg,frS vk;H 0vGwo
f l jzpfaMumif;ukd uk, d yf idk Ó
f Pfjzifh tvkvd ydk if odEidk f qk;H jzwfEidk Mf uygoavm [lr?l
t*Fwk &å ygVdawmfç e0edygwfç oD[em'0*fç 'kw, d okwo f nf þar;cGe;f ukd ajz½Si;f xm;avNyD/ vk&d if; pum;
tcsKdUukd tusOf;tm;jzifh aqmifjyygtH/h

awe acg ye ora,e awoH tnwdw, d¬ meH y&dAmÁ ZumeH oEéo d Ed mé eH oEéyd wdwmeH t,rEÅ&uxm
O'yg'd ]]a,m [daumpd tm0kaom oOyg'daoaom umvH ua&mwd? oaAÁmaom ty&drak wåm ed&,m? t.y&drak wåm
wd&pämea,med,m? t.y&drak wåm aywå0d o
d ,m? t.y&drak wåm tyg,'k*w ¾ 0d ed yd gwmwd}}/ tx acg t[H baEÅ
awoH tnwdw, d¬ meH y&dAmÁ ZumeH bmodwH ae0 tbdeE´ð eyÜ#ad uúmoð? tebdeE´w d mG tyÜ#ad uúmodwmG
O|m,moem yuúrð ]]b*0awm oEÅad u {wó bmodwó tw¬H tmZmedómrD}}wd/ (tH 3-185)

jrefrmjyefthH ... jrwfpmG bk&m;µ (y&AkZd w f Ydk \ tm&mrfü tuREkyf x f idk af epOf) xkt d cgrSm pka0; xkid af evsuf pnf;a0;
aeukeaf om xkt d nwdw, d¬ y&AkZd w
f Ydk \ þokYd aom Mum;jzwfpum; jzpfay:ygonf? ]]igh½iS w f Ydk µwpkH wa,mufaom
yk*Kd¾ vfonf Oyg'gef t<uif;½Sv d suf aojim;tH?h xko d Ydk aomyk*Kd¾ vftvk;H pko H nf i&JrS vk;H 0 rvGwaf o;? wd&pd mä ef
tjzpfrS vk;H 0rvGwaf o;? Nydwmå tjzpfrS vk;H 0 rvGwaf o;? tyg,f 'k*w ¾ o
d Ydk usa&mufjcif;rS vk;H 0 rvGwaf o;}}[k þ
Mum;jzwf pum; jzpfay:ygonf? xkt d cgrSm jrwfpmG bk&m;µxkt d nwdw, d¬ y&AkZd w f Ydk \ pum;ukd tuREkyf o f nf
rESpo f uf vufrcHcyhJ g? wm;vJ rwm;jrpfcyhJ g? jrwfpmG bk&m;\ txHrmS þ Mum;jzwfpum;\ teufudk trSef
od&rSmbJ[k atmufarhí xkpd um;ukd rESpo f uf vufrcHcb hJ J rwm;jrpfcb hJ J ae&mrS xí zJcgG cJyh gonf[k t½Sif
om&dyMk wmu avQmuf\/

au p om&dyw k å tnwdw, d¬ m y&dAmÁ Zum Amvm tAswåm? au p o.Oyg'daooH 0g o.Oyg'daoaomwd


ZmedóEÅ?d tEkyg'daooH 0g tEkyg'daoaomwd ZmedóEÅ?d e0 ,dar om&dyw k å yk*v
¾ m o.Oyg'daoom umvH
uk½rk mem y&drw
k må ed&,m? y&drw
k må wd&pämea,med,m? y&drwk må aywå0d o
d ,m? y&drwk må tyg,'k*w
¾ 0d ed yd gwm/ (tH
3-185)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 121

om&dyw k ?å om&dyMk wm/ tnwdw, d¬ m? omoemawmfrS wjcm;wyg; t,l½u dS ek af om/ Amvm? rodwwf
rvdrm® ukeaf om/ t.Aswåm? ruRrf;usifuek af om/ y&dAmÁ Zum? y&AkZd w f Ydk onf/ au p? oOyg'daooyk*Kd¾ vfç tEkyg
'daooyk*Kd¾ vfEiS çhf tyg,*wdy&drw k å tjzpfç uko d ad omÓPft&mü tb,foYdk aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk ayenf;/ (xkt d odOmPf
ESihf y&AkZd wf Ydk bmrQ rqkid ?f olwYdk \ t&myifr[kw[ f k qkv
d \ dk / aupü udð o'´gonf *&[m teufü jzpf\)/ au
p? tb,foYdk aom yk*Kd¾ vfrsm;jzpfMuí/ oOyg'daooH 0g? Oyg'geft<uif;½Sad om yk*Kd¾ vfurdk v l nf;/ o.Oyg'daoaom
wd? oOyg'daoo yk*Kd¾ vf[í l / ZmedóEÅ?d odEidk u f ek vf wHeh nf;/ tEkyg'daooH 0g? Oyg'gef t<uif;r½Sad omyk*Kd¾ vfudk
rlvnf;/ tEkyg'daoaomwd? tEkyg'daooyk*Kd¾ vf[í l / ZmedóEÅ?d odEidk u f ek v
f wHeh nf;/ (y&AkZd w f Ydk onf or®morÁK'¨
bk&m;ç yapöuAk'g¨ ç qVmbdn y#dorÇ'd gywå &[EÅmwkYd jzpfMuí odEidk Mf urnfavm? olwYdk bmrQ rodEidk Mf u[k
qkvd \ dk / þ0gus 2-ckonf? rlvyPÖmo plV[w¬yd a'gyrokwüf vmaom ]]aumpm[H abm? aump orPó
a*gwró ynma0,swå, d H Zmedómrd}}[laom 0guswkYd uo hJ Ydk ? ESrd cf sí qkad om pum;aywnf;/ xkYd aMumifh yXr
0gusü awp-[lí¤if;ç 'kwd,0gusü aupd-[lí¤if;ç ½Sad om ygXfrmS cRwf,iG ;f aeaom ygXfomwnf;/) /
om&dyw k ?å om&dyMk wmµ/ o.Oyg'daoom? Oyg'gef t<uif;tusef ½Su d ek v f suf/ umvH uk½rk mem? aojcif;ukd ûyukef
aom/ £ar e0 yk*v ¾ m? þ qkdvwHhaom t&d,myk*dK¾ vf 9-a,mufwYdkonf/ ed&,m? i&Jr?S 0g? i&Jü jzpfjcif;rS/
y&drw k må ? vk;H 0 vGwaf jrmufuek \ f / wd&pämea,med,m? wd&pämefrsK;d ü jzpfjcif;rS/ y&drw k må ? vk;H 0vGwaf jrmufuek \ f /
aywå0d o d ,m? Nydwmå bküH jzpfjcif;rS y&drw k må ? vk;H 0 vGwaf jrmufuek \ f / tyg,'k*w ¾ 0d ed yd gwm? tyg,f'*k w ¾ od Ydk
usa&mufjcif;rS/ y&drw k må ? vk;H 0 vGwaf jrmufuek \ f /

þokYd rdeYf awmfrNl yD;vQif xktd &d,m 9 a,mufudk tus,f a0bef a[mMum;awmfr\ l / xkd 9 a,mufrSm ...
1-tEÅ&my&deAd mÁ ,D? 2-Oy[pöy&deAd mÁ ,D? 3-tocFg&y&deAd mÁ ,D? 4-oocFg& y&deAd mÁ ,D? 5-O'¨aH omwtued|*grD?
þum; tem*grf yk*Kd¾ vfcsnf;wnf;/ tEÅ&my&deAd mÁ ,D ponfjzpfrnfh tem*grfwYdk udk ,lav/ 6-ou'g*grf? 7-
{uADZaD omwmyef? 8-aumvHaumvaomwmyef? 9-owåu©wåKy&r aomwmyef/ þ 9-a,mufaywnf;/xkad emif
qufvufí atmufygpum;ukv d J rdeYf awmfrjl yef\/ ¤if;onfomvQif þt&mü rSwo
f m;&ef vk&d if;pum;aywnf;/

e wm0g,H om&dyw k å "r®y&d,ma,m y#dbmod bduL© eH bduK© eDeH OygoumeH OygodumeH/ wH udóa[
wk¿ rm,drH "r®y&d,m,H okwmG yrm'H tm[&ðow l /d tydpm,H r,m om&dyw k å "r®y&d,ma,m yO§m"dygÜ a,e
bmodawmwd/ (tH 3-187)

om&dyw k ?å om&dyMk wmµ/ bduL© eH? &[ef;wkYd tm;¤if;/ bduK© eDe?H &[ef;rde;f rwkYd tm;¤if;/ OygoumeH?
OygoumwkYd tm;¤if;/ OygodumeH? OygodumrwkYd tm;¤if;/ wm0? þar;cGe;f ray:vmrD a½S;OD;pGm/ t,H "r®y&d,m
a,m? oOyg'daoo t&d,mwkYd \ tyg,frS vk;H 0vGwaf jrmufaMumif;ukd az:jyaom þw&m;a'oemonf/ e y#d
bmod? rxifay:cJah o;/ (ra[mMum;bl;ao;[k qkv d \dk / e wm0g,H om&dyw k å "r®y&d,ma,m y#dbmoDwd
tyÜ#b d meHemr b*0awm ew¬?d ewm0g[H £rH "r®y&d,m,H uaxodEdÅ t,H yaew¬ taw¬m/ / e wm0g,H
om&dyw k å "r®y&d,ma,m y#dbmoDw?d [l&mü/ b*0awm? jrwfpmG bk&m;tm;/ tyÜ#b D meH emr? rxifay:jcif;
rnfonf/ ew¬?d r½Sad cs/ ye? trSet f m;jzifh aomfum;/ t[H? igbk&m;onf/ £rH "r®y&d,m,H? þw&m;a'oemuk/d
wm0? ar;cGe;f ray:rD a½S;OD;pGm/ e uaxoð? ra[mMum;cJah o;/ £wdt,H? þonfvQif/ {w¬? þpum;&yfü/
taw¬m? qkv d &dk if;teufaywnf;/ t|uxm)/ wH? xko d Ydk rxifcjhJ cif; ra[mcJjh cif;onf/ udó a[wk? tb,fh
aMumifeh nf;[lru l m;/ £rH "r®y&d,m,H okwmG ? þw&m;a'oemukd emMum;ukeí f / 0g? emMum;&aomaMumif/h aw?
xkd oOyg'daoo t&d,m yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk onf/ yrm'H rm tm[&ðo?k arhavsmhjcif;ukd raqmif,l ygapukev f if/h 0g?
arhavsmhjcif;okYd ra&mufygapukev f if/h £wd? þokYd aom &nf½, G cf sufaMumifah ywnf;/ (rm £rH "r®y&d,m,How k mG
yrm'H tm[&ð olwd r,H ud& pwl[d tyga,[d rkwmå wdOy&d t&[wåwm¬ , 0D&, d H tua&mEÅm rm yrm'H tmyZÆð
ok/ / rm £rH "r®y&d,m,H okwmG yrm'Htm[&ð olw?d [lonfum;/ r,H? igwkYd onf/ pwl[d tyga,[d? tyg,f
av;yg;wkYd r/S rkwmå ud&? vGwaf jrmufuek Nf yDw/hJ £wd? þokYd ESv;Hk oGi;f ukeí f / Oy&dt&[wåwm¬ ,? txuf
t&[wåzv dk tf usKd;iSg/ 0D&,d H tua&mEÅm? vkYH vukd rûyukeo f nf jzpfí/ yrm'H? arhavsmhjcif;okYd / rm tmyZÆo ð ?k
ra&mufyg apukev f if/h t|uxm)/ /om&dyw k ?å om&dyMk wmµ/ tydp? arhavsmjh cif;okYd ra&mufMuap&ef ra[mbJ
xm;oifah omfv/J t,H "r®y&d,ma,m? þ w&m; a'oemawmfu/dk yO§m"dygÜ a,e? ]]tar; ½Su d tajz ½SNd rJ}}[laom
ar;cGe;f \ oabmaMumif/h r,m? igbk&m;onf/ bmodawm? a[mtyfayownf;/ (yO§m"dygÜ a,e bmodawmwd
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 125

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© ?d ,xm ½lyg, "r®wm, 'd|o d rÜaEém yk*a¾ vm
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0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 126

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D w
© ?d ,xm½lyg, Avwm, 'd|o
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(7) yke p y&H bdua© 0 t&d,om0aum £wd y#doOöu


d w
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ykxZk aÆ e[d/ (ygVd)

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ocFg½kayu©m, wdub © ma0 owd udavoyÜ[mae orw¬ó r*¾ó orÇ0awm wóm wdub © m0
'óew¬H a00peya'[d o[ 'VH uwGm rlvy'ged 0kwmå ed/ zvó ye ed ½kóm[bma0e oEÅobm0wåm
r*¾g,wåwmå p rE´bw l myd ocFg½kayu©m zvó ypöa,m a[mwDwd 'óew¬H rlvy'gae0 0kwmå eDwd a0'dwAÁmed/
(y#do|H 1-252)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 128

ocFg½kayu©m, wdub © ma0 owd? ocFg½kayu©m\ xufonft h jzpf ½Svd wfaomf/ 0g? ocFg½kayu©m xuf
oefvQif/ udavoyÜ[mae orw¬ó r*¾ó orÇ0awm? udavomukd y,fprG ;f Ekid af om r*f\ jzpfay:Ekid jf cif;
aMumif/h wóm wdub © m0'óew¬?H r*f\ taMumif;jzpfaom xko d cFg½kayu©m\ xufonft h jzpfujdk yjcif;iSg/
a00peya'[do[? *wðpaom y&d,m,fa00kpf (10)yk'w f Ydk EiS w
hf uG/ 'VH uwGm? NrJNrHpmG ûyí/ rlvy'ged? OyÜg'H
paom t&if;cH ig;yk'w f Ydk u/dk 0kwmå ed? r*f0g&ü a[mtyfuek \ f / zvó ye? zkv d o f nfum;/ ed½ó k m[bma0e
oEÅobm0wåm p? tm;xkwjf cif; uif;onft h jzpftm;jzifh Nidro f ufaom oabm½Sjd cif;aMumif¤h if;/ r*¾g,wåwmå p?
&NyD;aom r*fEiS hf pyfí jzpfay:&jcif;aMumif¤h if;/ (topf jzpfay:ap&wJh w&m;txl;tqef;r[kw?f &NyD; r*fuydk if rSí D
xkEd iS hf tvm; wlpmG omvQif aemufxyf jzpfay:vm&aom w&m;a[mif; jzpfaomaMumif[ h k qkv
d \
dk )/ /rE´bw l myd?
EkYH pmG yif jzpfjim;aomfv/J (tydo'´g *&[maZmwuwnf;? EkYH aomfvJ zkv d u f dk jzpfapEkid yf g\? xufvQiu f m; qkb d ,
G f
r½SNd yD[k qkv d \dk )/ ocFg½kayu©m? onf/ zvó ypöa,m a[mwd? zkv d t f m; aus;Zl;ûywwfay\/ £wd 'óew¬H?
þokYd jyjcif;iSg/ rlvy'ged {0? OyÜg'H paom t&if;cH ig;yk'w f Ydk udk omvQif/ 0kwmå ed? zvormywf 0g&ü a[mtyf
uke\ f / £wd a0'dwAÁmed? þokYd ot d yfuek \
f /

zvormywfudk xyfumxyfum tBudrrf sm;pGm 0ifpm;Ekid af omtcgü? þ y#dorÇ'd gr*f t|uxmpum;ESihf


nDpmG yif ocFg½kayu©mÓPf tvGerf xufoefaomfv?J zkv
d o
f Ydk a&mufomG ;onfudk rsufarSmufawGU&í qk;H jzwfEidk &f m
\/

zkv
d 0f ifpm;jcif;\tusKd;um; ... avmuü rif;rsm;ewfrsm;onf rdrw d Ydk \uk, d yf idk jf zpfaom rif;pnf;pdrf
csrf;omç ewf pnf;pdrf csrf;omçwkYd udk cHpm;ukeo f uJo h Ydk ? t&d,mwkYd onfvnf; rdrw d Ydk \uk, d yf idk jf zpfaom zkv
d cf sr;f om
edAmÁ ef csrf;om [laom avmukw&å m csrf;omukd rsufarSmufüyif cHpm;jcif; tusKd;iSg? ]]þrQaom umvtwGi;f ü
zkv
d pf wd u f o dk m jzpfapvsuf aernf}}[k a½S;tzkYd uyif ykid ;f jcm; "d|mefí tvk½d w dS idk ;f aom cPü zvormywfudk
0ifpm;uke\ f / zkvd 0f ifpm;cku
d íf jzpfcsnf ysufcsnfEiS hf rwnfwahH om ocFg&'ku[ © o l rQrS uif;qdw&f mokYd a&mufvsuf
Nidr;f csrf;pGm ae&jcif;tusKd;½S\ d / xkYd jyifç r*fzv
dk of Ydk a&mufNyD;cgp yk*Kd¾ vfrmS zkv
d o f Ydk tBudrBf udraf &mufjcif;ç zkv d üf
Mumjrifph mG wnfjcif;ç wkYd jzifh q&morm;ESiçhf oDwif;ok;H abmfwYdk tm; pdwcf sap&jcif; tusKd;vJ ½Sad y\/

zvormywfoYdk a&mufyHk ... a'G acg tm0kaom ypö,m tedrw d må , apawm0drw k ,då m ormywå, d m oAÁed
rdwmå eOö treoduma&mç tedrw d må , p "mwk,m reoduma&m-[laom r[ma0'v’ow k f ygVdEiS t
hf nD ½kyaf 0'em
onm ocFg& 0dnmPf [laom ocFg&edrw d f tm½kw
H Ydk udk ½Irw
S af epOfrmS yif xkd ocFg&edrwd f tm½kH tm;vk;H ukd
pGeYf vw
T Nf yD;vQif ocFg&edrw
d f uif;qdwvf suf Nidro
f uf Nidr;f at;aom edAmÁ ef"mwfoYdk pdwf a&mufomG ;aom tcgü
zvormywfoYdk a&muf\/ 0ifpm;ykH tpOfudk atmufyg 0do'k rd̈ *fjzifh odtyf\/

zvormywåwad¬ ue [d t&d,om0aue &a[m*awe y#dov’aD ee O',AÁ,m'd0aoe ocFg&m


yódwAÁm/ wóy0wåmEkyAk 0Á yd óeó ocFg&m&r®P a*gMwbkÓPmeEÅ&m zvormywå0d aoe eda&ma" pdwHå
tayÜw/d zvormywåed Ed w
é m , apw¬ aou©ómyd zvar0 OyÜZw
Æ ?d e ra*¾g/ (2-342)

t&d,m\ 0dyóemonf O',AÁ,OmPfrS ponf

zvormywåwad¬ ue t&d,om0aue? zkv d f 0ifpm;vkad om t&d,mom0uonf/ y#dov’aD ee &a[m*aw


e? taygif; tazmfrS zJcgG í wuk, d x
f nf; ude;f atmif;vsuf qdwNf idr&f mü wnfonf jzpfí/ ocFg&m? jzpf ysufqJ
½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd u/dk O',AÁ,m'd0aoe yódwAÁm? O',AÁ,OmPf ponfwYdk tvkt d m;jzifh ½IrSwftyfukef\/
(t&d,myk*Kd¾ vf 0dyóem½IvQif O',AÁ,OmPfupí jzpfay:NrJwnf;? xkYd aMumifh þokYd qadk yonf)/ y0wåmEkyAk Á
0dyóeó? ocFg½kayu©mwkid af tmif jzpfay:NyD;aom 0dyóemÓPf tpOf½adS om/ 0g? 0dyóemÓPf tpOftwkid ;f
jzpfay:NyD;aom/ wó xkt d &d,mtm;/ ocFg&m&r®Pa*gMwbkÓPmeEÅ&m? ocFg&ukd tm½kûH yaom a*gMwblÓPf\
tjcm;rJüh / /(y#dorÇ'd gr*fudk rSí D þü a*gMwbl [k qkad yonf/ y|mef;ygVdawmfüum; ocFg&ukd tm½kHûyaom þ
ÓPfu?dk tEkavmrÓPf[í l om a[mawmfr\ l / xkYd aMumifyh if 0do'k rd̈ *f aemufyidk ;f ü ]]a*gMwblwd apw¬tEkavmrH
a0'dwAÁ/H 0kwH¬ a[wH y|mae t&[awm tEkavmrH zvormywå, d m teEÅ&ypöa,e ypöa,m? aou©meH
tekavmrH zvormywå, d m teEÅ&ypöa,e ypöa,mwd}}[k qufí rdeYf qjdk yefayonf)/ / zvormywå0d aoe?
zkv
d o f Ydk a&mufonfh tvktd m;jzif/h pdw?Hå pdwo
f nf/ eda&ma" tayÜw?d ocFg&csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ eftm½küH 0ifa&muf\/
p? qufO;D tH?h {w¬? þt&mü/ zvormywåed Ed w é m,? zvormywfoYdk ñTwo f nf\ tjzpfaMumif/h aou©ómyd?
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 129

aou© yk*Kd¾ vftm; aomfv/J (tydo'´g *&[maZmwu? taou© &[EÅmrSm qkb


d ,
G f r½Sd [lv)dk / zvar0 OyÜZw
Æ ?d
zkv
d o
f mvQif jzpfay:\/ e ra*¾g? txufr*fum; rjzpfay:ay/

t&d,myk*Kd¾ vf 0dyóem½IvQif tjzpftysufrpS í xifay:\/ tjzpftysufudk odjrifaom O',AÁ,ÓPfrS


pí tpOftwkdif; 0dyóemÓPfrsm; jzpfay:NyD;vQif rMumrDyif ocFg½kayu©mÓPf jzpfay:wwf\/ okdYjzpfíç zkdvf0if
pm;&ef 0dyóem ½Iaom t&d,mtm; O',AÁ,ÓPfrS pí ocFg½kayu©mwkid af tmif 0dyóemÓPfrsm; tpOftwkid ;f
jzpfay:uke\ f / ocFg½kayu©m tm;jynfah omtcgü tEkavmrÓPf jzpfay:NyD;vQif rSwo f t d yfqJ ocFg&tm½kHukd
pGeYf vwT í
f ocFg& csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwaf om edAmÁ ef tm½kx H oJ Ydk pw
d o
f nf ajy;0if oGm;ouJo h Ydk jzpf\/ xkdpdwf\ jzpfyHk
onf a½S;r*fjzpfpOftcgu pdw\ f jzpfyEHk iS hf tvm;wl\? a½S;u jzpfb;l aom r*f\tusK;d jzpfaomaMumif?h ¤if;pdwu f dk
zkv
d pf w
d f [kac:onf/ a½S;ujzpfb;l aom zkv d pf w
d rf sKd;ukd arQmfvifí h 0dyóem½IaomaMumifh jzpfb;l aom zkv d pf w
d f
rsK;d om jzpfay:ayonf? rarQmftyfaom txuf r*fpw d o f nfum; xkt d cgü rjzpfay:vmay/ tu,fí txuf r*fudk
&&efom &nfoef arQmfvifv h suf 0dyóem ½Ijim;tH?h xkt d cgü? 0dyóemÓPfonf or®y"Ü mefupd aö v;csufudk NyD;ap
vsuf jzpfaomaMumifh zkv d t f wGu½f aI om 0dyóemrS xl;jcm;pGmvJjzpf\/ txuftxuf 0dyóemÓPfrsm;okdY
a½S;uvkd vG,u f pl mG ra&mufbv J J ½Sw d wf\/ xkYd aMumifçh r[m#Dumü ]]tanma,0 0dyóempma&m t&d,r*¾g0
a[m? tanm zvormywåt d m0a[m=t&d,mr*fudk jzpfapwwfaom 0dyóem\ jzpfyu Hk wyg;wjcm; omwnf;?
zvormywfudk jzpfapwwfaom 0dyóem\ jzpfyu Hk wyg;wjcm;omwnf;}}[k rdeYf qadk yonf/ xkd r*ftwGuf
0dyóemÓPf tqifq h ifwh ufí ocFg½kayu©mÓPf &ifo h ef jynfph v Hk Qifum; &nfarQmftyfaom txufr*fomvQif
jzpfay:\? r&nftyfaom zkv d pf wd rf sKd;um; rjzpfay:wwfay/ okYd aomfvJ txufr*fudk jzpfapEkid af vmufatmif ÓPf
r&ifah o;ygrlum; ocFg½kayu©momvQif xyfum xyfum jzpfay:vsuf ½S\ d / xkod Ydkaom umvü &NyD;zkv d üf aumif;
pGm tmv, rjywfaom tcsKUd yk*Kd¾ vfonf &bl;aomzkv d w f &m;ü pdwñ f w
T rf w
d wf\? pdwñ f w T rf jd cif;aMumif?h &bl;
jzpfb;l aom zkv d pf w
d rf sKd;onfvnf; jzpfay:vmwwfao;\/ xkYd aMumifçh txuf r*fzv dk t f wGuf tm;xkwv f adk om
olonf tm;xkwrf nf&h uf tykid ;f tjcm; twGi;f ü ]]&NyD;aom zkv d w f &m;ukd r0ifpm;awmhb;l }}[k aumif;aumif;
tmv, jzwfxm;&m\? tm;xkwpf Ofü &NyD; zkv d of Ydk pdwrf ñTwrf ad p&efvJ txl; owdûy&m\/

ormywf\wnfwyhH Hk ... wa,m acg tm0kaom ypö,m tedrw d må , apawm 0drw k ,då m Xdw, d m? oAÁerd wd må
eOö treoduma&mç tedrw d må , p "mwk,m reoduma&mç ykaAÁ p tbdocFga&m - [laom r[ma0'v’ow k Ef iS hf
tnD ig;rdepfcefY q,fred pfcefY jzpfapç qJih g;rdepfcefY em&D0ufcefYjzpfapç wem&DcefY ESpef m&DcefY jzpfapç xkx d uf
tvGet f ,kwjf zpfapç zvormywfü wnfvadk omt&d,monf a½S;tzkYd u ]]þrQumvywfv;Hk zvormywf
wnfwyhH gap}}[k ykid ;f jcm;"d|mefí? 0dyóem ½Irw S tf yf\/ ½IrwS q f üJ um; xkzd vormywfwnfw&hH ef aMumifMh urpku d f
tyf? rarQmfvifh rawmifw h tyf? ½IrwS ½f o
Hk m ½Irw S t f yf\/ xkod Ydk ½Irw S af evQif? ocFg½kayu©mÓPf tm;jynfah omtcg
ü a½S;u ykid ;f jcm; "d|mefxm;onfh umvywfv;Hk ? ocFg&edrw d t f vk;H pku H dk tm½krH ûybJ ocFg& csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwaf om
edAmÁ ef"mwfüomvQif pdwo f nf ouf0ifvsuf wnfae\? xko d Ydk yidk ;f jcm;xm;orQ umvywfv;Hk þzvormywfonf
wnfwv hH suf ½S\
d / okYd aomfvJ þokYd ykid ;f jcm;xm;orQ umvywfv;Hk wnfwjhH cif;onf 0dyóemÓPf xufoefí
Ekid ef if;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdkrmS om jynfph w Hk wfayonf? rxufoef rEkid ef if;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdkrmS ykid ;f jcm;wkid ;f rjynfph o Hk nf
vnf; ½Sdwwfay\/ a½S;tzkYd u ykid ;f jcm;"d|mefru I dk rûybJ 0ifpm;vQiu f m; Mumjrifph mG rwnfonfuom rsm;wwf\/
0ifpm;cku d üf zkvd pf w
d \
f wnfMunfyHk orm"djzpfyu Hk dk 'oç{um'o t*Fw k &å ygVdwYdk ü atmufygtwkid ;f a[mawmfr\ l /

zkdvf0ifpm;ckdufü edAÁmefrSwyg; bmukdrQ rod

£"m eE´ bduK© {0HonD a[mwd ]]{wH oEÅH {wH yPDw?H ,'d'o H AÁocFg&oraxm oAÁLy"d-edóa*¾g
wPSmu©a,m 0d&ma*g eda&ma"m edAmÁ eEÅ}d }? {0H acg tmeE´ od,m bduK© aem wxm½layg orm"dy#dvmabm? ,xm
ae0 yx0d,H yx0donD tó? e tmyo®ð tmaygonD tó? e awZo®ð awaZmonD tó? e 0g,o®ð
0ga,monD tó? e tmumomeOöm,wae tmumomeOöm,weonD tó? e 0dnmPOöm,wae 0dnmPOöm
,weonD tó? e tmudOn ö m,wae tmudOn ö m,weonD tó? e ae0onmemonm,wae ae0onm
emonm,weonD tó? e £"avmau £"avmuonD tó? e y&avmau y&avmuonD tó? ,Hy'd |d H
okwH rkwH 0dnmwH ywåH y&da,odwH tEk0pd &dwH reom? wMwmyd e onD tó? onDp ye tómwd/ (tH 3-
263-523)
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 130

tmeE´m µ þ omoemawmfrmS &[ef;onf þokYd aom trSwo f nm½S\ d / onmjzpfyu Hk m;...]]tMuif edAmÁ ef
onf ocFg&tm;vk;H Nidr;f &mvJ [kw\ f ? Oy"d cE¨m tvk;H pku H dk pGeYf vw T &f mvJ[w k \ f ? wPSm uke&f mvJ[w k \ f ?
wyfrufrI jy,f&mvJ [kw\ f ? ocFg& csKyfNidr;f uG,af ysmuf&mvJ [kw\ f ? þ csKyfNidr;f rI edAmÁ efonf Nidro f ufay\
aumif;rGeaf y\}}[k þokdYaom trSwfonm½Sd\/ (þrQjzifh zkv d 0f ifpm;cku d üf tm½kûH yyku H dk jy\)/ / tmeE´mµ
ormywf0ifpm;aom &[ef;\ xko d YdkaomwnfMunfru I dk &jcif;onf þqkcd o hJ nft h wkid ;f ESv;Hk oGi;f vsuf jzpfEidk af y
\/ ,if;okYd aom wnfMunfrjI zpfpOfrmS yx0DuokP d ;f ü yx0D[k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d tmayguokP d ;f ü tmayg[k rSwrf v I J
r½S?d awaZmuokP d ;f ü awaZm[k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d 0ga,muokP d ;f ü 0ga,m[k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d (þav;yk'd jf zifh ½lypsmef
ESijhf ynfph o Hk l jzpfaomfvJ zkv d 0f ifpm;cku d üf ½lypsmefwYdk \ tm½krH sm;okYd pdwf ra&mufonfudk jy\)/ / tydik ;f tjcm;
r½Sad om aumif;uifynwfü tykid ;f tjcm;r½Sad om aumif;uif[k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d tydik ;f tjcm;r½Sad om 0dnmPfü tykid ;f
tjcm;r½Sad om 0dnmPf[k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d pk;d pOf;rQ r½So d nfü pk;d pOf;rQr½S[ d k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d ukejf ywfvrk wwf odraf rGU
aomonm\ tm½kjH zpfaom 0dnmPfü ]oEÅH yPDw}H [k rSwrf v I rJ ½S?d (þ av;yk'd jf zifh t½lypsmefEiS hf jynfph o Hk jl zpf
aomfvJ zkv d 0f ifpm;cku d üf t½lypsmefwYdk \ tm½krH sm;okYd pdwrf a&mufonfujdk y\)/ / rsufarSmufavmuü rsufarSmuf
avmu [k rSwrf v I J r½S?d rsufu, G af vmuü rsufu, G f avmu[k rSwrf v I J r½S?d (þESpyf 'dk jf zifh tbdnmpdwf omref
pdww f Ydk jzifh rsufarSmufç rsufu, G çf avmuESiphf yfí trSw&f rI BuHord I rjzpfonfujdk y\? xkYd aMumifçh zkv d 0f ifpm;ckud üf
rdr\ d uk, d pf w d rf pS í rsufarSmufavmu\ taMumif;ukv d J trSwrf &NyD? rodNyD? ewfjynf paom rsuu f ,G af vmu\
taMumif;ukv d J rpOf;pm;rdNyD)/ / tMuiftm½ku H dk jrifb;l \? Mum;bl;\? eHpm;awGUxdvsuf a&mufb;l \? BuHob d ;l
\? pdwEf v S ;Hk jzifh a&mufb;l \? ½SmrS;D bl;\? usupf m;bl;\? xkt d m½krH sKd;üvJ rSwo f m;rIr½S?d (þtyk'd jf zifh r*fzv dk f
jzpfcu dk rf S wyg;aom umvrSmuJo h Ydk awGUbl; odb;l aom y&rwf ynwftm½krH sKd;ü rBuHpnfrd ESv;Hk roGi;f rdonfudk
jy\)/ / okYd aomfvJ onmuif;onfum; r[kw?f rSwrf I onmvJ ½S\ d ? (þtyk'd jf zifh ocFg&csKyfNidr;f aom edAmÁ efudk
rSwo f v d suf ½So d nf[jk y\)/ / wjcm;wyg;aom tm½k[ H ol rQü rSwo f m;rI BuHord u I if;vsufç edAmÁ ef tm½küH omvQif
rSwrf I BuHord I ½Sad om xkd wnfMunfrI orm"dudk &jcif;onf þ qkcd o hJ nft h wkid ;f ESv;Hk oGi;f vsuf jzpfEidk af yonf-
[lí a[mawmfr\ l / (þum; ygVd\ jrefrmjyefwnf;)

{wH oEÅH {wH yPDwEÅo d EÅ oEÅEdÅ tayÜwmG edoEd ó


é 'd0oHyd pdwKå yÜga'goEÅH oEÅaH w0 y0wåw/d yPDwH
yPDwEÅd tayÜwmG edoEd ó é 'd0oHyd pdwKå yÜga'g yPDwH yPDwaH w0y0wåw/d (oAÁocFg&oraxmwd tm'Derd d
waó0 a00pemed/ oAÁocFg&oraxmwd tayÜwmG edoEd ó é [d 'd0oHyd pdwKå yÜga'g oAÁocFg&oraxmaw0
y0wåw/d ay/) edAmÁ eH edAmÁ eEÅd tayÜwmG edoEd ó é 'd0oHyd pdwKå yÜga'g edAmÁ eH edAmÁ eH aw0 y0wåww
D d oAÁaH ywH
zvormywåo d rm"ð oE¨m,0kw/Hå (¤if;\tzGihf t|uxm 3-288/ uGi;f twGi;f u pum;rsm;rSm tH| 2-101-
wdu*Fw
k &å t|uxmrS ,lí jznfph u G f jyifqifcsufrsm;aywnf;/)

{wH oEÅH {wH yPDwEÅ?d {wH oEÅH {wH yPDwH [l&mü t"dygÜ ,fum;/ oEÅH oEÅEdÅ tayÜwmG edoEd ó é ?
Nidrof ufonf Nidro f ufonf[k 0ifa&mufvsuf aeaom t&d,m\/ pdwKå yÜga'g? zkv d pf w
d Kå yÜg'fonf/ oEÅH oEÅaH w0?
Nidrof ufonf Nidro f ufonf [lí omvQi/f 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/ (zkv d 0f ifpm;cku d üf
Nidro f ufonf [k BuHjcif; ½Gwq f jdk cif;um;½So
d nf r[kwaf y? okYd aomfvJ Nidro f ufonfh taetm;jzifh tm½kûH yvsuf
zkv
d pf w d \f jzpfyuHk dk odapvkad omaMumifh þokYd jyqkad yonf/ þt"dygÜ ,fuzdk iG jhf yaom t|uxmukd a½S;r*fjzpfyt Hk &m
ü xkwjf ycJNh yD? aemuftyk'd rf sm;üvJ enf;wlyif odygav)/ /yPDwH yPDwEÅ?d ra&mif&h EJ idk af tmif aumif;rGeo f nf
aumif;rGeo f nf[/k tayÜwmG edoEd ó é ? 0ifa&mufvsufaeaom t&d,m\/ pdwåKyÜga'g? zkdvfpdwåKyÜg'fonf/ yPDwH
yPDwH aw0? aumif;rGeo f nf aumif;rGeo f nf [lí omvQi/f 'd0oH yd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/
oAÁocFg&oraxmwd tm'Deyd ?d oAÁocFg&oraxm tp½Sad om yk'w f Ydk onfvnf;/ waó0? oEÅ yPDw rnfaom
xked Ad mÁ ef\omvQif/ a00pemed? teufwl toHuJG jzpfaom pum;vS,w f Ydk aywnf;/ [d? zkv d pf w d jf zpfyuHk dk qufí
jyOD;tHh/ oAÁocFg&oraxmwd tayÜwmG edoEd ó é ? ocFg& tm;vk;H Nidr;f onf[k 0ifa&mufvsuf aeaom t&d,m\/
pdwKå yÜga'g? zkv d pf w d Kå yÜg'fonf/ oAÁocFg& oraxmaw0? ocFg& tm;vk;H Nidr;f onf [líomvQif/ 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d
waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/ (ay,smvukd teuf az:OD;tH)h / / oAÁLy"deó d a*¾gwd tayÜwGmedodEéó pdwåKyÜga'g?
Oy"d cE¨m tvk;H pku H dk pGeYf vw T o
f nf[k 0ifa&mufvsuf aeaomt&d,m\ zkv d pf wd Kå yÜg'fonf/ oAÁLy"deó d a*¾gaw0?
Oy"dcE¨mtvk;H pku H dk pGeYf vw T o f nf [líomvQif/ 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/ wPSmu©a,mwd
tayÜwmG edoEd ó é pdwKå yÜga'g? qmavmifrI wPSm uke&f m [k 0ifa&mufvsuaf eaom t&d,m\ zkv d f pdwKå yÜg'f
onf/ wPSmu©a,maw0? wPSm uke&f m [lí omvQif/ 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/ 0d&ma*gwd
tayÜwmG edoEd ó é pdwKå yÜga'g? wyfrufrjI y,f&m[k 0ifa&mufvsufaeaom t&d,m\zkv d pf wd Kå yÜg'fonf/ 0d&ma*g
aw0? wyfrufrjI y,f&m[líomvQi/f 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvjJ zpfay:\/ eda&ma"m eda&ma"mwd tayÜwmG
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 131

edoEd ó é pdwKå yÜga'g? ocFg&csKyfu,


G o
f nf csKyfu,G o f nf[k 0ifa&mufvsufaeaom t&d,m\ zkv d pf w
d Kå yÜg'fonf/
eda&ma"m eda&ma"maw0? ocFg& csKyfu, G o
f nf csKyfu, G of nf [lí omvQif/ 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ
jzpfay:\/ (þwGif ay,smv qk;H onf)edAmÁ eH edAmÁ eEÅd tayÜwmG edoEd ó é pdwKå yÜga'g? ocFg& qif;&J Nidr;f onf
Nidr;f onf[k 0ifa&mufvsuaf eaom t&d,m\ zkv d pf w
d Kå yÜg'fonf/ edAmÁ eH edAmÁ eH aw0? ocFg& qif;&JNidr;f onf Nidr;f
onf[í l omvQif/ 'd0oHyd y0wåw?d waeYv;Hk aomfvJ jzpfay:\/ £wd? þokdY/ {wH oAÁHyd? þtvkH;pkHukdvJ/ zv
ormywåo d rm"ð oE¨m,? zvormywf orm"dudk &nfí/ 0kw?Hå a[mawmfrt l yf\/

ormywfrS xykH ... a'G acg tm0kaom ypö,m tedrw d må , apawm0drw


k ,då m 0k|mem,? oAÁerd w d må eOö
reoduma&mç tedrw d må , p "mwk,m treoduma&m-[laom r[ma0'v’ow k Ef iS hf tnD ocFg& csKyfNidr;f
uif;qdwaf om edAmÁ ef tm½ku H dk pGeYf vw
T í
f ½kyçf a0'emç onmç ocFg& 0dnmPf [laom ocFg&edrw d f ig;yg;wkYd wiG f
wyg;yg;ukd tm½kûH yrdaom tcgü zvormywfrS x\/ atmufygrSm þygVd\ tzGi0hf o d 'k rd̈ *faywnf;/ (2-343)

oAÁo*Fg[dupum;

oAÁerd wd må eEÅd ½lyedrw


d aå 0'em onmocFg&0dnmPedrw
d må eH/ umrOö e oAÁmaea0wmed {uawm
reodua&mwd? oAÁo*Fg[du0aoe yaewH 0kw/Hå wo®m ,H b0*Fó tm&r®PH a[mwd? wH reodua&mawm
zvormywå0d |k meH a[mwd/

oAÁerd w d må eEÅ?d tvk;H pkaH om edrw d w f Ydk udk [l&mü/ ½lyedrw d å a0'emonm ocFg& 0dnmP edrw d må eH? ½kyf tm½kH
edrdwfç a0'emtm½kHedrdwfç onm tm½kHedrdwfç ocFg& tm½kHedrdwfç 0dnmPftm½kH edrdwfç wkdYukd/ þum; teuf/ p?
qufí½Sif;vif;tHh/ oAÁmed {0 {wmed? þocFg&edrw d f tvk;H pkw H Ydk uodk mvQif/ {uawm? wûydief uf waygif;xnf;/
umrH e reodua&mwd? tu,fí ESv;Hk roGi;f Ekid o f nfum; rSeaf y\/ ye? okYd aomfv/J oAÁo*Fg[du0aoe?
ormywfrS xaom pdw\ f tm½kH jzpfxu dk af om edrw d t f m;vk;H ukd odr;f usKH;í qkad om pum;\ tvkdtm;jzifh/ {wH?
oAÁerd w d må eH-[laom þyk'u f /dk 0kw?Hå a[mtyfay\/ /(aemufq;Hk zkv d af Zm\ tjcm;rJüh jzpfaom b0ifpw d f
wckco k nf ocFg&edrw d f wyg;yg;uko d m tm½kûH yayonf? ocFg&edrw d f ig;yg;vk;H uku d m; waygif;xnf; tm½krH ûyay/
okYd aomfvJ zkv d 0f ifpm;aom t&d,mcyford ;f wkYd \ oEÅmefüjzpfaom b0if trsKd;rsKd;\ edrw d tf m½kH tvk;H pku
H dk t<uif;rJh
pkv
H ifap&ef &nf½, G í f ? oAÁerd w d må eH-[k a[mawmfral yonf/ ypöu0© yd óem\ t&mrSmvJ ½kyf emrf cE¨mwyg;yg;ukd
omvQif tm½kûH yEkid o f nfç ½IEidk o
f nf rSeyf gvsuf awblru ocFg&tvk;H pku H dk ½Ionf [lí¤if;? cE¨mig;yg;ukd ½Ionf
[lí¤if; þokYd ponfjzifh rdeYf qt dk yfaom ygVd t|uxm pum;wkYd uv dk J enf;wlyif oAÁo*Fg[du pum; [líom
rSw&f m\)/ / wo®m? ocFg&edrw d f wyg;yg;uko d m tm½kûH yEkid jf cif; [laom xkt d aMumif;aMumif/h ,H? tMuif edrw d f
onf/ b0*Fó tm&r®PH a[mwd? b0if\ tm½kHjzpf\/ wH? xkd edrw d u
f /dk reodua&mawm? b0ifpw d f jzpfvsuf
ESv;Hk oGi;f rdaom oltm;? zvormywå0d |k meH? zvormywfrS xjcif;=Ek;d jcif;onf/ a[mwd? jzpfay\/

b0ifpw d f jzpfay:vQif zvormywfrS xonf rnf\/ okYd aomfvJ omref t&d,monf xkb d 0ifpw d uf dk
xif½mS ;od&ef cJ,Of;\/ b0if\ tjcm;rJüh zkv d f edAmÁ efwYdk udk qifjcifrI jzpfapç wjcm;wyg;ukd ESv;Hk oGi;f rI jzpfapç
½Irw S rf I jzpfapç qufí jzpfay:\? qifjcifç ESv;Hk oGi;f ç ½Irw S af om xkpd w
d rf sm;ukd omvQif xif½mS ; odv,G af yonf/
okYd jzpfí xko d Ydk aom pdwrf sm; jzpfay:aom tcgü zvormywfrS xNyD[k rSw&f m\/

tcsKdU yk*Kd¾ vfonf zkv d f 0ifpm;&ef ½Irw S v f Qif zkv


d of Ydk vJ vsifjrefpmG a&mufwwf\/ zkv d rf v
S J vsifjrefpmG
xwwf\? zkv d jf zpfcsnfwvSYJ ? ½Irw
S çf qifjcifcsnf wvSYJ tm;jzifh tBudrrf sm;pGm jzpfwwf\/ xkt d cgrSm 0ifpm;IüvJ
rEkid ef if;ç okwvJ r½So d çl jzpfvQif? zkv
d 0f ifpm;qJrmS yif xkx d dk tm½ku H v
dk J BuHoçd ½Irw
S Ef idk o
f nf [k xifrw S w
f wf\/
t½Sif r[marm*¾vmef rax&fjrwf\ xifrw S yf rHk sK;d yif [k ,loif\ h /

t½Sif r[marm*¾vmef rax&fjrwfu &[ef;wkYd tm; þokYd ajymMum;\/ igh½SifwkdY µ igonf odyÜdedum
jrpfurf;ü tmaeOÆorm"dudk 0ifpm;aepOfrmS jrpfxo J Ydk qif;oufNyD;vQiçf jyefwufuek af om qifwYdk\ om,mpGm
jrnfaom qifou H dk Mum;&onf[í l ajymMum;\/ tmaeOÆorm"d [lonfrSm ½ly t½ly pwkw¬psmef ig;yg;onf¤if;ç
xkid g;yg;wGif wyg;yg;ukd tajcyg'u ûyí 0ifpm;tyfaom t&[wåzv dk f orm"donf¤if;ç tmaeOÆorm"drnfonf[k
O'gef; t|uxmü zGijhf y\/ þ tmaeOÆorm"dudk 0ifpm;cku d üf um; rk;d êud;xpfou
H dk aomfvJ rMum;Ekid af umif;acs?
wpkw H ckaMumifh vIy½f mS ; ysufjy,fjcif; r½Sad om orm"daywnf;/ okYd jzpfí? xkd &[ef;wkYd u r,kaH omaMumif?h
jrwfpmG bk&m;tm; avQmufxm;avuke\ f / xkt
d cgü? jrwfpmG bk&m;u atmufyg twkid ;f qk;H jzwfcsuf csawmfral y\/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 132

rpifMu,faom zkdvform"dvJ ½SdaMumif;

taw¬.aom bdua© 0 orm"d? aom p acg t.y&doak '¨g=&[ef;wkYd µ arm*¾vmef0ifpm;tyfaom xkd tmaeOÆ
orm"donfum; [kwaf y\/ okYd aomfv?J xko d rm"donfum; tjynft h pkH aumif;pGm rpifMu,fay/ (tmaeOöorm"du
wvSYJ ? omrmefpw
d u
f wvSYJ tm;jzifh a&maESmvsuf ½Sad omaMumifh qifouH dk Mum;&ayonf[k qkvd adk y\)/

t½Sirf [marm*¾vmef rax&fjrwfonf &[ef;ûyí ckepf&ufajrmufü &[EÅm jzpfawmfr\ l ? &[EÅm jzpfNyD;p


xku
d mvü ormywfwYdk udk 0oD ig;yg;jzifh rEkid ef if;ao;rD pwkwp¬ smefudk 0ifpm;í xkpd smefrS xcku d üf qifou H dk
Mum;&\/ þokYd psmefrx S cku
d üf Mum;onfuydk if ormywf0ifpm;qJü Mum;onf[k xifrw S af wmfral Mumif;ukd 0denf;
t|uxmü zGijhf yawmfr\ l / þü pwkwp¬ smef[k omrmefqadk omfvJ &[EÅmjzpfNyD;pü 0ifpm;tyfaompsmef jzpfaom
aMumif?h t&[wåzv dk f pwkw¬ psmefuo
dk m ,loif\
h /

txl; aumufEw I cf suf ... jycJah om ygVdt|uxm qkid &f mpum;xJr?S ]]psmefrx
S cku
d üf qifou H Mdk um;onf?
þokYd Mum;onfuydk if ormywf0ifpm;qJü Mum;onf[k xifrw S of nf}}[laom pum;wkYd jzif?h ormywfrx S aom
tcgü a½S;OD;pGm ypöa0u©Pm rjzpfrí l wyg;aom odrI ESv;Hk oGi;f rIrsm;vJ jzpfwwfao;onf [k odtyf\/

t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfcsif; tqift


h wef;csif; wlaomfvJ tvk½d w
dS idk ;f aom cPü zkv
d 0f ifpm;Ekid jf cif;ç r0ifpm;Ekid jf cif;
tm;jzifh xl;jcm;ao;onfudk atmufyg Oy&dyPÖmo t|uxmjzifh odtyf\/

oww0d[m&D ESifh aemoww0d[m&D

a'G [d cDPmo0g oww0d[m&Dç aemoww0d[m&Dç p/ ww¬ oww0d[m&D ,H uOöd ur®H uwGmyd


zvormywåð ormyZÆw d Hk oauúmwd/ aemoww0d[m&D ye tyÜrwåauyd udapö udpyö o
Ü ak wm [kwmG zvormywåð
tayÜwHk e oauúmwd/ (r| 4-46)

cDPmo0g? &[EÅmwkYd onf/ oww0d[m&D? rjywfrpJ orx 0dyóemjzifh aeavh½adS om oww0d[m&D


yk*dK¾ vf¤if;/ aemoww0d[m&D p? rjywfrpJ orx 0dyóemjzifh aeavhr½Sad om aemoww0d[m&D yk*Kd¾ vf¤if;/
£wd? þokdY/ a'G? ESprf sKd;wkYd wnf;/ ww¬? xkd ESprf sKd;wkYd wiG /f oww0d[m&D? bm0emjzifh rjywf aeavh½adS om
&[EÅmonf/ ,H udOdö ur®H uwGmyd? wpkw H ckaomtrIudk ûyNyD;í aomfv/J zvormywåð ormyZÆw d Hk oauúmwd?
zvormywfudk 0ifpm;jcif;iSg pGr;f Ekid af y\/ (uwGmydü tydo'´gonf orÇm0emaZmwuwnf;? trIBuD;i,f wpkH
wckuadk MumifMh upkud x
f wk f ûyvkyNf yD;rSaomfvJ zkv
d uf dk 0ifpm;Ekid af o;\? bmukrd Q rvky&f bJ at;at;omom aepOfü
0ifpm;Ekid of nfrmS qkbd ,G rf ½SNd yD[k qkv
d \
dk )/ / aemoww0d[m&D ye? bm0emjzifh rjywfaeavhr½Sad om &[EÅm
onfum;/ tyÜrwåauyd udapö? udpö tao;ti,frQüaomfv/J udpyö o Ü ak wm [kwmG ? ûyvkyf tm;xkwNf yD;onf jzpfí?
ûyvkyf tm;xkwNf yD;vwfaomf/ zvormywåð tayÜw?Hk zvormywfoYdk 0ifa&mufjcif;iSg/ eoauúmwd? rpGr;f Ekid af wmh
acs/ /(þü tydo'´gonf *&[maZmwuwnf;/ rajymyavmufwhJ udpu ö av;ukd aomfvJ ûyvky&f vQif? zkv d o
f Ydk
a&mufatmif r0ifpm;Ekid af wmhNyD? udpö tBuD;tus,fudk ûyvky&f í r0ifpm;Ekid o f nfrmS qkbd ,
G f r½SNd yD [k qkv
d \dk /)/

xkt d |uxmüyif om"u0w¬Kukv d J þokYd xkwjf y\/ wynfo h mraP wyg;ESiçhf q&mrax&fBuD;wyg;
awmausmif;ü aeMu&mwGif rax&fBuD;rSmom ae&m&í omraPrSm ae&mr&bJ jzpfaeowJ/h rax&fBuD;rSm wynfh
omraP\ ae&mr&jcif;ukd BuHpnfvsuf ½Sad omaMumif?h xk0d gwGi;f rSm waeYrQ zkv d rf 0ifpm;Ekid b f ;l wJ/h wynfh
omraPrSmrlum; 0gwGi;f ok;H vywfv;Hk zkv d 0f ifpm;jcif;[laom aysmfarGUjcif;jzifh tcsdeuf ek af powJ/h 0guRwfaom
tcgrSm omraPu ]]t½Sib f &k m; µ awmausmif;rSmae&wm oifah vsmfyg&JUvm;}}[k ar;vQif? rax&fBuD;u]]ighrmS awmh
roifah vsmfygbl;uG,}f } [k ajzqko d wJ/h þ0w¬Kü omraPonf oww0d[m&D &[EÅmaywnf;? xkYd aMumifçh ae&m
r&jim;aomfvJ zkv d u f t
dk vk½d wdS idk ;f 0ifpm;Ekid af yonf/ q&m rax&fBuD;onfum;? aemoww0d[m&D &[EÅmaywnf;?
xkYd aMumifçh wynf\ h ae&mtwGuf BuHpnfaMumifMh u Asmyg&jzpf½rHk Qjzifh ormywfudk r0ifpm;Ekid b f ½J adS vonf/ okYd jzpf
ízvormywfudk tvk½d w dS idk ;f aomcPü 0ifpm;vkad omt&d,monf oww0d[m&Dy*k Kd¾ vf jzpfap&ef 0dyóemtvkyf
ukrd jywf tm;xkwv f suf aexkid &f m\/

zvormywf 0ifpm;ykH NyD;\/


0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 133

edAÁme uxm

,cktcgü r*fzv dk w
f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaomedAmÁ efudk tusOf;tm;jzifah z:jyygtH/h edAmÁ ef [lonfrmS bkeH ef;jymom'f
BuD;vJr[kw?f ûrdUBuD; jynfBuD;vJ r[kw?f tvif;a&mif t0if;a&mifvJ r[kw?f tMunf"mwf tat;"mwfvrJ [kw/f
tb,fah Mumifeh nf;[lr.l ..xkd bkeH ef; jymom'f ûrdU jynf tvif;a&mif t0if;a&mif tMunf"mwf tat;"mwfrsm;onf
t ocFw y&rwf w&m;r[kw?f xku d o f nftm;avsmpf mG ynwfw&m;ç ocFw y&rwfw&m;rsm;om jzpfaomaMumifh
aywnf;/trSet f m;jzifah omfum;...tocFw y&rwfw&m;jzpfaom edAmÁ efonf oEÅdvu©Pm-[kac:aomç]]udavomç
0#fqif;&JwYdk\ Nidr;f jcif;=uif;qdwjf cif;}} oabmrQomwnf;? 0docFg&- [lonfEiS t hf nDç rjywf jzpfysufavh½adS om
½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd \ vk;H 0uif;jcif; r½Sjd cif;oabmrQomwnf;/ ocFg&uif;í ocFg&wkYd rS ajymif;jyefqefYusib f ufjzpf
aomaMumifh xked Ad mÁ efudk ocFg&\ trnfwYdk rS ajymif;jyefûyívJ a[mjytyfayonf/ atmufygrSm y#dorÇ'd gr*f ygVd
awmfaywnf;/

OyÜga'g ocFg&m? tEkyÜga'g edAÁmeH/


y0wåH ocFg&m? tyÜ0wåH edAmÁ eH/
edrw
d Hå ocFg&m? tedrw
d Hå edAmÁ eH/
tm,l[em ocFg&m? tem,l[em edAmÁ eH/
y#doEd̈ ocFg&m? tyÜ#o d Ed̈ edAmÁ eH/ /(y#do-H 58)

OyÜga'g? jzpfjcif;½Sad om w&m;onf/ ocFg&m? ocFg&w&m;wkYd aywnf;/ tEkygÜ a'g? jzpfjcif;uif;aom w&m;
onf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efaywnf;/ y0wå?H rjywfjzpfaom ½kyef mrf tpOfonf/ ocFg&m? ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ tyÜ0wå?H
rjywfjzpfaom ½kyef mrftpOf uif;aom w&m;onf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efaywnf;/ edrw d ?Hå yko
H P²mef txnfu, dk f ½So
d vkd
yif xifay:aom w&m;onf/ ocFg&m? ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ tedrw d ?Hå yko
H P²mef txnfu, dk ½f o
dS vkd rxifay:aom
w&m;onf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efaywnf;/ tm,l[em? csrf;om aumif;pm;&ef&nfoefí tm;xkwjf cif;onf/ ocFg&m?
ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ tem,l[em? tm;xkwjf cif; uif;aomw&m;onf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efaywnf;/ y#doE¨?d a½S;b0
a½S;pdwEf iS hf pyfíjzpfjcif;onf/ ocFg&m? ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ tyÜ#o
d E¨?d pyfí jzpfjcif;uif;aom w&m;onf/ edAmÁ eH?
edAmÁ efaywnf;/

þygXfwYdk jzifh ]]a½S;OD;pGm jzpfjcif;ç rjywf jzpfjcif;ç yko H P²meftxnfu, dk f ½Sod vkyd ifxifay:jcif;ç tm;xkwf
jcif;ç a½S;pdwEf iS hf qufpyfí jzpfjcif;ç ½Sad om}} ½kyf emrf ocFg&wkdY\ vk;H 0uif;Nidr;f aom oabmukd edAmÁ ef[jk y\/
okYd jzpfíç ]]edAEÁ dÅ "D&m? edAmÁ ayEÅd &m**¾?ð y&deAd mÁ ,wd? y&deAd mÁ wk ok*awm? y&deAd mÁ a,,s? y&deAd mÁ ,d? y&deAd mÁ ,dó
wd? tEÅ&my&deAd mÁ ,D? y&deAd KÁ awm? cE¨y&deAd mÁ eH}} þokYd ponfjzifh ygVd t|uxmwkYd ü xif½mS ;aom "mwko'd ¨ yk'w f Ydk
ukvd J axmufí edAmÁ eyk'\ f 0pew¬udk atmufygtwkid ;f vJ ûyoifah y\/

edAmÁ wd 0¥'kuH© {w¬mwd edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ wd 0¥ 'kuH© {wo®ð


t"d*aw wd 0g edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ ,aw 0g edAmÁ eH/

{w¬? þtocFw "mwf oabmü/ 0¥'ku?H© 0#fo;Hk yg; wnf;[laom qif;&Jonf/ edAmÁ wd? Nidr;f \/ £wd?
þokYd 0#fqif;&JNidr;f &mjzpfaom owåad Mumif/h wH? xkt d ocFw "mwfoabmonf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efrnf\/ 0#fqif;&JNidr;f
&m[kqv dk \
dk / / 0g? wenf;um;? {wo®?ð þtocFw "mwfoabmuk/d t"d*aw? r*fÓPfjzifh odtyfonf½adS omf/
0¥'ku?H© 0#fqif;&Jonf/ edAmÁ wd? Nidr;f \/ £wd? þokYd 0#fqif;&J Nidr;f aMumif; jzpfaomowåad Mumif/h wH? xkd
tocFw "mwf oabmonf/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ ef rnf\/ 0#fqif;&J Nidr;f aMumif; w&m; [k qkv d \
dk / / 0g? wenf;um;/
edAmÁ ,aw? Nidr;f jcif;/ edAmÁ eH? Nidr;f jcif;oabm/ ½kyf emrf ocFg&[laom 0#fqif;&JwYdk \ {uefpifppf rjzpfay:vm
awmhb?J Nidr;f jcif; oabmç r½Sjd cif; oabmç [k qkv d \dk /

½kyef mrf ocFg& 0#fqif;&J [lorQ\ Nidr;f &mç Nidr;f aMumif;ç Nidr;f jcif; oabm[k qkt d yfaom xkd edAmÁ efonf
t-wuúm0pa&m-[lonfEiS t hf nD BuHpnfpOf;pm;½krH Qjzifh odEidk af omtbm0ynwfum; r[kwaf y/ *rÇaD &m 'k'a´ om-
[lonfEiS hf tnDeufvJ tvGeef ufe\ J / yuwdÓPfjzifh odvJ rodEidk af y/ y@dw a0'eDa,mwd or®my#dy'H
y#dyaEé[d y@daw[d a0'dwaAÁm=0dyóem tusifrh eS u f dk usifu h ek í
f ? r*fç zkv
d Ó
f PfEiS hf jynfph aHk omynm½Sw
d Ydk onf
omvQif rsufarSmuf odjriftyfaom tocFw y&rwf w&m;aywnf;/ wPSm\ tm½ku H m; r[kw/f xkYd aMumifçh
xked Ad mÁ efonf 0ge rnfaom wPSmrSvJ xGuaf jrmuf\? wPSmr½S&d mç wPSm uif;&mvJ jzpf\/ xked Ad mÁ efudk
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 134

r*fÓPfjzifh odvQif? odo\


l oEÅmefü wPSmonf uif;Nidr;f \/ xkdYaMumifhç ]]0geH 0kpw ö d wPSm? a,m &ma*g-ay-
avmabm tukovrlv?H 0geyÜ[meH 0ge0lyorH 0gey#deó d *¾H 0geyÜ#yd ó'Ḧ trwH edAmÁ eH}}[laom plVeda'´oygVdç
]]wPSm, 0dy[ Ü maee? edAmÁ eH £wd 0kpw
ö }d } [laom okweå yd gwfygVdç ponfwYdk uv
dk J rSí
D ? edAmÁ eyk'\
f 0pew¬udk
t|uxmwkdYü atmufygtwkdif;vJ jyqkad wmfru l ek \
f /

0geawm eduE© HÅ edAmÁ eH? ew¬d 0geH {w¬mwd 0g edAmÁ eH?


ew¬d 0geH {wo®ð t"d*awwd 0g edAmÁ eH/

0geawm? xkx d b
dk 0ESihf b0wyg;ç tusKd;ESihf uHç ukd wGpJ yfwwfaom wPSmrS/ eduE© ?HÅ xGuaf jrmuf
onfwnf;/ edAmÁ eH? wPSmrSxu G af jrmufaom w&m;/ /0g? wenf;um;/ {w¬? þtocFw "mwf oabmü/ 0geH?
wPSmonf/ ew¬?d r½S/d £wd? xkYd aMumif/h edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ ef rnf\/ wPSm r½S&d mç wPSm ukeu f if;&m w&m;[k
qkv
d \
dk / /0g? wenf;um;/ {wo®?ð þtocFw"mwf oabmuk/d t"d*aw? r*fÓPfjzifh odtyfonf ½Sad omf/ 0geH?
wPSmonf/ ew¬/d r½S/d 0g? rjzpf/ £wd? xkYd aMumif/h edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ eH rnf\/ wPSm r½Sad Mumif;ç wPSmuif;Nidr;f
aMumif;w&m;[k qkv d \
dk / w&m;uk, d t
f m;jzifu
h m; ½kyef mrf ocFg& 0#fqif;&J [lorQwkYd \ Nidr;f jcif; uif;qdwjf cif;
oabmuko d m &\/

½kyef mrfocFg& 0#fqif;&J[o l rQwYdk\ uif;Nidr;f jcif;oabmrQomjzpfaom xked Ad mÁ efonf? t.edrw d yå pöKy|meH-
[lonfEiS t hf nD edrw d f yko
H P²mef txnfj'Af uif;onfh taetm;jzifh omvQif t&d,m\ÓPfü a½S;½I xifay:\/
xkYd aMumifçh edAmÁ efudk odNyD;aomolyif jzpfaomfvJ xked Ad mÁ efu?dk ]]rnfoYdk aom tqif;ta&mif ykHoP²mef ½Sdonf}} [lí
¤if;? ]]rnfonfh t&m0w¬KESiw hf o
l nf}} [lí¤if;? rajymjyEkid af y/ rjywfjzpfysufavh½adS om ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd \ vk;H 0
ray:vmbJ csKyfNidr;f uif;qdwo f nfh taetm;jzifh omvQif odvJ od&\/ ajymvJ ajymjyEkid af y\/ xkYd aMumifçh
rdvEd y´ O§mü þokYd rdeYf qadk wmfr\l /

tyÜ#b
d m*H r[m&mZ edAmÁ eH? e ouúm edAmÁ eó ½lyH 0g oP²meH 0g 0,H 0g yrmPH 0gç Moyar®e 0g
um&aPe 0g a[wkem 0g ea,e 0g Oy'ó,dw/Hk (rdvEd ´ 303)

r[m&mZ? jrwfaom rdvEd ´ rif;BuD;/ edAmÁ eH? edAmÁ efonf/ tyÜ#b


d m*H? wlaom tzkYd Oyrm r½Sad y/ edAmÁ eó?
edAmÁ ef\/ ½lyH 0g? tqif;ta&mifukd¤if;/ oP²meH 0g? ykHyef; oP²mefukd¤if;/ 0,H 0g? t½G,f tpm;ukd¤if;/ yrmPH
0g? twkid ;f t½Snu f ¤dk if;/ Moyar®e 0g? Oyrmjzifh aomf¤if;/ um&aPe 0g? Oyw¬ru Ç taMumif;jzifh aomf¤if;/
a[wkem 0g? Zeu taMumif;jzifh aomf¤if;/ ea,e 0g? odaMumif; enf;jzifah omf¤if;/ Oy'ó,dw?Hk aqmifuyfí
az:jyjcif;iSg/ e ouúm? rpGr;f Ekid af y/

edAÁmefESifh tbm0ynwf rwlaMumif;

ocFg&wkYd \ Nidr;f jcif;uif;qdwjf cif; rjzpfay:jcif;r½Sjd cif;oabmukd edAmÁ ef[í l ¤if;? xked Ad mÁ efrmS tqif;
ta&mif yko H P²mef t½G,yf rmPr½S[ d í
l ¤if;? xked Ad mÁ efudk taMumif;OyrmwkYd jzifh ay:vGiaf tmif rjyEkid [ f í l ¤if; qkd
aomaMumif?h ]]edAmÁ ef [lonfrmS ]bmrQr½S}d [k qkt d yfaom tbm0ynwfEiS hf twlwyl if}}[k xifrw S zf ,
G ½f \
dS /
okYd aomfvJ edAmÁ efonfum; ]bmrQr½S}d [k qkt d yfaom tbm0ynwfuo hJ Ydk vk;H 0 r½So
d nfum; r[kwaf y/ ocFg&wkYd \
Nidr;f jcif;uif;qdwjf cif; rjzpfay:jcif;r½Sjd cif; oabmtm;jzifh xif½mS ;½So d nfomwnf;/ xif½mS ; ½Sad omaMumifyh ifvQif
xkd ocFg& Nidr;f jcif;oabmukd rsuaf rSmuf awGUodvsuf r*fw&m;ç zkv d w f &m; jzpfay:Ekid af yonf/ &[EÅm\ ½kyef mrf
tpOfonfvnf; y&deAd mÁ ef pkwrd S aemufumvü vk;H 0 jzpfay:jcif; r½Sb d J jywfpJ csKyfNidr;f Ekid af yonf/ atmufygrSm
y&rw¬=rsufarSmufot d m;jzifh edAmÁ ef xif½mS ;½Syd u
Hk dk pDppf az:jyaom O'gef;ç £wd0w k f ygVdawmfaywnf;/

tw¬d bdua© 0 tZmwHtblwH tuwH tocFw?H aem apwH bdua© 0 tb0dó tZmwH tblwH tuwH
tocFw?H e,d"Zmwó blwó uwó ocFwó edó&PH ynma,x/ ,o®m p acg bdua© 0 tw¬d tZmwH
tblwH tuwH tocFw?H wo®m Zmwó blwó uwó ocFwó edó&PH ynm,wd/ (178? 220)/

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / tZmwH? rjzpfaom edAmÁ efonf/ 0g? jzpfjcif; uif;aom edAmÁ efonf/ tblw?H xif½mS ;
rjzpfay:aom edAmÁ efonf/ tuwH? taMumif;wpkw H cku rûytyfaom edAmÁ efonf/ tocFw?H taMumif;rsm;pGm
nDnw G í
f rûytyfaom edAmÁ efonf/ tw¬?d ½Sad y\/ bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / tZmwH? rjzpfaom/ tblw?H xif½mS ;rjzpf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 135

aom/ tuwH? taMumif; wpkw H cku rûytyfaom/ tocFw?H taMumif;rsm;pGm nDnw G í


f ûytyfonf r[kwaf om/
{wH? þedAmÁ ef w&m;onf/ aem ap tb0dó? tu,fí r½Sjd im;tH/h {0H owd? þokYd r½Syd gvQif/ £"? þavmu
ü/ Zmwó? jzpfaom/ blwó? xif½mS ;jzpfaom/ uwó? taMumif;w&m;u ûytyf jzpfaptyfaom/ ocFwó?
taMumif;rsm;pGmnDnw G í
f ûytyfaomcE¨mig;yg;ç ½kyef mrfw&m;ç \/ edó&PH? rjzpfjcif; uif;jywfjcif; wnf;[l
aom xGuo f mG ;jcif;onf/ e ynm a,x? rxif½mS ;Ekid af v&m/ 0g? rodtyfEidk af v&m/ (tyÜ0wåt d y*arm edó&PH-
t|uxm)/ bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / tZmwH? rjzpfaom/ tblw?H xif½mS ; rjzpfay:aom/ tuwH? taMumif;w&m;u
ûytyfonfvnf; r[kwaf om/ tocFw?H taMumif;rsm;pGm nDnw G íf ûytyf onfvnf; r[kwaf om edAmÁ ef=tNidr;f
"mwf w&m;onf/ acg? pifppf/ ,o®m? tMuifah Mumif/h tw¬?d y&rw¬tm;jzifh xif½mS ; ½Sad y\/ wo®m? xko d Ydk
edAmÁ ef=tNidr;f "mwf w&m; y&rw¬tm;jzifh xif½mS ; ½Sjd cif;aMumif/h Zmwó? jzpfaom/ blwó? xif½mS ;jzpfay:aom/
uwó? taMumif;w&m;u ûytyfaom/ ocFwó? taMumif;rsm;pGm nDnw G í f ûytyfaom cE¨mig;yg;½kyef mrf
w&m;\/ edó&PH? rjzpfay:jcif; uif;jywfjcif;wnf;[laom xGuo f mG ;jcif; ukeNf idr;f jcif;onf/ 0g? uk/d ynm,wd?
xif½mS ;ay\/ 0g? odtyfay\/

t"dyÜg,fum; ... ½kyef mrfocFg&wkYd \ rjzpfay:vmbJ Nidr;f jcif;wnf;[laom edAmÁ ef"mwfonf ½kyef mrfw&m;
wkYd uo hJ Ydk jzpfay:jcif; r½Sad omaMumifh tZmwç tblwç rnf\/ taMumif;w&m;u rûytyfaomaMumifh tuw
rnf\/ taMumif;rsm;pGm nDnw G í
f ûytyfonfh w&m; r[kwaf omaMumifh tocFw rnf\/ xkd edAmÁ ef=tNidr;f "mwf
w&m; r½Syd grl rjywf jzpfysufaeaom ½kyef mrf cE¨m tpOf\ jywfpjJ cif; rnfonf r½SEd idk af wmhNyD/ okYd aomfç xkd
tNidr;f "mwf w&m;onftbm0 ynwfuo hJ Ydk r½So
d nfum; r[kwaf y/ r*fzv
dk \
f rsufarSmuftm½kjH zpfvsuf y&rw¬
tm;jzifh xif½mS ;½Sad y\/ xif½mS ;½Sad omaMumifyh ifvQif rSeu f efpmG usifo
h \
l oEÅmefü rjywf jzpfaeaom ½kyef mrf cE¨m
tpOfonf y&deAd mÁ ef pkwrd S aemufumvü wzef rjzpfay:vmawmhbJ tNrJwrf; Nidr;f oGm;Ekid af yonf? xko d Ydkaom
Nidr;f jcif; xif½mS ;½SEd idk af yonf [k qkv
d \
dk / ÓPf ouf0ifEidk yf gap/

tw¬d bdua© 0 w'g,weH? ,w¬ ae0 yx0D e tmayg e awaZm e 0ga,m e tmumomeOöm,weH e
0dnmPOöm,weH e tmudOn ö m,weH e ae0onmemonm,weH em,H avmaum e y&avmaum e Oabm
pE´rd ol&,
d m? wMwmyg[H bdua© 0 ae0 tm*wð 0'grd e *wð e Xdwð e pkwð e Oyywåð tyÜw|d H tyÜ0wåH
tem&r®Para0wH/ {ao0aEÅm 'kuó © / (O'gef;ygVdyif 177)

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / wH tm,weH? xkd edAmÁ ef wnf;[laom tm½kH taMumif;onf/ tw¬?d y&rw¬tm;jzifh
xif½Sm;½Sday\/ ,w¬? tMuif edAÁmef wnf;[laom tm½kH taMumif;ü/ ae0 yx0D? yx0D"mwfvJ r½S/d e tmayg?
tmayg"mwfvJ r½S/d e awaZm? awaZm"mwfvJ r½S/d e 0ga,m? 0ga,m"mwfvJ r½S/d ("mwfav;yg; r½So d nfudk
jyjcif;jzif?h "mwfav;yg;ukd rSaD om Oyg'g½kyf r½So d nfu¤dk if;? ½kyu f dk rSí
D jzpfaom umrç ½lyb0 qkid &f m emrfw&m;
r½So d nfu¤dk if; jy\)/ e tmumomeOöm,weH? tmumomeOöm,we w&m;vJ r½S/d e 0dnmPOöm,weH?
0dnmPOöm,we w&m;vJr½S/d e tmudOn ö m ,weH? tmudOn ö m,we w&m;vJ r½S/d e ae0onmemonm,weH?
ae0onmemonm,we w&m;vJ r½S/d t½lyb0 qkid &f m tm½kH tm&r®Pw d tvk;H pkyH if r½Sd [k qkv d \ dk )/ e t,H
avmaum? þrsufarSmufavmuvJ r½S/d e y&avmaum? wyg;aom avmuvJ r½S/d (þ avmuç wyg;aom
avmuESiq hf idk af omw&m; tvk;H pkyH ifr½S[ d qk v
dk \dk / xkYd aMumifyh ifç edAmÁ efudk tm½kûH yaom r*fzv dk jf zpfcudk üf ?þavmuç
wyg;aom avmuESihf qkid af om tm½kH [lorQukd rodbJ ½Sad yonf)/ e Oabm pE´rd ol&, d m? ESpyf g;aom vESihf
aewkYd vrJ ½SMd u/ (½kyrf ½Sad omaMumifh tarSmifvrJ ½S?d xkYd aMumifçh tarSmifudk y,fazsmuf&ef tvif;vJrvk?d xkYd aMumifçh
vESiahf epaom û*d[f wm&m eu©ww f YdkvJ r½Sd [k jy\/ wyg;aom okwüf um; ]]warmww¬ e 0dZw Æ }d }[k tarSmifvJ
r½Sod nfudk wku d ½f udk yf ifa[mawmfr\ l )/ / bdua© 0/ &[ef;'wkYd / wMwmyd? xkd edAmÁ ef[al om tm½kt H aMumif;üvJ/
tm*wð? vma&mufjcif;uk/d t[H? igonf/ ae0 0'grd? ra[may/ *wð? wjcm;okYd ajymif;oGm;jcif;ukv d /J e 0'grd?
ra[may/ |dw?ð wnfwahH ejcif;ukv d /J e 0'grd? ra[may/ pkw?ð pkaw a&GUavsmjcif;ukv d /J e 0'grd? ra[may/
Oyywå?ð uyfa&mufí jzpfjcif;ukv d /J e 0'grd? ra[may/ / (vlUbkH ewfbüHk wjcm;bkrH S vma&mufjcif;ç wjcm;bko H Ydk
ajymif;oGm;jcif; ½So d uJo h Ykd? edAmÁ efüum; vma&mufjcif;r½S?d xked Ad mÁ efrS wjcm;okYd ajymif;oGm;jcif;vJ r½S?d vlUbkH
ewfbrHk mS uJo h Ydk xked Ad mÁ efü yk*Kd¾ vfowå0gwkYd \ wnfaejcif;vJr½S?d pkawjcif; aojcif;vJr½S?d topfjzpfay:jcif;vJ r½S?d
r*fzv dk yf pöa0u©PmOmPfjzifh odjcif;tm½kûH yjcif;rQom ½So d nf[q k v dk \
dk )/ {wH?xked Ad mÁ ef[al om tm½kt H aMumif;onf/
tyÜw|d H {0? wnf&mr½So d nfomwnf;/ (½kyw f &m; r[kwaf omaMumifh b,fae&mrSmrQ wnfaeonfr[kw?f b,f
w&m;ay:rSmrQ rSu D yfaeonfr[kw?f emrfw&m;yif jzpfaomfvçJ tusK;d ypö,yk eÜ f w&m;r[kwaf omaMumifçh b,f
taMumif;w&m;ukrd Q rpGrJ [ DS k qkvd \dk )/ /tyÜ0wåH {0? rjywf jzpfjcif;vJ r½So d nf omwnf;/ 0g? rjywf jzpfaom
½kyef mrftpOfEiS hf ajymif;jyefqefYusiaf om oabmomwnf;/ tem&r®Par0? emrfw&m;yifjzpfaomfvJ pdwaf pwoduf
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 136

wkYd uo
hJ Ydk tm½krH ûywwfonfo
h abm w&m;omwnf;/ {aom {0? r*fzv dk wf Ydk \ tm½kt
H aMumif;jzpfaom þedAmÁ ef=
tNidr;f "mwfonfyifvQif/ w'"d*arowdç oAÁ'u k m© bm0awm? xked Ad mÁ efudk odvQifç tvk;H pkaH om qif;&Jr½Sjd cif;
aMumif/h (t|uxm taMumif;jyyk')f 'kuó© ? ½kyef mrfocFg& [laom 0#fqif;&J\/ taEÅm? tqk;H aywnf;/

ocFg&ESifh edAÁmef ajymif;jyef jzpfonf

,o®m edAmÁ eH oAÁocFg&0d"&k obbm0H? wo®m ,xm ocFw "ar®ok uw¬pd ew¬?d wxm ww¬yd oaAÁ
ocFw"r®m? e [d ocFwmocFw"r®meH oarm"meH orÇ0wd/ (O'ge| 353)

edAmÁ eH? ocFg& Nidr;f rI edAmÁ efonf/ ,o®m? tMuifaMumif/h oAÁocFg&0d"&k obm0H? rD; ESihf a&ç tylEiS hf
tat;ç tarSmifEiS t hf vif;ç wkYd uo hJ Ydk tvk;H pkaH omocFg&wkYd rS ajymif;jyefqefYusifaomoabm½S\
d / wo®m? xkYd aMumif/h
ocFw"ar®o?k ocFg&w&m;wkYd wiG /f uw¬p?d wpkw H ckaom ocFg&ü aomfv/J edAmÁ eH? ocFg& Nidr;f rI edAmÁ efonf/ ew¬d
,xm? r½So d uJoh Ydk / ww¬y?d xkd ocFg&Nidr;f rI edAmÁ efüvJ/ oaAÁ ocFw"r®m? tvk;H pkaH om ocFg&w&m;wkYd onf/
wxm? xkYd twlyif r½Su d ek /f [d? rSeaf y\/ ocFwm ocFw"r®meH oarm"meH? ocFww&m;ESihf tocFww&m;wkYd \
aygif;qkrH jd cif;onf/ e orÇ0wd? rjzpfEidk af y/

þO'gef; t|uxmESit hf nD? rjywf jzpfysufaeaom ocFg&w&m; ½Sad eao;vQif? ocFg&Nidr;f aom edAmÁ efokdY
rqku
d af &mufao; edAmÁ efuo dk qd üJ ocFg&w&m;wpkw H ckrQrxifay:/ y&deAd mÁ ef0ifpaH om tcgüum; ocFg&w&m; wpkH
wckrQ rjzpfawmhNyD r½Sad wmhNyD[k odtyf\/

ocFg& tvk;H pku H if;qdwí


f ocFg&Nidr;f jcif; oabmrQjzpfaom xked Ad mÁ efudk r*fÓefjzifo
h vd Qif odo\ l oEÅmefü
tyg,*reD, wPSmç MoVm&du umrwPSmç okcrk umrwPSmç ½ly t½ly wPSmç wkYd onf rjzpfEidk u f ek Nf yD?t<uif;
rJh ysujf y,fcsKyfNidr;f avuke\ f ? xkw
d PSmwkYd udk pGeYf NyD; jzpfav\? wzef rjzpfEidk af tmif a0;pGm pGeYf NyD;vJ jzpfav\?
xkw d PSm [laom taESmiftzGUJ ukd ajzNyD;vJ jzpfav\? xkw d PSm [laom Niduyf wG,w f mrI uif;av\/ xkYd aMumifh
r*fav;yg;\ tm½kjH zpfaom xkd ocFg&Nidr;f rI=edAmÁ efonf wPSm\ ysujf y,f&mç csKyf&mvJ jzpf\? wPSmukd pGeYf &mvJ
jzpf\? a0;pGm pGeYf &mvJ jzpf\? xkw d PSmtaESmiftzGUJ ukd ajz&mvJ jzpf\? xkw d PSm wG,w f mrI uif;&mvJjzpf\/
okYd jzpfí? xked Ad mÁ efudk atmufygtwkid ;f vJ a[mawmfr\ l /

uwrOö bdua© 0 'kue© ad &ma"m t&d,opö?H a,m wóma,0 wPSm, taoo0d&m* eda&ma"m pma*g
y#deó
d a*¾g rkwdå temva,m/ £'H 0kpw ö d bdua© 0 'kue© ad &ma"m t&d,opö/H

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / 'kue© ad &ma"m? qif;&J Nidr;f &m jzpfaom/ t&d,opö?H t&d,mwkYd odtyfaom trSew f &m;
onf/ uwrOö? tb,fenf;¿ [lru l m;/ wóm a,0 wPSm,? yd,½kyf omw½kyüf jzpfxu dk af om xkw d PSm\
omvQi/f a,m taoo0d&m*eda&ma"m? t<uif;rJh ysujf y,f&mç csKyf&mjzpfaom tMuifoabmonf/ a,mpma*g?
tMuifpeG Yf &moabmonf/ a,my#deó d a*¾g? tMuif a0;pGmpGeYf &moabmonf/ ,m rkw?då tMuif ajzvTw&f moabm
onf/ a,m temva,m? tMuif wG,w f mrI uif;&moabmonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / £'H? wPSm\
t<uif;rJh ysufjy,f&mç csKyf&mç wPSmukd pGeYf &mç a0;pGm pGeYf &mç ajzvTw&f mç wG,w f mrI uif;&m jzpfaom þoabm
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ed,wykved’ ½f adS om eda&m"o'´gonf? opöyH 'k o f Ydk vudk í
f eykved’ Ef iS rhf ½So
d if/h y#do|H 158-üum; vd*0F yd v’mo [k
qk\
d / okYd aomf 'kue© ad &m"*grdeyD #dy'g t&d,opö-H [laom ygXfü vd*0F yd v’mo rjzpfaomaMumifh r[m#Dum rdeYf qdk
csuu f ,kww å & jzpfayonf/

xkYd jyifç r*fÓPf av;yg;jzifh edAmÁ efuo dk v


d Qif? xko d qd üJ vJ ocFg& tvk;H pkH rxifay:bJ csKyfNidr;f \/ edAmÁ efudk
rodygu jzpfxu dk uf ek af om udavomç cE¨mç wkYd onfvnf; xkd odaom umvrSpí rjzpfxu dk uf ek Nf yD? csKyfNidr;f av
uke\f / xkYd aMumifçh edAmÁ efonf ocFg&tvk;H pk\ H Nidr;f &mvJjzpf\? cE¨mç udavomç tbdocFg&ç umr*kPçf [laom
Oy"dwYdkudk pGeYf vw T &f mvJ jzpf\? wPSm\ ukecf ef;&mvJ jzpf\? udavom [laom wyfprJG w I Ydk\ ysujf y,f&mvJ
jzpf\? qif;&Jtvk;H pkH csKyf&mvJ jzpf\/ okYd jzpfí? xked Ad mÁ efudk atmufygtwkid ;f vJ a[mawmfr\ l /
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 137

£'rÜd acg XmeH 'k'o


´ ?H ,'d'H oAÁocFg&oraxm oAÁLy"deó
d a*¾g wPSmu©a,m 0d&ma*g eda&ma"m
edAmÁ eH/ ('D 1-31-ponf)

oAÁocFg&oraxm? tvk;H pkaH om ocFg&wkYd \ Nidr;f &m jzpfaom/ oAÁLy"deó d a*¾g? tvk;H pkaH om Oy"dwYdk udk
pGeYf vw
T &f mjzpfaom/ wPSmu©a,m? wPSm\ uke&f mjzpfaom/ 0d&ma*g? udavom[laom wyfprJG w I Ydk\ ysujf y,f
&mjzpfaom/ eda&ma"m? tvk;H pkaH om qif;&JwYdk\ csKyf&mjzpfaom/ ,'d'H edAmÁ eH? 0gernfaom wPSmrS xGuaf jrmuf
aom tMuif oabmonf/ 0g? qif;&J Nidr;f aom tMuif oabmonf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / £'rÜd acg XmeH? þ edAmÁ ef
[laom t&mXmeukv d /J 'k'o
´ ?H jrifEidk cf pJ /G

oOyg'daoo ESifh tEkyg'daooedAÁmef

r*f zkv d w f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom xked Ad mÁ efonf ½kyef mrf ocFg& 0#f qif;&J [lorQwkYd \ uif;y csKyfNidr;f jcif;
[laom oEÅv d u©Pm oabmtm;jzifh wyg;xnf;om jzpfaomfvJ cE¨m t<uif;½Sjd cif;ç r½Sjd cif;ç [laom uGjJ ym;
aMumif; y&d,m,f tm;jzifu h m; oOyg'daooedAmÁ efç tEkyg'daooedAmÁ efç [lí ESprf sKd; jym;\/ xkw d iG f y&deAd mÁ ef
rûyrD? &[EÅm\ oEÅmefü udavomwkYd \ vk;H 0 rjzpfay:Ekid af omtm;jzifh Nidr;f jcif;onf oOyg'daooedAmÁ ef rnf\/
o-wuG jzpfonfç ½So d nf+Oyg'd-wPSm ponfwYdk u tusKd;\ tjzpfjzifh ,ltyfaom cE¨m=wPSm Oyg'gef
uHwYdk \tusK;d jzpfaom cE¨m+aoo-udavomwkYd rS <uif;useo f nf+edAmÁ e- Nidrjf cif;=oOyg'daooedAeÁ - tusKd;
cE¨m t<uif;ESihf wuGjzpfaom udavom Nidr;f jcif; oabmç=tusK;d cE¨mt<uif;½Syd gvsuf udavomNidr;f jcif;
oabmç[kqv dk \ dk / (wPSm'D[d zvbma0e Oyg'D,wDwd Oyg'd? cED̈yOöu/H Oyg'd a,0 aoaomwd Oyg'dao
aom? o[ Oyg'daoaoemwd oOyg'daoom/ £wd0w k u å t|uxm 157)/

&[EÅmtm;? y&deAd mÁ ef pkwrd S aemufumvü ½kyef mrf ocFg&wkYd \ rjzpfay:vmawmhbJ vk;H 0 Nidr;f jcif;onf
tEkyg'daooedAmÁ efrnf\/ te-r½Sd+Oyg'd-tusK;d jzpfaom cE¨m+aoo-<uif;useo f nf+edAmÁ e- Nidr;f jcif;=tEkyg'd
aooedAmÁ e- y&deAd mÁ ef pkwrd S aemufumvü? udavomwkYd rS <uif;aom tusKd;cE¨mrQ r½Sad wmhb?J ocFg&wkYd \ vk;H 0
Nidr;f jcif; oabm[k qkv d \
dk /

uwrm p bdua© 0 oOyg'daoom edAmÁ e"mwk? £" bdua© 0 bduK© t&[H a[mwd cDPmoa0g 0kow d 0g
uwu&PD a,m Mo[dwbma&m tEkyw Ü o
å 'aw¬m y&duP D© b0oanmZaem or®'nm 0drak wåm? wó wd|aEÅ0
yOö`d E´,
d med? a,oHt0dCmwwåm remygremyH ypöEak bmwd? okc'kuH© y#doaH 0a'wd? wó a,m &m*u©a,m
a'gou©a,m arm[u©a,m? t,H0pk w ö d bdua© 0 oOyg'daoom edAmÁ e"mwk/ uwrm p bdua© 0 tEkyg'daoom
edAmÁ e"mwk? £" bdua© 0 bduK© t&[H a[mwd- ay- or®'nm0drak wåm? wó £a"0 bdua© 0 oAÁa0',dwmed
tebdeEd́wmeD oDwD b0dóEÅ?d t,H 0kpwö d bdua© 0 tEkyg'daoom edAmÁ e"mwk/

'ka0 £rm pu©Krwm yumodwm?


edAmÁ e"mwl tedóad we wm'dem/
{um [d "mwk £" 'd|"r®u d m?
oOyg'daoom b0aewåo d cF,m/
tEkyg'daoom ye orÜ&m,dum?
,rSd ed½Zk ÑEÅd b0ged oAÁaom/
a, {w'nm, y'H tocFw?H
0drw
k på w
d må b0aewåo d cF,m/
aw "r®om&m."d*rm ca, &wm?
y[Hok aw oAÁb0ged wm'daem/

(£wd0kwfygVdawmf 221)

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / oOyg'daoom? wPSm ponfwYdk utusKd;\ tjzpfjzifh ,ltyfaom cE¨mt<uif;ESihf


wuGjzpfaom/ 0g? wPSm Oyg'gef uHwYdk \ tusKd; jzpfaom cE¨m t<uif;½Sad om/ edAmÁ e"mwk? edAmÁ ef"mwfonf/
uwrm p? tb,fenf;[lru l m;/ bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / £"? þomoemawmfü/ bduK© ? &[ef;onf/ t&[H?
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 138

udavomwkYd rS a0;uGm pifMu,fonf/ 0g? owå0grsm;\ nGww f mG ; ylaZmfjcif;ukd cHawmfrx l u


dk o
f nf/ cDPmoa0g?
tmoa0gukeNf yD;onf/ 0kow d 0g? usifo
h ;Hk NyD;onf/ uwu&PDa,m? ûybG,u f pd uö dk r*fav;yg;jzifh ûyNyD;onf/
Mo[dwbma&m? udavomç cE¨mç tbdocFg&ç [laom 0efxyk Bf uD;ok;H yg;ukd csxm;NyD;onf/ (udavomçtbdocFg&ç
wkYd uo hJ Ydk? jzpfxu dk af om b0opf cE¨mwkYd onfvnf;? t&[wår*fjzifyh if Nidr;f uke\ f ? xkYd aMumifçh cE¨m0efuvdk J
csxm;NyD;[kqo dk nf)? tEkyw Ü o å 'aw¬m? t&[wåzv dk [
f al om rdr\ d tusKd;pD;yGg;ukd &NyD;a&mufNyD;onf/ y&duP D© b0
oanmZaem? b0wkYd ü,SOzf UJG apwwfaom oHa,mZOftvk;H pku H ek Nf yD;onf/ or®'nm 0drak wåm? rSepf mG odNyD;í
udavomwkYd rS vGwaf jrmufonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ wó? xkd &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vf\/ yOö £`Ed́,med? pu©Kç aomwç Cmeç
Zd0gS ç um,ç [laom ig;yg;aom £a`E´wYdk onf/ wd|EÅd {0? aemufq;Hk vuf½dS b0ukd jzpfapaom uHprG ;f t[kef
rukeaf o;orQ umvywfv;Hk tqufquf jzpfay:vsuf wnfNrJyif wnf½u dS ek o f nf omwnf;/ a,oH? tMuif
ig;yg;aom£a`E´wYdk \/ t0dCmwwåm? wzefray:vmbJ csKyfysufonft h vkt d m;jzifh rcsKyfrysufMuao;aomaMumif/h
aom? xk&d [EÅm yk*Kd¾ vfonf/ remyg remyH? ESpo f ufz, G çf rESpof ufz, G çf tm½ku H /dk ypöEak bmwd? cHpm;&\/ okc
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ukejf cif; r½Sjd cif; pifppf rjzpfay:jcif;onf/ (&m*ó ca,m cDPmuma&m tbma0gtpöErÅ EkygÜ a'g-t|uxmzGi)hf /
a,m a'gou©a,m? tMuifa'go\ ukejf cif; r½Sjd cif; pifppfrjzpfay:jcif;onf/ a,m arm[u©a,m? tMuif arm[
\ ukejf cif;ç r½Sjd cif;ç pifppf rjzpfay:jcif;onf/ tw¬?d ½S\ d / bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / t,H? &m*ponfwYdk \ pifppf
rjzpfay:jcif; wnf;[laom þudavom ukejf cif; Nidr;f jcif;uk/d o.Oyg'daoom edAmÁ e"mwk? o.Oyg'daoo edAmÁ e
"mwf-[lí/ 0kpw ö ?d ac:qkt d yf\/ (&m*g'dua© ,m oOyg'daoom edAmÁ e"mwlwd 'ódawm-t|uxmzGi/hf udavo
y&deAd mÁ efyifwnf;)/

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / tEkyg'daoom? cE¨m t<uif; tusefr½Sad om/ edAmÁ e"mwk? edAmÁ ef"mwfonf/ uwrmp?
tb,fenf;[lru l m;/ bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / £"? þomoemawmfü/ bduK© ? &[ef;onf/ t&[H? udavomwkYd rS
a0;uGm pifMu,fonf/ 0g? owå0grsm;\ ñTww f mG ; ylaZmfjcif;ukd cHawmfrx
l u
dk o
f nf/ ay/ or®'nm 0drak wåm? rSepf mG
odNyD;í udavomwkYd rS vGwaf jrmufonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ wó? xkd &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vf\/ oAÁa0',dwmed?
tvk;H pkaH om cHpm;rItAsmuw a0'emwkYd onf/ tebdeE´w d med? wPSmç rmeç 'd|jd zifh rESpof uftyf vufrcHtyfuek f
onfjzpfí/ £" {0? þ rsufarSmufb0ü omvQif/ oDwD b0dóEÅ?d at;csrf;pGm jzpfuek v f wH/h 0g? wzefqufpyfí
jzpfjcif;r½So
d nfh csKyfNidr;f jcif; tm;jzifh csKyfNidr;f ukev
f wH/h

(tpöE0Å yl oare ocFg&'&xyÜ#yd ó'd̈,m oDwvD b0dóEÅ?d tyÜ#o d Ed̈ueda&ma"e ed½Zk ÑdóEÅw D d taw¬m/
e au0vH a0',dwmeda,0? oaAÁyd ye cDPmo0oEÅmae yOöuE© m¨ ed½Zk ÑdóEÅ?d a0',dwoDaoe a'oemuwm/
t|uxmzGi/hf / oDw.D um; trÇLwwaAÇmü pDypö,EÅ tAs,yk'w f nf;/ / a0'emukd acgif;wyfí a[mawmfral om
aMumifh þokYd aomt"dygÜ ,fudk odtyf\-&[EÅm\ oEÅmefü ½SMd uaom a0'em paomcE¨mig;yg;wkYd onf wPSmç
rmeç 'd|jd zifh rpGv J rf;tyfuek o f nf jzpfí udavomç uHç b0opf cE¨mç wpkw H ckurdk Q rjzpfygG ;apEkid u
f ek /f xkYd aMumifçh
]]avmifpm topfudk r&aom rD;onf rD; topfudk ryGg;apEkid b f ?J awmufavmifNyD;vQif Nidr;f ½ko H m Nidr;f í oGm;av
ouJo h Ydk }} xkYd twlyif a½S;uHaMumifh jzpfay:vsuf½adS om &[EÅm\ cE¨mwkYd onfvnf; b0opfcE¨m wpkw H ckurdk Q rjzpf
ay:apbJ? rdrw d Ydk jzpfay:NyD;vQifç csKyfNidr;f ½ko
H mcsKyfNidr;f í csKyfNidr;f íoGm;uke\
f / y&deAd mÁ ef pkwd cE¨mwkYd csKyfNidr;f NyD;aom
tcgüum;wpkw H ckaom cE¨mrQrjzpfay:vmawmhNyD? okYd jzpfíç &[EÅm\ oEÅmefü a½S;uH t[keaf Mumifh jzpfNrJ
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[k qkvd adk yonf)/

bdua© 0? &[ef;wkYd / t,H? b0opfcE¨mukrd jzpfapbJrsuaf rSmufb0üomvQif &[EÅm\ cE¨mwkYd Nidr;f at;
jcif;uk/d 0g? y&deAd mÁ efpw
k cd E¨mwkYd csKyfNidr;f onfrS aemufumvü cE¨mtopfqufpyfí rjzpfawmhbJ tNrJwrf;Nidr;f
jcif;uk/d tEkyg'daoomedAmÁ e"mwk? tEkyg'daooedAmÁ e"mwf-[lí/ 0kpw ö ?d ac:qkt
d yf\/

þtEkyg'daoo edAmÁ efonf cE¨ y&deAd mÁ efyifwnf;/ r*¾bm0emukd ryGg;apvQif jzpfxu dk af om b0opf cE¨m
wkYd onf r*¾bm0emukd yGg;aptyfNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh y&deAd mÁ ef pkwrd S aemufumvü rjzpfay:ukeb f J csKyfNidr;f uke\
f /
okYd jzpfí þ cE¨y&deAd mÁ efonfvnf; t&[wår*f cPuyif NyD;pD;cJ\ h / okYd aomfvJ Nidr;f jcif;onf jzpfay:wwfaom
oabmr[kwaf omaMumifh ]]rnfonfh umvü jzpfay:onf}} [líum; rqkt d yfay/ xif½mS ;apOD;tH?h r*¾bm0emukd
ryGg;apvQifç udavomESihf b0opf cE¨mwkYd onf taMumif;nDnw G af om cPwkid ;f umvwkid ;f jzpfxu dk u
f ek \
f jzpfprG ;f
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 139

Ekid u
f ek \ f / xkd jzpfxu dk af om udavom cE¨mwkYd onf jzpfNyD;r[kwaf omaMumifh twdwv f J r[kwu f ek /f jzpfqJ
r[kwaf omaMumifh ypöKyÜev f J r[kwu f ek /f {uefjzpfvwHh r[kwaf omaMumifh tem*wfvJ r[kwu f ek /f umvok;H yg;rS
vGwaf om umv0drw k f w&m;wkYd omwnf;/ umv0drw k f jzpfaom xkd udavom cE¨mwkYd \ Nidr;f jcif; r½Sjd cif; pifppf
rjzpfay:jcif;onfvnf; twdwv f rJ [kw?f tem*wfvJ r[kw?f ypöKyÜev f J r[kw?f umv0drw k w f &m; omwnf;/
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aomaMumifçh ]]rnfonfh umvü jzpfay:onf}} [lírqkt d yf? xkYd jyifç umv0drw
k f jzpfaom udavomç cE¨mwkYd \
Nidr;f jcif; rjzpfjcif; oabmrQ jzpfaomaMumifv h J ]]rnfonfh umvü jzpfay:onf}} [lí rqkt d yfayownf;/ xkYd jyifç
jzpfxu dk af om udavomç cE¨mç wkYd \ Nidr;f jcif; r½Sjd cif; pifppf rjzpfay:jcif;[laom edAmÁ efonf umv 3-yg;rS
vGwaf om umv0drw k wf &m; jzpfaomaMumifh ]]a*gMwblcPü tem*wfeAd mÁ efudk tm½kûH yoavm? r*fcPü ypöKyÜef
udavoedAmÁ efudk tm½kûH yoavm tem*wfcE¨eAd mÁ efudk tm½kûH yoavm}}[k þokYd aom ar;cGe;f apm'emyk'rf sm;ukd
rxkwo f ifo
h nfomwnf;/ av;eufpmG qifjcifryd gap/

'd|"r®u
d m? rsufarSmuf twåab;ü NyD;aom/ bmaewåo d cF,m? b0wPSm ukejf cif;[k qkt d yfaom/ oOyg'd
aoom? cE¨mt<uif;ESihf wuG jzpfaom/ {um "mwk? wckaom edAmÁ ef"mwfonf/ £"? ,ck rsuaf rSmufb0ü/ od'g¨
NyD;pD; xif½mS ;\/ ,rS?d tMuif tEkyg'daooedAmÁ efü/ b0ged? umrç ½lyç t½lyç b0wkYd onf/ (vd*0F yd v’mo
wnf;)/ oAÁaom? <uif;rJh OókH tvk;H pkt H m;jzif/h ed½Zk ÑEÅ?d csKyfuek \
f / 0g? rjzpfay:ukef/ (csKyfNidr;f jcif;ukyd if
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edAmÁ ef"mwfonfum;/ orÜ&m,dum? y&deAd mÁ efpw k rd S aemufumvü NyD;pD;xif½mS ;\/ £wd? þokYd ? 'ka0? ESpyf g;ukef
aom/ £rm edAmÁ e"mwl? þ edAmÁ ef "mwfwYdk u/dk pu©Krwm? ig;yg;aom ÓPf rsufp½d adS wmfral om/ tedóad we?
wpkw H ckaomw&m;ukrd Q wPSm'd|jd zifh rrSrD wG,af wmfral om/ wm'dem? taumif;tqk;d ç tm½kEH pS rf sKd;ukd ½Tiñf ;Id uif;yç
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f / (tedódawe-ü
todawe? {um[d "mwk-ü {um [d "mwl? oOyg'd-ü aomyg'd? tEkyg'd-ü aemyg'd? ,rS-d ü ,o®ð [k þokYd
½Sv
d Qif £E´0o H m qef;vu©PmESihf nDrnf)/

a,? tMuify*k Kd¾ vfwYdk onf/ t.ocFw?H uH pdwf Owk tm[m&paom taMumif;wkYd u pkaygif; nDnGwfí
rûyjyiftyfaom/ 0g? ûyjyiftyfonfh ocFg&rS ajymif;jyef qefYusifbuf jzpfaom/ y'H? r*fÓPfç zkv d Ó
f Pfç jzifçh
qkud af &muftyfaom/ {wH edAmÁ e"mwk?H oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daooç tm;jzifh cGjJ cm;í a[mjytyfaom þ edAmÁ ef
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0drw k å pdwmå ? udavomrS vGwaf jrmufaompdwf ½Su d ek o
f nf/ a[mEÅ?d jzpfuek \ f / aw? udavomrS vGwaf jrmufonfh
pdw½f u dS ek af om xkd yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk onf/ "r®om&m"d*rm? w&m;wkYd ü tESpjf zpfaom t&[wåzv dk u f dk &jcif;aMumif/h ca,?
&m*ponfwYdk\ ukeNf idr;f &mç ukeNf idr;f jcif;oabmjzpfaom edAmÁ efü/ wenf;um; "r®om&m"d*rm? w&m;wkYd ü tESpf
jzpfaom edAmÁ efudk odjcif; &jcif;aMumif/h ca,? ocFg& tvk;H pk\ H ukeNf idr;f &mç ukeNf idr;f jcif;ç oabm jzpfaom
tEkyg'daooedAmÁ efü/ &wm? arGUavsmf ESpûf cduaf ysmyf u dk af wmf rlMuavuke\ f / (aw? edAmÁ efoYdk a&mufuek Nf yD;aom
xkyd *k Kd¾ vfwYdk onf/ awwd edAmÁ eywåm-[laom oH0PÖem rlut JG vkt
d m;jzifh jyefonf/ awwd edygwrwå-H [laom
q|oH*g,emrl tvkt d m;jzif?h aw-o'´gukt d euf rjyef&NyD)/ wm'daem? tm½kaH umif;qk;d ç xkEd pS rf sKd;ukdç ½TifñId;
uif;yç tnDtrQ½IEidk u f ek o f nfjzpfí/ oAÁb0ged? tvk;H pkaH om b0wkYd u/dk y[Ho?k y&deAd mÁ efpw k rd S aemufumvü
vk;H 0 y,fpeG Yf awmfral vukeNf yD/
0dyóem½Ienf;usrf; ('kwd,wGJ) 140

udavoç cE¨edAÁmefwkdYvJ y&rwfyif

þ*gxmü a, {w'nm, y'H tocFw-H [laom tyk'd u f dk txl; owdûyí Munf½h I BuHpnfMuygavuke/f
oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daooç tm;jzifh cGjJ cm;í a[mjytyfaom? udavomç cE¨mç wkYd \ Nidr;f jcif; oabmonf
taMumif;w&m;wkYd u ûytyf jzpfaptyfonfh w&m;r[kwaf omaMumifh tocFw rnf\/ rD;ESifh a&ç tylESifh tat;ç
tarSmifEiS t hf vif;ç awm½IyEf iS u
hf iG ;f jyifç wkYd uohJ Ydk ? rjywfjzpfysufavh½adS om ocFg&wkYd EiS hf ajymif;jyef qefYusifbuf
jzpfaomaMumifv h J tocFwrnf\/ r*fç zkv d Ó f PfwYdk jzifh rsufarSmufov d suf qku d af &muftyfaomaMumifh y'vJ
rnf\/ oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daoo[k cGjJ cm;í jytyfaom? ]tocFwç y'} rnfaom? ]]udavom cE¨mwkUd \
Nidr;f jcif;}} wnf;[laom þedAmÁ efuydk if t&d,mwkYd onf r*fç zkv d Óf Pfjzifh odMuonf[í l xkt d yk'd jf zifh wku
d ½f u
dk f
az:jy\/ xkYd aMumifçh ]]r*f zkv d w f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaomç oEÅv d u©Pm ½Sad om y&rw¬eAd mÁ ef=taMumif;edAmÁ efu wjcm;?
oOyg'daoo rnfaom udavoy&deAd mÁ eç tEkyg'daoo rnfaom cE¨y&deAd mÁ ef wnf;[laom tusKd;edAmÁ efwYdk u
wjcm;}} [lí þokYd cGjJ cm;jcif;ukd rûyoifNh yD/ cGjJ cm;í ,lvQif? þygVdawmfEiS v hf J qefYusif&m\? atmufyg tbd"r®w¬
o*F[ t|uxmESiv hf J qefYusi&f m\/

wa'xH obm0awm {u0d"rÜd oOyg'daoo edAmÁ e"mwkç tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ e"mwk apwd 'k0rd H a[mwd
um&Py&d,m a,e/

wH {wH? r*fzv
dk w
f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom xked Ad mÁ efonf/ ({u0d"rÜçd 'k0"d H a[mwdç wkYd ü pyfav)/ obm0awm?
oEÅvd u©Pm [laom rdr\ d oabmtm;jzif/h {u0d"rÜ?d wyg;aom tzkYd ½Sad omfv/J 0g? wyg;xnf; jzpfaomfv/J
oOyg'daoo edAmÁ e"mwk? oOyg'daoo edAmÁ ef"mwf¤if;/ tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ e"mwkp? tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ ef"mwf
¤if;/ £wd? þokYd / um&Py&d,ma,e? uGjJ ym;jcif;\taMumif; t>ruftm;jzif/h 'k0"d ?H ESpyf g; tjym;½So d nf/
a[mwd? jzpf\/

r*fzv
dk w f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom xked Ad mÁ efonf oEÅv d u©Pmtm;jzifh wyg;xnf;omjzpfonf/ oEÅv d u©Pm
½Sad om edAmÁ efç oEÅv d u©Pmr½Sad om edAmÁ ef[k rcGjJ cm;tyfNyD/ edAmÁ efqv dk Qif oEÅv d u©Pm ½Sod nfomwnf;/okYd aomfvJ
Oyg'daoo ½Sjd cif;ç r½Sjd cif;[laom uGjJ ym;aMumif;ç cGjJ cm;Ekid af Mumif; t>ruftm;jzifrh u l m; r*fzv dk w f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom
xked Ad mÁ efonfyif oOyg'daooedAmÁ ef"mwfç tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ ef"mwf[k ESprf sKd; jym;onf[í l qkv d \
dk / þokdY
qk&d mü wa'wH 'k0"d H a[mwd-[laom pum;jzifh r*fzv dk w
f Ydk\ tm½kjH zpfaom edAmÁ efuydk if ESprf sKd; cGjJ yaMumif; xif½mS ;
\/ xkYd aMumif?h oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daoo edAmÁ efwYdk u?dk r*fzv dk w
f Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom edAmÁ efrcS xJG w k v f Qif?tbd"r®w¬
o*F[usr;f ESiv hf J qefYusif\/

edAÁmefonf tbm0ynwf r[kwf

þrQom ruao;? xko d Ydk cGxJ w


k v
f Qifç ]]r*fzv
dk wf Ydk \ tm½kjH zpfaom edAmÁ efonf oEÅv d u©Pm ½Sad om y&rw¬
w&m;jzpfaomaMumif?h ¤if;rSujJG ym;aom oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daooedAmÁ efwYdk u?dk oEÅv d u©Pmr½S[ d íl ¤if