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Chapter One Chemistry Guide

Chapter One Chemistry Guide

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Published by Helie
A study guide to chapter one of the Modern Chemistry textbook.
A study guide to chapter one of the Modern Chemistry textbook.

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Published by: Helie on Aug 27, 2008
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Chapter One: Matter and Change (Text from Modern Chemistry, by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) Section One: Chemistry is a Physical Science
Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the processes that matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes. Six Branches of Chemistry 1. Organic chemistry: carbon-containing compounds 2. Inorganic chemistry: non-organic substances 3. Physical chemistry: properties and changes of matter and energy 4. Analytical chemistry: identification of components and composition of materials 5. Biochemistry: chemistry in living things 6. Theoretical chemistry: understanding principles behind observations and predicting properties of new compounds A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition. Basic research is conducted for the sake of learning more, but it can be applied effectively. Applied research is usually carried out if there is a specific problem that needs to be solved. Technological development has to do with products that improve our quality of life. Basic research is often far ahead of technological applications. However, basic and applied research and technological development all overlap. Section Two: Matter and Its Properties All matter has volume and mass. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is made up of atoms and molecules. An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances and is made of one type of atom. A compound is a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances. A compound is made up of two or more atoms of chemically bonded elements. Extensive properties of matter depend on the amount of matter present. For example, volume, mass, and the amount of energy in a substance. Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present. These include melting and boiling points, density, and heat conductivity. You can also group properties as either physical or chemical. Physical properties are characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Physical properties deal with the substance itself, rather than the changes it undergoes. They can include melting and boiling points.

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Chapter One: Matter and Change (Text from Modern Chemistry, by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance is called a physical change. Physical changes can be things like grinding, melting, or cutting, or boiling a substance. Melting and boiling are two types of changes of state. Changes of state are physical changes of a substance from one state to another. Solid, liquid, and gas are the three states of matter. Solid matter has definite volume and definite shape, regardless of the container it is in. The particles in a solid are tightly packed and relatively fixed in their position. There are strong attractive forces between them. Liquid matter has a definite volume but an indefinite shape. The shape of a liquid will vary depending on the shape of the container. However, the amount or volume of the liquid will remain the same. The particles in liquids are close together, but not as tightly packed as solids. They are able to move past each other and more rapidly, so they can overcome the attractive forces holding them together. Gaseous matter has neither definite volume nor definite shape. Any quantity of gas will expand to fill any-sized container and take on that shape. The attractive forces have little pull because the particles of gas move very rapidly and are farther apart than those in liquids. Plasma is a fourth state of matter that exists at very high temperatures. The atoms lose most of their electrons when they are in the plasma state. A chemical property relates to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Chemical properties can be most easily observed when chemicals react to form new substances. A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction. The substances that react in a chemical change are called the reactants. The substances that are formed by the chemical change are called the products. Chemical changes do not affect the total amount of matter present before and after a reaction. The amount of matter and mass stay the same. While accounting for all the energy in a chemical reaction is not easy to do, according to the law of conservation of energy, energy (and mass) is neither destroyed not created. However, it can take on a different form. A mixture is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties. The components of a mixture are simply physically combined, and can usually be separated. Some mixtures are homogenous, or uniform in composition. They have the same proportions of components throughout. They are also called solutions. Other mixtures are not uniform throughout, or heterogeneous. Some mixtures can be separated by filters or when different components are vaporized.

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Chapter One: Matter and Change (Text from Modern Chemistry, by Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)

A pure substance has a fixed composition, is homogeneous, and differs from a mixture in the following ways: 1. Every sample of a given pure substance has the exact same chemical properties. 2. Every sample of a given pure substance has the exact same composition. Pure substances are either compounds or elements. All chemicals have some impurities. They are ranked by their purity depending on the organization that approves them. Some organizations are more stringent than others. Section Three: Elements The periodic table is a way of organizing the elements into groups based on similar chemical properties. The vertical columns of the periodic table are called groups or families. Each group contains elements with similar chemical properties. The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called periods. Physical and chemical properties change somewhat regularly across a period. Elements that are close to each other in the same period tend to be more similar than elements that are farther apart. Metals are elements that are good electrical conductors and good heat conductors. Most metals are solids at room temperature, are malleable, ductile, and luster. Non-metals are elements that are poor conductors of heat and electricity. Metalloids are elements that have some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non-metals. They are usually less malleable than metals but not as brittle as non-metals and are semiconductors.

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