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rmwdum

a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; (yxrydkif;)

a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; ('kwd,ydkif;)

tvGefyJta&;BuD;ygw,f

tvGeftxifBuD;aeMuw,f

trSeftwdkif;odatmif

½IyHk½Ienf;

tcHcufwm[lorQudk

'ku©udkjyKjyifay;rIu zHk;uG,foGm;vdkY

rzHk;uG,fEdkifawmhbl;

xifrSm;wmawGcsnf;yJ

pl;pdkufNyD;awmh½IrSwfaeyg

aqmifyk'f

½Sif;vif;csuf

trnfqdk&if ynwfcsnf;yJ

rsufarSmufawGY&r,f

rxif½Sm;wJhw&m;

rd*y'0vOöeenf;

olYtcdkufeJYol

pOf;pm;p&maumif;w,f

a0'emwdkif;tcH&rcuf

csrf;omwJh'PfcsufawG

rSefpGmodjrifaomol

'ku©oHk;rsdK;
0rf;omw,f 0rf;omw,f

vGefvGefuJuJ 0rf;omrIawG

vufvSrf;rrSDEdkifwJh aysmf½TifrI

0rf;omrIvGwfajrmufatmif

pdwfat;wJhenf;vrf;aumif;

rvGefEdkifaomvrf;

t½Sifr[moD0 0w¬K

w&m;rwufEdkifwm pmESifhrqdkif

todÓPfrygwJh Oayu©m

tifrwefaumif;aewm

a0'em 9-yg;
a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; 1

a0'emEkyóem w&m;awmfBuD;
yxrydik ;f
1313 ckESpf? wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhaeYn
toHvTifh a[mMum;onf

'DuaeYa[mrnfh w&m;awmfuawmh a0'emEkyóem w&m;awmfBuD;jzpfw,f? ud, k x


f pJ w
d x
f u
J cHpm;rI
trsKd;rsKd;awGu½kd NI yD; todÓPfx;l jzpfay:vmyHu
k kd a[mrnfw
h &m;awmfBuD;vdYk qdv
k w
kd ,f/

cHpm;rIa0'emqdw
k m 3-rsKd;½Swd ,f? tm½Hak umif;awGeYJ awGYawGYNyD; ud,k x
f pJ w
d x
f rJ mS aumif;aumif;oGm;wm
udk okca0'emvdYk ac:w,f? tm½Hq
k ;kd awGeYJ awGYawGYNyD; ud,
k x
f J pdwx
f rJ mS taeqd;k tcHcufomG ;wmudk 'kua© 0'emvdYk
ac:w,f? rqd;k raumif; tv,ftvwf aeom½Hk jzpfaewmudak wmh Oayu©ma0'emvdYk ac:w,f/

'Da0'em[m emrfw&m;xJrmS qd&k if txl;xif½mS ;wJh w&m;wpfrsKd;yJ? NyD;awmhoul kd trSet f wdik ;f odzYkd vJ tvGef
ta&;BuD;ygw,f? bmaMumifv h qJ akd wmh avmurSm owå0gawGu 'DcpH m;rIuav;udk trSet f wdik ;f rodMuwJh twGuf
tvGetf xifBuD;aeMuw,f? 'D cHpm;rIuykd J owå0gaumifvYkdyJ xifaeMuw,f? {&mrcsr;f omBuD;vdYk yJ xifaeMuw,f?
aumif;pm;csrf;omrIuav;awG jzpfaewJh tcgrSmqd&k if ]]igaumif;aew,f? igcsrf;omaew,f}}vdYk 'Dvkd xifaeMu
w,f? qif;&Jru I av;awG jzpfaewJt h cgrSmvJ igqif;&Jaew,fvYkd 'Dvx
kd ifaeMujyefw,f/

'Dvx kd ifaeMuwJt h wGuf igaumif;pm;csrf;om&atmif igeJYpyfwhJ oluav;awG aumif;pm;csrf;om &atmif


'Dv&kd nf½, G Nf yD; trsKd;rsKd;½SmBuH tm;xkwaf eMu&w,f? tdy&f mEd;k uwnf;upNyD; wpfaeYv;kH wpfnvH;k tcsdeef m&D
½Sw
d ikd ;f ]]igcsrf;omzdYk ç igeJYpyfwv hJ al wG csrf;omzdYk }} BuHpnftm;xkwaf eMu&w,f? 'Dvt kd m;xkwaf yr,fh tm;xkww f ikd ;f
vJ csr;f omwmawmh r[kwyf gbl;? ud, k x f ifaMu;eJY rudu k yf J qif;&J'u
k © a&mufaeMuwmawG trsm;BuD;ygyJ?
'gaMumifh owå0gawG[m wvIyv f yI f w½G½eG YJ 'kua© &mufaeMuwmyJ? tyg,fav;yg;udk us&wmvJ 'DcpH m;rIukd trSef
twdik ;f rodvYkd y?J b0topf topfawGjzpfNyD; td&k em& ao& pd;k &dryf al qG;& idak <u;&qdw k hJ 'Dvakd b;qd;k 'kuq © ;kd BuD;
awGeYJ &ifqikd af wGYae&MuwmawGvJ wjcm;aMumifh r[kwyf gbl;? r½IrrSwv f Ykd ygyJ? 'gaMumifh 'DcpH m;rIukd trSet f wdik ;f
odatmif ½Irw S zf Ykd &m tvGeyf J ta&;BuD;ygw,f? 'Dvt kd a&;BuD;wJt
h wGuyf J jrwfpmG bk&m;u 'Da0'emEkyóemudk
okwaf ygif;rsm;pGmrSm tBudrBf udrf txyfxyf a[mxm;cJw h ,f? r[mowdy|meokwrf mS qd&k if 'Da0'em 9-rsK;d cGjJ cm;NyD;
a[mMum;cJw h ,f? cGjJ cm;yHu k awmh okcç 'ku?© Oayu©mvdYk 'Dvo kd mrefa0'emu 3 rsK;d ? omrdookcç omrdo'ku©ç
omrdoOayu©mvdYk 'Dvkd omrdoa0'emu 3-rsK;d ed&mrdookcç ed&mrdo'kuç© ed&mrdoOayu©mvdYk 'Dvkd ed&mrdo
a0'emu 3-rsKd;? 'Dvdk 3-rsKd; 3-vD 9-rsKd; cGJjcm;NyD;a[mxm;w,f/ 'D 9-rsKd;xJrmS yxrqH;k okca0'em½Iyu kH kd 'Dvkd
a[mxm;w,f/

okcH 0g a0'eH a0',rmaem-csr;f omwJh cHpm;rIukd cHpm;vQiv


f ?J okcH a0'eH a0',mrDw-d csr;f omwJh
cHpm;rIukd cHpm;&onf[k yZmemwd-od\ wJh/

ud,k x f rJ mS pdwxf rJ mS csr;f omrIjzpfay:vm&ifvJ tJ'cD sr;f omrIukd pl;pduk Nf yD; csr;f omw,f? csr;f omw,fvYkd
'Dvkd ½IrwS Nf yD;od&r,fw?hJ csrf;omw,fqw kd hJ pum;uawmh pmoH;k pum;yJ? t&yfo;kH pum;qd&k ifawmh ud, k x
f u
J
csr;f omrIukd aeomw,fvYkdvaJ c:&w,f? pdwx f u
J csr;f omrIuakd wmh 0rf;omw,f? aysm½f iT w f ,f ponfjzifv
h J
ac:&ygw,f? trsm;tm;jzifq h &kd ifawmh tJ'cD srf;om 2-rsKd;vH;k udk aumif;w,fvYkd yJ ac:a0:ajymqdak vh ½SMd uygw,f?
'gaMumifh tJ'cD srf;omrIukd uk, d af c:aeustwdik ;f aeomw,fç aeomw,fvYkd vJ ½Irw S Ef ikd yf gw,f/ 0rf;omw,fç
0rf;omw,f ponfjzifv h J ½Irw S Ef ikd yf gw,f? ]]aumif;w,fç aumif;w,f}}vdYk vJ ½IrwS Ef ikd yf gw,f/

,ckajymcJw h thJ wdik ;f csrf;omrIukd pl;pdu k Nf yD; ½Irw


S af e&if tJ'cD srf;omrI okca0'emudk oabmtrSetf wdik ;f
odw,f? tJ'v D kd okca0'em&JU oabmtrSeu f o kd w d m[m ]]a0'emEkyóem}}ygyJ? 'Dae&mrSm oabmtrSeu f kd odw,f
qdwk mu avmuDock o[*kwpf w d f 31-ckrmS ½Sw
d hJ a0'emudk okca0'em ac:w,fvYkd 'Dvkd okwr,ÓPfavmufeYJ
rSe;f qqifjcifNyD; odwmrsK;d udk qdv k w
kd mr[kwb f ;l ? ud, k ohf EÅmefrmS wu,fjzpfay:aewJh cHpm;rIuav;udk ½Irw
S Nf yD;
a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; 2

awmh aoaocsmcsm odoo d mG ;wmudk qdv k w


kd ,f? 'gaMumifh owdy|meokwf ygVdawmfrmS ]]a0',rmaem-cHpm;
aewke;f od&r,f}}vdYk qdxk m;wmaygh? 'Dvw kd u,fjzpfaewJh cHpm;rIukd vufeYJ uikd Mf unfo
h vdk aoaocsmcsm odae&if
usr;f *eftqdak wG pmñTe;f awGeYJ xyfNyD; qifjcifaezdYk rvdak wmhygbl;? Oyrm-qifaumifBuD;udv k J aoaocsmcsm
awGYjrifaewJh vlrmS qif½yk af &;Munfzh Ykd rvdak wmhovdyk gyJ/

odYk ayr,fh rodem;rvnfao;wJh yk*Kd¾ vfawGuawmh 'Dvakd r;p&m½Sw d ,f? b,fvv kd q


J akd wmh ]]csrf;om&if
csrf;omw,f}}vdYk odwmç aumif;&if aumif;w,fvYkd odwm[m vlwikd ;f vlwikd ;f odaewmrsKd;yJ r[kwv f m;?
vlBuD;awGwif ruao;bl;? EdYk pYkduav;oli,frsm;awmifrS 'Dvykd o J ad eMur,f r[kwv f m;? 'Dawmh ]½Irw S Nf yD;odwmeJY
r½IrSwfbJ tvdkvdk odaewm[m twlwlyJr[kwfaybl;vm;} vdYk 'Dvakd r;p&m½Sw d ,f? ar;qdw k muawmh rodem;rvnf
wJh vlawG&UJ vkyif ef;pOfy?J ]rodar;? rpifaq;}qdw k hJ avmuy&dbmompum;twdik ;f yJ rod&ifawmh ar;Muayvdrrhf ,f?
'Dvakd r;awmhow d hJ yk*Kd¾ vfu ajz½Si;f ½H½k w
dS mudk 'gaMumifh 'Dae&mrSm bk&m;½Si&f UJ &nf½,G cf sufwYkd uv
kd J t|uxm
q&mu ajz½Si;f xm;ygw,f? a[m olajymqdyk u kH kd ,ckem;axmifMu&r,f?

t|uxmq&m\ ajz½Sif;csuf

vlBuD;awGwiG f rubl;? EdYk pYkduav;oli,frsm;awmifrS csr;f omw,f? aumif;w,fvYkd odMuwmuawmh


rSeyf gw,fw?hJ odYk ayr,fh r½IrrSw&f bJ tvdv k o kd ad ewmeJY ½Irw S Nf yD; odwmuawmh rwlygbl;wJ/h ajymif;jyefukd
xl;jcm;aeygw,fw/hJ xl;jcm;yHu k awmh ½Irw S rf rI ½Swd hJ vlawGqw kd m[m vlBuD;yJ jzpfjzpf? uav;yJ jzpfjzpf odyckH sif;
twlwyl gyJ? vlBuD;uydNk yD; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; odw,fvYkd *kPrf ,lEikd yf gbl;/ tJ olwYkd tukev f ;kH [m edpö okc twåtae
eJYcsnf; odaeMuwmygyJ? olwYkd &UJ odyu kH kd ppfaq;jy&vQif ½Irw S rf uI if;wJh olawG[m csrf;omudo k w d ,fqakd yr,fh tJ'D
csrf;omrIukd jzpfay:wdik ;f jzpfay:wdik ;f vJ odMuwmr[kwyf gbl;? trsm;tm;jzifq h &kd if aeYa&mnOfyh g tcgcyford ;f
wjcm;wpfyg;awGukd BuHpnfpOf;pm;&if; tcsed u f ek af ewmuom rsm;Muygw,f? wpfcgw&HavmufyJ odEikd Mf uygw,f/
'Dvkd odjyefawmhvJ cHpm;rI oabmw&m;taeeJY rodMu rxifMuygbl;? ]igcsrf;omaew,f? igaumif;aew,f}vdYk
'Dvt kd wåaumif taeeJYom xifjrifpv JG rf;aeMuygw,f? NyD;awmh topftopf jzpfjzpfNyD; wpfcPcsi;f ysuyf suf
oGm;wJt h ae? rNrJwt hJ aeeJYvJ rodMu? rxifMuygbl;? tvsifu½Sad ewJh iguyJ ,ck csrf;omaumif;pmaew,fvYkd
'Dvkd NrJwt hJ aeeJYom xifjrifpv JG rf;aeMuw,f? 'Dawmh 'Dvt kd od[m twåaumif igaumifvYkd xifaewJh rlvu
todtpGeJ YJ twlwb l rJ [kwv f m;? twlwl jzpfwt hJ wGuf twåaumif igaumifvYkd xifaewJh rlvutodtpGu J kd
ry,fEikd w f jhJ yif olu xyfNyD;awmhawmif axmufccH sufay;aeygao;w,f/ 'gaMumifh ½Irw S jf cif;r½Sb
d eJ YJ tvdv k kd
odaew,fqw kd hJ 'Dvt kd avhayguftodrsK;d [m ur®|mef;vJ rjzpfb;l ? owdyXmefbm0emvJ rjzpfb;l ? 'Dvt kd odrsK;d udk
jrwfpmG bk&m;u &nfvrJ &nf½, G yf gbl;wJh/

tEdYk 'gjzifh b,fvt kd odukd &nf½, G yf govJqakd wmh ud, k x


f ?J pdwx f rJ mS jzpfay:vmwJh csrf;omrI
aumif;pm;rIuav;awGukd jzpfay:wdik ;f jzpfay:wdik ;f pl;pl;pdu
k pf u
kd f rjywf½rI w
S o
f ad ewJh a,m*D&UJ toduo kd m &nf½,
G f
ygw,fw?hJ wnfw h nfah jym&&if ud, k xf ?J pdwx f J csr;f omrIuav;awG jzpfaewJt h cgrSm csrf;omw,fxif&ifvJ
]csr;f omw,f csr;f omw,f}vdYk rSw&f r,f? 0rf;omw,fxif&ifvJ ]0rf;omw,f? 0rf;omw,f}vdYk rSw&f r,f?
aumif;w,fxif&ifvJ ]aumif;w,f? aumif;w,f}vdYk rSw&f r,f? 'Dvkd rSwNf yD; csr;f omrI&UJ oabmrSeu f kd od&r,fvYkd
qdkvdkygw,f/ oabmrSeu f kd odw,fqw kd mvJ obm0vu©PmeJY odwm&,f? &oeJY odwm&,f ypöKy|mefeYJ odwm
&,f? y'|mefeYJ odwm&,f? NyD;awmh tedp?ö 'ku?© tewå vu©PmawGeYJ odwm&,f? 'Dvkd odwmudk qdv k ykd g w,fw/hJ

'Dae&mrSm okca0'em&JU vu©Pmç &oç ypöy|mef 'Do;kH rsKd;udk vG,v f ,


G ef YJ rw
S &f atmif q&mawmfu
twdck sKyfNyD; aqmify'k u
f av;pDxm;w,f? tJ'gudk ,ck em;axmifNyD; rSwx
f m;Mu&r,f/

tm½Hak umif;rsm;-cHpm;wwfonf/
pdwt f azmfrsm;-½TifyGm;aponf/
ud,k pf w
d x
f rJ mS -aumif;vSxifonf/
csr;f omrI-rSw½f jI rwfa,m*D wJ/h

'Daqmify'k x
f rJ mS ]tm½Hak umif;rsm; cHpm;wwfonf} qdw k m[m tm½Hak umif;awGcpH m;NyD; aumif;aewm[m
okca0'em&JUoabmvu©PmyJ? tJ'gudk a,m*D[m ½Irw S &f if; odoo
d mG ;&r,fvYkd qdv
k wkd ,f/ ]pdwt
f azmfrsm; ½Tiyf mG ;
aponf} qdw k muawmh pdwaf pwodwq f w
kd hJ a0'emeJY tazmfawGukd ½Tiv f ef;wd;k wufapwm[m okca0'em&JU
a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; 3

pGr;f &nfowå&d owJ/h tJ'gudv k J ½Irw S &f if; odoo d mG ;&r,fvYkd qdv k wkd ,f/ ud, k phf wd x f u
J aumif;vSxifonf}
qdwk muawmh uk, d x
f J pdwx f rJ mS aumif;vdu k wf m aumif;vdu k wf mvdYk xif&wmuav;awG okca0'em&JU
tjcif;t&m tajctae ypöKy|mefy?J tJ'gudv k J ½Irw S &f if; odoo d mG ;&r,fvYkd qdv k ykd gw,f/ ]csrf;omrI rSw½f I
jrwfa,m*D} qdw k muawmh csr;f omrIock a0'em jzpfwikd ;f ½Irw S Nf yD; ,ckajymcJwh hJ vu©PmeJYjzpfjzpf &oeJYjzpfjzpf
ypöKy|mefeYJ jzpfjzpf odood mG ;&r,fvYkd qdvk w kd ,f? 'gaMumif-h

tm½Hak umif;rsm;-cHpm;wwfonf/
pdwt f azmfrsm;-½TifyGm;aponf/
ud,k pf w
d x
f rJ mS -aumif;vSxifonf/
csr;f omrI-rSw½f jI rwfa,m*D/

qdw
k hJ aqmify'k u
f av;udv
k J t&usufrw
S x
f m;Mu&r,f/

ud,
k pf w
d x
f rJ mS jzpfay:vmwJh csrf;omrIuav;udk jzpfqrJ mS om pl;pdu
k Nf yD; ½Irw
S Mf unfyh g? ,ckajymcJw h t
hJ wdik ;f
vu©PmeJYa&m? &oeJYa&m? ypöKy|mefeYJ a&m odEikd yf gw,f? 'Dvkd vu©Pmç &oç ypöKy|mefeYJ odw,fq&kd if aumif;wJh
tm½Hak wG&vdYk aumif;aumif;oGm;w,fqw kd hJ olYtaMumif; y'|mefuv kd J odomG ;awmhwmygyJ? 'Dae&mrSm okca0'em
xuf 'kua© 0'emu omNyD;xif½mS ;ao;w,f? tJ'D 'kua© 0'em xif½mS ;yHu k akd wmh 'kua© 0'em½Iyt kH ydik ;f usrS a[m&
r,f/

,ckajymcJw h hJ okca0'emudk jzpfwikd ;f jzpfwikd ;f ½Irw S Nf yD; oabmrSeu f o


kd &d if tJ'cD sr;f omrIav;&JU tpay:vmrI
jzpfru
I vkd J xif½mS ;odawmhwmyJ/ ukeq f ;kH aysmufu, G o
f mG ;wmudv k J xif½mS ;odawmhwmyJ/ 'Dawmh csrf;omrIuav;awG
udk wpfcpk D wpfyikd ;f pD wpfyikd ;f pD cGjJ cm;NyD; odEikd w f ,f/ 'gaMumifh tvsifwek ;f u wpfa,mufwnf;&,fvYkd xif&wJh
oEÅwyd nwf[m ,ck olYtvdv k ykd sufomG ;yga&m? 'Dvkd oEÅwyd nwfysufomG ;awmh jzpfay:NyD; ysufysufomG ;vdYk
rNrJb;l qdw k hJ tedpv
ö u©Pm[mvJ olYtvdv k ykd J xif½mS ;ay:vmygw,f/ NyD;awmh jzpfvu kd f ysufvu kd ef YJ jzpfrI ysurf u
I
rjywfEydS pf ufaevdYk bmrS tm;rud;k avmufb;l ? qif;&Jyq J wkd hJ 'kuv© u©P[mvJ olYtvdv k ykd J xif½mS ;ay:vmygw,f?
NyD;awmh ud, k thf vdtk wdik ;f rjzpfbJ olYoabmtwdik ;f csnf; jzpfysufaevdYk tpd;k r&bl;? igaumifr[kwb f ;l qdw
k hJ tewå
vu©mvJ olYtvdv k kd xif½mS ;ay:vmygw,f/

'Dvx
kd if½mS ;ay:vmwJt
h wGuf a,m*D[m okca0'emudk ½Irw d ikd ;f ½Irw
d ikd ;f ]cHpm;wwfwhJ igaumifr½Sbd ;l ?
aumif;pm;csrf;omaewJh igaumifr½Sb d ;l ? tm½Hak umif;uav;awGeYJ awGYawGYNyD; topftopf qifu h mqifu
h m rjywf
jzpfaewJh cHpm;rItaygif;rQom ½Sw d ,f}vdYk vJ ½Si;f ½Si;f BuD; oabmususoGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh ]auma0',wd-
b,fol cHpm;wmvJ? cHpm;wwfwhJ twåaumif½o dS vm;} qdw k hJ a[m'D yxr ar;cGe;f udv k J ajyvnfatmif odomG ;yg
w,f/

NyD;awmh cHpm;rI&UJ ydik ½f iS t


f wåaumif&,fvYkd r½Sb
d ;l ? cHpm;rIrQ½Sw
d myJvYkd tod½iS ;f aewJth wGuf ]uóa0'em-
b,fo&l UJ cHpm;rIv?J cHpm;rI&UJ ydik ½f iS t
f wåaumif½o
dS vm;}qdw k hJ a[m'D 'kw, d ar;cGe;f udvk J ajyvnfatmif odomG ;yg
w,f/

NyD;awmh tm½Hak umif;uav;awGeYJ awGYawGYNyD; csrf;omrI aumif;pm;rI topftopfjzpfae½Hrk QyJvYkd tod½iS ;f


aewJt
h wGuf ]uð um&Pm a0'em b,ftaMumif;aMumifh cHpm;rIjzpfovJ}qdw k hJ a[m'D wwd,ar;cGe;f udv k J
ajyvnfatmif tod½iS ;f aeygw,f/

,ckajymwJt
h wdik ;f ar;cGe;f (3) csuft& ajyvnfatmif tod½iS ;f aewmudk orÜZmeÓPfvYkd ac:w,f?
toar®m[ orÜZOfqw kd mvJ 'DÓPfygyJ? ud, k xf pJ wd x
f rJ mS rjywfjzpfaewJh cHpm;rIawGukd pl;pdu k Nf yD; rjywfrw S af e&if
toar®m[orÜZOfac:wJh todÓPfjzpfay:vmwmudk ud, k w f ikd yf J awGY&ygw,f/ 'Dvkd todÓPfuawmh cHpm;rI
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a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; 12

pdwfat;wJhenf;vrf;aumif;

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enf;ygyJ/

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a0'emEkyóemw&m;awmfBuD; 14

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