2D Continuous Beam with Distributed Load

ANSYS - Structural Analysis/FEA

Problem: For a steel continuous beam with distributed loads as shown below, calculate the load factor if the moment capacity of the cross section is limited to Mmax = φ zFy, where, φ = 0.9. The beam is made of steel with Young’s modulus of 200 GPa, Poisson ratio 0.30 and the allowable stress (Fy) 350 MPa. The beam has a box cross-section (HSS 356x250x16) (Figure 2) with plastic section modulus (z) 1910×103 mm3. (not the same as elastic section modulus).

200 kN/m

50 kN
50 kN/m 150 kN/m

A
3.0 m

E
7.0 m

B
7.0 m

C
2.1 m

D

Figure 1: Continuous Beam

14.29 mm

356 mm

254 mm

Figure 2: Beam cross-section

Tutorial 3

1/14

Step 2: Specify Element types and Material Properties Use BEAM3 element. In this figure. Choose sub-type of the beam to be a box cross-section and select Offset to: Centroid.Step 1: Start up & Initial Set up Set preferences and unit. Tutorial 3 2/14 . We can define the cross section from this window. z y Now look at the values of Iyy and Izz. Click Preview to see the data summary. Step 3: Specify Sections Main Menu > Preprocessor > section > beam > common sections. y-axis is in the horizontal direction and z-axis is in the vertical direction. This defines the reference axis of the beam.

356. Tutorial 3 3/14 . Note that Keypoint 2 and 3 are needed to define the boundary conditions. Note that the axis for the cross-section is not necessarily the same as the Global Axis.z y y The orientation of the beam ( or z ) is defined by the value of Area moment of z y y inertia you enter for Real Constants (Enter the value of Iyy for and Izz for z ). we define Real Constants by entering Iyy in the Area moment of inertia box and the Total beam height is 0. Another point E at 3 m from Keypoint 1 is also needed to define a concentrated load. we want the beam to have larger dimension in the global Y-axis. C and D) and connect them to create lines. Thus. B. Step 4: Specify Geometry Create keypoints (at point A. In general.

Pick the line to be divided by clicking on L1. Click Ok. Tutorial 3 4/14 .To create point E. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Operate > Booleans > Divide > Lines w/ Options. Click OK. Enter NDIV = 2 and RATIO = 3/7.

Here. Click OK. Tutorial 3 5/14 . you can either define the element edge length or number of element divisions. In the third section Size Controls >Lines. Main Menu > Preprocessor > Meshing > Mesh Tool There will be a Mesh Tool window pop up. Enter the element edge length to be 0.1.Step 5: Meshing Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs Click OK. Select Pick All. click Set. Another window pops up.

In the example. the size of element will influence the accuracy of the solution. Mesh: Lines. Select Pick All To see node and element numbering. In the Mesh Tool pop up (fourth section). Smaller size of elements (or more numbers of elements) gives more accurate results but requires more time to obtain the solutions. However. use: Plot Ctrls >Numbering>Node Numbers and Plot Ctrls >Numbering >Element/Attr Numbering Choose Plot > Elements to see the elements and the nodes Tutorial 3 6/14 . only 3 elements are needed (AB. Click Mesh.In general. for this beam problem. BC and CD) to obtain the exact solution. we use more numbers of element in order to obtain a smooth bending moment diagram.

select UX. Apply Loading: Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural >Force/Moment > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 5. Click Apply.Step 6: Specify Boundary Conditions & Loading Main Menu > Preprocessor > Loads > Define Loads > Apply > Structural > Displacement > On Keypoint Now select Keypoint 1. Select FY and enter -50000 as the Force value. UY as 0. Set UX. Tutorial 3 7/14 . Next. UY. constrain UY of Keypoint 2 and 3.

Tutorial 3 8/14 . Click OK. For uniform distributed load.Apply distributed load Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Pressure> On Beams Now select all elements between point A and B by click on Box and drag a box to cover all the elements. the positive value indicates the direction of pressure acting inward the beam surface. enter VALI = 200e3 kN/m Note that.

Tutorial 3 9/14 .

Step 8: Post Processing Plot Deformed Shape Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot> Nodal Solution Select DOF solution> UY In Items to be plotted. Step 7: Solve Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Click OK in the Solve Current Load Step pop up window.Similarly. distributed loads on beam BC and CD can be added. select Deformed+Undeformed Click OK Tutorial 3 10/14 .

2. (MMOMZ = Member moment at node i1) Click Apply. 3. Tutorial 3 11/14 . 6 at the bottom text box.6 (SBYB = Bending stress on the element -Y side of the beam1) Click OK Click Close 1 See BEAM3 . In the next window select By Sequence number.5 (SBYT = Bending stress on the element +Y side of the beam1) Then add LS.Table 3.2 (Element Output Definitions) for description of each option. 12 (MMOMZ = Member moment at node j1) Then add LS. in the right window select SMISC and enter SMISC.Create Element Table Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > Define Table Click Add. Then add SMISC.

Plotting Bending Moment Diagram Main Menu > General Post Proc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Line Element Res Tutorial 3 12/14 .

Tutorial 3 13/14 .Similarly. you can plot the stresses at the top (or bottom) fibers of the beam by selecting LS2 (or LS3) from the list List Stress Values Main Menu > General Post Proc > Element Table > List Element Table > Select LS2 and LS3 Click OK You will be able to see the bending stress values of each element in +Y and –Y direction and the maximum stresses.

9 × (350 × 10 6 Pa ) × (1910 × 10 3 × 10 −9 m 3 ) = 601650 N ⋅ m In this problem.614 Tutorial 3 14/14 .Calculate Load Factor Mmax = 0. the maximum moment is 979907 N ⋅ m Load factor = 601650/979907 = 0.