FORM 2 Science

Chapter 5 Water and solution

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

1

Content
5.1 The physical properties of water 5.2 Composition of water 5.3 The process of water evaporation 5.4 Solutions and solubility of substances 5.5 Acid and alkali 5.6 Methods of purifying water 5.7 Water supply system 5.8 Preserving water quality
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 2

5.1
The Physical Properties of Water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

3

The Physical Properties of Water
Water is colourless, tasteless and odourless liquid Water exists in three states, which are solid, liquid and gas Water can change from one state to another The density of water is 1 g/cm3 Impurities in water can affect freezing and boiling point http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

4

Change of state of water
Gas (Vapour )

Solid ( Ice )
Me l ti n g

Boiling // Evaporation Condensation

Fr ee zin g

Liquid ( Water )
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 5

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

6

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

7

Kinetic theory of freezing point of water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

8

The temperature of steam is taken as the boiling point of water.
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 9

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

10

Kinetic theory of boiling point of water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

11

5.2
Composition of Water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

12

Composition of Water
Water is a chemical compound that made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. (The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1) Water can be break up into hydrogen and oxygen through the process of electrolysis.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

13

Electrolysis
In the process of electrolysis, oxygen is discharged at the anode (positive electrode) and hydrogen is discharged at the cathode (negative electrode)

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

14

Confirmation test of water composition
Oxygen is tested with a glowing wooden splint. The wooden splint lights up when oxygen is present. Hydrogen is tested with a lighted wooden splint. ‘Pop’ sound is produced when hydrogen is present

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

15

5.3
The Process of Water Evaporation

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

16

Evaporation of water
• Water evaporation is a process where water molecules are released as vapour into the air below boiling point of water.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

17

Application of evaporation of water
• The knowledge of evaporation applied in daily life.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

18

Factors that influence the rate of water evaporation
Factors Surrounding temperature Air movement (wind) Description The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of the water evaporation. Moving air (wind) quicken the evaporation process by blow away the water particles from the water surface into the atmosphere. Water particles can escape easily when the atmosphere is dry. Therefore, evaporation process occurs faster The wider the surface area, the faster the rate of the water evaporation. http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 19

Air humidity

Surface area

How to increase evaporation rate in daily life

• Drying hair using hairdryer ( the blower increase air movement )

• Spread out the clothes to increase surface area. • Wet clothes dry under hot sun.
20

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

Differences between evaporation and boiling
Evaporation Takes place at any temperature below boiling point Slower process Occurs only at water surface Influenced by the temperature surrounding, air movement, air humidity and surface area Boiling Takes place at boiling point only, that is 100 oC

Vigorous process Occurs throughout the water

Does not influenced by the temperature surrounding, air movement, air humidity and http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com area surface

21

5.4
Solutions and Solubility of Substances

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

22

Solvent, solute and solution
Solute: A substance that soluble or dissolve in a solvent Dissolves in Solvent: A liquid that dissolve a substance (solute)

to form

Solution: A mixture of one or more solutes that dissolved in solvent http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com
23

Dilute solution, concentrated solution and saturated solution

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

24

The solubility of solutes
The solubility is the number of gram of solute that can dissolve in 100 ml of water at a specific temperature, to form a saturated solution. For example, the solubility of potassium nitrate in water is 90 g per 100 ml of water at 50 oC. This means that 90 g of potassium nitrate salt are dissolved in 100 ml of water at a temperature of 50 oC to form a saturated solution of potassium nitrate.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

25

The solubility of solutes

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

26

The factors that influence the solubility rate of substances
Factor Temperature of solvent Size of the solutes Stirring Volume of solvent Description The higher the temperature, the faster the solute can dissolve in the solvent The smaller the size of the solute, the faster it can dissolve in the solvent Solutes dissolve more easily if stirred Solutes dissolve more easily in a bigger volume of solvent
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 27

Water as a solvent
Water is known as universal solvent because water can dissolve many types of substances. The importance of water as a universal solvent. i. ii. iii. iv. Dissolve oxygen and food so that these can be transfer to body cells. Most chemical reactions in humans body need water as a solvent. Dissolve carbon dioxide and oxygen for aquatic organisms. Dissolves mineral salts and this enables the roots of plants to absorb.
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 28

Suspension
• The suspended substances is a substance that do not dissolve in water. • When a suspended substances is added into a solvent, it forms a suspension • A suspension can be separated by filtration.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

29

Organic solvent
• There are also substances that do not dissolves in water but dissolve in organic solvent such as ether, benzene and alcohol

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

30

Organic solvent
Organic solvent Ether Substances that can be dissolves Oils, fats, grease Uses to make cosmetics such as lipstick and nail polish to dilute paint to make it easier to use to stick plastic substances to stick rubber sheets
31

Turpentine

Grease, paint, tar

Chloroform

Plastic

Benzene

Rubber, grease

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

5.5
Acid and Alkali

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

32

Acid and alkaline
Acid and alkali will show their properties presence of water In the presence of water in the

a) acid will change the colour of litmus paper from blue to red b) alkali will change the colour of litmus paper from red to blue
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 33

Acid
Acid exists in three states, which are solid, liquid and gas. Acid are chemical substances that contain hydrogen atom. Weak acids usually found in food. Examples are lactic acid, tannic acid, acetic acid, formic acid .
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 34

Sources of acids

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

35

The properties of acid
1. 2. 3. 4. Taste sour Corrosive Have pH value smaller than 7. Change the colour of litmus paper from blue to red 5. React with carbonates to form salt and water and release carbon dioxide
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 36

The properties of acid
6. React with reactive metal (magnesium/aluminium) to form salt and release hydrogen 7. React with alkali to form salt and water (neutralisation process).

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

37

Alkaline
• Alkali is a hydroxide or metal oxide that dissolves in water. • Examples of alkali:

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

38

The properties of alkali
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Taste bitter Corrosive Have pH value greater than 7 Feel slippery like soap when touched Change the colour of litmus paper from red to blue

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

39

The properties of alkali
6. React with ammonium salts to give off ammonia gas when heated. Examples: sodium hydroxide + ammonium chloride sodium chloride + water + ammonia gas

7.

React with acids to form salt and water (neutralisation process)

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

40

pH values

Click here to watch video

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

41

Neutralisation
• Neutralisation is a chemical reaction in which an acid and an alkali react to form salt and water.
acid + alkali salt + water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

42

Titration
• Titration is a method used for neutralisation. • At the neutralisation point, all the acid completely reacts with the alkali and the solution has a pH value of 7

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

43

5.6
Methods of Purifying of Water

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

44

Natural source of water
• Natural water contains impurities and needs to be treated before it is safe for drinking. • Example of natural source of water : rivers, well, rain , pond, sea, lake, stream..

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

45

Methods of water purification
1. Boiling 2. Chlorination 3. Filtration 4. Distillation
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 46

Boiling
• Use heat to kills the microorganisms in the water. • Advantages Water is free from dangerous microorganisms • Disadvantages Dissolved impurities and suspended impurities still exists in water
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 47

Chlorination
• Chlorine is added to water to kill microorganisms • Advantages Water is free from dangerous microorganism • Disadvantages Dissolved impurities and suspended impurities still exists in water
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 48

Filtration
• To remove suspended impurities from the water • Advantages Water is clear and free from suspended particles • Disadvantages Dissolved impurities and microorganisms still exists in water
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 49

Distillation

• To remove suspended impurities and dissolved impurities from the water • Advantages Water is free from all microorganisms, suspended and dissolved impurities • Disadvantages http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com Does not contain minerals which our bodies need.

50

Distillation

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

51

The application of water purification methods in our daily life
(a)

Boiling – Piped water is boiled before drinking

(b) Filtration – River water is filtered before being supplied to consumers house (c) Distillation – Clinics and hospitals use distilled water to prepared medicines (d) Chlorination – Chlorine is added to the water in the swimming pool to kill microorganisms

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

52

5.7 Water Supply System
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 53

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

54

Water used
• River water and rain water is our main source of water • The water will then be pump to water purification plants to be purified before it is supplied to consumers home. • There are several ways to save water (a) Make use of recycled water (b) Beware of pipe leakage (c) Turn off the tap immediately when not in use (d) Do not turn on the tap full (e) Wash cloths in big quantities
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 55

5.8
Preserving Water Quality

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

56

Water pollution
• Water pollution occurs when water is contaminate with waste product. • Polluted water is not suitable for living organisms.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

57

Domestic waste

Effect of water pollutants Contains dangerous microorganisms that causes diseases such as cholera. Ways to control water pollution i. Dispose the rubbish in a proper way ii . Make use of recycle materials instead of using plastic materials
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 58

Agricultural waste

Effect of water pollutants Poison the aquatic organisms and affect human’s health when eaten. Ways to control water pollution Reduce the used of fertilisers and pesticides
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 59

Industrial waste

Effect of water pollutants Radioactive wastes and chemical residues will destroy body cells and causes skin cancer Ways to control water pollution Enforce the law strictly to prevent the factories from letting harmful chemical residues into the open drain
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 60

Oil spills

Effect of water pollutants Kills marine life thus affecting the income of fisherman . Ways to control water pollution Impose heavy penalties and fines to the ships which found to pollute the sea
http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com 61

Waste water today - Live in a desert tomorrow.

http://fizik-fizik.blogspot.com

62

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful