European Nationalism

French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Distinct from earlier types of affiliation Was more local, in the villages Romanticism Exploration of your own culture An affiliation with emotion instead of reason

What makes a nationality?
Common: Languages Customs/cultural traditions Values Historical experience Transformative events that may have not been real

Discovering Nationalism
Cultural Nationalism 2 phases Tried to deepen appreciation for unique historical experiences and cultural accomplishments Romanticism fairy tales Reaction to universality of Enlightenment Political Nationalism Advocated loyalty to national group Led to intense rivalries among countries Important in unification of Germany and Italy -Either find commonalities in between the people, or find the differences between one country and the other -However, those who didn t fall under that category were isolated

New Symbols/Markers of Nationalism
Flags, anthems, mascots, heroes, monuments, holidays, cuisines, armies, sports

Responses to Nationalism
Conservatives first tried to repress it Congress of Vienna 1814- 1815 Censorship, spies Revolutions of 1848 crushed with military forces Then savvy politicians decided to exploit it. First a force for change, then becomes linked to conservatism Eventually linked to imperialism

Unification of Italy and Germany
Divided since the fall of Rome THAT MEANS THAT BOTH WERE LATE TO INDUSTRIALIZE, TO EVERYTHING Italy was comprised of little city-states, etc North was taken by Austria after 1815 Borders Austria

European Nationalism
South was owned by Spain by the Hapsburg Mazzini s Young Italy movement romanticism Participants were young, idealistic men who were fired up by the ideas of liberalism and enlightenment that were coming through as a result of the Napoleonic era didn t happen Unification achieved when P.M. Count Cavour of Piedmont and Sardinia combined with nationalists 1860 New king that was crowned Pope was opposed to Italian unification retained the control of Vatican City Germany -Motivated by political aspirations -Congress of Vienna created German Confederation dominated by Austria and Prussia Northern Germany Prussia/Germany were fighting for the same territories Prussias want to expand territory -Revolts of 1848 repressed -Otto von Bismarck appointed Prime Minister of Prussia Realpolitik -Prussia provoked wars tricked people to fighting, would win, gained territory Or would make deals/alliances that they might not be able to win Would use force when he would win, and used diplomacy when he knew he couldn t win by force Was also known as the Iron Chancellor nothing would be gained without war and industrialization [blood and iron] -Gradually extended the franchise knew there were people who wanted a voice, and slowly created the Diet gave them rights only if people would be loyal -sponsored industrialization, etc -1871 Prussian Kaiser proclaimed Second Reich Second German Empire first Reich = Holy Roman Empire

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