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What are the different types of advertising appeals? How do they influence the masses? To know it all, read on… Advertising intends to promote the sales of a product or service and also to inform the masses about the highlights of the product or the service features. It is an efficient means of communicating to the world, the value of the product or the service. Advertising utilizes different media to reach out to the masses and uses different types of appeals to connect to the customers across the globe. The various types of advertising appeals harness different means of highlighting the features of a product and drawing the attention of the masses towards it. Here is an overview of the different types of advertising appeals. Different types of Advertising Appeals Audio-Visual Media Advertising: In this advertising technique, the advertisers use the very popular audio and visual media to promote a product. It is the most widely used media that can effectively influence the masses. Television and radio have always been used to achieve a mass appeal. Bandwagon: This advertising appeal aims to persuade people to do a certain thing because the masses are doing it. It is a human tendency to do as the masses do. Bandwagon technique of advertising captures exactly this psychology of human beings to induce them to use a certain product or service. Black and White Fallacy: In this advertising appeal, only two choices are presented before the audiences, thus compelling them to buy the product being advertised. Card Stacking: This advertising appeal involves the display of a comparative study between two competing products. The facts in favor of the product to be advertised are selected. They are put forth in comparison with those of a competing product to make the product appear better than its competitors. Classified Advertising: This type of advertising makes use of newspapers and periodicals to make public appeals about the products or services to be advertised. Know about going global with classified advertising. Corporate Advertising: Corporate advertising is an advertising appeal wherein corporate logos and company message are publicized on a large scale. Hot air balloons are commonly used in advertising a product. Some companies propose to place their logos on booster rockets and space stations to achieve a wide publicity of the company. Covert Advertising: This is the practice of achieving an indirect publicity of the product by advertising it through movies and TV shows. TV actors and characters in movies are
the advertisers use deceptive statements to publicize their product. In the context of military. Advertisers often hold exhibitions or trade-shows and . Declaration of a great discount or sale on a holiday and making luxury items available at affordable prices are often used to aim mass appeal. It commonly includes forging of documents and the spread of rumors. The advertisers often use the words like 'luxury'. Demonizing the Enemy: In this advertising appeal. Advertisements are sent through emails. Flag-waving: The advertising appeal that makes use of the patriotic flavor to publicize a product is known as flag-waving. In case of flag-waving. Disinformation: This technique involves a purposeful dissemination of false information. advertisers make use of logical fallacies. The masses are persuaded to choose a particular product because doing so will be an exhibit of patriotism. The people bearing certain ideas are made to appear among the disliked individuals of society. It is like proving a theorem by disproving its inverse! Direct Order: When the advertisers appeal the masses by showing them the steps to take. Euphoria: The use of positive events characterizes this advertising appeal. 'comfort' and 'satisfaction' to create positive vibes among the masses to attract them towards the product being advertised. This form of advertising involves the idea of encouraging an idea by discouraging the ideas contrary to it.often shown using certain products. They use appealing words without giving any concrete idea about what is being advertised. Glittering Generalities: In this form of advertising. they are said to be using direct order. thus bringing out communication with a wide range of audiences. Interactive Advertising: This advertising appeal makes use of the interactive media to reach out to the target audiences. Covert advertising is an indirect way of advertising a product by featuring it in films and television shows. Half Truth: In this advertising appeal. the advertisers try to justify certain actions on the grounds of patriotism. this technique is used to mislead the enemy. This advertising appeal often communicates the steps to choose a certain product or service and presents them to the audiences in a simplistic manner. Email Advertising: This is a relatively new advertising appeal that makes use of emails to advertise products. in order to opt for a particular product or service. the advertisers make the people with an opposing point of view appear unacceptable. They often use double-meaning words or statements to convey their message to the masses. Emotional Words: This advertising appeal makes use of positive words to generate positive feelings in the minds of the people about a certain product.
Public Service Advertising: This advertising technique is used to convey socially relevant messages to the masses. Internet has become one of the most influential media of the modern times. Bombastic words may not always appeal the common folks. Have you participated in contests intended to promote products? Have you come across websites offering free products to users? The free stuffs are popularly known as freebies. Name-calling: This advertising appeal makes use of direct or indirect attack on the products in competition with the product being advertised. the advertisers use labeling or categorization. Many advertising appeals make use of the print media to reach out to the masses. Websites attract thousands of users everyday and expose them to the advertisements on the websites. kiosks and tradeshows are some of the commonly used means of outdoor advertising. brochures. Billboards. Media like newspapers. inequality. Social messages on issues like poverty. Direct name-calling involves making a direct attack on the opponent while indirect name-calling makes use of sarcasm to demean the products of the competitors. Print Media Advertising: The print media is one of the most effective means of advertising. The advertising agency assumes the entire risk and hence ensures that the advertisement is pitched well. AIDS awareness and environmental issues such as global warming. They can rather be attracted by communicating with them in their language. the advertisers pay only for the results. The use of homey words. .offer rewards in the forms of discounts and free gifts to increase the sale of their product. Performance-based Advertising: In performance-based advertising appeal. Know more about Freebies. exhibitions and billboards that draw in the passersby are often used in outdoor advertising. as they are called. is characteristic to this advertising appeal. Fairs. pollution and deforestation are conveyed by the means of appeals to the public through public service advertising. Internet Advertising: It is a relatively recent form of advertising appeal. manuals and magazines are used for publicizing the products. Plain Folks: This advertising appeal aims at attracting the masses by using common people to advertise a product. Distribution of free samples of a newly launched product and publicity of a product through interactive means are some examples of interactive advertising. Categorizing a product under a group of associated entities makes it appealing or unappealing to the masses. Labeling: With an intent to increase or diminish the perceived quality of a product. and purposeful errors while speaking to give a natural feel to the speech. Outdoor Advertising: Outdoor advertising is a popular advertising appeal that uses different tools to attract the customers outdoors.
by providing the audiences with survey results. Stereotyping: This advertising appeal is also known as name-calling or labeling and attempts to categorize the advertised object under the class of the entities. Advertisers appeal to the target audiences with information that suits their requirements and interests. Snob Appeal: Snob appeal is an exact reverse of the bandwagon technique.Quotes Out of Context: This advertising appeal makes use of popular quotes. Repetition: This advertising appeal uses the technique of repeating the product name several times during an advertisement. are striking phrases used to convey important information of the product to be advertised in an interesting manner. Shockvertising: This advertising appeal makes use of shocking images or scenes to advertise a product. They want to emulate the . Subliminal signals go undetected by the human eye. the product companies come up with other products with the same brand name. Advertising the legal products with the same brand name reminds the audiences of their legally banned products as well. It is often indicated that buying the product will make them look different from the rest. which the masses fear. The name is derived as a combination of the two words. Relationship Marketing: This form of advertising focuses on the retention of customers and customer satisfaction. Scientific Evidence: This technique attempts to appeal the masses to use the advertised product. Jingles are often used in this advertising technique to linger the product name in the minds of the masses. Testimonial: People tend to relate to their favorite figures in the glamor industry. However. Slogans: Slogans. Subliminal appeal often makes use of hidden messages and optical illusions. ‘shocking’ and ‘advertising’. Surrogate Advertising: In cases where advertising of a particular product is made illegal. It is often indicated that the product is not affordable for the common masses by attaching a 'sense of exclusivity' to such products. as we all know. they are perceived at a subconscious level. There are lot many famous advertising slogans that we are familiar with. which are intended to be subconsciously perceived. This technique is used in political documentaries. In this advertising appeal. The advertisers using this advertising appeal alter the widely known quotes to change their meaning. The advertisers often use statistical evidences and market surveys to publicize their product. people are induced to buy a certain product so that they can stand out of the crowd. Subliminal Advertising: This advertising appeal makes use of subliminal messages. People attracted to their idols often tend to adopt what their idols do.
Media Planning & Buying Calculators Cost Per Thousand (CPM) . he would have gone. We try to lessen it Humour related to the emotional need to have fun Sex is a basic physiological and emotional need. However. where the company name. Suggestive (Hrithik Roshan) and Symbolic (Kohinoor) Buy emotional reasons and justify it rationally. in case of a negative transfer. Many of the popularly used products and services of today have gained popularity thanks to the advertising techniques that were implemented for their publicity. Testimonial makes use of this human tendency by using the words of an expert to recommend their products. It can achieve phenomenal success to an extent where a brand is equated to a common noun. The aim of the advertiser is to market the product on a very large scale. ‘petroleum jelly’. This was an overview of the different advertising appeals that advertisers around the world use to market their products and services. It involves many emotions from the need of love. Sex Appeal: Blatant (Close Up). Advertising appeals used by a company are important determinants of its success. the advertisers state an analogy between a product and a disliked figure in society. ‘Vaseline’ became synonymous with the product name. They rather imply their ideas in various ways. a product is made to associate with a respected individual of society. intimacy and self-esteem. Viral Advertising: It can take the form of word-of-mouth publicity or of Internet advertising. Vaseline can be sited as one of the excellent examples of word-of-mouth publicity.people they relate to. In a positive transfer. Transfer: This advertising appeal is implemented in two ways. Rational appeal is used to justify an emotional desire for the product and to provide information that positions your brand. Unstated Assumption: When the idea behind the product or service being advertised is repeatedly implied. the advertisers do not state the concepts explicitly. Music is an emotional need for beauty and pleasure If he has got the bus. In case of using this advertising appeal. it is known as an unstated assumption. Fear is an emotion. Celebrities are used as ambassadors for products in order to promote the sale. This advertising appeal intends to achieve a speedy publicity of a product similar to the spreading of a pathological or a computer virus! Word-of-Mouth Advertising: It can turn out being a very effective advertising appeal.
and the audience base may be either circulation. this formula is often used. The lowest cost per thousand medium is the most efficient. or number of audience members of any kind of demographic or product usage classification. CPM is used as a comparative device. For newspaper (when cost of ad is known): CPM = Cost of ad x 1000 Circulation . For broadcast media (based on homes reached by a given program or time period): CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) x 1000 Number of homes reached by a given program or time period • 4. For broadcast media (when audience data is available): CPM = Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial) x 1000 Number of prospects reached by a given program or time period • 5. For print media (when audience data is available): CPM = Cost of 1 ad x 1000 Number of prospects reached • 3. Oftentimes the media with the lowest cost per thousand are selected.Cost Per Thousand (CPM) allows a media planner to compare media based on two variables: audience and cost. but not always. all other variables being equal. readers. • 2. homes reached. For print media (when audience data are not available): CPM = Cost of 1 ad x 1000 Circulation Because many print media do not have audience research data. CPM may be computed for a printed page or broadcast time. • 1.
given CPM and target audience population: CPP = CPM x Population 100.000 Comparing CPP and CPM How does a CPP compare with a CPM for the same station and commercial? The following shows the differences: CPP Cost of a thirty-second commercial: $110 . 2. which is simply the cost of the schedule divided by the schedule's number of GRPs. the formula can be expressed to find CPP. The formula for finding CPM from CPP is as follows: CPM = (CPP X 100) / Population 1000 Cost Per Rating Point (CPP) CPP (cost per gross rating point) = Cost of broadcast schedule / GRPs or CPP (cost per rating point) = Cost per spot / rating Finding CPP from CPM The relationship between CPM and CPP is expressed in the formula: CPM = (CPP x 100) / Population 1000 Mathematically transposed. CPP.Finding CPM from CPP Cost per thousand for a broadcast schedule can be determined from the cost per target audience rating point (abbreviated cost per point or CPP). Two factors must be known: 1. The total population of the target audience.
and the rating may represent household viewing or a specific demographic audience segment's listening or viewing.m. The sum of the ratings of a specific demographic segment may be called Target Audience GRPs or more simply TRPs. Share is the audience of a particular television program or time period expressed as a percent of the population viewing TV at that particular time. PUT combines all persons viewing.: 8 $110/8 = $13. is a percent allocation of the viewing audience and differs from the rating which is a percent of the potential audience. then.75 CPM Cost of a thirty-second commercial: $110 Number of households delivered at 2:00 p. the following mathematical relationships apply after first converting rating. HUT x Share = Rating (HH) Rating (HH) / HUT = Share Rating (HH) / Share = HUT GRPs. PUT or persons using television at a particular time. and HUT to decimals. Ignoring variances caused by rating service reporting standards and multi-set viewing. HUT or homes using television at a particular time.43 Ratings.Metro rating at 2:00 p. is expressed as a percent of all TV homes.m. The term GRPs is generic and may refer to household GRPs or to specific target segment GRPs. rather than identifying specific program viewing. TRPs. HUT differs from rating because it combines all viewing.000 $110 x 1000/77. Shares.000 = $1. . The percent sign is not shown.: 77. Reach and Frequency The aggregate total (the sum) of the ratings is called Gross Rating Points or GRPs. rather than reporting specific program viewing. share. Share. Share is usually reported on a household basis. is expressed as a percent of all persons in TV homes. HUTs and PUTs Rating is the audience of a particular program or station at a specific period of time expressed as a percent of the audience population. Note that PUT and PVT (Persons viewing television) are interchangeable terms in common usage.
Frequency is the number of times that the average household or person is exposed to the schedule among those persons reached in the specific period of time. GRPs. Reach.S. dispersion of frequency of exposure will differ between specific schedules and daypart mixes. population in that same market. Because it is an average frequency. then. and frequency are mathematically related in the following ways: GRPs = Reach X Frequency Reach = GRPs / Frequency Frequency = GRPs / Reach Brand Development Index (BDI) and Category Development Index (CDI) Brand Development Index (BDI) relates the percent of a brand's sales in a market to the percent of the U. reach.Reach is the number or percent of different homes or persons exposed at least once to an advertising schedule over a specific period of time. Category Development Index (CDI) relates the percent of a category's sales in a market to the percent of the U. population in that same market.S. Formula: . excludes duplication.