Introduction

Urbanization
O Transition from rural to urban society O Increasing proportion of urbanized population O Urban mobility problems have increased

exponentially

Introduction
What comes to your mind when you think about urbanization? (Influences, Reasons, etc.)

increased agricultural productivity O International migration: urbanization of gateway cities O .Introduction Urbanization O Due to three main domestic trends: Natural increase: more births than deaths O Rural to urban migrations: expectation to find employment.

Introduction Who takes part in the traffic in urban areas? .

Urban Transportation Urban transportation is organized in 3 broad categories: O Collective Transportation (public transit): O Publicly accessible mobility over specific parts of the city O Efficiency by transporting large numbers of people & achieving economies of scale O Modes: buses. trains. tramways and ferryboats . subways.

Urban Transportation Can you think of any challenges to the transit systems? .

Challenges Transit systems: O Buses & tramways share road space with cars O Attempts to mitigate congestion: creation of road lanes reserved to buses Subways and rail have their own infrastructures O .

Urban Transportation O Individual Transportation: automobile. walking. cycling and motorcycle O Frequency depends on city: walking accounts for 88% in Tokyo and 3% in LA .

Urban Transportation Historically: movement in cities were restricted to walking O Made medium & long distance urban linkages inefficient and time consuming  Many modern cities have inherited such an urban compact form O Examples: European. Canada and the US (were build more recently) . Japanese & Chinese cities O Dispersed urban forms in Australia.

pedestrian areas tend to use a greater share of the right of way .Urban Transportation Spatial imprint of urban transportation are: O Pedestrian areas: Refer to the amount of space devoted to walking O sidewalks may use between 10% and 20% of a road's right of way O In central areas.

Urban Transportation an yo t ink of any c all ng s to in ivi transportation? al .

on average 30% of the surface is devoted to roads while another 20% is required for offstreet parking O North American cities: road and parking lot account between 30% to 60% of the total surface .Challenges Roads and parking areas: amount of space devoted to road transportation O 2 states of activity: moving or parked vehicles O In a motorized city.

Challenges Cycling areas: O Cycling simply shares access to pedestrian and road space O Attempts have been made to create spaces specifically for bicycles .

Challenges Traffic congestion and parking difficulties: O Congestion is the biggest problem in urban agglomerations O Motorization has increased demand for transport infrastructures O Supply of infrastructures has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility O Expended demand for parking space .

Challenges Difficulties for pedestrians: O Mobility of pedestrians & vehicles is impaired O Lack of consideration for pedestrians in the physical design of facilities Loss of public space: O Majority of roads are publicly owned & free of access O Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities .

Challenges Public transport inadequacy: O Public transit systems are either over or under used O During peak hours: crowdedness creates discomfort O Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable (particularly in suburban areas)  Almost every public transit systems cannot generate sufficient income to cover its operating and capital costs .

Urban Transportation O Freight Transportation: large movements of freight in urban cities O Delivery trucks between industries. warehouses & retail activities O Also movement from ports. distribution centers. distribution centers & airports . railyards.

Urban transportation Transport terminals: O Space devoted to terminal facilities such as ports. transit stations. airports. railyards & distribution centers O Major terminals are located in the peripheral areas of cities .

Challenges Can you think of any challenges facing freight transportation? .

Challenges Freight distribution: O Growing quantities of freight moving within cities O Freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers  mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic .

Challenges Environmental impacts and energy consumption: O Pollution. including noise has become a serious impediment to the quality of life O Energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased  dependency on petroleum .

Challenges Accidents & safety: O Accidents account for a significant share of recurring delays Land consumption: O Territorial imprint of transportation is significant O Between 30 and 60% of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation  Underlines the strategic importance of transportation in the economic & social welfare of cities .

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