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ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 1

þpmtkyf

þur®|mef;w&m; tm;xkw&f jcif;taMumif;pmtkyf jzpfay:vmjcif;taMumif;&if;rSm Edik if aH wmf Ak'o


¨ moem
tzGUJ u *syefjynfwiG f ax&0g' Ak'o
¨ moemxGe;f vif; jyefYymG ;&eftvdYk igS pwifqmif½u
G &f mwGif ax&0g'Ak'¨
omoem\ taMumif;t&mqdik &f m usrf;pmtkyrf sm;udvk nf; t*Fvyd b f momç *syefbmomjzifh yHEk ydS jf zefYcs&D ef
&nf½G,fcJhayonf/

odYk &nf½,
G cf o
hJ nft h avQmuf yxrOD;pGm taetm;jzifh ax&0g' Ak'o ¨ moem pmtkyf wpftyk jf zpfajrmufa&;
twGuf &efuek ûf rdY ,leb D mpDwaD usmif;wdu
k f tbd"r®muxdu t*¾r[my@dw q&mawmf OD;aoXdv pdpOfaom
usr;f pm\ rmwdumwdYk ukd yg0ifa&;om;awmfrMl urnfh q&mawmfrsm;xHoYkd cGaJ 0qufuyfí a&;om;cs;D jr§iahf wmf
rlMuygrnftaMumif; Edik if aH wmf Ak'o
¨ moemtzGYJ u (13-11-56) aeYpjJG zifh avQmufxm;cJah vonf/

avQmufxm;jcif;cH&aom q&mawmfwYkd teuf wpfyg;tygt0if jzpfawmfral om t*¾r[my@dw r[mpnf


q&mawmfb&k m;onfvnf; avQmufxm;onfh rmwdumpOf (16-17 ESihf 18)wdYk t& tus,fa&;om; csD;jr§iahf wmfrcl hJ
avonf/

¤if;wdYk teuf rmwdumpOf 16-wGif tb,faMumifh ur®|mef;w&m;udk tm;xkw&f ygoenf; [laom


tar;ESit
hf ajzudk &[ef;ç½Siçf vlwYkd zwf½EI ikd &f eftvdYk igS q&mawmf\cGiûhf ycsut f & ur®|mef;w&m; tm;xkw&f jcif;
taMumif;[laom trnf wyfqifí þpmtkyw f iG f pufwif yHEk ydS t
f yfygonf/

(yH)k r*Fvm OD;atmifjrifh


trSwf 56- pdeaf rwåmvrf;
[mrpfwpf? ukuKdú if;? &efuek ûf rdY/

1320-ck? eawåmv
f (21-12-85)
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 2

ur®|mef;w&m;
tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif;

tar;/ /tb,faMumifh ur®|mef;w&m;udk tm;xkw&f ygoenf;/

tajz/ /edAmÁ efoYkd a&mufí tdjk cif;ç aojcif;? paom qif;&J[o


l rQrS vGwaf jrmusf&eftwGuf tm;xkw&f ayonf/

xdpk um;udk csJUíjy&ygvQif owå0gwdYk onf tdjk cif;ç emjcif;ç aojcif;r½Sb d J qif;&J'uk u© vkd nf; rawGU&bJ
tNrJwrf; csrf;omvQufom aevdMk uayonf/ odYk aomf xdo k Ykd tvd½k o dS nfth wdik ;f um; rjzpfMu&ay? tdv k nf;
tdMk u&\/ emvnf;emMu&\/ ab;'kut © rsdK;rsdK;ESiv
hf nf; awGYí pd;k &dryf al qG;Mu&\/ idak <u;Mu&\? ud, k qf if;&J
trsdK;rsdK; pdwq f if;&JtrsKd ;rsKd ;wdYk uv
kd nf; rMumcP awGUêuHcpH m;aeMu&\/ aemufq;kH rSm aoavmufaom qif;&J
wpfrsdK;rsdK;ESiahf wGUí rcsdrqefYjzpfum aoqH;k oGm;&av\/ þodYk ao½kEH iS hf tNyD;rowfao;? b0ü cifrifw, G w f mrI
ruif;ao;aom yk*Kd¾ vfawGrmS wpfzefb0opfü jzpfMu&jyefao;\? xdjk zpf&mb0opfrmS vnf; tdjk cif;ç emjcif;ç
aojcif; paomqif;&JwYkdukd enf;wlyif awGUêuHcpH m;&jyef\/ þenf;jzifh owå0gwdYk onf wpfb0NyD;wpfb0 topf
topfjzpfum tvdrk ½Sad om qif;&J'u k w
© Ykd ukd awGUêuHcpH m;aeMu&avonf/

odYk jzpfaeMu&mü taMumif;&if; Zpfjrpfukd pdppfMunfvh Qif b0topftopf jzpfay:aeaomaMumifo h mvQif


tkjd cif;ç aojcif;paom qif;&Jrsm;½Sad csonf/ okYd r[kwv f Qifum;ç ¤if;qif;&Jrsm; r½SEd ikd [
f k xif½mS ;awGU&\/
xdYk aMumifh tdjk cif;ç aojcif; paom qif;&J[o l rQrS vGwaf jrmufvv kd Qif b0topfrjzpfay:Edik af tmif tm;xkw&f
ayrnf/

b0opf[o l nfrmS vnf; vuf½b dS 0ü cifrifw,


G w
f maom wPSm½Sad eaomaMumifo
h mvQif (b0a[mif;rS
aocgeD;wGif pGv J rf;cJah om tm½Hu k ykd if Nidw,G v
f suf pdw0f n
d mPf topfjzpfay:um) jzpfay:vmEdik af yonf?
odYk r[kwv
f Qifum; rjzpfay:Edik yf g? xkYd aMumifh b0opfrjzpfay:apvdv k Qif xdb
k 0wPSm vH;k 0uif;Nidr;f atmif
tm;xkw&f ayrnf/

xdw
k PSmrSmvnf; b0qdik &f m½kyçf emrfwYkd \ tjypfurkd jrifjcif;ç xdb k 0½kyçf emrfwYkd xuf omvGeaf umif;jrwf
vSpmG aom edAmÁ efw&m;udk rodrjrifjcif;[laom þtaMumif; 2-yg;aMumifo h mvQif jzpfvsuf½adS yonf? ½kyef mrfwYkd \
tjypfujkd rifum edAmÁ efukd xif½mS ;od&vQifum; xdb k 0wPSm rjzpfEikd af wmhyg/ Oyrm-tvGefacgif;yg;í ab;&ef
rsm;vSaomt&yfü aexdik &f aom qif;&Jom;onf rdrad e&if;t&yf\ tjypfukd rjrifaomaMumifv h nf;aumif;?
om,m0ajymí ab;&efuif;aomt&yfü oGm;a&mufaexdik v f Qif csr;f omrnfukd rodaomaMumifv h nf;aumif;? rdr\ d
ae&yfuykd if txifMuD;um wG,w f mvsuf½adS yonf? rdrad e&yf\tjypfukd vnf;aumif;? om,m0ajymaom xdt k jcm;
t&yf\ *kPrf sm;udv k nf;aumif; od&ygrl rdrad e&if;t&yfü rwG,w f mawmhbJ om,m0ajymaom xdt k jcm;t&yf
odYk om ajymif;a½TUoGm;av&mouJo h Ykd yif þtcsufukd odtyfayonf/ xdYk aMumifh b0ücifrifw, G w
f maom wPSm
vH;k 0uif;Nidr;f oGm;apvdv
k Qif b0qdik &f m½kyef mrfwYkd tjypfukd jrifíedAmÁ efukd rsufarSmufojd rif&efvakd yonf/ xdo k Ykd
odjrifjcif;rSmvnf; ur®|mef;w&m;udk tm;xkwEf ikd rf o S mvQif jynfph EkH ikd af yonf/

odYk jzpfí edAmÁ efoYkd a&mufum tdjk cif;çemjcif;çaojcif; paom qif;&J[o


l rQvw
G af jrmufvv
kd Qif xdek Ad mÁ efukd
rsufarSmuf odjrif&eftwGuf ur®|mef;w&m;udk tm;xkwt f yfayonf/

ur®|mef;tjym;

þt&mü ur®Xmef;[lonfrmS -

1/ orx ur®Xmef;?
2/ 0dyóem ur®Xmef; [lí 2-rsdK;½Sd\/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 3

xdw
k iG -f

1/ orxudk tm;xkwjf cif;jzifh ½lypsmef 4-yg;ESifh t½lypsmef 4-yg; [laom avmuDpsmeformywf 8-yg;udk
&Edik \
f ? xdpk smefwYkd ukd avhvmyGg;rsm;jcif;jzifh tbdnmOfac:aom atmufygavmuD ÓPfx;l rsm;udv
k nf;&Ekid af o;\/

¤if;wdYk rmS -

1/ wpfa,mufwnf;jzpfygvQuf trsm;uJo h Ykd jzpfapjcif;? trsm;jzpfygvsuf wpfa,mufwnf;uJo h Ykd jzpfap


jcif;? aumif;uifysjH cif;? ajrvQKd ;jcif; ponfjzifh taxGaxGtrsKd ;rsKd ; wefc;kd zefqif;Edik af om £'¨0d "d tbdnmOf/

2/ ta0;ç teD;ç tBuD;ç tao;ç toH[o l rQudk Mum;odEikd af om 'dAaÁ omw tbdnmOf/
3/ olwpfyg;\ pdwçf tBuHtpnfukd odEikd af om apawm y&d,tbdnmOf/
4/ a½S;ujzpfb;l aom b0a[mif;rsm;udk jyefveS í
f odEikd af om ykaAÁe0d go tbdnmOf/
5/ ta0;ç teD;ç tBuD;ç tao;ç ½kyq
f if;oP²mef [lorQwdYk ukd jrifoEd ikd af om 'dApÁ u©K
tbdnmOf/

þig;yg;wdYk aywnf;/

odYk &mwGif xdpk smef tbdnmOfwYkdjzifh jynfph u kH mrQjzifh tdjk cif;ç aojcif;paom qif;&J'u k w
© Ykd ru
S m; rvGwf
ajrmufao;ay? xdpk smefrqkw, f w
k f rysupf b D J aooGm;vQif xdpk smefEiS q hf ikd af om jA[®mbHo k Ykda&mufum wpfurÇmç
ESpu
f rÇmç av;urÇmç ½Spu f rÇm ponfjzifh xdb k \
kH toufwrf;½Sdoavmuf touf½SnfpGm ae½HkrQom ½Sdayonf/
toufwrf;ukeaf omtcgrSm xdb k rkH pS ak wí vlYbçkH ewfbükH jzpf&jyefonf/ xdt k cgrS tjcm;vlrsm;ç ewfrsm;ESihf
wef;wlyifjzpfí tdjk cif;ç aojcif;paom qif;&J'u k w © YkdEiS hf awGUNrJyif awGYae&jyefonf? uHraumif; taMumif;
rnDnGwfvQif i&Jwd&pämefç Nydwåmç tol&u,f tyg,f 4-bHo k Ykd usa&mufí tyg,fqif;&Jrsm;pGmESiv hf nf; awGYNrJyif
awGYae&ao;onf/ odYk jzpfí orxoufoufjzifh qif;&J'u k r© sm;rS rvGwaf jrmufEikd [ f k odtyfayonf/

2/ 0dyóemudk tm;xkwrf o
S mvQif edAmÁ efoYkd a&mufí td&k jcif;ç ao&jcif;paom qif;&J'u
k © [lorQrS vH;k 0
vGwaf jrmufEikd af yonf/

xd0k yd óemw&m;tm;xkwjf cif;rSmvnf;-

1/ orxudk tajccHûyí tm;xkwjf cif;?


2/ orxudk tajccHrûybJ 0dyóemoufouftm;xkwjf cif; [lí 2-rsdK;½Sjd yk ef\/

xdw k iG f orxudk tajccHûyí tm;xkwaf om yk*Kd¾ vfonf orx[medurnf\ ]]orx tajccHjzifh edAmÁ efoYkd
oGm;ol[}k } qdv k \kd /

orxudk tajccHrûybJ 0dyóemoufouf tm;xkwaf om yk*Kd¾ vfonf ok'0¨ yd óem,medu rnf\


]]0dyóemoufoufjzifh edAmÁ efoYkd omG ;ol}} [kqv
kd \
kd /

xdw
k iG f orx,meduvrf;jzifh tm;xkwv
f v
kd Qif a½S;OD;pGm orxudk tm;xkw&f onf/

ur®Xmef; (40)

xdo
k rx ur®Xmef;rSm 40-½So
d nf? ¤if;wdYk rmS -

1/ uodkPf; 10-yg;?
2/ tokb 10-yg;?
3/ tEkówd 10-yg;?
4/ jA[®0[
d m& 4-yg;?
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 4

5/ tm½kyÜ 4-yg;?
6/ tm[ma& y#duv l onm 1-yg;?
7/ pwk"mwk0 0w¬mef 1-yg;?

þ 40 wdYk aywnf;? xdw


k iG -f

uodkPf; 10-yg;[lonfrmS -

1/ yx0D (ajr) uodP


k ;f ?
2/ tmayg(a&) uokdPf;?
3/ awaZm (rD;) uokdPf;?
4/ 0ga,m (av) uokdPf;?
5/ eDv (tñd)k uokPd ;f ?
6/ yDw (t0g) uokdPf;?
7/ avm[dw (teD) uokP d ;f ?
8/ Mo'gw (tjzL) uokP d ;f ?
9/ tmavmu (tvif;) uokP d ;f ?
10/ tmumo ([if;vif;jyif) uokP d ;f ?

þ 10-yg;wdYk aywnf;/

tokb 10-yg;[lonfrmS -

1/ O'¨Krmwu-zl;zl;a&mifaeaom olaoaumif?
2/ 0deDvu-ñdrk aJ eaom olaoaumif?
3/ 0dykAÁv-jynfwpdpk ,
kd x
kd u
G af eaom olaoaumif?
4/ 0dpdä'´u-cg;jywfaeaomolaoaumif?
5/ 0dum© ,dwu-acG;ç ajracG;ç cJpm;xm;aom olaoaumif?
6/ 0duw d© u
å -vufç ajcç acgif;ç ud, k f wjcm;pD ypfviT x
hf m;tyfaom olaoaumif?
7/ [w0duw d© u
å -owfjzwfí wjcm;pD ypfviT x hf m;tyfaomolaoaumif?
8/ avm[dwu-aoG;oH&&J , J x kd u
G af eaom olaoaumif?
9/ ykVK0u-yd;k avmufjynfah eaomolaoaumif?
10/ tXdu-t½d;k pkoal oaumif?

þ 10-yg;wdYk aywnf;/

tEkówd 10-yg;[lonfrmS -

1/ Ak'¨gEkówd-jrwfpmG bk&m;\ *kPaf wmfwYkd ukd tzefzef qifjcifatmufarhjcif;/


2/ "r®mEkówd-w&m;awmf\ *kPaf wmfwYkd ukd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
3/ oHCmEkówd-oHCmawmf\ *kPaf wmfwYkd ukd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
4/ oDvmEkówd-rdr\ d oDv*kPu f kd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
5/ pm*gEkówd-rdr\ d pGeYf BuJ ay;vªjcif;*kPu f kd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
6/ a'0wmEkówd-ewfwYkd uo hJ Ykd yif rdrrd mS jynfph akH eaom ewfjynfa&mufaMumif;ç o'¨gç
oDvç okwç pm*ç ynm*kPf wdYk ukd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
7/ OyormEkówd-edAmÁ ef\*kPu f kd tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
8/ r&PmEkówd-aojcif;w&m;udk tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
9/ um,*wmowd-qHyifç tarT;ç vufonf;ç ajconf;ç oGm;ç ta&paompufqyk zf , G f
udk,fpk 32-rsKd ;udk tzefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
10/ tmemygeówd-0ifoufç xGuo f uf udt k zefzefqifjcifatmufarhjcif;/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 5

þ 10-yg;wdYk yifwnf;/

jA[®0[
d m& 4-yg;[lonfrmS -

1/ arwåm-owå0gwdYk tm; ]]csrf;omMuygap}}[k ESv;kH oGi;f aejcif;/


2/ u½kPm-qif;&J'u k © a&mufaeMuaom owå0gwdYk tm; ]]qif;&JrS vGwaf jrmuf
Muygap}}[k oem;vsuf ESv;kH oGi;f aejcif;/
3/ rk'dwm-jynfph <kH u,f0 csrf;omaeMuaom owå0gwdYk tm; vuf½cdS srf;omrS rqkw, f w k f
MubJ csr;f omNrJyif csr;f omaeMuygap}} [k 0rf;ajrmufvsuf ESv;kH oGi;f aejcif;/
4/ Oayu©m-owå0gwdYk tm; ]]rdrw d Ykd u,
kd w
f ikd f ûyxm;onfu
h w
H &m;twdik ;f yif}}[k aMumifMh u
rûyvspvf sL½Iaejcif;/

þ 4-yg;wkYd aywnf;/

tm½kyÜ 4-yg;[lonfrmS -

1/ tmumomeOöm,we-tqH;k r½Sad om aumif;uifynwfu½kd jI cif;/


2/ 0dnmeOöm,we-tqH;k r½Sad om yXrm½ky0Ü n d mPfu½kd jI cif;/
3/ tmudOn ö m,wd-yXrm½kyÜ 0dnmPf\ pd;k pOfrQ t<uif;r½So d nfu½kd jI cif;/
4/ ae0onmemonm,we-onmr½Sw d ½Sd psmef\tm½Hjk zpfaom wdw,m½ky0Ü n d mPfukd
]]Nidro
f uford af rGU ygayonf}} [k½jI cif;/

þ av;yg;wdYk aywnf;/

tm[ma&y#duv
l onm[lonfrmS -

pm;aomuftyfaomtpmt[m&udk pufqyk zf ,
G [
f k ESv;kH oGi;f qifjcifaom trSwo
f nm aywnf;/

pwk"mwk00wåmef[o
l nfrmS -

½kyu
f ,
kd x
f üJ yx0Dç tmaygç awaZmç 0ga,m[laom"mwf 4-yg;tpktrQ½Sdonfudk ydkif;jcm;í ½Ijcif;
aywnf;/

orxtm;xkwfyHktusOf;

xdok rxur®Xmef; 40-wdYk wiG f yx0DuodP k ;f udk tm;xkwv f akd omolonf yuwdajrjyifukd jzpfapç ûyvkyf
xm;aomajryHo k P²mef uodP k ;f 0ef;udjk zpfap rsufpjd zifMh unf½h v
I suf ]]yx0D yx0D yx0D-ajr ajr ajr}}[k tzefzef
ESv;kH oGi;f ae&\? þodYk ESv;kH oGi;f zefrsm;aomtcg xdu k odP k ;f edrwd of nf rsufprd w dS x
f m;aomfvnf; rsufpzd iG v
hf suf
Munfah epOfouJo h Ykd yif xif½mS ;ay:aevdrrhf nf? odYk xifay:aeonfukd O*¾[edrw d [
f ak c:onf/ þodYk O*¾[edrw d f
xifaevQif tvd½k &dS mt&yfoYkd oGm;a&mufvsuf xdik &f if;jzpfapç &yf&if;jzpfapç oGm;&if;jzpfapç avsmif;&if;jzpfapç
xdOk *¾[ edrw d uf odP k ;f tm½Hu
k okd mvQif ]]ajr ajr ajr}}[k pdwjf zifh tNrJEv S ;kH oGi;f ae&\/

þodYk ESv;kH oGi;f aepOf pdwo


f nf wjcm;wyg;odYk vnf; xGuí f oGm;wwf\/ oGm;yHrk mS pdwêf udut f m½Hak wGukd
vnf; BuHpnfaewwf\/ ¤if;udk umrpäE´ eD0&P[kac:onf/ pdwyf suf pdwq f ;kd vQuv f nf; BuHpnfaewwf\?
¤if;udAk smyg'ç eD0&Pç[k ac:onf? tm;xkw&f onfü avsmh&&J J jzpfum pdwx f ikd ;f rdiI ;f ysuf&í
d vnf; aewwf\/
¤if;wdYk ukd xderdEe´ 0D &P[k ac:onf/ pdwrf wnfNidrb f ?J ysHUvGiíhf vnf;aewwf\? ûyrSm; ajymrSm;cJzh ;l onfukd
jyefvnfpOf;pm;vQuf pdwyf yl efívnf;aewwf\? ¤if;wdYk ukd O'öpu ö u k Kú pöe0D &[k ac:onf/ tm;xkwq f J w&m;
vkyif ef; tay:ü ]]rSerf rS eS yf grnfavm? tusdK;½Srd S ½Syd grnfavm? w&m;xl;udk &rS&Edik yf grnfavm}} þodYk ponfjzifh
pOf;pm;a0zefívnf; aewwf\? ¤if;udk 0Dpu d pd mä eD0&P[k ac:onf? þeD0&Ppdwrf sm; jzpfay:vmvQif xdt k m½Hk
rsm;udk qufvufí pdwrf ul;bJjzpfcí hJ pdwu
f rkd v
l uodP k ;f tm½Hük om pl;pdu k x f m;vsuf ]]ajrajrajr}}[k tNrJ rjywf
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 6

ESv;kH oGi;f ae&\? tu,fí uodP k ;f tm½Hk aysmufomG ;vQif yuwduodP


k ;f 0ef; ½S&d mXmeodYk oGm;í rsufpjd zifh
Munf½h vI suf wpfzef xifNrJxifay:vmatmif ESv;kH oGi;f &\/ wpfzef O*¾[edrw d çf xifay:vmjyefvQif tvd½k &dS m
t&yfü aexdik v f suf a½S;enf;wlyif rjywfEvS ;kH oGi;f ae&\/

þodYk ESv;kH oGi;f zefrsm;aomtcg xduk odP k ;f 0ef;onf rlvuESirhf wlbJ ta&miftqif;ESiw
hf uG tvGef
oefY½iS ;f MunfvifpmG xifay:vm\? ¤if;udk y#dbm*edrwf[k ac:onf? xdt k cgü pdwo
f nfvnf; umrpäE´ paom
eD0&PwdYk rS uif;pif\? xdyk #dbm*edrw d t
f m½Hük omvQif pl;pdu
k w
f nfNidrv
f suf rjywfjzpfae\? xdo k YkdwnfNidrpf mG
jzpfaeonfukd Oypm&orm"d[ak c:onf/

þOypm&orm"dtm;jzifh y#dbm*edrw d t f m½Hu


k kd rjywfEv
S ;kH oGi;f aeaomoltm; pdwo f nf xdu k odP
k ;f
y#dbm* edrw
d t
f m½Hx
k üJ ouf0ifaebdouJo
h Ykd wpfMuHw h nf; wnfNidrv f sujf zpfaeonf? ¤if;udk tyÜemorm"d[k
ac:onf/

þtyÜemonf yxrpsmefç 'kw,


d psmefç wwd,psmefç pwkwp¬ smef [lí 4-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ xdkwGif a½S;OD;pGm
&tyfaom yxrpsmefü-

1/ tm½HkudkBuHpnfjcif; (0dwuf)
2/ tm½Huk kd oH;k oyfqifjcifjcif; (0dpm&)
3/ tm½Hük ESpo f rd t
hf m;&jcif; (yDw)d
4/ pdw½f iT vf ef;csrf;omjcif; (okc)
5/ wpfcw k nf;aomtm½Hük om pl;pdu k w
f nfNidraf ejcif; ({u*¾wm)

[laompsmef t*Fgig;yg;vH;k xif½mS ;\/

yxrpsmefu&kd NyD;aom yk*Kd¾ vfonf xdpk smefüyg0ifaom 0dwufEiS hf 0dpm&wdYk ukd tjypfjrifí vGeaf jrmufatmif
tm;xkwo
f jzifh 'kw,
d psmefu&kd \/ xdpk smefü yDwçd okcç {u*¾wm [laom psmeft*Fg 3-yg;xif½Sm;\/

wzefywD u d kd tjypfjrifí vGeaf jrmufatmif tm;xkwo


f jzifh wdw,psmefu&kd \/ xdpk smefü okcç {u*¾wm
[laom psmeft*Fg 2-yg;xif½Sm;\/

wpfzef okcudt
k jypfjrifí vGeaf jrmufatmif tm;xkwo
f jzifh pwkwp¬ smefu&kd \? xdpk smefüpdwrf ½Tif rñd;I
tv,ftvwfoabm Oayu©mESihf {u*¾wm[laom psmeft*Fg 2-yg;yif xif½mS ;\/

þonfum; yx0DuodkPf;ü tm;xkwfyHkESifh psmeform"d 4-yg;jzpfyakH ywnf;? <uif;aomuodkPf; 9-yg;wdkY


üvnf; enf;wlyif odtyf\/

tokbur®Xmef;udk ½Ivakd omolonf zl;zl;a&mifaeaom olaoaumif ponfukd rsufpjd zifMh unf½h í


I ]]zl;zl;
a&mifaom olaoaumif zl;zl;a&mifaom olaoaumif}}[k þodYk ponfjzifh tzefzefEvS ;kH oGi;f ae&\/ yx0D ½IyHkESifh
wlNyD;? txl;um; þtokbur®Xmef;ü yxrpsmefuo kd m&Edik o
f nf/ þrQomxl;\/

tEkówd 10-yg;wdYk wiG f um,*wmowd ur®Xmef;üvnf; yxrpsmefuo kd m&Edik o


f nf/ Ak'g© EkówdrS
r&PEkówdwikd af tmif 8-yg;aom tEkówdwYkd üvnf;aumif;? tm[ma&y#duv l onmESihf pwk"mwk00wåew f Ykd ü
vnf;aumif; þur®Xmef; 10-yg;wdYk ürlum; Oypm&orm"drQudo
k m &Edik o
f nf/

arwåmç u½kPmç rk'dwmwdkYü atmufpsmef 3-yg;udo


k m&Edik o
f nf/ ¤if;wdYk ü wwd,psmefukd &NyD;yk*Kd¾ vfonf
Oayu©mudyk mG ;apvQif pwkwp¬ smefu&kd Edik \
f /

uodkPf;wdkYü psmef 4-yg;vHk;udk &NyD;yk*dK¾ vfonf tm½kyÜur®Xmef 4-yg;udk tpOftwdkif; tm;xkwfí t½ly
psmef 4-yg;udk &Edik o
f nf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 7

tmemygeudk tm;xkwfyHktusOf;

tmemygeówd ur®Xmef;udk tm;xkwv f akd omolonf qdwNf idr&f mt&yfü wifysOfacGvu kd f jzpfapç Mum½Snf
pGm aeEdik rf nfh tjcm;enf;jzifjh zpfap xdik v f suçf txufyikd ;f ud, k u
f akd jzmifrh wfpmG xm;NyD;vQif a½S;OD;pGmpdwu f kd ESmoD;0
ü pl;pdu
k í f xm;&\/ ESmoD;zsm;üjzpfapç txufEw I cf rf;üjzpfap xdyg;wdu k cf u
kd v
f suf 0ifcsnfxu G cf snf rjywfjzpf
aeaom 0ifav xGuaf vudk xif½mS ;awGYvrd rhf nf? xdak vudk xdcu kd &f mXmerS apmifí h ]]0ifonfxu G of nf? 0ifonf
xGuo f nf}}[k 0ifwikd ;f xGuw f ikd ;f rjywf½aI e&\/ 0rf;xJoYkd 0ifomG ;aomav\ aemufuv kd nf;rvdu k &f ? ESmoD;0rS
tjyifoYkd xu G o
f mG ;aom av\ aemufuv kd nf; rvdu k &f ? ESmoD;zsm;ESihf EIwcf rf;wdYk ü xif½mS ;aom wdu k cf u
kd &f mudok m
apmifhí ½Iae&\/

þodYk ½aI epOf wjcm;odYk xGuo


f mG ;aom eD0&Ppdwrf sm;vnf; ½Sv d rd rhf nf xdok Ykd jzpfvmvQif xdt
k m½Hrk sm;udk
qufvufrpOf;pmbJ 0ifavxGuaf vrSmom pdwu f pkd ;l pdu
k x
f m;vsuf ]]0ifonfxu G o
f nf? 0ifonf xGuo f nf}} [l½Nl rJ
rjywf½aI e&\/

þenf;jzifh 0ifavxGuaf vudk xdcu


kd &f mXmeu apmifí
h rjywf½aI evQif-

1/ ½SnfpGm ½ª½dSKufrdaom 0ifav xGuaf vudv


k nf; xif½mS ;od&\/

2/ wdpk mG ½ª½KSd ufrad om 0ifav xGuaf vudv


k nf; xif½mS ;od&\/

3/ ESmoD;zsm; EIwcf rf;wdYk ü xdyg;wdu


k cf u
kd v
f suf0ifp xGupf rQifrQifuav;rSpí 0ifq;Hk
xGuq f ;kH rQifrQifuav;txd 0ifav xGuaf vwdYk \ tptv,ftqH;k tukev f ;kH
udvk nf; xif½mS ;od&\/

4/ yuwdMurf;wrf;aom 0ifav xGuaf vwdYk wjznf;jznf;odraf rGYomG ;onfuv kd nf;


xif½mS ;od&\ xdo k Ykd ord af rGYojzifh aemufq;kH rSm 0ifoufxu
G o
f ufv;kH 0 r½So
d uJoh Ykd
jzpfaeonfuv kd nf; awGY&\/

xdtk cg ½ªp&m 0ifavxGuaf vudk rawGY&onft h wGuf 0ifavxGuaf vudk ½Smívnf; aerdwwfonf?
b,fvjkd zpfomG ;oenf;[k pOf;pm;ívnf;aerdwwf\/ r½ªawmhb&J yfem;ívnf; aewwf\/

xdo
k Ykd &yfem;íum;raetyf? ½Iaeusjzpfaom ESmoD;zsm;ESihf EIwcf rf;wdYk üomvQif pdwu
f kd pl;pdu
k x
f m;vQuf
½INrJyif½aI e&rnf/ xdo k Ykd ½aI evQif odraf rGYaom0ifav xGuaf vrsm;onfvnf; xif½mS ;ay:vmygvdrrhf nf? xdo k Ykd
xif½mS ;ay:vmaom 0ifav xGuaf vrsm;udk ½INrJrjywf½aI evQif xd0k ifav xGuaf vrsm;xl;jcm;pGm jzpfvmonfukd
awGU&ygvdrrhf nf? atmufygrsm;rSm 0do'k rd¨ *fü jyqdx k m;aom xl;jcm;pGm xifyrkH sm;aywnf;/

xd0k ifavxGuaf vonf tcsKd YrmS awmufyvsuf Mu,fwm&muJo h Ykd vnf;aumif;? ausmufeyD w k ;D uJo h Ykd
vnf;aumif;? ykvyJ w k ;D uJo h Ykd vnf;aumif;? xifay:\/ tcsdKYrmS rl Murf;wrf;aom tawGY½v dS suf 0gyif½;kd uJo
h Ykd
vnf;aumif; opfom;ESpf wHcg;usn(f rif;wkw)f uJo h Ykd vnf;aumif; xifay:\/ tcsdKYrmS rl ½Snaf om aqmufv;kH êud;
(vnfqw JG efqm) uJo h Ykdvnf;aumif;? yef;uH;k uJo
h Ykdvnf;aumif;? rD;cd;k nTeYf uohJ Ykd vnf;aumif;? xifay:\tcsdKYrmS rl
jyefYus,af om yifu h tl rd uf ohJ Ykdvnf;aumif;? wdrv
f mT uJoh Ykdvnf;aumif;? &xm;bD;uJo h Ykdvnf;aumif;? v0ef;ae0ef;
uJoh Ykdvnf;aumif;? xifay:\/ þodYk wpfO;D ESihf wpfO;D rwlbJ tm½Hx k ifyu kH jJG ym;jcif;rSmvnf; onmjcif;rwlbJ
uGjJ ym;MuaomaMumifyh if jzpfonf[k 0do'k rd¨ *fü jyqdx k m;\/

þodYk xl;jcm;pGm xifay:aomtm½Hu k kd y#dbm*edrw d [f ak c:onf/ xdyk #dbm*edrw


d x
f ifaom umvrSpí
bm0emorm"drmS vnf; Oypm&orm"drnf\/ þOypm&orm"djzifh ½INrJqufvufí ½IaevQif rMumrSyD if a½S;ü jycJh
onft
h wdik ;f tyÜempsmeform"d 4-yg;odYk a&mufomG ;Edik af yonf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 8

þonfum; orx,meduvrf;jzifh tm;xkwv


f akd omyk*Kd¾ vftm; a½S;OD;pGmorxudk tm;xkwyf kH tusOf;
aywnf;/

orxtm;xkwyf kH tusOf;NyD;\/

0dyóemtm;xkwfyHktusOf;

0dyóem tm;xkwv f akd omolonf owå0gwdYk \ oEÅmefü ½kyEf iS ehf mrf þw&m; 2-rsdK;om½Sdonf [lí
vnf;aumif;? xd½k yk ef mrfw&m;wdYk rmS vnf; qdik &f mtaMumif;w&m;wdYk aMumifh jzpfay:aeMuonf[í l vnf;aumif;?
cPrpJ jzpfysuaf eaomaMumifh rNrJaomw&m;ç qif;&Jaomw&m;ç twå-toufaumif r[kwaf om oabmw&m;rQ
[lí vnf;aumif;? tusO;f tm;jzifjh zpfap tus,t f m;jzifjh zpfap Mum;emrSwo
f m;zl;aom okwESihf jynfph NkH yD;jzpf&rnf/

þodYk okwESijhf ynfph akH om olonf jyqdck o hJ nft


h wdik ;f &½Sx d m;aom orm"dpsmefukd a½S;OD;pGm 0ifpm;í (rdrd
oEÅmefü jzpfay:apí) xdpk smefuykd ifpí ½I&\/ xdkYaemuf'Gg& 6-yg;ü xif½mS ;jzpfay:vmaom jrifrçI Mum;rIç odrçI
ponfwYkd ukd oljzpfay:vmonft h wdik ;f rjywf½aI e&\/ þodYk ½zI efrsm;í ud, k pf w
d yf ifyef;vmvQif Edik ef if;aom xdk
psmefuykd if jyefí 0ifpm;&\/ 15-rdepf? rdepf-30 ponfjzifh t"dXmefyikd ;f jcm;xm;onfh tcsdeaf phí psmefrx S aomtcg
xdpk smefuykd if pí½INyD;vQif 'Gg& 6-yg;üay:vmorQudk a½S;enf;twdik ;f yif rjywf½o I mG ;&onf? ud,
k çf pdwyf ifyef;
vmjyefvQif psmefu0kd ifpm;jyefí psmefrx S aomtcg ½INrJyif½o I mG ;&onf/ 0dyóemorm"d tm;½Sv d maom tcgürlum;
ud,k çf pdwyf ifyef;jcif; r½Sad wmhbJ aeYa&mnmOfyh g rjywfrpJ½NI rJ½o I mG ;Edik af y\/

xdktcg ½Iwdkif; ½Iwdkif; ½kyfESifhemrf 2-ckxJ wGv J suf wGvJ suf jzpfaeonfukd tvdv k ykd if xif½mS ;odvmvdrhf
rnf? taMumif;tusdK;qufpyfvQuf jzpfaeonfuv kd nf; xif½mS ;odvmvdrrhf nf? ½Icsufwikd ;f ½Icsufwikd ;f rSm ay:vm
onft h m½Hak &m? ½Ioad eonfph w
d af &m ukeq f ;kH aysmufu,G of mG ;onfuckd snf; awGU&aomaMumifh rNrJ[í l vnf; odjrif
oabmusvmvdrrhf nf? ESpo f ufom,mzG,f tm;ud;k bG,rf ½Sad om qif;&Jcsnf;[lívnf; odjrifoabmusvm
vdrrhf nf/ (twår[kwf toufaumifr[kw?f 0dnmOfaumifr[kw)f olYoabmtwdik ;f jzpfysufaeaom oabmw&m;
rQcsnf; [lívnf; odjrifoabmusvmvdrrhf nf/h

þtedpö 'ku© tewå ÓPftodtjrifrsm; aumif;aumif;&ifo h efjynfph akH omtcgrSm r*fÓPf zdv
k Ó
f Pfrsm;
jzpfay:í edAmÁ efukd rsufarSmufxif½mS ; awGYjrif&avawmhonf/

þonfum; orx,meduvrf;jzifh edAmÁ efoYkda&mufatmif tm;xkwyf t


kH usOf;aywnf;/

ok'¨0dyóem,medu\½IyHk

,cktcg ok'0¨ yd óem,meduvrf;jzifh 0dyóem½Iyu


kH kd jyqdt
k /hH

a½S;üjycJo
h nft h wdik ;f ½kyef mrf tedpçö 'kuç© tewå oabmwdYk ukd Mum;emrSwo f m;zl;aom olonf orxudk
rxlaxmifawmhbJ 0dyóemoufoufuo kd m tm;xkwv f v
kd Qif qdwNf idraf omt&yfü wifysOfacGvsufjzpfap Mum½Snf
pGm xdik af eEdik o
f nfh tjcm;enf;jzifjh zpfapç xdik af evQuf ud, k x
f üJ xif½mS ;jzpfay:aeaom Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg; ½kyef mrf
w&m;wdYk ukd jzpfwikd ;f ? jzpfwikd ;f rjywf½aI e\/

Oy'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;[lonfrmS jzpfcu kd çf Mum;cdu


k çf eHocd u
kd çf pm;odcu
kd çf xdocd u
kd çf BuHocd u
kd f [laom
þcP 6-yg;wdYk ü xif½mS ;awGYaeaom w&m;rsm;yif jzpfonf/

xdw
k iG f jrifcu
kd üf jrif&aomtqif;½kyu f kd vnf;aumif;? jrif&mXme rsufp½d yk u
f kd vnf;aumif;? xif½mS ;awGY&
\/ ¤if;wdYk rmS ½kycf E¨m w&m;pkrQomjzpfonf/ ESpo f ufom,mzG,v f nf;r[kw?f twå-toufaumifç igaumifvnf;
r[kw?f odYk aomf ¤if;wdYk ukd jrifwikd ;f jrifwikd ;f r½ªrad om olwYkd rmS ]]csufcsif;yif aysmufaysmufomG ;onf? rNrJb;l }}
[lívnf; rodMu? ]]cPrpJ jzpfNyD;cPrpJ aysmufysufaeonf qif;&Jcsnf;}} [lívnf; rodMu? ]]twår[kw?f
toufaumifr[kw?f olYoabmtwdik ;f oljzpfysufaeaom tewåoabmw&m;rQom}} [lívnf; rodMu? xdYk aMumifh
xkjd rif&aom tqif;ESihf rsupf w d Ykdukd ESpo
f ufom,mvQuv f nf; pGv J rf;Mu\? twåaumiftoufaumif? igaumif[k
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 9

xifrw S v
f suvf nf; pGvJ rf;Mu\/ þodYk om,mxifrw
S v
f sufpv
JG rf; tyfaomaMumifh xdt
k qif;½kyEf iS hf rsufpw
d Ykd ukd
]]½kyfOygeu©E¨m}}[k ac:&ayonf/

xdYk jyif tqif;tm½Hu k kd jrifojd cif;(pu©K0dnmPf)? cHpm;jcif;(a0'em)? rSwo f m;jcif;(onm)? jrif&atmif


tm;xkwjf cif; (ocFg&)? [laom todemrf w&m;pkrsm;udv k nf; (xdjk rifcu
kd rf mS yif) xif½mS ;av\/ ¤if;wdYk rmS vnf;
emrfcE¨mw&m;pkrQomjzpfonf? ESpo f ufom,mzG,v f nf;r[kw?f twå-toufaumif igaumifvnf;r[kw?f odYk aomf
¤if;wdYk ukd jzpfwikd ;f jzpfwikd ;f r½Irad omolwYkd rmS rNrJ[í l vnf;aumif;? qif;&J[í l vnf;aumif;? tewå[í l
vnf;aumif;? rodMuaomaMumifh ESpo f ufom,mvsuf pGv J rf;Mu\/ ]]iguyif jrifonf? iguyif cHpm;onf?
iguyif rSwo f m;onf? iguyifp;l pdu k Mf unfoh nf}}[k twåaumifç toufaumifç igaumif xifrw S v
f sufvnf;
pGv
J rf;Mu\/ þodYk om,mxifrw S vf suf pGv J rf;tyfaomaMumifh xdek mrfw&m;wdYk uv kd nf; ]]0dnmPfOyg'geu©Em¨ }}[k
ac:&ayonf/

þonfum; rsufpjd zifh tqif;udk jrifcu kd f Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg; ½kyef mrfw&m;wdYk ukd xif½mS ;yHak ywnf;/
em;jzift
h oHuMkd um;cdu
k çf ESmacgif;jzifh teHYuekd o H cd u
kd f vQmjzifth &omudk pm;odcu kd çf ud,
k jf zifh tawGYtxdukd xdod
cdu
k çf ESv;kH jzifh oabmtm½Hu k Bkd uHocd u
kd w
f Ykd üvnf; Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg; ½kyef mrfw&m;wdYk xif½mS ;yHu k kd enf;wlyif
odtyf\/ txl;um; oabmtm½Hrk mS ½kyef mrfEpS rf sdK;vH;k ESihf qdik \ f / þrQomxl;onf/

þodkY cP 6-yg;? Xme 6-yg;vH;k ü ½kyef mrfw&m;wdYk xif½mS ;jzpfay:aeMuaomfvnf; tm;xkwcf gp


yk*Kd¾ vfrmS xdjk zpfay:wdik ;f aom ½kyef mrfwYkd ukd jzpfay:pOftwdkif;vdkufí ½I&\/ pmoif&müvnf; vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l u
l pí
oif&ouJo h Ykdyifwnf;/

ok'¨0dyóemtusOf;csKyf

xdYk aMumifh ½kyef mrfEpS rf sdK;wdYk wiG f omíxif½mS ;aom ½kyu f pkd í½I&\/ xd½k yk w
f Ykd wiG v
f nf; jrif&? Mum;& eHo&d
pm;od&aom Oyg'g½kyw f Ykd xuf awGUxd&aom blw½kyw f Ykd uomí xif½Sm;\ xdYk aMumifh ud, k xf üJ awGYx&d aom
½kyfudkpí½I&\/

odYk jzpfí txl;xif½mS ;aom xdt k awGYx½d yk u f kd ½I&eftwGuf xdik af eonfw h pfu,
kd v
f ;kH udk owdEiS phf u
kd í
f
]]xdik o
f nf xdik o f nf}}[k rjywf½aI e&\/ xdo k Ykd½aI e&if; wifyg;ujzpfap? ajcaxmufujzpfap wpfae&mrS awGUxdrI
udv k nf; xif½mS ; awGY&vdrrhf nf? xdt k cg awGUxdrEI iS whf íJG ]]xdik o
f nfç xdonfç xdik o f nfç xdonf}}[k xdik af eaom
ud,k x f rJ mS wpfvn S ?hf xdaeaomae&mrS wpfvn S t hf m;jzifh wpfvn S phf D rjywf½aI e&rnf/

]]xdik o
f nf? xdonf}}[k þenf;jzifh ½Iaeonfukd cufonf[x k ifvQif 0ifav xGuaf v xdcu dk &f mü pl;pdu
k í
f
]]xdonf xdonf xdonf}}[k þodYk vnf;½IEikd o f nf/ odYk r[kwf touf½w I ikd ;f 0rf;Adu
k x
f üJ azmif;csnf ydecf snf
awmifw
h if; vIy½f mS ;vsuf awGYx&d aom ½kyu
f v
kd nf; ½IEikd o
f nf/

½IyHkrSm-a½S;OD;pGm pdwo f wdukd 0rf;Adu k üf pl;pdu


k xf m;yg/ azmif;wufvmvdu k f ydeu f somG ;vdu k Ef iS hf awmifw
h if;
vIy½f mS ;vsuf? Adu k x
f rJ mS awGUxdrrI sm; rjywfjzpfaeonfukd awGU&vdrrhf nf/ pdwpf u kd xf m;½Hrk Qjzifh rxif½mS ;ao;vQif
Adu
k rf mS vufEiS x hf x
d m;yg/ toufatmifx h m;jcif;ç jrefjref½jI cif; jyif;jyif;½Ijcif;rsm;udu k m; rûy&? yuwd½aI eustwdik ;f
rSerf eS o
f m½SLvsuf½adS e&rnf/ azmif;wufvmcdu k rf mS azmif;onf[½k yI g? wpfa½GUcsif;azmif;wufvmonfukd tprS
tqH;k wdik af tmif tpOfrjywf odvsuf½ydS gap? ydeu f scdu
k rf mS vnf; ydeo
f nf[½k yI g? wpfa½GUjcif;ydeu f soGm;onfukd
tpOfrjywfov d suf½ydS gap? azmif;wdik ;f ydew
f ikd ;f ]]azmif;onfç ydeo f nfç azmif;onfç ydeo f nfç azmif;onfç ydeo f nf}}
[k rjywf½Iaeyg/

txl;owdûy&ef-azmif;onf ydeo f nf paomtrnfuav;rsm;rSm EIwu f ½Gwq f &kd efr[kw?f pdwjf zifo


h mvQif
trnfwyfí ½Iae&efjzpfonf/ xdt k rnfrmS vnf; vd&k if;r[kw?f ud,k x f üJ wu,f jzpfay:vmaom awmifw h if;
vIy½f mS ;awGUxdrI ponfuo kd jd cif;uom vd&k if;jzpfonf/ odYk aomftrnfrygbJ pdwo f ufoufjzifh ½IaevQif tm½HEk iS hf
pdwaf umif;aumif; ruyfjcif;ç toD;oD;ydik ;f jcm;í rodjcif;ç 0D&, d avsmah vsmo h mG ;jcif;paom tjypfrsm;jzpfwwfonf?
xdYk aMumifh pdwjf zift
h rnfwyfí ½I&efneT Mf um;xm; jcif;jzpfayonf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 10

þodYk ]]azmif;onf ydeo f nf? azmif;onfyed o f nf}}[k ½IaepOfrmS yif wjcm;wpfyg;tm½Hrk sm;qDoYkd xGux
f u
G f
oGm;aom pdwrf sm;vnf; ½Sv
d rd rhf nf? xdpk w
d rf sm;udk oljzpfonfth wdik ;f yif ½I&rnf/

½IyHkrSm-wjcm;odYk xu G o f mG ;onf[k xifvQif ¤if;pdwu f kd xGuo f nf[k ½Ivu kd yf g? BuHonf[k odvQif BuHonf
[k ½Ivukd yf g? pOf;pm;onf[k xifvQif pOf;pm;onf[½k v I u
kd yf g? vdck sifvQif vdck sifonf[çk ESpof ufvQif ESpo
f uf
onf[çk pdwq f ;kd vQif pdwq f ;kd onf[çk pdwyf sufvQif pdwyf sufonf[çk ysif;vQif ysif;onf[çk aysmfvQif aysmfonf[k
þodYk ponfjzifh xdpk w d af ysmufomG ;onfw h ikd af tmif qifu
h mqifu h m½I&rnf/ xdpk w
d af ysmufomG ;aomtcg ]]azmif;onf
ydeo
f nf azmif;onf ydeo f nf}}[k rlv½IaeMutwdik ;f yif jyefírjywf½aI e&rnf/

ud, k xf üJ anmif;rIç ylrçI emusiu f ukd cf rJ çI paomrcHomrI 'kua© 0'emrsm;jzpfay:vmvQif xdrk cHomrIuykd if
pl;pdu
k í
f ]]anmif;onf anmif;onf? ylonf ylonf? emonf emonf}} ponfjzifh ½Iae&rnf/ xdrk cHomrI
aysmufNidr;f oGm;aomtcg azmifryI ed rf uI o
kd mvQif ½INrJrjywf½aI e&rnf/ odYk &mwGi-f anmif;rIyrl I ponf jyif;xefvS
ojzifh tvGerf cHomvSaomtcg vufç ajcç ud, k çf taetxdik rf sm;udk ajymif;vJûyjyifay;&\/ xdtk cg vIy½f mS ;ûyjyif
ay;aom ud, k tf rlt&mrsm;udk pl;pdu
k í
f ]]auG;onf auG;onf? qefYonf qefYonf? vIyo f nf vIyo f nf? a½GUonf
a½GUonf? <uonf <uonf? csonf csonf}} ponfjzifh oljzpfay:onft h wdik ;f tpOfrjywf vdu
k íf ½IomG ; &onf?
xdtk rlt&mNyD;qH;k oGm;aomtcg azmif;rI yderf u I o kd m jyefí½INrJyif ½Iae&rnf/

wpfpw kH pf&mudk ]]Munfrh v d Qif Munfo h nfjrifonf? Munfo h nfjrifonf}}[k ½I&onf? rMunfb
h t
J vdv
k kd
jrifomG ;vQif jrifonf jrifonf [k½&I onf? em;axmifrv d Qif ]]em;axmifonf Mum;onf? em;axmifonf Mum;onf}}
[k ½I&onf? tvdv k Mkd um;&vQif ]]Mum;onf Mum;onf}}[k ½I&onf? pOf;pm;rdvQif ]]pOf;pm;onf pOf;pm;onf}}[k
½I&onf? NyD;vQif azmif;rI yderf u
I kd ½INrJyif½aI e&onf/

xdik &f mrSxaomtcgç &yfaomtcgç vSt J yd af omtcgç ponfwYkd üvnf; ûywdik ;f ûywdik ;f aom ud,
k tf rlt&m
rsm;udk aphaphpyfpyf½v I sufom ûyjyif&onf/ vrf;avQmufomG ;aomtcgü ajcvSr;f wdik ;f ç ajcvSr;f wdik ;f vIy½f mS ;rIrsm;
udk tprStqH;k wdik f aoaocsmcsm odatmifp;l pdu
k í f ]]oGm;onf oGm;onf}}[k jzpfapç ]]vSr;f onf vSr;f onf}}[k
jzpfapç ]]<uonf vSr;f onf csonf}}[k jzpfapç aphaphpyfpyf ½Ivsuf ½Ivsufom oGm;&onf/

tusOf;csKyftm;jzifq
h vkd Qif auG;rI qefYrpI aom vufvyI ½f mS ;ûyjyifrI [lorQudk jzpfay:vmwdik ;f odatmif
½I&onf/ ud, k x
f J pdwx f üJ jzpfay:vmaom a0'em[lorQudv k nf; jzpfay:vmwdik ;f odatmif½&I onf/ pdwu f ;l
pOf;pm;rI [lorQuv kd nf; jzpfay:vmwdik ;f odatmif½&I onf/ þvdt k aMumif;xl;rsm;r½Sb
d J Nidrv f sufxikd af eaomtcg
vJavsmif;aeaom tcgrsm;rSm ud, k x
f rJ S xif½mS ;aom tawGYtxdwpfcck u k kd rjywf½aI e&onf/ þüum;
txl;xif½mS ;í ajymjy&ef vG,u f al om azmif;rI yderf u I o
kd myifwikd x
f m;í ½I&ef nTeMf um;xm;ayonf/ odYk aomf
tvdk½SdygvQif yxru jycJah om xdik rf I xdrw I Ykduv
kd nf;aumif;? 0ifav xGuaf v\ xdru I vkd nf;aumif;? yifwikd f
xm;ívnf; ½IEikd af o;\/

ay:&m ay:&mudk tvG,w f ul½EI ikd af om tcgüum; þuJo h Ykd yifwikd f ½IpOf;xm;&efrvdak wmhNyD? jrifwikd ;f
Mum;wdik ;f eHow
d ikd ;f pm;odwikd ;f xdowd ikd ;f Buo H w
d ikd ;f ay:orQudk jzpfay:vmpOftwdik ;f yif ½IomG ;&onf/

a,m*Donf þenf;jzifh rjywf½aI evQif owdÓPftm; ½Sv d maomtcgrSm wpuúeYf twGi;f rSmyif pdwt f Budrf
aygif;rsm;pGm jzpfysuaf eonfukd ud, k w
f ikd yf ifawGUod&\? okYd aomf ½Icgpa,m*DrmS xdrk QvQifjrefpmG rodEikd af o;ay?
þt&mü pmzwfoifcgp yk*Kd¾ vfEiS hf aumif;aumif;wwf yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd \ pmzwfaES;yHk jrefyrkH sm;ESihf EdiI ;f ,SOí
f odem;vnf
tyf\/ odYk aomf tm;xkwcf gp yk*Kd¾ vfonfvnf; wpfpuúeYf wpfpuúeYf vQif ½Iord w I Budr?f wpfBudru f s renf;½IoEd ikd f
atmif rNrJrjywftm;xkwí f ½Iae&onf/

0dyóemtm;xkwyf t
kH usOf;NyD;\/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 11

0dyóemorm"dÓPf r*fzdkvfÓPfjzpfyHk

,ckjyqdck o
hJ nft
h wdik ;f wpfpuúeYf wpfpuúeYf rmS ½Iord w
I Budrf wBudrxf ufrenf; rjywf½EI ikd &f ef tm;xkwaf e
aomfvnf; tm;xkwcf gpyk*Kd¾ vfrmS r½Irb d J arhomG ;aom ud, k t f rlt&m pdwtf rlt&mwdYk vnf; rsm;pGmyif½ adS yvdrrhf nf?
orx0dyóemu jycJo h nft h wdik ;f wjcm;wyg;odYk a&mufaeaom ed0&P pdwrf sm;vnf; rsm;pGmyif½adS yvdrrhf nf/
txl;rSm orxvkyif ef;pOfü arhaompdwf tjcm;odYk oGm;aompdwrf sm;udk ½I&efrvdNk yD? ½INrJorxtm½Hu k kd jyefí½I&efom
vdak yonf/

þ0dyóemvkyif ef;pOfum; xdak rhomG ;onfh pdwrf sm;wjcm;odYk xGuo f mG ;onfph w


d rf sm;udv
k nf; ½Io&d \/
xdo
k Ykd ½o
I Nd yD;rS azmif;rIç yderf pI aom ½INrJukd jyefí½IomG ;&ayonf/ þum;orxESihf 0dyóemwdYk ü eD0&Pudk
y,fjcif;ESiphf yfí vkyif ef;pOf xljcm;yHwk pf&yfaywnf;/

(orxbm0emrSm wpfcw k nf;aomtm½Hük pdww f nfwhH


aeatmif orxtm½Hu k kd omrjywf½aI e&\? orxtm½Hk r[kwf
aom ½kyef mrftm½Hu k u kd m; ½I&efwm0efr½S?d xdYk aMumifh wpf&w
H pfcg
ü BuHpnfpOf;pm;aeaom eD0&Ppdwrf sm; jzpfay:vmaomfvnf;
¤if;wdYk um; ½I&efrvd?k y,f&efomvd\ k /

0dyóembm0emrSmrl 'Gg& 6-yg;ujzpfay:orQ ½kyef mrf


wdYk ukd ½I&aomaMumifh wpf&w H pfcgür½Irbd J arhvsuf wjcm;udk
pOf;pm;rdaom pdwrf sm;vdck siEf pS o f ufrI paom eD0&Ppdwrf sm;
jzpfay:vmvQif xdpk w d rf sm;udv k nf; ½Ityfonfom? r½Irv d Qif
xdpk w d rf sm;üvnf; edpçö okcç twåç [k pGv J rf;rI usa&mufrnf
csnf;om? odYk jzpfí xdo k Ykd aompdwrf sm;jzpfay:vmvQif orx
tvkyrf mS uJo h Ykd (towdtreodum&) ESv;kH roGi;f bJ xm;½Hrk Qjzifh
udprö NyD;ao;? ¤if;wdYk uv kd nf; obm0vu©Pm omrnvu©Pm
wdYk jzifh rSeu f efpmG odatmif ½Iro S mvQif pGv J rf;rIuif;apEdik í
f
0dyóem udpNö yD;ayonf/ (þum;xyfí½Si;f csufjzpfonf/)

þodkY½zI efrsm;aomtcg wjcm;odYk ysHYviG ahf ompdwrf mS r½So d avmufyif uif;Nidr;f aevdrrhf nf? wjcm;odYk
pdwx f uG vf Qivf nf; csucf si;f yifoEd ikd í
f csucf si;f yif xdpk w
d jf ywfpo
J mG ;vdrrhf nf? wpf&w H pfcgrSm wjcm;odYk xu
G &f ef
pdwOf ;D vSnv hf ukd o
f nfuykd if ½IoEd ikd í
f wjcm;odYk rxGuaf wmhbJ ½INrJyifwpfpOfwnf; tajcrysuf ½Ioad eEdik o f nf
udvk nf; awGU&vdrrhf nf? xdt k cgrS ½I&mç ½I&mtm½Hük uyfueJç uyfueJtu H s udu k v
f sufwnfwnfaeaom orm"d
onf 0dyóemcPdu orm"drnf\/ umrpäEp´ aom eD0&PwdYk rS uif;aeaomaMumifh orxvrf;u Oypm&orm"d
ESivhf nf; nDrQ\? ysUH vGiahf jy;oGm;aeaom xdek 0D &PESihf a&maESmjcif;r½Sb d J ½Iord b
I m0empdwcf snf; a½SUaemuf
wpfpw d wf nf; pifMu,fvsuf ½Sad omaMumifh pdw0å o d 'k v
d¨ nf;rnf\/

xdt k cg ½Iwikd ;f ç ½Iwikd ;f ½Irod nfh azmif;rIç yderf I paom ½kyt f aygif;udk todemrfEiS v hf nf;aumif;? tjcm;
½kyrf sm;ESiv hf nf;aumif;? ra&m,Suaf pbJ oD;oefYyikd ;f jcm;í od\? ½IrçI odrçI jrifrI paom emrftaygif;udv k nf;
½kyEf iS v
hf nf;aumif;? tjcm;emrfrsm;ESiv hf nf;aumif; ra&m,Suaf pbJ oDjcm;ydik ;f jcm;í od\? wpfBudrçf wpfBudrf
½Icukd rf mS yif ud, k ½f yk f todpw d u f kd wpfjcm;pDyikd ;f jcm;íod\/ þodYk emrfEiS hf ½kyu
f kd ydik ;f jcm;í odjcif;onf emr½ly
y&dapä'ÓPfrnf\/

xdo
k Ykd ozd efrsm;aomtcg ]]þud,k x
f üJ azmif;rI yderf I vIy½f mS ;rIpaom (tm½Hu
k kd rodwwfonf)h ½kyw
f &m;ESihf
odrçI jriford I paom (tm½Hu k o
kd w
d wfonf)h emrfw&m;[lí ½kyef mrf 2-rsdK;om½Sdonf/ þ½kyfemrfrw S pfyg; yk*Kd¾ vf
owå0gaumifrnfonf r½Sad wmhNyD}}[k odjrifoabmus\ ½Iae&if;yif þodYk ojd rif oabmusoGm;jcif;onf
'dX0d o
d 'k rd¨ nf\/

xdYk aemufqufvufí tm;xkwaf evQif ½Iwikd ;f ç ½Iwikd ;f taMumif;tusdK; qufpyfí xd½k yk ef mrfrsm; jzpfay:
vmMuonfuv kd nf; odjrifoabmMuvm\? odyu
kH m; auG;csif qefYcsifç vIy½f mS ;ûyjyifcsifaompdwaf Mumifh auG;½kyçf
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 12

qefY½yk çf vIy½f mS ;ûyjyif½yk rf sm; jzpfay:vmMuonfuv


kd nf;aumif;? tat;"mwfaMumifh yl½yk çf at;½kyrf sm; ajymif;vJ
jzpfay:vmMuonfuv kd nf;aumif;? tpmtm[m&aMumifh ½kyo f pfrsm; jzpfay:vmMuonfuv kd nf;aumif;? rsuaf rSmuf
awGUvsuf odjrifoabmus\/

xdYk jyif rsufpEd iS t


hf qif;ç em;ESit
hf oH ponf½í dS jrifrI Mum;rI ponfwYkd jzpfay:vmMuonfukd vnf;aumif;ç
azmif;rI yderf pI aom ½Ip&mtm½H½k í dS ½Iord I jzpfay:vmonfukd vnf;aumif;? ESv;kH oGi;f rI½ídS xdx
k t
kd m½Hrk sm;qDoYkd
pdwu
f a&mufa&mufomG ;onfuv kd nf;aumif; rsuaf rSmufawGYvsuf odjrifoabmus\/

xdYk jyif ]]aumif;onf? csrf;omonf}}[k xifaom t0dZmÆ aumif;pm;csrf;omcsifaom wPSmwdYk aMumifh BuHpnf
tm;xkwûf yvkyaf eMuonfuv kd nf;aumif;? xdûk yvkyrf &d mudyk if pGv
J rf;í pdw0f n
d mPftopf topf jzpfay:aeonfukd
vnf;aumif;? aojcif;[lonfrmS vnf; ½Io&d aom þpdwu f av;rsdK; aemufq;kH aysmufu, G o
f mG ;jcif;yif[í
l
vnf;aumif;? b0opfjzpfjcif; [lonfrmS vnf; rS&D m½kyEf iS w hf uG þpdwu f av;rsdK; topfjzpfay:vmjcif;yif [lí
vnf;aumif; þodYk ponfjzifv h nf; odjrifoabmus\/

þodkYtaMumif;w&m;yg odjrifjcif;onf ypö,y&*¾[ÓPfrnf\/

þodYk taMumif;ESit hf usdK;rQom qufpyfvsufjzpfaeonfukd oabmusaomtcg ]]a½S;uvnf;'Dvkd


taMumif;tusdK; ½kyef mrfrQom ½Scd o hJ nf? aemifvnf; 'Dvt
kd aMumif;tusdK; ½kyef mrfrQom½Srd nf}} [lívnf; odjrif
oabmus\/ þodYk odjrif oabmusjcif;onf ucFg0dw&P0do'k d¨ rnf\/

taMumif;tusdK; ½kyef mrfrQom½Sod nf[k rodao;rDu xd½k yk ef mrfrsm;udyk if twåaumifç igaumifç xifrw S í
f
]]a½S;uvnf; ig½Scd ahJ voavm¿ ,ckrb S J ½Sv d mavoavm¿ 'Dig[m aoNyD;onfh aemufrmS vnf; ½SOd ;D rnfavavm}}
[k þodYk awG;awm,Hrk sm;rIrsdK; jzpfay:Edik \
f / ,ckru
l m; xd,
k rkH mS ;rIrsKd ; rjzpfEikd af wmhNyD? xd,
k rkH mS ;rIrsKd ;udk vGeaf jrmuf
oGm;NyD[k qdv
k \
kd /

qufvufí tm;xkwaf evQif ½Iwikd ;f ½Iwikd ;f aom ½kyef mrfrsm;onf jzpfay:vmNyD;vQif aysmufaysmuf
oGm;Muonfuo
kd m awGY&aomaMumifh rNrJ[í
l vnf; oH;k oyfqifjcifr\
d ? tedpoö r®oeÓPf yifwnf;/

jzpfvu kd f ysuv
f ukd Ef iS hf jzpfysurf u
I rjywf ESyd pf ufaeonfuo
kd m awGY&aomaMumifh ESpo
f ufom,mzG,f
tm;ud;k zG,rf ½Sd aMumufz,G af umif;aom qif;&Jcsnf;}} [lívnf; oH;k oyfqifjcifr\ d 'kuo © r®oeÓPfyifwnf;/

ud,
k t
hf vdt
k wdik ;f rjzpfrí
l olYoabmtwdik ;f om jzpfysufaeonfukd awGU&aomaMumifh ]]tpd;k &aom
twåaumif igaumifr[kw?f tewåoabmw&m;csnf;}} [lívnf; oH;k oyfqifjcifr\ d ? tewåor®oeÓPfyif
wnf;/

þodYk o;kH oyfqifjcifí tm;&aomtcg roH;k oyfrqifjcifawmhbJ ½I½o kH m½Ivsuf½\ dS ? xdktcg ½I&if;½I&if;
½Irdaomtm½Hk\ tpjzpfay:vmyHu k vkd nf; ½Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm od&\/ xdktm½Hk\ wdueJ jywfq;kH oGm;yHu k v
kd nf;
½Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm od&\/ tvif;a&mifrsm;ç ESpo f rd thf m;&rIrsm; pdwaf t;csrf;omrIrsm;ç bk&m;w&m;ESiphf yfaom
o'¨g Munfñrkd rI sm;ç xufoefaom tmxkwv f rkd rI sm;ç 0rf;omrIrsm;ç tvGev f sifjrefoefY½iS ;f aom odrrI sm;ç ½Ip&m
tm½Hak wGukd tvGwrf ½Sad tmif trSw&f vsuf ½IEikd rf rI sm;ç txl;aMumifMh urûy&bJ ½IEikd rf rI sm;ç ½I&onfü aysmfvsuf
ESpo
f ufom,mrIrsm; [laom þxl;jcm;aom oabmw&m;wdYk onfvnf; jzpfay:vmwwfuek \ f / xdYk aMumifh
a,m*Donf rdr\ d jzpfrrI sm;udk rajym&bJ raeEdik af vmufatmif 0rf;om wuf<uvsu½f w dS ufMu\/ w&m;xl;udk &NyD
[lívnf; xifrw S \ f ? Ekaom O',AÁ,ÓPfEiS hf r*fzv kd f aywnf;/

xdt
k vif;a&mif ponfwYkd ukd ]]w&m;}} r[kwaf o; [lívnf;aumif;? ]]ay:vmorQudk ½I½rkH Q rjywf½aI ejcif;
onfom w&m;xl;ud&k &ef 0dyóemvrf;rSejf zpfonf}} [lívnf;aumif;? usrf;*efA[kow k t&jzpfap q&m;orm;
wdYk u pum;t&jzpfap ,HMk unfq;kH jzwf&\/ xdok Ykd q;kH jzwfvu
kd jf cif;onf ÓP'óe0do'k d̈ rnf\/

xdo
k Ykd q;kH jzwfNyD;aemuf qufvufí½IaevQif xdt
k vif;a&mifEpS o
f rd t
hf m;&rI ponfwYkd onf wjznf;jznf;
enf;í oGm;\/ ½IodrIrSmvnf;omí ½Sif;vif;\/ ajcwpfauG; wpfqefYtwGi;f ajcwpfvrS ;f twGi;f rSm wpfae&mrS
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 13

wpfae&modYk ra&mufbJ wa½GUcsif; wpfa½GUjcif; ysufomG ;aom vIy½f mS ;rIaygif;rsm;pGmwdYk ukd wpfyikd ;f pD wpfyikd ;f pD
½Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm od&\? Oyuúad vorS vGwaf om O',AÁ,ÓPfaywnf;/

xdÓ
k Pftm; aumif;vmaomtcg todonf wd;k í vsifjrefvm\/ xdkYaMumifh tm½Hk\ tpjzpfrx I uf tqH;k
aysmufru
I omíxif½mS ;pGm awGY&\? ½I&aomtm½Hrk sm;rSm ukeq f ;kH ysufaeESio
hf uJo h Ykd xif&\? vufç ajcç acgif;ç
paom yHok @mef txnfj'yfukd rawGY&awmhbJ w&dy&f yd f aysmufaysmufaeonfuo kd m ½Iwikd ;f ½Iwikd ;f awGU&\/

½Ioad om pdwu f av;yg olYtm½HEk iS t hf wl a½SYaemuf qifv h suf wpfygwnf; aysmufaysmufomG ;onfukd
awGU&\/ þodYk ½Iwikd ;f ç ½Iwikd ;f tm½Hak &m todpwd yf g wpfpv
kH ;kH wpfpv
kH ;kH aysmufaysmufomG ;onfukd odjcif;onf
b*FÓPfrnf\/

½Iwikd ;f odwikd ;f tm½Hak &m todpw


d yf g wpfysufwnf; ysufaeonfuo
kd m awGU&aomaMumifh ]]aMumufp&m
aumif;onf}}[k xifjrifoabmusvm\ b,ÓPfaywnf;/

]]raumif;bl;}}[k tjypfvnf;jrifvm\? tm'De0ÓPfaywnf;/

]]ESpo
f ufaysmfarGUzG,f r½S?d ysif;&dNiD;aiGUzG,}f } [lívnf; xifjrifvm\/ edA'dÁ gÓPfaywnf;/

]]'Dvjkd zpfysufaeaom ½kyef mrfawGr½Srd S aumif;rnf}}[k ½kyef mrfqif;&Jrsm;rS vGwaf jrmuf&ef arQmfMunfah om
ÓPfvnf; jzpfvm\? rkOw dö u
k rswmÓPf aywnf;/

xdt
k cgvGwaf jrmufap&ef txl;aMumifMh uûyí wpfzef½o I jzifh tedpçö 'kuç© tewå oabmwdYk ukd ½Si;f vif;pGm
odjrif\? txl;tm;jzifh 'kuo
© abmrsm;udk tvGex f if½mS ;pGm awGU&wwf\? y#docFgÓPfaywnf;/

xdyk #docFgÓPf tm;jynfah omtcg ½Iord o I nfaMumifMh urpdu k &f bJ olYtvdv k ykd if odvsufovd suf em&D
pufrsm;uJo h Ykd oGm;ae\/ taumif;tqdk;tm½Hk\ oabmaemufoYkd rvdu k bf J od½HkrQod½HkrQom vspfvsL½Ivsuf
½Sdae\/ tvGeyf ifnifomodraf rGUvSay\/ olYt½Sed Ef iS o hf l odvsufov d suf oGm;aeonfrmS wpfem&D ESpef m&D
oH;k em&Dvnf; MumoGm;wwf\/ xdrk QMumaomfvnf; anmif;nmyifyef;jcif;um;r½Sad y/ þodYk taumif; tqd;k tm½Hk
aemufoYkdvnf; rvdu k af MumifMh uvnf;rpdu
k &f bJ oabmrSeuf kd od½rkH QMum½Snpf mG odood mG ;aejcif;onf ocFg½kayu©m
ÓPfrnf\/

þodYk oYl t½Sed Ef iS o


hf l odvsufov
d suf tvdv
k o
kd mG ;ae&mxJu txl;oGuv f ufvQifjrefaom toduav;rsm;
jzpfay:vmjyef\? xdt k oduav;rsm;rSm 0k|mernfaom r*fqo D Ykdw[kwf xd;k wufomG ;aom 0k|me*grde0D yd óem
ÓPfrnf\/

xdx
k ;l jcm;aom toduav;rsm;rSmvnf; xdck Pü 'Gg& 6-yg;wGif xif½mS ;ay:vmaom ½kyef mrftm½Hu k ykd if
rNrJ[í l vnf;aumif;? qif;&J[í l aomfvnf;aumif; tewå[í l aomfvnf;aumif;}} odjrifvQuf jzpfay:ayonf/
xdw
k iG f aemufq;kH tBudrt
f odrmS y&duOH ypm tEkvakH c: aZmoH;k ckyg0ifaom tEkavmrÓPfaywnf;/ a½S;0dyóem
ÓPf aemufr*fÓPfwYkd EiS hf oifah vsmfpmG jzpfaomÓPf[k qdv
k \
kd /

a½S;&ifah om O',AÁ,ÓPfrpS í þtEkavmrÓPfwikd af tmif ÓPf 9-yg;taygif;onf y#dy'g


ÓP'óe0do'k rd̈ nf\/

xdÓk Pftjcm;rJüh todpw d o


f nf ½kyef mrfqif;&JcsKyfaom edAmÁ eftm½Ho
k Ykd usa&mufomG ;\? a*gMwbkÓPf
aywnf; ykxZk OftEG,u
f jkd zwfum t&d,mtEG,of Ykd 0ifa&mufomG ;aom ÓPf[q k v kd o kd nf/

xdYk aemufeAd mÁ efuykd if rsuaf rSmufawGUodjrifvQuf aomwmywård *fÓPf zdv


k Ó
f Pfrsm; jzpfay:vmMu\?
xdw
k iG rf *fÓPfukd ÓP'óe0do'k [ d̈ k ac:onf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 14

xdrk *fzv
kd f jzpfcu
kd t
f csed rf mS wpfpuúeYf rQyifrMumay? xkYd aemufx;l jcm;pGm awGYo&d aom r*fzv
kd f edAmÁ efwYkdukd
jyefvnfí qifjcifr\ d / ypöa0u©PmÓPfaywnf;/

þtpOftwdik ;f ypöa0u©PmÓPfwikd af tmif jynfph pkH mG awGUjrifaom olonf aomwmyeftjzpfoYkd a&mufae


aomolaywnf;/

aomwmyefrmS -

1/ ouúm,'dX-d ½kyef mrftaygif;udk twåaumif[k xifrw


S jf cif;/

2/ 0dpu
d pd mä -bk&m;ç w&m;ç oHCmtusifo
h u
d m© wdYk EiS hf pyfí,Hrk mS ;jcif;/

3/ oDvAÁwy&mrmo-t&d,mr*fvrf;tusifrh S wpfyg;aom tavhtusifrh sm;udk edAmÁ ef


a&mufaMumif; tusiahf umif;[k ,HMk unf,rl mS ;jcif;/

[laom þoHa,mZOfo;kH yg;uif;Nidr;f \? xdYk jyif ig;yg;oDvvnf;usdK;jcif; ysufjcif;r½Sb


d J olYobm0twdik ;f yifvNkH cHK
pifMu,fvsuf½\
dS /

xdkYaMumifh aomwmyefyk*dK¾ vfonf tyg,f 4-yg;rS vH;k 0vGwaf jrmuf\? vlYbçkH ewfbw
kH Ykd rmS vnf; tvGeq
f ;kH
7-b0rQom usifvnfí 7-b0ajrmufwiG f &[EÅmjzpfum edAmÁ efoYkd 0ifp&H avonf/

xdak omwmyefy*k Kd¾ vfonf rdr&d NyD;aom zdv


k w
f &m;odYk 0ifa&muf&ef &nfoefí 0dyóem½IvQif xdzk v
kd o
f Ykd
0ifa&mufvsuf ig;rdepfç q,fred pfç em&D0ufç wpfem&D ponfjzifh zvormywfü wnfaeEdik \ f / 0oDabmf
Edik ef if;vQif tvsiftjrefvnf;0ifpm;Edik \ f / wpfaeYv;kH wpfnvH;k aomfvnf; Mum½Snpf mG xdzk vormywfü wnfae
Edik \f /

r&ao;aomr*fzv kd rf sm;odYk a&muf&ef&nfoefí Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;wdYk ukd enf;wlyif ½lygrlum; O',AÁ,


ÓPf 0dyóemÓPfrsm;enf;wlyif tpOftwdik ;f jzpfNyD;vQif £a`E´vnf; &ifu h sufygrl ou'g*grdr*fÓPf zdv k fÓPf
jzifeh Ad mÁ efukd awGUjrifum ou'g*grftjzpfoYkd a&mufomG ;avonf ou'g*grfrmS Murf;wrf;aom umr&m*ESihf
Asmyg'wdYk uif;Nidr;f oGm;jyef\/ xdYk aMumifh ou'g*grfy*k Kd¾ vfonf ewfbw kH Ykd ü tvGeq
f ;kH ESpb
f 0rQom jzpfNyD;vQif
&[EÅmjzpfum edAmÁ efoYkd 0ifp&H avawmhonf/

xdo
k um'g*grf yk*Kd¾ vfonfvnf; zdv k 0f ifpm;vkí
d 0dyóem½IvQif &NyD;aomzdv k o
f Ykd a&muf\/ txuf
r*fzv kd af &muf&ef &nfoefí 0dyóem½IvQifum;enf;wlyif 0dyóemÓPfrsm; tpOftwdik ;f jzpfNyD;vQif tem*grd
r*fÓPf zdv k Ó
f Pfjzifh edAmÁ efuakd wGYjrifum tem*grftjzpfoYkd a&mufomG ;\/ tem*grfrmS um; umr&m*ESiAhf smyg'wdYk
vH;k 0uif;\/ xdYk aMumifh tem*grfy*k Kd¾ vfonf umrbHük wpfzefrjzpfawmhNyD? ½lyç t½lyjA[®mb h w kH Ykd üomjzpfí xdb
k kH
wdYk üyif &[EÅmjzpfum edAmÁ efp0H if&avawmhonf/

xdt k em*grfy*k Kd¾ vfonfvnf; zdv k 0f ifpm;vdí


k 0dyóem½IvQif &NyD;zdv
k o
f Ykd a&muf\/ txufr*fzv
kd o
f Ykd
a&muf&ef &nfoefí 0dyóem½IvQifum; enf;wlyif 0dyóemÓPfrsm; tpOftwdik ;f jzpfNyD;vQif t&[wår*fÓPfç
zdv
k Ó
f Pfjf zifh edAmÁ efukd awGYjrifum &[EÅmtjzpfoYkd a&mufomG ;avawmh\/

&[EÅmyk*d¾KvfrSm 1-½ly&m*? 2-t½ly&m*? 3-rme? 4-O'¨pö? 5-t0dZmÆ [laom þt<uif; oHa,mZOf ig;yg;
ESiwhf uG udavom [lorQtvH;k pHk uif;Nidr;f \/ xdYk aMumifh &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vfrmS aemifwzefb0 topfjzpf&jcif; r½Sad wmh
NyD? xdb
k 0rSmyif touftydik ;f tjcm; ukeq
f ;kH aomtcg y&deAd mÁ ef0ifp&H avawmhonf/

y&deAd mÁ ef0ifpNH yD;aom tcsed rf pS í b0topfjzpfay:jcif;r½Sad omaMumifh tdjk cif;ç emjcif;ç aojcif;ç paom
qif;&J[ol rQrS vH;k 0vGwaf jrmufvQuf ½Sad vawmh\/ þodYk vw G af jrmufomG ;jcif; tusdK;udyk if &nf½,G íf þ
usr;f i,f\tpü-
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 15

tb,faMumifu
h r®Xmef;w&m;udk tm;xkw&f oenf;/ [laomar;cGe;f udk

edAÁmefodkYa&mufí tdkjcif;ç aojcif;ç paom qif;&J[o


l rQrS vGwaf jrmuf&eftwGuf tm;xkw&f ayonf/

[kajzqdck ahJ yonf/

odYk jzpfí edAmÁ efuakd &mufum tdjk cif;aojcif;paom qif;&J[o l rQrS vGwaf jrmufvakd om yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd onf þ
usr;f ü nTeMf um;xm;onft h wdik ;f tm;xkwEf ikd Mf uí qif;&JNidr;f aomedAmÁ efoYkd vsifjrefpmG qdu
k af &mufMuygap
ownf;/

0dyóemorm"dÓPf r*fzv
kd Ó
f PfjzpfyNkH yD;\/

aemufqufwGJ
0rf;AdkufrSvIyf½Sm;½kyfudk
½ItyfaMumif;om"u

0rf;Adu
k \
f azmif;cdu
k f ydecf u
kd üf xif½mS ;aom awmifw h if;vIy½f mS ;rIrsm;onf 0ga,m"mwf azmXAÁ½yk jf zpfaom
aMumifh ]]azmif;onf ydeo
f nf}} [k½v I suf ¤if;awmifw h if;vIy½f mS ;rIwYkd ukd rSeu
f efpmG odjcif;onf-

½lyH bdua© 0a,medaom reodua&mx? ½lygedpw ö Oö


,xmblwH orEkyóx? &[ef;wdYk ½kyu f okd ifah vsmf rSeu
f efpmG
ESv;kH oGi;f Mu-½IMuukeaf vm? ½ky\f rNrJjcif;udv
k nf; [kww f ikd ;f
rSepf mG ½IMuukeaf vmh/ (oH 2-42)

tedpaö n0 bdua© 0 bduK© ½lyH tedpEö ydÅ ówd? omóa[mwd or®m'dX-d &[ef;wdYk &[ef;onf rNrJonf
omvQifjzpfaom ½kyu
f kd rNrJ[k ½Ijrif\/ xd&k [ef;\ xd½k jI rifjcif;onf or®m|d tjrifreS af ywnf;/

þodYk tp½Sad om cE¨o,


H w k af 'oem ygVdawmfwYkd EiS v
hf nf; nDnw
G \
f / r[mowdy|meokwv
f m cE¨"r®m
Ekyóemüvnf;twGi;f 0if\/ xdYk jyif-

azm|aAÁ bdua© 0 a,medaom reodua&mx? azm|AÁm


edpw ö Oö ,xmblwH orEkyóx-&[ef;wdYk awGYx&d aom tm½Hk
wdYk ukd oifah vsmf rSeu
f efpmG ESv;kH oGi;f Mu ½IMuukeaf vmh? awGYxd
&aom tm½HkwdkY\ rNrJjcif;udv k nf; [kww f ikd ;f rSepf mG ½IMuavmh/
(oH 2-355)

tedpaö ,0 bdua© 0 bduK© azm|aAÁ tedpmö wd yówd?


omó a[mwd or®m'd|-d &[ef;wdYk . . . &[ef;onf rNrJonf
omvQif jzpfuek af om awGUxd&aom tm½Hwk Ykd ukd rNrJuek [
f k ½Ijrif
\ xd&k [ef;\ ½Ijrifjcif;onf or®m'd|d tjrifreS af ywnf;/ (oH
2-35)

azm|aAÁ tbdZmeH y&dZmeH 0d&mZ,H yZ[H oaAÁm


'kuu© ,© m,-&[ef;wdkY . . . awGYxd&aom tm½HkwdkYudk a½S;½I
odvQifç ydik ;f jcm;odvQifç wufrufjy,fapvQifç y,fpeG v f Qif
qif;&Juek jf cif;iSgç qif;&Juek &f mt&[wåzv
kd ef Ad mÁ efukd rsufarSmuf
ûyjcif;iSg xduk af y\/ (oH 2-250)

azm|aAÁtedpaö wm Zmeawm yóawm t0dZmÆ OyÜZw Æ ?d


awGUxd&aom tm½Hw k Ykd ukd rNrJ[k odjrifaomoltm; t0dZmÆ udk
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 16

y,ftyf\/ (t0dZmÆ aysmufuif;\/) 0dZmÆ ÓPfjzpfay:\/ (oH


2-259)

þodYk tp½Sad om oV,weoH,w k f a'oemygVdawmfEiS v


hf nf; nDnw
G \
f r[mowdyXmeokwf vmtm,
we"r®mEkyóemüvnf; twGi;f 0if\/ xdYk jyif-

,map0 acg ye tZÑwåu d m 0ga,m"mwk ,m p


Am[d&m 0ga,m"mwk? 0ga,m"mwka, a0om? wH ]]aewH rr?
aeaom[ro®?d earaom twåm}} wd {0arwH ,wmblwH
or®yn
Ü m, '|AÁ?H

tMuifu, kd w
f iG ;f 0ga,m"mwfonf vnf;aumif;?
tMuif ud, k yf 0ga,m"mwfonf vnf;aumif;½S\ d ? ¤if; 2-rsdK;
vH;k onf 0ga,m"mwfcsnf;omwnf;? ¤if;0ga,m"mwfukd ]]þ
onfum; ighOpömr[kw?f þonfum; igr[kw?f þonfum;
ig\ twå r[kw}f }[k þodYk trSeo f ad omynmjzifh [kww
f ikd ;f
rSepf mG ½Ijriftyf\/ (r 2-85/ r 3-285)

þodYk tp½Sad om "mwka'oem ygVdawmfEiS v


hf nf; nDnw
G \f ? r[mowdyXmeokwv f m "mwk reodumu
um,mEkyóemüvnf; twGi;f 0if\/ xdYk jyif 0rf;Adu k \
f awmifw
h if; vIy½f mS ;rI 0ga,m½kyof nf ½kyOf yg'geu©Em¨
'kuo
¨ pömw&m; jzpfaomaMumif-h

uwrOö bdua© 0 'kuH© t&d,opö?H yOöKyg'g eu©Em¨


wdó 0peD,-H &[ef;wdYk . . . 'kut © &d, opöm [lonf
tb,fenf;/ Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;yif[í
l ajzqdt
k yf\/ (oH 3-
373)

'kuH© bdua© 0 t&d,opöH y&dan,sH? &[ef;wdYk -'ku©


t&d,opömudk ydik ;f jcm;odtyf\/ (oH 3-382)

þodYk tp½Sad om opöma'oem ygVdawmfwYkd EiS v


hf nf; nDnw
G \
f / r[mowdyXme okwv
f m t&d,opöm
"r®mEkyóemüvnf; twGi;f 0if\/

txufyg om"uygVdwYkd jzifh 0rf;Adu k \


f azmif;rI yderf [ I ak c:aom awmifw h if;vIy½f mS ;rIukd ½ItyfaMumif;
vnf; xif;½Sm;\/ xdak zmif;rI yderf u I kd ½Ijrifjcif;jzifh rSeuf efpmG odjrifaom or®m'd|çd 0dZmÆ ÓPfjzpfay:í rdpmä 'd|çd
t0dZmÆ wdYk ukd y,fEikd af Mumif;ç r*fzv
kd f edAmÁ efoYkd vnf; qduk af &mufEikd af Mumif;vnf; xif½mS ;\/

,xm,xm 0gyeóuma,m yPd[ad wm a[mwd


wxm wxmeH yZmemwd-xd&k [ef;\ ½kyu f ,
kd o
f nf tMuif
tMuif tjcif;t&mjzifh wnfaevQif xdx k kd tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh
xd½k yk u
f ,
kd f udo
k \
d / ('D 2-232? r-71)

txufyg r[mowdyXmeokwf ygVdawmfü ]],xm ,xm-tMuiftMuif tjcif;t&m? wxmwxm-xdx k kd


tjcif;t&m}}[laom pum;wdYk jzifh ud,
k t
f rlt&m tvH;k pHuk kd wdu
k ½f u
kd jf yvsuf½\
dS ? xduk ,
kd t
f rlt&mtvH;k pHo
k nfvnf;
oufqikd &f m wjcm;okwçf tjcm;ygVdwYkd EiS hf tnD0yd óem½Ityfaom ½kyw f &m;csnf;omvsifjzpf\-xduk , kd t
f rlt&m
½kyfwdkYwGif 0dyóemr½Iaumif;aom ½kyrf nfonf r½Sad cs? odYk jzpfí þygVduv kd nf; þt&mü om"uwpf&yftjzpf
jzifh rSwtf yfay\/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 17

£" yaeuapöm 0kwyå u Ü m&H orxH tEkyÜ a'wGm0


yOöyg'geu©aE¨ tedpmö 'D[d 0dyówd? t,H 0dyóem/ (r-X-1-
113)

þ(omoem)ü tcsKd Yy*k Kd¾ vfonfum; orx ykA*Á rF enf;ü jyqdck ahJ om orxudk rjzpfapawmhbJ ig;yg;aom
Oyg'geu©Em¨ wdYk ukd rNrJaom tjcif;t&mponfwYkd jzifh ½I\? ¤if;onf 0dyóemaywnf;/

txufyg tXuxmjzifh orxudk tm;rxkwb


f J 0dyóemuyifpí tm;xkwaf umif;onfuv
kd nf; jy\/

oDv0wm0kawm aum|du? bduK© em yOöyg'geu©Em¨


tedpaö wm 'kua© wm/y/ tewåawm a,medaom reodumwAÁm?
/y/ XmeH acg yaewH tm0kaom 0dZw Æ ,
d H oDv0g bduK© £ar
yOöKyg'g eu©aE¨ tedpaö wm 'kua© wm /y/ tewåawm a,med
aom reoduma&maEÅm aomwmywåzd vH opäu d a&,s/ (oH 2-
136)

igh½iS af umXdu . . . oDvESihf jynfph akH om &[ef;onf Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;wdYk ukd tedpçö 'kuç© tewå[k
enf;vrf;rSeu f efpmG ESv;kH oGi;f tyf ½Ityf\? oDvESihf jynfph akH om &[ef;onf þOyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;wdYk ukd tedp[ ö çk
'ku[ © çk tewå[k enf;vrf;rSeu f efpmG ESv;kH oGi;f vQif ½IvQif aomwmywåzd v
kd u
f kd rsufarSmufûyEdik &f ef taMumif;
½Sday\/

txufyg oDv0EÅow k jf zifh Oyg'geu©Em¨ ig;yg;udk rSepf mG ½IvQif aomwmyef ponf jzpfEikd af Mumif;
xif½mS ;jy\? azmif;rI yderf o
I nf Oyg'geu©Em¨ üyg0ifaom 0ga,m½kyaf ywnf;?

wH ud rnwd rmvkusyw k ?å a, aw pu©K-0dan,sm


½lyg t'd|m t'd|ykAmÁ e p yó od? e p aw a[mwd
yaó,sEÅ?d twåd aw wwå qaE´m 0g &ma*g 0g ayrH 0gwd?
aema[wH baEÅ/ (oH 2-295)

rmvkusykw&å [ef; . . . . ,ck ar;rnfh tcsufukd b,fvx kd ifovJ? rsufpjd zifjh rifEikd o
f nfh tMuiftqif;
½lyg½Hw k Ykd ukd oifrjrifz;l ao;? ,ckvnf;jrifqrJ [kwçf jrif&vdrrhf nf[í l vnf; oifrh mS pdwu f ;l rjzpfao;bl;qdyk gawmh?
xdok Ykd aom tqif;½lyg½Hw k Ykd üoifrh mS ESpo
f ufjcif;ç wyfrufjcif;ç cspfcifjcif; jzpfEikd yf grnfavm[k jrwfpmG bk&m;u
ar;awmfr\ l / rjzpfEikd yf g[k rmvkusykw&å [ef;u ajz\/ (toHç teHYç t&omç tawGUç oabm tm½HkwdkYüvnf;
enf;wlyif ar;onf ajzonf/)

{wåp aw rmvkusywk ?å 'dXokw rkw 0dnm awok


"ar®ok 'da| 'd|rwåH b0dówd? okawokwrwåH b0dówd?
rkaw rkwrwåH b0dówd? 0dnmaw 0dnmwrwåH b0dówd/
(oH? 2-295)

rmvkus ykw&å [ef; . . . . jrif&ç Mum;&ç awGY&ç od&aom þtm½Hw k Ykd üvnf; (½IaevQif) oifrh mS jrif&onfü
jrif½rkH Q jzpfvrd rhf nf? Mum;&onfü Mum;½Hrk Qjzpfvrd rhf nf? awGY&onfü awGU½Hrk Qjzpfvrd rhf nf? od&onfü od½rkH Qjzpfvrd hf
rnf? (jrif½rkH Q ponfxufyí kd ESpo
f ufjcif; rjzpfEikd af tmif ½Irw
S af e&rnf[k qdv k \
kd ? azmif;rIç yderf o
I nf awGU&aom
oabmwnf;/)

e aom &ZÆwd ½layok?


½lyH 'domG y#dóawm/
e aom &ZÆ[d oa'´o?k
o'´H okwmG y#dóawm/
e aom &ZÆwd *aE¨o?k
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 18

*E¨H CwGm y#dóawm/


e aom &ZÆwd &aowk?
&oH abmwGm y#dóaw/
e aom &ZÆwd zaóok?
zóH zkó y#dóawm/
e aom &ZÆwd "ar®o?k
"r®H O wGm y#dóawm/ (oH 2-297)

tqif;udk jrifNyD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzeftrSw&f aom olonf jrif&aom tqif;wdYk ü rwyfrufNyD/

toHukd Mum;NyD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzef trSw&f aomolonf Mum;&aom toHwYkd ü rwyfrufNyD/

teHYukd eHNyD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzef trSw&f aomolonf eHYaom teHYwYkd ü rwyfrufNyD/

t&omudk pm;odNyD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzef trSw&f aomolonf pm;od&aom t&omwdYk ü rwyfrufNyD/

tawGYukd xdoNd yD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzef trSw&f aomolonf xdo&d aom tawGUwdYk ü rwyfrufNyD/

oabmtm½Hu
k kd MuHoNd yD;vQif (¤if;ud)k wpfzef trSw&f aomolonf MuHo&d aom oabmtm½Hw
k Ykd ü rwyf
rufNyD/

txufyg rmvkusykwå okwfjzifh tm½Hk 6-yg;udk 0dÓPf 6-yg;jzifh odNyD;vQif csufcsif;yif ½IvQuf trSw&f
aomolrmS wyfrufjcif;paom udavom rjzpfEikd o f nfukd jy\/ xdYk aMumifh 0dyóem½Ioo l nf rdro d EÅmefü
avmavmq,fjzpfay:oGm;aom jrifrçI Mum;rIç eHrçI pm;odrçI xdord çI BuHord w I Ykd ukd ½ItyfaMumif; xif½mS ;\? xdw k iG f
0rf;Adu
k f awmifw
h if;vIy½f mS ;rIonf xdord üI twGi;f 0ifvQuf½\
dS / xdYk aMumifyh if azmif;cdu k çf ydecf ukd üf ]]azmif;onf
ydeo
f nf}}[k csufcsif;½I&ayonf/

oAÁH bdua© 0 tbdan,sH? udOb ö u


d a© 0 oAÁH
tbdan,sH? pu©KH bdua© 0 tbdan,sH? ½lygtbdan,sH?
pu©K0dnmPH tbdan,sH? pu©Koræaóm tbdana,sm? ,rÜ'd H
pu©K oræóypö,m OyÜZwÆ d a0',dwH okcH 0g 'kuH© 0g t'ku©
rkocH 0g? wrÜd tbdan,sH? aomwH tbdan,sH?
o'´gtbdan,sm/y/ CmeH tbdan,sH? *E¨m tbdan,sm/y/
Zd0mS tbdan,sm? &om tbdan,sm/y/ uma,mtbdana,sm?
azm|AÁtbdan,sm/y/ raemtbdana,sm? "r®mtbdan,sm/
y/ (oH-3-258)

&[ef;wdkY tvHk;pHkudk a½S;½Iûyí odtyf\/ tb,ftvkH;pkHukd a½S;½SKûyí odtyfoenf;[lrl &[ef;wdkY . . . .


rsufpdudk a½S;½Iûyí odtyf\tqif;wdkYudk a½S;½Iûyí odtyfukef\ jrifonfph w d u
f kd rsufpt
d awGUudk a½S;½Iûyí
odtyf\/ rsupf t d awGUaMumifh csr;f omaomcHpm;rI jzpfapç qif;&Jaom cHpm;rI jzpfapç rqif;&J rcsr;f omaom
cHpm;rIjzpfap jzpfay:\/ xdkcHpm;rIudk a½S;½Iûyí odtyf\/

em;udk a½S;½Iodtyf\ toHwdkYudk a½S;½Iodtyfukef\/y/ ESmacgif;udkç teHYçwdkYudk a½S;½Iodtyf ukef\/y/


vQmudk t&omwdYk ukd a½S;½Iot
d yfuek \
f /y/ ESvHk;udkç oabmtm½HkwdkYudkç a½S;½Iodtyfukef\/y/

txufyg tbdan,sokwfjzifh 'Gg& 6-yg;ü xif½mS ;ay:vmorQ ½kyef mrftvH;k pHu


k kd ½Irw
S í
f odtyfaMumif;
xif½mS ;jy\/ 0rf;Adu
k \
f azmif;rIyed rf o
I nf um,'Gg&üxif½mS ;aom 0ga,mazm|AÁ½yk jf zpfí ¤if;udv
k nf; ½Ityf
aMumif;xif½mS ;\/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 19

oAÁH bdua© 0 y&dan,s?H udOö bdua© 0 oAÁH y&dan,s?H


pu©KH bdua© 0 y&dan,sH? ½lygy&dan,sm? pu©K0dnmPH
y&dan,s/H y/ uma,my&dana,sm? azm|AÁmy&dan,sm? um,
0dnmPH y&dan,s/H y/raem y&dana,sm? "r®my&dan,sm? raem
0dnmPH y&dan,sH/y/ (oH 2-258)

&[ef;wdkY . . . . tvHk;pHk ydki;f jcm;íodtyf\/ tb,ftvH;k pHu k kd ydik ;f jcm;íodtyfoenf;[lrl &[ef;wdYk . . . .


rsufpu d kd ydik ;f jcm;í odtyf\/y/ tqif;wdYk uykd ikd ;f jcm;í odtyfuek \
f ? jrifpw d uf kd ydik ;f jcm;í odtyf\/y/ udk,fudk
ydik ;f jcm;í odtyf\? tawGYukd ydik ;f jcm;íodtyfuek \ f / xdopd w
d u
f kd ydik ;f jcm;í odtyf\/y/ ESvHk;udkç oabmtm½Hk
wdUk udçk BuHopd w d u
f ykd ikd ;f jcm;í odtyf\/y/

txufyg y&dan,sokwfjzifhvnf; 'Gg& 6-yg;üxif½mS ;ay:vmorQ ½kyef mrftvH;k pHu


k ykd if tjzpftysuf tedpö
vu©Pm ponfwYkd jzifh ydik ;f jcm;íodtyfaMumif; xif½mS ;jy\/ 0rf;Adu k \
f azmif;rI yderf o I nf um,'Gg&ü
xif½mS ;aom 0ga,mazmXAÁ½yk jf zpfí ¤if;udv
k nf;½ItyfaMumif;xif½mS ;\/

ur®Xmef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif;NyD;\/

r[mpnfq&mawmfa[mMum;aom
"r®a'oemaqmifyk'frsm;
Oy&dyuúmoygVdawmf oVm,we0db*FokwfrS
aqmifyk'frsm;

wGi;f jyif tm,weç 0dnmPESiçhf zóajcmufrnfç BuHpnfpOf;pm;ç q,f½h pS yf g;ESiçhf owå0gajcaxmufç


oH;k q,fah jcmufuçkd rsufarSmufxifpmG ç odjrifumjzifçh þrSmrSzD ,
G çf xd[
k my,favmç oH;k oG,v f m½Sçd owdyXmefç
rS0d &J ef[çk okweå jf rwfpmG ç nTejf yygonfç oVm,we0dbif;wnf;/

1/ pdwaf prsm;pGmç tm;xkw&f mç csJYumtm,we/


2/ qif;&J½nS pf mG ç jzpfapwmç rSwyf gtm,we/
3/ pdwaf pae&mç xGuaf y:&mç jzpf&mtm,we/
4/ taMumif;wpfjzmç aygif;qH&k mç rSwyf gtm,we/

(u) pu©m,we-rsupf t
d aMumif;? aomwm,we-em;taMumif;? Cmem,we-ESmacgif; taMumif;? Zd0mS
,we vQmtaMumif;? um,m,we-ud, k t f aMumif;? rem,we-pdwt
f aMumif;? þtwGi;f buftaMumif; 6-yg;
udk tZÑwåu
d tm,we[kac:onf/

(2) ½lyg,we-tqif;taMumif;? o'´g,we-toHtaMumif;? *E¨m,we-teHYtaMumif;? &om,we-


t&omtaMumif;? azm|AÁm,we-tawGUtaMumif;? "r®m,we-oabmtaMumif;? þjyifytaMumif; 6-yg;udk
Am[d&tm,we [kac:onf/

(3) pu©K0dnmPf-jriford ?I aomwm0dnmOf-Mum;odr?I Cme0dnmOf-eHord ?I ZD0mS 0dnmOf-pm;odr?I um,


0dnmOf-xdawGUrI? raem0dnmOf-BuHord ?I þodrI 6-yg;udk 0dnmOf[ak c:onf/

(4) pu©Koræó -jrifawGUrI? aomworæó -Mum;awGUrI? Cmeoræó -eHawGUrI? ZD0mS oræó -pm;awGUrI?
um,oræó -xdawGYr?I raemoræó -BuHawGUrI? þawGUrI 6-yg;udk zó[k ac:onf/

½kyef mrfwYkd \ trnfEiS t hf a&twGuu


f kd qifjcifí odvQifynwfukd odonf? trIeYf oP²mefEiS ahf wGYjrifvQifyJ
ynwfujkd rifonf? ½kyef mrfwYkd \ vu©Pç &oç ypöKyXmefukd odygrS y&rwftppfuo
kd o
d nf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 20

1/ tqif;xifaMumif;aumif;aumif;Munfonf? (vu©P)
qif;qDoYkd ç jrifyYkd ay;onf? (&o) olYurkd í
DS ç jrifrjI zpfonf?
(ypöKyXmef) rsufpüd ç odxu kd f þoH;k rnf/

2/ rsufpx d üJ ç wduk cf u
kd af y:onf? jrifocd &H ç udp½ö odS nf/
jrifraI &mufomG ;ç usufpm;&mrnf? tqif;üç odxu kd þf oH;k
rnf/

3/ rsufprd &DS if;ç tqif;jrifonf? tqif;udrk Qç oluodonf/


tqif;qDa½S;½Iç olûyaeonf? jrifoüd ç odxu kd þ
f oH;k rnf/

4/ pdwEf iS t
hf qif;ç xifvif;awGYonf? pdwu f tkd qif;üç odxu kd f
aponf/ rsufpt d qif;ç jrifjcif;pHn
k ?D jrifawGUüç odxukd þ
f
oH;k rnf

(5) rsupf jd zift


h qif;udjk rifNyD;vQif 0rf;omzG,t
f qif;udk qifjcifpOf;pm;onf? ESv;kH rom,mzG,f tqif;udk
qifjcifpOf;pm;onf? omreftqif;udk qifjcifpOf;pm;onf? þodYk tm;jzifh jrif&mü qifjcifpOf;pm;rI 3-yg;/

em;jzift
h oHukd Mum;NyD;vQif 0rf;omzG,t
f oHukd qifjcifpOf;pm;onf/ (enf;wlyif)/

ESmacgif;jzifh teHYuekd NH yD;vQif (enf;wlyif)/

vQmjzift
h &omudk pm;odNyD;vQi(f enf;wlyif)/

ud,
k jf zift
h awGYukd xdoNd yD;vQi(f enf;wlyif)/

pdwjf zifo
h abmtm½Hu
k kd BuHoNd yD;vQif 0rf;omzG,t
f m½Hu
k kd qufjcifpOf;pm;onf? ESv;kH rom,mzG,f tm½Hu k kd
qifjcifpOf;pm;onf? omreftm½Hu k kd qifjcifpOf;pm;onf? þodYk tm;jzifh BuHo&d mü qifjcifpOf;pm;rI 3-yg;? þ 18-
yg; udk raemy0dpm&[k ac:onf/

(6) tm½Hk 6-yg;ü umr*kPEf iS phf yfaom 0rf;omrI 6-yg;ç ESvHk;romrI 6-yg;ç Oayu©m 6-yg;þ 18-yg;rSm
0¥edów
d owå0gwdYk \ ajcaxmufrsm;jzpfonf? þajcaxmufwYkdjzifh oHo&m0#fxüJ usifvnfae Muonf/

tm½Hk 6-yg;ü 0dyóemESifhpyfaom 0rf;omrI 6-yg;ç ESvHk;romrI 6-yg;ç Oyau©m 6-yg;ç þ 18-yg;rSm
0d0¥edów
d owå0gwdYk \ ajcaxmufrsm;jzpfonf/ þajcaxmufwYkdjzifh oHo&m0#frS vGwaf jrmufMu&onf/

tEkyóem 3-yg;aqmifyk'f

(u) 1/ jzpfysuforQ ½kyef mrfcE¨mu tedpw ö &m;/


2/ jzpfay:NyD;aemuf uG,af ysmufomG ;wmu tedpv ö u©Pm/
3/ ½Irw
S q
f rJ mS uG,af ysmufomG ;wmudk awGU&í rNrJ[½k w
I mu tedpmö EkyóemÓPf/

(c) 1/ jzpfysufEpS &f yf ESyd pf uftyfwhJ ½kyef mrfcE¨mu 'kuw


© &m;/
2/ jzpfysuEf pS &f yf rjywfEydS pf ufwmu 'ku© vu©Pm/
3/ ½IrSwfqrJ mS jzpfysufaewmudk awGU&í qif;&J[k ½Iwmu 'kuE© yk óemÓPf/

(*) 1/ olYoabmtwkid ;f jzpfysuaf ewJeh mrfcE¨mu tewåw&m;/


2/ tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpfwmu tewåvu©Pm/
3/ ½Irw
S qf rJ mS tvdt k wdik ;f rjzpfwmudk awGY&í tpd;k r&ç igaumifr[kw[
f k ½Iwmu
tewåmEkyóemÓPf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 21

tewåEkyóemw&m;awmfaqmifyk'frsm;

(u) 1/ ud, k x f rJ mS tvdt k wdik ;f tpd;k &wJh igaumif½odS nf[k xifwmu omrDtwåp/JG
2/ ud,
k xf rJ mS tNrJwrf;wnfaewJh igaumif½o dS nf[k xifwmu eD0goDo twåp/JG
3/ ud,k çf EIwçf pdwt f rlt&m[lorQudk igaumifuyifûyvkyo f nf[k xifwmu um&u twåp/JG
4/ taumif;tqd;k [lorQudk igaumifuyifcpH m;onf[k xifwmu a0'utwåp/JG

(c) 1/ a½SUaemufw&m; cPjym;vsufç ydik ;f jcm;rjywfç igaumifrw S çf


ay:vwfoEÅwC d ewnf;/
2/ ½kyef mrftrsm;ç oabmjym;vsufç ydik ;f jcm;rjywfç igaumifrw S çf ay:vwf
orl[Cewnf;/
3/ ½kyef mrftrsm;ç udpjö ym;vsufç ydik ;f jcm;rjywfç igaumifrw
S çf ay:vwfupd C ö ewnf;/
4/ emrfoabmrsm;ç tm½Hjk ym;vsufç ydik ;f jcm;rjywfç igaumifrw S af y:vwf
tm&r®PCewnf;/
5/ jzpfcu kd wf &m;ç rydik ;f jcm;íç av;yg;Ceç xifay:uç twåpv JG rf;onf/
6/ jzpfcu kd w
f &m;ç ½Iyikd ;f jcm;íç av;yg;Ceç aMuysufrçS tewåÓPfjzpfonf/
7/ ÓPfreS t f ewåç jynfph rkH çS t&d,r*fÓPfqu kd af &mufonf/
8/ ynwftedpçö od½HkrQç tewåÓPfrydkif/
9/ ynwf'ku©ç od½HkrQç tewåÓPfrydkif/
10/ y&rwftedpçö odjrifrçS tewåÓPfyikd o f nf/
11/ y&rwf'u k ç© odjrifrçS tewåÓPfyikd o f nf/
12/ vu©PmppfwiG çf wpfcçk jrifç tukeyf ifoad wmhonf/

r*f0DxdpdwfjzpfpOfw&m;awmfaqmifyk'frsm;
(0dok'¨dr*f 2-308)

1/ 0dyóem½IqJ a,m*Dtm; t&d,r*f jzpfvv kd wfaomf xdk


tcduk üf xif½mS ;aom tm½Hw k pfcck u
k kd ESv;kH oGi;f vsuf raem
'Gg&0ZÆe;f pdwf a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:vmonf/

2/ xdYk aemufxt
kd m½Hu
k ykd if rNrJ[í
l aomfvnf;aumif;? qif;&J[í l
aomfvnf;aumif;? oabmw&m;rQ [líaomfvnfaumif;?
odvsufy&duçH Oypmç tEkv[ kH k ac:aom aZmpdwo
f ;kH Budrf
tpOftwdik ;f jzpfay:Mu?

3/ xdYk aemuf jzpfysufrI ocFg&tm;vH;k csKyfNidr;f &medAmÁ efoYkd


usa&mufomG ;aom a*gMwblaZmpdwjf zpfay:onf/

4/ xdYk aemuf xdck sKyfNidr;f &medAmÁ efüyif ouf0ifwnfaevsuf


r*faZmwpfBudrçf zdv k af ZmESpBf udrçf tpOftwdik ;f jzpfay:Mu
onf/

5/ xdYk aemuf awGYoNd yD;umpjzpfaom r*fzv kd ef Ad mÁ efwYkdukd jyef


vSní hf qifjcifvsuf raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;f wpfBudrçf ypöa0u©aZm
7-Budrf jzpfay:vQif b0ifpwd rf sm; jzpfay:oGm;onf/

þonfum; t&d,r*f 0Dxpd w


d t
f pOf jzpfyakH ywnf;/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 22

r*f0ifyHk Oyrm

1/ ajrmif;ckev f Nkd im;ç a,musfm;Zmenf?


½Spvf rS ;f ajy;oGm;ç [ket f m;,lNyD/
EG,êf ud;udik q f çJG ckev
f aJT vonf?
[dbk ufusç vGwcf sMuHMh uHw h nf/

r*f0ifyHk Oyar,s

2/ b0[du k rf;ç arQmfwrf;a,m*D?


jzpfysufÓPfrçS ajy;pûyonf/
½kyef mrfuikd q
f çJG olvnf;ckeof nf?
edAmÁ efawGç vGwí f ajy;0ifonf/

b0wefzdk;w&m;awmfaqmifyk'f

jzpfysufEpS jf zmç rjrifygbJç wpf&mtoufç ½Sno


f nfxufvnf;ç jzpfysufEpS w
f efç ½kyEf iS ehf mrfuçkd trSejf rif
vsufç ÓPfpOfoufíç wpf&ufwmrQç ouf½Si&f aomf avmuvlY½mG ç aumif;jrwfomonfç jrwfpmG Ak'r¨ ed Yf ceG ;f wnf;/

oH,kwfygVdawmf
(1-30) tpä&mokwf

1/ vrf;ajzmifrh nfwiG çf xdrk *fyifç &yfciG af b;rJeh Ad mÁ efyg/


2/ vHYk vESpv
f çD bD;wyfonfç rjrnf&xm;xdrk *fyg/
3/ ½Suaf Mumufç ESpw f efç aemufrcDS çH um&eftrSwo f wdyg
4/ 0dyofa½SYomG ;ç r*fÓPfum;ç &xm;armif;olq&kd yg/
5/ þvd&k xm;ç ½So d rl sm; a,musfm;rde;f rvlwikd ;f rSm/
6/ r*¾i, f mOfBuD;ç NidrNhf idrphf ;D ç tNyD;edAmÁ efqu
kd af &mufyg/

"r®y'(348)*gxm

1/ a½SUç aemufç tv,fç oHk;yg;0,fç NidwG,fpGefYvTwfvdkuf&rnf/


2/ b0euf0rS ;f ç wpfbufurf;ç wufvrS ;f qdu k af &mufygvdrrhf nf/
3/ tvH;k pHrk mS ç pdwv
f w
T cf gç csrf;omNidr;f at;ygvdrrhf nf/
4/ wpfzefjzpfjcif;ç tdak ojcif;ç tvQif;ra&mufuif;vdrrhf nf/

(u) a½SUrSmvnf;vTw&f rnfç aemufrmS vnf;vTw&f rnf? tv,frmS vnf; vTw&f rnf/

(c) okYd vw
T vf Qif b0wpfbufurf;odYk a&mufrnf? ae&mwdik ;f rSmvnf; pdwv
f w
G v
f yfrnf?
jzpfjcif; tdjk cif;ç aojcif;odYk vnf; ra&mufbJ uif;rnf/

oH,kwfESifh okwåedygwrS tmV0uokwf

1/ aumif;jrwfvpS mG ç vlYOpömç b,ft&mayenf;?


aumif;jrwfvpS mG ç vlYOpöm o'¨gw&m;wnf;/

2/ aumif;aumif;avhvmç b,ft&mç csrf;om aqmifay;ygoenf;/


aumif;aumif;avhvmç w&m;[mç csr;f om aqmifay;ygownf;/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 23

3/ t&omxJrmS ç aumif;vSpmG ç b,ft&mayenf;/


t&omxJrmS ç aumif;vSpmG ç opömpum;wnf;/

4/ ouf½iS q
f rJ mS ç b,fv[
kd mç vGepf mG aumif;oenf;/
ynmjzifoh mç ouf½iS w f mç vGepf mG aumif;ownf;/

5/ MoCa&tvsifukd tb,fjzifh ul;ajrmufygoenf;/


o'¨gw&m;jzifh ul;ajrmufygonf/

6/ a&jyifus,u f kd tb,fjzifu
h ;l ajrmufygoenf;/
rarhrjI zifh ul;ajrmifygonf/

7/ qif;&Jukd tb,fjzifh ausmfveG yf goenf;/


0D&,
d jzifh ausmfveG o
f nf/

8/ tb,fjzifh vH;k 0pifMu,fygoenf;/


ynmjzifh vH;k 0pifMu,fygonf/

9/ b,foYkd ynmç &Edik yf gç Opömb,foYkd &oenf;/


rarhajrmfjrifç ,HMk unfvQifç emcsifynm&ayonf/
oifw
h mûyuç ZGv J YkH vç x<uOpöm&ayonf/

10/ b,foYkd ûyayç ausmfapmavç rdwaf qGb,foYkd &oenf;/


opömjzifyh ifç *kPaf y:xifç ay;vQifrw
d af qGaygrsm;onf/

11/ þavmurSç ajymif;oGm;&ç uif;ypd;k &drb f ,foYkdenf;/


vHYk vopömç ay;vªwmç ynmþav;rnf/
jynfph ykH gvQifç o'¨g½Siçf aemifwiG f pd;k &dru
f if;a0;onf/

[w¬utVm0urif;\*kP½f pS yf g;
(tH- 3-53)

12/ o'¨gç oDvç jynfh0[d&D?


Mowåyçf okwç pm*pHo
k nf/
ynmÓPfBuD;ç vdek nf;ayonf?
[w¬uç jynfh0*kPf½Spfrnf/

o*F[ 0w¬Kav;yg;

13/ ay;urf;&ufa&mç tajymcsdKom?


olYusdK;aqmif½u G çf rysufap&m/
wef;wl ud, k Ef iS çhf toifx
h m;yg?
pnf;vH;k rIç av;cko*F[m/

rlvyPÖmo ygVdawmf &x0deDwokwf

1/ vdek nf;a&mif&h çJ azmfqw


d pf çJ rpGt
J m;xkwf usihyf gav/
2/ oDv ormç ÓPfynmç ESpjf zm0drw k pf ykH gap/
3/ uxm0w¬Kç *kPq f ,fck a½S;½Iu, kd rf mS xifygap/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 24

1/ olYvuf½dS ud, k v
hf uf½xdS uf aumif;w,fxifwmu tMwdpmä /
2/ r½Swd *hJ P
k ef YJ xifay:ausmfapmcsifwmu ygydpmä /
3/ ½Sw
d *hJ Pk uf kd azmfjycsifwm twdik ;f xuf tvGev
f ckd sifwmu r[dpmä /

þtvdo
k ;kH yg;uif;vQif tvdek nf;aomtyÜpd mä yk*Kd¾ vfac:onf/

1/ &&m Edik &f mç oifah wmf&mç oH;k jzma&mif&h o


J nf/
2/ t0wfç tpmç aq;ae&mç yGm;ygoHk;ckpD/
3/ a&mif&h w
J &m;ç q,fEh pS yf g;ç rSwof m;usifv h nf;usif&h rnf/

1/ wpfu,
kd w
f nf;aevQif um,0da0ujynfph o kH nf/
2/ ormywf ½Spyf g;jzifah evQif pdw0å ad 0u jynfph o kH nf/
3/ t&d,r*fzdkvjf zifh edAm¾ efuakd wGYjrifvQif Oy"d0ad 0u jynfph o
kH nf/

0dZmÆ oH;k yg; 0dZmÆ ½Spyf g;

1/ oHk;yg;0dZÆmç yk 'd tmç ynmÓPfrsufpd/


2/ ½Spfyg;qdkuç xnfhoGif;&ç 0d r ap £ 'd/

azmfjycsu/f / yk-ykaAÁ0goÓPf? 'd-'dApÁ u©KÓPf? tm-tmo0u©,ÓPf?


0d-0dyóemÓPf? r-raemr,d'Ó d¨ Pf? ap-apawmy&d,ÓPf?
£-£'¨0d "d ÓPf? 'd-'dAaÁ omwÓPf/

r[mor,yGJawmfü r*fzdkvf&aMumif;w&m; tusOf;aqmifyk'f

1/ &m*p&dwtwGuf or®my&dAÁmZeD,okwf (ck? 1-332) avmuDr*Fvmç wPSmoH;k oG,çf cspfrek ;f


y,fíç rSw
D ,
G u
f if;pif oHa,mZOfç vGwv
f Qifxu
G Ef ikd o
f nf/

2/ a'gop&dwtwGuf uv[0d0g'okwf (ck? 1-413) emrfESifhç ½kyf-uç zóay:umç om,m


pzG,çf rke;f zG,x
f if½mS ;vdv
k m; jyefvsufç cspfz,
G w
f u
G f &efbufNiif;cHo
k nf/

3/ arm[p&dwtwGuf r[mAsL[okwf (ck? 1-418) a½S;tmo0ç y,fcspGeYf ypfç topfrûyç vdrk I


rvdu
k o
f rd ;f ydu
k rf pGçJ rvl;vJç vGwNf rJreS af yonf/

4/ 0dwuúp&dwtwGuf plVAsL[okwf (ck? 1-415) udk,fht,lomç *kPfwifyguç nHh&musíç 'd|d


jrifatmifç todaqmifç &efaqmifuif;awmhonf/

5/ o'¨gp&dwtwGuf wk0¥uokwf (ck? 1-421) oDvta&;ç jzLpifawG;íç Nidr;f at;edAmÁ efç


&nfoefnwG v
f wfç tNrJrw
S çf usifw
h wfap&rnf/

6/ Ak'd̈p&dwtwGuf yk&mab'okwf (ck? 1-413) ½Irw


S t
f pOfç vspfvsLxifíç oH;k tifrme y,fEikd rf S
oEÅy*k Kd¾ vfrnf/

(1321-ck? e,kev
f jynfrh mS a[monf/)
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 25

'dCedum,fr[m0*¾puú0wådokwf

1/ ½Spfaomif;tm,kç tpûyíç ygrkydum zbdZfAsmESifhç rdpämoHk;ig;ç t-ukyGm;íç avsmhyg;xuf0ufç


9-qifyh sufonfç touf&mwrf;a&mufownf;/

2/ q,fEpS w
f ef;rSç wpfzefpíç ur®yxmç ukq,fjzmESiçhf oH;k jzmig;rsdK;ç ukov
kd w
f ;kd í xrf;yd;k jyef
vsufç q,fEh pS q
f ifw
h ufonfç touf½pS af omif;a&mufvrd whf nf;/

3/ tukovkd o
f ;kH yg;[lonfrmS (1) t"r®&m*-vlYtusifrh [kwaf om wyfrufr?I (2) 0doravmb-
rrQwaomtvd?k (3) rdpmä "r®-rlrrSeaf om&m*wdYk yifjzpfonf/

4/ tukov kd if g;yg;[lonfrmS (1) trdtay:üusif0h wfysufjcif;? (2) tbtay:ü usif0h wfysuf


jcif;? (3) &[ef;rsm;tay:ü usif0h wfysufjcif;? (4) olawmfaumif;rsm;tay:ü usif0h wfysuf
jcif;? (5) BuD;olwYkd tm;r½dak ojcif;wdYk yif jzpfonf/

5/ ukov
kd o
f ;kH jzm [lonfrmS t"r®&m*ponfukd y,fjcif;yifjzpfonf/

6/ ukov kd if g;rsdK;[lonfrmS trdç tbç &[ef;ç olawmfwYkd tay:ü usif0h wfausjcif;ESihf BuD;ol
wdYk tm; ½dak ojcif;yif jzpfonf/

eD0&Pig;yg;w&m;awmf

1/ ESpof ufvckd sifç a<u;NrDwifç tvsify,fazsmufav/


2/ pdwyf sufpw d q f ;kd ç a&m*grsdK;ç ESrd cf sdK;y,fazsmufav/
3/ xdik ;f rdiI ;f ysif;&dç csKyfaESmifrçd rSwo f yd ,fazsmufav/
4/ ysHYviG yhf yl efç olYuRefcçH tjrefy,fazsmufav/
5/ ,Hrk mS ;'G[ d ç vrf;ESpcf çG awGUuy,fazsmufav/

oHa,mZOf 10-yg;w&m;awmf

1/ tm½Hkig;0ç wyfpGJuç umroHa,mZOf/


2/ oHk;yg;b0ç wyfpGJuç b0oHa,mZOf/
3/ trsufa'goç pdwfqdk;uç y#dCoHa,mZOf/
4/ ud, k o f mawmfvçS xifrw S u
f ç rmeoHa,mZOf/
5/ ½kyef mrfub kd çJ igaumifpçJG ,lv'JG Xd yd if/
6/ w&m;rSew f iG çf r,Hck sifíç qifjcifEiId ;f ñdçS a0zefMunfçh 0dpu
d pd mä yif/
7/ EGm;acG;wlpmG ç usifw h maumif;jrwfç ,lprJG w S o
f v
D AÁwyif/
ylaZmfyoç avhusifrh Qjzifçh b0aemifcgç NrJcsrf;omç ,lwmvJy¤J if;yif/
8/ ud, k x f uforl sm;ç aumif;pm;onfuçkd remvdçk ac:qdk £ómyif/
9/ ud, k v f okd rl sm;ç aumif;pm;rnfrçS 0efwu kd rpä&, d yif/
10/ opömav;wefç ajymif;jyefxifumç rodwm t0dZmÆ oHa,mZOf/
11/ 0#fqif;&JrçS rvGw&f atmifç csnfaESmifwwfpmG ç þq,fjzmç tbd"r®moHa,mZOf/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 26

'geuxm a'oem
('D-X-2-62)

csrf;omtaygif;ç &aMumif;rSepf mG ?
pnf;pdraf bm*ç jrpfr-wnf&m/
atmufwef;rusç u,frolrmS ?
jrwf'geç pdwcf sud;k uG,&f m/
£'H'geH emr okcgeH ed'geH? orÜwedå H rlv?H
abm*geHywd|m? 0dor*wó wmPH/

oDvuxma'oem (¤if;)

oDv&eHYç arT;ysUH êudipf mG ?


oDvqifodkifç ½Iwdkif;vSyg/
oDvapmifjh im;ç rvm;yg,f½mG ?
jrwfov
D ç pdwcf su;kd uG,&f m/

rqkwf,kwfaMumif;w&m; 6-yg;
(tH 2-274)

udprö sm;ç pum;enf;ap?


tdyaf erIenf;ç ud,
k wf nf;aysmfav/
qH;k rvG,af Mumif;ç rdwaf umif;½Sad p?
rqkwaf &;ç tm;ay;*kPaf jcmufaxG/

taoaumifa&;w&m;
(tH 2-260)

udprö sm;ç pum;enf;ap?


tdyaf erIenf;ç udw k nf;aysmfav/
a&maESmrûyç csJYraI ½SmifaoG?
taoaumif;zdYk ç taMumif;*kPaf jcmufaxG/

MoumorlrSefuefawmhcef;

Moumoç Moumoç Moumoç? um,uHç 0pDuçH raemuH wnf;[laom? tjypfcyford ;f ? yaysmufNidr;f í?


touf½n S pf mG ? temrJah &;? &efab;uif;aMumif;? aumif;rIr*Fvm? jzpfygapjcif; tusKd ;iSg? bk&m;&wem? w&m;
&wem? oHCm&wem wnf;[laom &wemjrwfo;kH yg;? (q&morm;) wdYk udk? t½dktao? vuftkyfrdk;í ½Sdcdk;ylaZmf?
zl;ajr§mrf mefavQm?h uefawmhyg\? (t½Sib f &k m;)/

(qkay;rnfyk*¾dKvf½SdvQif þwGif&yfyg)
qkay;rnfh yk*¾dKvfr½SdvQif
atmufyg qkawmif;udk qufawmif;yg/

uefawmh&aom þaumif;rIuH apwemwdYk aMumifh tyg,f (4)yg;? uyf (3) yg;? &yfjypf (8) yg;? &eforl sKd ;
(5) yg;? 0dywåw d &m; (4) yg;? Asoew&m; (5) yg;? temrsdK; (96) yg;? rdpmä 'd|d (62) yg;wdYk r?S tcgcyford ;f
uif;vGwNf idr;f onfomjzpfí? r*fw&m;? zdv
k w
f &m;? edAmÁ ef w&m;awmfjrwfukd vsijf refpmG &ygvd\
k (t½Sifbk&m;/)
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 27

*kPfawmf 9-yg; bk&m;½Sdcdk;

tpdaEÅ,s? tpdaEÅ,s? tyÜar,s/ tyÜar,s? rBuHq rEdiI ;f ,SOEf ikd af umif;aom *kPaf wmfaygif;teEÅEiS hf
vH;k 0OóHk jynfph akH wmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

1/ (u) t&[H-vGeu f x J ;l jrwfaom oDv*kPçf orm"d*P k çf ynm*kPçf 0drw


k *då P
k ?f 0drw
k Ó
då P
'óe*kPw f Ykd EiS hf jynfph akH wmfral omaMumifh vlewfjA[®m owå0gtaygif;wdYk \ ylaZmf
txl;udk cHawmfrx l u
kd af yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(c) t&[H-0goemESiw hf uG wpfaxmifih g;&mudavom tnpftaMu;wdYk rS uif;a0; pifMu,f


awmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(*) t&-[H avmb a'go arm[ tp½Sad om udavom&efow


l Ykd ukd y,fowfawmfrNl yD;aom
jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(C) t&-[H oHo&mpuf\ axmuf tuefYwYkdukd csKd ;zsuaf wmfrNl yD;aom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(i) t-&[H rsufarSmuf rsufu,


G f tcsif;cyford ;f pifMu,fí qdwu
f ,
G &f m r½Sad wmfral om
jrwfpmG bk&m;/

2/ or®morÁKa'¨g-opöav;yg; cyford ;f aom w&m;wdYk ukd olwyg;txH enf;rcHbJ ud, k w


f ikd f
ÓPft[kef tpGr;f jzifh pl;prf;½SmazGum rSeu
f efpmG odawmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

3/ 0dZmÆ p&PorÜaEém- 0dZmÆ rnfaom ÓPfx;l 3-yg;ç ÓPfxl; 8-yg;ç p&Prnfaom tajccH
tusifw h &m; 15-yg;wdYk EiS hf jynfph akH wmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

4/ (u) ok*awm-owå0gwdYk tm; tusKd ;rsm;aMumif; [kwrf eS af om pum;aumif;udo


k m >rufqkd
awmfrl wwfayaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(c) ok*awm-- r*¾i½f pS jf zm wifwh ,faom trlt&mjzifh aumif;pGmoGm;jcif;? aumif;pGmjzpfjcif;


½Sad wmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;/

5/ avmu0d'-l avmu\ taMumif;t&m tvH;k pHu


k kd tuket
f pif odjrifawmfral yaom jrwfpmG
bk&m;/

6/ (u) tEkwaå &m-tjrift h jrwfq;kH jzpfaom oDv*kPf orm"d*P k f ynm*kPf 0drw


k *då P
k f 0drw
k då
ÓP'óem*kPw f Ykd EiS hf jynfph akH wmfral omaMumifh avmu"mwftvH;k ü tjrift h jrwfq;kH
jzpfawmfral om jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(c) yk&o d 'r®om&xd- ,Ofaus;vdrm® ynmtod r½SMd uao; rjynf0h ao;í qH;k ray;xdu k af om
yk*Kd¾ vfwYkd tm; ,Ofaus;vdrm® ynmjynf0h tcsdK;usatmif qH;k roGeo
f ifawmf rlwwfayaom
jrwfpmG bk&m;/

(*) tEkwaå &m yk&o


d 'r®om&xd-qH;k r xdu k af omyk*Kd¾ vfwYkdtm; nTeMf um;oGeo
f if yJjh yifq;kH rrIü
twkr½Sd tjrwfq;kH jzpfawmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

7/ ow¬ma'0 rEkóeH-csr;f om&aMumif; vrf;aumifneT jf y qH;k rawmfrw


l wfí vlewfwYkd\ q&m
jrwftppfjzpfawmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

8/ Aka'¨g- w&m;tvH;k pHu


k kd tukeo
f ad wmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 28

9/ b*0g-bke;f awmfteEÅ uHawmfteEÅ ÓPfawmfteEÅ wefc;kd awmfteEÅwYkd EiS hf vH;k 0OóHk jynfph kH
awmfral yaom jrwfpmG bk&m;/

t&[H-tp½Sad om ud;k yg;aom*kPaf wmf q,fyg;aom*kPaf wmf teEÅ*P k af wmf aus;Zl;awmf taygif;wdYk EiS hf
jynfph akH wmfral om oufawmfxif½mS ; oAÁñjk rwfpmG bk&m;udk bk&m;wynfah wmfonf ½dak ojrwfE;kd vuftyk rf ;kd í ½Scd ;kd
ylaZmf zl;ajrmfrmefavQmh uefawmhyg\ jrwfpmG bk&m;/

OmPfpOf 16 yg;bk&m;½Sdcdk;

1/ emr½lyy&dapä'çH wyÜp,
ö y&d*[
¾ ?H
wHor®oeH O',-AÁ,ÓPOö b*F*/H

2/ b,ÓPH tm'De0-ÓPOöeAd 'dÁ H tx?


rkOw
dö u
k rswH y#d ocø ocFg½layu©u/H

3/ tEkavmrOöa*gMwbHçk r*¾ÓPH zvHwxm?


ypöa0u©Pm ÓPEÅçd wdavmurSyD ad uepd/

4/ ta'oda, omoedauç ÓPdar aomVokwaå &?


a'aowm&H y0wåm&Hç Ak'w
H¨ [
d m'&H ear/

(1) emr½lyy&dapä'-H emrf½yk w


f &m;wdYk ukd ydik ;f jcm;íodaom emr½lyy&dapä'ÓPf vnf;aumif;/

(2) wyÜp,
ö y&d*[
¾ -H xdek mrf½yk w
f Ykd \ taMumif;w&m;udk ydik ;f jcm;íodaom ypö,y&d*[
¾ ÓPf
vnf;aumif;?

(4) O',AÁ,ÓPOö-emrf½yk w f Ykd \ topftopfjzpfay:vmjcif; jzpfay:NyD;vQif wcPcsif; ysufp;D


oGm;jcif;udk ½Irw
S x
f ifxifojd rifaom O',AÁ,ÓPfvnf;aumif;/

(5) b*F*-H emrf½yk w


f Ykd \ ysupf ;D jcif;udo
k m ½Irw
S x
f ifxif odjrifaom b*FÓPf vnf;aumif;/

(6) b,ÓPOö-emrf½yk w
f Ykd \ ysupf ;D jcif;udk odjrif&ojzifh aMumufvefYz,
G af b;BuD; tjzpfjzifh
xifjrifaom b,ÓPfvnf;aumif;?

(7) tm'De0ÓPOö-emrf½yk f ocFg&wdYk ü ud;k uG,&f m rxifrjypfjrifaom tm'De0ÓPfvnf;aumif;?

(8) edA'dÁ -H emrf½yk o


f cFg&wdYk ü raysmfrarGY NiD;aiGYaom edA'dÁ gÓPfvnf;aumif;?

tx-teufoabmwlaom a½SYÓPfo;kH ckrS wpfyg;teufoabmrwlaom aemufÓPfo;kH ckum;/

(9) rkOw
dö u
k rsw-H emrf½yk o
f cFg&wdYk rS tvGet
f rif;vGwu
f if;xGuaf jrmufvakd om rkOw
dö u
k rswmÓPf
vnf;aumif;/

(10) y#docø-tvGet f rif;vGwu


f if;xGuaf jrmufvv kd o
S jzifh xdek mrf½yk Ef Spfyg;udkyif tedpt
ö p½Sdaom
av;q,faom tjcif;t&mwdYk jzifh wGiw f iG t
f m;xkwí f tedpö 'ku© tewå taetm;jzifh
aumif;BuD; xifjrifaom y#docFgÓPfvnf;aumif;/

(11) ocFg½kayu©uH-tedpö 'ku© tewå taetm;jzifh aumif;aumif;xifjrifí vGwaf jrmuf&m


vGwaf jrmufaMumif;udk &ojzifh tvGejf yif;xefaom vHYk vudv
k nf; rûy? xdek mrf½yk o
f cFg&wdYk ü
ur®|mef;w&m;tm;xkwf&jcif;taMumif; 29

aMumufvefYjcif; ESpyf g;udv


k nf; y,fpeG Yf íod½o
kH ½d o
kH m tnDtrQ½IaomocFg½kayu©mÓPf
vnf;aumif;/

(12) tEkavmrOö-tedpö 'ku© tewåwYkd wiG f wpfyg;yg;udk tm½Hûk yí O',AÁ,paom a½S;ÓPf


½Spyf g;ESihf aemufr*¾opömtm;avsmfaom (a*gMwbk\ a½SYtjcm;rJüh ESpBf udro
f ;kH Budrjf zpfaom)
tEkavmrÓPfvnf;aumif;/

(13) a*gMwbH-k ykxZk OftEG,u f kd jzwfí t&d,mtEG,Zf mwfoYkd a&mufapvsuf edAmÁ efukd tm½Hûk yí
r*f\ a½SUtzdYk ü wpfBudrrf Qomjzpfaom a*gMwbkÓPfvnf;aumif;/

(14) r*¾ÓPH-edAmÁ efukd rsuaf rSmufûyvsuf opömav;yg;udk wpfûydief ufoad om r*fÓPf


vnf;aumif;/

(15) zvH- r*fÓPfuu


hJ odYk yif edAmÁ efukd tm½Hûk yvsuf jzpfaom zdv
k Ó
f Pfvnf;aumif;/

(16) wxm-xdrk w
S pfyg;? ypöa0u©PmÓPH-r*fzv
kd ef Ad mÁ efEiS hf y,fNyD;aom udavom ry,f&
ao;aom udavomtm;jzifh þig;yg;aomw&m;tpkwYkd ukd jyefveS í f qifjcifaom ypöa0u©Pm
ÓPf vnf;aumif;/

£wd-þodYk ? wdavmurS-d umr½ly t½ly[k avmuoH;k jzm? pMu0Vm½So d rQ teEÅrqH;k avmuBuD; wpfck
vH;k ü auepdy-d ewfvjl A[®m owå0g wpfO;D wpfa,mufrQaomfvnf; ta'oda,-rMum;rem BuHpnfumjzifh ,xm
blw trSet f uefusatmif a[mjyjcif;iSg rpGr;f Edik &f m aumif;ukeaf om? omoedau-Ak'j¨ rwfpmG omoemawmfBuD;
twGi;f üomvQif ay:vif;jzpfxeG ;f Edik af umif;ukeaf om? Owåa&-avmuDynm t&yf&yfwYkdxuf xl;uJjrifjh rwf
ukeaf om? £araomVoÓaP-þ 16-yg;aom ÓPfwYkd u?kd a'aowm&H-rdru d ,kd af wmfwikd f ydik yf ikd v f vS S trSef
tuefo&d í vSp[ f azmfxw k f a[mMum;awmfrw l wfayxaom? y0wåm&H-rdru d ,
kd af wmfwikd f ydik Ef ikd Nf yD;pD; jzpfapNyD;rS
cdrk ;DS uyfvm jA[®mç ewfvu l Rwfxukd o
f rl eS o
f rQ uvsmOykxZk Of t&d,mocifwYkd \ Munfvifaom pdwo f EÅmef0,f
tzefzeftm;jzifh jzpfymG ;apawmfrw l wfayxaom? Ak'-Ḧ oAÁñw k ÓPfawmf½iS f jrwfpmG bk&m;ocifu?kd t[H-bk&m;
wynfah wmfonf? wD[-d um,nGwcf sD 0pD re oH;k 'Gg&wdYk jzif?h tm'-*Hk ½dak opGm ear ermrd-MunfnKdjrwfE;kd vuftyk f
rdk;í ½Sdcdk;yg\ jrwfpmG bk&m;/