This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction to Oil and Gas Production
Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
, Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
API T I T L E x V T - 1 96 American Petroleum Institute
0732290 0 5 5 b 4 2 9 I157
Introduction toOil and Gas Production
Exploration and Production Department
BOOK ONE OF THE VOCATIONAL TRAININGSERIES FIFTH EDITION, JUNE 1996
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. for the manufacture. or prodplication or otherwise.`. also API publications may be used by anyone desiring to doso. D. API standards are reviewed and revised.. state. manufacturer or supplier of that material. mechanical. stored in a retrieval system.. Status of the publication can ascertained from the API Authoring Department [telephone be (202) 682-8OOO]. or transmitted by means. Washington.W. concerning health and and safety risks and precautions.`.``.C.`. of the the Institute makes norepresentation. N.`. Nothing contained any API publication is be construed as granting any right. or withdrawn at least every five years. where anextension has been granted. D. imin to by apparatus. without prior written permission from the publisher. API standards are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven.`. or the material safety data sheet. 1220 L Street. 1220 L Street. 1220 L Street. upon republication.. W . and others exposed.API T I T L E s V T . however. fedstate. User=. sound engineering and operating practices.. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate allor any part of the material published herein should be addressed to the director.. and federal laws and regulations should bereviewed. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. or eral laws. N. any recording or otherwise. Information Concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to the particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer.C. manufacturers..````.W. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001... nor undertaking their obligations under local. A catalog ofAPI publications and materials is published annually upand dated quarterly by API. state..L 9b 0732290 0556430 979 m I SPECIAL NOTES API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature.`. electronic. or use of any method.Washington. N. This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropriate notification and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API standard. Every effort has been made in by the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability data contained them.`.. guarantee that such or products do in fact conform to the applicable API standard. Washington.sale. . Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review cycle. or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict. All rights reserved.. Copyright Q 1996 American Petroleum Institute --````. local.-`-`. Contact Publishe6 API the Publishing Services. Neither should anything contained in the publication be construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent. photocopying. With respect to particular circumstances.. Any manufacturer marking equipment materials in conformance with the marking reor quirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable requirements of that standard. 20005. warrant. D. or suppliers to warn and properly train equip their employees.C. These standards not intended to obviate theneed for apare plying sound engineeringjudgment regarding when and where these standards should be utilized. 20005. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or comments and questions concerning the procedures under which thisstandard was developed should be directed in writing to the director of the AuthoringDepartment (shown on the title page of this document). warranty or guarantee in connection with thispublication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any federal. The formulation and publication API standards is not intended in any way to inof hibit anyone from using any other practices..API does not represent. This publication willno longer be in effect five years after its publication date as an operative API standard or. reaffirmed. Generally. American PetroleumInstitute. 20005.No part of this work may be reproduced. uct covered by letters patent.
or municipal regulation with which this publication mayconflict. American Petroleum Institute. User=.`. 20005.... 1220 L Street.W. N...`.`. D. iii .````. --````. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584... or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting fromits use or for the violationof any federal. Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the director of the Exploration and Production Affairs Department.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003..-`-`.. warranty.. however. state. to and the Institute makes no representation.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 0732290 055b43L 8 0 5 FOREWORD API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so..C.`.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Washington.`. Every effort has been made by the Institute assure the accuracy reliability of the data contained in them.`.``.`.
................. ............................1 Introduction ....................................4 4...................2 Drill-StemTest ....................3 Accumulation Occurrence and ............................. Subsea Trees .......... 3.......................................2 4................-`-`.............. .............................4 Bottom-Hole Pressure Test ................................1 4..........5 Transient Pressure Testing ................... User=........... 3.............. 6.................................................1 Introduction ........................................ 1....................6 Frac Packing ...... 5.........5 Subsurface Electrical Pumping ............................ 2.2 Organic Theory of Origin .........5 Reservoir Rock ................... 6....................................... The Tubing Head ..............`.................................... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584............. ...................2 Sucker Pumping Rod ......................................................`................................5 Control Sand ......4 Tubing ......................`.........................................................6 Subsurface Hydraulic Pumping ...........................................1 Drive Gas Reservoirs .......1 Introduction ...........................7..............5 Valves Safety ............................... 2...........................................................`..........................2 Fracturing ................... 1........................ 1...................................................... 1.............................`... 6. 5.....................`.......... American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001...............................7..````................................ 2.................4 OilandGasSegregation ...... I ........3 Potential Test ....... SECTION "THE 4....... 17 17 17 17 18 18 WELLHEAD 19 19 19 20 22 25 25 27 28 28 29 29 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 SECTION 5-ARTIFICIAL LIFT 5......... 3...7 Routine Production Tests .A P I TITLEaVT-L 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 3 2 741 m CONTENTS Page SECTION 1"ORIGIN AND ACCUMULATION OF OIL AND GAS 1....... 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 6 6 SECTION 2-THE WELL 2.................... 9 9 10 10 12 SECTION 3-WELL TREATMENT 3.4 Chemical Treatment 3............................................................. The Casinghead ........... 6..... 5..........................................1 Introduction ...................................... 5....6 Geologic Types of Reservoirs ...............................................................`--- V COPYRIGHT 2003.................................3 Pump-off Controllers (POC) ...............................6 Productivity Test ....................3 Completion Methods ...``............... 1.5 Introduction .........7 6. 1.................... 6............................ 6.....3 4.........2 Drive Water Reservoirs ......................................... The Christmas Tree ..........................`...................................2 Casing .............................. SECTION &WELL TESTING --````............................................ 5......4 Gas Lifting .................................................. 2........1 Introduction .....................3 Acidizing ............ 1................................7 Types of Production Processes ....................... 5............. 3...........................................
.. 7................ 7..2 Lease Tank Battery ......................................`........... 10.......5 Tank or Oil Gauging ... 6.......A P I TITLESVT-L 76 O732270 0 5 5 6 4 3 3 6 8 8 m 6..........4 Tank Strapping ..................... 10. User=................ 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.... 8................................... 9.........1 Introduction ................................. 9.........................6................................. AND STORAGE 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 41 41 43 43 43 43 44 45 49 51 51 52 9..1 Introduction .......................7 Measurement and Testing Procedures .....................6 Oil Treating ... ....................9 Sonic Fluid Level Determination ..................... 7......................8 Asphaltenes ...9 Hydrogen Sulfide ..6 Vapor Recovery System ................................8 Bottom-Hole Temperature Determination .................... 7...............3 Emulsion Treating ....... 7.......................6.................................................................................. 7..... 7......... 7................. 6......................... 7........................................6.................................................5 Storage Tanks .......2 Alternate Offshore Production Systems .........................2 Separators ..............1 Introduction ..............4 Scale Formation ................................... ......................................... 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 ...... American Petroleum Institute 10.......8Water Treating Systems and Disposal .............................. 8.... TREATMENT..........................10 Measurement Gas 8....................8 Standardized and Semi-AutomaticTank Batteries ............3 Floating Productionand Storage Facilities ..............................................................5 Subsea Pipelines ........................................... 7............................. 34 35 35 7......................................``........... 9.........................-`-`......6............. 7................9 Automatic Custody Transfer ...................... vi COPYRIGHT 2003................3 Desalters ............................ 8............................................7 Paraffin Problems 10.................3 Dehydration of Natural Gas ....................1 Introduction .....2 Free Water Knockouts (FWKOs) ..................................... 10................... 7...... 9.3 Battery Tank Operation ........6...... 10..4 Barrel Gun ....`............ 10.... 10.....................................1 1 Computers inProducing Operations ......................................`.... --````.................. 65 65 66 67 67 67 67 67 68 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001......5 Naturally Occumng Radioactive Material (NORM) .......6......................................................................`--- 8.................................6 Disposal Water .......... 8.......i .. SECTION 7"SEPARATION................6 Measurement Testing Oil and 8..........................`............... 8..4 Mobile Offshore Production Units (MOPUs) ....................`...12 Programmable Logic Controllers and Distributed Control Systems .....7 Handling Produced Water ..............2 Corrosion ........ 8. 8....................... ................................................................................... SECTION 8-GAUGING AND METERING PRODUCTION 8......`................ 8.................9 Hydrocyclones .......... 7.....13 Supervisory Control andData Acquisition (SCADA) Systems .............````............. SECTION 9 4 F F S H O R E PRODUCTION AND STRUCTURES 53 56 57 58 61 SECTION 10-SPECIAL PROBLEMS 10..........4NaturalGas Liquids Extraction Plants(GasPlants) ... 7.......................... 8.........5 Liquefied NaturalGas (LNG) Plants .........`.......................................1 Heater-Treaters .....10 Water Analysis ..............................
...5 Superintendent Field ..................-`-`. 12................. 18....7 Petroleum Engineer ................7MMSControl of FederalLands .................. 15.......................... --````.................. SECTION 1 &STATE AND FEDERAL OIL AND GAS REGULATIONS 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 16..............................2 Ultimate Recovery 18....SECTION 11-ENHANCED RECOVERY 11........`....6 Reservoirs Gas 11..................7 Injection System Operation ...................4 Production Foreman .............4 Commission or Board Procedure .......1 Introduction ...............................................................3 Taxes 'State ... 12.........................3 Health Safety and Requirements ................. Service...............4 Meter Gas Charts ......................................VALVES............................ ............................... 16.. 15................ .....7 Environmental Records Reports and ......... ..........................``.. ................................... 16...`--- 69 69 69 70 71 71 71 .................................. SECTION 15-REPORTS AND RECORDS 15...............................3 RelationBetweenRegulationandConservation ............2 Operator Lease ....................... ......5 Thermal Processes ..........1 Introduction .......... 12.........................................`........ 15.....1 Introduction ..............1 Introduction ............................... ............................. COPYRIGHT 2003.................................... ............................6 Interstate Compact ........`.......3 Pipeline Tickets Run 15.................................................`............... 11.................... 89 89 91 92 SECTION 18-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 18........5 Well Test Records ................................................`............................2 Commission or Board Regulations ............... HEALTH................................................3 Injection Gas 11.................................. 15....................````........... .. 17........ 11................................................................................................................. FITTINGS ........................... SECTION 12-PRODUCTION PERSONNEL 12....................... 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 77 79 SECTION 13-TOOLSANDEQUIPMENT SECTION 14-PIPE...........................6 Equipment........................................1 Introduction . 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584....2 Environmental Requirements ............................. 16....................... 12......... Supply and Reports 15.. 17...... User=...........................................................`.........2 Production Oil Report .......l7. 16................................... AND SAFETY CONCERNS ..........`.. 11...........................6 Engineering Technician 12......................................... 16.................4 Summary ....... 11..........9 Other Laws Regulations and 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 SECTION 17"ENVIRONMENTAL.... American Petroleum Institute 93 93 93 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001..2......................... 17.....5 Required Reports 16........................................ ...............1 Introduction ..................8 Federal Oil Hot Act .3 Maintenance Personnel 1.............. 16..AND ........................................ 16..........4 Miscible Chemical and Processes .2 Injection Water ..........................
...........`...3 Horizontal Trees .............`..6 What It All Means ............. .........4 Horizontal Drilling .`.......... 18.............................. 99 111 APPENDIX B-ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Table 1Pontrol Well Data Test ....... User=. 19..................................````. ...... 85 viii Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.........5 Other Government Activities ........`--- 18...........`........ 93 94 94 SECTION 19-FUTURE TRENDS 19....... ..4 FederalGovernmentTaxesand price Controls .....2 Multiphase Pumps 19.........1 Introduction ........................................................................ American Petroleum Institute --````.............................................. ............ 19.............................................................................`............`......... 18........................................................................-`-`....COPYRIGHT 2003......... 19.........5 Downhole Well Splitters ....................... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584........... 19.......................``...`.........6 Multiphase Metering 95 95 96 97 97 97 APPENDIX A-GLOSSARY ..
The hydrogen and carbon material which makes up the composition of petroleum is presumed to have come from the decomposed plants and animals that were living on land and in the sea. SEA WATER 1 fe .`. Figure 1 illustrates the vast seas that at several times in the geologic past covered large portions of the present continents and near offshore areas supported abundant populations of marine plant and animal life.`. As shown in Figure2. are called sedimentary rocks-the sediments that nature has turned into rocks.`--- OrganicTheory of Origin 1. .These small organisms. This initial well was drilled deposits had been encounto a depth of 69 feet..3AccumulationandOccurrence A large amount of very small plant and animal remains came into the shallow seas with river silts and muds. ancient sea bottoms abounded with marine plant and animal life. These marine areas are thought of as being reasonably shallow. As time passed.`. rivers flowed down to these of seas and carried with them great volumes of mud and sand to be spread out bycurrents and tides over the sea bottoms near the constantly changing shorelines..1 Progress in solving the secrets of the origin and accumulation of petroleum took a giant step forward in 1859 with the drilling of the first oil well. Once formed in the sedimentary source beds. and carbonates were formed and preserved. As Figure 3 illustrates. as more and more layers of organic material. 1. for example. but these instances were relatively rarein 1859. were further protected from ordinary decay the salty sea by water.. I SEDIMENT Figure 1-ln the geologic past. _ . Continued squeezing of these source rocks resulted in pressures and temperatures sufficient to cause primary oil and gas migration out of the source rocks into adjoining porous permeable rocks. the present land area. Also. along with high temperature. produced the changes that caused the formation of oil and natural gas.. This material joined a much greater volume of similar tiny remains of marine life already settledto the sea bottom. their As remains were buried and preserved in the sedimentary record. sand.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. clay. Then this pressure. and lime accumulated.``. and chemical reactions.-`-`.. plant and animal life flourished. were repeatedly buried mud andsealed from the They by air. silt. Life on earth possibly began hundreds millions of years of ago in vast seas and inland lakes...`. bacterial action. that of so thick sequences of mud. it is believed that the small plant and animal forms were of more importance than the larger forms as a petroleum source... User=. One common of and form permeable rockin which oil and gas are found is sandstone. During these times.`.dying and settling to the bottom of the sea. the weight the overlying sediof ments caused tremendous pressure to be exerted on the 'deeper sedimentary layers.These sedimentary rocks include the dark marine shales and marine limestones that scientists think are the source bedsof petroleum. Oil and gas tered at various locations since ancient times.. Throughout millions years. this evidenceof ancient seas is found in the rocks on.````. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. the ocean floors slowly sank under the increasing weight the accumulating sediments.A P I TITLEmVT-L 96 D 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0556436 377 m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production SECTION 1-ORIGIN AND ACCUMULATION OF OIL AND GAS Introduction 1.2 --````.This two-step sequence is the starting placefor this introduction. Also groupedin this series of marine sedimentary rock are the sandstones. The Mid-Continent UnitedStates. It is probable that the greatest contribution of organic material wasdeposited in a marine environment rather than a continental environment. Figure 4 shows how these sequences were squeezed by the weight of thousands of feet of overlying organic and inorganic material and eventually became what 1 COPYRIGHT 2003. and underlying much of. the deeper sediments were compressed eventually hardened and into rock. these organisms died.`.. sand.. Through geologic time. Today we have widely accepted geologic theories along with good supporting evidence that help explain how oil and gas were formed.. is part of one of these oldseas. limestones and dolomites that are the reservoir rocks in which we sometimes find oil and gas. the oil and gas then migrated to other sedimentary rocks where we find them today. This is one of the initial concepts in developing the current geologic organic theory of petroleum.
Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Such a in the or seal. This movement took place as the result of the tendency for oil and gas to rise through the ancient sea 1. American Petroleum Institute .2 L L Land m Water water with which the pore spaces of the sedimentary formations were filled when originally laid down. must be covered or adjoined by a layer ofrock also that provides a coveringseal for the trap.-`-`.`.`.`.`--- Figure &The weight of the overlying sedimentary of layers caused compaction earlier sediments into rock such as sandstone. Porous limestones and dolomites are other types of sedimentary rocks in which petroleum occurs... form of a layered.`. they ordinarily displaced salt water already there.`. the It is made up of sand grains usually mixed withparticles of other material. which occur in some shape favorable to the trapping of oil and gas.``. non-permeable rock.. The oil and gas gather in the upper part of the trap because of thedifferences in weightof COMPACTION 4 PRESSURE h C Figure &As the plants and animals died. The movement of petroleum from the place of its origin to the traps wherethe accumulations are now found was both vertical and lateral. User=. limestone and shale. secondary migration occurred wherein theoil and gas migrated from the tiny spaces or pores between the particles the sediments to the reserin voir where it accumulated. in --````.````. halts further upward movement of petroleum through pore spaces.. dense.. COPYRIGHT 2003. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584... An underground porous formation or series of rocks. their remains were buried the accumulating sediment..`.4 Oil and Gas Segregation As oil and gas migrated into a trap.. This accumulation occurred as the underground rock masses were folded in certain forms and shapes that halted the oil movement andcaused the petroleum to be trapped and gathered in large quantities. After this primary migration...`.
A P I TITLExVT-L 96 9 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 3 8 L 6 T m lntroduction to Oil and Gas Production 3 gas. c.6 GeologicTypes of Reservoirs There are many different shapes.6. Often the pore spaces contain from about 10 percent to more than 50 percent salt water in the midst of the oil and gas accumulation. Permeability is defined as the ability of a material to transmit fluids. is found belowthe gas. If any gasis present.`. Some areas of production today are predominately gas fields. A porous rock or series of such rocks within which the petroleum was able to migrate anddisplace the water originally in the rock. there must have been: a. the oil and gas occupy the void spaces between the grains that make up the rock. and salt water below the oil... however. A source of carbon and hydrogen that developed from the remains of land andsea life buried in the mud and silt of ancient seas.-`-`. sizes. or oil and gas. in order for an oil or gas field to have been formed.`. American Petroleum Institute Figure &An anticlinal type of folded structure is shown here. This dome is circular in outline. A local structure or trap.. Therefore. b. and oil with dissolved gas..the rock is said to be permeable. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. such as the very large Panhandle Hugoton Field that stretches from the Texas Panhandle across the Oklahoma Panhandle into southwest Kansas. that forms a reservoir where petroleum hasgathered. 1.. notably the Gulf Coast and west Texas well as Oklahoma. Salt water. This remaining salt water (calledconnate water) fills the smaller pore spaces and forms a film over the surfaces of the rock grains surrounding the larger pores. it is ordinarily found in the highest part of the trap because it is lightest. 1. There are. simple meansof classifying reservoirs is A to group them according to the conditions causing their occurrence.6. Most of the fields discussed in l ..`. as in the seven divisions following. d.`. Other areas. These three fluids. separate vertically (in a similar manner as if they were contained ina bottle). These traps were filled by migration 5 or of oil or gas (or both) through the porous strata beds to the location of the trap.7 are oil reservoirs.`. Oil. and is usually expressed as a percent. further movement was arrested by 1.. Here. User=. and salt water.````. The oil.. gas fields that have been found in all of these general types of structures.. was not completely displaced from the pore spaces in the trap.l through 1. if all are present. Within a reservoir rock. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. having a top layered seal. havelarge as COPYRIGHT 2003. and types of geologic structures that provide reservoirs in which petroleum is found.If the majority to of the pores withina rock are interconnected. The ratio of the pore volume to the total rock volume is called porosity. occupies these water-jacketed pore spaces. A good sandstone reservoir may have up 30 percent porosity. Conditions which caused the decay or decomposition of these remains and the recombiningcarbon and hydrogen to of form the mixture of hydrocarbons that make up petroleum..6. oil..``.`--- oil fields and large gas fields that are completely separate from each other. --````.5 Reservoir Rock Figure !%This sketch illustrates an oil accumulation in a dome-shaped structure.1 DOMES AND ANTICLINES Reservoirs formed by folding of the rock layers or strata usually have the shape of structural domes or anticlines as shown in Figures and 6. An anticline differs from a dome in being long and narrow.`. . The geological structures to which petroleum has thus migrated and within which has been trapped and has it accumulated are called petroleum reservoirs and are the oil and gas fields that we explore for and produce today. however.
.-`-`. Texas. The great East Texas Field and the Oklahoma City Field are this type of reservoir. Examples of reservoirs formed on anticlinal structures are the Ventura Oil Field in California.``..4DOMEAND PLUG TRAPS Figure &-oil is trapped under an unconformity this in illustration.3 UNCONFORMITIES The type reservoir formed a result ofan unconformity of as is shownin Figure 8. JCap rock + + + + + + + + m Oil Gas m Water '\ Figure 9-Salt domes often deform overlying rocks to form traps like the ones shown here.6.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`. deformed. It is common to find traps which apparently are big enough to hold largerquantities of oil or gas than have accumulated.`..`. and which remain partially filled with salt water underneath theoil or gas as indicatedin Figures 5 through 9. 1. --````. and the giant Yates Field in west Texas..2 FAULT TRAPS Reservoirs formed by breaking or shearing and offsetting of strata (called faulting) are illustrated in Figure 7. An unconformity isa significant part of the trapping mechanism the super giant Prudfor North Slope of Alaska. the upward movement oil has of been halted by the impermeable rock laid down across the cap cut-off (possibly by water or wind erosion) surfaces of the lower beds.6. Here. COPYRIGHT 2003.. or lfe the overlying rock layers.`..`.. User=.. which illustrates a nonporous salt mass that has formed dome-shaped traps in overlying and surrounding porous rocks.````. The escape of oil from such a trap is prevented by impervious rocks that have moved into a position opposite the porous petroleum-bearing formation.`.4 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f a combination of the form of the shvcture and the sealor cap rock providedby the formation covering the structure.`--- .. the Rangely Field in Colorado. Texas. and Old in the Ocean Gas Field in Brazoria County. Examples of reservoirs formed by domal structures are the Conroe Oil Field Montgomery County. Some typical acitd cumulations of this type are shown in Figure 9. The Elk Hills Field in California and the many fields in the Overthrust Trend of Wyoming and Utah examples of are fault trap fields. hoe Bay Field on the Unconformity- 1. The Avery Island and Bay Marchand Fields in Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.6. American Petroleum Institute Accumulations of oil are found in porous formations on or surrounding great plugs or masses of salt that have pierced. Oil Water Gas m Figure 7-This is a trap resulting from faulting in which the block on the right has moved up with respect to the one on the left. The oil is confined in traps of this type because of the of the rock layers and the faulttilt ing. 1..
`.````. to the oil through and from the pores of the reservoir into the wells. Another is the famous Spindletop Field near Beaumont..A P I TITLExVT-L 90 7 3 2 2 9 0 5 b 4 4 0 b 05 818 m Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i 5 Louisiana are examples of salt dome reservoirs. User=. COPYRIGHT 2003.7 COMBINATION TRAPS Another common type of reservoir isformed by a combination of folding. pressure and energy in the gas and salt water associated with the oil was also being stored.`.6. Oil is unable to move and lift itself from reservoirs through wells to the surface. 1. --````. and changes in porosity or other conditions.``. Midway-Sunset Field California.`. The Greater Aneth Field in Utah. oil is confined within porous parts the rockby the nonporous parts of of the rock surrounding it. Texas. occurring under high pressures with the that furnishes the force drive or displace oil.-`-`.. In these cases. It is largely the energy in the gas or the salt water (or both). 1. the in Wasson Field in west Texas.5 REEF TRAPS A type of reservoir formed as a result of limestone reef buildups in the ancient Oceans is shown in Figure 10.`. 1..7 Types of ProductionProcesses m Oil Figure 10-Reefs sometimes form reservoirs sirnilar to that shown here. Figure 12. These reefs formed where the environmental conditions were favorable for certain marine animals and plants. Anotherexample is the Hugoton Field in which the reservoir rock is made up of porous limestone and dolomite. At the time oil wasforming and accumulating in reservoirs. This may be caused in the case of sandstones by irregular deposition of sand and shale at the time the formation was laid down. .. and the many fields the in Michigan Basin are examples reef reservoirs. is example of an a lens trap.. where rotary drilling was first used.6. The Burbank Fieldin Osage County. and the remains of these organisms formed thick accumulations of limestones and dolomites. andthe Bradford Field in Pennsylvania. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. introducing the modem drilling era.This is also termed stratigraphic a trap..`--- Oil and gas reservoirs and fields have also been classified according to the t y p of natural energy andforces available to produce the oil and gas. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. A limestone reservoir of this type is shown in . Kelly Snyder Field in west Texas. Local porosity in these reefs resulted from a combination of the original open spaces between rock grains and subsequent dissolving the limestoneby waters of moving through therocks.`. which would later be available to assist inproducing the oil and gas from the underground reservoir to the surface.6.. Oklahoma. of Figure 11"Bodies of sand in a non-porous formation often form traps like this one. examples of which are some of the limestone fields of west Texas..`. m Oil Figure 12-Limestone formations often have areas of high porosity that form traps like this one. faulting..`. Examples of reservoirs of this nature are the 1.6 LENS TRAPS Another typeof reservoir isone that is sealed its upper in regions by abrupt changes in the amount of connected pore space within a formation.. A sand reservoirof this type is shownin Figure 11.
2 WATER DRIVE RESERVOIRS wells and assists in lifting it to the surface. vast quantities of salt reservoirs. often of type.``. It may in 0 also be the dominant energy force in any type of reservoir where theporous part of the formationis limited to the part actually forming the reservoir and containingoil and gas. where conditions are sure. drive alone. 6... ......`. This effect is slight for any small quantity.1 GAS DRIVE RESERVOIRS Oil in an underground reservoir contains varying quantities of dissolved gas that emerges and expands as the pressure inthe reservoir is reduced. As production of oil compress. and 13. the I Oil Figure 13-Solution-gas drive. In this way. COPYRIGHT 2003.`. but becomes favorable. occurs in the form of a cap of gas over The energy supplied by thesalt water comes from expanthe oil as shown in Figures 7 . As the gas escapes from the oil and expands. the gas cap expands to help fill the pore spaces formerly occu2. to the extent of about one part in and gas proceeds and the reservoir pressure is lowered.-`-`..`. This extra gas. These tremendous quantities of salt water are under pressure and In many cases more gas exists with the oil in a reservoir than theoil can hold dissolved in it under the existing condiprovide a great additional store of energy to aid in producing oil and gas. 9. --````. User=. 7.and is generally considered the least effective water exist in surrounding parts the same formation.7. 8. and 14. It is substantially more effective than solution-gas petroleum reservoir.11.. Also.````.`. and retards the detypically found with the discontinuous. The gas cap drive production process is illustrated in in the same porous formation adjoining or surrounding a Figure 14.7..`. the expansive energy in the oil closed reservoirs illustrated Figures 1 . some of the gas coming of the oil is conserved out of great importance when changes in reservoir pressure afby moving upward into the cap to further enlarge thegas gas fect enormous volumes of salt water thatare often contained cap. or expand. tions of pressure and temperature.`. yielding maximum recoveries betweento 25 percent directly in contact with the oil and gas reservoir. limited essentially or cline in pressure. Such a gas cap is an sion of the water as pressure in the petroleum reservoir is reduced by production of oil and gas.500 per 100 pounds per square inch (psi) change in prespied by the oil and gas produced. condition is shown by Figures 5. 9 . generally yielding oil recoveries ranging from The expanding water moves into the regions of lowered 25 to 50 percent. Reservoirs in If the formation containing an oil reservoir is fairly which the oil is produced by dissolved gas escaping and expanding from within the oilare called solution-gas-drive uniformly porous and continuous a large area compared over to the size of the oil reservoir itself. This oil production process is illustrated in Figure 13. being lighter than the oil.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. American Petroleum Institute Figure 14-Gas-cap drive.`. Water actually will important additional source of energy. This 1O of the oiloriginally contained in the reservoir.and gas-saturated portions of the reserThe solution-gas-drive production process described is voir caused by productionof oil and gas.A P I T I T L E r V T .L 96 m 0732290 6 Book One of the Vocational Training Series 1. pressure in the oil. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and 15.. it drives oil through the reservoir toward the 1.
``. This can result one of the improved recovery in drives becoming the dominant influence the reservoir. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. The care exercised in completing and producing the wells. b.`.. when these steps are considered... Water drive is generally the most efficient oil production process. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. For the best recoveryto be obtained from each field. under the best of conditions. rate 7 of production seemsto exert only minoreffect on oil recoveries obtainable from solution-gas-drivefields except where conditions are favorable for gas caps to form. User=. A discussion of enhanced recovery projects may be found in Section 11... Ofin ten.`.`. however. These factors greatly affect the oil recovery.-`-`.`.API TITLE*VT-L 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 4 2 690 m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production and gas is conserved.. The physical nature of the reservoir rock and oil. However. the pore spaces vacated by oil and gas produced are filled with water.`. For these reservoirs the kind of operation and total rate of production willdetermine which typeof drive is actuallyeffective. and water r e p duction may be necessary to identify which types of drives are occurring..`--- . gas. COPYRIGHT 2003..`. it is sometimes desirable inject excess gas and water back into to the reservoir. The rate of oil and gas production from the field or reservoir as a whole.````. c. Oil recovery fromwater drive reservoir a depends on: a. there will also be investigations into additional specialized injection processes. Careful monitoring of individual well rates of oil. reservoirs have combination drives. Oil fields with an effective water drive are capable of yielding recoveries 30 to 50 percent and.. and oil and gas are progressively moved toward the wells.. Such projects require extensive engineering and economic studies as well as installation of special equipment. recovery can approach 70 percent of the oil originally in place. By this natural water drive process.`. These factors also greatly affect the oil-recovery efficiency in the case of gas-cap-drive reservoirs. --````. The expanding water also moves and displaces oil and gas in an upward direction out of lower parts of the reservoir. In many cases. as illustrated in Figure 15..
and water reservoirs are found in formations below the surface of the earth. intermediate string (if needed due to operational problems). A sketch of a well is shown in Figure 20.. For afurther discussion of horizontal drilling. shown in Figure 16. For example. and horizontal wells. see Section 19. Pipe is then run into the hole to provide a conduit for the fluid to flow to the surface. Each time a casing string is set and Producing zone I Figure 16-Straight Hole Well 9 COPYRIGHT 2003. are those drilledto targets essentially beneath the surface location of the well.`.500 to 25. hole sloughing.. Wells may be grouped into two relatively broad categories: straight holes and directionally drilled wells..are those wells that are deviated until the well bore achieves a horizontal direction. American Petroleum Institute Figure 17-Straight Kick Well --````.A P I TITLE*VT-II 96 0732290 0556443 527 SECTION 2-THE WELL 2.. This angle is then maintained all the way to the bottom of the hole as seen in Figure 17.. User=.-`-`. . successively smaller diameter casing strings are set in the well starting with the conductor pipe. To do this. lost circulation. the well bore is deviated until the desired angle is achieved.000 feet and an oil string can be set from depths of 2. Crude natoil. or charging shallow sands with abnormal pressures. Directionally drilled wells can be classified further into sfraight kick.`..`.1 Introduction A well is ahole drilled through the earth's surface layers to recover fluids from a subsurface formation. S-kick. The depth that each string is set is determined by theparticular conditions at the well site.the well bore is deviated to achieve the desired horizontal displacement and then returns to a vertical direction before penetrating the producing zone. although some small deviations in the well bore are likely to occur during the drilling process..`. well bore may then The continue in the horizontal direction for hundreds or even thousands of feet.000 feet or more. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.``.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Straight hole wells..`.. In straight kick wells. depending on the results desired shown as by Figure 19. then surface pipe. the well is drilled to these formations. In S-kick wells.2 Casing A drilled hole must be stabilized to prevent freshwater sand contamination. 2. as the name implies.. and finally the production or oil string.`. Horizontal wells. Directionally drilled wells are those which are drilled to targets not directly beneath the surface location of the well. ural gas.````.`. surface casing can be set at depths from 200 to 5. The term "S-kick" is derived from shape of the course that the well the bore follows as seen in Figure 18..
Someof the connections are for specialized use. There are many methods of preparing an oil well to produce.000 psi surface pressure. the same tubing may be used to accommodate a downhole pump or othermeans of artificial lift. User=. This eliminates the need to extend the smaller diameter production casing back to the surface.. O psi surface pressure 0O O requires much heavier casing than a well with 2.`--- 2. By the same reasoning. and a tabulation of common sizesof casing.`.a blowout preventer (BOP) of appropriate size and pressure rating is flanged onto the casing by a casinghead to control pressure in thedrilling well.`.`. typeof threaded connection. is called tubing. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. This affords ameans of obtaining the maximum amount of oil with the minimum use of casing.. TubDocument provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. American Petroleum Institute .. Some completions are in made using casing liners to extend the cased interval below an upper casing suing. for grade.. Figure 21 shows the relative sizes of casing and tubing.A well with 1 .. various types of connections identifying the threads on the casing. and then perforating through the casing and cement into the producing formation.000 feet than a string tobe set at 2. Figure 19-Horizontal Well ing interval.````. is called an This open-hole completion.-`-`. API has very carefully established specifications size. If the well is completed in a hard formation. In loose. the oil-producing zone may be left entirelyopen.`.and length of each section (joint) of casing. Production liners are commonly sections of smaller diameter casing that run ona liner hanger are (Figure 25) and cemented in place..``.`. Other of completypes tions are shown Figures 22 and 24. 2 3 Completion Methods . it be necesmay sary to cement the production string through the producing zone and use slotted screen or a gravel pack in the produca --````.`.. the collapse resistance of the casing must be much higher for string thatis to a be set at20... shown in Figure 23.A P I TITLE*VT-1 9b M 0732270 0556444 463 W 10 Book One of the Vocational Training Series I 3 4 i \ I I zone Producing I I Producing zone I I I I Figure 18-Kick Well brought to the surface. cementing it in place. COPYRIGHT 2003. Casing must be designed to meet the physical conditions imposed on the pipe. They are governed by the type of reservoir (see Section 1)..`.000 feet. Figure 26 shows how this is accomplished. During later This the life of the well. A schematic of a well using a casing liner is shown in Figure 20. weight per foot.4 Tubing Because the casing and liner must remain ina well for a long time and their repair or replacement would be costly. consists of setting the oil string proor duction casing through the producing formation. with noperforated casing or liner used to protect the hole. soft sands. another smng of pipe is placed in the well through which the oil is usually produced. Oneof the most commontypes of completion. A multiple completion is another process which allows production from differentpay zones to be produced through the same wellbore.
.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`..``.`. Production Tubing and ChristmasTree COPYRIGHT 2003.`.`... --````.-`-`.`.. User=..`--- Production liner hanger ..````..`..`.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.A P I TITLE*VT-L 9b 0732270 055b445 3 T T m Introduction to O i l and Gas Production 11 Christmas master Upper vatve Lower master valve \ Annulus access valve Intermediate casing d Production packer Production liner Perforations I F Ion Figure 20-Simplified Diagrammatic Representation of a Well Showing the Casing Strings.
Tubingless completions with pipe small as 2 '/s-inch outside diameter as provide for well control. guide shoe with back pressure valve.. Tubing packersare sometimes used in the tubing string to seal off the space between the tubing and the production casing..````. that is. well stimulation. Safety 'shut-in systems are designed so that the valve will when there is a fire.. seamless steel. Tubing anchors and packers support part of the weight of the tubing in the casing and preventthe tubing string from "working" (moving up and down). This valve is known as a fail safe device.``.One type is a subsurface valve whichwill close off when a predetermined rateof flow is exceeded. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.. Shortcoupling casing joint Longcoupling casing joint API round thread casing Extremelinecasing API buttress thread casing A l l sizes above are Grade K-55. Another commonly used type of safety valve is installed on the wellhead.I 12 T I T L EA P I . The casing is cemented from bottom to surface and perforated opposite the producing interval.`.-`-`. commonly at of 100 to 200 feet beneath the sea floor. American Petroleum Institute --````. Both of these types of safety depths valves are installed in the tubing string.50 54.50 3290 3010 2740 2770 1730 1140 4380 5320 4360 4140 3930 3950 3130 2730 When a well is first on production. The tubing issuspended from the wellhead (surface) and usually reaches to within a few feetof the bottomof the well.34 fi or more.. This is done particularly in wells where there are high reservoir pressures.`. r: t Figure 21"Relative size of casing and tubing. One kind of tubing packer is shown in Figure 27. Other grades and w i h s of casing are available. This valve is shown in Figure 29. at similar depths or beneath the groundsurface when installed in onshore wells..`. This is called a tubingless completion since no retrievable inner string of tubing is used toconduct fluids to thesurface. An alternate type is the surfacetontrolled subsurfacesafety valve t a is actuated by an external hydraulic ht pressure system.. Removingthis control pressure will cause thevalve to close. .`--- 2. workover. the casing is not exposed to highpressure. COPYRIGHT 2003. in somecases. Common egt lengths ae Range 2. or a remote manual bleed-offof the controlpressure. Occasionally it isboth practical and economical to drill a as small-diameter hole and use conventional tubing casing in completing the well. thrraded and coupled API joint. to maintain continuous flow. User=. T provide needed protection.. includinga float collar. the valve held open against a spring by an external is means. range 3.50 3310 4 m 17 2 3 26..5 98 3a Safety Valves 7 23 8 WTSlOE DIAMETER ( INCHES) Common Sizes of Casing 9.40 36 40 40. a malfunction of production equipment. or facilities. o people. a broclose ken flow line.L xVT 96 0732290 0556446 236 Book One of the Vocational Training Series ing sizes range from lY4 inch to4 ' / 2 inches in diameter. usually gas pressure. and an artificial lift system.. thereare several types of safety valves used toshut in the well in case of an accident or equipment failure in areas where accidents could occur. sand control.and m m o n sizes of casing. from 25 f to 34 ft.`.`. Tubing is also used as the flow string because casing is usually too flow large to permit the well to efficiently or.`.. types of casing connections. and the chances of a casing also failure are reduced. and landing nipple as shown inFigure 28. By sealing off this space.`. Often wells are located the where an accident could cause danger to environment. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. The equipment used is essentially same as a conventional the well. usually flowsbeput it cause of pressure inthe reservoir.
.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. casing through the zone is oil sometimes not necessary..`.-`-`..`. In this case is an openit hole completion.`..'' Figure 23-A perforated casing or liner made by is actually shooting bullets or shaped charges (jets) through a section of centered casing at the level of the oil-zone thatis to be produced... .. Figure 24-A gravel-packed lineris used in a well which the producing sands in are fine-grained and loose..`..````.`.. --````. . sometimes called "bare-foot.2 9b m 0732290 0556447 L72 m Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i Oil casing string 13 hole . Figure 22-When the oil-producing zone is well consolidated. User=...``.. The gravel in the space around the liner acts as a filter and keeps the sand outthe well.`.API T I T L E J V T ..- - L .`--- . of COPYRIGHT 2003.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`..
.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584..`--- COPYRIGHT 2003...API TITLE*VT-L 96 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 4 8 14 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f Figure 25-Liner hanger Figure 26-Schematic drawing showing subsurface details of dual type well completion.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`..`..`.`.-`-`...````.``. User=. --````....`.`.
0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0556447 T 4 5
Introduction to Oil and Gas Production
Seal ring Valve seat
- Cage spring
Figure 27-Type of tubing packer
Figure 28-Schematic drawing of a tubingless completion
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
A P I TI TLE*V
Book One of the VocationalTraining Series
Hydraulic control line
Safety valve nipple
Ball valve seat
Rotating hollow ball
Figure 29-This retrievable sub-surface remote controlled safety valve set in the tubing string and is held open by hydraulic pressure. The power spring forces the ball rotate shutif the hydraulic pressure to is released. This valve used in offshore wells and is is set a prescribed distance below the mud so that line i the eventof an operational problem the well be n will shut in.
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
0732290 0.556451 b T 3
SECTION S W E L L TREATMENT
Wells often must be treated toimprove the recovery from a reservoir, or to remove barriers within the producing formation which prevent easy passage of the fluid into the wellbore. Such processes are known aswell-stimulation treatments. These include fracturing, acidizing,and other used in comchemical treatments.These processes are often bination since they frequently help each other.Programs for individual wellsvary according to well characteristics, economics, anddesired result.
sure is relieved. This process increases the flowof reservoir fluids into thewellbore as shown in Figure30.
Acidizing is a process of cleaning the formation face to allow fluids to enter the wellbore. A limited amount of dissolving of formation particles can occur if the acid can be forced far enough into the formation before the acid is expended (see Figure 31).
Fracturing is a process that uses high-pressure pumps to develop fluid pressure at the bottom of a well sufficient to actually break (crack) the formation. This makes it possible to introduce proppant materials such sand, walnut hulls, or as other small particles of material into the newly created crevices to keep the fractures propped open when the pres-
Chemical treatments are those in which acid is not a significant part. Although manyof the materials in this group are often used in conjunction with fracturing and acidizing, they have definite application in their own right. Due to surface tension, water can sometimes create a blockage when presentinthetinyporespaces of a formation. Certain chemicals may be applied to lower sur-
Acid enlarges pores and connecting channels
Figure M h o w s fractures opened in the producing fornation. Thebridging (propping) materials are placed in the fractures to keep them open.
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
Figure 31-Shows crevice acidizing to increase the flow capacity of the pay-zone into the wellbore.
``.. Figure 32(a) on the left.`.5 Sand Control Some wells produce from loosely consolidated sands. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. when oil and water become intimately mixed they forman emulsion..`.````. 3. the chemicals break large drops of water into several smaller ones thus allowing fluid.`. This may cause movement of sand into the wellbore. to shows the gravel flow into the formation in the annulus between the screen and the casing. Pres- Retrievable packer Production tubing Production packer Sand screen Figure 32-Illustrates one means of placing gravel opposite perforations to stabilize the formation and allow the fluid be produced. 36 Frac Packing . --````.. This results in one greater well productivity and reduces the well workover operations that would otherwise have been necessary because of sand production. In many instances. the emulsion may form a thick viscous liquid which impairs flow of fluids to the well bore.`. techniques and equipment have been developed which allow fracturing and gravel packing (frac packing) to be accomplished in operation. COPYRIGHT 2003.. previto ously trapped surface tension.`...18 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f face tension. Figure32(b) shows the flow of fluids through the gravel pack after the running tool has been replaced bya production packer.. By contact. With continued agitation. be released to flow the by to wellbore.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. In recent years. User=.. Chemicals may be used to break this emulsion.-`-`.`.. sure differential (drawdown) or increased water production can cause the material that holds sand grains together in a formation to dissolve.`. The resulting decreasein viscosity frees the fluids to move into the well. and some means of stabilizing these sands must be used. Slotted screens or gravel packs can be used to mechanically prevent this sand migration (see Figure 32).`--- .
Seal off pressures between the casing and tubing. stuffing box. The casinghead is used during drilling and workover operations as an anchor for pressure control equipment which maybe necessary.000 psi have been found in some fields. Christmas tree.`--- . This requires removal and reinstallation of the BOPs as each additional string of casing is run in the well... Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Pressures higher than 20.. It is usually made of cast forged steel and machined to a close fit to form a seal and prevent well fluids from blowingor leaking at the surface. as each string of casing is run into the hole. American Petroleum Institute Figure 33-Typical Wellhead Assembly important if more than one intermediate stringof casing must be set. Also..Where production and pressures are very low. c. This also affects the height of the production wellhead and may eliminate the need for a cellar or a high rig substructure. Support the tubing string. A highpressure assembly is shown in Figure 33. Other wellheads may be just a simple assembly to support the weight of the tubing in the well may notbe built to hold high pressure. The high-pressure wellhead is required where formation pressures are extremely high. it is necessary to install heavy fittings the at surface to which the casing is attached.2 The Casinghead During the drilling of the well. the simple wellhead may be used. requiring the use of a heavy wellhead.000 psi. b.`.````. Openings (commonly called gas outlets) are usually provided for reducing gas pressure which may collect between or within casing strings... by use of a system of flanges and adapter spools (see Figures 33 and 34). and pressure gauges. 4. The wellhead is sometimes made up of many heavy fittings with certain parts designed to hold pressures up to 30.. The head provides a way of sealing between the casing strings to prevent flowof fluids. they form an integral part of the permanent wellhead...API TITLE*VT-1 96 m 0732270 0556453 476 W SECTION +THE WELLHEAD 4. tubing head. Each part of the casinghead usually provides for use of slips or gripping devices to hold the weight of the casing. the outletsmay sometimes be used for production the well of when oil is produced through the casing.`.. As additional flanges and spools are installed. This may become COPYRIGHT 2003.. Unitized wellheads accomplish the same thing with an internal weight suspension and packing system which avoids the necessity of changing BOPs until this is required by having to install equipment to withstand higher pressure. 19 --````. Conventional wellheads accommodate the progressively smaller casing sizes. as drilling progresses and additional casing strings are set. User=.`.-`-`. 4.`.`.1 Introduction The wellhead is the equipment used to maintain surface or control of the well.`. Its most important purposes are to: a.3 TheTubingHead The tubing head is similar design and use the casingin to head.``. Provide connections at the surface for controlling the flow of liquid or gas. The wellhead is formed of combinations of parts called the casinghead. Each partof the casinghead is supported a part of the casinghead which was by installed at the top the next larger string casing whenit of of was run (see Figure 33). 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and The kind of wellhead configurationto be used is determined by well conditions.`.
F=+- I I I / I I I I I I I I I I I --````. and the choke replaced. special procedures are required to The tubing head is supported by the casinghead where casingheads are used.. the pressure bled off thetree. The key to closing the well in anemergency is the master valve.4 TheChristmasTree Wells which are expected to have high pressures are equipped with special heavy valves and control equipment about the casinghead or tubing head before such wells are completed..``. Tubing heads vary in construction depending upon pressure..`. and the flow valve replaced. Should the master valve have to be replaced. When the flow valve becomes cut and needsreplacement.A P I TITLErVT-L 96 m 0732290 055b454 302 m 20 Book One ofthe Vocational Training Series Retaining 7 element 1 \. See Figure 39 for one type of low-pressure Christmas tree assembly.. the flow valve (also called the wing valve) upstream from the choke is closed. the pressure drop and cutting action are often the most damaging to the choke. it is possible to have better well control.`.. With such practice. with different designs and pressure ratings fit expected well conditions. and 37 show types of tubing heads. Many different types have been developed for use under to high pressures. possible to use it is the same valve for the life of the well. the casinghead is not used and tubing head is supported on the top of the casing at or near ground level. Because the flow valve is used open or shut in the well. Figure 38 shows a typical Christmas tree on a well.`.`--- casing Figure 34-Independent Casinghead Figure 40 shows a type of Christmas tree assembly used for dual completions.-`-`. to it is also subject to cutting.`. Retaining element 7 4. COPYRIGHT 2003. User=. In many low-pressure or pumping wells that have only the one string of casing. Figures 35. andis called a Christmas tree because of its shape and the large number of fittings branching out above the wellhead. the pressure in the line bled off.`.. When replacing the choke (Figure 41). 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. .`. fittings or chokes. It is an accepted practice to useit only when absolutely necessary to avoidits being cut.. American Petroleum Institute Figure 35-Independent Tubing Head Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. including the use of multiple tubing strings. Pressure gauges are usually usedas a part of the wellhead and Christmas tree to measure the casing and tubing pressures. Low-pressure or pumping wells are sometimes equipped with simple kinds of Christmas trees.36.`. The tubing headis designed so it can be easily taken apart and put together to make well servicing operations easier. By knowing the pressures under various operating conditions. Since the choke is the pointat which the wellflow rate is controlled.. This group of valvescontrols the flow of oil and gas from the well.````. The cutting effect due to abrasion by very fine sand particles or erosion by high-speed liquid droplets in high-pressure wells maycut out valves... It must be kept in good and dependable condition. the master valve is closed..
.`.`. User=.`..A P I TITLE*VT-1 96 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 5 5 249 Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 21 Figure 36-Another kind of slip and bowl type tubing head is shown in this cutaway drawing..`.````.-`-`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.`. Sealing i provided by packing that i s s backed by a bonnet and cap screws... American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001..`..``.. L @ F PRODUCTION TUBING LINE PIPE COUPLING OUTLET OUTER Figure 37-Low pressure tubing head.. .`. --````. The weight of the tubing and a bolted flange compress a gasket to provide sealing... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
In this application.`. it was inevitable that new techniques and equipment would developed. and subsea trees were among the developments. B Mechanical or hydraulic wellhead connector. Subsea wellbe head systems.. subsea connectors. B A subsea control system.-`-`. User=.`.``. Many offshore wells use a mudline suspension system to permit abandonment of such wells without leaving the navigation hazard casing and wellhead equipment projectof ing above the sea floor.. Such modifications include anyor all of may the following: B Hydraulic operators on the valves.````.22 Book One of the Vocational Training Series Figure 38-Single-wing type of Christmas tree on a well is shown in this photograph.. They are described in more detail in Section 19. This can be done by using special equipment to install a plug behind the valve seat and then replacing the seat and trim of the valve while the well produces through the other wing valve. 4. subsea control systems. This permits the casing strings to be cemented up to the sea floor and disconnected above that point after the well hasceased to produce..5 Subsea Trees Some of the first underwater wells were completed in the Canadian sector of Lake Erie inthe early 1940s for the purpose ofdeveloping a gas field. the trees that have been used subsea completions are conin figured like conventional trees. Main valves and fittings are named.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.... but are modified to one extent or another. The trees used were conventional land trees installed by divers. Typically. --````. Subsea completions tree provided the impetus for their development. subsea drilling blowout preventers. ensure the well cannot flow whilethe valve and tree are off the well. B Mechanical or hydraulic flowlineconnectors. Where a double wing Christmas tree (Figure 41) is utilized.`.`. American Petroleum Institute These devices may reduce or eliminate the needfor divers when installing or operating these trees.. As exploration movedoffshore.`. .. underwater completions were usedto eliminate the need for ice-resistant structures. Horizontal trees are a relatively new development and a departure from conventional design. COPYRIGHT 2003.`.`..`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. subsea drilling risers. it may bepossible to repair a flow valve withoutclosing the well and sacrificing production.
`. COPYRIGHT 2003..`.`.1 96 m 0732290 0556457 011 D Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 23 Figure 39-A very simple type of Christmas tree inis stalled on pumping wells. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.-`-`.`....`--- . 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`.````.`... User=. Flow from the well can go through tubing flow valves on either side.API T I T L E x V T .``. This photograph shows one example... --````... Figure 41-A high-pressure double wing Christmas tree is shown here. Figure 40-A dual completion type Christmas tree assembly ready for installation on a well..`.
. The most common methodsof artificial lift are: Sucker rod pumping.`. I Subsurface electrical pumping.`.`. but internal combustion engines are still widely required depends upon the depth used. to the subsurface sucker pump.`. The size prime mover from which the fluid must be lifted to the surface and the volume of fluid to be produced. but they operate generally in the same way..````.`.. Several types of pumping rod units are available.-`-`. m Gas lifting. The walking beam gives the necessary up-and-down movement tothe rod string and downhole sucker rod pump in Figure 43.The strokes perminute (SPM) operating speed of the unit may be changed by changing the size of one or both of the V-belt drive sheaves. most beam pumping unit prime movers are electric motors..`.. Sucker rod pumps are by far the most widely used method.``.2 --````. User=. generallythrough a sucker rod string.. Figure 4 shows a field installation of a conventional beam unit.`. Speed reduction between the prime mover and cranks is commonly accomplished by a combination of V-belt drive and gear reducer. 25 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`--- Sucker Rod Pumping The pumping unit is the machine used to impart an up-and-down motion.. Because of their better applicability to automatic start-stop control.. Rotary motion becomesreciprocating motion at the wellhead through the conventional unit lever system.. The optimum SPM at WALKING BEAM f Figure 42-The major partsof a conventional crank counterbalanced beam pumping unit shown in this drawing.some method of artifcial lift should be used.. COPYRIGHT 2003. I Subsurface hydraulic pumping.. prime is A mover furnishes the power to run a beam pumping unit. Figure 42 shows the partsof a conventional crank counter4 balanced beam pumping unit. 5. although because of weight and space limitations their useis largely restrictedto onshore wells. American Petroleum Institute .A P I TITLE*VT-L '76 m 0732290 0556458 T58 m SECTION 5-ARTIFICIAL LIFT 5.1 Introduction When pressuresin the oilreservoir have fallento the point where a well will not produce at its most economical rate by natural energy. are Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. All units are not exactly like this one. The most popular unit the beam pumping unit.
g.is used for this purpose.`. f. Gearbox size.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`.`--- .Thespecial geometry units (Figure 45) and air balanced units (Figure 46) can. User=.. d. which a unit should be operated depends on many factors.. result more economical pumping in installations. Medium-sized conventional units are usually crank counterbalanced.Depthofpump..-`-`. use cranks or on Conventional units counterweights on the the pitman end of the walking beam to counterbalance the weight of the sucker rod string immersed in well fluid plus about half of the fluid weight on the plunger during the up stroke.. ure 43.. b.`.. Unit loading. in some instances.Medium and relatively large special COPYRIGHT 2003. Pumping wells need me+s of packingor sealing off the a pressure inside the tubing to prevent leakage of liquid and gas around the polishedr d The s f f i g box. Prime mover and reducer size are minimized by gear optimum counterbalancing. shown in Figo. some of which a : r e a. Producing rate..`.. Producedfluid characteristics. Length of stroke.``. c. If a very large beam unit is required.`.. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.26 Polished rod clamp Polished rod P Bridle Carrier bar Casing Tubing ring head Casing strings Sucker rod Tubing string Fluid level (in annulus) R o d pump Mud anchor geometry beam units are alsoavailable.Pumping speed acceleration. The smaller conventional units usually have beam counterbalance only. a unit with air counterbalance is available. --````. It consistsof flexible mate- Figure +This sketch shows the principal items o f wellhead and down-hole equipment installed a for typical sucker rod pumping system. American Petroleum Institute Figure 45"Field installation of a special geometry beam pumping unit..````.`.. e. but a beam counterbalance extension can be added if required.
. Subsurface sucker rod pumps are cylindrical. stuffing The box packing is replaced by field operating personnel whenit becomes worn andloses its seal. The in service life and operating efficiency obtained from a pump depends upon proper selection and care used in the original installation. This can be accomplished by either of two basic methods. The standard length is 25 feet. COPYRIGHT 2003.API T I T L E a V T . proper operation. the plunger....`--- I flat Figure 47-Typical sucker rod joint Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. The pumps are either stationary barrel pumps Pump-off controllers (POC)are used to prevent sucker rod with top or bottom hold-down. Bothtypes of pumps are shown Figure 48. and fluid enters the barrel from the well.`. Sucker rods are run inside the production tubingstring to connect a sucker rod pump to the pumping unit. piece. and the quality of subsequent maintenance. the traveling valveopens. using either a time clock or a pump-off motor controller.-`-`. Complete rod pump assemblies are installed on the sucker 5. round. the barrel is actuated by the rod string and reciprocates over the plunger which is held in place by a bottom hold-down.`. One is to provide an excess of pumping capacity and then control the production rate by intermitting the pumping times. the standing valve opens. where the plunger travels. They are made in sizes from '/s-inch through 1%inch diameter. Good practice in all pumpingoperations is to provide reasonable pump submergence and then to match pump displacement to the actual production rate of the well. This is most commonly practiced with an electric motor as the prime mover. which strokes the plunger upward inthe barrel. reciprocating. In traveling barrel pumps. The standard rod has threaded pins on each end to permit the rodto be connected with a coupling. standing valve closes.. which connectto the sucker r o d string. The pumping cycle for the types of pumps shown in Figure 48. pumping unit stroke. American Petroleum Institute --````.or forged-steel box which provides a method of compressing the packing. User=. positive displacement pumps that lift liquid from the well to the surface. The traveling valvecloses. or traveling barrel pumps.a standing valve.. The principal pump parts include the outer shell or barrel. Tubing pumps are run on the lower end of the tubing string with the barrel assemblybeing an integralpart of the tubing string and plunger assembly part the sucker rod the of string.`. The other method is to select the bottomhole pump size. as shown inFigure 47.....L 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 6 4 6 0 606 m Introduction to Ol and Gas i Production 27 Figure 46-Air balanced beam pumping unit rial or packing housed in a cast..``. . starts with an upward stroke of the rods. The operation of either type of pump is basically the same. steel one rods. and the fluid is forced from the barrel through the plunger and into the tubing.`. Fluid is lifted toward the surface with each repeated upstroke. pumps from operating when the fluid level in the well bore Stationary barrel pumps have reciprocating plungers actu- ated by valve rods.3 Pump-Off Controllers (POC) rod string.a traveling valve. They are divided two general types: into rod pumps and tubing pumps. On the downward the stroke of the rods and plunger. The most commonly used sucker rods are solid. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.````.`. and pumping unit speed in a practical combination to reasonably matchthe production rate and operate the well on a continuous basis. in '/s-inch increments. with 30 feet being available on special order. and seating a assembly.`.
wireline retrievable gas lift valves Figure 48-This shows two types of sucker rod pumps.. Gas lift is the most widely usedartificial lift technique in offshore operations.. Continupump and barrel can be removed from the well without removing the tubing. gas is injected into the well predetermined inat tervals and displaces the fluid to the surface in slugs. and enters the tubing through the open gas lift valve.4 Gas Lifting Gas lifting is a method of producing oil in which gas under pressure is used to lift the well fluids... sincethe high and low pressure piping systems show the seating assembly cups.. where considerable time is needed for liquid to build up in the tubing. In a low productivity well. Gas lift valves can also be run in side pocket mandrels and pulled and replaced with a wireline unit. b..`.``. Liquid in the tubing above the operating Seating assembly gas lift valve is displaced or lightened by mixing with gas. the well is pumped or by responding to the pounding that into the well to the desired depth with aninsulated cable extending from the surface through which electricity is supoccurs in the sucker rods and plunger on the down stroke plied to the motor. c.`. The simplest is the use of timer allowing fluid levels a 5. The operation of running and pulling valves by wireline is shown in Figure 50.There are two basic types of gas lift installations: continuous flow and intermittent lift.gal pump. is toolow. Continuous to flow gas lift is characterized by continuous injection of high "----.This is tionary barrel. Other A subsurface electrical pump isa specially built centrifuto an devices may turn off the pump by detecting the increased tem. gas under pressure is injected into the space between casing and tubing. These valves are placed in openings spaced along the tubing string and are run to provide an injection gas flow path between casing and tubing. are run extensively since removing the tubing pull gas lift to is is The pump at left a tubing type. Pump-off conat the surface.. In operation. This method of lifting oil is accomplished by a combination of the following processes: a. POC design may be based on any of several principles. The primary reason for this is that the surface well equipment is minimized and gas is usually available from high-pressure gas wells or a compression system which can double compression for sales as wellgas as as lift applications. The rod type extremely costly comparedto wireline operations.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Operation is controlled by a control box when fluid levelsget too low in the well bore.-`-`. Present gas lift practices include the use of specially designed gaslift valves which are installed the tubing string. Displacement of fluid by the compressed gas. Offshore. on as shown byFigure 49. and is raised the surfaceby the expanding gas...`. User=. are usuallyof limited capacity. On the righta stavalves from the well usually requires a workover rig.5 SubsurfaceElectricalPumping to build up between pumping cycles. --````. Aeration (mixing of the gas and liquid) of the fluid column inthe well.Perforations pressure gas into the well annulus and continuous gas and liquid production from the well. the motor causes the pumpreto trols can reduce well maintenance and energy usage.`--- . COPYRIGHT 2003.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 m 0732290 0556463 542 m 28 Bwk One of Me Vocational TrainingSeries 5. top hold-down. The entire unit is sizedso that it may be lowered perature of the suckerrod and packing at the wellhead when dry.`.`. operator must estiThe mate the appropriate lengths of the on time and off time. Work of expansion of compressed gas..````. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. There are also many onshore gas lift installations. rod type. In operation. the shaft of which is directly connected electric motor. This is known as the intermittent gas lift system.`. These simplified sketches do not ous flow gas lift is the preferred method of gas lifting offshore wells.
. This system of hydraulic pumping uses two strings of tubing alongside one anotheras shown in Figure 53.`.. or the smaller string installed inside the larger tubing..````.``.. causing the power (engine) piston to stroke.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.000 feet. ability of the well to produce.... Jet pumps have no moving parts and depend on the pressure-velocity relationship of the power fluid to provide the energyto produce lift. enters the tubing through the pump is installed above the producing may be sent down the tubing and returns together with the operating gas lift valve. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. The hydraulic power is supplied from a pump at the surface. 5. or where it is impractical to obtain consistently clean powerfluid.`. such as offshore platforms..-`-`..`.6 SubsurfaceHydraulicPumping Subsurface hydraulic pumping a method of pumping oil is wells using a bottom-hole production unit consistingof a hydraulic engine and a direct coupled positive displacement pump. Capacity for this type of pump ranges from 200 to 26.`. in turn. Fluid fromthe well and the exhausted power oil become mixed and return surface to the settling tank through the smaller tubing. The powerfluid the casing and tubing. This type of pumping system may be used to pump several wells from a central source.`.. and well fluid characteristics).000 barrels per day (BK)) depending uponthe depth from which the fluid is lifted and the of casing. with the oil and liftsto the surface. Gas The tubing is installed with a casing packer and the jet is injected down the well through the space between zone. Hydraulic lift has been successfully usedto lift oil from depths greater than 15. Figure 51 shows the 52 surface equipment for this type of system and Figure is a drawing of a typical system installed in a well.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. This system requires an additional string of tubing to permit return of the power fluid separately from the produced well fluid.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 m 0732290 0556462 487 Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i Oil and gas out 29 PGas in volve so that impellers in the pump apply pressure upon the liquid entering the pump intake. or vice-versa. The power oil is drawn from the top of the settling tank and piped to the pump for recirculation.`. User=. This. The total pressure developed by the pump forces fluid up the tubing to the surface. 5..000 B/D from a depth of 2500 feet. it --````. The system in Figure 53 pumps clean crude oil (called power oil) from the high pressure pump down the larger tubing tothe hysize draulic engine. some instances clean water used In is as the power fluid. and inside the tubing mixes produced fluids up the tubing-casing annulus. Closed power oil systems are being used where there is limited surface area. Figure 49-This is one kindof gas lift illustration. strokes the direct coupled production (pump) piston in the buttonhole pump.7 Jet Pumps Jet pumps are another meansof using hydraulic power to artificially lift the produced fluids from the reservoir to the surface. It is possible to pump size 20. Maximum capacity of such equipment is dependent upon well conditions (size of tubing strings.
.-`-`. right.A P I TITLE+VT-L 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 b 3 315 m 30 Book One ofthe Vocational Series Training Figure 5 M a s lift valves maybe run or pulled by a wire line unit when retrievable valve side pocket mandrels have been run on the tubing.. Drawing (a).. left.... User=.`. Electric cable b Flowline Wellhead n .`. COPYRIGHT 2003. Figure 52-This drawing has been labeled to identify the main sections and special equipment for a typical conventional subsurface electrical pumping installation.. is an of enlarged view the tool assembly and gas lift valve.`--- Figure 51-Shown here is the surface equipment needed for most down-hole subsurface electrical pumping systems.`.``. shows a wire line unit "rigged-up" on the well and a running/pulling tool assembly run into the well. --````.. The tool is 'latched-on" to a valve.`.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.````..`. Drawing (b)..`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.
. this In of the installation the pump and engine may be removed from the bottom hole by pumping the power oil down the small string of tubing...`--- ...`.. combined fluids leave the diffuser...`. as it exits the restrictingnozo zle in the pump assembly.````. creates a low-pressure area which sufficiently to lift the combined fluids t the surface. As the COPYRIGHT 2003.``..`. User=.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Water or oil can be used as a power fluid jet pumps.`.API T I T L E r V T . the pressure increases The high-pressure powerfluid..-`-`.`. --````.. in induces theproduced fluid to flow into the diffuser.1 76 m 0732270 0556464 251 m Introduction i o Oil and Gas Production 31 Down-hole Figure 53-This is acommon type of bottom-hole hydraulic pump.`. Normal operation has power oil going down the large string with a mixture of power oil and produced oil being pumped to surface through the small tubing. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.
Standard lease production equipment maybe all that is needed for some of the tests.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. well testers. depending upon results the tests(see Figure 55). including the flowing bottom-hole pressure test. This procedure requires special tools and packers to be run onthe drill pipe to isolate the intervalto be tested. The rate of fluid flow from the higher formationpressure to the well bore pressure is proportional to the difference in these pressures. The first procedure inconducting a productivity testis to measure the shut-in bottom-hole pressure.````. Generally.3 Potential Test A potential testis a measurement of the oil. and the typeof fluid the well might be capable of producing. This test is made on each newly completed well and at other times as might be requested by state or feda eral regulatory agencyor the well operator (see Figure 54. provide an estimate of the maximum flowof fluid to be expected from the well... The gauge is then pulled to the surface and takenfrom the wellto observe and record the pressure. Very often these tests are performed by the producer to help in establishing proper production practices and to comply with regulatory requirements. User=. Bottom-hole pressures are recorded under various flowing and shut-in conditions. There are many types of well tests made by lease operators.. The results of drill-stem tests on a well will often determine if a casing string should run to complete the well be as a producing well.`.5TransientPressureTesting In recent years transient pressure testing has played an increasingly important role in reservoir management. It is very important that the test be done accurately since well test data document the performance of a well and the reservoir in which the testis completed.. or a combination of the three. or specialty companies.. Some types of tests are made often.A P II T L E x V T . predicting its performance.10. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Fluid flow in a reservoir is caused by the movement of fluid from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. gas. some kind of test mustbe made to determine the performanceof an oil or gas well.1 T 96 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0556465 I198 W SECTION S W E L L TESTING Introduction 6. and optimizing production alternatives in order to achieve maximum economic recovery of reserves. which is a measurement taken after the well has been shut for a specified lengthof in time. 6. These data.``.There are several variations of this test. A series of bottom-hole pressure tests conducted at scheduled intervals will furnish valuable information about the decline or depletion of the zone in which the well has been producing.1 More and moreimportance is being placed upon efficient performance of gas and oil wells. water. through the tester. in 6..) --````..`.`.. 6. These shut-in tests also give information about fluid levels in the shut-in well. . The test results show the bottom-hole shut-in pressure.`. a drill-stem test is often run on a formation of unknown performance to determine if a formation contains oil.. The information thus obtained can be used in modeling the reservoir. The open-flow potentialof a gas well 33 6. and into the drill pipe. Some of the well tests are simple and some are complicated. The purpose of this test is to measure the pressure in the zonein which the well is completed. This pressure might be called static pressure or reservoir pressure. Fluid is thus permitted to flow from the formation. and some maybe made only on rare occasions. as for 6. The well is then producedat several stabilized rates. water.2 Drill-Stem Test When a well is being drilled.2 Information from these tests is used to establish the producing rate for the well. a specially designed pressure gaugeis lowered into the well to a selected depth where the pressure is recorded by the gauge (Figure 56). If the formationpressure is sufficient to cause flow to the surface.6 Productivity Test Productivity tests are made on both oil and gas wells and include the well potential and the bottom-hole pressure tests. the bottom-holeflowing pressure is measured. of 6. if the well is dry hole.4Bottom-HolePressureTest A bottom-hole pressure test ais measure of the pressure of the well taken at a specific depth or at midpoint of the producing interval. and a shut-in bottom-hole pressure test. which is a measurement taken while the well continues to flow. At each stabilized rate of production.`. Scheduled rates may be adjusted periodically. This information or a is often used the design basis the production system. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. bottom-hole temperature. There many types of well tests. and each is conare ducted to obtain certain information about the well.. bottom-hole flowing pressure. In making this test..`.`. while special equipment is necessary for other tests. a sustained flow test through the drill pipe will provide measure of the productive capacity the a of interval tested.-`-`. when interpreted by an engineer. Some of the most frequently made well tests are discussed through 6. Fluid entering the drill pipe is trapped by a system of valves in the tester so that it may be withdrawn from the well withthe drill pipe for subsequent examination. andgas that a well will produce in a 24-hour period under certain fixed conditions.
with slight variations..``. and gas. automated test facility An consists of a control and readout panel. water. a specially designed recording thermometer is lowered into the well on a wireline.`--- This test is usually made in conjunction with the bottomhole pressure testand is made to determine the temperature of the well at the bottom of the hole or at some point above the bottom.`.. These data and the bottom-hole pressure calculations are used by the engineer in solving problems about the nature of the oil or gas that the well produces.. Temperature tests are sometimes helpful in locating leaks in the pipe above the producing zone..`.. User=. COPYRIGHT 2003... the temperature of the well at the desired depth is read from the instrument. Oil from the test is measured the tank... andgas.`. Oil and gas mixture flowing to separator Figure 54-The main piecesof equipment necessary for making potential and associated tests are a part of the normal tank battery. and for a net oil probe (see Figure 55). while gas production is measured with an orifice meter..````. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. After the thermometer is removed.`. In conducting this test. by. valve operation upon computer command and is --````. Determination 6. The separator and tank cannot be used for producing operations while being is a test in conducted. separation vesse1s)meters oil. American Petroleum Institute . test resultsare automatically transmitted and analyzed spheric pressure at the face of the producing formation. automatic time-controlled valves. Where a computerized system is used.`.8 Bottom-Hole Temperature determining the capacity andallowables of gas wells.`.7 RoutineProductionTests Routine production tests are normally made monthly to inform the well operator of any changes in the daily produced volumes of oil. is calculated by extrapolating the gas production to atmoto. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. the computer.. is the most widely accepted method of6.-`-`. This type of testing is done on both oil and gas wells and. These tests can be taken with various items of equipment ranging from simple tank measuring equipment and a gas meter to a completely automated test facility.A P I TITLExVT-L 96 m 0732290 055b4bb 024 m 34 Book One of the Vocational Training Series Oil and gas n seDarator - J / Orifice meter for gas measurement U -To gas 55 - Lease-oil storage tank pipeline f.`. water.
. complete mineral analysis arerequired..`.`--- 6.. The Figure 56-This sketch of a bottom-hole pressure measurement is very similarto a bottom-hole temperature measurement. data presentation. in other cases. Water treatment is based on results of water analysis. microphone in the wellhead attachment picks upthe sound reflections and amplifies them. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. and in still other cases. the interest may be limited to knowing the concentration trace constituents. A portion of the sound is reflected by each tubing collar and a larger portion A by the liquid level..`. and well remedial and recompletion operations.API TITLErVT-L 9 6 m 0732290 055b4b7 Tb0 m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 35 end useof water analysis data should determine the sampling procedure. and the depth to liquid level can bedetermined. . underground water migration. of Figure 55-A production and test unit showing compo. American Petroleum Institute --````.. It is also a good test to help in sizing artificial lift equipment.. the number of tubing collars (blips) may then be counted to liquid (large blip) and converted to feet. From here. COPYRIGHT 2003.. User=. by The procedure for this test is to fire a blank shell in a sealed wellhead attachment which is connected to the surface casing annulus valve. corrosion. where they are converted to electrical pulses and recorded as blips on a moving paper strip.`. This is a good test to help determineif more fluid is available for lift and how much. The composition of the water can only be mined by chemical analysis and the physical properties by actual measurements. Water analysis have proven oil nent parts for controlling individual well tests on a preto be very valuable in subsurface studies with respect to arranged schedule.`. of is course.`. The gauge different. electric log interpretation. the location of top and bottom cement in newly cemented wells. Compatibilities of waters for injection in enhanced recoveryprojects can oftenbe predicted from water analysis data. waterquality control.`. since is the it or initial step in solving scale. and lubricator Wire line which lowers andextracts gauge Bottom-hole pressure gauge in recording position 6. canbe performed on wells that will not of flow and are produced by artificial It isa very useful test lift.``. the analytical procedure. the only concern is whetheror not a particular substance is present.. on wells produced sucker rod pumping. of The chemical and physical propertiesof water are influenced greatly by the identities and amountsof the dissolved detersubstances. compatibility studies. Theyare then transmitted to a receiver. and injection intervals in injection wells. A reliable water analysis is very important.Water analysis data are often used to identify the source water produced with and gas. Temperature surveys are also used to determine whether gas lift valves are operating..10 Water Analysis The oil industry has used water analysis for many years for formation identification.````... In and some cases. but the procedureis the same.9 SonicFluidLevelDetermination Portable power-driven winch to lower and This test.`. and evaluation of pollution problems. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Casing leaks in producing wells can be detected using results of water analysis. pollution problems. which determines the depth to liquid in the casing annulus a well. sound pulse created firing The by the blank travels down the casing annulus.-`-`.
Natural gas contains substantial amounts of water vapor Figure 57-Vertical two-phase separator when produced from a gas well or separated from liquid 7..chemicals.. It is necessary to remove gas goes to gas plant where is compressed andadditional a it the gas and most of impurities from the liquid hydrocarthe liquid hydrocarbons. The carbons. depending upon the composition well stream 25 pounds of water vapor permillion cubic feet of gas. and some impurities. the greater the number of separation stages that will be suitable. such as vertical. The separation of natural gas from liquids or impurities in a separator combines gravity. heat. Gas hydrates are 7. If the gas is cooled to 70"F.. Free water also promotes the formation of gas hydrates. .`.6). and spherical.`.-`-`. free water.`... to aid in the mechanical separation of the gas and liquids. or water.`. Free water hasa tendency to cause corrosion and reand combinationsof these. and occasionally. Nearly all of the ating problems. In the high-pressureseparationof oil and gas (above hydrocarbons and objectionable impurities also must be 100 psig). Depending upon the composition the well fluids. These hydratesform at various temperatures. the higherthe flowing wellhead pressure. and other impurities are rebons before they are stored. common and simplest form of field processing. The gasis then sold to a gas transmission company. Liquid moved. the company in the field or sent to a gas plant for further proImpurities that might be found in some well streams are cessing.3). When gas and are separated at apressure oil below 100 pounds per square inch gauge (psig). The operating Mist pressure of the vessel is dependent uponthe pressure of the gas sales line. it may of be desirable to use more than onestage of separation to obtain more recovery of fluids.``. and theoperating pressure desired by the lease operator. Water vapor in gas at high pressure can cause serious opermercaptans.A631 TITLE*VT-II 96 m 0732290 0556468 9T7 m SECTION 7-SEPARATION.. Although most separators are two-phase in design to separate gas and liquids (Figure 57).1 Introduction r l i COPYRIGHT 2003. TREATMENTy AND STORAGE hydrocarbons. are of a special design depending upon the manufacturer. basic sediment.````. gas is separated at lo00 psig impurities cause various types of operating problems.`--- . and 90°F. the gas is Well fluids are often a complex mixture of liquid hydronormally gathered in a low-pressure gathering system.`. transported. carbon dioxide. --````. gas at water satthis The separation of natural gas.time. Liquid hydrocarbons leavingthe separator do not contain free gas. hydrogen sulfide.. The equipment most widely used this type of processing isreferred for to as a separator. water. duce flowrates in the gas transmissionline. they may contain water. and sold. -+Gas The sizeof the separator is dependent upon rate flow of of the natural gasor liquids goinginto the vessel. mechanOutlet> ical processes.. Separators are built in various designs. andother impurities (see 7. they can also be built in three phases to separate natural gas. mechanical electrical processes. however. Although natural gas leaving the separator no longer conbe tains free liquids. and uration contains 46 pounds of water vapor per million cubic impurities is accomplished by various field-processing feet of gas. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. horizontal.. the gas may be metered and sold to the pipeline removed from natural gas before gas goesto asales line. American Petroleum Institute 37 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. liquid hydrocarbons.. User=. gas. In general.2 Separators ice-like crystalline compounds formed in natural gas inthe Separation of well-stream gas from free liquids is the most presence of free water underconditions of highpressure and turbulence. This and the desired end product. These methods include time. For example.. it will contain only of the methods.`.`. and free water (Figure 58). and solids. helium. water vapor. liquid hydrocarbons. The internals of the vessel. means 21 pounds of water vapor have condensed to free chemicals. gravity. At pressure and temperature. the gas may saturated with water vapors (see 7. the flowingpressure of the well. nitrogen.
There are two good reasons for removing these compounds from the natural gas stream. d. and even heavier hydrocarbon compounds such as pentane. The glycol is then recycled throughthe glycol absorber tower. Gas transmission companies set specifications on how free of impurities the gas must be before it is purchased.. Dehydration by expansion refrigeration. This is accomplished by use of heatexchangers and expansion of the gas. the glycol absorbs the water vapor from the As the glycol becomes gas..``. Gas flows through the desiccant bed where water is absorbed. and molecular-sieve.. These compounds exist in the vapor phase at operating temperatures and pressures normally encountered in the surface production systems. As the gas comes in contact with the glycol. butane. the gas stream is switched through another bed and the first bed is heated to --````. Dehydrationusing solid desiccants(dryingagents) such as alumina. Heating thegas stream so that the temperature of the gas will not drop to the level at which hydrates form. Some of the most commonly used methods are: a. Addition of an antifreeze agent such as methanol or glycol to the gas stream. The mixing of the glycol and gas occurs as the gas bubbles through bubble to caps of a tray. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.4 NaturalGasLiquidsExtraction Plants (Gas Plants) Gas plants are used to remove and recover some of the heavierhydrocarboncompoundsfromthe natural gas stream. these compounds must often be removed to meet Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. saturated with water. On a time-cycle basis.`.. Most natural contains methane. c.`. COPYRIGHT 2003. Most dehydrated that goes to the sales contains no gas line more than seven pounds of water vapor per million cubic feet of gas. and absorption.3 Dehydration of NaturalGas There are several methods to prevent hydrates from forming in a gas line. First... remove thewater. User=. e. propane. b.. The pressure vessel usually has four eight trays.boiling off the water vapor.. When hydrates form in a gas-gathering or distribution line.`--- 7. silicon alumina beads.`. American Petroleum Institute . Objectionable amounts of other impurities in the natural gas stream suchas hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are removed by various processes..38 Book One of the Vocational Series Training Mist extractor Pressure gauge r Secondary or I 1 Gas outlet 1 1 Figure 58"Horizontal three-phase separator often well above the freezing temperature of water.`. which its main gas is constituent. 7.````..-`-`. The most common form of glycol dehydration consists of a vertical pressure vessel (called either a glycol absorber tower or a glycol contactor) that allows the glycol to flow downward as the gas flows upward. total or partial blockage of thepipeline may result. The methods maybe broadly categorized as those depending on chemical reaction.`. and varying quantities of ethane. physical solution. There must be at least two beds continfor uous operation. silica-gel.`. the glycol and water are circulated through a reboiler where the mixture is heated to 325°F to 350°F.. Removal of water vapor by use of a glycol dehydrator (Figure 59). which can be accomplished if there is a sufficient pressure drop between well-flowing pressure and separator pressure.`.
5 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plants Liquefied naturalgas plants go a step farther than the gas plants described above. Second. Some of this mixture comes as free oil... some as free water.`.`--- Wet gas ' Free liquids Glycol Pump Glycol-glycol heat exchanger Figure 59-Glycol Dehydrator safety and operational specifications of the natural gas pipeline and distribution systems. These plants achieve temperatures in the range of -260°F by using several stages of refrigeration. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Liquid methane is the primary constituent LNG. water. which may result in some of these compounds condensing to a liquid in the pipelines due to cooling from the ground or other surroundings.. American Petroleum Institute 7.. Most absorption plants were built before 1970 and are not very energyefficient.. Treating systems are important parts of lease equipment. the turbo-expander (also called a cryogenic plant). There are three types of refrigeration plants. various amounts of gas. and the mechanical refrigeration plant.`. chilling the natural gas stream causes the heavier hydrocarbon compounds to condense. all of the natural gas stream is liquefied.`.. and other impurities (known as basic sediment and water or BS&W) must be removed before selling the oil. They maythen be separated from the remaining gas. Specially designed ships are used to transport LNG from one part the worldto another.-`-`.``. A simplified schematic of a turbo-expander plant is show in Figure 60. At this temperature. and when large enough quantities gas of are available to justify the cost gas liquefaction plant of a and its high energy requirements. and some as a homogeneous mixture known as an emulsion. The gas. and other impurities are mixed with the oil. .````. the heavier components generally are more valuable as a separate product than as a part of the naturalgas. In all three of these types of plants. They are the J-T (Joule-Thompson). User=.`.A P I TITLE*VT-L 76 m 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 7 0 555 m lntroduction to Oil and Gas Production 39 Water vapor A --````.. and as rural and agricultural fuels. LNG is only of economically attractive when the gas cannottransported to be market by pipeline. COPYRIGHT 2003..`. of 7. This separation process iscalled oil treating.`. the naturalgas liquid products are sold for use in petrochemical industries. petroleum refineries. These heavier hydrocarbon compounds raise the heating value and dewpoint of the natural gas. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Gas plants may be divided into two broad categories: absorption plants and refigeration plants.6 Oil Treating When crude oil is produced. Experience in a particular producing field or area is valuable in determining the best equipmentfor the application.`.. Absorption plants utilize a light oil as a solvent to dissolve the heavier components which are then recovered from the solvent by a fractionation process.. water..
````. Availability of sales line for the gas. Corrosiveness of the oil.-`-`.`.`. however. and produced water. The etrtetn r size is dependent upon the volume oil and waterto be handled. mechanical..`. gas.. American Petroleum Institute . a. e. g. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Paraffin-formingtendencies of the crude oil. Scaling tendencies of the produced water. User=. emulsions. Quantity of fluid to be treated and percent of water in fluid. it is necessary to displace the emulsifier its film. the f.`--- A heater-treater (Figure 61) is normally used in treating oil emulsions..There are several methods used conin junction with one another to treatan oil emulsion. d.`. a few of the emulsions are oil-in-water andare called reverse --````.a number of factors should be considered to determine themost desirable method of treating the crudeol to pipeline requirements. of Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Some these i of factors a e r: Tightness (stability) of emulsion.. c. Specific gravity of the oil and produced water. and sometimes chemicalor electrical methods to break emulsions.. gravity.... Oil treating equipment generally makes of use thermal.1 HEATER-TREATERS Oil field emulsionsare usually water-in-oil.. 7..`.`.. COPYRIGHT 2003.`. To break a crude oil emulsion and obtain clean oil. Emulsions are complex and each should conbe sidered individually. b. This disand placement brings about the coalescence of droplets of water and requiresa time period ofundisturbed settling of the coalesced water drops. Desirable operating pressure for the equipment.6. Hae-raecan be vertical o horizontal in design. h.40 r Book O n e o the Vocational Training Series f cI I Treated inlet gas rL I Expander-inlet separator e4 Gadgas exchanger I m Demethanizer 5il Reboiler Demethanized product plant I - Gas cooler To sales Figure 60-Turbo-expander Plant Simplified Schematic In selecting a treating system.``.
`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.-`-`. This vessel can be either horizontal or vertical in design.6.`. chemical. much fuel to gas can be saved by using the FWKO.2 FREE WATER KNOCKOUTS (FWKOs) When there is sufficientfree water production on lease.. mechanical.`..````. Hydrocyclones (see 7. a a free water knockout(FWKO) (Figure 63) is often installed to separate free gas and free water from free oil and emulsion... 7.`. When heat must be used break an emulsion. n to COPYRIGHT 2003.A P I TITLExVT-1 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 7 2 328 ProductionGas to Oil and Introduction Centrifugal gas scrubber \ 41 Stack head 0 Figure 61-Flow Diagram for a Vertical Heater-treater Treaters equipped with electrodes are normally horizontal in design.... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. This can be very costly.Heating unnecessary water is not only useless.`. and sometimes. They are referred to as electrostatic coalescers or chem-electric treaters (Figure In some applications these 62).`. American Petroleum Institute 7. Although rarely seenin production operations in the United --````..`.. User=.9) are being used increasingly in place of conventional FWKOs. The size is dependent upon the desired retention time a d the volume of water per day be handled. The methods used to facilitate separation when FWKOs are used are time.3 DESALTERS Desalters are similar to oil treaters in design andfunction. treaters are the most desirable because they treat at a temperature lower than a conventional heater-treater. gravity.`. .6. saving fuel and conservingoil gravity.``.. but it takes more than twice as many British thermal units(BTUs) to heat a given quantity of water toa given temperature as it does to heat an equivalent amountof oil..
`.`..-`-`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584...`.````....``. User=. ..`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.`... .J L___-. shown Figure 63-Free Water Knockout (with Oil Split Option) --````..A P I TITLEvVT-L 96 m 0732290 0556473 264 m 42 Book One ofthe Vocational Series Training -.`..`..- d d d (outside shroud) Emulsion Oil Gas Water Water spreader to --..”.. r Shroud r..`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. intake Inlet Oil Gas Outlet r Figure 62-Electrostatic Coalescer Oil splitter orien..
some liquid hydrocarbons the permeability of the formation. and a control panel.`. d. c. medium. Desalters generally make use electrostatic precipitation.`. and federal environmental requirements. type of reservoir from which water is produced. known as stock tanks. f. e. such as volume of water. . it may be necessary to flash to gas. state. Injection into underground salt water bearing formations. terface level. Many improvements in production practices and equipment design in the past few years have made recovery of low-pressure hydrocarbon vapors practical. treating and storage facilities are commonly referredto as a tank battery (Figure 65). Bolted tanks offer the option of internal lining or galvanized construction for protection against corrosion. The gun barrel comes in various designs. Treating pressure. it usually hassufficient height toallow the clean oil to gravity-flow into the stock tanks. a scruba ber to keep liquid hydrocarbons out of the compressor. Desalters function by using fresh or brackish water to dilute the brine and increase the volume of salt water in the oil so that it can be more easily precipitated.``. Temperature of liquid hydrocarbons entering tank. It is oil from a separator. or government regulations.````. It is no longer a question of economics to justify vapor recovery since government agencies are insisting on vapor recovery to reduce air pollution (see Section 11). 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584...`. of 7. 7. Heat and chemicals may be usedto shorten the time required for settling and to improve the separation of the two liquids.. It will shut at apoff proximately V4 ounce gas pressure.`. 7.5 STORAGE TANKS Oil that is free of impurities to the extent that it will meet pipeline specifications is referred to as clean oil or pipeline oil... The method of disposal of the produced waters depends on many factors. How long liquid hydrocarbons stay in the tank before going to the pipeline.6. Type of liquid hydrocarbons. Welded tankçcan be internally coated to protect themfrom corrosion. both economically and ecologically.API TITLErVT-L 9 6 0732290 0556474 L T O m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 43 States. Disposal of carefully treated water into the ocean from offshore production platforms. Stock tanks are normally designed to hold liquid hydrocarbons with a maximum of four ounces of positive gas pressure. location of oil or gas field. The two basic types of stock tanks are bolted steel and welded steel. Bolted steel stock tanks are normally 500 barrels or larger and are assembled on location. or gun barrel. type of water. however.. Injection into oil bearing underground reservoirs from which the oil and water is produced. h.4 BARREL GUN In some cases an oil-water emulsion is not very stable. or high in salt (chlorides) content.`. c.`. Depending onthe quality of the waters to be injected and treat the waters remove as many solids and oil particles as to possible. Some factors that determinethe volume of flash gas are: COPYRIGHT 2003. depending upon the type of treating necessary to obtain the clean oil. heater-treater.6VAPORRECOVERYSYSTEM When oil is treated under pressure and then to a stock goes tank at near atmospheric pressure. FWKO.7 HandlingProducedWater Most oil and gas wells produce some water. a compressor. Welded tanks up to 400 barrels in capacity (and in some cases 500 barrels) are shop-welded and are transported ak as a complete unit to the t n battery site. If sufficient time is allowed. the method ofselling the oil to the pipeline. and how frequently and at what rate oil is taken by the pipeline company. The pipeline oil goes from the treating facilities to the storage tanks. Welded steel stock tanks range insize from 90 barrels to several thousand barrels.. Diameter of tank. b. Larger tanks are welded onlocation.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. The water is drawn off through the water which also regulates the oil-water inleg. Treating temperature. How liquids enter the tank.6. Air contamination of the gas can create explosive mixtures and accelerate corrosion of equipment. A vapor recovery unit (Figure 66) consists of a control pilot mounted on tank for control of compressors. The settling vessel is known as a gun barrel or wash tank (Figure 64). The electric motor-driven compressor will start a signal from the control pilotapby at proximately one ounce of gas pressure. --````. b.`--- a.-`-`. many instances disposal In of the produced waters presents an operational problem that must be solved to meet local.`. It is necessaryto keep a positive pressure in the tank to keep out air and prevent evaporation of the crude oil. f4 I 7... water will settle toward the bottom of a tank and oil will rise to the top due to the water’s having a higher specific gravity than the oil. User=. g. desalters are quite frequently used in other parts of the world where heavy brines are produced in conjunction with the oil. The most acceptable methods of disposing of produced waters are: a. Volume of liquid hydrocarbons.. For many years the flash gas or vapors were vented the to atmosphere. The separation.6.Some of the produced waters are fresh while others are low. The number andsize of stock tanks depend upon the volume of oil producedeach day.
an accumulation or storage tank. This device contains a section of corrugated plates. many small bubbles of gas are released at the bottom of the vessel. a corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) may be used.`--- Gas HWater Hot water wash 7 Flume - "_"" _""" " " " Cool water wash . Here.`. thus reducing the amount of oil which is left dispersed in the water. 7. American Petroleum Institute and separate from the water.- - " " " .. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.the water is usually or sent to a flotation cell.`. usedt treat produced c o water. ...r-"" "Jug" heater (optional) Gun barrel Figure 64-Schematic Flow Diagram of Gun Barrel(Wash Tank) Installation A typical waterdisposal system consists of a treating vessel to remove solids and oil particles. coalesce and riseto the surface.`.. A coalescing vessel. oil droplets are more likelyto come in contact witheach other. After leaving the coalescer the CPI..8 Water Treating Systems and Disposal Water systems may consist of a number equipment comof ponents designed to remove oil and solids to acceptable levels. The oil which coalesces is skimmed from the surface the water and removed..`. and a water disposal well. pump with prime mover.``.. of Instead of the conventional coalescer.API TITLEUVT-L 96 0732270 0 5 5 b 4 7 5 037 m 44 Book O n e o the Vocational Training Series f Gas equalizer --````... User=. controls.. they become attached to small oil droplets causing them to coalesce.-`-`.`. As these gas bubbles rise to the surface..````. This allows all but the smallestoil droplets to coalesce COPYRIGHT 2003. A typical system will include a course separation followed by a polishing devi e. The resultant oil film is skimmed from the surface of the water. the oily water flows between As the corrugated plates.`... In mostcases this completes Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. usually containsmaterial such as fine wood shavingsor other packing material that provides a large surface contact a m .`.
. moves to- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.`. The hydrocyclone consists of a long tube that is conical in shape (see Figure 67)...9 Hydrocyclones Since the mid 1980s. Offshore.``.. causing the flow to begin rotating. hydrocyclones have found increasing applications in the separation of oil from water. a hydrocyclone may be used (see Because 7. As the tiny COPYRIGHT 2003. the water leaving the hydrocyclonemay have anappreciable amount of dissolved gas. they tend to cause the coalescence of any small oildroplets withwhichthey havecontact. The oily wateris introduced tangentially into the large end of the cone.````.`--- . This water is normally directed through a degassing vessel which. As the flow progresses toward the narrowerend of thisconicaltube. User=.Theoilis skimmed from the surface and the remaining water is then disposed of.. Onshore disposal of produced wateris more involved and usually requires the produced water to be reinjected into the producing formation whereit originated. hydrocyclones usually operate pressures higher thancoaat lescers. as the bubbles of gas evolve and to rise the surface.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. i the treatment of the produced water and it can then be disposed of. they collect the oil droplets..API TITLE*VT-L 96 m 0732290 0556476 T73 Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 45 Natural gas to sales Crude oil to pipeline Figure 65-General Lease Service Installation bubbles rise. Instead of produced water being treated incoalescer and a flotation cell. --````... allows most the dissolved gas of to be released from solution. enabling the oil to rise more quickly and efficiently to the surface. This is often done by air flotation.-`-`. it can generally be permitted tobe discharged directly into the ocean withoutfurther treatment.`.9). To ensure that this limit is met. This has an effect similar to a flotation cell in that. The collected oil is returned to the production process andthe produced water is then discharged overboard. or be injected into some other suitable formation that will not result in the contamination of fresh water sources..thespeed of rotation increases.. American Petroleum Institute 7. Hydrocyclones utilize centrifugal force to effect this separation of fluids.`. being heavier than the oil. The water. because of its lower operating pressure. produced wateris generally treated to remove excess oil.`.`. if water contains less than 29 parts per million (ppm) oil and grease. a process of bubbling air through the water.
unof der ideal conditions water discharged from the hydrocyclone may contain less than 15 ppm of oil... the The greater the speed of rotation and the greater the centrifugal force which will be developed to cause the oil and water to Figure 674ydrocyclone --````. In addition.. Hydrocyclones are also being installed onshore particularly where large volumes of produced waterare handled in fields with high water cuts..-`-`. valve Electric driven rotary compressor Figure 66-Typical Stock Tank Vapor Recover System separate. hydrocyclones are finding increasing applications in oil production. This ultimately results in oil accumulating central a as core which can be removed axially at the large end of the cone. while oil is forced toward the center. makes them appealing in offshore facilities where space a premium and is at loads must be kept to a minimum. thus eliminating the need for additional processing of the water. .`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. As a result of their high separation efficiency.. ward the wall of the tube.``. These include the specific gravity of the oil. the greater the inlet pressure the greater the pressure drop that canbe developed between the inlet and outlet ports.`..`. Several factors affect the efficiencythe separation of of oil and water in the hydrocyclone. The water is discharged through the small end of the cone.. Although many factors affect the degreeseparation. greater this pressure drop.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. their compactness and relatively low weight.`. the viscosity of the oil..`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. the temperature of the oily water. compared to conventional oil-water separation equipment.API TITLE*VT-I 9b H 0732290 0556477 90T m 4 6 Vent line back pressure valve SeriesOne o the Book Training Vocational f t H Control pilot c "Suction line - I Crude oil stock tank Suction scrubber L Condensate dump return 1 Jf b Gk b. Usually inlet pressures of 50 psi or higher are preferred. User=..`. and the pressure ofthe fluid at the inlet to the hydrocyclone. In general.````.`.`..
API T I T L E * V T . This also determines that each well produces its proper part of the total production from the lease. User=. many cases. gun-barrel. after which the flow is switched to an emptytank. measured. Thus. so that the for reading and calculation the gas volumes recorded.``.````. pipeline gauger and be sure that the measurements are to corFor production control purposes. oil production from all wells on a lease can be measured in the lease tank while one well is individually tested using an oil meter. Also. The closing gauge when the has been emptied tank concerning the market demand oil or gas and the efficient for and is sealed shut in preparation for another filling. Gas meter charts may be changed by the lease operator (Figure 68) who makes the tested to determine its gravity (density). tank car. In some cases.. manually-operatedlease tank batteryconsists principally of a gas-oil separator. the amount produced is determined by sibility to watch the gauging and testing of the oil by the the individual producer. and the pipeline gauger the transporter.-`-`.L 76 0732270 0556478 846 m SECTION &GAUGING AND METERING PRODUCTION 8. and gas-metering equipment. because often the value of crude oil varies with gravity. and salt water produced each leaseare usually checkedor by measured by the lease operator or gauger during each Similarly.. and tested. lease operators sight read thegas meter charts to estiered. a test gas-oil separator and gas meter are often provided to enable separate periodic measurement of the production from each well for testing purposes. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. gas In are taken from time to time by the operator.2 LeaseTankBattery It is at the lease tank battery that the oil and commingled gas produced by the wells on a lease are separated. an oil meter is used in place of a tank for well-testing purposes.`. The older.`. awaiting delivery to pipe line. temperature the proper notations and forwards them to the production office of the oil and its BS&W content are determined.. it is often the duty of the lease operator to see that the metering equipment used to measure gas delivered 24-hour period. of rect. and the oil flows into from the wells on a lease. In the ab-taken by the pipeline gauger.. Because more than one well is usually produced through the main gas-oil separator.`. and seeing that proper credit is one of the tanks where gauges of the heightof oil in the tank given for oil and delivered from the lease. the volumes oil. as much oil usually directed into one tank of the lease battery until it is or gasas possible is produced from each well. The oil is temporarily stored there.. At of tank gauges can be converted into net barrels of oil delivtimes. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. truck. In some fields.filled.1 Introduction 8.`. Figure 68-Changing gas meter charts is a routine function o the lease operator. gas purchaser usually supplies and maintains the gas sales metering equipment.. tank truck.. 8. the standard base mate the daily volume of gas produced by each lease. the gas usually producing and measuring the proper amount of oil or gas is measured throughan orifice meter. . is also It rate of production for the particular field and wells. or other carrier. Volumes are referred to at 60°F. These allowable ratesare usually set each month gauger preparatoryto running the oil from tank into the the by state regulatory agencies based upon current evidence pipeline. oil or gas is produced from each well in accordance with The final gauging of a full tank is made by the pipeline allowables. The temperature at which crude oil prices are posted... heater-treater..3 Tank BatteryOperation --````..`. gas. The oil is nel or of the purchaser of the gas. In any event.`--- One of the mostimportant duties of the lease operator is After passing through the gas-oil separator. even the oil delivered is measured gauging theheight of oil in by though thismay be thedirect responsibility of other personthe tank before and after delivery is completed. when a full tank of oil on a lease is delivered run to a pipeline. The oil flow is particularly where stripper wells are produced.`. The lease operator this transaction represents the proin ducer or seller. is the leaseoperator's responsence of regulations.`. two or more oil stock tanks. Periodic well tests are often required by state regulations and are needed by the operator as a guide to maintain efficient operation of the wells and the underground oil reservoir. f 47 COPYRIGHT 2003. or or off the lease is functioning and serviced properly.
8. 8... each tank is strapped.. Sometimes it is necessary to transfer any oil emulsified with salt water from the bottom of a lease stock t n to a treater for removal of water BS&W. Corrections of oil volumes measured at temperatures other than the standard of 60°F are made in accordance with tables published by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM D1250)and the Institute of Petroleum (IP 200). By refemng this value to the t n ak table.`--- To determine BS&W content and theAPI gravity ofoil in tanks. The line running through the box is marked to show the height of oil in the tank.. pipeline. The tape is then withdrawn and the highest point where oil wets the tape shows the level or height of oil in the tank. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. gravity. the accumulated water mustbe drained from the lower levels of the gun barrel and stock tanks. The end of the line is coiled and counterbalanced below reading box. is handledcarefully as a bankcheck. when the gauger representing the pipeline or other transporter proceeds to put a tank on the the first step is line. The volume must be corrected for BS&W. when covering an actual transaction. An automatic tank gauge has been used to some extent in past years. the The samples are taken either (a) with a rhieJ which is a container that can be lowered on a line or stick into the tank from the top through a hatch and is equipped so that itcan be filled at any level in the tank. In many cases. User=.`.1 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 8. or closing gauge is taken.`.````. to determine the nature ofthe fluid below the pipeline connection and drain off through the drain valve any BS&W above this level in the tank. the value of crude oil increases with higher APZ gravi9..7.. the volume ofoil (or oil and water)in the t n is deterak mined. with a float on the end of the line resting in the surface of the oil in the tank. This type of device can be modified to obtain a continuous recording of tank gauges.``. and both representatives sign the ticket. the date. which means taking the measurements or dimensions of thetank and computing the volume of that canbe oil contained in each interval of tank height. In such cases. but maybe done manually through the drain valve on the stock tanks. Common practice is to show the capacity for each Y4 inch from the bottom to the top of the tank. and other necessary data are written on the pipeline run ticket. samples of the oil are taken from tank for testing.2 GRAVITYANDBS&WCONTENT 8. The average temperature. Thiefs and sample can cocks are also used to determine whether there is excessive BS&W near the level of the pipeline connection to a lease stock tank.A PT I T L E + V T .. Volume also must be corrected to the standard base temperature of 60°F since the volume of oil as gauged in a tank increases with the temperature of the oil. This device consists of a steel gauge line contained in a housing. producer. which is located at a convethe nient height for reading from the ground. ak or 8.`. with the barrel (42 standard gallons) as the unit of measurement.-`-`. The volume of salt water produced during each 24-hour period may be measured by gauging before and after drawing off the water accumulated in the lower levels of the tanks. as 8. and BS&W content of the oil in the tank must be measured. This information. known as a rank table.4 Tank Strapping Before a tank battery is put in service. This is usually done automatically a by siphon on the gun barrel. and transporter. sampling. Most pipelines require that all oil higher COPYRIGHT 2003. The capacity in ak barrels according to height of liquid in thet n is preparedin tabular form.7 MeasurementandTesting Procedures All procedures commonly used for measuring.`. or oil purchaser. The line extends up over the top of the tank and down theoutside through a reading box. The lease operator representing the producer witnesses all of these gauges and measurements. and testing crude oil in the United States are passed on by the API Committee on Petroleum Measurement Standards.. along with the namesthe of lease. top or opening gauge is then The taken.6 Oil MeasurementandTesting Crude oil is bought and sold in United States on a volthe ume basis.. a to bottom. Such a ticket. Thus. the temperature of the oil may be 10°Fto 20°F above air temperature. except (a) while and shortlyafter the oil is produced whenit may retain some of the elevated temperature of the subsurface reservoir.of theoil in alease stock tank isordinarily close to that of the air around the tank. back.. The temperature. and (b) when the oil is heated in atreater to separate it from salt water or BS&W.`.I I I 96 W 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 7 9 7 8 2 48 Book One o the Vocational f Training Series When salt water is produced with the oil. When tank has the been drained of oil the level of thepipeline connection. .. The temperature of oil in a tank is usually taken with aspecial thermometer which is lowered into the oil on a line and then withdrawn to observe the reading (Figure 69). the number of the tank. --````. The strapping and preparation of the tank table for each tank is usually done by a third party not connected with the producer.which can be read through a glass window in the box.a steel tape with aplumb bob onthe end is lowered into the tank until it just touches the tank bottom. A sample run ticket is shown in Section 15. whichis usually about 12 inches above the bottom of the tank.7.`.`.5 Tankor Oil Gauging To measure or gauge the level of oil in atank. or (b) by means of sample cocks installed at variouslevels in the shell of the tank and through which samples be withdrawn. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
--````. The LACT actually unit delivers directly to the pipeline as soon as fluids have been separated.9 AutomaticCustodyTransfer Figure 69-These are some of the gauger’s tools: (1) Hydrometer and graduate for measuring gravity of API oil. This unit is calibrated by the pipeline periodically and is maintainedby the pipeline or producer..`. This simplifies the installation and operation. The unit meets requirementsfor accuracy and dependability temperatures. and (c) electrical. (2) Thermometer for measuring temperatureof oil of in tanks. These samplesare held underpressure and the sample container shielded from the sun to prevent excessive weathering. serves to eliminate hazards to tankbattery operation. This is being done to further improve the efficiency and accuracythe operations of and minimize the hazards. Surge tanks are used for protection against irregular flow. An automatic custody transfer (ACT) installation (Figure 7 1 ) provides for the unattended transfer of oil or gas from the lease to the pipeline. A production gas-oil separator is not normally required because the pressure heater-treater contains a gas separator. Figure70 is a schematic layout of a multi-LACT system. and device that dea termines net oil.APTITLEJVT-L I 9b m 0732290 0556480 4 T 4 Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i 49 tank. Compressors may be connected with the surge tanks to recover gas and stabilize oil to materially improve overall vapor recovery.determines quality as it takes samples. or air-operated devices and valvesthat switch tanks and shut in wells when all tanks are full. tank batteries are now often being equipped with (a) overflow lines connecting tanks near their top levels in order to prevent overfilling any one tank. Many leases also have tank vapor recovery units. and glass container in which the the test is made is graduated so that the percentages of BS&W can be readdirectly. oil or emulsion. It has been widely accepted by the industry for measuring gas volumes. records and net volume..(3) Tank-gauging line for measuring height oil in tanks. 3. User=. and size of equipment and fittings employed. mechanical.. ANSVAPI 2530). To relieve operators of certain routine duties such as switching and topping out tanks. anda test unit. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. recirculates bad oil for another treatment. (b) filling valves which close when the tank becomes full and diverts the stream to the next The use of fully automatic equipment is called lease automatic cusrody transfer (LACT). than 4 inches below the bottom of the pipeline connection must be acceptable. a bad oil tank. and free water into three phases.8 StandardizedandSemi-Automatic Tank Batteries Most operators use a fairly well standardized lease tank battery with respect to type.`. The producer usually supplies the LACT unit.3 “Orifice Metering of Natural Gas.0 percent.`. and shuts down and sounds an alarm when something goes wrong. layout.`. The API gravity of the oil is measured by a hydrometer graduated togive a direct reading which is thencorrected to the standard temperature of 60°F. 1978. eliminates gas (where necessary). COPYRIGHT 2003.. a gas meter.. 8. The normal lease tank battery now consists of a pressure heater-treater. Buyers of crude oil have varying requirements regarding the cleanliness of crude oil.-`-`. a run tank. 8. Where applicable. 8.1O GasMeasurement The most commonly used method measurement of gas for is the orifice meter.. Orifice measurement of gas is coveredin the API Manual ofMeusurement Standards. and these samples are stored on the unit.`. usually decreasing theselling price. Each unit of oil that passes through the LACT unit is sampled.````.``.. Weathering decreases the API gravity of oil. but the maximum BS&W contentin most areas is 1. This a differential measurement device is actuated either by mercury float or-a more recent development-liquid filled bellows.. keeps a record for producing and accounting purposes. and helps to avoid conditions and practices that otherwise might lead to waste. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`--- .. the advantages include a reduction in lease storage (which might mean less evaporation loss. The test unit consists of a vessel that separates gas. anautomatic custody transfer unit. Steps have been taken toward making the operation of older tank batteries more automatic. (4) Centrifuge or “shake-out machine” for measuring BS&W content of crude oil.” (American Gas Association Gas Measurement Committee-AGA-Report No.a gross liquid meter.`. as well as less investment in stored oil) and increased operating efficiency and control. The BS&W content of the samples is determined by a centrifuge or shake-out test.. Chapter 14.`..
...`.`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003..APL T I T L E m V T .`.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.````..`...1 9b œ 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 8 1 330 m 50 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f U Lease@ 1 Lease shut-in controls I Low level controls --""__"_ " " " " " " " " " - """""_ " -""_ " " " -"" - t Figure 70-Flow Diagram of a Multi-lease Automatic Custody Transfer System --````. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.`.. .``. User=.-`-`.`...
. pressure. use of the fail-safe devices. They also provide a means of starting and stopping equipment.`.`. and flow rates. and pressure tapswhen installed carefully and when using factors within the prescribed tolerances.-`-`. valves. flow of wells. mainthe tain.`. detection.`--- water production throughthe field communications system of wire and radio.. Other types of gas meters have application in certain situations. temperatures. and production equipment specialists.. day-to-day control of oil field production systems.``.`. sensors. They are an outgrowth of the tremendous advances that have been madein computer technology. 3"ANSI/API 2530. and troubleshoot. Bore. The PLC and DCS are electronic developments that have occurred in recent years. 3"ANSI/ API 2530. A record of gas flow through the orifice meter is registered on meter charts or stored in gas flow computers. The orifice meter tube (meter run) consists of upstream and downstream sections of pipe whose size and tolerance have been determined through calculation and conform with specifications set forth in AGA Report No. opening and closing valves.. computers are used in many modern operationsto control and monitoroil.. The PLC and DCS provide means ofautomatically measuring and recording the values process variables such as of levels. and the alarm devices (see Figure 72). An orifice meter installation consists of a static pressure and differential pressure recording gauge connected to an orifice flange or orifice fitting by suitable piping. and taking corrective action as determined by the control program in response to fluctuations in the process variables. and vortex shedding flowmeter. These include the positive displacement meter(typical residential). and flowcontrol fire equipment. computertechnicians. turbineflow meter.````. automatic well test systems. --````. malfunctions... repair. However. pressures. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.edge.`. time clocks.. mechanics... User=.`. The orifice plate is centralized in the line the flanges or by within the fitting in a plane 90 degrees to the direction of flow.As part of their control function. Programmable logic controllers (PLC) and distributed control systems (DCS) may be used to provide automatic.12 Programmable Logic Controllers and Distributed Control Systems Figure 71-Automatic custody transfer unit where oil i s measured for sale and transfer to the pipeline.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 m 0732290 0556482 277 Introduction to Oil und Gus Production 51 8. . will obtain an overall accuracy of measurement withinf 2 percent. American Petroleum Institute Figure 72-The master station controls and monitors operations through a communication system o satelf lites and remote control panels connected to the end devices. orifice plate. Computers perform the routine work and provide 24-hour surveillance of operations. and COPYRIGHT 2003. gas. This equipment is operated and maintained by a team composed of electricians. they I 8. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. The orifice meter in conjunction with its primary devices-tube section. and tolerance should meet all specifications as set forth in AGA Report No. and solve problems to keep equipment functioning.11 Computers in Producing Operations Field operating people plan and organize work. temperature. liquid levels. storage. Electronic controlsoperate the ACT units. They collect and record producalso tion information such as flow rates. circumference.`.
and usethese trends to play an increasingly important in oil and gas production. however. American Petroleum Institute --````. pressures.To change theway a PLC controls a piece of ating variables such as flow rates. and it is likely that they electronic communications and the great strides being made will continueto find increasing use in oil and gas production.. open and close valves. this demarcation their appliin systems an increasingly attractive option for operating recation has becomeless distinct.. 8.````. PLCs can be used instead of electro-mechanical (electric mote oil and gas fields..indicate trends in other means of automatic control and data acquisition will any changes in these measurements.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. PLCs are relatively inexpensive and adjust production rates as needed.`. as PLCs have become systems providea means of monitoring andcontrolling promore powerful intheir capabilities and DCSs have become duction operations from a central location. relin Acquisition (SCADA) Systems atively simple control applications. it may be cheaper to reoperator ata central control location can monitorfield operplace the panel. COPYRIGHT 2003.13 SupervisoryControlandData When originally developed. is safe to say that PLCs. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. In recent years. PLCs were used small.A P I TITLEaVT-L 96 0732290 0556483 L03 m 52 Book One of the Training Vocational Series in computer technology.. tine activities can be conducted without someone having to be physically present at the well or production facility.. SCADA systems are and reliable and have muchgreater capabilities. .`. and it can keeptrack of previous measurements.`. In to tures. DCSs.. An Changingtheelectro-mechanicalcontrolpanelsoften requires extensive modifications.. while DCSs were used in larger. addition to this versatility.. and temperaequipment or process. used in the monitoring and control of remote oil and gas With the enormous expansion taking place in the field of fields both onshore and offshore. more complex operations such as chemical plants and Supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) refineries. it is only necessary reprogram it..`.`.`. User=.``.. With a SCADA system. Advances in communication andcontrol technology have made SCADA more diverse in cost and size. role predict future problems or make appropriate changes in the process variables so that the process continues to function within normaloperating limits.`. many rourelay) panels and pneumatic panels for control purposes. can start and stop equipment.-`-`.
but far more specialized equipment has beendeveloped to accommodate drilling and producing oil and gas wells in openwater throughout mahy parts of the world. barge-mounted rigs were used to develop fields in shallow water. Louisiana. In this case. All of these methods are still used to some degree in certain near-shore areas..`--- . the wellheads are actually at the sea floor (underwater completions) and no part of the well is visible at the surface.`.. is often used in shallow water and is the predominant method for water depths from 200 to about lo00 feet...`. these remote wells produce through flowlines on the sea floor to a central gathering platform. Platform drilling. as shown in Figure 74. wells are drilled by of mobile drilling rigs. while others the distance produce to gathering platforms Figure 74). artificially constructed islands. and sometimes limited oil storage. wells are drilled from and protected by the same are structure on which the production facilities subsequently installed.````. This minimizes to in All the transfer lines required. In one type of offshore development. These large structures house personnel accommodations. These plat- forms became keyelements in each of the two basic development schemes employed to date.1 Introduction One segment of the oil and gas industry that has shown remarkable growth and technological advancement in recent years is offshore operations... COPYRIGHT 2003. alsowere developed. From such platforms the oiland gas are usually transported to shore by pipeline. production is subsequently handled by the main facilities onshore (foreground)..`. User=. As offshore oil and gas development moved into progressively deeper waters. California.. Such structures are often calledself-contained Figure 73-A field where development extends from the shoreline into deep Ocean water.. bottom-supported steel platforms designed to withstand hurricane-force wind and waves. thereare conflicting claims as to where and when the first true offshore well was drilled. In a few instances.``. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. or wharf platforms (usually wooden) in shallow water.. Structures designed for the prevailing local conditions are now in use from the tropics to the North Sea and offshore Alaska. or even moving ice sheets. In either case. often called jackets.Since this type of activity began by gradually extending onshore fields or trends intoadjacent shallow waters. Some of the closest wells (see produce directly shore.-`-`. Jacket development is generally limited to water depths less than 200 feet. Early efforts in drilling wells offshore employed conventional land drilling rigs that were located on adjacent shores. 53 --````.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. another offshore development method. and in water depths to more than loo0 feet.`. These wells are usually on small protective structures. or theoil may be loaded into barges or tankers. and Texas are the primary areas of the United States where such activities were under way before World war II.A P I TITLExVT-1 96 0732290 0556484 0 4 T SECTION 9"OFFSHORE PRODUCTION AND STRUCTURES 9.`. with productionpipedtofacilitieslocatedonshorenearby (Figure 73). Later.`.`. which there are several types. while underwater completions may be made at much greater depths.production facilities.
Figure77 shows such a complex. . Remarkable progress in offshore construction.`.. seen in the upper left.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. The industry. Completely new concepts for offshore platformsin thousands of feet of water Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. separate. Typically such complexes are found in shallower water (generally less than 200 feet deep). and production technologyhas been made during the last 30 years. drilling.`.. American Petroleum Institute --````.. and water offshore basically identicalto are those used onshore.`... Production facilitiesthat are used to produce..`--- be fully self-contained. isnow flourishing on continental shelves throughout the world. of Mexico off the Louisiana Some of the larger offshore fields have developed by been drilling from several large platforms. The majordifference is that the equip ment is ingeniously packaged. to by fit in the very limited space available on offshore platforms. User=. and treatoil. and the pace is still accelerating. Wellshave been successfully drilled in thousands of feet ofwater using floating drilling rigs..and the technology to complete and operate such wells is developing rapidly. The well conductorcasings can be seen in rows under the center of the platform. which saw most of its development in the Gulf of Mexico off the coastof Louisiana until themid-l960s. Central Gathering Platform. are The interconnecting walkways (bridges) primarily for the convenience and safety the production operators. it may be practical to handle production from all the structures through facilities on just one platform rather than for each to COPYRIGHT 2003. and the wellheads are under the deck on which the workover rigis located.`.``. which produce through flowlines to the central gathone gas ering platform in the foreground.`. transfer line each for oil and then carry production ashore. In such instances. as phfonns. Figure 75 shows a platform containing production facilities from which more than 60 wells were drilled. avoid of to transferring between platforms by boat.````. and Mobile Rig The many small structures each house from to four wells.-`-`.The wells were One drilled by a mobile rig..API ITLExVT-L T 96 m 0732290 055b485 T8b m 54 Book One o f f h e VocationalTraining Series Figure 74-Offshore Well Jackets. often stacking in layers..`. in Figure 76 shows a production platform complex the Gulf coast... gas.
American Petroleum Institute --````..````.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`..`..`..`--- Figure 75-Offshore Self-containedPlatform Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. User=.-`-`.`...`.`. .``....lntroduction to Oil und Gus Production 55 COPYRIGHT 2003..
... is still COPYRIGHT 2003. Such templates frequently include well manifoldsystems which allow the production from the wells to be commingled at the template.`--- 9..`. Pipelines may then convey the produced fluids . --````.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. Beyond these depths other types of production systems become more attractive economically. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.`. The weight of the structure and the facilities installed thereonis supported by the structure which transfers these loads into thesea floor an via piling.Three Offshore Platforms Operated One Complex 7 as Although there are wells on three platforms. 9. it may be economically feasible t develop the deepwater prospects using subsea completions and process the produced fluids on a floating facility or on a shallow-water platform. including the all platform to the right where drilling in progress.. User=.4.2.2 Conventional platforms are essentially rigid structures which are pinned to the sea floorusing piles.``. economic water depth limit may be even less. the platform at extreme left handles all production. Such structures typically have economic limit in the range of 1200 to 1400 feet of water in environments such as the Gulf of Mexico.`..-`-`. In harsher environments.`.1 SUBSEA TEMPLATES Alternate Offshore Production Systems When deepwater prospects are located fairly close to o shallower water. Some of these alternative concepts are described in 9.A P I TITLExVT-L 96 m O732290 0556487 859 M 56 Book One of theTraining Vocational Series Figure 76"Large Offshore Production Complex (Note helicopter pad and crew's quarters on the right. the Figure 7 .````.`..`. Often a multi-well template will be installed on the floor and the subsea sea wells willbe drilled through the well slots provided by t h i s template..) also have been unveiled..2 through 9. Offshore oil and gas development throughout the world promises to be the most rapidly changing part of an always activeand advancing industry.
The tension. Although tankers most often have been converted for this application. which is attached to one of the tanker’s ends. The semi-submersible.. User=. Generally the shuttle tanker will keep its engine propeller turning slowly so as to keep the mooring line exhibit more motion than a TLP but. ing productionfacilities. provided by the buoyancy of the structure..3 SEMI-SUBMERSIBLES vane aroundthe buoy withoutinterrupting the flow of oilto the tanker.`. In general. withthe produced fluids being processed on a separate facility such as a shallow-water platform. The wells are controlled by means of a subsea control system which is operated fromthe platform. Widely spaced subsea completions temor may be used for fuel.`. some of the produced gas production riser. purpose-built storage units also have been used. The oil is transferred mooring system. tension leg platforms (TLPs) may find application. This buoy. and whether the load carrying be loading facility (FSO) (see Figure 79). floating storage may be an alternative. porarily moored. While the TLP utilizes vertical mooring by means of a floating hose connected between the two tendons. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. moved. The cost of conversion therefore must be carefully analyzed in selecting the best alternative for development. semi-submersibles will ships. permanently moored vessel.````.`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. while a floating platport) tanker attaching a mooring hawser to the opposite end form.2. they usually are modified by permanently attaching a mooring buoy which incorporates a special fluid swivel. a means of unloading is drilling semi-submersibles which have been converted for required. In mild environments the shuttle tanker In convertinga drilling semi-submersiblefor use asa floatmay come alongside and tie up directly to the permanently ing production facility. 9.. a semi-submersible platform uses a conventional and catenary mooring system. only preliminary processing the oil and gas occurs of --````.the drilling rig may or may not be remoored tanker. Permanently attaching such a buoy to a tanker Semi-submersible vessels have found application floatas involves a significant amount of modification to the ship.3 FloatingProductionandStorage Facilities In areas which are remote from shore and where an infrastructure of subsea pipelines and onshore production facilities does not exist. more commonly. Tension is applied to the tendons by deballasting the structure after the tendons are installed. on the semi-submersible.2.2 TENSIONLEGPLATFORMS I Beyond the depths where conventional platforms can be used. when compared to a taught and thereby prevent the two ships from touching. through individual flowlines or through a specially designed In the case of FSOs andFPSOs. Most ofthese systems have utilized When tankers are thus converted. minimizes the motion caused by wave action... single-hull vessel such as a tanker or abarge. flared at either the which are utilized as floating production systems. In some cases. depending on whether drilling and workover Such an installationis known as a floating storage and offcapabilities need to retained. Wells drilled from TLPsare usually completed with their tubing extending back to the platform. In general. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. cost of conversion may approach that the of a purpose-built vessel. it is then known as a floating Subsea completions are generally used when semi-subproduction storage and off-loading facility (FTSO) (see Figmersibles are utilized to accommodate productionfacilities.`.. Someplatform or the floating facility or both. their motion is Sometimes oil transfer may take place by means of a sepdampened considerablyby their deep ballasted hulls and the arate loading buoy to which the shuttle tanker can be temcomparatively small area exposed to wave action.1 96 m 0732290 0556488 795 D Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i 57 from these manifolds to the shallow water platform.1) may be used with semi-submersibles injected into wells or. Theremainder of the gas may be replate wells (see 9. ure 80). An example of such a unit is the Brent Spar Buoy(see Figure 78) which was built for storing oil from the Brent Field in the North Sea. This permits direct access to the tubing for control of production rates and workover operations.. differs from the TLP especially in the design of its of the storage tanker from the buoy.. times.-`-`.`... This is usually accomplishedby the shuttle (transthe purpose. allows the tanker to be permanently moored at the location and the swivel permitsthe tanker to weather9.`. When tankers are converted for permanent use as oil storage facilities.The primary limitations of the TLP are those imposed by amount of buoyancy that can develthe be oped to provide tension in tendons and support weight of the the required equipment.`. Tension leg wellhead platforms (TLWPs) have been proposed to provide minimumfacilities in deep water. In some cases.. the conversion of a drilling semi-submersible to a floating production facilityconstitutesa major modification. subsea wells may be produced diThe oil and gas may be conveyed to the semi-submersible rectly from anFTSO. withfinal separation and dehydration ofthe oil and gas accomplished on platform in shallow a water or at facilities located onshore.``. If all or some separacapability of the semi-submersible can accommodate the both tion and treating of theoiltakesplace on boardthe weight of the drilling rig and the processing equipment. TLPs are floating facilities that are anchored to the sea floor with vertical tendons installed at the comers ofthe structure.2.A P IT I T L E * V T . 9. .
' from Pipeline production platform i hose Submarine Figure 78"Bent Spar Buoy 9.4 MobileOffshoreProductionUnits (MOPUS) Jackup drilling units can often be used as production platforms. When modified and used this manner they are ofin ten referredto as MOPUs (as opposed to MODUS.. crane and loading boom Accommodation and equipment decks room Pump I I ' ' ' Water room treatment -: m I -I- ' . User=. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Other factors include whether or not the drilling of additional wells is anticipated.. depending on several factors including the MOPU's proximity to the producing wells.. The advantages of converting jackups to MOPUs include relatively short conversion times and the ability to use the MOPU elsewhere when fields with short production lives are depleted...`. the drilling rig may be left on the unit or may be removed.. mild or moderate environments where the choice of suitable candidates for conversion will be much wider.58 Turntable with helideck..`.or mobile offshore drilling units). jackup drilling units have been converted to MOPUs andhave been used inareas as widely different as the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and the Sea.`.`.`--- - . COPYRIGHT 2003.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. When converted to a MOPU.`..-`-`..`. American Petroleum Institute For more than 30 years..````.``. --````.`.. and whetheror not the jackup can accommodate both the drilling and the rig production equipment that will be required. By North far the greatest number of applications are in relatively shallow.
`.`...````.``..`... User=.`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. ..-`-`..`.`..l 96 m 0732290 0556490 343 m lntroduction to Oil andGas Production 59 ô V t Q --````..API T I T L E * V T .`.
...`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`.. User=.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.. .-`-`.`.API T I T L E m V T . 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.````...`.....``.`.`.L 96 0732290 0 5 5 b 4 9 L 60 Book O n e o the Vocational Training Series f 73 a S --````.`.
pipelines in long lengths are quite flexible..-`-`..``. The offbottom row installation method utilizes pieces of chain as ballast. be While rigid in short lengths.`--- Y -Sea floor Figure 81-Pipe Laying Barge Shallow Water - laying laying barge barge Pipe A Sag bend Sea floor / Figure 82-Pipe Laying Barge . In deep water.A P IT I T L E x V T ...`...L 96 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0556492 116 m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 61 9. American Petroleum Institute --````..`. usually around 40 feet in length. .`. Short sections of pipe.a stinger supports the upper portions of the pipe. while pipe tension prevents buckling of the lower portion (see Figure 82).. User=. in conjunction with acoustical release Pipe laying barge COPYRIGHT 2003. fabrication.````. This method is known as the bottom tow method of pipeline installation (see Figure 83).Deeper Water Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001... Soon the design.5 Subsea Pipelines As oil and gas producing wells were drilled offshore.`. and virtually all methods of subsea pipeline installation make use of this fact.. Subsea lines may be fabricated onshore and towed along the sea floor to their intended location. and installation of subseapipelines became a specialty in its own right. It supports the pipe betweenthe barge andthe sea floor so that the pipe does not buckle during laying process.`. The most common installation method uses a pipe-laying barge. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. it became necessary to lay subsea pipelines to convey the oil and gas to shore. Stingers may the extend to the sea floor in shallow water or in water from 200 to 300 feet deep (see Figure 81). are welded together and loweredto the sea floor by means of a stinger: A stinger is a structural truss attached to the stem of the barge.`.`. Subsea pipelines may installed by a variety of methods.
..T I TA P I* V T . In very deep water. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`--- plied to the pipe preventsbuckling as the pipe makes the transition from the vertical to the horizontal position during the pipe laying process. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Typically. During installation.``.`. It is classified as a pipe rather than a hose because pressure ratings up to several thousand psi are available. This pipe is constructed of alternate layers of synthetic material and metal (usuallystainless steel).-`-`.. As the joints of pipe are welded together... In recent years.`. higher pressure flexible pipe used mostly for subsea flowlines. Tension ap--````. This minimizes the risk of collision between the pipe andobjects on the sea bottom.. Pipe laying with the reel method restricted to pipe is of 8-inch diameter or less.`. the pipeline is lowered vertically to the sea floor. to allow the pipe to be supported above the sea floor while towing. Reel barges are an alternative method of installation. When the pipe is in place. the diameter of flexible pipe used is 10 inches or less.`. with the smaller diameter.. the pipe is unwound from the reel as the reel barge moves along the intended pipeline route (see Figure 85).. As the pipe is welded together.`. . it is wound on a large reel.B o t t o m Tow Method of Pipelaying COPYRIGHT 2003. the buoys are released using an acoustical signal and the pipecomes to rest on the sea floor (see Figure 84).. User=.. Accoustical release b o s u y- Prefabricated pipeline Ballast-chains Figure W f f .L LE 96 0732290 0556493 052 D I 62 Book One of the Vocational Training Series Prefabricated pipeline r I Figure 83”Bottorn Tow Method of Pipelaying buoys. Flexible pipe is generally wound on reels and installed using a transportable reel system temporarily installed on the stern of a work boat.`.````. or from a reel ship specially designed for the purpose. flexible pipe has gained popularity in subsea installations.. the J-lay method may be used (see Figure 86).`.
..`.API TITLEmVT-1 96 W 0732290 0556474 T99 W Introduction to Ol and Gas Production i 63 Figure 85”lnstalling Subsea Pipeline Using the Reel Laying Method J-lay barge Figure 86-J-Lay Method --````.`..`.. ..````. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`...`. User=...`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003...``.`.-`-`.
After the inhibitor has been pumped into the wells. External corrosion is deterioration of the outer surfaces of equipment and piping caused by the exposure to air and moisture. gathering systems.This water must be disposed of in a manner that will neither damage land nor pollute fresh water supplies. Changing operations with more pumping wells.. Finally. Waters produced from oil andgas wells quite often contain dissolved materials which leave deposit calledscale in a tubing or in surface equipment. American Petroleum Institute . is then produced back with the well it fluids to protect both the well and surface equipment. in recent years.A P I TITLE*VT-L 9b m 0732290 0556495 925 m SECTION 10-SPECIAL PROBLEMS 10. and to is undesirable because more than approximately percent of 1 water in the oil is not suitable for sale to pipelines and refineries. Thus. Because corrosion may occur in any or all parts of these systems. Paraffin isa sticky. waxy material which can form a thick deposit that plugs well tubing and surface piping.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. well completion equipment.. In 10. Oil and waterpassing through restrictionssuch as pumps. Hydrogen sulfide can weaken steel with no noticeable change in appearance before failure occurs.`. and oxygen tend to corrode the metal equipment with which they come in contact.1 Introduction Some of the toughest problems associated with oilgas and production result directlyfrom impurities produced with the hydrocarbons.`... and more drains and pumps have increased thechances for oxygen to enter production handling systems. which can reduce corrosion rates by puttinga protective film on steel. more and more water has been produced.. Figure 88"lntemally Corroded Line Pipe tive measures.`. because the many different of conditions in various producing areas. It is also dangerous to people and animals. User=.````. Even minute quantities in of oil the water can make itsdisposal most difficult. This often can be accomplished by using one of several different methods. tubing.-`-`... or chokes can become thoroughly mixed in the form of very small drops which do not readily separate from each other.Internal corrosion occurs within the piping or equipment as a resultof corrocaused by high vedents in the fluids being handled. Erosion locity movement of produced fluids and impurities can significantly contributeto internal corrosion.. or to stray electrical currentswhen the ol metal is surrounded by water or moist s i .`. The scale deposit is usually troublesome and difficult to remove. no one product or group of products can prevent all corrosion problems. In previous sections. Figures 87 through 90 demonstrate the corrosion damage that can occur without effective preven- Figure 87-Tubing Destroyed by Internal Corrosion --````.`. These and many other factors have caused increasing internal corrosion problems. water produced with oil and gas is often much greater than the volumeof oil produced. but left unchecked can totally plug equipment.`.`.`--- 65 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. However. yet they mustdealt withto probe tect equipment and to make the hydrocarbons usable. One major producing problem results certain hydrofrom carbon compounds collectively calledparufin.. and in general terms is classed as either external or internal. more vapor recovery systems.hydrogen sulfide.. increasingly more attention has been directed toward preventing corrosion. and storage systems have been described. Most impurities are very difficult and costlyto neutralize or remove from oil and gas.2 Corrosion Corrosion is one of the most costly troublesencountered by the oil industry. This type of mixture is referred as an emulsion. Progressively deeper drilling has resulted in more wells which produce some carbon dioxide. inhibitors mustbe introduced into the fluid stream in the well itself. Research has led to the discovery of many products called inhibitors. As many oil fields have grown older. Substances suchas water. carbon dioxide. COPYRIGHT 2003.``.
. and other equipment are being widely used in oil and gas production.. This type of preservation for steel is called cathodic protection. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. -. plastic pipe and other plastic items are being used extensively. The simplest method is to allow the emulsion to stand for along time so that the water can settle out because its greater of density. usually resulting in pitting. This development has provided steels which are used many places in oil field equipment. The treatment which is selected is determined by the characteristicsof the emulsion and the costs other methods.`. Protective coatings are used to help insulate thesteel surfaces. More extensive work has been doneto develop plastics for protective coatings.`. are placed downhole to accomplish the same results. it is necessary to reduce or reversethe direction of current flow. in some low-pressure systems..`.`.. Other meansmust then be used to speed the process. most plasticsdo not have the strength or other desirable properties to make their use possible in many places where metal is now used.````.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 W 0732290 O556496 861 m 66 Book One of the Vocational Training Series Much workis also being done to develop steel alloys which.`. casing strings. because their composition. The treatment of is normally done with a heater. or heater-treater.) Heat is supplied by a burnerwhich uses eithergas or fueloil.tanks. As a direct substitute for steel.. tanks.. as shown in Figure 91 (also see Section7. However. but the mosteffective protection is usually provided by fo m inducing currents which flow to the steel insteadrof it. The resulting electrical current flow can cause tiny particles to move from steel into the the water or soil. some cases. solid inhibitors. and the chemicals used are injected small quantitiesby in pumps. by stray electricalcurrents.`.`. COPYRIGHT 2003. This method is not always successful because the emulsions quite often do not separate even after standing a very long time. However. When steel pipelines. eventually causing pits or holes in the steel. . Figure 90"Severely corroded equalizer tube from gas-lift valve. electro-chemical cells similar to those in an automobile battery can develop. which slowly dissolve into the produced fluids. A great variety of chemicals is usedfor this pur- . is caused Some corrosion.. or both.``. . the of some alloys limits their cost use to very specialized situations..3 Emulsion Treating Figure 89"Valve made inoperable by external corrosion. User=.. To minimize this kind of problem. Common methods of emulsion treating involve the use of chemicals or heat. and plastic-coated pipes.... Concrete coatings have been used for many yearscomto bat both internal and external corrosion.naturally resistthe of effects of corrosive materials. --````. or thestructural membersof an offshore platformaresurrounded by waterormoist soil.-`-`. There are several methodsused to treat theoil and water mixtures known as emulsions.`--- 10..
Paraffin removal may be accomplished by pumping chemicals to dissolve it. Efforts to prevent the formation of paraffin in the well have been only modestly successful. Scale in producing wells sometimes begins the producing formation before the scale-forming fluids reach the wellbore. Water Disposal 10. This material varies 10. Treatment down the tubing-casing annulus protects downhole equipment. the produced water canusually be disposed of into the seawater provided it does not harm marine life.-`-`. in character. Onshore.API TITLE*VT-L 96 0732290 0556497 7TB lnfroducfionto Ol and Gas Production i 67 10..`. Over the last few years this potential hazard has been recognized.. --````. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. the separated liquids are drawn off. or heat. and plastic-coated tubing sometimes retards its deposition. solvents. Other precipitates are found along with these in three deposits. American Petroleum Institute Extreme care must be exercised in handling and disposing of produced water because of possible damage to land areas and the possibility of polluting lakes.. Scale may restrict and completely plug off production in the formation. It is difficult to control their deposition and they are difficult to remove by either chemical or mechanical means. The main cause of paraffin deposits is the cooling of the oil and gas stream it flows from producas the ing formation to thestorage facilities at the surface. . changes in physical or chemical environment. and automobile cooling systems. produce similar operating problems when deposited in tubing or flowlines. pumping hot oil that melts or by it.4 Scale Formation I l Perhaps the most familiar examples of scale are those which form in cooking vessels. but in general it is a waxy substance that is difficult to remove and can causeserious or complete obstruction to flow.`. paraffin is allowed to deposit on the tubing walls and is periodically removed before serious problems result. and calcium carbonate. pose. hot-water heaters.`.. Loosened paraffin is then produced from the well. 10.. State and federal regulations provide serious penalties for polluting. though chemicallydifferent from paraffhs. produced water is usually injected into wells which conductit to underground saltwater sands. 10. procedures have been developed the safe handling for and disposal of this material (see Section 17). In general though.7 Paraffin Problems Parafin was briefly described in l .5 NaturallyOccurringRadioactive Material (NORM) 10. or to prevent thesolids that are formed from sticking to the surfaces of pipe or equipment. COPYRIGHT 2003. User=. since no one material has proven effective for all emulsions. Scale creates serious problems in producing wells.8 Asphaltenes Asphaltenes.`..6 Figure 9l"Emulsions are processed through some variation of heater-treaters like these. After being treated. Some common scales associated with oil field brines are calcium sulfate. or in flow lines and equipment at the surface. mixture of incompatible waters. Some scale deposits can be preventedby adding chemical agents to the produced fluids to prevent the formation of solids.``.`. slowing down flow fluids and hampering the operation of equipment. but may not be effective at the face of the formation.Offshore. with the oil goingto the stock tanks and the water going to the disposal system. or temperature changes encounteredby the well fluids. Accordingly. In such cases. in the tubing.. barium sulfate. Paraffin inhibitors work in some areas. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. In many cases.. injection wells. scraping the tubing with mechanical devices run the well in on wirelinesor installed on the rods in pumping wells. As the name implies...`. Scale is a mineral deposit usually formed on surfaces in contact with water. streams. the downhole scale can sometimes be removedby dissolving it with a strong acid solution. waste disposal wells. these compounds resemble asphalt or pitch. or subsurface reservoirs which provide water for drinking as well as for irrigating purposes. This method is not always successful because some forms scale do not easilydissolve in of acid and the pipes must be cleaned with scrapers or other mechanical means. Scale deposition can be attributed to such factors as pressure drops. This kind of water injection helps to also increase oil recovery.`--- Some scales which are deposited by produced water may be radioactive to one degree or another. and plant water systems. Sometimes the water can bereturned to the same formation from which the oil is produced. however.`. Paraffinin lines and facilities on the surface is usually controlled with the use of scrapers.````. Similar scale deposits can form in of oil well piping and equipment.. it is not possible to apply this method because of the way the oil or gas well was completed.
hydrogensulfide may infiltrate and attack the crystalline matrix of the steel. API RP 55: Recommended Practices for Oiland Gas Producing and Gas Processing Plant Operations Involving Hydrogen Sulfide.APTITLE*VT-L I 96 m 0732290 0556478 634 1 68 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f ! 10.9 Hydrogen Sulfide The presence of hydrogensulfide gas in produced petroleum fluids is an especially difficult problem because it is potentially damaging to equipment and potentially dangerous to people and animals.... Gas must be cleansed of hydrogen sulfide before it is sold. This frequently involves absorbing the hydrogen sulfide from the gas and processing it to obtain elemental sulfur. it found in only a is small percentage of the producingfields in the nation. which mayoccur in a short period of time and is often evidenced by cracks in the steel.``.. and can cause death. which is then sold. In addition..-`-`.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and inhibitors may be used separatelyor in combination to prevent damage to wells and facilities exposed to hydrogen sulfide. chemical reactions take place which in corroresult sion of steel tubular goods and oil field equipment.. is called hydrogen embrittlement. b. API RP 49: Recommended Practices for Drilling and Drill Stem Testing of Wells ContainingHydrogen Sulfide.`. --````. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. . protective coatings.`.. To enhance the safety of operations involving hydrogen sulfide. burnsthe eyes and throat. A variety of special alloy metals. At very low and nontoxic concentrations. Fortunately.. special efforts are required to confine gases containing hydrogen sulfide. however. User=.. To protect people and the environment. hydrogen sulfide has an offensive odor similar to thatof rotten eggs.````. Hence. When hydrogen sulfide and water are produced with petroleum. Oil field personnel who regularly work around facilities which contain hydrogen sulfide receive special training in personal safety and have access to or carry emergency safety equipment.`. These recommended practices should be consulted when appropriate. naturalgas which contains hydrogen sulfide is commonly called sour gas.`. API has developed the following recommended practices: a. At higher and more lethal concentrations. creating conditions which can lead to weakening and failure of the steel in certain cases. This failure.`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. hydrogen sulfide gas kills the sense of smell rapidly.. Monitoring equipment maybe needed whichsenses the presence of hydrogen sulfide and sounds alarms and shuts in wells and facilities in the event of a leak.`.`.
The water whichis injected is obtained either from wells that produce water along with the oil. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and thermal processes. 11. chemical.. Selected wells are chosen for injection and the water moves through the reservoir pushing oil to producing wells (Figure 92). Water can sometimes be injected into an underground formation by gravity. Becausethe polymer is very costly..3 Injection Gas The practice of injecting or returning a part or all of the gas produced withoil has long been an important of oil part producing operations. followed by the injection of unthickened water. is sometimes added tothe injected water.or otherwise increasing ultimate recovery from a reservoir. 11. a thickening agent. testing. and frequently increases ultimate production from gas cap drive reservoirs.`. Such techniquesincludewaterinjection.API TITLEaVT-II 96 m 0732290 05.-`-`. in other projects cases.. User=. and must not react with water in the formation where is the it being injectedto form scaleor other undesirable compounds. this displacement of oil by water improves recovery in solution drive reservoirs. a bank or slug of thickened water is normally injected. --````. inhibit corrosion. (b) to create a gas cap drive to replace a less efficient recovery mechanism (such soluas tion drive).`. and miscible. and this terminology willbe considered to encompass other nomenclaturein common usage. Water treatment may include one ormore of the following processes: deaerating. To maximize the volume of reservoir rock that is swept by water. and the need in many cases to carefully analyze reservoir performance under primary production before designing the enhanced recovery program. and (c) to prevent oil movement into the gas cap of strong-waterdrive or combination drive reservoirs...56499 5 7 0 m SECTION 11-ENHANCED RECOVERY 11. Water injected into formations must meet certain requirements. Economics are highly important. injected water must be clear and stable. enhanced recovery is begun almost day the production while starts. The cost of working over a well after plugging may be many times the costof preventing plugging by properly treating the water.`.. This is only one of many injection patterns which might beused. Enhanced recovery will be used in this booklet to describe all efforts to increase ultimate production of oil and gas froma reservoir.`. Capability to improve recovery has growngreatly as better technology and understanding of reservoir behavior have been developed. timing of enhanced recovery efforts is an important consideration. are not started until the middle or latter stages of primary production.gas cycling. or polymer. economics. It also must not be severely corrosive and must be free of materials that may plug theformation.`.. Injection of gasrequires the use of compressors to raise the pressure of the gas so it will enter the formation. Virtually withoutexception. While gas recovery is frequently high. stabilizing. r + .`. Injected water Ol i water Injected Figure 92-Water Injection 69 COPYRIGHT 2003. All enhanced recovery techniques include methods for supplementing naturalreservoir forces and energy.2 Water Injection By far the most widely applied enhanced recovery technique involves injection of water into the oil reservoir. since all recovery improvement measures are costly. h . or from water supply wells drilled for that pur- . To optimize the production program for a reservoir. or prevent growthof bacteria. but in most cases pumps are needed to inject at the rate desired (Figure 94). Figure 93 shows a waterflood in which each oil well is surrounded by four water injection wells.`.````. Since water is frequently less viscousthan the oil it is pushing throughthe reservoir.. Principally. special measures are sometimes required to optimize recovery of gas and gasliquids. andthe search for even moresuccessful production processes is continually being pursued. there is a tendency for the water to bypass andleave some oil unrecovered.`--- i .. The main purposes of injecting are gas (a) to prevent depletion of the main source of reservoir energy in gas cap drive reservoirs.cm”-- ’ .. also. Timingis most heavily influenced available technolby ogy. softening.gasinjection.I Introduction Substantial quantities of oil will normally remain in the reservoir at depletion if only the primary production processes discussed in Section l are utilized. In many instances. and chemicaltreating to adjust the composition. filtering.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.``. which at are the four corners of a square (as shown by arrows). such as pressure maintenance and secondary and tertiary recovery.
This allows the slug to push the oil and water. High-pressure gas drive involves injection gas such as of a natural gas. Dueto the extremely high costs of preparing compounds that are miscible with oil. and being left unrecovered in the reservoir rock pores. including the composition the oil. being bypassed by the water or gas. Many factors bear upon theability to achieve and maintain miscibility. If the pressure. and the surface facilities and processes to preused pare and inject substances... .`.1 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 6 5 0 0 O12 70 SeriesOne of the Book Training Vocational Figure 93"Waterflood 11.`. American Petroleum Institute --````. surfactants. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.``. the injected fluids. User=. neither do oil and gas. and alkaline materials. carbon dioxide. the of and natural waterin the reservoir rock. gas composition.. Extensive research and field testing have beendone to develop substances and techniques which will create miscibility between the reservoir oil and displacing fluids. the rock itself...-`-`.I I A P I T I T L E x V T .. temperature. Thus. injected gas may at The times be mixed with water.`.````..`. or nitrogen under conditions of high reservoir pressure (3. a mixable zone will be created and almost complete in displacement of the reservoir oil will occurthat part of the formation swept by the injected gas. This immiscibility contributes greatly to oil droplets resisting displacement. or the gas to push the slug (Figure 96).or an injected gas bank may be propelled by a second gas or water bank. each process must be designed to meet theconditionsexisting in a particular reservoir.`--- Figure 94"Water Injection Pump Station Figure 95"Water Supply Well Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Some of the substances used to achieve miscible conditions in the reservoir include high-pressure gas.4 Miscible and ChemicalProcesses Oil and water do not readily mix with each other and. or bank is frequently a slug injected which is miscible with both and either gas or salt oil water. Other factors are reservoir temperature and pressure. COPYRIGHT 2003.000 psi or greater). in many cases..`.`. solvents... oil composition are favorand able.`.. enriched gas.
with which it is also miscible. Ordinary soap ais surfactant.5 Thermal Processes Thermal recovery techniques include the injection of heated wateror steam.1 96 m 0732290 0556503 T59 m lntroduction to Oil and Gas Production 71 a portion of the oil in the reservoir. This process is called gas cycling..7 InjectionSystemOperation Most enhanced recovery activities require the injection of a fluid. well as entrapment of gas bubbles at high pressure in the water-invaded region... and handlingof produced fluids.`. propane.`--- signed to provide(or supplement) the reservoir drive mechanism and heat the oil. Thisliquid increases the oil volume and reduces its viscosity. Certain crude oils possess an acid characteristic and will mix with a carefully designed alkaline substance to form a surfactant in the reservoir. To permitearlier recovery of the gas liquids. Needless to say. In the case of a gas cap drive oil reservoir. 11. User=.A P I T I T L E x V T . 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. 11. .. however. which might then be followed by salt water. it is desirable to leave the gas in the reservoir as an energy source until the oilis depleted. projects have been undertaken in old gasreservoirs completely invadedby water to reduce the pressure by producing water at high rates. thermal processes pose extraordinary challenges for surface equipment.`. separator.act at the surface between water and to reducethe forces which causeoil and oil water to reject one another.````. some ofits components condense into liquid thatis sola uble in oil. the oil which could not otherwise be produced is burned. thereby reducing its viscosity and improving its flow characteristics.6 Gas Reservoirs Many fluids which exist as gases in the reservoir contain hydrocarbon components which separate out as liquids when brought to the surface where pressure and temperature are reduced. Enhanced recovery steps that may be taken include (a) production of gas at rates significantly above the rate of water influx. Strong water drives in gas reservoirs can lead to water as as influx into the reservoir gas is produced. and (b) production of water fromwells located around the periphery of the reservoir.`.. viscous crudes found at shallow depths where natural reservoir temperatures are not high and reservoir pressures are low. or a series of fluids.. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. or surfactants. Gas cycling maintains reservoir pressure while recovering these liquids. gas production can be initiated. Steam or heated water flooding are similar in concept to water flooding. American Petroleum Institute --````. These processes are de- Oil Injected Injected water or gas miscible slug Figure 96-Miscible Recovery Enriched gas drive entails injecting a gas enriched with ethane. Some solvents which have been used are light hydrocarbon compounds that mix with oil and a displacing gas and alcohols which have a high degree of solubility with both oil and water.certain projects involve burning COPYRIGHT 2003. In place burninginvolves injecting air or oxygen intoa well and igniting the reservoir A portion of oil. Steam gives up much of its heat to the reservoir as it condenses to water and produces a steam driven bank of hot water. Efforts to overcome the problem of immiscibility will continue andnew processes will evolve and be developed in the future.-`-`. Asthis gas contacts the reservoir oil. into the reservoir. butane.. Specially designed surfactants for enhanced recovery projects can be made from naturally occurring organic materials from peor troleum derivatives.`. creating heat and a driving bank of steam and combustion gases..`.. and proper operation of the injection system is extremely important. and may be attractive to apply in some gas capsas well as some gas reservoirs that are not associated with oil columns. A complete water injection system will include a water knockout.. thereby improving its flow properties. for in someinstances these liquids will condense in the reservoir (and a portion may become unrecoverable) as pressure is reduced with production. A bank of the alkaline mixture is injected and followed by water. the liquids separated and sold. and the dry gas returned to supply reservoir energy for oil recovery. 11. allowing the gasto expand andpercolate to the top of the structure where it can be produced. or a combination of these substances.. producing wells.`. An injected surfactant bank might be followed by a polymer-thickened water bank. Injection of a slug of solvent which mixes with both oil and the displacing fluid is known as solvent flooding.``. Also. but it is ineffective under reservoir conditions. The swollen oil becomes mixed withthe injected gas and moves to the producing wellsto increase recovery. Also. The great majority of thermal projects (although this is not exclusively the case) involve heavy. Gas cycling may increase the ultimate recovery of gas liquids.`. injection wells. Surface active agents.
pumps. Check water-oil separating equipment to make certain the water is oil-free. Regardless of the system used.solvents. Check automatic and manual safety shutdown equipment regularly. c.`.`--- 96 m 0732290 0556502 995 m 72 Book One o the Vocational f Training Series heater-treater.. Check pressure held on vessels in closed systems. a power supply. The following list includes many of the checks that must be made on the treating system: a.````. f. d.`.-`-`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`..``.fock tank ~ - T J Skimmer tank P " Water COPYRIGHT 2003.`..`. Because there are several things that can happen to water-treating and injection systems. Make necessaryadjustments. Report immediately any failures of oil-water separation equipment.. b. good operation depends upon proper attention to details. Air the bemust be kept out of closed system to keep water from coming corrosive.filter efficiency. skimming tank. Gas to sales 7 W Separator .`. Maintain proper chemical feed.A P I TITLExVT-L --````. i. e. and to prevent the formation of solids which would plug thesubsurface formation. Note any changes in filter inlet and outlet pressures as evidence of decreased. American Petroleum Institute m Water knockout ö Water Filters Clear water wells 11 i 1 Figure 97-Diagram of a Water Injection System Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. backwash pump.. chemical feeders. is even more important This when the injection of complex polymers. controls. Backwash filters regularly.Oil to . U =. Regularly check wells to be sure that onlyclear water is being injected.. Check volume of water going through the plant and to individual wells. chemical pumps. filters. or meters so that repairs or necessary changes can be made without delay. vessels. User=... h. close attention of an operator is needed if they are to work well. injection pumps. A simplified flow diagram showingsome of this equipment is depicted in Figure 97. backwash tank... particularly just before and after back washing. piping. g. if used.`. or surfactants are required to achieve the desired enhanced recovery. and automatic control equipment. ..
-`-`. Wells must be produced that damageto the well so and the reservoir do not occur. User=. It is the job of production people to keep the wells producing.````. --````.`.. engines... Major repairs are usually done by company or contract crewscomprised of specialists in mechanicalrepair.. Even though much the work is done during of daylight. and routine servicing of wells. andother skills.`--- amount of oil sold..`. operation. In mostcasesoil and gasproductionis an aroundthe-clockjob.`..welding. Thus the lease operator acts as the company’s representative in the sale or transfer of gas or oil from the company to the buyer. electronics and electricity. computing. Although some oil gas may or have been produced during completion testing. regardless of weather and all other obstacles.and administrativepersonnel complete the basic team specialof ists required in modern operations. A continuous well performancesurveillance is conducted. transportation. the lease operator (Figure 98) is directly responsible for obtaining accurate recordsof the 12. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. The engineering. The lease operator performs minormaintenance jobs on wellheads.``. The field supervisors may be known as foremen and superintendents. vitalassistance also is often provided by experts in communications. repairmen. is responsible for the field training and safetyof the crew. where applicable. and technicians.4 Production Foreman Coordination of all work on the lease or leases is in the hands of the production foreman.`.roustabouts (maintenance personnel). the vital job of moving the oil and gas from the well the purchaser falls to to the production department.mustbe followed. pumping units. oil and gas are being produced at all hours of the day and night.`. accounting.. .`. Thelease operator produces the wells and must sometimes treat the oil so that it meets pipeline specifications. Some of the field operating personnel are lease operators.2 Lease Operator When oil or gas from a well is being sold to a transportation company or pipeline.However.. tank batteries. The head roustabout not only takes responsibility for completion of the given but also job.3 Maintenance Personnel Each crewof roustabouts (Figure 99) is directed by a head job roustabout or a gang pusher..SECTION 12-PRODUCTION PERSONNEL 12. and other support functions. It the head roustabout’s to is oversee the work of the roustabouts.Allowables. This complex job involves the installation. repair. Others use automatic custody transfer units. and replacement of production equipment. to be sure the needed tools and equipmentare at the workingsite.. Some companies have special gaugers to handle this transfer. or other production equipment. well testing. geological. instrumentation.`.oil and gas measurement. production personnel make the well and its equipment a permanent part of an oil field. It is the foreman’s job to Figure 98-Lease Operator 73 COPYRIGHT 2003. 12.1 Introduction When drillingof the well has been completed.. 12. and generally to carry out the instructions the production foreman on whose of lease the work is being done. American Petroleum Institute Figure 99-Roustabout Crew Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Other activities include well remedial work. maintenance.
A P I TITLErVT-L
0732290 055b504 7b8
Book One o the Vocational Training Series f
Figure 100-Production Foreman and Maintenance Personnel
supervise lease operators, to direct the work of roustabout gangs and any specialists required, and to determine what work is needed,in what order it needed, andhow it should is be done. This individual is an important representative of the management of the company and is responsible for seeing that approved company practices are employed in all work. The production foreman often supervises the completion of new wells; oversees the installation of production, treating, and storage equipment; and directs well servicing and recompletion work (Figure 100).
12.6 Engineering Technician
The engineering technician (Figure 102) is a skilled specialist who installs and maintains the instruments and control devices, electrical or electronic, related to field operations. Engineering technicians may also work on designing and troubleshooting artificial lift equipment and on resolving problems associated with (a) major pieces of machinery, (h) enhanced recovery projects or (c) corrosion protection equipment. As a team member of the production group, the engineering technician works closely with the engineering group, computer personnel, and the field foreman to eliminate chronic malfunctions and resolve specific problems.
12.5 Superintendent Field
General supervision of all activities in a field, area, or district are under the control of field superintendent.It is a a superintendent’sjob to supervise andcoordinate drilling and production activities and to control production in accordance with regulations and company policy. All of the field employees are under the superintendent’s general direction. Plans for drilling and workover operations, tank battery plans and construction, and other general supervisory and operating activities are carried out by personnel under the control of the field superintendent (Figure 101).
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
12.7 Petroleum Engineer
The petroleum engineer (Figure103) applies basic physical and engineering principles the development, recovery, and to field processing of petroleum. There wide variety of a is types of work in which the petroleum engineer may involved, suchas be drilling and completing wells, managing the recovery programs of underground reservoirs, and reducing the cost of oil and gas recovery. In addition, the engineer may workresearch, evaluin ation, and finance, well as producing property management. as
Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
A P I TITLE*VT-L 96
0732290 055b505 bT4
Introduction to Oil and Gas Production
Figure 1Ol-Head Roustabout, Foreman and Superintendent
Figure 102-Engineering Technician
Figure 103- Petroleum Engineer
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute
A P I TITLEtVT-L
0732290 0 5 5 6 5 0 6 530
SECTION 13-TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
portant is thecapability for early detection and correction of The figures in this section show some the types of tools of and equipment usedin operating and maintaining oil and gas conditions which could lead to massive mechanicalfailure. Figure 106 shows production operator at a remote termia production facilities. The items include small hand tools, nal connected to a computer. The computer continuously anlargepowerdrivenequipment,computers, andhighly alyzes, displays, and records information received from specialized mechanical and electronic instruments. Most of sensors on a number of producing wells and the associated these implements are used in both onshore and offshore operations. production handling and processing equipment. This enables one individual to monitor controlnumber and a of Figure 104 shows a truck used for crew and equipment widespread operations, perhaps miles apart, from a central transportation,safety and support equipment, and wide asa location. sortment of basic tools. Items this sort have been traditionof An instrument called a dynamometer (Figure 107)can be ally used in routine oil field maintenance for many years. An electronic analyzer which is used to evaluate the used to analyze the performance of rod pumping units. The condition of engines, compressors, andother types of large, dynamometer measures the loads on the polished rod and rotating equipment is shown in Figure 105. Such instruments produces a record of the forces on the rod pump system at can offer distinct advantages, such as rapid inspection with each point during the pump cycle. From studyof this record, the equipment operating normally comparedto costly shutmany well, pump, and rod string problems can bedetected. Dynamometers in widespread useare either mechanical or down and dismantlingfor visual inspection. Even more im-
Figure 104-This is a six-passenger truck used transportation of tools and employees to and from work on a for producing lease. the tqols carried on the truck are shown. All
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001, User=, 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.
the electronic instruof ments have become increasingly popular in recent years. the most dramatic advancements in recent years have been in the areas of powered or automated devices.````.-`-`. User=..L 96 H 0732290 0556507 477 H 78 Series One o the Book Trainingf Vocational Figure 105-Technician evaluating large compressor with electronic analyzer. Figure 106-Operator at remote computer terminal.API T I T L E * V T ...`. lower) dynamometers.`.`--- .`. The availability of small... portable computers and other electronic gear for field use has greatly expanded the capabilities of operating and maintenance personnel.`.`. --````..``. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.. electronic. upper and electronic (1 07b. While basic hand tools and other mechanical devices continue to be important in oil and gas operations.. COPYRIGHT 2003. Figure 107-Mechanical (1 07a. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`. Because their ease of use...`..
````. However.. the term vulve is used in reference to many sizes and shapes of devices which may serve the same basic function but in different ways and under different conditions. Some valves are manually operated. VALVES. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. In order to regulate the movement of oil or gas through pipelines or other piping. The steel pipe used transporting oil andgas is manufacfor tured in sectionsor joints normally ranging from around feet 10 (for small sizes) to more than 40 feet in length (for larger diameter sizes). Figure 108 shows these types of fittings.. gas. tees or crosses for joining two or more lines.`. some to openclose very quickly. some to withstand many cycles of opening and closing. regulators to control pressure. swages or reducers for changing the line size. To formpipeline. User=. which effectively joins the individual sections into one solid unit. fluids are virtually always moved through piping. by on 79 COPYRIGHT 2003. and threaded connections. small in threaded connections(C) (background). and petroleum products to refineries. Some of the most commonare elbows (or ells) used for changes of direction. --````. while others are mechanized to open or close automatically. many different control devices are required. Threaded connections. AND FITTINGS The most widely used means of moving produced oil.`.. many types.`.`. In as be some situations. these sections must securely a be connected together..-`-`. gas. stainless steel.`. were once used extensively for pipelines and interconnecting piping.. ... others to allow flow in one direction only.. In this flange-and-boltconnection. Figure 108 shows examples of welded.. gas. and strengths of pipe are used. or fiberglass) is used for specific applications such as highly corrosive fluids.`. Threaded connections are now used chiefly for small piping or under conditions where the heat from welding cannot be tolerated. Within a production facility. This is generally done by welding. flanged. where sections of pipe are screwed together. and yetothers to open and close according to pressure in the line... or terminals. and flanges which are welded onto piping that it can be bolted to another section so of piping or to other equipment. Pipe madeof other materials (plastic.`. market areas. Long-distance pipelines. Most pipefor this purposeis made of steel because of its high strength and moderatecost. and relief devices permit escape of to all or part of the fluid should excessive pressure develop. Other commonly used equipment includes meters to measure the volume of fluid moving throughthe line.``. To provide for these and numerous other transportation needs.`--- Many types of pipe fittings are required to accommodate the almost limitless array of piping configurationsneeded in hydrocarbon transportation and processing.Thus. such where sections of piping must periodically removed for inspection maintenance work. One of the most basic ofthese is the valve. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and water from wells to treating or storage facilities is through short pipelines. a steel ring or flexible gasket is compressed between the flanges to provide a leak-free seal. are used extensively to transport oil. commonly called flowlines or transfer lines. sizes.API TITLErVT-1 96 m 0732290 0556508 303 m SECTION 14--PIPE. and water are shown in Figure 109 through 11l . Figure 108-Large welded (A) and flanged piping(B) (foreground). Large flow control valve center is pneumatically controlled the operator installed top of the valve. often called transmission lines. flanges or welded to the respective pipe ends are bolted together. These and some of the additional equipment used in the complex networks of piping which handle oil. some valves are designed to or withstand great pressure. which is primarily used to shut off or block flow through a line when appropriate.
``. and Figure 110-Pressure relief valve on top of vertical vessel. --````.`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001...`.`. check valve and gate valve.`.... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`--- ... User=.API T I T L E * V T ...`.L 96 m 0732290 0556509 2 4 T m 80 offhe One Training Book Series Vocational Figure 109”Well flowlines coming into a production header. Riser from each flowline contains a union.. Large piping contains a number of flanged welded ells..`. COPYRIGHT 2003.`.````.-`-`.
A P I TITLE*VT-1 96 m 0732290 0 5 5 6 5 1 0 6 1 T m to Introduction Ol and Gas Production i 81 Figure 111-Small pipes. User=.`. --````.`.-`-`....`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`. fitting above permits plate installation and removal.`.. ..`.``. Flanged device at lower left contains orifice plate.......````.`.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. valves and fittings connect gas meterto meter run.
This report or is sent taken bythe operator toa district or central production office. Although these basic reports may with different compavary nies.A P I TITLE*VT-L 9b m 0732290 0556511 9TB m SECTION 15-REPORTS AND RECORDS 15. accounting. It is the duty of the management toestablish organizationalprocedures whereby the lease operator or gauger prepares basic records and reports from which most of additional office paper work the is done.`--- C0"Irol Aaxunhng Codes Figure 11 2 4 a u g e Report 83 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. in general the reports made on the lease are concerned with (a) production of oil. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.-`-`. In certain instances.`. along with the amount oil deliveries the lease during the preceding 24 hours. 15.The lease operator usually determines the amountoil in storage the lease of on by daily gauging at approximatelythe same hour each day. it is necessary to make and keep reports and records of oil and gas lease operations for operating.2OilProductionReport In most cases.. legal. It is therefore important that they be accurate.. theft. (d) amounts of supplies used. (b) individual well tests and the producing status of each well. The daily production is listed on a daily proof all from duction report. although weekly and even monthly reports are sometimes used (see gauge report in Figure112).. Each company adopts procedures tofit its organization and problems. which include meeting the requirements imposed by state and federal regulations and taxation. User=. American Petroleum Institute --````. gas....`.3PipelineRunTickets The pipeline oil run ticket or report is perhaps the most important record made onthe lease because it becomes the GAUGE REPORT COPYRIGHT 2003.1 Introduction As in any business.. after the operator makes the needed tests.`. the lease is automated and the production report is prepared by computer at a central production office. daily well and lease oil production is a report required. .````.`. if necessary.`. These gross production figures can be corrected for temperature andBS&W content.`.. (c) operations and maintenance of lease equipment.``. and (e) reports of unusual happenings. such as losses resulting from fire.. and salt water and their delivery from the lease. storm.. 15. and historical purposes.`. and accidents..
-`-`. The lease operator or meter man isresponsible for seeing that the meter location. Accuracy is usually the range of H. These tests are either reported manually by the lease ator is advised by the district office of the amount of the unoperator or handled automatically through use of a comthe balance. allowable production.. manually produced ticket is shown Figure 113.`. If in Records may be made onseparate well test report forms. orifice size.``. Meas't T h l s Ttrkcl Covers All Claims for Allowance.`. The production production reports. date. Oil Well Status Report. and often test data provided by field personnel is shown Table l . GRAVITY C 6 ° . on gas lift. " " " " " " " " Name of Company 15.1 percent. The automatic metering system which produces the cies if needed for evaluation purposes. Although metercharts are still used in gas flow measurements. aAs result.. and salt water produced oil. If allowable production well operating practices and as a guide to servicing well operand actual production not exactly balance. A cona large amount of data may be required. User=. in density. after corrections for temperature and BS&W have show the status and production of the lease and field as a been made.On the other hand.`. and these are prepared in the field or tests indicate how much gas..S. the --````. The Railroad Commission Texas(RRC) Form of between allowable and actual production the well or lease of W-10. are central office using the basic taken from the lease data operby each well. Degrees @ -Temperature Seal Number off I o n 1 I Station auger well O". 2 0FOPERATOR OF __Gravity Percent B.`--- 1 15. well evaluation. or allowable oil production is assigned to a lease or well by may be posted on the daily productionreport. w. and this information is used to determine proper ator's daily oil production report. royalty owners. after reading and calculation..API T I T L E r V T . This is necessary because is impossible it regular reporting with updates made on printed form.`. others for oil produced and delivered from the lease. or the information can bestored in the flow computer and manuallydownloaded periodically. such as periodic fluid-rate Figure 113-A sample Run Ticket measurements.`.. and to federal regulatory requirements are most detailed. Sratus is used hereto mean whether the well flowis Most state and federalregulationsrequire monthly ing.. the oil allowables and storage figures are show the exact status and production of each well time at the balanced against pipelineoil runs for production regulation a test is made. . They may be powered either by the electricityavailable at thelease or by solar cells and storage batteries.P. it is now common for gas flow computers to be used. special tests for equipment evaluation. These meter charts. temperature. Gauger Well Owner's Routine tests for production records may require only a minimum amount of data. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001...5 Well Test Records COPYRIGHT 2003. are used to determine the payments due for gas delivered from the lease in the same general manner that pipeline run tickets are the basis for the payments due on oil. Manner in which oil was moved BY To Power Furnished by Gas volumesdelivered from a lease and producedduring well tests are usually measured through orifice meters. state or and basis for all payments to the producer.list of common A well ticket is compensated for pressure. Most states having oil conservation An example of regulatory well test reporting is shown in and regulation laws permit certain differencesor tolerances Figure 114. or dead. These electronic devices are used in conjunction with standard orifice plates and orifice fittings. These records state regulations.L 96 0732290 O556532 8 3 4 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f to produce an exact volume of oil from a well in any given period due to well production variations.`. so that futureproductioncan be adjustedto puterized systemto provide printouts of well test data. These volumes are reported by sending the meter charts to district or central offices for reading andcalculation. whole.. computer genare requirements. the lease do work.. is computer-generated for during the month.. pumping. and period covered by the chart are accurately shown on the chart.I. and will depend somewhat company poliupon erated. Flowcomputers can be connected to a remote terminal unit(RTU) and the information transmitted by radio.. in of data will vary due to the particular regulatory Most pipeline run tickets today.4 Gas Meter Charts RUN TICKET A. The amount and type ventional. and serve as a basis for subsequent reports to purposes. however. &W.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. shut in. reservoir evaluation..````.
..`. and lease production history. lubricants.````. and other equipment is found in the operation reports.6 Equipment.``. it is apparent that the reports are of great importance and value to the producer's operating.. and may also record wave and weather data. Although many of the basic records and reports made by the lease operator are required by law enforcement authorities having responsibilities for enforcing conservation rules or taxation laws. who transported the material.. Included are such things as oil --````. Waste disposal is documented by maintaining records of wastes that are managed onsite as well as records of waste shipped offsite. per MCFday or MMCF per day Oil or condensate rate. for instance. and collection of other similar data. important information on the performance of engines.`. and oil or gas used for fuel. maintenance. barrelsDer dav oil or condensate gravity. Most situations call for making reports on operating supplies used on the lease. compressors.`. the data are used in cost accounting and control of lease operations. The serviceor results obtainedby the various makes kinds or of similar supplies can be compared from such reports to guide future buying... accounting. well status reports.API TITLE*VT-1 76 m 0732290 0556533 770 m Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 85 Table 1-Common Well Test Data Fluid Measurements: Gas rate for all streams. Additionally. and where it was shippedfordisposalorother management. . many environmental permits require that certain data be maintained on the operation. User=. pumping units.7 EnvironmentalRecordsand Reports Time Data (Minutes.`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Choke Size: Separation Conditions: 15.. Also.. Daily operating conditions are monitored on injection wells to ensure that wellsbeing opare erated in compliance with permit requirements. records of testing results must be kept to ensure that the well continuesto meet stringent regulatory requirements for mechanical integrity. Hours..andSupply Reports The need for reports on theoperation and maintenanceof lease equipment depends upon the kind of machinery used on the lease and whether there is equipment on the lease whose performance is being studied from an engineering standpoint. Duration of flowing test or Days): Length of time on test choke size before test period begins Shut-in time for pressure measurement 15. PressureMeasurements (PSIG): Flowing wellhead pressure Shut-in wellhead pressure Flowing bottomhole pressure (frequently calculated) Shut-in bottomhole pressure (frequently calculated) Casing pressure when flowing through tubing (state whether or not casing is packed off) Bottomhole temperature Wellhead temperature Stock tank liquid temperature Inches Number of separators Separator pressures and temperatures Atmospheric temperature Stabilizer pressure and inlet and outlet temperatures Temperature Measurements ("F): treating materials.`. and emissions or discharges of pollutants from the site. and technical groups.-`-`. This information is used a as basis for selecting the most serviceable and economical equipment for other leases. COPYRIGHT 2003. oil-treating devices. geologic and engineering groups are able to recommend the best operating procedures and methods to obtain maximum oil and gasrecoveries under the most economic operating conditions. In most cases. Spills that might be a threat to the human health and the environment must bereported by phone as soon as possible after they are discovered.`. API gravity C 60°F 3 I . American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. For example.. volume injected.Service. barrels per day Water rate. These might include monitoring of pressure. These records include the volume and content of the various waste streams. through study reof ports or individual well production tests.`--- Numerous records and reports are required under various environmental regulations. include records on subsurface safety devices.. Written reports must also follow within specified time limits (usually 15 days).`. Reports for offshore platforms. In addition to these records and reports.
12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`.. the best of my kmwledge.and was that data a d facts stated therein are a correct. to n .`.``. User=..... --````.`. Oil Well Status Report COPYRIGHT 2003.and complete...`.`. Figure 114-Railroad Commission of Texas Form W-10.A P I TITLExVT-L 96 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 O556534 607 m 86 BooÆ One of the Vocational Training Series CERTIFICATE I declare under penalties pescribcd in S S .. 91.thatIamauthoriredtoazkethisreport.-`-`.fhatthis ~ p m prepared by m or under my supuvision and direction..`.`--- .`.````.143. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001... Texas Natural ResourcesCodc.
Technical knowledge of oil and gas reservoirs had its real development beginning in the late 1920s and early 1930s. and methodsof conserving and using casinghead gas. Monthly reports required on the volumes oil. . In addition to the state and national laws which define property and the rights of the property owners. Similarly. in other states the laws create a conservation commission or board which administers and applies the conservation laws. Commission or board regulations set procedures and requirements needed for calling and holding hearings. the operators of oil and gas properties required tofile reports with are federal and state agencies. usually holds hearings developing or adopting for appropriate rules or regulations for drilling. includingoperators. danger fromfires and explosions. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. (e) regulate subsurface injection wells as well as production wastedisposal to preventpollution..`.landowners.(b) allocate production amongthe leases in a field.1 96 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0556535 543 m COPYRIGHT 2003. The conservation of these natural resources rests.5 Reports Required In addition to information supplied athearings. (c) govern thedrilling and abandonmentof wells and the development and production properties. American Petroleum Institute --````. User=. proper well spacing. For these purposes the regulations (a) allocate production betweenfields in the state to the total market demand.. (d) prescribe of rules for the transportation and storage of oil and gas within the state and. permissible gas-oil ratios. and to keep up with changes in technical knowledge and progress.1 Introduction The development and production of oil and gas in the United States is regulated by state and federal laws. as well as the emergency cleanup of large oil spills.4CommissionorBoardProcedure The commission or board. number of lawsuits and A court opinions havegenerally upheld the oil and gasconservation laws andrules. with the regulatory agencies within the states. and evaporation and shrinkage.``. producing.`. are of and water produced and on subsurface waterdisposal from each lease and from eachoffshore facility. and haveactively encouraged conservation in the production of oil and gas.. Regulations adoptedas a result of such hearings are subject to change to meet new situations. 16. As this knowledge increased. and the Coast Guard. Hearings may be called at the request of any of suchinterested parties... and producing ability. mostof the producingstates have passedlegislation for preventing above ground and underground waste in drilling and production operations.-`-`.`.. The by laws of some states contain provisions for conservation.S.````. the many commissions and boards have held thousands of hearings to gather operating and technical information for determiningproper rates of production for reservoirs. water production.. royalty owners. as well as by rules established by state and federal regulatory agencies under such laws. the inadvertent discharge of oil onor into the navigable waters of the United States requires prompt reporting to EPA. The prevention of above ground waste also requires adjusting production of oil and gas to the total actual or reasonable Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. also are in place and enforced. State and federal agencies work together to assume administration and enforcementof regulations. acting under the authority of state laws.`.`--- SECTION 16-STATE AND FEDERAL OIL AND GAS REGULATIONS market demand.the appropriate state agencies. bottomhole pressure.the safety and health of the employee in the workplace.`.transportation.. In recent years. and also furnish data for determining taxes on oil and gas production sold.`. the boards and commissions keep up with the growth and advance in technical knowledge and operating methods. requires the controlof storage it of oil in surface tanks to a working minimumto avoid waste and pollution. and a7 16. These reports provide a check on the operator’s compliance withthe regulations. it is important that the reservoirs in this country be producedefficiently.3RelationBetweenRegulationand Conservation The conservationortheprevention of underground waste (or loss of recovery) of oil or gas usually requires regulation of the production rates of the wells and fields. The conservation lawsof most states are intended to prohibit above ground underground waste and provide the or for protection and equitable adjustment of the rights of producers or owners with respect to the crude oil or natural gas in an oil reservoir or field. At these hearings. 16. testimony and recommendations may be made by all interested parties.A P IT I T L E U V T . gas. Even though the United States imports varying percentages of the oil it needs each day... and abandoning oil and gas properties. In addition.`.. it became obviousthat many of the old production practices and regulations were wasteful and did not adequately control pollution. most of the state laws and regulations have been adopted or changed since that time. for the most part. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or an EPA-qualified state agency. 16. 16.off(both shore pollution liability. Federal regulations governing federal land use and leasing onshore andoffshore). Other reports are required on individual wells to showthe gas-oil ratio. Through the hearings and reports. The protection of the environment is treated by regulations of the U.2CommissionorBoardRegulations The oil and gas laws passed the states vary widely. Because of this. and the general public.
User=.`. 16.. across state lines.8 FederalHot Oil Act Congress of the United States on August27. oil operators.`. The Federal Connally Act (also called the Hot Oil Law) The Compact Commission usually meets twice year to a makes itillegal to transport oil. 1935. produced in violation ofstate discuss common problems and to pass on and publish its laws or regulations..S.-`-`. Gas Compact Commission.`. Department of Interior (DOI) and morespecificallythe Minerals Management Service (MMS). and the recommendations of its several commithelped to make state oil conservation laws effective by tees. which is an association of the governors and their representatives of the interested oil and gas producing states...`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.. some interchangeideas and inof practices. This resulted in the formation of the Interstate Oil & special reporting and auditing procedures ofthis agency.theproducer. --````.7 MMS Control of Federal Lands Because the federal government a royalty owner in both is onshore and outercontinental shelf (OCS) leases. (DOI also acts on behalf of certain Indian Land interests when necessary..````.and formation among their regulatory agencies was considered derefiner of .its It is impossible to discuss the details of the many additional state and federal laws and regulations here. Its work is purely advisory.`.6 Interstate Compact MMS is charged with monitoring gas and oil production Because of the variety of operating and regulatory problems fromfederalleases. particularly to those states that another state before the offense is detected.A P I TITLExVT-L 96 W 0732290 0556536 4 8 T m 88 SeriesOne o the Book Training Vocational f interests in these properties are under the jurisdiction of the U.`. They are designed toprotect the rights and interests of individuals.`.9 OtherLawsandRegulations are able to usethis knowledge in the proper administration of their duties.oil from federal leases must comply with the sirable. 16. The organization was approved the by 16. but has been very helpful to preventing an escape through movement of the hot oil to individual member states. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. This federal law has findings.`.) 16. have the problem of writing laws and regulations to deal properly with their conservation problems when oil and gas development first begins.andtheirrevenuesandoperating existing between the states.. ... and the general public.Consequently..transporter.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.``.
also are produced. health and safety are also a concern because of the operations and chemicals used oil and gas production. as these impurities are removed. environmental for concerns. oil and gas operations that are located on government land also will have to comply with regulations from the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). If the facility is out of compliance with theregulations or with the permit conditions. the separationand treatment processes discussed Section 7 in are specifically designed remove these inherent impurities. Offshore facilities must comply with MMS regulations. constructed.`--- 89 Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. AND SAFETY CONCERNS 17. OSHA standards can be found in the regulations under Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR). Almost any activity at an oil or gas production facility is impacted by or more environmenone tal regulations directed at this protection..````. However.`. These might be wastes that are specifically listed in the regulations or wastes that meet certain criteria based upon laboratory testing or general knowledge. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and disposal of wastes. Obviously.. Exempt wastes include those that are produced from primary field production and processing operations. proper management and disposal of such wastesis important.. Strict rules mustbe followed. health. Similarly. H The Safe Drinking Water (SDWA)is designed to ensure Act protection of the drinking water supplies. other impurities. Produced water. These perbe mits dictate certain conditions with which the facility must comply.``. SDWA requireThe ments that most affectoil and gas production operationsare the Underground Injection Control (UIC) provisions. Documentation of compliance is a very important partof dealing with the environmental regulations. they may be more stringent than the federal requirements. However.. andthe management anddisposal of the wastes documented. In fact. Whether for disposal or enhanced recovery (see Section 11) these wells must designed. EPA and applicable state agencies are the primary regulatory agencies. and safety regulations. Many regof the ulations discussed in this section require that routine reports be submitted to the agency demonstrating environmental compliance. is of it is appropriate to discuss some of the major requirements. OSHA requirements range from safe design of equipment to including safety guardson equipment to protective clothing for workers. to However. These.000 per day per violation. COPYRIGHT 2003. those on Indian lands will deal with the individual Indian Nations and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.`. Numerous environmental agencies have regulations that affect the production processes. HEALTH. The greatest volume waste generated at production sites is proof duced water. EPA regulations can be found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40CFR). drilling fluids. or jail terms. For example.`. Therefore. This section providesa brief overviewof the various federal environmental.`. Some wastes generated at exploration and production& P) sites (E are considered hazardous while others are exempt from the stringent regulations adopted under RCRA for hazardous wastes.. Violations of some regulatory provisions can result in fines of up to $25. states also may have requirements.. they generate wastes that mustbe disposed of properly and air pollutants that must beminimized. onshore op erations usually dispose this water by reinjection into deep of wells. Although typical Exploration and Production operations generate relatively small amounts of hazardous waste.1 Introduction In the process of producing oil or gas. along with certain other wastes generated in primary field operations. or both. be and federal groups. American Petroleum Institute . Hazardous wastes are defined in the RCRA regulations. they must be removed from the product and properly managed to protect human health and the environment. many the regulations require that permits be of obtained before some activities canconducted. is the federal regulatory EPA agency for environmental protection..state. are among those considered exempt from thehazardous waste regulations.`.`. and drill cuttings make up the greatest volumeof wastes generated at Exploration and Production sites. the agency has enforcement provisions that allow for fines and penalties. Companies must ensure compliance with all applicable regulations. 17. Unfortunately.API T I T L E t V T .. Keepin mind that state requirements may be different. Additionally.I I 96 m 0732290 0556517 316 m SECTION 17"ENVIRONMENTAL. and operated be in compliance with the UIC requirements. States also have environmental regulatory agencies with rules that must be followed. accidental releases of materials into the environment must reported to various local. naturally present in the earth. compliance with the various regulations is an important partof each company's operations. once at the surface. However.. Indeed.2 Environmental Requirements This section presents some the general requirements of for individual regulatory programs. Additionally.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.Since produced water is often saline. little can be done to eliminate or minimize the amounts of these materials. there are some general requirements that exist regardless of the regulation. User=. in The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the federal regulatory agency for health and safety issues.-`-`.. --````.`. While a detailed reviewof all the environmental and health and safety regulations beyond the scope this document.
. increases financial responsibility requirements for offshore facilities. The Endangered SpeciesAct (ESA)is designed to protect endangered or threatened species or their critical habitat from proposed activities. storm water falling on the production facilities (both onshore and offshore) has the potentialto become contaminated with oil or other contaminants that might be present. As the name implies.. project may be halted or certain restricthe tions placed upon it to protect the species. for major federal actions undertaken permitted by agencies of or the federal government when those actionsmay significantly affect the quality of the humanenvironment. Parties operating the or site contributing waste to the site often perform the clean up. the CAA imposes greater controls on air emissions from all types of industries. Emphasis on spill planning is indicated by the need for facilities to develop a plan to handle a worst case discharge of oil which has the potentialto reach water. Certain minimum standards are set in the regulations. User=. Likewise.````. and Liability Act (CERCLA).`. The SPCC program requires thatfacilities storing oilabove set quantities have an SPCC plan that provides detailed information on how the facilities are designed and operated to minimize the likelihood of an oil spill.. For example. many of which are generated in the productionoil and gas. Another setof regulations under the CWA which impacts oil and gas operations are the Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) requirements.I I --````. The National EnvironmentalPolicy Act (NEPA) requires detailed environmental reviews.. OPA 90 mandates national emergency planning.-`-`. The Amendments focus much attention on the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). commonly known as Superfund. and sets up a research and development program. Onshore operations and produced water fromoffshore platforms are regulated under this program. site clean uprequired under this program is when hazardous substances pose a significant threat to human health and the environment..This portion of SARA requires that companies report the presence of certain chemicals at their sites to help the surrounding community plan for an emerto gency situation. The Federal Land Policy and ManagementAct (FLPMA) established comprehensive land use guidelines for BLM on how to manage public lands under its jurisdiction. The Clean Air Act (CAA)enforces strict requirements for emission of pollutants into the air.. The CAA requires certain controls the amount of pollutants emitted.. Conof trols also will be required to reduce emissions of hazardous air air pollutants (for example. regulates the clean up of sites and the reporting of certain releases of hazardous substances to the environment.species may be adversely impacted.`. along with its amendments. Each of these regulatory requirements includes lists of substances considered hazardous by the EPA. Compensation. in the form of environmental assessments or environmental impact statements. These requirements.``. on and permits for specific emission points. Several activities at production sites are potential sources for these emissions..`--- 9b m 0732290 0556538 252 90 Book One o the Vocational f Training Series Regardless of the regulatory status of a waste. Most companies attempt to avoid involvement in potential problem sites by auditing the facilities that receive their wastes to ensure that these waste management facilities are operating in compliance with applicable laws regulations. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) is a waste not yet regulated on the federal level. there are routine reports that must be made under SARA Title III-the Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act (EPCRA). the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) contains provisions for reporting certain releases of specific substances. W The Clean Water Act (CWA) controls the pollutants that are allowed into surface waters. but has become such a concern in oil and gas operations that it bears a brief discussion. m The Comprehensive Environmental Response. such as vapors fromstorage tanks and other equipment. Some oil and gas facilities have been required to obtain storm water discharge permitsfor contaminated storm water. direct discharges wastewater into surface waters must of be permitted and must meet certain quality requirements.`.. As amended in 1990. H2S).. Determinations are made as to whether or not a production project will adversely impact a threatened or endangered species.`. If a. operations may be limited to certain times of the year so as to not interfere with the endangeredspecies’ mating season. addresses prevention and removal. establishes a fund for clean up costs. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. Production operations located on BLM lands must comply with additional restrictions placed on the operations by BLM. ulate oil spill prevention and response. increases limits of liability for oil spills.`. Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System(NPDES)portion of this law. revises the measure of damage of natural resources. Generally. Many sites must obtain permits for their emissions.API T I T L E * V T . It is present mostly in scales that form when salts precipitate out of the produced water. BLM must notified in theevent potentially be harmful releases. including Exploration and Production operations. Inaddition to these reporting requirements for episodic releases. American Petroleum Institute . 8 The Toxic Substance ControlAct (TSCA) was enacted to identify effectsof chemical substancesin the work place and Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. and CERCLA.. Additionally. along with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) o I990 regf COPYRIGHT 2003.`. it is radioactive material that exists naturally in the oil and gas producing formations. proper management is crucial to ensure compliance with the regulations and to minimize potential clean up liabilities in the future. Several oil-producing states have implemented NORMregulations that dictate how this waste must be stored and disposed of.
The regulaCOPYRIGHT 2003. depending upon their particular role in an emergency. Fungicide. develop. The 1990 amendment has new requirements for states to develop programs onvariety a of coastal issues including pollution run-off. . Commonly referred to HazCom.119. The MSDSs must be readily cals. m Elevated noise levels can result in hearing impairment. this standard as is designed to ensure that employees have all the information a minimum of 8 or 24 hours of training. adequate precautions to prevent employee overexposure to noise must be taken. and Health Act (OSHAct). for Unlike the environmental regulations that might fall under This program provides certain procedures to be followed to ensure that any powered system is inoperable before a variety of federal laws.. reactive. and who might be expected to respond to an emergency at the site must be trained under the Hazardous Waste Operations The Hazard Communication Standard requires that emand Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) requirements. the health and safety requirements maintenance is conducted. OSHA also is concerned with protection from physical hazards.. ployees be informedof hazards they might encounter inthe These regulations require that emergency responders receive work place. gloves. m A lock-outhag-out program is required for protection from hazards due to electricity and other forms of energy. to insects. may be required in are fully involved in development and implementation of the certain situations such as where hydrogen sulfide is present. or belts must be guarded to prevent employee injury. Below is a discussion of some of the major tions can present a special danger to employees.. Sec. microorganisms. f protective equipment (PPE) is available to employees. Basic Facilities covered by this regulation are required to have a PPE that might required at most work sites includes safety be comprehensive management program to ensure thatthe reglasses. maintenance. Equipmentis carefully designed andinstalled to avoid situations where employees might slip. audiometric testing. flammable. hard hats.`. and restore or enhance the U. Harmful vapors from the materials stored in management of change.. available to employees and proper labeling must be done. TheConfbed Space Entry requirements ensure that sary to ensure the safe operations of the facility. flywheels. trip. engineering controls. Employees safety and health provisions that impact oil gas operations. m The Federal Insecticide. und Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) provides for the registration and use of pesticides and similar products intended eliminateor control rodents.3 HealthandSafetyRequirements Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. For example. For example.. mechanical integrity. andothers which are deemed necesthe confined space can cause injury death to unsuspecting or workers. coastal zone. and contains several reporting provisions.`. Guard rails and hand rails are used where falls might occur.539 L99 m lntroducfion to Ol and Gas Production i 91 in the environment. or explosive chemiwhen handling the chemical. However. The company must keep records of any alleged significant adverse reactions to human health or the environment caused by handling a chemical substance.S. necessary to ensure proper and safe handling of hazardous chemicals.````. The process safety managementprogram consists of a number of elements including employee participation. which applies to all facilities onshore andto state waters that Employers must explainthese potential hazards to employare normally occupied and containthe regulated substances ees and meet the OSHA training requirements. andother living pests. Therefore. all pumps and motors that have exposed rotating shafts. American Petroleum Institute --````.. In addition to potential health hazards which might be caused by the chemicals present at production sites. workers who might enter such areas are properly trained to recognize a confined space andtake precautions before entering it. suchas respirators. One requirement is to record employee and consumer complaints of any significant adverse reactionsof which they notify the employer. OSHA is responsible for administering this regulation.`. Untrained personnel forbidden from working in are confined spaces. and employeetraining.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. 8(e) reports to EPA may have to be made in accordance with EPA guidance on “substantial risk” to health or the environment. contractor safety. There may be training requirements as well.. hazards analysis.`--- 17. law gives OSHA authority This to set and enforce standards to ensure the health and safety of B Fires and explosions as well as other emergency situaemployees. The MSDSs provide specific hazard to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic information aboutthe product along with precautions to take releases of toxic.`. prom Confined spaces (suchas tanks or small pits) can present cess safety information. training.A P I TITLEmVT-1 96 m 0732290 0556.-`-`. the process safety management program. or fall.``.`. This regulationdesignated as is Employers are required to ensure that proper personal 29 Code o Federal RegulationsPart 1910.`.was put into effect for use at the facility. protect. and safety shoes. pump maintenance that impact industry are all part of the Occupational Safety must be done utilizinglock-out/tag-outprocedures. This includes a hearing conservation program which identifies areas of excessive noise and provides for hearing protection. weeds. Process Safety Management Data Sheets (MSDS) on all hazardous chemicals purchased (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Chemicals..`.. The Coastal Zone Managernent Act (CZMA)established national policy to preserve. operating procea special hazard to those who enter them for inspection or dures. in at least threshold amounts.. more quirements of this regulation are met and that employees the protective equipment. It requires that employers keep Material Safety In 1992 a new regulation. User=.
there are some important differences. However.`. COPYRIGHT 2003.. OSHA enforces the regulations through its regional and local offices which are located throughout the UnitedStates. This recommended practice was developedwith the participation of MMS and applies to all facilities on the OCS. whereprotection of the environment isincluded along withthe safety ofthe worker.-`-`. gas.`. as well as production facilities. API Recommended Practice 75 is similar to OSHA 1910.. is that while OSHA PSM is mandatory for facilities covered by the regulation.`. OSHA regulations impact how a facility is designed and operated to ensure the protection of the workers.. 17.. Recommended Practice 75 is also designated as an environmental management program.. API developed and in May 1993 published Recommended Practicesfor Development of a Safety and Environmental Management Programfor Outer Continental Shelf(0CS) Operations ana' Facilities (API Recommended Practice 75).. Additional details may be obtained by consulting the regulations found inthe Code o f Federal Regulations (Title 40 for environmental.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. The individual elements of this system are similar to those of PSM.`.4 Summary --````. Thus.119 in that it utilizes a managementsystem to meet the objectives set forth in the recommended practice. .. API alsohas published many other documents that provide more detail what companies must on do to comply with various environmental laws and regulations. The OCS comprises the waters beyond this three-mile over which the limit federal government has jurisdiction. It does not apply to drilling or well servicing operations. User=.`.. Title for 29 health and safety).``. The most significant difference. In keeping with the intent of the process safety management regulation set forth in 29 CFR 1910. which are excluded from the OSHA regulation. There are many health and safety standards that impact the way oil and gas production companies do their business. and safety regulations that impact the oil and gas exploration and production industry. API Recommended Practice 75 does not define threshold quantities of hazardous materials. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and sulphur production on the OCS.````. Despite its similarities to PSM. perhaps. health.`. Those discussed in section are some this that have the greatest impact.`. refineries..A P I TITLE*VT-L Tb 92 Book One o Series f the Vocational Training tion applies to chemical plants.it applies to all oil. API Recommended Practice is still voluntary. Drilling and well servicing activities. State waters extend to a distance of three miles offshore. and gas plants. Most major 75 and independent oil companies with operations on the OCS are developing and implementing programs to comply with API Recommended Practice 75.`--- There are numerous environmental. Detailed records are kept on incidents to help companies assess what caused the problem and how theycan ensure that there is no recurrence.119.. are included in Recommended Practice Further. every facility from thelargest production platforms to single well structures is included. API API 75.
Oil depletion was lost entirely for integrated companies (those that explorefor...`. in a v e v real sense. COPYRIGHT 2003. The petroleum business is capital intensive. as the U. 18. which have been essential to achieving an unprecedented standard of living. plus cover the cost of unsuccessful undertakings. The taxation takes different forms in different states. In recent years some state governments.`. Thus. this taxation principle in 1926 took the form of a percentage depletion. Other major costs are under governmentcontrol and take the forms of taxation and regulation. User=. facilities. and sell oil and gas) with the passage of the Thx Reduction Act of1975. those statistically few successful ventures must provide an adequate return on investment shareholdersor prito vate company owners. versatile and economicalfuels. Under the provisions of that act.`--- . and produce oil and gas. it is usually abandoned. American Petroleum Institute Seeing that the nation would become ever more dependent upon oil and gas efficient. there is not the slightest guarantee that an exploratory well find any oil will or gas.````.. When expenses and declining production cause a well or a field to be unprofitable. These relatively small quantities are the minimum amounts necessary for the discovery to be considered significant in size. After several refinements in the law were made. a general decline in oil and gas producibility occurs from discovery to abandonment. only 1 of every 6 wildcat wellsdrilled in search of new fields has produced any oil or gas.S..-`-`. Percentage depletion. enhanced recovery. The lower the capital and operating costs. High risk also is frequently associated with initial field development andtransportationsystem expenditures. These outlays are necessary for such things as artificial lift.`.A P I TITLEmVT-L 96 0332290 055b5211 847 SECTION 18-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 18. if a company is to stay in business. ultimate recovery is governed by economics. Historically. Congress as early as 1913 recognized that discovered oil and gas were valuable capital resources which should notbe taxed as the capital value was exhausted.. pipelines. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. and artificial lift requirements may increase. Percentage depletion was a tax deduction granted oil and gas to producers and to producers in other extractive industriesthose that take some 200 minerals and other raw materials from the earth. It has contributed greatly toward giving the American consumeraccess to largequantitiesof economical energy supplies. it In is a very high-riskbusiness. and conditioning. has been a key to making low-cost energy readily available in the United States. As a field ages. (b) property or ad valorem tax.3 State Taxes All states where the petroleum industry operates derive tax revenues from oil and gasactivities.``. have increasingly turned to oil and gas taxationin attempts to solve their fiscal problems. No matter how muchis invested in the undertakingor how deepthe well goes. as it applies to oil and gas. very large sums of money are required to acquire exploratory acreage and to find.. many factors tend to increase operating costs: water production may increase. This is especially true when large investments in platforms. The encouragement that washistorically provided by the Congress to find and develop oil and gas has been substantially eroded since about 1970. While such things as artificial lift or enhanced recovery maycreate some peaks in the production rate with time. Oil and gas taxes are a substantial source of state revenue in most of the major producing states.`. low-pressure gas may require more compression. and marine terminals must be made before the size and producibility of the reserve can be verified through development drilling and actual production experience.1 Introduction Most of the costs controlled by the oil company are related to the activities covered in this book. pressed to meet growing budgetary needs. depletion on oil has been scaled down with time to the point that benefits also have Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. saltwater treating and disposal. develop.5 percent of the gross income of each at individual producing property.. old wells need more repair and maintenance. produce. Ultimate investment may exceed that required for initial development by several fold... and gas gathering. Thus. the Arctic.. The rate of depletion was reduced to 22 percent in 1969.4FederalGovernmentTaxesand Price Controls 18. and other remote and harsh environments.`. 18. Only about 2 of every 100 of these exploratory wells will discover a field of 1 or more million barrels of crude oil reserves or 6 or more billion cubic of feet gas reserves. These risky conditions are particularly prevalent in offshore areas. Large investment requirements continue occur overthe to 20-year or more producing life of a field.(c) severance tax (a tax on the value of oil and gas removed or severed fromthe lease) and (d) regulation taxes. but the main components are (a) income tax. refine.2 Ultimate Recovery An oil or gas field is usually at its maximumcapability to produce right after initial development is completed. transport. the longer a field can be produced and the greater the ultimate recovery of oil and gas will be. The original depletion allowance was set 27. addition.`.. compression. but notto exceed 50 percent of the net income from that same property before allowance for depletion. The rest have been dry holes. 93 --````.
An industry unencumbered and royalty agreements.`--- been greatly reduced non-integrated companies. gas income without reducing ultimate recovery.``.. 18..`. as well as hasten abandonment and reduce ultimate production from existing fields.6 What It All Means COPYRIGHT 2003.````. both production volumes and government income from petroleum will also likely be reduced. ... the more oil and gas can be found.5 OtherGovernmentActivities ments have beenchallenged. The federal government and certain states which hold Ample evidence exists to demonstrate that oil and gas large amountsof public lands have in recent years attempted drillingand producing activities respond to economic to increase their oil and gas income through novel leasing stimuli. from whatever source. and moredifficult geological and operating environ18..`. and controls were expanded to affect all gas production by the Natural G s Policy Actof 1978.. A variety of sliding scale royalty. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Complex oil price cona trols also were imposed from 1971 to 1981. State and federal regulations have added considerably to the cost of finding and producing oil and gas in the United States. Further. and without taking any of the risks or incurring any drilling and producing costs. and bonus bid combinations have been by unnecessary regulation and control will discover and produce the maximum quantities of oil and gas in the United initiated.A P I TITLE*VT-L 94 Book One of Series fhe Vocational Training The lower the costs. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. funds for new exploration and development will be reduced in the short term and.`. lessen funds available for new exploration. for depletion on gas hasbeen eliminated entirely or substantially reduced for most gas producers. The thinking behind these activities appears to be States. Costs have gone up as easy to find fields have been produced. that somehow government can increase its share of oil and --````.. When these were finally removed in 1981.-`-`.. User=. Federal price controls on oil and natural gas have seriously limited the funds available for reinvestment in new exploration and production ventures. however. To the extent that these measures are used. This tax diverted from 30 to 70 percent of the revenue addedby oil price decontrol into the federal Treasury. over the longer term. Higher costs. and delivered to the consumer at reasonable prices. and that the vast majorityof profit is reinvested in additional oil and gas ventures. tax and price controls on gas were completely removed during the 1980s. produced. Regulation of producer prices on gas sold into interstate commerce began in 1954. net profit sharing..`. that some categories of gas were exempt from price controls and some oil is exempt from the windfall profit The windfall profit tx a. the Congress already had in place a windfall profit tax. It should be noted.`.`..`.
waters.`. As their name imFixed offshore platforms have been employed produce to plies. A variety of In the past. only the Some recent and evolving technological developments more difficult and obscure prospects remain to be found. They may use either electric or hydraulic power and from floating vessels has occurred in much deeper waters. Protection against the continually moving ice offThe major frontiers now include deepwater and offshore shore presents an added difficulty..`. are of particular interest and may indicate the trends which Great potential for future discovery exists.-`-`.000 feet is common now and wells have been Wells drilled to depths below 30. pressures. several concepts appearfeaB sible that call for drilling from floating vessels and placing wellheads and productionfacilities on the sea floor.. and there is every cate tundra have been accomplished in the giant Prudhoe reason to believe they will be met. and carbon dioxide.000 feet..`--- sive substances. and to seek fortunes in oil have led to the highly sodriller and producer inthe Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of phisticated oil and gas business we have today. Some of these reservoirs Subsea Production Facility contain gases with significant percentages of highly corro" 95 COPYRIGHT 2003. and gas compositions strain the limThe future of oil and gas production likely will unfolda its of drilling. Now shore of Alaska.arerequired to identifypromising prospects. The problems. ice in the Cook Inlet has been successfully withstood for ice environments. hunt for the unknown. that more thana century of exploration has passed. tubular goods. at this time drilling remains as the only Multiphase pumps are a recent concept that promises to sure way to know if oil and gasare present. These techniques are being refined to the point 19. These are discussed in 19.``.````. are being overcome and at the leading edge of exciting technology. these devices can pumpoil.`.6.S. and prospects are known to exist under waters 6.000 to Their use would allow producedfluids to be pumped from 9..O00 feet. For extremely deepwaters. a combination of technology limits and designs to break up or divert advancing ice are under coneconomics dictated that the easy-to-find oil and gas-very sideration for deeper water operations in the Beaufort. water. have increasing impact in oil production. computeranalysis. and Canadian Beaufort Sea (see Figure 116). and Bering Seas and in the Hope Basin. User=. However. petroleum traps. Bay field. have the potentialfor greatly extending water depth capability.`.`.. . Man-made gravel isniques (see Section 1l). are likely to find application both onshore and offshore... Drilling to below 20. and gas simultanein water depths up to about 1. hydrogensulfide.2 geological and geophysical interpretations. extremely great well depths. and production equipment techstory of an industry constantly striving to expand its horizons nology. however. Massive Pipeline to platform structures which are held on the ocean floor by gravity have in shallower water been used in the unusually stormy waters of the North Sea.A P I TITLErVT-L 96 m 0732290 0556523 6 L T m SECTION 19"FUTURE TRENDS 19. Operations inbitter cold and protection of the delilenges exist for such progress to continue.`.S. and exploration for harder-to-find lands have been used for shallow-water drilling in the U.000 psi. more difficult enhanced recovery techmany years by a variety of platforms. shallow deposits and possible petroleum traps indicated by Chukchi. Conditions are being encountered that involve reservoir temperatures above 400°F Figure 1 15-Conceptual Drawing of a and pressures above 20. Underwater Drilling from floating vessel wellheads already have been successfullyapplied in the Gulf of Mexico and several other areas around the world.. subsea pipelines will carry production to floating storage or to fixed structures in shallower water (see Figure 115).1 Introduction --````. to try what never before has been New environmental challenges arepresented to the oil done. Efforts to drill ever deeper wells will continue. This technology may utilized or serve as a building block be in developing productionstructures for rough U. such as the guyed (or compliant) tower and TLPs.`.aided by modem through 19. The chalAlaska. all offground surface features-would be discovered first. Rapidly moving winter areas prone to severe storms.000 feet deep ordeeper. Exploratory drilling ously.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. These temperatures...2 Multiphase Pumps that an indication of hydrocarbons may be possible in a few instances. The passion to even deeper drilling is expected in the future.but advanced will develop in the future. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. New kinds of producing strucdeep-water subsea completions to production facilities in tures.
the tubing canbe pulled without disconnecting the flow line and control system. It is also likely that they will find increasing acceptance in surface applications both offshore and onshore.. horizontal trees are installed on the wellhead first and the tubing hanger is landed ona profile within the Al valves are external to the tree. horizontal trees are expected to find increasing application in subsea completions.`. thetree is then installed onthe wellhead..`.`. and the top oftree is equipped the with a profile that acceptsstandard drilling a BOP. User=. particularly in subsea wells.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.3 Horizontal Trees In wells that utilizeconventional trees. As result.`. Figure 116-Manmade gravel island in U.`.. and are not restricted to only those which can be conducted through a conventional workover riser much smaller in diameter.`. In the case of subsea completions which utilize conventional subsea trees. the is need to remove the tree for workover purposes is greatly reduced.A P I TITLE*VT-1 96 m 0732290 055652V 5 5 b m 96 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f shallow water. therebyeliminating the high cost of surface facilities in deep water. the need to utilize the convena tional workover riser eliminated. Unlike conventional trees described above. --````. Beaufort Sea during ice break-up season. Primarily because of these advantages..-`-`. COPYRIGHT 2003. workover operations require the use of a special workoverriser and are limited to operations that can be conducted through the tubing. Horizontal trees a recent development that promises to are simplify workover operations.``.. and workover operations are simplified. A simplified representation is shown in Figure 117.`.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. 19. all workover p o erations can conducted through conventional drilling riser be a and BOP stack. l body of the tree.````. After the tubing the is installed in the well..S. Thus.. Various manufacturers are continuing development efforts to perfecttheir designs.`--- ... the tubing is suspended from the tubing hanger which in a specially presits pared profile within wellhead assembly.
`.Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 97 7 cap Debris Tubing access valve -Horizontal tree Annulus access valve Y4 Production tubing Figure 117"Simplified Diagrammatic Representation of a Horizontal Tree COPYRIGHT 2003...`..`.``.. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001..`..`. --````.`--- L 1 Production casing ... 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`. User=...````..`.-`-`.
Traditionally this So much success has been realized in development of the has required that the production from each well be directed this technology that is now often economical drill to botit to through a test separator so that the oil.4 Horizontal Drilling COPYRIGHT 2003.`--- Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. or appropriate corrective action can be taken..-`-`. Each wellis comand natural outgrowth of directional drilling which was originally pleted and produced independently. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. natural fractures in the reservoir rock. Development has progressed andtoday such meizontal drilling. the technical and economic to success of horseparator..`.`. the business of drilling for and producing oil and gas. Horizontal drilling which intersectedsuch fractures resulted A continuous evolution of technology to conquer new in wells withgreatly enhanced production rates. making the frontiers has always occurred through the efforts of people in drilling of these wells economically attractive. User=.````. the resurgence in effort was started in the mid-1980s to develop a multiphase drilling and production activity in the Austin Chalk in central meter that could measure the individual components of oil. a significant reservoir conditions dictate.`.A P IT I T L E J V T . As a result of the conwells.`. Much the oil and gas occurs within. and gas in a well stream without having to utilize a large measure.1 96 m 0732290 0556526 329 m 98 Book One o theTraining f Vocational Series be attractive offshore where the number of conductor strings that can be accommodated is always limited. Texas which occurredin the early 1990s was attributable. This can greatly or of 19.5 DownholeWell Splitters even greater vigor in the years ahead. Thismay 19.`. each well bore is directionally application both onshore offshore. in water. For example. and water protom holetargets that wereonce considered uneconomical or physically impossible to reach a given surface location. Horof Good reservoir management requires the regular testing of izontal drilling is particularly beneficial when the producing wells so that reservoir performance can be monitored and formation is relatively thin when the permeability is low.`. duced can be measured separately...``. horizontal drilling has enjoyed widespread bottom of the surface casing.. American Petroleum Institute --````. there is every expectation these activities will be pursued with that 19. it became feasible to extend the well bore horizontally over hundreds even thousands feet..6 Multiphase Metering increase the length the productive interval in the well. Horizontal drilling is a drilled to its respective subsurface target. it may also be economically attractive onshore where tinued trend to develop fields in deep water.. of test purposes. from Wells indeep water that are remotefrom production facilWhile economics justify horizontal drilling in many offshore ities make such well testing difficult.. As improved.. . uing inthe United States and other countries. A recent innovation allows two well bores drilled usto be ing asingle string of conductor and surface casing. directional drilling technology shut in. gas. The Austin Chalk formation in many areas ters are capable of accuracies which are acceptable for well has low permeability. Development of multiphase meters is continor migrates through. and may be serviced and developed to allow wells to be drilled to targets not directly worked over individually without other well having be bethe to neath their surface location.`... Starting at the In recent years.
adsorption: The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact.. Different sizes of beans are used for different producing rates. expressed in degrees.. bean: A type of choke used to regulate the flow of fluid from a well. and to plug a depleted formation and salvage all material and equipment. American Petroleum Institute --````. batch: A definite amount of oil.``. means or to slowly release the pressure of a well or of pressurized equipment. blind flange (blank flange): A solid disc used to dead end a companion flange.. boll weevil: Any inexperienced worker. chemicals. bleeder valve: A small valve on pipeline. A back-up wrench refers any wrench being used hold the to to pipe or bolt..`.. bonnet: The part of a valve that packs off and encloses the valve stem. ball and seat: Parts of the valves in a plunger oil well Pump. bleed off. certain workover operations. User=.-`-`. BWPD: barrels of water per day. bell hole: A bell-shaped hole dug beneath a pipeline to provide roomfor use of tools by workers. battery (tank battery): The production handling equipment on the lease. bleed: To drain off liquid or gas. 99 ..`. and boilerhouse: To make upor fake a report without actually doing the work. acidizing: The treatment of formations with hydrochloric or other acids in order to increase production or injection.A P I TITLExVT-L 96 m 0732290 0556527 265 D APPENDIX A-GLOSSARY The following isa list of words and phrases used the oil and gas production industry..`. nor as covering all local variations in word meaning. baffles: Plates or obstructions built into a tank or other vessel to change the direction of fluid flow. through a valve called a bleeder. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. blowout: An uncontrolled flow of gas. oil requiring additional treating. BOPD: barrels of oil per day.`. back off: To unscrew one threaded piece (such a section as of pipe) from another.`--- beam: The walking beam of a pumping unit. Also. boot: A tall section of large-size pipe used as a surge column on a vessel. the slatted or mesh-enclosed cage used to hoist workmen from crew boats offshore platforms.````. while anotheris being screwed into or out of it. beam well: A well whosefluid is being lifted by rods and pump-actuated by a beam pumping unit. and those undefined or incompletely defined this book are given here. BLPD: barrels of liquid per day. cement.or t n a ak from which samples are drawn to vent air or oil.`. COPYRIGHT 2003. such as a pipe or a nut. generally slowly.since the meaningmay vary from work area to workarea. in The definitions are thoseof widest applicability. absorption: To soak up as a sponge takes water.. breviations are: BPD: barrels per day. sample or valve.. bird cage: To flatten and spread the strands of a cable or wire rope. Some of the words in the list in are considered slang-thers common-and their usage as applied to the production of oil and gas often differs from normal usage. completion.. abandon: To cease efforts to produce oil or gas from a well. blind: To close a line to prevent flow. B/D: The abbreviation for barrels per Other related abday.`. To bleed down. pump. oil. back up: To hold one section of an object.`. bad oil: Oil not acceptable for delivery to the pipeline purchaser because BS&W levels are too high. Only the most common words used in the industry. or other fluids from a well. to blank liner: A liner without perforations or slots. API: American Petroleum Institute. The list isnot to be considered all-inclusive. bottom water: Water occurring below the oil and gas in a production formation. or other material in a treatment or operation.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. blank off: To close off by sealing or plugging. mud. basic sediment and water (BS&W): The water and other extraneous material present in crude oil. allowable: The amount of oil or gas that a well is authorized by the slate regulatory agency to produce during a given period. blowout preventer (BOP): The equipment installed at the wellhead for the purpose of controlling pressures in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe (or tubing) during drilling. API gravity: The standard adopted by API for measuring the densityof a liquid. bottom-hole: The lowest or deepest part of a well.
Also a land-side mooring device used with lines and cables when docking a vessel. come-along: A stretching or tightening device. cage: The part of a pump valve which holds the ball to limit its movement. either temporarily or permanently. stop. crooked hole: A wellbore which has inadvertently deviated from the vertical.`.`. cellar: A hole dug. break out: To unscrew one section of pipe from another section. crater: To fail. Also called wet oil.. condensate: Hydrocarbons which arein the gaseous state under reservoirconditions but which become liquid either in passage up the hole in the surface equipment. in bradenhead gas: See casinghead gas. bump a well (bump down): To lower a sucker-rod string on a pumping unitso that the pump hits bottom on the downstroke. Salt water. buck up: To tighten a threaded connection. equipment operational and safetystatus. cheater: A length of pipe used to increase the leverage of a wrench. bubble cap: A metal cap designed with openings tocause the upward-flowing gas bubbles ain gas-processing tower to intimately contact downward flowing liquids. Bubble caps are mounted on a perforated-steel bubble-cap tray. brine: Water that has a large quantity of salt. usually in the form of an emulsion. out of the well.`. User=. or other system. or tubing while tripping or out of the hole. debug: To detect. especially sodium chloride. and so forth) are monitored or controlled automatically by a computer system. and so forth..in one direction only. control panel: Switches and devices to start. cased hole: A wellbore in which casing has been run. BS&W content canbe determined in this manner.or signal what is taking place. casing. wireline tools. depletion drive: See solution gas drive. collar: Usually refers toa coupling usedto join two lengths of pipe. casing pressure: Pressure measured ata wellhead casing outlet. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Such an offshore platform is a large structure with room to drill and complete a number of wells..-`-`. chase threads: To straighten and clean threads of any kind. pipes. cut oil: Oil that contains water. but temporarily shut in. dead oil: Crude oil containingessentially no dissolvedgas when it is produced. computer production control (CPC): An operation wherein field conditions and activities (well testing. cathead: A spool-shaped attachment on a winch around which rope is woundfor hoisting and pulling. oil wellgas. measure.. check valve: A valve which permitsflow. crude oil: A mixture of hydrocarbons thatexists in the liquid phase in the underground reservoir and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. lease production. casinghead gas: Associated and dissolvedgas produced with crude oil.. a cat walk: A narrow walkway. clip: A U-bolt or similar device used to fasten parts of a wire cable together. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. To cave in. Samples of oil are placed in the machine and whirled at high speed to settle out sediment..`--- Christmas tree: The assembly of valves. for centrifuge: A shake-out or grind-out machine.. causing some of the gas to condense to liquid. coupon: A small metal strip which is exposed to corrosive and systems for the purposeof determining the nature severity ofcorrosion.`. closed ln: A well capableof producing oilor gas.`. .````.. catline: A hoisting or pulling line operated from cathead. COPYRIGHT 2003. dissolved in it.``.`. D & P platform: A drilling and production platform.`. locate. and production string. come outof the hole: To pull drill pipe. and correct malfunctions in a computer.A P I TITLE*VT-L 96 0732290 0556528 IT1 100 Book One o the Vocational Training Series f bowl: A device that fits in the rotary table or wellhead to hold the wedges or slips that support a string of drill pipe.. instrumentation. for example: surface string. choke: A type of orifice installed for the purpose of restricting and controlling flow. and fittings used tocontrol flow of oil and gas from the well.. deadman: A substantial timber or plug of concrete buried in the earthto which a guy wire or line is attached for bracing a mast or tower. dead well: A well which hasceased to produce oil or gas. and intermediate string.. bring in a well: To complete a well and put it on production. to allow working space the casinghead equipment. casing string: The pipe run in a well. British thermal unit (BTU): A measure of the heating value of a fuel. monitor. tubing. American Petroleum Institute --````. usually before drilling a deep well. or connection: The joining of two lengthsof pipe.
.L 96 m 0732290 055b527 038 m 101 toIntroduction Ol and Gas Production i demulsifier: A chemical used to break down crude oil/ oil. dynamometer: The dynamometer records the variation in load on the polished rod as the rod string reciprocates in discovery well: An exploratory well that encounters a sucker-rod pumping. the purpose of completing the desired spacingpattern of production. equipment. chemicals (called demulsidogleg: A term applied to a sharp changeof direction in a fiers or emulsion breakers).````.-`-`. field facility: An installation designed for one more speor dress: To sharpenor repair items of equipment(as drilling cific field processing units-scrubbers. water emulsionsso the water may be removed from the density: The weightof a substance per unitof volume. of a pumping well. conditions or techniques reservoirs all grouped on. absorbers.. effective porosity: The percentage of the bulk volume of dissolved gas: Natural gas which is in solution with a rock sample that is composed of interconnected pore crude oil in the reservoir. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. or electricity to separate the wawellbore or ditch. The two joints make a stand of pipe that is exploratory well: See wildcat well.. The distance between the refer to both the surface and the underground productive static level and the pumping level of the fluid in the annulus formations. Alsosee battery. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. that. geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition. struments used in the wellbore. set back and racked in the derrick. or related to. tools. drip bits. For instance. and inthreads on the inside.`. For example.`. See porosity. low temperature separators. fours are fourbles. entrained gas: Gas suspended in bubbles in a stream of dolomite: A type of sedimentary rocksimilar to limestone liquid such as water or oil. . Also gas that has been dehydrated to remove water (pipeline gas).. dissolved-gas drive: See solution-gas drive. Generally requires time and heat.``. but rich in magnesium carbonate. single or multiple stage separation for reuse. emulsion: A mixture of crude oil and formation water changing clothes.`.. --````.a tr base coatingfor expansion loop: A bend placed in a line to absorb line pipelines to prevent corrosion. Three-joint stands are fail safe: Said of equipment or a system so constructed called thribbles. doghouse: A small house used for keeping lease records. a as a lubricant. doubles: Drill pipe and tubing pulled from the well two joints at a time. drip: The small quantities of liquid hydrocarbons which fire wall: A dike built around oil tanks.. cure the safety of the operation. See permeability. effective permeability: The permeability of a rock to a fluid when the rock is not 100 percent saturated with the disposal well: A well through which water (usually salt fluid. Also. tapered ring used for the same purpose. and other types of separation and recovery equipment. A successful wildcat well.. a downhole field: An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple tool is used in the wellbore. are used to remove the liquid from the gas stream. contraction of movement or line crawl due to expansion and the pipe. the same individual applying to the wellbore. and sometimes condense in a natural gas line.`.or sucker rod pumps) in order to make them ready points... devicesare automatically activatedto stabilizeor seor a threaded.with a mist extracdope: A viscous material used on casingor tubing threads tor. oil pumps. although at times it may to flowing buttonhole pressures. new and previously untapped petroleum deposit.. dry hole: Any exploratory or development well that does quantities. Applied also to the permanent bendingof ter from theoil. spaces. in the eventof failure or malfunction of any part of the doughnut: A ring of wedges that supports a string of pipe system. units. The drawdown: The difference between the static and the field name refers the surface area.`. water) is returned to subsurface formations. downcomer: A tube that conducts liquids downward in a fatigue: Failure of a metal under repeated loading. User=. Special designedseparators. a gas stream. andto prevent corrosion. Also the equipother oil handling equipment to contain any oil which may ment installed on a gas line to remove liquids.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.`. allowing the passage of fluids through the sample. wire rope or pipe. compressors. Some times dolomite is entrained liquids: Mist-size liquid droplets occurring in found as the reservoir rock for petroleum. or any other use around a lease. female connection: A pipe or rod coupling with the downhole: A term to describe tools. vessel (as an absorber. a stripper. dry gas: Natural gas that is produced without liquid hydrocarbons. not produce oil or gas in commercial dump valve: The discharge valve through which oil and development well: A well drilled in a proven field for water are discharged fromseparators or treaters.. or heater-treater). the density of a drilling mud may be described as 10 pounds per gallonor 15 pounds per cubicfoot.A P IT I T L E * V T .
`. in some situations. fluids. cable. pied by free gas.) flow line: The surface pipe through which oil travels from gas plant products: Liquids recovered from natural gas the well to the field processing facility. has fluids.`. The minimizing gas entry into the pump. formation damage: The reduction of permeability in a gin-pole truck A truck equipped with pair of poles and a reservoir rock arising from the invasion of drilling fluid and hoisting equipment for use in lifting heavy machinery treating fluids into the section adjacent to the wellbore. however..`. expansion of gas in a cap overlying the oil in a reservoir. A petroleum geologist is primarily flush production: The high initial rate of flow from a concerned with sedimentary rocks where most the world's of good well.`.. and stabilized. The static fluid level is taken when the well is not producing and after it has geology: The scientific study of the origin. stream of naturalgas which may or may not have beenprocessed throughlease separators and field facilities. temperature: Temperature change withdepth. a fishing: The effort to recover tools. be accidentally discharged from equipment.`--- . produced with a barrel of liquid. of artificial lift.. gas processing plant (gas plant): A facility designed flowing pressure: The pressure at the wellhead of a (a) to achieve the recovery of natural gas liquids from the flowing well.. pressure: Pressure change with depth. as part of anenhanced recovery operation. gas sand: A porous sandstone reservoir which contains natural gas. fivespot: Four inputor injection wells located a square in gas injection: Natural gas injected under high pressure pattern with the production well inthe center. fluids from a well flow to the surface. flow chart: A record ofthe flow rate made by a recording gas-liquid ratio(GLR): The number of cubic feet of gas meter. Many special and ingeniously designed and gas in a pumping well. Often around a lease. oil has beenfound. expressed in "F per 100 feet. pipe. It serves to prevent gas lock by fishing tools are used to recover objects lost downhole. the term fluid refers to liquids. See natural gas liquids. gas-oil ratio(GOR): The number of cubic feet of gas proflow by heads (heading): Intermittent flow from a well.`. See injection or into a producing reservoir through an input injection well pattern.-`-`. gauging nipple: A small section of pipe in the top of a tank through which tank may be gauged..``.`. gathering lines: The flow lines which run from several fluid level: The distance from the surface to the top of the wells to a central lease or plant facility. expressed in psi per foot. duced witha barrel of oil. fracturing: Application of hydraulic pressure the reserto voir formation to create fractures through which oil or gas gradient. called skin damage. voir to force oil toward and into producing wells. In common oil field usage.. (Usually water and oil. in structure of the earth as recorded rocks. fittings: The small pipes and valvesthat are used to make gas-cap drive: The drive energy supplied naturally the by up a system of piping. User=. --````. object being sought downhole by the fishing tools is referred gas cap: The portion of an oil-producing reservoir occuto as the fish.of oil well accidentally. Both liquids and gases are gas flowing in a pipeline.`. gas lift: The raising. gas regulator: A device for controlling the pressure of fluid: A substance that flows. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. of liquid from a well by means of injecting gas into the liquid.. gradient.. or lifting. and (b) to flowing well: A well which produces without any means control the quality of the naturalgas to be marketed. with in the well shut in. float: A long. liquid in the tubing or casing in a well. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. history. from field flow string: The string of casing or tubing through which facilities. in a gas processing plant and... flange up: To finish a job.````. or other objects from the wellbore which have become lost in the gas anchor: A device for thebuttonhole separation . fluid injection: Injection of gases or liquids into a resergas well: A well capable of producing natural gas. recorded the holeat the levelof the formation. COPYRIGHT 2003. A person trained in geology is a geologist. It also serves the to block the spread offire or give protection fora period of a time while emergencyaction is taken.A P I TITLESVT-L 96 m 0732290 0556530 85T 102 Book One of the Vocational Training Series frozen up: Said of equipment of which the componentsdo not operate freely. gone to water: Describes a well in which oil production formation pressure: The pressure exerted by formation has decreased and water production greatly increased.. flat-bed semi-trailer. may moveto the wellbore.
The more common injection patvoir toward the wellbore dueto the force of gravity. but underground stratum. This action is repeated several headache: A warning cry given bya fellow worker when times a day. ject that must be fished out of the hole. and equipment. especially applied to those who work inthe field. COPYRIGHT 2003. terns include line drive. and peripheral.`.. gas or other gaseous material. the standard is air. or any relatively small obhole: The wellbore. input well: A well that is used for injecting fluids into an hand: Practically anyone who works in the oil industry. nection) or whip (a connection). lay barge: A shallow-draft. five spot. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. gravity-specific: Density expressed as the ratio of the weight of a volume of substance to the weight of an equal injected gas: High pressure gas injected into a formation volume of another standardsubstance.. In the case of natural hance recovery.`. oil to melt and remove accumulated paraffin from the tubing. oil..``. injection pattern: The spacing and patternof wells in an gravity drainage: The movement of the oil in the reserenhanced recoveryproject.. joint: A length of pipe.`. flow lines. essary to retrieve small parts or lost tools. casing. Also. flow-line system for the purpose of treating emulsions or and other debris that is cleaned out of a pipeline when a corrosion and (b) injects liquids under groundfor disposal or scraper or a pig is put throughthe line.. holiday: A gap or void in the coating of a pipe or in paint junk basket: A fishing tool run in the well when it is necon a metal surface..`. lean gas: Natural gas containing little or no liquefiable in situ combustion: The setting afire of some portion of hydrocarbons. injection pump: A pump that (a) injects chemicals into a gunk: The collection of dirt. produce. well. hot tapping: Making repairs or modifications on a knockout: A kind of tank or vessel used to separate water tank. lines. or tubing. warm(a conof pipe while anotherlength is being screwedon.`. time and is then closed in. insulatedflange: A flangethatcontainsinsulating handy: A connection that can be unscrewed hand. rods. Also called protection casing. nine spot.`.. pipeline. guy wire: A rope or cable used to steady a mast or pole.. User=. In the case of liquids to maintain or restore reservoir pressure or otherwise enand solids. heat (a connection): To loosen a collar or other threaded jack board: A device used to support the end of a length connection by striking it with a hammer. the oil in a reservoir in order (a) that the gases producedby lease: (1) A legal document that conveys an operator the to combustion will drive oil ahead of them to the producing right to drill for oil and gas(2) The tract of land. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. A free water knockout(FWKO).. operations. piping. gas-lift well whereby the well produces for short periods of hard hat: Molded plastic hat worn in the field for protection. hang the rods:To pull the rods out of the well and hang intermitter: A device for regulating the production of a them in the derrick. Also.````. laying down tubing: Pulling tubing from the well and hydro-test (hydrostatic testing): To apply hydraulic laying it on a pipe rack. paraffin. or production equipment.-`-`. on which a wells and (b) to heat the oil so it will flow more readily. hydrocarbons. transported interstate in violation of federal regulations. by material to separate the metal parts. --````. anything is accidentally dropped or falls from overhead tointermediate casing string: The casing set in a cell ward another worker.. Junk may be a lost bit.`. ward movement of certain pieces of equipment installed a in junk: Metal debris lost in a hole.. the standard is fresh water.API TITLExVT-L 96 m O732290 0556533 796 lntroduction to Oil and Gas Production 103 initial potential (IP): The initial capacity of a well to gravity-API: See API gravity.`--- . vessels. seven spot. mill scale. kill a well: To stop a well from producing so that surface hot-oil treatment (to hot oil): A treatment using heated connections may be removed for well servicing or workover. after the surface casing. rust. barge-like vessel used in the hydrocarbon: A compound consisting of molecules of construction and laying of underwater pipelines in swampy hydrogen and carbon. usually from hold-down: A mechanical arrangementto prevent the up20 to 30 feet long. milled pieces of pipe. or other installation without shutting down from oil. to enhance recovery. load the hole and renderit incapable of flowing. gasinjected for gas-lift. hot oil: Oil production in violation of state regulations or kick-off: To bring a well into production. Petroleum is a mixture of many areas and to offshore platforms. It is usually accomplished by circulating water or mud to annulus. wrenches. Similar terms apply drill pipe and to pressure (usually with water) inorder to find leaks in tubing. grind out: See shake out.
the tubing string to the deepest zone. nominations: The amount of oil or gas a purchaser exmarsh buggy: A tractor-like vehicle whose wheels are fitpects to take from a field as reported to a state regulatory ted withextra large rubbertires for use in swamps.. make it up: To screw a pipe or threaded connection tight by the use of a wrench. suring tanks are used in LACT systems and may also be reoffset well: Well drilled near another one.````.`. migration: The movement of oil from the area in which it has formedto a reservoir rock where can accumulate.. lease automatic custody transfer (LACT or ACT): The measurement and transfer of oil from the producer's tanks to the oil purchaser's pipeline on an automatic basis without arepresentative of either having to be present.. long string (tubing):In a dual completed well. User=.000 cubic feet (usually apnon-operator: A working-interest owner other than the plied to natural gas). high-pressure piping where accurate control of small amounts ofliquid or gas is desired.`. Plant products are also known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). valves. COPYRIGHT 2003. meter chart: A circular chart which records the differential and static pressures. See gas anchor.`--- offshore: That geographic area which lies seaward of the coastline. as to make up a string of tubing.OOO.. one designated as operator of the property. that do not contain significant quantities of crude oil. macaroni string:A string of tubing of very small diameter. --````. followed by a displacing fluid. usually on a wireline. make up: To assemble and join parts to form a complete unit. ferred to as metering tanks or dump tanks. needle valve: A valve usedon small.. a common unit of measurement large quantities of gas.. long string (casing): See production casing. measuring tank: A calibrated tank that automatically off measures the volume of liquid run in and then released. To screw together two threaded pieces..production: A well when it is shut in or temporarily not able to produce. and is less than 12 inches in length. nipple: A pipe fitting that is usually threaded on both ends to reroute a flow to any one of several possible destinations. American Petroleum Institute . Lubricators are used to run special tools. mist extractor: A metallic element used to remove moisture of condensable hydrocarbons fromgas stream in an oil a and gas separator or scrubber. net-oil computer: A combination of electronic and memanifold: An accessory system of valves and piping to a chanical devices that automatically determines the amount of main piping system (or other conductors) that serves to divide oil in a water andoil emulsion. limestone: A type of sedimentary rock rich in calcium carbonate. of mosquito bill: A tube mounted at the bottom of a sucker rod pump and inside a gas anchor to provide a conduit for well fluids into the pump. agency.. field facilities. natural gas liquids: Those portions of reservoir gas which are liquefied at the surface in separators.`. Limestone sometimes serves as a reservoir rock for petroleum. and proaching depletion to the extent that any profit from its nipples as in a Christmas tree. where the producing wells and production equipment are located.OOO cubic feet.. "CF: The abbreviation of 1. make a hand: To become a good worker. natural gas plant: See gas processing plant. multiple completion: A well equipped to produce oil or gas separately from more thanone reservoir. lifting costs: The costs of producing oil from a well or a lease. Mea.. or gas processing plants. master valve: A large valve located on the Christmas tree non-associated gas: Natural gas which is in reservoirs used to shut in a well. into a producing well without having to kill the well.`.-`-`.. a flow into several parts. natural gas: A mixture of hydrocarbons and varying quantities of non-hydrocarbons that exists either in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs.`. marginal well: A low producing rate well that is apnipple up: To assemble a system of pipe. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. to combine several flows into or one. MCF: The abbreviation for 1.``. male connection: A pipe or rod coupling with the threads on theoutside. location: The place at which a well is to be or has been drilled. mud: The liquid that is circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling and workover operations. See orifice meter. Also used with pressure gauges. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.`. continued production is doubtful.A P I TITLE*VT-L 9b m 0732290 055b532 b22 m 14 0 Book One o f f h eVocational Training Series lease has beenobtained. lubricator: A specially fabricated length of pipe that is usually temporarily placed above a valve on top of the Christmas tree. it miscible flood: An oil recovery process which involves the injection of afluid which mixesreadily with the oil.`.
then one goes to the oil patch... it.-`-`.. and drill pipe. oil string: See production casing. and other production equipment.. power rating: Rating given by a manufacturer of an engine operating at its mostefficient output. a key influence on the rateof flow. pressure drawdown: The reduction in a well’s buttonhole pressure. and so forth. tubing. pig: A device inserted in a pipeline for the purpose of sweeping the line clean of water. and drainage of the fluid. packer: An expandable plug-like device sealing off the for annular space between the well’s tubing and the casing.. A fluid or gascomposed of oil and gas separator:An item of production equipment used to separate the liquid components of the well stream from the gaseous components. permeability (of a reservoir rock): The ability of a rock to transmit fluid through the pore spaces. then abandoning See abandon. A highly porous sand is usually highly permeable. paraffin: Heavier paraffin-basehydrocarbons often forma wax-like substancecalled paraffin. oil operator (operator): An individual or company engaged in the business of finding and producing oil andgas. and other porous rock formations where accumulations of oil and gas may be found. pony rod: A sucker rod made inshort lengths of 2 feet to 8 feet. Crude oil whoseBS&W content is low enough to make the oil acceptable for transport or pipeline shipment..`.. flow lines. plug abandon and (plugged abandoned) and (P&A): Expressions referring to the act of placing plugs in a depleted wellor dry hole. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. If one goes to anoil field. limestone. or that formation which represents the objective of drilling. nuts. rods. rust. See effective porosity. positive-displacement meter(PD meter): A mechanical.`--- petroleum: Oil or gas obtained fromthe rocks of the earth by drilling down into a reservoir rock and piping them the to surface. A rock may be highly porous and yet impermeable if there is no communication between pores. pressure gauge: An instrument for measuring fluid pressure. fluid-measuring device that measures by filling and emptying chambersof a specific volume. on the beam: A well being pumped by a beam pumping unit. See hot-oil treatment. oil sand: A sandstone reservoir that yields oil. pipeline oil: Clean oil. The to pore space determines the amount of space available for storage of fluids. pipeline gas: Gas which meets gas pipeline purchaser specifications. User=. See plug and abandon. See effective permeability. movement.. plunger lift: A method of lifting oil using a swab or free piston propelled by compressed gas from the lower end of the tubing string to the surface.`. casing.A P I TITLExVT-L 9b m 0732290 0556533 5b9 D toIntroduction Production Gas Oil and 105 oil-petroleum-gas: hydrocarbons. P&A: The abbreviation for plugged and abandoned. plug back: To shut off a lower formation in a wellbore. .. oil well: A well completed fort he production of rude oil from at least one oil zone or reservoir. A a on the pump:A well that is not capable of flowing and is produced by means of a pump.`. on the line: tank when it is being emptied into pipeline. potential test: A test which indicates the maximum rate at which a well can produce. Also referred to as Pay. fractured shale. To a pig iron: Any piece of oilfield equipment made of iron or steel. and equippinga well. pop-off valve (pop valve): See pressure-relief valve. overproduced: A well that has produced more than its allowable. porosity (of a reservoir rock):The percentage that the volume of the pore space bears the total bulk volume. pig a line: run or put pig or scraper througha pipeline. pay out: The recovery from production of the costs of drilling. dolomite.``. pay sand: The producing formation.. See drawdown. petroleum rock: Sandstone.````.`. See hydrocarbon. There is no necessary relation between porosity and permeability. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. or other foreign matter.`. --````.`. open hole: Uncased portion of a well. power tools: Equipment operated hydraulically or by compressed air for making up and breaking out drill pipe. oil patch: A colloquial expression for an oil field.. completing. COPYRIGHT 2003. Paraffin may accumulate on the walls of tubing. pinch a valve: Closing a valve part way to reduce the flow of liquid or gas througha line. Also known as go-devil. thus restricting the flow of well fluids to the extent that it must be removed. oil field: See field. tubing. oil country tubular goods:Oil-well casing. orifice meter: An instrument commonly usedto measure the flow of fluid (usually gas) in a pipe.`.
ducing formation when the well is shut in. --````. or both. User=. riser: A pipe through which liquidtravels upward. pipeline. pressure maintenance: Maintaining reservoir pressure used for pulling rods or well workover...``. centrifugal. and with storing.. also called a relief valve. Also called the oil stringor more fields. dissolved-gas drive. Types of pumps include: sucker rod. round-trip: To pull out and subsequentlyrun back into the hole a string of drill pipe. and attendant surface equipter is generally disposedof within thefield. run ticket: A record of oil transferred from the producer’s pSig: Pounds per square inch gaugesobserved ona gauge). pump: A device used to increase the pressure of or move pressure regulator: A device for maintaining pressurein liquids. for pressure gradient: See gradient. producing platform: An offshore structure accommodatreservoir pressure: The pressure at the face of the proing a number of producing weih. relief valve: See pressure-relief valve. a line. Sometimescalled intermediate casing. length. line.. or any combination of these.`. rock a well: To alternately bleed pressure from the casing and then from the tubing of a dead well until the well will proration: A system of allocating the amount of oil gas or flow on itsown.eservoir’s natural sources of energy. pressure. Produced warig: The derrick. by which the lease operator is paidoil produced and sold.or sucker rodsAlso termed protection casing:A string of casing set to protect seca trip. Also see well platform. from a reservoir by the . pup joint: A joint of pipe or tubing shorter than standard This includes gas-cap drive..A P I TITLEJVT-L 96 0732290 O556534 4T5 106 BookVocational Series of the Training One pulling unit (pulling machine): A portable. or other source of power for the machinery being it is run to make certain it is the proper size inside and outoperated. put on pump: To install an artificial lift pumping system primary recovery: The amount of oil or gas produced to produce a well.truckmounted mastequipped with winch. Also that rack pipe: To stand pipein the derrickwhen coming outof branch of the petroleum industry that has with bringing to do the hole or to stack pipe on a pipe rack.`. or both. ment whichtakes atmospheric pressure into consideration. production casing (production string): The last remote control station: A centrally located station constring of casing set in a well. pressure measurerun in: To go into the hole withtubing or drill pipe. safety valve. by the mineralrights owner under the lease agreement. tubing. production: The yield of an oil or gas well. ment of a drilling or workover unit. and otherwise preparing the product for the recompletion operations: To perform operations to change producing formations in an existing well. the well fluids to the surface and separating them. See workover. productivity test: A test of a well’s abilityto produce under specified conditions. prover: A device used to calibrate meters used in measurrun: The amount of crude oil sold and transferred to the ing oil. reciprocating. production platform (processing platform):An offreworking a well (remedial operations): To restore shore structure providing a central processing and disposiproduction from an existing formation when it has fallen off tion point forfluids produced from wells on adjacent substantially or ceased altogether. a well or field is allowed produce withina given periodby to a regulatory agency. COPYRIGHT 2003. gear.`. a ak psia: Pounds per square inch absolute..`. water drive.````. side. or pop valve. downstream from the device.. rotary. A drift mandrel. The treated oil and gas is moved to shore through submarine pipelines. and sheaves. producing and well platforms.`--- . or long string. put a well on: To start a well flowing or pumping.`. reservoir: A subsurface porous and permeable rock body that contains oil. run a tank: To transfer oil from stock t n into a pipeline. draw works.wirelines.`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.. normally water or gas. tion of the hole and permit drilling to continue to a greater to royalty interest: The fraction of the oil and gas retained depth.. gauging..-`-`. ( a storage tank to the pipeline. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. pipeline by the producer. gas. the casing string set to the top taining equipment to control and regulate operations in one or through the producing formation and inside of which is usually suspended the tubing string. by injecting fluid. pressure-relief valve: A valve that opens at a preset pumped off: A pump when fluid is not entering the pump pressure to relieve excessive pressures within a vessel or intake. prime mover: The electric motor.`. This is the basic legal instrument pull a well: To remove rods or tubing from a well. and jet. psi: Pounds per square inch. internal combustion rabbit: A device that is put through casing tubing before or engine..
spear: A fishing tool designed togo inside pipe that is lost in a well to obtain a friction grip and permit recovery the of pipe. Slips: Wedge-shaped pieces of metal with teeth or other gripping elements. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001.A P IT I T L E r V T .. sandstone: A compacted sedimentary rock composedof the minerals quartz or feldspar Sandstone is a common rock in which petroleum and water accumulate. Various tubing running tools also are used.````. service well: A non-producing well used injecting liqfor uid or gas into the reservoir for enhanced recovery. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. American Petroleum Institute --````.. static pressure: The force exerted by a fluid at rest and confined within a tank.. and limestoneare sedimentary rocks. sand: A loose material most commonly composed of small quartz grains formed from the disintegration of preexisting rocks. shut in: To close valves on a well so that it stops producing. sour gas: Natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide.-`-`.``. shale..`. Sandstone. saltwater disposal: The method and system for the disposal of salt water produced with crude A typical system oil. a well on whichthe valves are closed. stock tank: A lease tank into which a well’s production is run.. for example.`. Also called grind out. shrinkage: A decrease in oil volume caused the vaporby ization of solution gas fromthe oil as pressure is reduced... used prevent pipe fromslipping down to into the hole or for otherwise holding pipe in place. 10-acre spacing).`. such asa wireline running tool for installing retrievable gas lift valves. sour crudeoil (sour crude): An oil containingfree sulphur or other sulphur compounds whosetotal sulphur content is in excess of 1 percent. skimmer tank: A produced water processing tank designed to skim oil from the surface of the water. . shake out: To spin a sample of oil at high speed to determine its BS&Wcontent. line.`--- sinker bar: A heavy weightor bar run with a wireline tool to add weight so that the tool will lower properly into the well. in the case of pumping a well. stabilized: A well is considered stabilized when. User=. the tubing string for the shallower zone. acidizingor fracturing. for example.. stands: Connected points of pipe racked in the derrick when making a trip. sand control: Any method by which large amounts of sand are prevented fromentering the wellbore. strap: To measure and record the dimensions of oil tanks for the purpose of preparing a tank table to accurately determine the volume of oil in a tank at any measured depth. scrubber: A vessel through which gas passed to remove is liquid and foreign matter. The operating pressure of each succeedingseparator is lower than the one preceding it. and sand consolidation. safety valve: See pressure-relief valve. screen liner.`. Also a salt-water disposal well or a water supplywell. when the fluid column within the well remains constant in height. sedimentary rock: A rock composed of materials that were transported to their present position by wind or water. spacing: Distance between wells producing from the same reservoir (usually expressed in termsof acres. or create new ones. Packers and other downhole equipment are secured in position by means of slips that engage the pipe as a result of action performed at the surface. stimulation: The descriptive term used several processes for to enlarge old channels. See pig.. in the case of a flowing well. sand consolidation: Any one of several methods by which loose. static fluid level: The level to which fluid rises in a well when the well is shut in.`. unconsolidated grains of a producing formation are caused to adhere together in order to prevent a well from producing sand yetstill allow oil or gas to be produced.. short string: In a dual well. stab: To guide the end of a pipe intoa coupling when making up a connection.`. Also see sandstone. shale: A fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of silt and clay sized particles. is composed of collection centers and disposal wells in which treated salt water is injected into a suitable formation..The standing valve and its cage do not move as does the traveling valve. shut-in pressure: Pressure as recorded at the wellhead when the valves are closed and the well is shut in. in the producing formation of a well. safety hat: See hard hat. rate of production through a given the size of choke remainsconstant. stage separation: An operation whereby well fluids are separated into component liquids and gasesby passing consecutively through two or more separators. separator: A pressure vessel used for the purpose of separating gas from crudeoil and water. or well as measured by a gauge. The most frequently occurring sedimentary rock. standing valve: A fixed ball and seat valve situated atthe tower end of the barrel of a sucker-rod pump. scraper: A device usedto clean deposits of paraffin from tubing or flow lines. sanded up: Clogged by sand entering the wellbore. or. Methods include: gravel pack. COPYRIGHT 2003.`.L 96 W 0732290 0556535 3 3 1 W Introduction to Oil and Gas Production 107 running tool: Specialized tools used to run equipment in a well.
--````. increasing the recovery every participant. tap: A threaded opening in a line or vessel in which a to gauge or valve may be installed. tail pipe: Pipe run in a well below a packer. . pipe COPYRIGHT 2003. stuffing box: A packing gland.``.. stuck pipe: Refers to pipe or tubing inadvertently stuck in the hole. a chamber or box to hold packing material around moving pumprod. Itsprincipal purpose is to protect fresh water sands. Sweet: Oil or gas when it contains no sour impurities. Also to pull such device through the tubing.````. pressure. tank dike: See fire wall. Important where for enhanced recovery is anticipated.`. surface casing: The first string of casing to be set in a well.D. sub: A short lengthof tubing containinga special tool to be used downhole. surge tank A vessel on a flow line whose function is to receive and cushion sudden rises or surges in the stream of liquid. This is a temporary operation to determine whether or not the well can made to flow or if artificial lift be is needed.. tail gas (residue gas): Gas from a processing unit after extraction of liquids. strip chart: In lieu of the circular chart for recording gas flow through an orifice meter. stripper: A well nearing depletion that produces a very small amountof oil or gas.`. tally: To measure and record the length of or tubing.`. trap (geologic): An arrangement of rock strata or structures that halts the migration of and gas and causes them oil to accumulate. tubing job: The pulling and running of tubing.`... trip: See round-trip.. thread protector: A device screwed onto pipe threads to protect the threadsfrom damage when not in use. strip a well: To pull rods and tubing from a well at the same time.a notched tool used cut inside threads.. tail out rods:To pull the bottom end of sucker rod away a from a well when laying rods down. subsurface safety valve: A safety device installed in the well’s tubing below the surface to automatically shut the well in when predetermined flow rate. packer-like device run in a string of tubing that grips the wall casing to prevent up of the and down movement of the lower section of tubing as the well is pumped by a rod pump. or drill pipe in its entirety. thief: A metal cylinder with a spring-actuated closing device that is lowered intotank to obtain samples oil at any a of given depth.`. tail chain: The short length chain.`. that is pulled through the tubing lift fluid from to the well.. tight formation: A formation of relatively low permeability. structure: An underground geological feature capable of forming a reservoir for oil and gas.): The maximum depth reached in well. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. telemetry: A system for the electronic transmission of oil field data. or a wireline to prevent the escape of gas or liquid. take a strain on: To begin to pull on a load. other conor ditions are reached. swab: A rubber-faced device.API ITLEmVT-1 T 7b m 0732290 0 5 5 b 5 3 b 278 m 108 Book One of the Vocational Traininx Series string: Refers to the casing.`--- swabbing: Operation of a swab on a wire line (swab line) to bring well fluids to the surface when the well does not flow naturally. of on the end ofa winch line. A pressure transducer. a transducer: An instrumentation device for converting a signal fromone form to another.. The production f o the unitis then divided on the basis established in the unit agreement. thief hatch: An opening in the topof a tank large enough to admit a thief andother oil-sampling equipment. which closely fits the inside of tubing.. Tubing must be stripped the rodsone joint at over a time. See strapping. a tank battery: See battery. User=. temperature bomb: An instrument lowered into well to a record downhole temperature. tank table: A table giving the barrels of fluid contained in a storage tank corresponding to the linear measurement on a gauge line. tubing. a short pipe adapter.`. top Out: To finish filling a tank. The purpose of such agreement is to produce the reserves more efficiently. strip charts are sometimes used. witha hook attached. valve stem.. tubing anchor: A downhole.. swing check: A type of check valve. American Petroleum Institute unit operator: The company designated to operate unitized properties unitization: Unitization is the process whereby owners the of adjoining properties pool their reserves and form a single unit for the operation of the properties by only one of the rm owners.-`-`. Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. Also. tattletale: A device on an instrument control panel indito cate the cause of a system shutdown or alarm signal. tubing head: The top of the string of tubing withcontrol and flow valvesattached. total depth (T.
such as lithology. wellhead: The equipment used to maintain surface control of a well..-`-`. vapor recovery unit: A facility for collecting stock or storage tank vapors to prevent their loss to the atmosphere. water well: A well drilled to (a) obtain a fresh water supply to support drilling and production operations. gas-lift valves. porosity. gas lift valves. hydraulically fracture. acidize. rods. water flooding: One method of enhanced recovery in which water is injected into an oil reservoir to force additional oil out of thereservoir rock and into the well boresof producing wells. which of forces the oil into the wellbore. wet gas: Natural gas containing significant amounts of liquefiable hydrocarbons.. zone: Describes a unique interval which has one or more distinguishing characteristics. . Also see service well. working interest: The operating interest under an oil and gas lease.`. well: A hole drilled in the earth for the purpose of finding or producing crude oilor natural gas.`. Also rank wildcat. mechanically repair... it involves well. packers. winch: A machine used for pulling or hoisting by winding rope or cable around a power-driven drumor spool.L 96 m 0732290 055b537 L04 m Production to Oil and Introduction Gas 109 up-dip well: A well located high on the structure... See reworkinga well. wireline truck (wireline unit): A service vehicle or unit on which the spool of wireline is mounted for use in downhole wireline work. working pressure: The pressure at which a system or item of equipment is designed tooperate.(b) obtain or a water supply to be used in connection with an enhanced recovery program. and equipmentto a jobsite offshore. swabs.`. or pump to permit the escape of air or gas. wildcat well: A well drilled in previously unexplored areas. or measuring devices. water drive: The reservoir-drive mechanism whereby oil is produced by the expansion the underlying water.. viscosity: A measure of how easily a liquid will pour or flow.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584. User=. water-coning: The upward encroachmentof water into a well due to pressure draw down fromproduction. tools. well platform: An offshore structure with a platform above the surface of the water that supports the producing well’s surface controls and flow piping... waterflood kick: The first indication of increased oil production as the result of a waterflood project. line. --````. wet job: Pulling tubing full of oil or water. well permit: The authorization to drill a well issued by a governmental regulatory agency. weathered crude: Crude oil which has lost an appreciable quantity of its entrained gas due to evaporation during storage.`..`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.````. and so forth. warm up (a connection): See heat (a connection). American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. A workover may be done to wash out sand. workover: Operations on a producing well to restore inor crease production. well servicing: The maintenance work performed on an oil or gas well to improve maintain the production from or a formation already producing in the Usually.`.``.API T I T L E v V T . repairs to the pump. vent: A connection in a vessel. or saturation. work boat: A boat or self-propelled barge used to carry supplies.`.`. tubing packers. for example. wireline tools: Special tools or equipment made to be lowered into and retrieved from the well on a wireline (small-diameter steel cable). upset tubing: Tubing that is upsetis made with a thicker wall and larger outside diameter on both ends of a joint to compensate for cutting the threads. or for other reasons.
S. *39-McEvoy Division of Smith International Inc. U. Section 13: * 104-Shell Oil Company *105.S. 117-Paragon Engineering Services Inc. --````. U.A. and *66"Sun Exploration and Production Company *67--Vortoil Separation Systems U. *29-Baker Oil Tools *32--Halliburton Company Section 3: *36-McEvoy Division of Smith InternaSection 4: tional Inc..S. Bartlesville. Inc. Section 15: * 112-Arco Oil and Gas Company * 113-Gulf Publishing Company * 114-Oil & Gas Division. *28-Texaco. 111 . U.S... Section 10: *87. Section 12: *98 and *99--Cities Service Company *10&Exxon Company. *54-Gulf Oil Corporation Section 6: *%-Sun Exploration and Production ComPay Section 7: *57 and *58"Sivalls. U.. Section 5 : *43-Lee C. *94 and *95-Cities Service Company *96 and *97"Exxon Company.. * M i t i e s Service Company *45 and *46-Lufkin Industries *48--Conoco Inc. Inc. OK. and *63"sivalls. Outside Front Cover Offshore picture-Tenneco. SPEAIME *53"Kobe. *91"Sun Exploration and Production Company Section 11: *92 and *93-Exxon Company. Inc. *62. and furnishing material for the illustrations and diagrams in this document. Moore Corp. preparing original for drawings for this section. Inc. *40--Gray Tool Company *41-Garrett Oil Tools *42-Lufkin Industries.`.-`-`.S.A. * 10 1-Cities Service Company *lo2 and *103"Exxon Company.A.. assembling. U. Figures in Sections 4 and 5 were retouched and redrawn by Ms. Onshore picture-Exxon Company.A. *Figures reproducedfrom previous editions of A f I Primer ofoil und Gus Producrion.A. * 106. *59--C-E Natco 60-Paragon Engineering Services Inc. U. 16-20"Paragon Engineering Services Inc. *64. User=.`. Inc. *23. Inc. * 4 9 4 a r r e t t Oil Tools *50"Camco. and *75--Shell Oil Company Section 9: * 7 6 E x x o n Corporation *77--Shell Oil Company 78-86-Paragon Engineering Services Inc..S. InsideFrontCover:Originalartfurnished by Exxon Company. * All figures-Phillips Petroleum Company Section 1: Special thanks to Phillips Drafting Department.A. *61.S. and *24"Texaco.A. Section 2: *22.. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. University of Texas at Austin *70"Sun Exploration and Production Company *7 1 and * 7 2 r i t i e s Service Company *73.S.A. "65.`. and *89-Exxon Company U. Inc. *68--Cities Service Company Section 8: *69"Petroleum Extension Service.. Railroad Commission of Texas Section 19: * 115 and* 116-Exxon Company.S. Inc.``.`. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. *37--Standard Oil Company of California *38"Conoco.````.A P I TITLE*VT-L 76 0732270 055b538 0 4 0 APPENDIX B-ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgment is made of the cooperation and assistance of the following companies and individuals in preparing. Edye Rankin of Conoco's PES drafting department.`. U. *51 and *52"Copyright May 1976. Inc. *88.A. Barbara Quebedeaux and Ms. U.`.. * 107(b)-Delta-X Corporation Section 14: All figures furnished by Exxon Company. Inc.A.`--- COPYRIGHT 2003.S. *74. U. and *107(a)-Exxon Company. *26Texaco.A.`.S.
`.`.`. .. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.`.`...````.~~ A P I TITLEaVT-L 9b 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 05563537 T87 PG-014W96-2M --````..`..`...-`-`..`--- (4E) COPYRIGHT 2003. American Petroleum Institute Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001...``. User=..
D.C...`--- American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street. --````..api..org on the COPYRIGHT 2003..`. 12/22/2003 23:13:50 MST Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 1-800-451-1584.. American Petroleum Document provided by IHS Licensee=PETRONAS NASIONAL BERHAD/4397000001. GVTOI 5 availableInstitute World Wide Web at: http://www.`.. 20005-4070 202-682-8000 Additional copies available from API Publications and Distribution: (202) 682-8375 . User=.````.`.`. and Services is Order No.-`-`.`.Information about API Publications.`. Programs.``.. Northwest Washington....`.