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Organization Profile: VIPULA Technologies was founded in the year 2000 by

Mr.M.V.RamiReddy, a young business entrepreneur with a great ambition to embark in the IT industry and succeed at any cost. The objective was to provide unique, cost-effective and powerful solutions in business management, manufacturing processes, defense research and allied fields. The objective has been fulfilled to large extent and today the company is poised for major developments in the high-end technological domains. The company is currently planning to launch a major research center, which will form the backbone of the various development activities by transferring high-end technologies. The company is also engaged in parallel, in providing high-quality training and experience to the engineering student community. The students not only benefit from finely chiseled course curriculum, but also from the practical experience gained through the development center. In order to realise these end-results, the company is supported by domain expects with strong technical background and rich

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industrial experience. The development activities may broadly summarised under the following heads:  Turnkey solutions in business management  Process Automation solutions to manufacturing companies  Flexible and Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, vision-based Robots  High-end Technological Solutions to Defense & Aerospace Industry  In-house development of microprocessor-based products  Web Based Applications using J2EE and .Net Technologies  High-end Software development using leading technologies in different domains Investment in high-quality manpower has largely been the reason for the success of the organization. The technical team is headed by B.Chandra Sekhar, Viswanath, B.Uday Reddy and Ashok whom have substantial industrial experience with numerous successful projects to their credit both in the industry and the defence sector. The following list represents a typical cross section of the clients who have eulogised on the quality of services provided by us. We have built confidence and trust into our clients through our quality services and dependable on-going support. Turbo Engineering Prem Industries JK Mills Deepak Oils Maheshwari Marriage Bureau

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Jayasree Enterprises DigitalAUM Arithmatics Gempac India VishVision Malhotra Shaving Products Limited Bayer India Limited Hoechst Pharmaceuticals Limited Klockner Windsor Limited Hindustan Dorr Oliver Electronic Corporation of India (Bangalore) The company provides a close-knit, sleeves rolled-up atmosphere throughout, rather than a flat hierarchy. The company allows employees to customise benefit programs and provide flexible time-off policy. Our goal:- Change the World, Make a King’s ransom to achieve profitability and get acquired.

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Contents
• Introduction • Organization Profile • Problem Definition • Software Design • Software Requirements       

Overview of Java Java Database Connectivity Java Servlets JSP HTML & Java Script Oracle 8i Overview of Testing

Dataflow Diagram

• Data Dictionary • ER Diagrams • Operational Profile • Implementation • Use Case Document • Software Testing Design • Test Cases • Performance Evaluation Report • Conclusion and future scope

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7 . Credit Rating. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. Travel Agency etc. Tax. Provident Fund. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. Passport. Instead. Gas. he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department. Electricity. This System consists of the modules like Personal Information. a citizen card helps in having all the utilities and services under one unique Id. Telephone. Movies.Citizen card Introduction: The Project ‘Citizen Card System’ gives us the information about the citizen in any country. Banking. RTO. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations. Voting.This system not only help us to know the information about the services or utilities but also it gives the information about the character of the citizen in credit rating. Insurance. Municipality.

Movies. Municipality. Banking. 8 . Insurance. Credit rating etc. How they work? In citizen card system the citizen will perform the all transactions basing on id.If citizen want to take a policy like Insurance policy then citizen basing on id he/she logins and register themselves to take a policy . Electricity. Tax. Provident Fund. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes. Credit rating tells the behavior of the person whether citizen’s character is good or bad. Gas.Not only the Insurance but also he/she perform the transactions like banking. Telephone.Citizen card Project Description: ‘Citizen Card System’ provides the information about the citizen in any country. If any citizen wants to utilize the services or utilities by the Government or Private organizations. he has to go to each and every department with different Id for that particular department.

It provides the information of the citizen .If the citizen wants to make a policy in the insurance then citizen can make it by his citizen id. address etc. It determines whether the citizen’s behavior basing on all the things is good or bad.Citizen card MODULES: Personal Information : This module contains the personal information like name . Taxation: This module provides the information regarding the tax paid and tax to be paid. id . of citizen.. If administrator want to view the personal details of the citizen administrator can verify the personal information module. Basing on citizen id the insurance details can be displayed. Credit Rating : This module gives the information about the character of the citizen. If Administrator wants to know about the particular citizen details 9 . Insurance : This module provides the amount insured and regarding its installments.

citizen can vote according to his/her choice. Andhra bank etc All the banking transactions can be done with citizen id.Citizen card whether he/she paid the tax or not then the administrator can check it basing on id.vehicle reg number..Service number. Telephone : This module provides information about the telephone bill payments. Citizen can choose particular area to the voting. The information provides the amount paid by the customer to the particular gas no and gas type. It provides the information about the STD calls/ISD calls and their charges of particular citizen id. Banking : This module allows all banking transactions.It gives the information like vehicle name. RTO : This module provides information regarding licenses for vehicles.Owner address etc Voting : This module provides the online voting facility.engine number. Citizen can make any bank transactions basing on citizen id. Gas : This module provides the information regarding the deliveries of the gas. 10 . ICICI.Bank like SBI.

SOFTWARE DESIGN DOCUMENT Purpose Purpose of this document is to clearly describe all known classes. 11 .validupto etc.gas.issued govt . dateissued.Citizen card Electricity : This module provides information about electricity bill payments and all. Credit Rating. etc.banking Personal Information. passport..It provides the information like number of units and previous no of units and the charge for that bill basing on id of particular citizen. GUI. and data fields for this software.Details like citizen personal information and date. Passport: This module provides information about particular citizen.renewal Objectives To enable the Administrator to perform operations basing on citizen id like voting. processes.

Every department welcomes the idea of computerization. Technical feasibility: Technical feasibility such as whether the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested and if the equipment have the capacity to hold data required by the use of new system. In this regard technical. reliability. data security could be provided etc. and economic feasibility are analyzed.Citizen card FEASIBILITY STUDY: Feasibility considerations: The feasibility study is carried out to find whether the proposed system can be developed and implemented without any problem. But the resistance will be from the operators who are involved in the existing system or manual system. Also any technical guarantees of accuracy. 12 . ease of access. behavioral. Behavioral Feasibility: People are inherently resistant to change and computers have known to facilitate changes. The following feasibility is considered for the project in order to ensure that the project is viable and it does not have any major obstructions.

Also can the system be built within the specified time interval? Establish cost and schedule constraints. s/w people. Create system definition that forms a foundation for all subsequent engineering work. An agreement is made between management and staff so that computerizing system will be installed step by step by giving training to existing staff members only.Citizen card Behavioral Feasibility is also studied like whether the changes made to the system facilitates the user and if he is able to adapt to the change made by introducing computers. Defining functions for h/w. Any extra h/w required should be affordable in terms of cost. Software Requirements 13 . Economic Feasibility: Economic feasibility like if the existing resources are sufficient introducing.

Citizen card SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION:  JAVA  JDBC  SERVLETS  JSP  HTML  ORACLE SCRIPT LANGUAGE: JAVA SCRIPT WEB BROWSER: TOMCAT (OR) WEBLOGIC Hardware Requirements Pentium III and above with 10 GB HDD and 256 RAM 14 .

java2 also and subtracts features. redefined the way events are handled by applets. Here is a list of the important features added by 1. This is an important facility for building distributed applications.1 added some important elements to Java.0. added and subtracted attributes from its original specification. which allows you to save and restore the state of an object. objects to invoke the methods of another Java object that located on a different machine. which allows a Java.1 both evolution. which are software components that are written in Java.0 library . Most of the addition occurred in the Java library.1 Version1. However. • Remote Method Invocation. and reconfigured many features of the 1. Features added by 1. increment improvements. Continuing in this 15 .1 added many new library elements. but it did not mark the end of java’s era of rapid innovation. java had already created java1. Unlike most other software systems that usually settle into a pattern of small.1: • Java Beans.It also deprecated several features originally defined by java1.1 were more significant and substantial than the increase 1 the minor revision number would have you think. a few new language features were also included.Citizen card JAVA The initial release of Java was nothing of revolutionary. • Serialization. Thus java1. Java1.

and access control lists and key generation. Features added by java 2. most of the original Date class was deprecated.0 feature is still available in java to support legacy code. In general. • Inner classes. they were replaced with updated alternatives. which allow one class to be defined within another. databases from many different vendors. such as digital signatures. • Significant changes to event handling that improve the way in which events generated by graphical user interface (GUI) components are handled. For example. Deprecated by Features 1. the deprecated features did not go away. • The Java Native Interface (JNI).1 depreciated many earlier library elements. which allows programs to access SQL.0 16 . which is a process of determining the fields.Citizen card • Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). but they should not be used by new applications. However. which provides a new way for your programs to interface with code libraries written in other languages. • Built in support for 16-bit character streams that handle Unicode characters. constructors and methods of a java object at run time. • Various security features. Instead. deprecated 1.1 As just mentioned java 1. messages digests. • Reflection.

dynamic arrays and hash tables for use. Java 2.1. • Text components can now receive Japanese. • Digital certificates provide mechanism to establish the identity of a user. • Collections are group of objects. browsers JVM’s typically do not include the latest java features. You may think of them as electronic passports. such as linked lists. Unfortunately.Citizen card Building upon 1.0 adds many important new features. java 2. Here is a partial list. Using a sequence of keystrokes to represent one character does this. The java Plug-in solves this problem. Chinese and Korean characters from keyboard. • Performance improvements have been made in several areas. You can also design your own look and feel. • Swing is a set of user interface components that is implemented entirely in java You can use a look and feel that is either specific to a particular operating system or uniform across operating systems.0 provides several types of collection. A Just-InTime (JIT) compiler is included in JDK. • The Common Object request Broker Architecture (CORBA) defines an Object request Broker (ORB) and an Interface Definition Language (IDL). • Many browsers include a Java Virtual Machine that is used to execute applets. Collections offer a new way to solve several common-programming problems. Java 2. The latter generates code from an IDL specification. It directs a 17 .0 includes an ORB and an IDL to java compiler. Java programs can parse and use certificates to enforce security policies.

the suspend (). Features Deprecated by 2 Although not as extensive as the deprecations experienced between 1.The JRE is a subset of the JDK. Here is why java was designed to be interpreted language. Rather.It does not include the tools and classes that are used in a development environment. Debugger and Profiler interfaces for the JVM arte available. it is Byte Code.It is easier to run them in wide variety of environments. resume () and stop () methods of the Thread class should not be used in new code Java’s Magic: The Byte Code: The key that allows java to solve both the security and the portability problems just described is that the output of the java compiler is not an executable code. Only the java runtime system needs to be 18 . However.1 are deprecated by java 2. For example.1 some features of java 1. Because java programs are interpreted rather than compiled . Various tools such as Javac.Citizen card browser’s JVM . not interpreted-mostly because of performance concerns. the fact that a java program is interpreted helps solve the major problems associated with downloading the program over the Internet.0. Java and Javadoc have been enhanced. This may come as it of surprise as you know c++ is compiled.0 and 1. Byte Code is a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by virtual machine that the java Runtime system emulates.

The Java Buzz Words No discussion of the genesis of java is complete without a look at the java buzzwords. However. the portability and safety would still apply.Citizen card implemented for each platform. Once the runtime package exists for a given system any java program can run on it. there is technically nothing about java that prevents on the fly compilation of Byte Code into native code. If java were a compiled langu8age then different versions of the same program will have to exist for each type of CPU connected to the Internet. Thus interpretation is the easiest way to create truly portable programs. even if dynamic compilation were applied to Byte Code. • Simple • Portable • Object-oriented • Robust • Multithreaded • Architectural-neutral • High performance • Distributed • Dynamic 19 . Although the fundamentals that necessitated the invention of java are portability and security. there are other factors that played an important role on molding the final form of the language.Although java was designed to be interpreted. The java in the following list of buzzwords summed up the key considerations. because the run time system would still be in change of the execution environment.

display the output. To appreciate what OOP does. a single list of instructions becomes unwieldy. For this reason the function was adopted as a way to make programs more 20 . FORTRAN. we need to understand what these limitations are and how they arose from traditional programming. divide by 6. Few programmers can comprehend a program of more than a few hundred statements unless it is broken down into smaller units. add these numbers. and similar languages are procedural languages. Division into Functions When programs become larger. PROCEDURAL LANGUAGES Pascal. each statement in the language tells the computer to do something: Get some input. That is. and the computer carries them out.. The programmer creates the list of instructions.Citizen card OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING AND JAVA Object-oriented Programming was developed because of limitations found in earlier approaches of programming. For very small programs no other organizing principle (often called a paradigm) is needed. A program in a procedural language is a list of instructions. C. Basic.

costs skyrocket. and (ideally. the somewhat loosely defined discipline that has influenced programming organization for more than a decade. The idea of breaking a program into functions can be further extended by grouping a number of functions together into a larger entity called a module. What are the reasons for this failure of procedural languages? One of the most crucial is the role played by data. (The term functions is used in C++ and C.) functions. even the structured programming approach begins to show signs of strain. large programs become excessively complex. The project is too complex. You may have heard about. or been involved in. a subprogram. at least) each function has a clearly defined purpose and a clearly defined interface to the other functions in the program. horror stories of program development. the schedule slips. more programmers are added. the schedule slips further. but the principle is similar: grouping a number of components that carry out specific tasks. In other languages the same concept may be referred to as a A program is divided into subroutine. or a procedure. Dividing a program into functions and modules is one of the cornerstones of structured programming. Analyzing the reasons for these failures reveals that there are weaknesses in the procedural paradigm itself. 21 . complexity increases. and disaster ensues.Citizen card comprehensible to their human creators. Problems with Structured Programming As programs grow ever larger and more complex. No matter how well the structured programming approach is implemented.

the data that makes up the inventory is probably read from a disk file into memory. such as Pascal and C. The important part of an inventory program isn't a function that displays the data. We should note that most languages. check for errors.Citizen card Data Undervalued In a procedural language. Yet data is given second-class status in the organization of procedural languages. the emphasis is on doing things--read the keyboard. update it. because every function has complete access to the data. the programmer creates a function that accidentally corrupts the. What they do may be more complex or abstract. but the emphasis is still on the action. By global we mean that the variables that constitute the data are declared outside of any function. the reason for a program's existence. The subdivision of a program into functions continues this emphasis. write it back to the disk. it's the inventory data itself. invert the vector. on. and so on. These functions perform various operations on the data. analyze it. For example. But local variables are not useful for important data that must be accessed by many They read it. also support local variables. Unfamiliar with the subtleties of the program. after all. This is easy to do. so they are accessible to all functions. which are hidden within a single function. different functions. or a function that checks for correct input. and so 22 . in an inventory program. Functions do things just as single program statements do. where it is treated as a global variable. What happens to the data in this paradigm? Data is. Now suppose a new programmer is hired to write a function to analyze this inventory data in a certain way. display it. rearrange it.

What is needed is a way to restrict access to the data. the way the data is stored becomes critical. Relationship to the Real World Procedural programs are often difficult to design. global data can be corrupted by functions that have no business changing it. what functions will you need? What data structures? The answers are not obvious. It's similar to what happens when your local supermarket moves the bread from aisle 4 to aisle 12. since many functions access the same data. Quick now. For example. for example. In the same way. and adjust their shopping habits accordingly. and even harder to modify all of them correctly. This will protect the data. Everyone who patronizes the supermarket must figure out where the bread has gone. If you add new data items. simplify maintenance. Another problem is that. It would be better if windows and menus corresponded more closely to actual program elements. The problem is that their chief components--functions and data structures--don't model the real world very well.Citizen card It's like leaving your personal papers in the lobby of your apartment building: Anyone can change or destroy them. suppose you are writing a program to create the elements of a graphics user interface: menus. to hide it from all but a few critical functions. you'll need to modify all the functions that access the data so that they can also access these new items. to say the least. windows. 23 . and so on. It will be hard to find all such functions. and offer other benefits as well. The arrangement of the data can't be changed without modifying all the functions that access it.

It will read the item and return the value to you. One is the difficulty of creating new data types. you can’t bundle together both X and Y coordinates into a single variable called Point. Such a unit is called an object. or dates—quantities the built-in data types don’t handle easily. If you want to read the item and return the value to you. Traditional languages are not usually extensible. and then add and subtract values of this type. so it is safe from accidental modification. you can extend the capabilities of the language. Data and its functions are said to be encapsulated into a single entity. typically provide the only way to access its data. you call a member function in the object. 24 . and so on. Computer languages typically have several built-in data types: integers. What if you want to invent your own data type? Perhaps you want to work with complex numbers. characters. Data encapsulation and data hiding are key terms in the description of object oriented languages.Citizen card New Data Types There are other problems with traditional languages. You can’t access the data directly. The result is that traditional programs are more complex to write and maintain. or two dimensional coordinates. floating-point numbers. An object’s functions. Being able to create your own types is called extensibility. Without unnatural convolutions. The data is hidden. The object oriented approach The fundamental idea behind object-oriented languages is to combine into a single unit both data and the functions that operate on that data. called member methods in Java.

people don’t work on personnel problems one day. A Java program typically consists of a number of objects.Citizen card If you want to modify the data in an object. The people in each department control and operate on those departments data. department. depending on the department. which communicate with each other by calling one another’s members functions. you know exactly what functions interact with it: the member functions in the object. is responsible for the payroll data. Also. personnel records. An analogy You might want to think of objects as departments—such as sales. This simplifies writing. Dividing the company into departments makes its easier to The payroll comprehend and control the company’s activities. and so on—in a company. Each department has its own personnel. and maintaining the program. Departments provide an important approach to corporate organization. data items are referred to as instance variables. and helps them maintain the integrity of the information used by the company. with clearly assigned duties. for instance. the payroll the next. In most companies (except very small ones). personnel. sales figures. debugging. It also has its own data: payroll. If you are from 25 . Calling an object’s member function is referred to as sending a message to the object. accounting. and then go out in the field as sales people the week after. inventory. We should mention that what are called member functions in C++ are called methods in Java. or whatever. No other functions can access the data.

rather than 26 . Instead. Thinking in terms of objects. (This view of corporate organization is show in organization. and then you wait for that person to access the data and send you a reply with the information you want. objects provide an approach to program outsiders do not corrupt it. and you need to know the total of all the salaries paid in the southern region in July. while helping to maintain the integrity of the programs data. but how it will be divided into objects. Objects When you approach a programming problem in an object oriented language. you don’t just walk into the payroll department and start rummaging through file cabinets. it deals with the overall organization of the program. OOP: An approach to organization Keep in mind that object-oriented programming is not primarily concerned with the details of program operation. you no longer ask how the problem will be divided into functions. figure).Citizen card the sales department. You send a memo to the appropriate person in the department. Characteristics of object-oriented languages: Let’s briefly examine a few of the major elements of object-oriented languages in general and Java in particular. and then you wait for that person to access the appropriate person in the department. This ensures that the data is accessed accurately and that inept In the same way.

has a surprisingly helpful effect on how easily programs can be designed and objects in the real world. What kinds of things become objects-oriented programs? The answer to this is limited only by your imagination. circles) The mouse and the keyboard • Programming constructs    Customized arrays Stacks Linked lists • Collection of data   An inventory A personnel file 27 .Citizen card functions. but there are some typical categories to start you thinking: Physical objects Automobile in a traffic-flow simulation Electrical components in a circuit design to a program Countries in an economics model Aircraft in an air-traffic control system •     Elements of the computer-user environment Windows Menus Graphics objects (lines. rectangles.

a data type int. Int divisor. You can declare as many variables of type int as you need in your program: Int day. Almost all computer languages have built-in data types. meaning integer is pre-defined in Java. checkers) Animals in an ecological simulation Opponents and friends in adventure games The match between programming objects and real-world objects us the happy result of combining data and functions: the resulting objects offer a revolution in program designing. For instance. Int count. What does this mean? Let’s look at an analogy.Citizen card  A dictionary A table of the latitudes and longitudes of world cities • User defined data types     Time Angles Complex numbers Points on the plane • Components in a computer games     Ghosts in maze game Positions in a board game (chess. no such close match between programming constructs and the items being modeled exists in a procedural language. 28 . Classes In OOP we say that objects are members of classes.

and so on. sting etc. people do not think of a car as a set of tens of thousands of individual parts. Once inside. each of these subsystems is made up of more 29 . or template. From the outside. Humans manage complexity through abstraction.Citizen card Int answer. This abstraction allows people to use a car to drive to the grocery store without being overwhelmed by the complexity of the parts that form the car. just as the mere existence of a type int doesn’t create any variables. breaking them into more manageable pieces. seat belts. Prince. heating. cellular phone. Defining the class doesn’t create any objects. Abstraction An essential element of object-oriented programming is abstraction. They can ignore the details of how the engine. There is no person called rock musician but specific people with specific names are members of this class if they possess certain characteristics. transmission. and what functions will be included in objects of that class. are members of the class of rock musicians. A powerful way to manage abstraction is through the use of hierarchical classifications. and braking systems work. the car is a single object. They think of it as a well-defined object with its own unique behavior. you see that the car consists of several subsystems: steering. Instead they are free to utilize the object as a whole. This fits our non-technical understanding of the word class. This allows you to layer the semantics of complex systems.. A class serves as a plan. sound system. A class is thus a collection of similar objects. It specifies what data. brakes. In turn. For example.

For instance. you can gracefully decommission or replace parts of an older system without fear. reliable interfaces to those objects. and/or a tape player. This is the essence of object-oriented programming. object-oriented programming is a powerful and natural paradigm for creating programs that survive the inevitable changes accompanying the life cycle of any major software project. the sound system consists of a radio. Thus. and aging. As you will see. A sequence of process steps can become a collection of messages between these objects. Hierarchical abstractions of complex systems can also be applied to computer programs. Object-oriented concepts form the heart of Java just as they form the basis for human understanding. each of each object describes its own unique behavior. a CD player. For example. You can treat these objects as concrete entities that respond to messages telling them to do something. It is important that you understand how these concepts translate into programs.Citizen card specialized units. The data from a traditional process-oriented program can be transformed by abstraction into its component objects. One way to think about encapsulation is as a protective wrapper that prevents the code and data from being arbitrarily accessed by other 30 . once you have a well defined objects and clean. including conception. and keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. The point is that you manage the complexity of the car(or any other complex system) through the use of hierarchical abstractions. Encapsulation Encapsulation is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates. growth.

from the driver’s point of view. unique) interface to the transmission. dozens of car manufacturers can implement one in any way they please. the pitch of the surface you are on. However. Further. objects are sometimes referred to as instances of a class. In Java the basis of encapsulation is the class. Each object of a given class contains the structure and behavior defined by the class. Although the class will be examined in great detail later in this book. For example. For this reason. You can’t affect the transmission by using the turn signal or windshield wipers. the following brief discussion will be helpful now. Thus. the gear-shift lever is a well-defined (indeed. as if it were stamped out by a mold in the shape of the class. consider the automatic transmission on an automobile. A class defines the structure and behavior (data and code) that will be shared by a set of objects. for example. a class is a logical construct. have only one method of affecting this complex encapsulation: by moving the gear-shift lever. an object has physical reality. The power of encapsulated code is that everyone knows how to access it and thus can use it regardless of the implementation details—and without fear of unexpected side effects.Citizen card code defined outside the wrapper. such as how much you are accelerating. It encapsulates hundreds of bits of information about your engine. and the position of the shift lever. This same idea can be applied to programming. Access to the code and data inside the wrapper is tightly controlled through a well-defined interface. what occurs inside the transmission does not affect objects outside the transmission. To relate this to the real world. 31 . You . Thus. they all work the same. shifting gears does not turn on the headlights! Because an automatic transmission is encapsulated. as the user.

32 . The code that operates on that data is referred to as member methods or just methods. you will specify the code and data that constitute that class. there are mechanisms for hiding the complexity of the implementation inside the class. Inheritance Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. top-down) classifications. you can ensure that no improper actions take place. The public interface of a class represents everything that external users of the class need to know. The private methods and data can only be accessed by code that is a member of the class. or may know. any other code that is not a member of the class cannot access a private method or variable. these elements are called members of the class. most knowledge is made manageable by hierarchical (that is. the data defined by the class are referred to as member variables or instance variables. Since the private members of a class may only be accessed by other parts of your program through the class’ public methods. As mentioned earlier.Citizen card When you create a class. Therefore. This is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification. this means that the public interface should be carefully designed not to expose too much of the inner workings of a class. Collectively. Of course. For example. Since the purpose of a class is to encapsulate complexity. Each method or variable in a class may be marked private or public. Specifically.

each object would need to define all of its characteristics explicitly. where animals are referred to as mammals’ super class. This description of attributes and behavior is the class definition for animals. such as type of teeth. you would say they have some attributes. it is the inheritance mechanism that makes it possible for one object to be a specific instance of a more general case. 33 . mammals. It can inherit its general attributes from its parent. A deeply inherited subclass If a given class inherits all of the attributes from each of its ancestors in the class hierarchy. Inheritance interacts with encapsulation as well. Most people naturally view the world as made up of objects that are related to each other in a hierarchical way. intelligence. and mammary glands. then any subclass will have the same attributes plus any that it adds as part of its specialization. If you wanted to describe animals in an abstract way. such as mammals.Citizen card a Golden Retriever is part of the classification dog. such as size. they would have more specific attributes. by use of inheritance. an object need only define those qualities that make it unique within its class. Animals also have certain behavioral aspects. and dogs. Without the use of hierarchies. they inherit all of the attributes from animals. which is under the larger class animal. and type of skeletal system. This is known as a subclass of animals. they ear. which in turn is part of the mammal class. encapsulates some attributes. and sleep. If you wanted to describe a more specific class of animals. such as animals. Since mammals are simply more precisely specified animals. However. This is a key concept. Thus. breathe.

in Java you can specify a general set of stack routines that all share the same names. the programmer. it will bark and run after it. meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of actions. multiple methods. even though the data being stored differs. One stack is used for integer values. it 34 . and one for characters. method) as it applies to each situation. This helps reduce complexity by allowing the same interface to be used to specify a general class of action. Consider a stack (which is a last-in. Extending the dog analogy. It is the compiler’s job to select the specific action (that is.Citizen card which lets object-oriented programs grow in complexity linearly rather than geometrically. You might have a program that requires three types of stack. If the dog smells a cat. the concept of polymorphism is often expressed by the phrase “one interface. It does not have unpredictable interactions with the majority of the rest of the code in the system. because of polymorphism. one for floatingpoint values. A new subclass inherits all of the attributes of all of its ancestors. You. The specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. However. Polymorphism Polymorphism (from the Greek. first-out list). The algorithm that implements each stack is the same. you would be required to create three difference sets of stack routines. do not need to make this selection manually. with each set using different names. a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If the dog smells its food.” This means that it is possible to design a generic interface to a group of related activities. In a non-objectoriented language. More generally. You need only remember and utilize the general interface.

or the family minivan. 35 . and inheritance combine to produce a programming environment that supports the development of far more robust and scaleable programs than does the process-oriented model. a Porsche. Of the two real-world examples. and the accelerator. sensible. A well-designed hierarchy of classes is the basis for reusing the code in which you have invested time and effort developing and testing. All drivers rely on inheritance to drive different types (sub classes) of vehicles. Polymorphism allows you to create clean. Encapsulation allows you to migrate your implementations over time without breaking the code that depends on the public interface of your classes. most people can even manage the difference between a stick shift and an automatic. readable. the automobile more completely illustrates the power of object-oriented design. encapsulation. The same sense of smell is at work in both situations. Whether the vehicle is a school is a school bus.Citizen card will salivate and run to its bowl. the transmission. the brakes. Polymorphism. drivers can all more or less find and operate the steering wheel. and Inheritance Work Together When properly applied. because they fundamentally understand their common super class. Encapsulation. but cars are more like programs. the type of data being operated upon by the dog’s nose! This same general concept can be implemented in Java as it applies to methods within a Java program. and resilient code. polymorphism. a Mercedes sedan. The difference is what is being smelled. After a bit of gear grinding. that is. Dogs are fun to think about from an inheritance standpoint.

36 . you will still press the break pedal to stop. The same java database program can run on PC. The final attribute. for example from Microsoft SQL Server to Oracle and the same program can still read your data. the style of brakes. power or rack-and-pinion steering. Java Data Base Connectivity (JDBC) JDBC is a set of specification that defines how a program written in java can communicate and interact with a database. polymorphism. and the size of the tires have no effect on how you interface with the class definition of the pedals. a workstation.Citizen card People interface with encapsulated features on cars all the time. For example. or 6-. Programs developed with java and the JDBC are platform independent and vendor independent. It provides a vehicle for the exchange of SQL between java application and databases. 4-. This is in sharp contrast to the database programming typically done on personal computers today. The brake and gas pedals hide an incredible array of complexity with an interface so simple you can operate them with your feet! The implementation of the engine. you can get an antilock braking system or traditional brakes. or 8-cylender engines. or java powered terminal. and press the accelerator when you want to move. turn the steering wheel to change direction. Either way. You can move your data from one database to another. It is all common that one writes the database application in proprietary database language. is clearly reflected in the ability of car manufacturers to offer a wide array of options on basically the same vehicle.

In particular. JDBC driver is responsible for ensuring that any requests made by the application are presented to the database in away that is meaningful to the databases. They can make neither explicit nor implicit use of information. which is not a typical set up. The JDBC consists of two layers . one can use the JDBC enhanced version of java in both applications and applets. applets that use JDBC would only be able to open a database connection from the server from which they are downloaded. JDBC was designed to support the most common form of SQL known as ANSI SQL92 entry level standard. it the various SQL statements. Of course. This API communicates with JDBC manager driver API sending. At the heart of the JDBC is the JDBC driver. the web server can have a proxy service that 37 .The top layer is the JDBC API. Although the JDBC extensions of the java security model allow on to download a JDBC driver and register it with JDBC device manager on the server. That means the web server and the database must be the same machine.Citizen card using a database management system that is available only from one or two platforms. that driver can be used only for connections from the same server the applet came from. JDBC continues to assume all applets are trusted. The manager should communicate with the various third party drivers that actually connect to the database and return the information from the query or performed the action specified by the query. all the normal security restrictions applied. Typical uses of the JDBC Just as one can use java for both applications and applets. When that version is used in an applet.

38 . The JDBC driver test suite provides some confidence that JDBC drivers will run your program. Components of JDBC There are three components to the JDBC • The JDBC driver manager • The JDBC driver test suite and • The JDBC-ODBC bridge The JDBC driver manager is the backbone of the JDBC architecture.Citizen card routes database traffic to an other machine. When signed java applets become possible this restriction could be loosened. Applications on the other hand have complete freedom. We envision that JDBC applications will be very common. It actually quite small and simple its primary function is to connect java application s to the connect JDBC driver and then get out of the way. Only drivers that pass the JDBC driver test suite can be designated JDBC COMPLIANT. They can give the application the total access to files and remote servers.

This means that this type of JDBC driver only needs to speak only one language ODBC. a long term will provide a way to access some of the less popular DBMS’s if JDBC drivers are not implemented for them. It was implemented.Citizen card The JDBC-ODBC Bridge allows ODBC drivers to be used as JDBC drivers. The driver does this by making call to the locally installed native call level interface (CLI). Native-API -Party-Java Driver: This makes use of local native libraries to communicate with the database. The ODBC interface remains constant no matter which database is used.All c 39 . JDBC-Net-All-Java-Driver: The main difference when using this driver is that the native CLI libraries are placed on a remote server and the driver uses a network protocol to facilitate communication between the application and the driver . as a way to get JDBC off the ground quickly. The CLI libraries are responsible for the actual communication with the database server. JDBC DRIVER TYPES JDBC-ODBC Bridge: ODBC driver is the only driver that can be used with the multiple databases and is vendor independent.

the database vendors themselves will be the primary source and database vendors have these in progress 40 . Native-Protocol-All-Java-Driver: This kind of driver converts JDBC calls into the network protocol used by DBMS directly. Since many of these protocols are proprietary. This allows a direct call from the client machine to the DBMS server and is a practical solution for Internet access. Communication between the database itself and the server processes is still done with a native database CLI.Citizen card communication between the application and the database server are 100% java to java.

Several web servers. Creating a separate process to handle each request isn’t necessary. It communicated with the web server via an interface known as the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) . Netscape and Microsoft offers the Servlets API. C++ and Perl. A variety of different languages were used to build CGI programs including C. Programs developed for this API can be moved to any of these environments without recompilation. because they are written in java. 41 . However. a server could dynamically construct a page by creating a separate process to handle each client request. Servlets offer several advantages over CGI: Performance is significantly better. Creating a separate process for each request was expensive. CGI suffered serious performance problems.Citizen card SERVLETS In the early days of the web. Servlets execute within the address space of a web browser. Servlets are platform-independent. from vendors such as Sun. in terms of the processor and resources. It was also expensive to open and close database connections for each request. The process would open connection to one or more databases in order to obtain the necessary information.CGI allowed the separate process to read data from HTTP request and write data to the HTTP response.

The server maps this request to a particular servlet. Consider next a typical user scenario. assume that a user enters a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to the web browser. to understand when these methods are called. The Browser then generates a HTTP request for this URL and sends it to the appropriate server. This servlet is dynamically retrieved and located into the address space of the server. This method is invoked only when the servlet is first loaded into the memory. The full functionality of the class libraries is available to a servlet.Citizen card The java security manager on the server enforces a set of restrictions to protect the resources on a server machine. the web server receives this HTTP request. You will see that some servlets are trusted and others are untrusted. Third. the server invokes the init () method of the servlet. You will see 42 . First. The life cycle of a servlet: Three methods are central to the cycle of a servlet: Init () Service () Destroy () They are implemented by every servlet and are invoked at specific times by the server. Second.

SERVLET ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW: The central abstraction in the JSDK is the servlet interface. The service () method is called for each HTTP request. Finally the server may decide to unload the servlet from its memory. Important data may be saved to a persistent store. such as file handlers that are allocated for a servlet. The memory allocated for the servlet and its objects can then be garbage collected.Citizen card the initialization parameters can be passed to the servlet so that it may configure itself. 43 . either directly or more commonly by extending a class that implements it such as HTTP servlet. The algorithms by which this determination is made are specific to each server. the server invokes the servlets service () method. All servlets implements this interface. Fourth. You will see that the servlet can read data that has been provided in the HTTP request. The servlet interface provides for methods that manage the servlet and it’s developing a servlet. which is called to process the HTTP request. and may also formulate an HTTP response for the client. The server calls destroy () method to relinquish any resources. The servlet remains in the servers address space and is available to process any other HTTP requests received from clients.

Citizen card When a servlet accepts a call from client it receives two object one is servlet request and the other is a servlet response. through which the servlet gets data from clients that are using application. the protocol (scheme) being used by the client. Subclasses of servlet request allow the servlet to retrieve more protocol specific data. It allows the servlet to set the content length and mime type of the reply and provides an output stream. It also provides the servlet with access to the input stream. Subclasses of Servlet Response give the servlet more protocol specific capabilities. 44 . The servlet request interface allows the servlet access to the information such as the names of the parameters passed in by the client. For example. Servlet output stream and a writer through which the servlet can send the reply data. protocols such as the HTTP POST and PUT methods. The servlet request class encapsulates the communication from the back to the client. HTTP Servlet Response contains methods that allow the servlet to manipulate the HTTP specific header information. The Servlet Response interfaces give the servlet methods to the client. Servlet classes of servlet request allow the servlet to retrieve more protocol specific data. Input stream. and the names of the remote host that made the request and the server that received it.

45 . it is necessary to access shared resources that access should be synchronized. the service3 will not run it again until after it reloads the reinitializes the servlet. Servlets can run multiple service () methods at a time . The method is run once. When the destroy () method runs. Each client’s request has its call to the service () method run in its own servlet. This is because the service calls the init () method once. and will not call it again unless it is reloading the servlet. They can also remove servlets. When a service removes a servlet. Even though most servlets are run in multi-threaded services. Servlets until they are removed from the service. other threads might be running service request .Citizen card Services load and run servlets. These are the steps of a servlets life cycle. it removes a servlet. it runs the servlets init () method. The service cannot reload a servlet until after it has removed the servlet by calling the destroy () method.It is important therefore that service () methods be written a thread -safe manner. which then accept zero or more requests from clients and return data to them. it runs the servlet destroy () method. when it loads the servlet. The method receives the client’s request and sends the client its response. Initialization is allowed to complete before the client requests are handled or the servlet is destroyed. When a service () loads a servlet. there are no concurrency issues during servlet initialization. however.If in cleaning up.

Hyper Media: HTML pages audio and video files linked to them are Hyper Media. irrespective of your Operating System and the Operating System of Web Server you are accessing . heading. and paragraph. HTML describes the structure of documents -lists. It is only a formatting language and not a programming language. are browser and Internet connections. WWW is a global. Elements of 46 . interactive. Hyperlinks are underlined or emphasized words or locations in a screen that lead to other documents.You can navigate through the information based on your interest and preferences.You can build web pages.All you require is to view and download the HTML files. hypertext information system. which are on the WWW. The behind hypertext is that instead of reading text in rigid liner structure you can easily jump from point to another point . graphical.Citizen card HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE (HTML) HTML is a language used to create hypertext documents that have hyperlinks embedded in them . you can access WWW. HTML is platform independent: If you can access Internet. etc. HTML is a language for describing structured documents.

They parse and format documents and display them on the screen. Different browsers show data differently. HTML does not describe page layout: Word for windows or Lotus AmiPro for example. It is tags that describe documents. HTML does not have all these. fonts. Advantages: An HTML document is a small and hence easy to send over the net. 47 .Citizen card web document are through the usage of HTML tags. have different styles for Headings. exact placement or appearance of any element will change. There may be or may not be fonts installed. It is small because it does not include format information. Based on the platform. a program that reads and understands HTML can make formatting decision based on capabilities of the individual platform. By separating the structure of the document and its appearance. So your formatted text will appear differently on differently on different machines/platforms. In addition to providing the networking functions to retrieve documents. size and identification. Anything that is not a tab is part of a document itself. web browsers are also HTML formatters.

locations etc are required. Font names. 48 .Citizen card HTML documents are cross platform compatible and device independent. You only need HTML readable browser to view them.

or moves through the page history list. downloads the page. such as Netscape Navigator 2 or higher or Internet explorer 3 or higher. manipulates gadgets and fields in an HTML form. for example. JAVA script is an interpreted language . JavaScript is powerful and simple. These commands can be triggered when the user clicks page items. When a compatible web browser. You embed your JavaScript commands within an HTML page.Citizen card JAVA SCRIPT Introduction To Java Script: JAVA script enables you to embed commands in an HTML page. Another important Web browser scripting languages such as JavaScript comes as a result of the increased functionality being introduced for Web 49 . your JAVA script commands are loaded by the web browser as part of the HTML document. before sending it to the server. and any browser that supports JavaScript can interprets the commands and act on them. Scripting Language: JavaScript enables Web authors to write small scripts that execute on the users’ browsers rather than on the server. An application that collects data from a form and then posts it to the server can validate the data for completeness and correctness. This can greatly improve the performance of the browsing session because users don’t have to send data to the server until it has been verified as correct.the computer must evaluate the program every time it is run.

manipulate strings. or one that is activate when the user clicks a hyperlink on the active page. Use of JavaScript: JavaScript provides a fairly complete set of built-in functions and commands. enabling you to perform math calculations. you can change the behavior of plug-ins or other objects without having to rewrite them. JavaScript can also set the attributes. and access and verify user input to your Web forms. We can also write functions containing code that is triggered by events you specify. for example. Code to perform these actions can be embedded in a page and executed when the page is loaded. and VRML objects and worlds. play sounds. or properties.Citizen card browsers in the form of Java applets. Your JavaScript code could automatically set the text of an Active-X Label Control. of Web page elements. 50 . A Web page might use an HTML form to get some user input and then set a parameter for a Java applet based on that input. Active X Controls. based on what time the page is viewed. plug-ins. Java applets and other objects present in the browser. You can write a JavaScript method that is called when the user clicks submit button of a form. Active-x controls. open new windows and new URLs. for example. Dynamic HTML elements. Web authors can use each of these things to add extra functions and interactivity to a Web page. Scripting language acts as the glue that binds everything together. This way. It is usually a script that carries out.

which specifies the scripting language to use when evaluating the script. Embedding JavaScript in your pages requires only one new HTML element: <SCRIPT> and </SCRIPT>. and SRC. 51 .Citizen card JavaScript commands are embedded in your HTML documents. The <SCRIPT> element takes the attribute LANGUAGE. which can be used to load a script from an external source.

The difference is that Java was built as a General-purpose object language. which. is intended to provide a quicker and simpler language for enhancing Web pages and servers. JavaScript. in turn. and you can put multiple short statements on a single line just make sure to add a semicolon (. • Braces (the {and} characters) group statements into blocks. A block may be the body of a function or a section of code that gets executed in a loop or as part of the conditional test. A single statement can cover multiple lines.) at the end of each statement. looks a lot like C and C++. • JavaScript is flexible about statements. on the other hand. JavaScript is designed to resemble Java. 52 .Citizen card The following are some simple rules to help you understand how the language is structured: • JavaScript is case sensitive.

interfaces via which users can manipulate data. • Enforces data access authorization. • Enforces threat data can be shared by different applications. • Have automatic. • Enforces user-defined rules to ensure that integrity of table data.Citizen card ORACLE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DBMS) : A DBMS consists of a collection of interrelated date and a set of programs to access that data and to modify the data. In addition the database system must provide for the safety of information stored in the database despite system crashes or attempts by users. The management of data involves both the definition of the structure for the storage of information and the provision of mechanisms for the manipulation of information. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide an environment that is both convenient and efficient to use in retrieving and storing information into the database. 53 . Database systems are designed to manager large bodies of information. The collection of data is usually referred as the “database”. The database contains information about any particular enterprise. Characteristics Of Database Management Systems: • Have different It represents complex relationships between data. the system must avoid possible anomalous results. intelligent backup and recovery procedures for data. • Keeps a tight control on data redundancy.

• Secure the data public access. • Add. These set of columns are called “Composite Key”. Data Abstraction 54 . The unit of data is accessed by a row and column intersection. If no such single column exists. using a set of columns such that when combined they are unique throughout the table can access the data. delete and modify the database. • Export and import the data. The tools can be used to • Define database • Query a database. Each row has one or more fields or columns. • Modify the structure of the database.Citizen card The data is stored in the form of tables. It provides a set of flexible and sophisticated tools for handling information. • Communication within networks/time sharing environments. In short modern (Relational) RDBMS act as a transparent interface between the physical storage and the logical presentation of data. The tables consist of one or more records or rows. Such a column is called the “ key” or the “primary Key”. A column that has a unique set of values through out the table can be used to access the data.

Conceptual Level: T he next level of abstraction describes what data is actually stored in the database. Data Model: Underlying the structure of a database is the concept of the data model. and the relationships that exist among the data. Levels are Physical Level: The lowest level of abstraction describes how the data is actually stored. use the conceptual level of abstraction.Citizen card The major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an abstract view of data. Some of the object based logical models are 55 . That is the system hides certain details of how the data is stored and maintained while the data is sufficiently retrieved. who must decide what information is to be kept in the database. The system may provide many views for the same database. a collection of conceptual tools for describing data relationships. The various data models fall into three groups. Data base administrators. data semantics and consistency constraints. They are Object Based logical model: These are used in describing data at the conceptual and view levels. View Level: The highest level of abstraction describes only part of the entire database.

These are so named because the database is structured in fixed format records of several types. • NetWork Model: . • Physical Data Model: Physical data models are used to describe data at the lowest level.The relational model represents data and relationships among data by a collection of tables.It is same as the network model. In this the three most widely accepted data models are • Relational Model: . but the records are organized as collection of trees rather than arbitrary groups. The records in the database are organized as collection of arbitrary groups.Citizen card • Entity-relationship model • Object-oriented model • Binary model • Semantic model • Info logical model • Functional data model Record based logical model: Record-based logical models are used in describing data at the conceptual and view levels. Two of the widely known ones are  Unifying model 56 . as pointers. • Hierarchical Model: . each of which has number of columns with unique names. which can be used.Data in the network model is represented by collection of records and relationship among data represented by links.

  57 . The two levels of data independence are Physical Data Independence: It is the ability to modify the physical schema without causing application programs to be rewritten. They are • Physical Schema • Conceptual Schema • Sub Schema Data Independence: The ability to modify a schema definition in one level without affecting a schema definition in the next higher level is called data independence.Citizen card  Frame model Instances and Schemas: The collection of information stored in the database at particular moment in time is called an instance of the database. Database systems have several schemes. Logical Data Independence: It is the ability to modify the conceptual schema with out causing application programs to be rewritten. The overall design of the database is called as the Database Schema.

which are stored in a special file as data dictionary. Here the data gets modified in each procedure and execution is in the form of procedure by procedure. The DML is a language that enables us to a view data as organized by the appropriate data model. which are expressed by a special language called data definition language. 58 . The goal should be to provide efficient human interaction with the system. The result is a set of tables. • The insertion of information into the database. There are basically two types of data manipulation languages. • The deletion of information from the database.Citizen card Data Definition Language (DDL): A database schema is especially by a set of definitions.DML requires the user to specify what data is needed and how to get it. Data Manipulation Language (DML): By data manipulate we mean that • The retrieval of information stored in the database. they are • Procedural: .

that is event driven. The portion of DML that involves information retrieval is called “Query Language”. A query is a statement requesting the retrieval of information.DML requires the user to specify what data is needed without specifying how to get it.Provides the interface between the low-level storage in the database and the application programs and queries submitted to the system.Manager the allocation of space on the disk storage and the data structure used to represent the information stored on the disk. File Manager: . Data Manager: . On-procedural DML is usually easier to learn than procedural DML.Citizen card • Non-procedural: . 59 . Overall System Structure A database system consists of functional components. Hence sometimes DML is also called as query language. This file is consulted before actual data is read or modified in the database system. The data storage and definition language specifies the storage and access methods of the database system. The form is based on certain events. Data Dictionary: A data dictionary is a file that contains Meta data that is data about data.

DML pre-compiler: . The mathematical nature of the concept is. DDL compiler: . These tables are then stored in the data dictionary. 60 . It also attempts to transform the query into an efficient and optimized equivalent query. Normalization: Relational databases a form of database specification based upon the mathematical concept of a relation. however. each expressing one relation. the relational system is structured at the time each query is posed rather than at the time if the database is established. not necessary to its appreciation and database may be regarded as composed of a number of rectangular tables.Converts DML statements embedded in an application program to normal procedural call in the host language.Citizen card Query Processor: -Translates the statements in a query language into low level instructions that the database manager understands. The structures are achieved by the combination of relations using relational operators. Unlike network or hierarchical database models. Normalization is carried out for three reasons.Converts DDL statements to a set of tables are containing the data.

3. Removing the repeating group and creating a separate file or relation containing the repeating group accomplish this. Second Normal Form: Second normal form is achieved when a record is in the first normal form and each item in the record is fully dependent on the primary record key for identification data item is functionally dependent if its value is uniquely associated with a specific data items . To reduce the need to restructure or re-organize data when new application requirements arise.Citizen card 1. 61 . To simplify the maintenance of the data through updates. 2.To achieve second normal form. every data item in the record that is not dependent on the primary key of the record should be removed and used to form a separate relation. First Normal Form: First normal form is achieved when a record is designed to be of fixed length. The original and new records are interrelated by a common data item. To secure the data so that any pertinent relationship between entities can be represented. inserts and deletions.

However it was soon discovered that anomalies could arise from situations other than functional dependencies. Primarily it differs from the ordinary networks. fifth and domain key normal forms were proposed to overcome these anomalies. INTERNET Internet is a network. The fourth. in the respect that it connects networks but not computers. It can use the simple serial ports to the most advanced satellites. Now. Boyce Code Normal Form A relation is said to be in the BCNF if determinate is a candidate key. There are no special advantages of Internet apart from those of general network. Whether it is an Internet or general network it can do only 62 . because we want to connect various networks there could be hundreds of different types of networks and surprisingly Internet accommodates all these. From a home PC to a super computer can be present on the Internet.Citizen card Third Normal Form: Third normal form is achieved when transitive dependencies are removed from a record designed conversion to third normal form removes the transitive dependencies by splitting the relation into two separate relations. Relations in 3NF can also have anomalies. Relations in BCNF have no anomalies regarding functional dependencies and this seemed to have put the issue of modification anomalies to rest. implementations and consequences. The simple definition has many complications.

Citizen card information interchange and we can achieve the same secondary advantage. But the difference is in the extendibility and reach. World Wide Web (WWW): World Wide Web (WWW) is a global hypertext system that uses the Internet as its transmission medium. Typically the user can has a GUI on which he clicks a button to navigate through the different pages. These documents can come from other sites on the Internet. Then hyperlinks are embedded into the text. Hypertext: Hypertext is a method of preparing and publishing text in which users can choose their own paths through the material. Clicking on these links activates the necessary protocols and pulls up the chosen site. The text is broken in to small units such as single pages called nodes. 63 . Hyperlink: A hyperlink is an underlined or emphasized work that when clicked with a mouse displays another document.

Internet Explorer is more popular. The users have click software such as Netscape Navigator.Citizen card Web: A collection of documents inter-linked by hyperlinks is called as web. Internet Explorer to actually retrieve and browse the information on the WWW. HotJava and Mosaic are also Web 64 . Text only browsers such as Linux are used on Shell accounts. This is faster but does not provide GUI features and so not that user friendly. pictures. video and audio. Graphical Web Browsers such as Netscape Navigator. Browsing: The process of navigation among documents is called browsing. WWW supports many kinds of documents such as text. Browser Types: There are two types of Browsers 1. Web Browser It is basically a program that run on an Internet connected computer and provides access to WWW resources. It is not the same as a page on your screen . Sometimes it is referred to as Net Surfing. 2.It is also defined as a hypertext information system. A web page is a synonymous with web documents.

These Browsers provide with in line images. The server processes these requests and sends the request documents. fonts and document layouts. When you access a WWW server. This reduces network traffic by not having to hold on to a line while you read a document. Web Server: A web server is a program that accepts requests for information framed according to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol. the document is transferred to your computer and then the connection is terminated.Citizen card Browsers. Some websites have only a single document while others consists of hundreds of pages. for example about the services or products provided by the company. Website: The website is a computer system that runs on web server and has been set up for publishing documents. 65 .

Citizen card Testing Testing is the major quality control measure employed for software development. After the coding phase. The starting point of testing is unit testing. This implies that testing has to uncover errors introduced during coding phases. design. computer programs are available that can be executed for testing purpose. or coding errors in the program. Thus. 66 . Its basic function is to detect errors in the software. During requirement analysis and design. the goal of testing is to cover requirement. the output is document that is usually textual and non-textual. In this a module is tested separately and are often performed by the programmer himself simultaneously while coding the module.

system testing is performed. while focusing the interconnection between modules. After this the modules are gradually integrated into subsystems. Finally accepting testing is performed to demonstrate to the client for the operation of the system. Here the system is tested against the system requirements to see if all requirements were met and the system performs as specified by the requirements. After the system was put together. During integration of module integration testing is performed. which are then integrated themselves too eventually forming the entire system.Citizen card The purpose is to exercise the different parts of the module code to detect coding errors. The goal of this is to detect designing errors. 67 .

The focus here is on testing the external behavior of the system. A common approach here is to achieve some type of coverage of the statements in the code. The two forms of testing are complementary: one tests the external behavior. There are two different approaches for selecting test case. and the test cases are decided based on the specifications of the system or module. proper selection of the test case is essential. while 68 . this form of testing is also called “black box testing”. In structural testing the test cases are decided based on the logic of the module to be tested.Citizen card For the testing to be successful. For this reason. the other tests the internal structure. The software or the module to be tested is treated as a black box. Often structural testing is used for lower levels of testing.

and the manner in which the module will be integrated together. Then for different test unit.Citizen card functional testing is used for higher levels. The test plan specifies conditions that should be tested. This plan identifies all testing related activities that must be performed and specifies the schedule. a test case specification document is produced. different units to be tested. which lists all 69 . Testing is an extremely critical and time-consuming activity. allocates the resources. Frequently the testing process starts with the test plan. It requires proper planning of the overall testing process. and specifies guidelines for testing.

The error report describes the errors encountered and the action taken to remove the error. that will be used for testing. Error Messages The term error is used in two different ways. That is error refers to the difference between the actual 70 . or a set of such reports. The final output of the testing phase is the testing report and the error report. Each test report contains a set of test cases and the result of executing the code with the test cases. During the testing of the unit the specified test cases are executed and the actual results are compared with the expected outputs. together with the expected outputs. Errors refer to the discrepancy between computed and observed values.Citizen card the different test cases.

the cost of connecting the errors of different phases is not the same and depends upon when the error was detected and corrected.Citizen card output of the software and the correct output. This detection is quite general and encompasses all phases. In this interpretation. the errors occur throughout the development process. as it is the can see. The cost of correcting errors in the function of where they are detected. However. Error is also used to refer to human action that results in the software containing a defect or a fault. 71 . error essentially is a measure of the difference between the actual and the ideal. the errors occur through the development. The consequence of thinking is the belief that the errors largely occur during programming. As we can see.

To correct the error after coding is done require both the design and the code to be changed there by increasing the cost of correction. sometimes testing is the sole point where errors are detected. Suppose an error occurs during the requirement phase and it was corrected after the coding then the cost is higher than correcting it in the requirements phase itself. the more expensive it is to correct it. If there was error in the requirements phase that error will affect the design and coding also. The main moral of this section is that we should attempt to detect the errors that occur in a phase during the phase itself should not wait until testing to detect errors. This is not often practiced. In reality. 72 . The reason for this is fairly obvious.Citizen card As one would expect the greater the delay in detecting an error after it occurs.

During testing. Testing Techniques Testing is a process. which reveals errors in the program. 73 . In terms of the development phase. what this means is that we should try to validate each phase before starting the next.Citizen card Besides the cost factor. the program is executed with a set of conditions known as test cases and the output is evaluated to determine whether the program is performing as expected. reliance on testing as a primary source for error detection and correction should be a continuous process that is done throughout the software development. It is the major quality measure employed during software development.

It is confined only to the designer's requirements.Citizen card In order to make sure that the system does not have errors. the different levels of testing strategies that are applied at differing phases of software development are: Unit Testing Unit Testing is done on individual modules as they are completed and become executable. EACH MODULE CAN BE TESTED USING THE FOLLOWING TWO STRATEGIES: Black Box Testing: In this strategy some test cases are generated as input conditions that fully execute all 74 .

White Box Testing In this the test cases are generated on the logic of each module by drawing flow graphs of that module and logical decisions are tested on all the cases. This testing has been uses to find errors in the Following categories: a) b) c) d) e) Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structure or external database access Performance errors Initialization and termination errors. It has been uses to generate the test cases in the following cases: a) Guarantee that all independent paths have been executed. 75 . In this testing only the output is checked for correctness. The logical flow of the data is not checked. b) Execute all logical decisions on their true and false sides.Citizen card Functional requirements for the program.

Its aim is to satisfy the user the system meets all requirements of the client's specifications. System Testing Involves in-house testing of the entire system before delivery to the user.Citizen card c) Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational d) Execute internal data structures to ensure their validity. Integration Testing Integration testing ensures that software and subsystems work together as a whole. 76 . It tests the interface of all the modules to make sure that the modules behave properly when integrated together.

because it gave us time to fix some of 77 . In case of erroneous input corresponding error messages are COMPILING TEST It was a good idea to do our stress testing early on. displayed. Validation Testing The system has been tested and implemented successfully and thus ensured that all the requirements as listed in the software requirements specification are completely Fulfilled.Citizen card Acceptance Testing It is a pre-delivery testing in which entire system is tested at client's site on real world data to find errors.

OUTPUT TEST The successful output screens are placed in the output screens section above. EXECUTION TEST This program was successfully loaded and executed.Citizen card the unexpected deadlocks and stability problems that only occurred when components Were exposed to very high transaction volumes. Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) 78 . Because of good programming there were no execution error.

stored. retrieved. Data flow analysis studies the use of data in each activity. Data is input. Used. TOOLS OF DATA FLOW STRATEGY: Data flow strategy shows the use of data in the system pictorially. FEATURES OF DATA STRATEGY: Data flow analysis examines the use of the data to carry out specific process Within the scope of a systems investigation. The tools used in the data flow strategy are: DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD): 79 . changed and output. processed.Citizen card DATA FLOW ANALYSIS This states a great deal about how organization objectives are accomplished in the course of handling transactions and completing task.

DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Data flow diagram is a structure analysis tool that is used for graphical representation of 80 .Citizen card A graphical tool is used to describe and analyse the movement of the data through a system manually or automate including the process of data storage. and delay in the system. DFD’s are central tools and the basis for the development of other components. physical data flow diagrams show the actual implementation and movements of the data through people. These types of DFD’s are called LOGICAL DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS. departments and workstations. The transformation of data from one process to another process is independent of physical components. In contrast.

And initial over view model is exploded lower level diagrams that show additional feature of the system.Citizen card Data processes through any organization. which comprises of various levels. It follows a top down approach. A full description of a system actually consists of set of DFD s. 81 . by using combination of only 4 symbols. The data flow approach emphasis on the logic underlying the system. DFD SYMBOLS Square: It defines a source (originator) or destination of system data. Further each process can be broken down into a more detailed DFD. This occurs repeatedly until sufficient details are described.

Citizen card Arrow: It indicates data flow-data in motion. They are explained by • GANE and SARON method • DEMACRO YORDAN method 82 . Here I am giving only the Data Flow Diagram. Circle or Bubble: It represents a process that transforms incoming data flow(s) into outgoing data flow(s). It is a pipeline through which information flows. or a temporary repository of data. Open Rectangle: it is a data store-data at rest.

Citizen card GANE AND SARSON NOTATION DATA FLOW DATA STRUCTURE EXTERNAL ENTITY OR DATA LINK PROCESS DATA BASE 83 .

Citizen card DEMACRO YORDAN NOTATION DATA FLOW DATA STRUCTURE EXTERNAL ENTITY OR DATA LINK PROCESS DATA BASE 84 .

Citizen card 85 .

Citizen card DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS Administrator Employee 86 .

Citizen card Registration logging in and logging out Adding details display details 87 .

Citizen card 1-LEVEL DFD for citizen MODE Insurance Banking citizen Server passport Gas details 88 .

Citizen card 1-LEVEL DFD for ADMINISTRATOR MODE login Add ci ti DATABASE Administ rators Update citizen details View citizen details 89 .

So analysts can work with the users and involve them in the study of data flow diagram. Data flow analysis permits analyst to isolate areas of interest in the organization 90 . If the errors are not found in the development process they will be very difficult to correct latter and the system may be failure.Citizen card ADVANTAGES OF DFD’s: Users. persons who are part of the process being studied. early understand the notations. For accurate business activity users can make suggestions for modification and also they examine charts and spot out the problems quickly.

Data Flow Diagram - Administrators Add citizen details Update citizen details View citizen details 91 .Citizen card and study them by examining the data that enters the process and see how it is changed when it leaves the process.

Citizen card UML Diagrams :`Usecasediagram of Citizen Personal info Voting Passport Municipality Electricity Gas RTO 92 .

Citizen card USECASE DIAGRAMS OFADMINISTRATOR PERSONAL INFORMATION : Adding Citizen Personal details Updating Citizen Personal details View Citizen Personal details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR VOTING : Adding Citizen Voting details Updating Citizen Voting details View Citizen Voting details 93 .

Citizen card USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR PASSPORT : Adding Citizen Passport details Updating Citizen Passport details View Citizen Passport details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR MUNICIPALITY : Adding Citizen Municipal details Updating Citizen Municipal details View Citizen Municipal details 94 .

Citizen card USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ELECTRICITY : Adding Citizen Electricity details Updating Citizen Electricity details View Citizen Electricity details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR GAS : Adding Citizen Gas details Updating Citizen Gas details View Citizen Gas details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR RTO : 95 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen RTO details Updating Citizen RTO details View Citizen RTO details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR TELEPHONE : Adding Citizen Telephone details Updating Citizen Telephone details View Citizen Telephone details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR PROVIDENT FUND : 96 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Provident Fund details Updating Citizen Provident Fund details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR TAXATION : Adding Citizen Tax details Updating Citizen Tax details View Citizen Tax details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR BANKING : 97 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Banking details Updating Citizen Banking details View Citizen Banking details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR INSURANCE : Adding Citizen Insurance details Updating Citizen Insurance details View Citizen Insurance details USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR CREDIT RATING : 98 .

Citizen card Adding Citizen Creadit rating details Updating Citizen Credit rating details View Citizen Credit rating details 99 .

Citizen card Sequence Diagram for Citizen : Persona l Credit rating Electricity Insurance Electricity Banking Tax 100 .

Modify Citizen Access Citizen Options Client Updates Server Reports 101 .Citizen card Activity Diagram for Citizen: Login Create.

Citizen card Activity Diagram for ADMIN : Enter username Enter Password Check to correctness of entered text Validat ed? Citizen Access Admin Page Apply Items 102 .

Citizen card Diagram for Admin :

Create the Citizens

Modify the Citizen

Remove Citizen

103

Citizen card Diagram for User Options :

Get User Details

Select the Option

If Not Eligible If Eligible for Apply?

If Eligible for the Options

Apply for the Items

Access and Apply Online

104

Citizen card

DATA DICTIONARY Database tables
User Details Create table userdata(cdid varchar2(20), Name varchar2(20), Pass varchar2(20)); Personal Information Create table personal1data (name varchar2(20), Idno varchar2(20), Fname varchar2(20), Dateofbirth varchar2(20), Gender varchar 2(10), Quli varchar2(10), Addr varchar2(10), Language varhcar2(10), Cdno varchar2(20)); Taxation Create table tax2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null, Idno varchar2(10) not null, Aincome varchar2(10) not null, Incometax varchar2(10) not null, Assets varchar2(10) not null, Ptax number(10) not null, Rtax number(10) not null, Amount number(8) not null);

105

v_type varchar2(10). Gasno varchar2(10) not null. balance number(8)). RTO: create rto1data(name varchar2(10). 106 . citizenid varchar2(15). Gastype varchar2(10) not null. v_serviceno varchar2(10). re_date varchar2(10)). citizenid varchar2(15). addr varchar2(40). licence varhcar2(15). Banking: create sbi1data(name varchar2(10). Addr varchar2(10) not null. balance number(8)). v_regno varchar2(10). create icici1data(name varchar2(10).Citizen card Gas Details Create table gas2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(15). v_engno number(8). Amount varchar2(10) not null). Idno varchar2(15) not null. Name varchar2(20) not null. create ab1data(name varchar2(10).

noofphn varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(40) not null) voterno varchar2(10) not null). create vote2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. Telephone: create tele2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(40) not null). idno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null. number(8)).Citizen card citizenid balance Voting: varchar2(15). sex varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. age varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. Electricity: 107 . fname varchar2(20) not null. totbill varchar2(40) not null) duedate varchar2(10) not null). age varchar2(10) not null. sex varchar2(10) not null. age varchar2(10) not null. create votedata(cdno varchar2(10) not null.

Citizen card create elect2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. typeofinsurance varchar2(10). Passport: create pass2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. 108 . amtbill varchar2(40) not null duedate varchar2(10) not null). Municipality: create table muni2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. contno varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. amount number(10) not null). age varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(10) not null. Insurance: create table insurance1data( cdno varchar2(10) not null. noofphn varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. waterbill varchar2(40) not null htax varchar2(10) not null bill varchar2(10) not null duedate varchar2(10) not null). idno varchar2(10) not null. addr varchar2(10) not null. fname varchar2(20) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null.

rendate varchar2(10) notnull). 109 . fir varchar2(50). addr varchar2(10) not null.Citizen card name varchar2(10) not null. name varchar2(10) not null. contno varchar2(10) not null. Provident Fund: create pf2data(cdno varchar2(10) not null. credit varchar2(5)). Credit Rating: create table credit1data(name varchar2(20). ss varchar2(20). idno varchar2(10) not null. passno number2(10) notnull. noofstamps varchar2(10) notnull. fname varchar2(10) not null. aincome varchar2(15) not null. idno varchar2(10) not null. fileno varchar2(10)not null. country varchar2(10) not null. dob varchar2(10) not null. saving varchar2(10) not null). gender varchar2(10) notnull. idno varchar2(10). amount varchar2(10) not null. company varchar2(10) not null.

There is a chance of gathering wrong information in personal information details until administrator works good without fraud.Citizen card Drawbacks: Citizen Card project has some drawbacks like The details are maintained by the number of administrators. easily in 110 . It maintains and manages the transactions different departments. This information can be found out by the unique Id of the citizen. Conclusion: Citizen card project maintains unique id to every citizen to utilize there own services in private or Govt Organizations. A Citizen has unique Id to find out the personal information in each and every department or service wherever a citizen goes.

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