Transmission Line Basics II  Class 6
Prerequisite Reading assignment: CH2
Acknowledgements: Intel Bus Boot Camp: Michael Leddige
Real Computer Issues
Dev a data Dev b Signal Measured here
2
Clk
Switch Threshold
An engineer tells you the measured clock is nonmonotonic and because of this the flip flop internally may double clock the data. The goal for this class is to by inspection determine the cause and suggest whether this is a problem Linesnot. 6 Transmission or Class
Agenda
The Transmission Line Concept Transmission line equivalent circuits and
relevant equations Reflection diagram & equation Loading Termination methods and comparison Propagation delay Simple return path ( circuit theory, network theory come later)
Transmission Lines Class 6
3
Two Transmission Line Viewpoints
4
Steady state ( most historical view)
Frequency domain
Transient
Time domain Not circuit element Why?
We mix metaphors all the time
Why convenience and history
Transmission Lines Class 6
100 Miles)
5
Power Plant
Consumer Home
Transmission Lines Class 6
.Transmission Line Concept
Power Frequency (f) is @ 60 Hz
Wavelength (λ ) is 5× 106 m
( Over 3.
6 inches)
PCB substrate Cross section view taken here Microstrip Integrated Circuit Stripline T
6
Stripline
W Cross Section of Above PCB Copper Trace Via FR4 Dielectric
Micro Strip
Signal (microstrip) Ground/Power Signal (stripline) Signal (stripline) Ground/Power Signal (microstrip) W Transmission Lines Class 6
T
Copper Plane
.PC Transmission Lines
Signal Frequency (f) is approaching 10 GHz
Wavelength (λ ) is 1.5 cm
( 0.
V = f ( z. t ) I = f ( z.7
Key point about transmission line operation Voltage and current on a transmission line is a function of both time and position. t )
I1
I2
V1
V2
The major deviation from circuit theory with transmission dz line. distributed networks is this positional dependence of voltage and current! Must think in terms of position and time to understand transmission line behavior This positional dependence is added when the assumption of the size of the circuit being small compared to the signaling wavelength
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
I
Cables and wires
(a) (b) (c) (d) Coax cable Wire over ground Trilead wire Twisted pair (twowire line)
8
Long distance interconnects
+ () a () b
+ 

+ () c
Transmission Lines + .6 Class
() d
.Examples of Transmission Line Structures.
Segment 2: Transmission line equivalent circuits and relevant equations
Physics of transmission line structures Physics of transmission line structures Basic transmission line equivalent circuit Basic transmission line equivalent circuit ?Equations for transmission line propagation ?Equations for transmission line propagation
9
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
E & H Fields – Microstrip Case How does the signal move from source to load?
Signal path Y Z (into the page) X Electric field Magnetic Remember fields are setup given field an applied forcing function. (Source) Ground return path
10
The signal is really the wave propagating between the conductors
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
Characteristic impedance is the ratio of the voltage and current waves at any one position on the transmission line Propagation velocity is the speed with which signals are transmitted through the transmission line in its surrounding medium. providing relative impedance.
V Z0 = I v= c
εr
Transmission Lines Class 6
.Transmission Line “Definition”
General transmission line: a closed system in which power is transmitted
from a source to a destination
11
Our class: only TEM mode transmission lines
A two conductor wire system with the wires in close proximity. velocity and closed current return path to the source.
These fields are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of wave propagation for TEM mode waves. which is the simplest mode. and assumed for most simulators(except for microstrip lines which assume “quasiTEM”.
Transmission Lines Class 6
. which is an approximated equivalent for transient response calculations).Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields
I
+ + + +
12
I +∆ I
I
H
I +∆ I
E V I

V +∆V I +∆I
V I
H
V +∆ V I +∆ I
Both Electric and Magnetic fields are present in the transmission lines
Electric field is established by a potential difference between two conductors. Implies equivalent circuit model must contain capacitor. Magnetic field induced by current flowing on the line
Implies equivalent circuit model must contain inductor.
TLine Equivalent Circuit
General Characteristics of Transmission
Line
Propagation delay per unit length (T0) { time/distance} [ps/in] Or Velocity (v0) {distance/ time} [in/ps] Characteristic Impedance (Z0) Perunitlength Capacitance (C0) [pf/in] Perunitlength Inductance (L0) [nf/in] Perunitlength (Series) Resistance (R0) [Ω /in] Perunitlength (Parallel) Conductance (G0) [S/in]
13
lR0
lL0
lG0
lC0
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
C0.
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
14
lL0 lC0
A transmission line can be represented by a
cascaded network (subsections) of these equivalent models.Ideal T Line
Ideal (lossless) Characteristics of Transmission
Line
Ideal TL assumes: Uniform line Perfect (lossless) conductor (R0→0) Perfect (lossless) dielectric (G0→0) We only consider T0.
The smaller the subsection the more accurate the model
The delay for each subsection should be no larger than 1/10th the signal rise time. Z0 . and L0.
a reasonable approximation can be used to simplify the circuit for calculation of the circuit transient (time vs. but if the signal frequency(s) is low compared to the size of the circuit (small).
15
Transmission Lines Class 6
. all circuits that deliver transient power from one point to another are transmission lines. Lumped or Tline Models
In theory. current) response.Signal Frequency and Edge Rate vs. voltage or time vs.
what are the rules of thumb to use?
16
May treat as lumped Capacitance Use this 10:1 ratio for accurate modeling of transmission lines
Td < .4 Tx
Transmission Lines Class 6
.T Line Rules of Thumb
So.1 Tx
May treat as RC onchip. and treat as LC for PC board interconnect
Td < .
35/Tr (so if Tr is
1nS.Other “Rules of Thumb”
Frequency knee (Fknee) = 0. Fknee is 350MHz) This is the frequency at which most energy is below Tr is the 1090% edge rate of the signal Assignment: At what frequency can your thumb be used to determine which elements are lumped?
Assume 150 ps/in
17
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
whether or
not a line is to be considered as a transmission line depends on the ratio of length of the line (delay) to the wavelength of the applied frequency or the rise/fall edge of the signal
Wavelength/edge rate
Tline
Transmission Lines Class 6
.When does a Tline become a TLine?
Whether it is a
18
When do we need to use transmission line analysis techniques vs. lumped circuit analysis?
bump or a mountain depends on the ratio of its size (tline) to the size of the vehicle (signal wavelength)
Similarly.
Equations & Formulas
How to model & explain transmission line behavior
.
Relevant Transmission Line Equations
Propagation equation
20
γ = ( R + jωL)(G + jωC ) = α + jβ
α is the attenuation (loss) factor β is the phase (velocity) factor
Characteristic Impedance equation
( R + j ωL ) Z0 = (G + jωC )
In class problem: Derive the high frequency. lossless approximation for Z0
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
85 X 1012 F/m (free space) ε ri s relative dielectric constant
21
Z0 = C0 =
L0 . C0. C0
Td =
L0 C0 . Z0 1 = v0 . µ ε
L0 = Z 0 T 0 . ε is electric permittivity
ε 0= 8. C0 and L0 are reciprocal functions of the line crosssectional dimensions and are related by constant me.
and L0. the other two can be calculated.
µ = µ rµ 0 .Ideal Transmission Line Parameters
Knowing any two out of Z0.
ε = ε rε 0 .
µ is magnetic permeability
µ 0= 4p X 107 H/m (free space) µ r is relative permeability
T0 . Td.
Don’t forget these relationships and what they mean! Don’t forget these relationships and what they mean!
Transmission Lines Class 6
. C0 L0 =µ ε .
Transmission Lines Class 6
. L0 . C0 .4 ⋅π ⋅µ r ⋅ ⋅ WC m ⋅Ω
To a first order. C0 .85⋅ε r ⋅ ⋅ TD m
Tradeoff
TD . WC>> TD ) between
22
TC
ε
TD
Tline characteristics are
function of:
Material electric and magnetic properties Dielectric Thickness (TD) Width of conductor (WC)
ε * PlateArea Base C= d equation
WC
C0
WC F ε⋅ ⋅ TD m
WC pF 8. Z0
L0 Z0
TD F µ⋅ ⋅ WC m 377⋅ TD WC ⋅ µr εr
T D µH 0.Parallel Plate Approximation
Assumptions
TEM conditions Uniform dielectric (ε conductors TC<< TD. Z0 WC . tline capacitance and inductance can be approximated using the parallel plate approximation. L0 .
you must calculate the effective dielectric constant.41 0. Hall & McCall: Valid when: 0.02 (εr −1)1 − TD 0
for
WC TD WC TD
<1
for
>1
You can’t beat a field solver
Transmission Lines Class 6
.0 and 1 < r < 15
εr + 1 εe = + 2
+ F − 0.1 < WC/TD < 2.98TD ln εr + 1.217( εr − 1)
TC WCTD
F=
2 WC 0.8WC + TC 87
εr − 1
12TD 2 1+ WC
From Hall.Improved Microstrip Formula
Parallel Plate Assumptions +
Large ground plane with zero thickness To accurately predict microstrip impedance.
ε
WC TC TD
23
Z0 ≈
5.
εr )
Transmission Lines Class 6
.25 Offset (unbalanced) Stripline Case TD1 > TD2 You can’t beat a field solver
Z 0 sym(2 A.WC . TC . Hall & McCall: Symmetric (balanced) Stripline Case TD1 = TD2
4(TD1 + TD1) Z 0 sym ≈ ln 0. εr ) + Z 0 sym(2 B. TC . TC .35 and TC/(TD1 +TD2 ) < 0.67π (0.WC . TC . εr ) Z 0offset ≈ 2 Z 0 sym(2 A. WC .Improved Stripline Formulas
Same assumptions as used for
microstrip apply here
WC TD1 TC TD2
24
ε
From Hall.8WC + TC ) εr 60
Valid when WC/(TD1 +TD2 ) < 0. εr ) ⋅ Z 0 sym(2 B. WC .
We use similar terms – be careful
The “bump”
L
Reflection diagrams – more later
Transmission Lines Class 6
. Frequency domain is for all time.Refection coefficient
Signal on a transmission line can be analyzed by
keeping track of and adding reflections and transmissions from the “bumps” (discontinuities) Refection coefficient
25
Amount of signal reflected from the “bump” Frequency domain ρ =sign(S11)*S11 If at load or source the reflection may be called gamma (Γ or Γ s) Time domain ρ is only defined a location Time domain analysis is causal.
Reflection and Transmission
Incident 1+ρ Transmitted
26
ρ
Reflection Coeficient Transmission Coeffiecent
ρ Zt − Z0 Zt + Z0 τ τ
Reflecte d
(1 + ρ)
"" → "" 2⋅ Zt Zt + Z0
τ
1+
Zt − Z0 Zt + Z0
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
Special Cases to Remember
A: Terminated in Zo Zs Vs Zo Zo − ρ = Zo Zo = 0 Zo + Zo
27
B: Short Circuit Zs Vs Zo − ρ = 0 Zo = −1 0 + Zo
C: Open Circuit Zs Vs Zo
ρ=
∞ −Zo =1 ∞ + Zo
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
What factors cause the errors with the parallel plate approximation?
Transmission Lines Class 6
. TC = 1 mil. ε Symmetric Stripline: WC = 6 mils. TD1 = TD2 = 4 mils.Assignment – Building the SI Tool Box
Compare the parallel plate approximation to the improved microstrip and stripline formulas for the following cases: Microstrip: WC = 6 mils. L & C for each case. ε
r r
28
=4 =4
Write Math Cad Program to calculate Z0. TC = 1 mil. Td. TD = 4 mils.
Transmission line equivalent circuits and relevant equations
Basic pulse launching onto transmission lines Basic pulse launching onto transmission lines Calculation of near and far end waveforms for Calculation of near and far end waveforms for
classic load conditions classic load conditions
29
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
Next page….
RS RL
30
VS
VL
The output voltage. VL is easily calculated from the source amplitude and the values of the two series resistors.
Transmission Lines Class 6
.Review: Voltage Divider Circuit
Consider the simple
circuit that contains source voltage VS.
VL = VS RL RL + R S
Why do we care for? Why do we care for? Next page…. and resistive load RL. source resistance RS.
Solving Transmission Line Problems
The next slides will establish a procedure that will allow you to solve transmission line problems without the aid of a simulator. Here are the steps that will be presented:
31
1. Calculation of load reflection coefficient and 3.
Transmission Lines Class 6
. all tline problems. Determination of launch voltage &
“t =0” voltage voltage delivered to the load
final “DC” or
2. Calculation of source reflection coefficient and
resultant source voltage
These are the steps for solving These are the steps for solving all tline problems.
Determining Launch Voltage
TD Vs 0
Vs
32
Rs A Zo
B Rt
(initial voltage) t=0. V=Vi
Vi = VS
Z0 Z 0 + RS
Vf = VS
Rt Rt + RS
Step 1 in calculating transmission line waveforms is to determine the launch voltage in the circuit.
The behavior of transmission lines makes it easy
to calculate the launch & final voltages – simply a voltage divider!
Transmission Lines Class 6
it is
.
Voltage wavefront will be reflected at the end of the tline
VB at time 0 < t < TD is at quiescent voltage (0 in this case) VB = Vincident + Vreflected at time t = TD
Transmission Lines Class 6
.33
Voltage Delivered to the Load
TD Vs 0
Vs
Rs A Zo
B Rt
(initial voltage) t=0. ρ( V=Vi +ρ B(Vi) + A ρ B)(Vi ) Rt − Zo (signal is reflected) ρ t=TD. V=Vi t=2TD. V=Vi + B(Vi )
ρ
Β =
Rt + Zo
Vreflected
= ρ Β (Vincident ) + Vreflected
VB = Vincident
Step 2: Determine VB in the circuit at time t = TD
The transient behavior of transmission line delays the arrival of launched voltage until time t = TD.
V=Vi +ρ B (Vi )
( V=Vi + ρ B (Vi) +ρ Aρ B )(Vi )
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
(signal is reflected) t=TD.Voltage Reflected Back to the Source
Vs 0
Vs
34
Rs A
B Zo
A
ρ
ρ
B
Rt
(initial voltage) t=0. V=Vi
TD
t=2TD.
the solution converges to VB = VS[Rt / (Rt + Rs)]
Transmission Lines Class 6
.Voltage Reflected Back to the Source
ρ
Α =
35
Rs − Zo Rs + Zo
Vreflected
= ρ Α (Vincident ) + Vreflected
VA = Vlaunch + Vincident
Step 3: Determine VA in the circuit at time t = 2TD
The
transient behavior of transmission line delays the arrival of voltage reflected from the load until time t = 2TD.
VA VA
at time 0 < t < 2TD is at launch voltage = Vlaunch + Vincident + Vreflected
Voltage
wavefront will be reflected at the source
at time t = 2TD
In the steady state.
Problems
36
Solved Homework
Consider the circuit
shown to the right with a resistive load.Τ 0 l
I2
VS
V1
V2
RL
Transmission Lines Class 6
.I1(t). assume propagation delay = T.V2(t). Calculate and show the wave forms of V1(t). and I2(t) for (a) RL= ∞ and (b) RL= 3Z0
RS
I1
Z0 . RS= Z0 .
I1(0) = 0.StepFunction into TLine: Relationships
Source matched case: RS= Z0
V1(0) = 0.∞ ) = 0. I2(0) = 0
Open circuit means RL= ∞
Γ
L
= ∞ /∞ = 1
V1(∞ ) = V2(∞ ) = 0.5VA(1+ Γ L)
Uncharged line
V2(0) = 0. V(x.5VA.5IA Γ
S
37
= 0.5IA(11) = 0
Solution
Transmission Lines Class 6
.5VA(1+1) = VA I1(∞ ) = I2 (∞ ) = 0.
I1(T) = 0.5VA/Z0
At t = 2T.5VA. I2 (T) = 0
and doubled wave travels back to source end V1(T) = 0.StepFunction into TLine with Open Ckt
38
At t = T. I1(2T) = 0
V2(2T) = VA. the doubled wave reaches the
source end and is not reflected V1(2T) = VA. I2(2T) = 0
Solution
Transmission Lines Class 6
. the voltage wave reaches load end
V2(T) = VA.
25V A
Τ
2Τ
3Τ
n) 4Τ Time ( s
V1 V2
This is called “reflected wave switching”
Solution
Transmission Lines Class 6
.Τ 0 l I2
VS
V1
V2
Open
0 VA Voltag (V) e 0.5VA 0.75V A 0.5IA 0.25IA
39
StepFunction into TLine with Open Ckt
I1 I2
RS I1 Z0 .75IA 0.Waveshape:
IA Curre (A) nt 0.
5VA(1+0.5
V1(∞ ) = V2(∞ ) = 0.75VA I1(∞ ) = I2(∞ ) = 0. I1(0) = 0.5VA(1+ Γ L)
Uncharged line
V2(0) = 0.5) = 0.25IA
Solution
Transmission Lines Class 6
. I2(0) = 0
RL= 3Z0
Γ
L
= (3Z0 Z0) / (3Z0 +Z0) = 0.5VA.∞ ) = 0.5IA(10.5IA Γ
S
40
= 0.5) = 0. V(x.Problem 1b: Relationships
Source matched case: RS= Z0
V1(0) = 0.
75VA .25IA
and positive wave travels back to the source V1(T) = 0.25IA
Solution
Transmission Lines Class 6
. I2(2T) = 0.75VA .25IA
V2(2T) = 0.5VA. I1(2T) = 0.75VA .Problem 1b: Solution
41
At t = T. I2(T) = 0.5IA
At t = 2T. the voltage wave reaches load end
V2(T) = 0. I1(T) = 0. the reflected wave reaches the
source end and absorbed V1(2T) = 0.
25I A
VS V1
42
I1 I2
RS
I1
Z0 .Waveshapes for Problem 1b
IA Current (A) 0.5I A 0.5V A 0.75V A 0.75I A 0.25V A
Τ
2Τ
3Τ
Note that a I1 properly I2 terminated wave settle out at 0.Τ 0 l
I2
V2
RL
0 VA Voltage(V) 0.5 V Solution Solution
4Τ Ti me (ns)
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
Transmission Lines Class 6
. Lattice diagrams will be introduced as a solution tool. Lattice diagrams will be introduced in this chapter. as a solution tool.Transmission line step response
Introduction to lattice diagram analysis Introduction to lattice diagram analysis Calculation of near and far end waveforms for Calculation of near and far end waveforms for
classic load impedances classic load impedances Solving multiple reflection problems Solving multiple reflection problems
43
Complex signal reflections at different types of Complex signal reflections at different types of transmission line “discontinuities” will be analyzed transmission line “discontinuities” will be analyzed in this chapter.
44
Lattice Diagram Analysis – Key Concepts
The lattice diagram is a tool/technique to simplify the accounting of reflections and waveforms
Vs 0 Vs Zo V(source) Rs TD = N ps V(load) Rt
ρ source
Time V(source) 0 N ps a A
ρ load
V(load) A’ b c B’
Diagram shows the boundaries
(x =0 and x=l) and the reflection coefficients (GL and GL ) Time (in T) axis shown vertically Slope of the line should indicate flight time of signal
Particularly important for multiple reflection problems using both microstrip and stripline mediums.
2N ps 3N ps B
d 4N ps 5N ps C’ e
Calculate voltage amplitude
for each successive reflected wave Total voltage at any point is the sum of all the waves that have reached that point
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
Lattice Diagram Analysis – Detail
ρ
source
45
ρ
load
V(source) 0 Vlaunch
V(load)
0 Time Vlaunch Vlaunch 2N ps Vlaunch Vlaunch (1+ρ
lo d a
N ps
ρ
lo d a
Vlaunch (1+ρ
lo d a
)
Time
ρ
lo d a
ρ
so rce u
+ρ
lo d a
ρ
so rce u
)
Vlaunch
3N ps
ρ ρ
2 lo d a
ρ ρ
so rce u
4N ps Vlaunch V(load) V(source) Zo Vs Rs TD = N ps Vs Rt
2 lo d a 2 so rce u
Vlaunch (1+ρ
lo d a
+ρ
2 lo d a
ρ
so rce u
+ρ
2 lo d a
ρ
2 so rce u
0
5N ps
Transmission Lines Class 6
.
032v
V olt s
2 1.Transient Analysis – Over Damped
2v 0 Vs Zo V(source) Zs TD = 250 ps V(load) Assume Zs=75 ohms Zo=50ohms Vs=02 volts
46
ρ source = 0.2
Time V(source) 0 500 ps 0.5 1 0.8v 0.8 Zs + Zo 75 + 50
ρ s o ur ce = ρ lo a d =
Zs − Zo 75 − 50 = = 0.76v
2.92v 0. ps Sour ce Load
Transmission Lines Class 6
.5 0 0 2 50 500 750 1000 1250 Tim e .8v
ρ load = 1
V(load) 0v
Vin it ia l= Vs
Zo 50 = (2) = 0.6v
Zl − Zo ∞ − 50 = =1 Zl + Zo ∞ + 50
Response fr om lattice diagram
1000 ps 1500 ps 1.16v 2000 ps 2500 ps 1.16v 1.5
0.2 Zs + Zo 75 + 50
0.8v 0.
33v
1.3333 + Zo + 50 Zs 25
ρsource = ρload =
Zs −Zo 25 −50 = = − .443v
3
0.5 1 0.66v
1000 ps 1500 ps 2.33v 2.5
2000 ps 2500 ps 1.5 2 1.22v
0.443v 1.92
Source Load
0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 2250 Time.33v
ρ load = 1
V(load) 0v
Vinitial = Vs
50 Zo = (2) = 1.148v
Volts
2. ps
0
0.148v 2.33333 0 + Zo 25 + 50 Zs Zl −Zo ∞ −50 = =1 + Zo ∞ + 50 Zl
Response from lattice diagram
500 ps 1.Transient Analysis – Under Damped
V(source) 2v 0 Vs Zs TD = 250 ps Zo V(load) Assume Zs=25 ohms Zo =50ohms Vs=02 volts
47
ρ source = −0 . 3333
Time 0 V(source) 1.07
Transmission Lines Class 6
.77v 0.
Two Segment Transmission Line Structures
X X Rs Vs Zo1 TD Zo2 TD Rt
48
ρ1
a TD A 2TD 3TD B 4TD 5TD C c d f h j
T3 T2 ρ 2 ρ3
ρ4
A= a B = a+c+d C = A+ c+ d + f + h
A' = b + e B' = b + e + g + i C' = b + e + g + i + k + l
b e g i k l C’ B’ A’
Z o1 vi = Vs Rs + Z o1
a = vi b = aT2 c = aρ 2 d = cρ 1 e = bρ 4 f = dρ 2 + eT3 g = eρ 3 + dT2 h = fρ 1 i = gρ 4 j = hρ 2 + iT3 k = iρ 3 + hT2
ρ1 = ρ2 =
Rs − Z o1 Rs + Z o1 Z o 2 − Z o1 Z o 2 + Z o1
Z − Zo2 ρ 3 = o1 Z o1 + Z o 2 Rt − Z o 2 ρ4 = Rt + Z o 2 T2 = 1 + ρ 2
Transmission Lines Class 6
T3 = 1 + ρ 3
.
Assume RS= 3Z01
and Z02 = 3Z01 .Assignment
49
Previous examples are the preparation
Consider the two segment
transmission line shown to the right. Use Lattice diagram and calculate reflection coefficients at V the interfaces and show theS wave forms of V1(t).
RS I1
Z0 1.Τ 02 l2
I3
V1
V2
V3
S h o rt
Check results with PSPICE
Transmission Lines Class 6
. and V3(t). V2(t).Τ 01 l1
I2
Z0 2.