B E S T P R ACT I CE MANU AL

E L E CT R I C M OT OR S

CO NTE NTS
1 1 .1 1 .2 2 2 .1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................................................................2

B ACK GR OU N D ..........................................................................................................................................................................2 CLASSIFICATION OF MOTORS .................................................................................................................................................3
FUNDAMENTALS .............................................................................................................................................................................4

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5

2 .2 2 .3 2 .4 3 3 .1 3 .2 3 .3

P R I N CI P L E OF OP E R AT I ON .................................................................................................................................................4 S peed, T or que and Power .....................................................................................................................................4 Load Cons ider ations ..................................................................................................................................................5 Power Factor ..................................................................................................................................................................5 Efficiency .........................................................................................................................................................................7 T or que & Cur r ent /vs . S peed Char acter is tics of Motor s ......................................................................8 M OT OR L OAD I N G ...................................................................................................................................................................9 P OW E R L OS S E S I N M OT OR S : ..........................................................................................................................................10
E F F E CT OF V OL T AGE U N B AL AN CE ON M OT OR P E R F OR MAN CE ....................................................................................10

SELECTION & EFFICIENT OPERATION OF MOTORS .........................................................................................................12
OF MOT OR R U N N I N G COS T – L I F E CY CL E COS T S : ........................................................................12 M OT OR R AT I N G S U R VE Y .......................................................................................................................................................12 P R OP E R S I Z I N G OF M OT OR S ...............................................................................................................................................13 3.3.1 Oper ation Of Under - Loaded Delta- Connected Motor s I n S tar Connection .............................14 3.3.2 Us e Of Electr onic S oft S tar ter s ................................................................................................................................16 3 .4 S E L E CT I ON & A P P L I CAT I ON OF H I GH E F F I CI E N CY M OT OR S ......................................................................................17 3.4.1 Des ign ...............................................................................................................................................................................17 3.4.2 Efficiency S tandar ds ....................................................................................................................................................17 3.4.3 A Note of Caution..........................................................................................................................................................18 3.4.4 Es timation of ener gy s aving .....................................................................................................................................18 3 .5 M OT OR M A I N T E N A N CE & R E W I N D I N G ......................................................................................................................19 3.5.1 Pr oper Lubr ication ....................................................................................................................................................19 3.5.2 B elts and Pulleys .......................................................................................................................................................19 3.5.3 Rewinding......................................................................................................................................................................19 3 .6 D R I VE T R AN S MI S S I ON ..........................................................................................................................................................20 3.6.1 B elt Dr ives ....................................................................................................................................................................20 3.6.2 Gear Dr ives ..................................................................................................................................................................20 3 .7 A P P L I CAT I ON OF V AR I AB L E S P E E D D R I VE S .....................................................................................................................21 3.7.1 S ome I s s ues For Cons ider ation When Us ing Electr onic Ac Var iable S peed Dr ives ...........22

I MP OR T AN CE

4 4 .1 4 .2 4 .3 5 5 .1 5 .2

INTEGRATED SYSTEMS APPROACH .......................................................................................................................................24 P U MP I N G S Y S T E MS ................................................................................................................................................................24 COMP R E S S E D A I R ...................................................................................................................................................................25 R E F R I GE R AT I ON & A I R -CON D I T I ON I N G ..........................................................................................................................26 CASE STUDIES................................................................................................................................................................................29
R U N N I N G OF MOT OR D R I VE N E QU I P ME N T S ...................................................29 M AT CH I N G MOT OR W I T H T H E D R I VE N L OAD ....................................................................................................................30 5.2.1 Oper ation in S T AR connection for under loaded motor s ...................................................................30 5.2.2 Us e Of Electr onic S oft S tar ter s .........................................................................................................................30 U S E OF H I GH E F F I CI E N CY M OT OR S ..............................................................................................................................31 5 .3 I MP R OVE D R I VE T R AN S MI S S I ON E F F I CI E N CY ..........................................................................................................32 5 .4 I MP R OVE ME N T I N MOT OR D R I VE N S Y S T E MS ..............................................................................................................33 5 .5 5.5.1 Pr oper S izing Of Pumps .......................................................................................................................................33 5.5.2 Us e of Var iable Fr equency Dr ive .....................................................................................................................34

S T OP P I N G I D L E / R E D U N D AN T

REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................................................................................36

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1 .1
B ackgr ou n d

INTRODUCTION

Electric motors are intrinsically very efficient. Their efficiencies vary from 85% to 95% for motors of sizes ranging from 10 HP to 500 HP. It is still possible to improve the efficiency of these motors by 1 to 4% by using more efficient motors. However, in the energy efficiency game, there are a number of other things also one should focus; more than just improving the efficiency of motors alone. This guide will discuss mainly the energy efficiency related issues in selection and application of three phase squirrel cage induction motors. They are very reliable, rugged and cover more than 90% of the installed capacity of electric motors in the industrial sector. All India market for electric motors is summarised in Table 1.1. It can be seen that squirrel cage LT motors account for about 75% of total motor market in terms of kW. Table 1-1: Estimation of All India Market For Electric Motors (Year 2002-03) (Based on kW)
T ype AC LT 3 phas e, S CR ACLT FLP AC LT S CR – T otal AC LT S R AC HT S ub- total AC DC AC FHP Gr and T otal I EEMA All I ndia 2666045 154483 2820528 200595 696285 3717480 262255 632543 4612206 % S har e in All I ndia 25 90 97 100 80 25 Other 7998135 17165 8015300 6204 0 8021504 65546 1897629 9984696 % S har e in All I ndia 75 10 3 0 20 75 All I ndia 10664180 171648 10835828 206799 696.285 11738912 327819 2530172 14596902

LT – Low Tension, HT- High Tension, SCR- squirrel cage rotor, FLP – Flame proof, SR- Slip Ring The following figure 1.1 shows the break up of electricity use in motor driven systems in India.
5% 9% 5%

Agriculture Commercial Others

Industry Domestic

44%

37%

Figure 1-1: S ector-wis e break up of electricity cons umption in motor driven s ys tems Source: Complete guide to energy efficient Motors- ICPCI, Mumbai

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Use of Synchronous motors and DC motors for heavy duty and precision drives etc. 3 .2 Classification of Motors Electric motors are of many types. most commonly used motors are 3 phase squirrel cage induction type. Figure 1-2: Clas s ification of electric motors In industry. The common types of motors are given below in figure 1.1 . With the introduction of variable frequency drives for speed and torque control.2. are also common. the 3-phase induction motors are finding increasingly acceptable for applications where DC drives were earlier used.

This implies that there is no current supplied to the rotating coils (rotor windings). As magnetic flux cuts across the rotor bars.1. Three-phase currents flowing in the stator windings leads establish a rotating magnetic field in the air gap. The rotor current in turn produces a magnetic field that interacts with the magnetic field of the stator.1 P r i n ci pl e of Oper at i on FUNDAMENTALS A large percentage of AC motors are induction motors. Refer figure 2. 2 . These coils are closed loops which have large currents induced in them. The higher the input frequency. s = slip ns = synchronous speed n = actual speed 4 . a current circulates in them. much as a voltage is induced in the secondary winding of a transformer.1 . T or qu e an d P ow er Synchronous Speed of an ac induction motor depends on the frequency of the supply voltage and the number of poles for which the motor is wound. the faster the motor runs. Slip represents the inability of the rotor to fully keep up with the moving AC voltage waves generated on the stator. This magnetic field continuously pulsates across the air gap and into the rotor. the slower it runs at a given input frequency. Slip of an induction motor defined as: s= ns − n ns where.1 S peed. The term poles refers to the total number of magnetic north and south poles produced by the stator winding when supplied with polyphase current. This is a single phase representation of windings and current flow.2 2 . Since this field is rotating and magnetically interlocked with the rotor. Because the rotor bars are part of a closed circuit (including the end rings). a voltage is induced in them. The more poles a motor has. the rotor is dragged around with the stator field. Figure 2-1: I nduction motor principle The rotor consists of copper or aluminum bars connected together at the ends with heavy rings.

The torque required is one metre times one Newton or one Newton-metre. For example. winders. winches. Examples of the common types of loads are given below along with the expected variation in torque and power with speed. Variable Torque: These loads increase with speed and are usually associated with centrifugal fan and pump loads. Constant power: In this group. separators. Turning the crank more rapidly takes more horsepower than turning the crank slowly. in total kilowatts.3 P ow er F act or Power factor is not a measure of efficiency. If the crank is turned twice as fast. torque decreases. perhaps. grinders." Most electric motors have a lagging power factor. The operation of electrical systems with low power factor results in reducing the overall power carrying 5 . Regardless of how fast the crank is turned. hoists. the load decreases with increasing speed. The constant torque characteristic is needed to overcome friction. unwinders. etc. conveyors. printing presses. 2 . the horsepower requirement varies as the cube of the speed change. If a load draws Reactive Power. With an initial large diameter work piece. Examples include crushers. It is a ratio of Real Power. As the work piece diameter decreases. conveyors. increases with speed. Under these conditions. These applications usually have the greatest opportunities for energy savings as well as improved control. The nameplate power rating of a motor is generally the rated output power. but speed increases to provide constant surface speed. where the torque required by the load is constant throughout the speed range. however. and. there are loads in which the torque changes directly with speed (Agitators of viscous fluids) and torque changes with square of speed (Centrifugal pumps. and some types of extruders. in theory. some mixers. Understanding this behaviour is important while selecting motors and more so when selecting variable speed drives. the drive has two fundamental tasks: to move the load and to protect the prime mover and driven equipment. When driving positive-displacement pumps. in theory. where.1 . Torque is the turning effort. The horsepower requirement. the power factor is said to be "lagging. Common applications are processes that are changing diameters such as lathes. in kilovolt amps. However. maximum torque and slow speeds are required. the electric motor as a prime mover can experience bearing damage from shock loads. 2 . For example. Constant torque: Most frequently encountered type of load (essentially friction loads). a 10-ton load on a conveyor requires about the same torque whether the conveyor speed is 5 or 50 feet per minute. the torque is unchanged as long as the crank is turned at a steady speed. Common applications include general machinery. For example. to total Apparent Power. fans). and cranes.1 . It is the rate of doing work. Shock Loads: These loads may range from a small fraction of rated load to several hundred percent for a small fraction of the time. the horsepower requirement varies as the square of the speed change. the torque remains the same. and metal-cutting tools operating over wide speed ranges. suppose a grinding wheel with a crank arm onemeter long takes a force of one Newton to turn the wheel at steady rate.2 L oad Cons ider at ions The driven equipment characteristics decide how much shaft power the motor has to deliver at the operating point. Power or shaft power takes into account how fast the crank is turned. Friction loads require the same amount of torque at low speeds as at high speeds.Full-load slip varies from less than one percent (in high-HP motors) to more than five percent (in fractional-HP motors).

" the energy consumed by the load.f. Reactive power is expressed as Kilovolt-amps Reactive. utilities levy power factor penalties to customers whose overall power factor falls below certain levels. An understanding of the difference between the three aspects of power. Useful mechanical work derives from "real power. the reactive power drawn by the motor from the grid will be less or almost nil in case of unity power factor correction. kilowatts. without any capacitors. Reactive power does not provide useful mechanical work. A capacitor is a device which draws a leading current. Figure 2. draws active and reactive power. The current drawn by the motor lag behind the voltage applied. If the motor is connected to the grid. If capacitor is connected at the motor. In this situation. Real power is expressed in kilowatts. Refer fig 2. most AC motors do require reactive power for developing magnetic fields. The vector sum of Real Power and Reactive Power is Apparent Power.3(b). load. Refer fig 2. the reactive power is drawn by the motor.3 (a). F igur e 2 -3 : P ow er f act or cor r ect ion by us e of capacit or s 6 .capacity of the power supply system. and kilovolt-amps reactive. A motor operating at a given load and supply voltage. K W= Real power θ K VAR= Reactive power K VA = Appar ent power F igur e 2 -2 : Vect or diagr am A motor is an inductive load. is essential to an understanding of power factor. or kVAR.2 gives the vector diagram showing all three types of power for lagging p. Apparent Power is calculated by multiplying voltage times amperage. As an incentive for customers to operate at high power factors. the entire active and reactive power is drawn from the grid. However. kilovoltamps. expressed as kilovolt-amps or kVA. and is ready t o discharge current when motor need it.

such as a reduced air gap. The power input to the motor varies with the output shaft load. Higher horsepower ratings generally correspond to higher efficiency ratings. The power in watts divided by 1000 is Kilowatts (kW). At a particular operating voltage and shaft load. and he can't optimize them all. The difference between the power input and power output comprises electrical and mechanical losses. The power consumed by a 3-phase AC motor is given by: Power input = • 3 X line voltage X line current X power factor If the voltage is in volts and the current in amperes. Electric Power Input (kW) = Mechanical shaft output in kWx100 Motor Efficiency (%) Electric Power Input (kVA) = Power Input (kW) x 100 Power Factor (%) Typical variations of motor efficiency and power factor with load are shown in fig 2. actually have the opposite effect on efficiency. and some of the design changes that improve power factor. Small fractional horsepower motors tend to have low operating efficiency. It is often difficult to get a good a motor design by concentrating on high power factor. torque characteristics and efficiency. while power factor can be corrected externally. 2 . as well as power factor. the motor efficiency is fixed by design.1 . it cannot be changed externally.4. The motor designer has to consider a number of parameters such as temperature rise. while large integral horsepower motors are generally very efficient. It is defined as a ratio of motor power output to source power input. It's costly to try to design both high power factor and high efficiency into a motor. F igur e 2 -4 : Mot or ef f iciency and pow er f act or 7 . the power will be in watts (w).It is not necessarily to have higher power factor for a high efficiency motor.4 E f f i ci en cy Motor efficiency is a measure of the effectiveness with which a motor converts electrical energy to mechanical energy output to drive a load.

Pull-up torque is the minimum torque generated by a motor as it accelerates from standstill to operating speed. 1.7 for the same load change. 2. 6. The power factor reduces with load.5 Figur e 2. is produced by a motor when it is initially turned on. This magnetising current is required because of air gap in the motor. the power consumption is only about 1 to 5% .84 to 0. S peed Torque speed curve shows how a motor's torque production varies with the different conditions of its operation. At no load.5 T or que & Cur r ent / vs . If a motor's pull torque is less than that required by its application -up load.2 depending on size of the motors. it cannot be changed externally. 5. friction and windage losses. Breakdown torque is the greatest amount of torque a motor can generate without stalling. 2 . where as the power factor has dropped from 0.05 to 0. Starting torque is the amount required to overcome load friction at standstill. also called locked rotor torque. of the order of 30 to 50% of the full load current. The motor efficiency remains almost constant up to 40% load.vs . below which the efficiency drops significantly and becomes zero at 0% load. 3.f.The following may be noted from these curves. The no load current is however. S peed Char act er is t ics of Mot or s Torque speed and current speed characteristics of different types of motors are shown in fig. the motor will overheat and eventually stall. At no load the p. For a particular operating voltage and shaft load. 4. just sufficient to supply the iron. is in the range of 0. the motor efficiency is determined by design.5: T or que & Cur r ent .1 . 2. Starting torque. Note that at 50% load. the efficiency has dropped by 3%. High breakdown torque is necessary for applications that may undergo frequent but short 8 .

The starting torque is 100% to 200%.time overloading . To estimate % shaft loading from % current loading. conveyor belts have more product placed upon them than their rating allows.2 Mot or L oadi n g Us e of a por table power analys er (als o known as load analys er . Meas ur ement of voltage. zero shaft load) can be about 25% to 40% of the full load current of the motor.6 can be used. This can be inaccurate if the current drawn is much less than full load current. the maximum torque is 200% to 300% of rated torque. there is no direct measurement of shaft power possible under typical site conditions. Estimation of shaft loading on the motor is very important while assessing motor performance. T his can . 2 . Note: 1. This is because the current a no load (i. However. Often. Ratio of the measured current with the rated full load current on the motor in percentage terms gives the % current loading. Full load torque is produced by a motor functioning at a rated speed and horsepower.v.) is r equir ed to es tablis h the power cons umption of any equipment. in tur n. 2. The operating life is significantly diminished in motors continually run at levels exceeding full load torque. Figure 2-6: Current loading . cur r ent and gues s ing the power factor of motor to calculate power cons umption. Note that this figure is indicative only and it represents a large number of motors in different ratings combined together. can lead to lar ge er r or s . clamp on power meter etc. One such application is a conveyor belt.s . S haft loading 9 .e. Many times. High breakdown torque enables the conveyor to continue operating under these conditions. this ratio is mistakenly used as % loading ( read ‘shaft loading’) on the motor. figure 2. lead to wr ong es timation of ener gy s aving as well. The current remains at a high value of more than 500% of rated current up to 75% to 80% speed and then drops sharply.

Stator Copper Losses:These losses are due to flow of current in stator conductors and are normally called 2 I R losses. heat dissipation Bar and end ring area and material Manufacturing process. Windage and Friction Losses: These losses are due to bearing friction and rotation of the rotor and fan in the air. slot design.4 2. Lubrication. The frequency of rotation of the magnetic field within the rotor is small during running condition and hence the rotor core loss is negligible.3 P ow er L osses in Motor s: Typical losses in motors are discussed below. the average is 430V and the deviation is 10V. Rotor Copper Losses: These losses are due to flow of current in rotor conductors and end rings. Core loss and friction and windage losses are considered as fixed losses as they do not vary significantly with load. mean length of turn. air gap 2 E f f ect of Volt age U n balan ce on Mot or P er f or m an ce Percentage Voltage Unbalance is defined by NEMA as 100 times the deviation of the line voltage from the average voltage divided by the average voltage.7 shows the cross section of motors.pole average 21% 10% 34% 21% 14% Factors affecting losses Electrical steel. The Percentage Unbalance is given by 10 .2 . Stray Load losses: These losses are extra magnetic and I R loss due to effects of slot openings. The typical distribution of losses is summarised in Table 2. Figure 2. leakage flux and harmonic fields. bearing Conductor area. Figure 2-7:Motor losses Core Losses: This consists of hysteresis and eddy current losses mainly in the stator core. air gap. 430 and 440V.Pole average 19% 25% 26% 19% 11% 4. These losses are difficult to measure or calculate. If the measured voltages are 420. saturation Fan efficiency.1 Table 2-1:Motor Loss Categories Losses Core losses Friction & Windage losses Stator Copper losses Rotor Copper losses Stray Load losses 2 .

3% 430V 1% voltage unbalance will increase the motor losses by 5%.2 Table 2-2: Effect of voltage and frequency variation on motor performance Characteristic Torque.3 shows the increase in motor losses due to voltage unbalance.= 2.10V X 100 = ------------. the effects are summarised in table 2.3: Effect of voltage unbalance on motor losses The motor performance is also affected by voltage and frequency variation.5 to 1 point Little change Decrease 1 to 2 points Decrease 3 points Decrease 4 points Decrease 5 to 6 points Increase 10 to 12% Decrease 7% No change Decrease 1. starting & maximum running Speed Synchronous Full Load % slip Efficiency Full load ¾ load ½ load Power Factor Full load ¾ load ½ load Current Starting Full load 110% Increase 21% Voltage 90% Decrease 19% Frequency 105% 95% Decrease 10% Increase 11% No change Increase 1% Decrease 17% Increase 0. Figure 2. Fig 2.5% Increase 23% Decrease 2 points Little change Increase 1 to 2 points Increase 1 point Increase 2 to 3 points Increase 4 to 5 points Decrease 10 to 12% Increase 11% Increase 5% Increase 5% Little change Slight increase Slight increase Slight increase Slight increase Slight increase Slight increase Decrease 5 to 6% Slight decrease Decrease 5% Decrease 5% Little change Slight decrease Slight decrease Slight decrease Slight decrease Slight decrease Slight increase Increase 5 to 6% Slight increase 11 .

26 lakhs in 10 years. Initially.8 37 0.7 37 0. When economically justified. if they are running inefficiently. p.600 2.3 SELECTION & EFFICIENT OPERATION OF MOTORS 3 . The importance of running cost can be seen from and Table-3. Similarly.000 15000 0. Motors can run without problems for 20 years or more with good protection and routine maintenance.93. Even a small motor of 7. it is worthwhile replacing them as running costs are much more than first costs. 1. Motors can be considered as consumable items and not capital items. Hence running costs are predominant in life cycle costing. However. at full load. The following methodology can be adopted. The first cost is only around 1% of the running coast for 10 years. a 37 kW motor consumes about Rs.86 8. 3 .52 6000 51120 2.600 2.61. The law of diminishing returns suggests that even a good thing can be overdone. 3.72 6000 52320 2.5 kW consumes. The following points may be noted: Table 3-1 Importance of Running Cost of Motor Driven Equipment Motor rating (kW) Efficiency. 12 .1.92 40. just because something saves money in the long term does not necessarily mean that it saves an amount sufficient to justify the required additional investment.7 KW) as well as those running for few hours (less than 3000 hours/annum).400 11.556.1. Select important motors by size and long running hours.u Power input (kW) Running hours/year Energy input (kWh/year) Running cost @ Rs. even if these have been recently installed.) First cost as % of running cost for 10 years 7.78 6000 238680 11.06.066.1 I mpor tance of motor r unning cost – L ife Cycle Costs: The classic challenge for energy users is to determine whether it is appropriate to spend more money now in order to save money in the long term.616.) First cost (Rs.2 Mot or R at in g S u r vey It is worthwhile that a motor rating survey is carried out in industrial plants.000 96000 0. Even a small difference in efficiency can make a significant difference in running cost.5 0.88 8.93 39.5 0.600 12. life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a decision support tools that will lead to appropriate energy project choices.934.000 18000 0.55.22 6000 241320 12. considering the current energy prices.000 80000 0. However. Properly applied. 2.9 1. motors may be replaced.6 7. ignore small motors (below 3. In many applications it is worthwhile replacing motors even when considerable working life remains. 5 per kWh Running cost for 10 years (Rs. electricity worth Rs. 4.2 crore worth of electricity in 10 years.

For example. for example. If you have a 100 horsepower motor that is typically operating at 35 horsepower.. out of these again categorise frequently rewound motors. 3 . Allowance for load growth. 4.3 P r oper S izing of Mot or s It is important to remember that it is the load that determines how much power the motor draws. it is difficult to make a blanket statement as to which motors should be downsized. Availability. properly sized motors for all important applications. 2. Identify motors with loads less than 40%. Fig. These advantages can normally be achieved. in which case. but periodically is required to operate at 90 horsepower. Because motor efficiency curves vary substantially from motor to motor. Table 3. Uncertainty about load. Of course. it is a strong candidate for downsizing. there are benefits to oversizing motors in certain cases that should not be overlooked when determining what the proper motor is for a given application. however. energy costs for a motor over the course of a year can be up to five times the cost of a new motor. This is especially true in cases where the motor is operating at a lower efficiency level due to oversizing. Prepare a list of desired. 2. a fan requiring 15 kW could be driven by a 15 kW motor. motors take 30% to 40% of the rated current. since it is operating near its peak efficiency It often makes sense to replace oversized motors even if the existing motor has not failed. It could also be driven by a 30 kW motor.100% of its rated load. 3. 3. Kindly note that even on no load. it is well matched. 4. replace with properly sized high efficiency motors. Remember. it would not be very efficient. 5.2. Rounding up to the next size. oversized motors can accommodate unanticipated high loads and are likely to start and operate more readily in under voltage conditions. The efficiency of motors operating at loads below 40% is likely to be poor and energy savings are possible by replacing these with properly sized motors.2 gives approximate curves for estimating motor load from motor current. instead of rewinding. Hence percentage motor load is not given exactly by the ratio of motor input current to rated current. Motors are often oversized because of: 1. it may not make sense to downsize the motor. The size of the motor does not necessarily relate to the power being drawn. 6. After motor burnouts. Interchange by properly sized motors (available in the plant) whenever possible. Measure normal running current and input power. and although it would work. if the motor operates at 40% of its rated load or less. with a modest oversizing margin. In addition to providing capacity for future expansion. This is especially true in cases where the motor load does not vary much.2 gives comparison of cost of owning an oversized motor. In general. If your motor operates at 50. it is probably not a good candidate for downsizing. 13 .

the speed may drop by about 1% to 2% resulting in some additional savings in the case of centrifugal pumps and fans.70 6000 95000 70000 24000 KWH Rs. However. due to improved power factor. RS. (left hand side). Higher maximum demand due to poor power factor.85 17. line voltage divided by • 3 is impressed on each phase winding. In star connection. Higher cable losses and demand charges.44 55000 30000 0.3. There are two methods to optimise loading of a running motor. Higher installation cost. which differentiates possible Delta operating zone (right hand side) and Star operating zone. operation of motor in Star connection can save energy. the drop in energy consumption is small and in likely to be about 5% to 20% in most cases (again remember that this is 5% of the actual motor input at light loads and NOT 5% of the motor rated load). Whereas in ‘star connection’. Higher rewinding cost (in case of motor burnout) Unit KW KW % KW KWH 15 15 89 16.1 shows the efficiency.85 101100 0. power factor.75 22. motor shaft load characteristics in both Delta and Star connections. at light loads. change over to Star connection results in drastic drop in current. θ θ Connecting motors in STAR Use of Soft starter with energy saving features Principles of these methods are explained below. 'In Delta -Connection'.5/-(for 6000 hrs/annum) Motor Power Factor Input KVA Energy Difference Investment Increase in Investment Increase in Running Cost Oversized Motors lead to the following problems: • • • • • • • Higher investment cost due to larger size. 14 .50 35. the line voltage is impressed on each motor phase winding. 3 .Table 3-2: Increased Costs Due To Oversized Motor Description Motor Load Requirement Motor Rating Motor Efficiency at operating load Input Power Input Energy Input Energy Cost @ Rs.89 18. Observing the efficiency curves. Higher running cost due to increase in efficiency.85 101100 107100 0. speed and current vs. it is clear that at light loads (30% or less). Rs. as the efficiency is significantly better.1 Oper at ion Of U nder -L oaded Delt a-Connect ed Mot or s I n S t ar Connect ion Fig. Higher switchgear cost. The vertical dark band ( 40 to 50% load) is the ‘Changeover’ region. It should be noted that.93 25000 Motor Rating 15 15 30 55 89 84 16.3 .

However.Figure 3-1: Star. then the motor can be started with a suitable starter and. be automatically switched from Delta to Star. If a motor is oversized and continuously loaded below 30% of its rated shaft load. after overcoming the starting inertia. 15 . using timer control or current sensing. automatic Star-Delta changeover Switches (based on current or load sensing) can be used.Delta Operation of motor The following suggestions are made: 1. if the changeover is very frequent the contactors would get worn out and the savings achieved may get neutralised by the cost of frequent contactor replacements. 3. the motor can be permanently connected in Star. but if the load exceeds 50% some times. If the load is below 30% most of the time. If the motor is normally loaded below 30% but has a high starting torque requirement. 2.

saving is about 1. full magnetizing flux is needed for the machine to operate satisfactorily.3 . by use of a soft starter (with energy saving feature at low loads). However. At part loads however. star-delta changeover will not be economical.2 U s e Of E lect r onic S of t S t ar t er s An induction motor draws current from the supply in order to magnetize the core. and the actual energy consumed is indeed reduced for an extremely lightly loaded motor. Fig. This reduction in voltage causes the motor’s magnetizing current to reduce.2: Energy Saving Potential by Use of Soft Starter with Energy Saving Feature Take a 40 HP motor.2% of the rated full load output power. If it is loaded to about 20%. for a 5 16 . At rated load. hence the motor runs with a lower efficiency. If the motor is nearly always operating above 30% of the rated load and sometimes runs below 30% load. Figure 3. with a corresponding improvement in power factor. the losses associated with maintaining full flux will be a significant proportion of the motor demand. suitable for the following applications having: • • • • restriction On starting current frequent starts and stops undesirable jerky starting due to step change in voltage problem of sudden deceleration when supply is switched off. Soft starters are essentially stator voltage controllers.4. full flux is not required but is still maintained if the terminal voltage is held at the nominal level. 3. the savings are negative and you may actually end up consuming more power. If it is loaded to 70%.2 shows likely savings as a percentage of the motor rated power at different shaft loads for motor ratings from 5 hp to 100 hp. Therefore. for a motor operating at light load. 3 .

3 . It must be emphasised that normal motors have reasonably good efficiencies. the actual savings are highly application specific. lower density (larger core area) and thinner steel stampings. There are two efficiency catagories of efficiency viz. a soft starter can save some energy and more savings if loading is still lesser. Stator copper losses are reduced by increasing the copper cross-section of winding 2 wires.4 . running hours and the tariff. the pay back period on the differential price is likely to be up to 1 year. Eff1 & Eff2.2 E f f icien cy S t an dar ds Values of motor efficiency as given in IEEMA Standard 19-2000 is summarised below in Table 3. For purchase of motor for a new application. depending on the rating. For replacing an existing running motor. 17 . after considering some salvage value for the existing motor. the weight of copper increases.4 3 . For replacing a burn-out motor. The typical applications include machines which are operating at low loads for considerable amount of time. again more material is used.3.HP motor. Always mention efficiency values and do not just mention ‘high efficiency motor’.1 S elect ion & Applicat ion of H igh E f f icien cy Mot or s D es ign The following steps are taken to improve motor efficiency and reduce losses.4 . The material is more expensive. which otherwise would have been rewound the pay back period is likely to be about 1.5 years. It is clear that high efficiency motors use more and better material and hence are more expensive. improved bearings and improved aerodynamic design of rotor and airflow. It should be understood that high efficiency motors have better performance even at partial loads. 3 . 2. So. the pay back period is likely to be about 1-2 years. To get good high efficiency motors. hence resistance and I R losses reduce.0 to 1. Rotor copper losses are reduced by increasing the section of rotor bars and end rings. Stray losses are reduced due to increase in air gap. In high efficiency motors. In general the following rules will apply: 1. a) b) c) d) e) Core losses are reduced by using low loss steel (cold rolled). 3. Friction and windage losses are reduced by better fan design. losses are low and hence cooling requirements are also lower. better electromagnetic design of slots and windings. even at 70% loading. users are advised to specify efficiencies of new motors as per IEEMA standards .

0 134.0 315L A Not e of Caut ion • High efficiency motors have lower slip and hence these operate at slightly higher speeds.5 93.9 94.75 80 1.85 0. Energy saved = 0.0 36.4 . 2 66.--.0 78.2 3.0 164.4 2.Table 3-3: Values Of Performance Characteristic Of 4 Pole Energy Efficient Induction Motors IEEMA – 19 .8 3 .0 88. 5 per kWh.3 kW = 1800 kWh/annum 18 .5 132S 7.0 204.2 93.0 160M 18.2 90.5 95.7 87. 9000/. Hence for these applications.5 132M 11.9 94.0 315M 160.0 Effi.0 95.1 11.0 288.88) For 6000 hours/annum operation./Min.0 91.0 88. Amps..7 112M 5.0 247.4 .0 56.4 90.1 91.8 8.2000 Rating Output kW Frame Size Preferred Full Load Speed Min.2 95.0 82.0 280M 110.2 93.7 95.0 73.per annum = 0.) (0. Measures like change in pulley ratios or trimming of impellers may have to be done to maintain the flow at existing levels.0 Efficiency (equal or above) Effi.3 x 6000 At a tariff of Rs.4 15. Rev.0 280S 90.6 93. 1 73. this may lead to slightly higher flows and some increase in power. use of high efficiency motors should be done carefully to ensure that the increased power requirement does not neutralise the reduction in motor losses.0 225M 75.4 94.0 85.5 x (---.5 85. Hence in the case centrifugal pumps and fans. • 3 .4 22.0 92.37 71 0.7 95.7 94.0 84. Savings = Rs.5 95. (415 V) 1.0 234.4 92.0 315S 125.4 E s t imat ion of ener gy s aving Estimation of energy saving is illustrated by the following example.3 0.5 90L 3. 1330 1360 1380 1410 1420 1430 1440 1440 1450 1460 1470 1470 1480 1480 1480 1480 Full Load Current Max.5 kW Motor with A High Efficiency Motor ηstd = 85% ηHE = 88% (1 1 ) Power saving = 7.5 180M 30.0 315M 132.0 200L 45.5 84.3 89. Replacement of a Standard 7.

This may work for a short while but the life of a noisy bearing is limited and over-lubrication may result. Excess oil or grease tends to accumulate: Windings become coated and this film collects even more dirt. carbon dust. the belt will slip on the pulleys. undue stress is placed on the bearings of the pulley shaft. Oil and grease on the stationary switch contacts may cause them to overheat. Belts should not be soaked or brushed with solvent All bearings require maintenance to perform properly and achieve their service lives. Proper maintenance consists simply of keeping the bearing clean. They must also be properly spaced for belts to have the right tension. Stripping the motor for repair also damages the laminations 19 .5 Mot or Mai n t en an ce & R ew i n di n g Motors rarely burn out due to overload. losing efficiency and wearing excessively.2 B elt s and P ulleys Pulleys also need to be precisely aligned for optimum performance. oil or grease on either can lead to shortened belt life and inefficient transfer of power.5 .000/-. about 4 months 3 .Price of a standard 7. 3000/. Usually the abnormal conditions in the driven equipment. 1. shortening their life.e. in this case about average Rs. bearing seizure.1 P r oper L ubr icat ion Proper lubrication is essential to long operating life for motors and all mechanical equipment. arc or burn. moisture and.5 . 3 . 3 . Core losses increase due to the high temperatures experienced during failure 2. abnormal ambient conditions are the cause. If needed. belts should be cleaned with a rag dampened with a light. 3000 Payback period = -------(on additional cost) 9000 i. Lubricants harm many internal motor parts. Belts and pulleys must be kept clean. There is considerable overlapping in the use of both types in electric motors. especially in severe duty applications. Antifriction bearings have ball or roller bearings that spin between the shaft and the bearing housing. It must be done periodically and consistently—it is too late when the motor audibly communicates its needs.e. In sleeve bearings the shaft rides in a thin film of lubricant between the shaft and the bearing. if brushes are involved. Belt tension is achieved by moving the pulleys. Bearings can be classified as sleeve or anti-friction types.5 . The premium for High Efficiency Motors is about 20% to 40% i. Please investigate the cause before sending the motor for rewinding and repair. 10. failure or wrong setting/malfunction of protection devices. and even to weld themselves closed. If they are too far apart. non-volatile solvent. lubricated and loaded not in excess of its rating. Dirt.extra. 3 . If too close together.5 kW motor is approximately Rs.3 R ew i n di n g Efficiency is sometimes lost in rewinds for several reasons. Many times service personnel try to quiet a noisy motor by pumping lubricant into the bearing. Too much lubrication can be just as harmful as too little. If the manufacturer has lubricant recommendations they should be followed. Both parallel and angular misalignment will result in unnecessary friction between belt and pulley.

flat belts have an efficiency of 96% to 98%. Without heating. Copper losses increase because of the practice of using smaller conductors. 6. and they come in a rather small package. spur. expert advice should be taken in the selection of new flat belt and pulleys widths to avoid failures. 3 .6 .3. as this may lead to increase in the basic power drawn by the driven equipment. which may not be designed for the particular motor. leads to an increase in windage losses. contact the manufacturer. Care should also be taken to ensure that the speed of the driven equipment does not increase after the changeover. Spur gears appear in many older systems. power at a measured voltage) for all new motors. The losses in V-belts are higher as the belt wedges-in and wedges-out of the pulley grooves. especially for new belt driven equipment. These can be used for comparison and replacement decisions. 4. the following points may be noted. The major disadvantage with worm gears is their inconsistent efficiency. and worm gear drives. V-belt drives may have an efficiency of 85% to 90%. increasing 2 I R losses.6 3 . Keep data on no load inputs (current. Fitting of universal cooling fans. 3. Sand blasting of the core and/or grinding of laminations can also create shorts in the core. 20 .6 . Motor efficiency reduces 1% to 2% by repeated rewinding. For retrofit applications. If not available. Many users have achieved 5% to 8% savings by replacement of V-belts by flat belts. Do not allow rewinders to use open flame or heat the stators above 350°C for extracting the old. leading to higher core losses. Worm gears have the quality of largely reducing ratios. Select a good rewinder following good practices. Motor rewinding does not necessarily lead to drop in motor efficiency. Modern synthetic. but are rarely used in newer applications due to low efficiency. To avoid loss of efficiency during rewinding. This is mainly due to increase in the core losses. Synthetic flat belt technology has matured and is a preferred option. it is possible to remove windings by using special solvents. 3 . Rewind the motors as per the original winding data. 1. including motors returning after rewinding. This can damage the inter-laminar insulation of the steel core and increase the core losses.2 Gear D r i ves The several types of gear drives include: helical.1 D r ive T r an s m is s ion B el t D r i ves Direct drive is the most preferred option as it avoids transmission loss. efficiencies of loose belts may be lower. Worm gears are less expensive than helical gears for applications up to about 10-15 horsepower. bevel. There are no general rules about the likely drop in efficiency. Helical and bevel gear drives are the most widely used and are quite efficient. 2. 5. 4. burned out winding.

7 Applicat ion of Var iable s peed dr ives Loads ideal for VSD application: Variable Torque (centrifugal pumps. non intersecting 5:1 Perpendicular.e. In some instances. the load torque decreases with increasing speed. There is rarely scope for energy saving from speed reduction in constant power loads. maximum torque and slow speeds are required. torque is proportional to speed. adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees. As the diameter decreases. unwinders. and metal-cutting tools operating over wide speed ranges. they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts.5 summarises above types of loads and their behavior under variable speed conditions. volume moved). Energy savings can be achieved in some applications by replacing inefficient worms gears by helical bevel gears.Helical gears are normally selected for larger loads. The lower efficiency typical of worm gears many times necessitates a larger motor to drive a given load than a comparable helical gear setup. Loads difficult for ASD application: Constant power loads (Machine Tools) In this group. These loads. Different types of gears have different efficiencies (Table 3. and the ASD must be carefully sized to ensure adequate starting torque. conveyors. Although constanttorque loads are suitable for ASDs. as in a very low velocity mixing processes. crushers etc) Torque loads (Positive Constant-torque loads require the same torque regardless of speed. such as lathes.) Liquids and gases when moved require a pressure proportional to the square of the velocity (i. One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct. fans etc. where. the torque decreases. Type Spur Gear Bevel gear Worm gear Helical Gear Planetary Gear Table 3-4: Efficiency of Gear Drives Shaft Typical ratio orientation per stage Parallel 6:1 Perpendicular. torque increase with square of the speed and are usually associated with centrifugal fan and pump loads. Power will be proportional to square of the speed. there may be some physical constraints in retrofitting more efficient gear drives. Loads requiring careful VSD application: Constant displacement air compressors. These applications usually have the greatest opportunities for energy savings as well as improved control. Table 3. 21 . This application usually applies to processes that are changing diameters. Power is proportional to speed. winders.4). With a large diameter. non intersecting 75:1 Parallel 8:1 Parallel 4:1 Efficiency % 96 95 65-80 90 97-98 Since gear drives generally supplied by the OEM as part of the equipment. the horsepower requirement varies as the cube of the speed change. but speed increases to provide constant surface speed. in theory. 3 . operation of these loads at low rpm will be limited.

7 . This can lead to pitting of bearings ad reduction of bearing life. phase-to-phase and ground insulation of stator windings are subjected to the resulting dielectric stresses. Voltage Spikes Inverters used to supply adjustable frequency power to induction motors do not produce sinusoidal output voltage waveforms. This common mode voltage oscillates at high frequency and is capacitively coupled to the rotor. single-amplitude voltage spikes. The current path could be through either or both bearings to ground. at the time of system design. there is no conclusive information on the relationship between peak voltage from inverter operation and bearing life. 22 . Leakage Currents High frequency harmonics of inverters can cause an increase in the magnitudes of leakage currents in the motor due to reduction in the capacitive reactance of the winding insulation at higher frequencies. Alternatively. Turn-toturn. which shifts the three phase winding neutral potential significantly from the ground potential.1 S ome I s s ues F or Cons ider at ion W hen U s ing E lect r onic Ac Var iable S peed Dr ives Users of electronic AC variable speed drives should be aware of some of the issues related to reliability for motors with electronic variable speed drives. However. shaft grounding brushes may be used to divert the current around the bearing. the waveforms also have superimposed on them steep-fronted. In addition to lower order harmonics. to mitigate these undesirable effects. Interruption of this current therefore requires insulation of both bearings. Shaft Voltages and Bearing Insulation Inverters may generate common mode voltage. Established and safe grounding practices for the motor frame should therefore be followed.Table 3-5: Load Characteristics T ∝1/N kW ∝ Constant T ∝ Constant kW ∝ N T∝N kW ∝ N 2 T∝N 2 kW ∝ N 3 Winders Facing lathes Rotary cutting machines Hoisting gear Belt conveyors process machines involving forming Rolling mills planers Calenders with viscous friction Eddycurrent brakes Pumps Fans Centrifuges 3 . care may be taken. For critical and large motors. Suitable precautions should be taken in the design of drive systems to minimise the magnitude of these spikes. This results in peak pulses as high as 10-40 volts from shaft to ground.

Motor winding wires are also provided with thicker insulation for inverter duty. the motor windings can be exposed to higher than normal line-to-ground voltages due to the neutral shift effect. Neutral shift is the voltage difference between the source neutral and the motor neutral. Its magnitude is a function of the total system design and a proper method to reduce the neutral shift should be incorporated by the system designer. or select an ASD system that will specifically guard against this hazard with inductive filters or other methods.) Older motors with long cable runs may have shortened lives using PWM ASDs. Motor damage from ASDs located too far from motor. consider buying an inverter-duty motor. Carefully watch motor lead lengths. They are expensive. Pulse-width modulated (PWM) drives can cause significant damage to motors if the length of cable between the ASD and the motor exceeds 50 to 100 feet.Neutral Shift When inverters are applied to motors. (The number seems to differ by manufacturer. Now new generation of inverter drives have been developed to take care of above problems. 23 .

ducting etc. • Use of larger pipes can reduce losses. surface condition and age. a pump or a fan. pumps. Number Of Pumps In A System • For systems with large flow requirements and for critical applications.1 P umping S ys t ems Integrated systems approach in a pumping system includes the following: Optimising The Use Of Water • Optimal use of water for various applications can significantly reduce the raw water pumping energy consumption. Use Of Variable Speed Drives • Use of mechanical. This approach needs a critical review. The pipe pressure drop is proportional to the fifth power of the pipe diameter. Mismatch in pump selection is often overcome by throttling of valves. 4 . 24 .4 INTEGRATED SYSTEMS APPROACH There is always a tendency among industrial users and consultants to start with replacement of standard motors with high efficiency motors. and system components like piping. however this leads to large wastage of energy. as an initial consideration in energy conservation programs. material. operation at higher or lower than design flows can lead to drastic drop in efficiency from the design value. This doesn’t mean that motors do not deserve attention. pressures. like a compressor. Optimising Pipeline Sizes • Pipe friction losses depend on the pipe diameter. flows. refrigeration machines etc. electrical or electronic variable speed drives can help in improving the pumping system efficiency in cases that require variable flow or in cases where the pumps are oversized and the flow is controlled by throttling of valves. if a motor replacement is desired. A detailed study of end-use i. The sizing of these pumps also offers the possibility for energy saving for applications where the flow can be varied depending on process conditions or seasons. • Review of water circulation rates to optimise flow rates for process cooling can also have a significant effect on energy consumption Selection Of Pumps To Match Head / Flow Requirements • • Pumps have a good efficiency in a very narrow flow zone. as it is the end uses which consume lot of energy and it is very important to understand and analyze the system which the motor drives. temperatures etc. pumps are generally operated in parallel.e. But understanding systems and requirements helps to re-size the motor better. and equipment like air compressors. blowers. Maintenance • Wear and tear of pumps and scaling of pipes and heat exchangers can affect the energy consumption. is required to achieve large savings.

Air Leakage Reduction • Compressed air leakage can vary from 5% to 70% or higher depending on the house keeping efforts on the compressed air distribution system. In all these cases. low-pressure Roots compressors or submersible (pump type) agitators can be used. pneumatically operated controls are being replaced by electronic and electrical controls.0 lakhs per annum (@ Rs. • An approximate thumb rule is that 10% reduction in compressor discharge pressure reduces energy consumption by about 5%. screw conveyors etc. Cost of compressed air is sometimes as high as 10 times energy cost compared to other electro-mechanical alternatives. portable electrical tools can replace pneumatic portable tools. The useful energy content in compressed air which is available at the end use is only about 10 to 20% even in a well designed system. Electric Motor • The motor may be selected close to the rated power requirement of the end use equipment. Apply high efficiency motor carefully to avoid excess flow due to high full load speed of high efficiency motor. • At the present energy cost. high efficiency motors may be preferred. For agitation or aeration of liquids. • In cases where higher pressures are set to overcome the problem of pressure fluctuations. the savings due to leakage reduction are additional. This can help identify opportunities for optimising flow.50 per kWh). • For applications like cleaning & conveying. 25 . can be used. valve stems. 4. buried underground lines etc. blowers can be used.• Proper maintenance of pumps and proper water treatment is necessary to maintain reasonable efficiencies Monitoring & Control • Proper instrumentation is necessary to monitor the performance of pumps and associated systems. material conveying. scouring. Pressure Reduction • A thorough study of the end-use pressure requirements and the compressor discharge pressure should be done. thus reducing the requirement for instrumentation air. bucket elevators. More efficient. agitation and aeration of liquids etc. Air leakage generally take place from threaded pipe joints. Even a small leakage of 50 cfm is equivalent to a loss of Rs. For new purchases. all plants should attempt to operate at leakage levels below 5%. • In many plants. For material conveying. 4 . the potential for energy saving is about 80% to 90%. are not justified at the present energy prices. hose connections. pressure and energy consumption. Reducing Compressed Air Use • Many uses of compressed air like cleaning. increase in receiver capacity and use of newly developed pressure & flow controllers can help reduce pressure settings. An opportunity to reduce the discharge pressure should not be missed as it can give significant energy savings due reduced compression power as well as reduced air leakage.2 Compr es s ed Air Compressed air is an expensive utility. use of efficient alternatives like belts.3. The Integrated Systems Approach in Compressed Air System has the following steps.

• Pipe sizing should be done to minimise pressure drops. However.Distribution System • Decentralised installation of compressors can lead to smaller distribution systems and hence reduced pressure and leakage losses. Drive Transmission • Directly coupled drives have no transmission losses. Selection of Compressors & Capacity Control • Compressors should be selected with a good understanding of the air utilisation pattern. The performance of reciprocating compressors can deteriorate significantly due to poor maintenance. a decentralised system may be preferred. brine and air-conditioning should be minimised. the use of chilled water. quantum of air required and the air demand variations. • A decentralised system facilitates switching off compressors when air is not required in a particular area. 26 . • For process cooling applications. • Air-conditioning should be restricted to small spaces. Electric Motor • The motor should be selected close to the rated power requirement of the end-use equipment. as guided by process requirements. high efficiency motors may be preferred. • All compressors have the facility for capacity control. Reciprocating. many foreign machinery suppliers specify chilled water at 10°C to 15°C as these are the normal cooling tower water temperatures in cold countries for most time of the year. • Isolation valves should be provided at convenient. with interconnections with isolation valves for emergencies. Screw or Centrifugal or Roots compressors can be used depending on the pressure. 4 . whether a system should be decentralised or centralised depends on the air utilisation patterns for various end uses in the plant. synthetic flat belts should be explored. The attempt should be to ensure that the operating compressors run close to their rated load. in the case of belt driven equipment. as these are very expensive utilities. Maintenance • Routine maintenance checks on compressors and the distribution system is necessary to ensure efficient compressed air generation and utilisation. Comfort air-conditioning should be provided only if necessary in small areas. accessible locations to shut off air when not required in certain areas for known time periods. the possibility of use of more efficient. prolonged operation at part loads results in higher energy consumption. part load efficiencies depend on the type of compressor and the method of capacity control.3 R efr iger at ion & Air -Condit ioning An integrated systems approach to Refrigeration and Air conditioning emphasizes on the following issues. • The possibility of replacing chilled water with cooling water with higher flows can be considered. say less than 0. For new purchases. Reducing the Need for Refrigeration • At the present energy prices. If uses are highly variable and the equipments (with significant air consumption) are spread out over a large area. • Automatic controls are available to detect and switch off compressors operating in unloaded condition for prolonged period. • Compressors consume 10% to 50% of their rated power (depending on the type of compressor and capacity control method) even at no load.3 bars from the receiver at the compressor end. However.

for air-conditioning systems. This technology has found good acceptance in locations having waste heat or access to cheaper alternative fuels. 27 . • The quality of circulating chilled and cooling water should be maintained within tolerable limits to prevent scaling and ensure efficient heat transfer. Hence the opportunity to operate at higher chilled water/brine temperatures should not be missed. bends etc. By operation of compressors in off-peak hours (when energy price is low). Proper water treatment is necessary for maintaining the efficiency of a refrigeration plant. Drive Transmission • Directly coupled drives have no transmission losses. This can be ideally addressed at the time of purchase of new equipment. By use of these new technologies. • In addition. use of occupancy sensors can save significant amount of energy. • In addition to the advantage of lower energy cost. fast closing doors. can reduce the electricity requirement by 80 to 90%. which uses a heat source to achieve cooling. • For air-conditioned spaces and cold stores. New Developments for Relative Humidity Control • Use of special air-to-air heat exchangers can eliminate the need for duct heaters and desiccant dehumidifiers for relative humidity control. some special salts etc. after careful trials to assess its impact on process productivity and quality. air curtains and low emissivity films (sun control) for glass windows should be incorporated. Better Heat Exchanger Design and Maintenance • Use of larger and better heat exchangers (evaporators & condensers) can help in increasing the refrigerant temperature in the evaporator and decreasing the temperature in the condenser for the same end use temperatures and cooling loads. instead of 24ºC. appropriate methods like double doors. this aspect is usually neglected in India. • For comfort air-conditioning. flanges. Reduce Heat Ingress • Vessels.) handling refrigerant. However. Inter-fuel Substitution: Use of Absorption Chillers • Vapour Absorption System. operation at 26º or 27ºC air temperature. some plants have achieved 30 to 50% energy savings. The potential for savings can be 10% to 30%. provided better air movement is provided with fans. The economics depends on the cost of heat energy. the possibility of use of more efficient flat belts should be explored. chilled water or brine should be well insulated. Energy Storage • Some electricity boards have adopted Time of Use energy pricing. Better Monitoring & Control Techniques • Good control of the compressor based on accurate sensing of end use temperatures can result in significant savings in systems prone to super-cooling. • Building insulation is strongly recommended for air-conditioned buildings.Increase Temperature Settings • Operation at 1ºC higher temperature can save about 3% energy. Cooling Effect can be stored in ice banks. this method can also help reduce the peak kW and kVA demand of the plant. pipelines and pipe fittings (like valves. in the case of belt driven equipment. is possible. resulting in lower Maximum Demand charges. which implies higher energy prices during certain hours.

28 . high efficiency motors should be may be preferred.Electric Motor • The motor should be selected close the rated power requirement of the end use equipment. For new purchases.

is common. Redundant running implies that an equipment is working without any effect on the production quantity or quality.1 S t oppi n g I dl e/ R edu n dan t r u n n i n g of m ot or dr i ven equ i pm en t s In all industrial plants. In a woven sacks manufacturing plant. Number of humidification plants can be switched off in such cases. Stopping idle or redundant running of motor driven equipments Matching motor with the driven load Improving transmission efficiency Use of High efficiency motors Improvement in motor driven systems. • Similarly change in raw material.5 CASE STUDIES The main energy saving opportunities can be summarised as follows: 1. • Large factors of safety are taken in design of machines and processes. prolonged idling of machine tools. The heat load many times turns out to be low permanently. 4. The power saving was 6 kW. It was found that drive idles for about 2 to 3 hours every day. 1. about Rs. Unless these are operating from safety considerations. 5. The annualised savings are about 36. 5 . during prolonged stoppage of production machines. 2. 29 . 3. Machines and plants many times operate permanently at throughput different from their design capacity. Examples: 1. stopping of such motors can save 100% of the power consumed by these motors. • In many engineering industries. exhaust fan etc. 20 kW motors were used for cooling this main drive.000 kWh/annum i. air compressors. stoppage of these motors can lead to large savings. A timer was installed to switch off this blower 30 minutes after starting. lights continue to remain on during recess hours or at times when nobody is working or no production machine is on. a blower was used to suck away the broken tapes during the process. • Heat exchangers are always designed for worst case ambient conditions and maximum throughput conditions. • In many production shops. Continuing with design flows will lead to wastage of energy and water. It was observed that the breakage of tapes at the point took place only while starting the machine.6 lakhs/annum. These conditions rarely occur in practice. conveyors.g. For a rolling mill.e. humidification plants are designed considering full heat load of machines and worst summer conditions. The cooling fan motors were switched off for this period. also affect the requirements of process. • Similarly. operation of cooling tower fans or air-conditioning systems when ambient conditions are favorable. drive of 1100 kW. product mix and ambient conditions. pumps etc. • Cooling water temperatures also may be quite low. e. careful study will reveal that some motors are running idle. 2. • Care may be taken to stop idle running of auxiliaries like cooling towers.

5. The electrical measurements in ‘delta connection’ were as follows : Voltage : Current : Power Factor : Power Input : Speed : 415 V 18. which creates a continual but partial load. 10 HP rated agitator motors in process vessels were switched off when careful analysis revealed that agitators were not required during a few hours per batch when turbulence due to boiling is good enough. No soft start was in operation initially and associated maintenance issues were therefore apparent.72 KW 1469 rpm Considering the fact that the load was less than 30%.96KW 1454 rpm It may be noted that the current has dropped but the power factor has improved in 'star connections'.0 kW was put on automatic thermostatic control.2 U s e Of E lect r onic S of t S t ar t er s I nt elligent Mot or Cont r ol f or Conveyor s The Company process commercially dredged seaweed to produce agricultural fertilizer for grazing land. The conveyors are hopper fed. Many conveyors run with varying loads or continual partial loads. Their prime consumption of electricity within the facility is through the use of conveyors. The AC Induction Motor driving the conveyor must be sized to handle a full load on the conveyor. Savings = 6. consuming 5.1 Mat ching mot or w it h t he dr iven load Oper at ion in S T AR connect ion f or under loaded mot or s Cas e S t u dy f r om an E di bl e Oi l m an u f act u r i n g pl an t : In this edible oil (Vanaspati) manufacturing company.5 A 0. 4. A 25 hp/18.5 HP Cooling tower fan.873 5.3. which transport the calcified seaweed from the quay into the main building.5 KW motor was driving a cooling water circulation pump. 5 .5 A 0. it was decided to operate the motor in star connection.72 .e. A trial with a softstarter with energy saving features at low loads was undertaken on two conveyors within the seaweed facility.2 . 30 .96 = 0.76 KW i.505 6. to avoid fan operation during favourable ambient conditions. Voltage : Current : Power Factor : Power Input : Speed : 415 V 9. 11.2 . A 7.3% 5 . where it is dried and bagged for distribution.2 5 .

Voltage: 415V.6 A and the no load power was 0. Cas e S t u dy-2 : U s e of H i gh E f f i ci en cy Mot or s i n a T ex t i l e P l an t The Ring Frame motor rating was 40 kW.5 A. which is very high. it was identified that kW savings obtained were 38%.5% Energy consumed. This motor was replaced by a new High Efficiency Motor. the minimum saving for about 6000 hours operation is 8766 kWh/annum i. Current: 28A.00 38% £178.1A.When the results were measured using a high quality 3-phase analyser. kWh 9564 Pay back period on extra cost of EE motor. kWh /doff 96. The saving in no load power itself was 1. Ignoring the reduction in copper losses. kW 40 40 Efficiency 92% 94. Refer Table 5. Speed: 1450 rpm. Efficiency: 90. Rating: 15 kW/20hp. which equated to a return on investment of just over 18 months. The pay back period was one year. T his motor had been rewound a few times. Voltage: 415V.000/. 5 months months 31 .e.873 kW. U s e of H i gh ef f i ci en cy Mot or s Cas e S t udy: R eplacement of I nef f icient Mot or by H igh E f f iciency Mot or at Dr y Cell Manuf act ur ing P lant A 15 kW motor was being us ed to drive an air-conditioning compres s or. A standard efficiency motor was compared with an energy efficient motor. Since this was higher than the rated current. 35. Rating: 15 kW/20hp. 2. 35.080 Annual electricity saving. The saving in no load power was 0. kWh/kg yarn 2.54 Weight of yarn per doff 44 44.00 18 months 5 .187 2.22 92.334 kW. The no load current (after removing the belts) was observed to be 24 A (85% of the full load current) and the no load power loss was 2.00 £275.3 1. Speed: 1445 rpm New Motor: Make: Bharat Bijlee.000/-.461 kW.8%. The operating efficiency of the motor was estimated to be about 76%.873 kW. Annual Consumption % Savings Annual Savings Cost of soft starter Pay back period £475. Existing Motor: Make: Bharat Bijlee.1 Table 5-1:Comparison of standard motor and energy efficient motor for textile ring frame application Description Standard motor EE Motor Motor rating.5 Specific energy consumption. Power Factor: 0. Current: 26.per annum.88 The measured no load current was 6. The investment in the new motor was Rs. The normal load current was 32. Rs.

5 400 0.3.34 per kWh. Cas e S t udy-3 : R eplacement of I nef f icient . giving a payback period for the combined project of 1.88% 32 .3 summarises the results. Slip Ring.s V Belts Power consumed with 1 no. smaller motor has been selected. flat belt Power Savings with flat Belt % Power Saving with flat belt 358 mm (Dia. The replacement was done on air compressors and refrigeration compressor drive systems. Also some additional savings have been accrued due to the marginally lower speed with the new motor. Comparison of the performance of the new high efficiency motors with equivalent standard motors showed that efficiency was improved and running costs significantly reduced.0 5 hp high efficiency motor 5. 7.6 5.5 hp motor was used.4 Cas e S t u dy-4 : H i gh ef f i ci en cy m ot or s on f an s an d pu m ps : Delta Extrusion in the United Kingdom replaced five motors with high efficiency motors. 100 KW/135 HP. Type of Machine : Reciprocating Air Compressors 500 cfm capacity Connected Motor Specs. a 7. 5 . Rs 11406/. modern synthetic flat belts are installed in an engineering Co. The greatest savings were yielded by motors running continuously at high loads for long periods. Three motors ran continuously and the remaining two ran on a five-day.0 400 0. Total energy savings amounted to £408 per year (1992). manufacturing Office equipments. SPDP. as an appropriately sized.89 50 1450 1462 746 7.5 hp standard motor 7.) x 238 mm (width) 90 KW 82 KW 8 KW 8. I m pr ove D r i ve T r an s m i s s i on ef f i ci en cy Cas e S t u dy-1 : F l at B el t i n P l ace of V B el t i n i n du s t r y: Ai r com pr es s or i n an en gi n eer i n g In Place of ‘V’ belt drives.84 50 1430 1469 755 8.4 1. It was loaded to 44% and hence replaced by a 5 hp energy efficient motor (refer table 2.64 years.850/. 10.e.3 Savings by Replacement of Existing Standard Motor by Appropriately Sized High Efficiency Motor Particulars Motor rating (hp) Input voltage (V) Power factor Frequency (Hz) Full load speed (rpm) Measured speed (rpm) Blower speed (rpm) Measured current (Amp) Energy consumed (kWh /hour) 4.per annum @ Rs 4.10). Over s iz ed Mot or w it h H igh E f f iciency Mot or in a H ot el For a coffee shop in a hotel.18 4. The investment was Rs. The annual savings for 4380 hours/annum operation was 2628 kWh i. Table 5. Deltra Extrusion achieved annual energy savings of 14 400 kWh. Table 5. three-shift operational pattern.and the payback period was one year.1500 rpm Motor Pulley Dimensions Power consumed with 6 no. It may be noted that the saving are very attractive in this case .

In some cases the pumps were throttled.5 K W (10 HP) 3.90 0.4 below. Cas e S t u dy-2 : F l at B el t i n P l ace of V B el t i n R ef r i ger at i on Com pr es s or Power cons umed with 4 nos .1 19. considering the fact that pumps are located very close to the end use points. manufactur ing paints .6 14.3% 30. power consumption data.9% 39.23 Pressure After valve 2 kg/cm 1.9% Sustem effic’y.75 K W 5 .28 1.4 18.1% 39. kW 19. % 34.01 1.19 1.5 5 .5% 33.9% 39.5 .1 I m pr ovem en t i n m ot or dr i ven s ys t em s P r oper S iz ing Of P umps Group Replacement of Pumps for Spray Phosphating Plant In an engineering plant.63 2.75% Cas e S t u dy-3 : H i gh E f f i ci en cy Gear i n P l ace of L ow E f f i ci en cy Gear : F or a R eact or w i t h W or m Gear I n a chemical indus tr y.06 1.9% 33 . 37 K W 34. It may be noted that the pump efficiency figures are in the range of 34% to 59%.01 Actual flow.8% 41.75 K W = 5 HP = 3 KW = 0. The system efficiencies are in the range of 34% to 39%.4: Group replacement of pumps Discharge pressure. % 34.2 Table 5.3% 29.1% 29. 2 kg/cm 1. Pump no. estimated flow. Lps 62 55 50 50 48 52 42 52 41 45 Pump effic’y.3% 36.6% 51. which is very poor.99 1.99 1.3% 32. manufacturing steel office equipment. the system efficiency has been calculated to get a feel of the useful system power requirement. The actual operating pressures. All the existing pumps were rated for 25m head and 40 lps flow.6 16.14 0.19 0.06 1.6% 58.01 1.Payback period of 1 year 2.1 14.1% 51.5 K W 25 K W 6. the pumps of the Spray Phosphating Plant were studied. Motor Rating Actual Motor I nput With High Efficiency Gear Motor Rating Actual Motor I nput S aving with high efficiency gear = = 7.28 1. estimated efficiencies of the pump and the system are shown in table 5.1% 36. which is also very poor.1% 39. of V belt dr iven motor Power Cons umed with 1 flat belt Power S aving with flat belt % Power S aving 3.8% 77. Hot water rinse-1 Knock off degrease-3 Degrease-2 Degrease-4 Phosphating pump-1 Phosphating pump-2 Passivation pump Water rinse-1 Water rinse-2 Water rinse-3 Power input.4% 65. ex is ting wor m gear in a r eactor is r eplaced with high efficiency helical bevel gear s .37 2.90 0.19 1.93 1.3 14.5% 33.8 19.2 18.19 1.0 16.

the return water line of the cooling was throttled to control the flow. while retaining the existing motors.0 132.2 6.6 14.6 13. 415 V. A cooling tower with a 125 HP pump was used for process colling applications.16. Also.8 7. After installation of an inverter to control the motor speed. The investment in the inverter was Rs.2 18.2 5.5 kW With inverter at frequency of 44 Hz. 170A.6 After the energy audit.66 lakhs per annum.7 78. 34 .6 kW.5.7 5.5 .2 15.8 14.1 16. Rs.9 19. There were many applications requiring flow.7 7.9 Saving kW 9.4 12. valve fully Open Power (With inverter) = 40. The total energy saving measured was about 54.3 7. giving a payback period of 13 months.2 lakhs/annum. Motor Rating : 125 hp.5 6. in the existing system. Total investment for the pumps were Rs 2.5: Specification and power consumption of new pumps Pump no. Recommended New pump Flow Power input to new pump kW Hot water rinse-1 Knock off degrease-3 Degrease-2 Degrease-4 Passivation pump Water rinse-1 Water rinse-2 Water rinse-3 TOTAL Head mWC 14 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 lps 60 60 60 60 60 40 40 40 6. it was recommended that the existing pumps be replaced. Payback period of 3 months.9 10.9 6.5 kW The annual savings are about 1. Throttled Condition : Valve only 20% open Power (with throttling) : 53. and in the existing system. this valve was fully opened. 4.4 7. Annual energy cost saving was Rs 8.Table 5.e.7 12.2 6. thus eliminating the throttling losses. used for manufacturing paints. 5 . flow variation was through cloing/opening valves at the end use points.0 lakhs.3 54.0 kW Savings = 13.3 Power input to existing pump kW 16.000 kWh i.2 U s e of Var iable F r equency Dr ive F or Cooling T ow er P ump in a Chemical plant This is a case study from a chemical plant manufacturing resins.1 18. 5 lakhs. The new recommended pump specifications and the power consumption figures are given in Table 5. 2975 rpm.

0 to 1. agitators/stirrers/grinders etc. Use of synthetic flat belts in place of V belt drives. cooling tower fans. Try to ensure that motors are not loaded below 50% of their rated load for long periods. If the motor load is less than 30% for long periods. While specifying motors for new equipments. the motor efficiency drops significantly. soft starters will save energy. The payback period on differential cost is about 1. motor efficiency is almost the same and is close to the rated efficiency. This standard is being reviewed by Bureau of Indian Standards to incorporate higher values for efficiency. In the 50% to 100% load range. Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Soft starters to reduce motor starting current. θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ 35 . The Bureau of Indian Standards has published a standard for High Efficiency motors. IS:126151990. exhaust/ventilation fans. which prescribes much higher values for efficiency compared to IS 12615-1990. Use helical bevel gears in place of worm gears wherever possible. always specify efficiency values from new BIS standards or IEEMA standards. Below 50% load.5 years. payback period is 1 to 2 years. For replacing a burnt out motor with a high efficiency motor. IEEMA 19:2000 is another standard. While purchasing new motors. use only realistic safety margins. Explore possibility of connecting motors. which are loaded to about 30% in STAR connection permanently or by using STAR-DELTA auto-controllers. air compressors.R E CAP θ Stopping idle or redundant running of motor driven loads like conveyors.

Motor Application and Maintenance Handbook..W.R. ABB publications/documents-from ABB website 36 . A Complete guide to Energy Efficient motors.Devki Energy Consultancy Pvt. USA. McGraw Hill Book Co. 5. Energy Efficient Electric Motors Selection Handbook. Ltd.International Copper Promotion Council (India) Energy Saving in Utility Systems..REFERENCES 1. Department of Energy. 4.K. Vadodara Good Practice Guide No. Smeaton. Department or Energy U. 3. 6. 2.2' Energy Efficiency Office.