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OPERATION RESEARCH

The term Operations Research (OR) describes the discipline that is focused on the application of information technology for informed decision-making. In other words, OR represents the study of optimal resource allocation. The goal of OR is to provide ratio nal bases for decision making by seeking to understand and structure complex situations, and to utilize this understanding to predict system behavior and improve system performance.

OPERATIONS TECNIQUES IN OPERATION RESEARCH

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Linear Programming. Linear Programming (LP) is a mathematical

technique of assigning a fixed amount of resources to satisfy a number of demands in such a way that some objective is optimized and other defined conditions are also satisfied.

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Transportation Problem. The transportation problem is a special

type of linear programming problem, where the objective is to minimize the cost of distributing a product from a number of sources to a number of destinations.

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Assignment Problem. Succinctly, when the problem involves the

**allocation of n different facilities to n different tasks, it is often termed as an assignment problem.
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Queuing Theory. The queuing problem is identified by the

presence of a group of customers who arrive randomly to receive some service. This theory helps in calculating the expected number of people in the queue, expected waiting time in the queue, expected idle time for the server, etc. Thus, this theory can be applied in such situations where decisions have to be taken to minimize the extent and duration of the queue with minimum investment cost.

Denting in 1947.e. storage. Its earlier application was solely related to the activities of the second¶ World War. It help managers to decide reordering time. APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES IN INDIAN ECONOMY . assuming that each of the players wants to maximize his profits and minimize his losses. reordering level and optimal ordering quantity. players). In the game theory. y Inventory Control Models. However soon its importance was recognized and it came to occupy a prominent place in the industry and trade. we consider two or more persons with different objectives. DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING Linear Programming is that branch of mathematical programming which is designed to solve optimization problems where all the constraints as will as the objectives are expressed as Linear function . handling of inventories so as to ensure the availability of inventory whenever needed and minimize wastage and losses. each of whose actions influence the outcomes of the game. It is used for decision making under conflicting situations where there are one or more opponents (i.OPERATION RESEARCH y Game Theory. The game theory provides solutions to such games.It was developed by George B.. It is concerned with the acquisition.

All these findings form the basis of operations research. are very precious and scarce. Nonprogrammed decisions consist of capacity expansion. renovation and modernization etc. such as: business forecasting. Some of these wellknown operations research techniques have been successfully applied in Indian situations. The traditional and conventional methods can no longer be applied in the changed circumstances for solving this problem and are hence fast losing their importance in the current economy. a number of new and better methods . product line diversification. Linear Programming. transportation and maintenance etc. On the other hand. The policy planner is. integer programming and dynamic programming etc. the various factors of productions such as skilled labour.Goal programming. The main applications of the Linear Programming techniques. In These modern times. the programmed decisions consist of budgeting. H ence.OPERATION RESEARCH In a third world developing country like India. procurement. expansion. therefore faced with the problem of scarce resource allocation to meet the various competing demands and numerous conflicting objectives. inventory models deterministic and probabilistic. in Indian context . capital and raw material etc.techniques and tools have been developed by the economists all over the globe. plant location. replacement. the planners in our country are continuously and constantly in search of highly objective and result oriented techniques for sound and proper decision making which can be effective at all levels of economic planning.

Indian Railways. Our national airlines are also using Linear Programming in the selection of routes and allocation of air-crafts to various chosen routes. has successfully applied the methodology of Linear Programming in various key areas. Aviation Industry. Railways. 4. Commercial Institutions. It has been tried on a limited scale for the crop rotation mix of cash crops. This has been made possible by the application of computer system located at the headquarters. ' 5. state and district levels and urban systems. Process Industries. 6. the Linear Programming approach and econometric models are being used in various diverse areas such as : food grain storage planning. Agriculture Sector. The commercial institutions as well as the individual traders are also using Linear Programming techniques for cost reduction and profit maximization. 3. Various process industries such as paint industry makes . the location of Rajendra Bridge over the Ganges linking South Bihar and North Bihar in Mokama in preference to other sites has been achieved only by the help of Linear Programming. For example. multi-level planning at the national.OPERATION RESEARCH are as follows: 1. The oil refineries are using this technique for making effective and optimal blending or mixing decisions and for the improvement of finished products. Linear Programming approach is being extensively used in agriculture also. Plan Formulation. Linear Programming has proved to be a very useful tool in solving such problems. In the formulation of the country's five year plans. the largest employer in public sector undertakings. 2. transportation. food crops and to/ascertain the optimal fertilizer mix.

The major steel plants are using Linear Programming techniques for determining the optimal combination of the final products such as : billets. This mathematical technique is being extensively used by highly reputed corporations such as TELCO for deciding what castings and forging to be manufactured in own plants and what should be purchased from outside suppliers. Linear Programming approach is also used for capital budgeting decisions such as the selection of one project from a number of different projects. with the help of Linear Programming techniques. . Steel Industry. Corporate Houses. ' 7. Big corporate houses such as Hindustan Lever employ these techniques for the distribution of consumer goods throughout the country. izes the total risk under different situations. 8.OPERATION RESEARCH decisions pertaining to the selection of the product mix and locations of warehouse for distribution etc. bars. rounds. plates and sheets.

which can be derived through VAM method. In applying the transportation method. In lcm method reduction of total cost is definitely the primary criteria but it is not dealt in a optimum way.but is not yet the lowest possible shipping Schedule. It is used to compute transportation route in such away so as to minimize cost but not in an optimum way. which can lead to minimization of transportation cost or maximization of profit.OPERATION RESEARCH TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM A transportation problem is concerned with transportation methods or selectingroutes in a product distribution network among the manufacturing plants anddistribution warehouses situated in different regions or local outlets. management is searching for a distributionroute. APPLICATIONS OF VAM . The problem involved belongs to a family of specially structured LPP called network flow problems The two commonly used methods to make initial assignments (1) Northwest corner rule (2) Vogel¶s Approximation Method (VAM) APPLICATION:- Lcm or matrix minima method is certainly an Improvement over then wry (north-west corner Rule) .

e. APPLICATIONS Match jobs to machines. In the optimal solution there should be only one assignment in each row and columns of the given assignment table. one can observe various situations where assignment problem can exist e.e. .g. assignment of workers to jobs like assigning clerks to different counters in a bank or salesman to different areas for sales. it should be a one-to-one assignment The cost data is given as a matrix where rows correspond to jobs and columns to machines and there are as many rows as the number of columns i. different contracts to bidders.OPERATION RESEARCH It is used to compute transportation routes in such a way as to minimize transportation cost for finding out locations of warehouses. It is used to find out locations of transportation corporations depots where insignificant total cost difference may not matter. The objective is to minimize the total cost of doing all the jobs on different machines The peculiarity of the assignment problem is only one job can be assigned to one machine i.. ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM The assignment problem can be stated as a problem where different jobs are to be assigned to different machines on the basis of the cost of doing these jobs.. the number of jobs and number of Machines should be equal This can be compared to demand equals supply condition in a balanced transportation problem.

Approximate string matching.OPERATION RESEARCH Match personnel to tasks. Match PU students to writing seminars. Virtual output queueing. Vehicle routing. Multiple object tracking. Signal processing. Enhance accuracy of solving linear systems of equations .

probability and statistics. thus allowing predictions about the possible outcomes within a certain number of moves with a probabilistic accuracy. While seemingly trivial in name. and plain algebra. . and political and military sciences. such a set can also be constructed for the opponent. where game theory can be used to predict more important trends. Though the title of originator is given to mathematician John von Neumann. This results from the fact that games are dictated by a given set of rules that can be used t o outline a set of possible moves which can be ranked by desirability and effectiveness. sociology. In the 1930s. it's a study of ways to win in a situation given the conditions of the situation.OPERATION RESEARCH GAME THEORY Game theory is the mathematical analysis of a conflict of interest to find optimal choices that will lead to a desired outcome under given conditions. This was used by strategists during the second World War. and since then has earned game theory a place in the context of Social Science. Neumann published a set of papers that outlined the tenets of game theory and thus made way for the first simulations which considered mathematical probabilities. To put it simply. it is actually becoming a field of major interest in fields like economics. but game theory is in actuality a complex part of many branches of mathematics including set theory. and with information available. It may at first seem arcane to involve mathematics in something that seems purely based on skill and chance. the first to explore this matter was a French mathematician named Borel.

OPERATION RESEARCH .

" Usually. and have developed an entire branch dedicated to group decision making. and other such market factors can be used to describe strategies to maximize the outcome and thus the profit. such as seasonal preferences. but those factors only require readjustments to the strategy over time. buyer choice. such games are not zero-sum games.OPERATION RESEARCH APPLICATIONS OF GAME THEORY Though at first glance the idea of game theory sounds trivial. It can also be used to investigate matters such as monetary distributions and their effects on other outcomes. for loses to one side are not won by the other. and they have been criticized as potentially dangerous oversimplification of necessarily factors. Each factor in the market. . Von Neumann and Morgenstern originally applied their models of games to economic analysis. Military strategists have turned to game theory to play "war games. Economic situations are also more complicated than zero-sum games. applications of game theory are extensive. However. Sociologists have taken an interest in game theory. Immunization procedures and vaccine or other medication tests are analyzed by epidemiologists using game theory. changes in supply and material costs. game theory can be also used to simply study economics of the past and interactions of different factors in a matter.

OPERATION RESEARCH .

This means that if traffic intensity levels exceed available capacity. customer¶s calls are here no longer lost. It is applicable in transport and telecommunication and is occasionally linked to ride theory. the call is refused and lost.OPERATION RESEARCH QUEUEING THEORY Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). and being served by the server at the front of the queue. The performance of loss systems is quantified by their Grade of Service (GoS). APPLICATION OF QUEUEING THEORY TO TELEPHONY The Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) are designed to accommodate the offered traffic intensity with only a small loss.even these systems have a finite or maximum traffic carrying capacity. There are several related processes. the use of queueing in PSTNs allows the systems to queue their customer's requests until free resources become available. This method is used in queueing customers for the next available operator. . driven by the assumption that if insufficient capacity is available. the order in which they are served. waiting in the queue (essentially a storage process). Here are details of three queueing disciplines: First in First Out (FIFO) . and the way in which resources are divided between the customers. However. A queueing discipline determines the manner in which the exchange handles calls from customers.customers are serviced according to their order of arrival Last in First Out (LIFO) . Alternatively.the last customer to arrive on the queue is the one who is actually serviced first. It defines the way they will be served. overflow systems make use of alternative routes to divert calls via different paths -. arriving at the back of the queue. they instead wait until they can be served.

e. .customers are serviced equally.OPERATION RESEARCH Processor Sharing (PS) . they experience the same amout of delay. i.

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