Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System SA-300-S10

Student Guide

Sun Microsystems, Inc. UBRM05-104 500 Eldorado Blvd. Broomfield, CO 80021 U.S.A. Revision A.1

March 9, 2005 2:48 pm

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Table of Contents
About This Course ............................................................Preface-xvii Course Goals....................................................................... Preface-xvii Course Map........................................................................ Preface-xviii Topics Not Covered............................................................. Preface-xix How Prepared Are You?...................................................... Preface-xx Introductions ........................................................................ Preface-xxi How to Use Course Materials ...........................................Preface-xxii Conventions ........................................................................Preface-xxiii Icons ............................................................................Preface-xxiii Typographical Conventions ................................... Preface-xxiv Additional Conventions........................................... Preface-xxv Introducing the TCP/IP Model .........................................................1-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 1-1 Introducing Network Model Fundamentals.................................. 1-2 Network Protocols .................................................................... 1-2 Network Model Concepts........................................................ 1-3 Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model................................ 1-4 Network Interface Layer ......................................................... 1-5 Internet Layer ............................................................................ 1-6 Transport Layer......................................................................... 1-7 Application Layer ..................................................................... 1-8 Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication, Encapsulation, and Decapsulation ............................................. 1-10 Peer-to-Peer Communication ................................................ 1-10 Encapsulation and Decapsulation ........................................ 1-11 TCP/IP Protocols ............................................................................. 1-12 Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model ....................................... 1-16 Preparation............................................................................... 1-16 Tasks ......................................................................................... 1-16 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 1-18 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 1-19

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Introducing LANs and Their Components..................................... 2-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 2-1 Introducing Network Topologies .................................................... 2-2 Bus Topologies .......................................................................... 2-2 Star Topologies ......................................................................... 2-3 Ring Topologies......................................................................... 2-4 VLAN Topologies .................................................................... 2-5 Introducing LAN Media ................................................................... 2-8 IEEE Identifiers.......................................................................... 2-8 IEEE 802.3 Types ....................................................................... 2-9 Introducing Network Devices........................................................ 2-12 Repeaters .................................................................................. 2-12 Hubs.......................................................................................... 2-12 Bridges ...................................................................................... 2-12 Switches.................................................................................... 2-12 Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components ................... 2-14 Preparation............................................................................... 2-14 Tasks ......................................................................................... 2-14 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 2-16 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 2-17 Describing Ethernet Interfaces....................................................... 3-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 3-1 Introducing Ethernet Concepts........................................................ 3-2 Major Ethernet Elements.......................................................... 3-2 CSMA/CD Access Method ..................................................... 3-2 Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Mode...................................... 3-4 Ethernet Statistics...................................................................... 3-4 Introducing Ethernet Frames ........................................................... 3-6 Ethernet Addresses................................................................... 3-6 Setting a Local Ethernet Address........................................... 3-8 Ethernet-II Frame Analysis................................................... 3-10 Maximum Transmission Units............................................. 3-12 Ethernet Frame Errors ............................................................ 3-13 Using Network Utilities .................................................................. 3-14 Using the snoop Utility .......................................................... 3-14 Using the netstat Command ............................................. 3-17 Using the ndd Command ....................................................... 3-18 Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces....................................... 3-21 Preparation............................................................................... 3-21 Tasks ......................................................................................... 3-21 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 3-25 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 3-26

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Describing ARP and RARP..............................................................4-1 Objectives ........................................................................................... 4-1 Introducing ARP ................................................................................ 4-2 Purpose of ARP ......................................................................... 4-2 Operation of ARP...................................................................... 4-3 Introducing RARP.............................................................................. 4-9 Purpose of RARP....................................................................... 4-9 Operation of RARP ................................................................... 4-9 Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs......................................... 4-12 Preparation............................................................................... 4-12 Tasks ........................................................................................ 4-13 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 4-15 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 4-16 Configuring IP...................................................................................5-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 5-1 Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols ....................................... 5-3 Purpose of IP.............................................................................. 5-3 Purpose of ICMP ....................................................................... 5-4 Introducing the IP Datagram ........................................................... 5-6 IP Datagram Header Fields ..................................................... 5-6 IP Datagram Payload................................................................ 5-8 Introducing IP Address Types ......................................................... 5-9 Unicast Addresses..................................................................... 5-9 Broadcast Addresses............................................................... 5-11 Multicast Addresses ............................................................... 5-11 Introducing Subnetting and VLSM ............................................... 5-12 Subnetting ................................................................................ 5-12 Netmasks.................................................................................. 5-13 Configuring the Netmask ..................................................... 5-16 The /etc/inet/netmasks File............................................. 5-17 VLSM ....................................................................................... 5-20 Introducing the Interface Configuration Files ............................. 5-22 The /etc/hostname.interface File.................................. 5-22 The /etc/inet/hosts File ................................................... 5-22 The /etc/nodename File........................................................ 5-23 Administering Logical Interfaces .................................................. 5-24 Introducing Logical Interfaces .............................................. 5-24 Configuring Logical Interfaces............................................. 5-26 Unconfiguring Logical Interfaces ......................................... 5-28 Exercise: Reviewing IP .................................................................... 5-29 Preparation............................................................................... 5-29 Task Summary......................................................................... 5-29 Tasks ........................................................................................ 5-30 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 5-32 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 5-33

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Configuring IP Network Multipathing............................................. 6-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 6-1 Increasing Network Availability ..................................................... 6-2 Limitations of Network Interfaces.......................................... 6-2 Configuring IP Network Multipathing........................................... 6-3 Introducing IPMP ..................................................................... 6-3 Probe-based IPMP Configuration........................................... 6-4 Configuring Probe-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files ................................................................ 6-6 Configuring Probe-based IPMP on the Command Line.................................................................... 6-12 Link-based IPMP Configuration.......................................... 6-20 Configuring Link-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files ....................................................................................... 6-21 Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group ................................. 6-26 Viewing IPMP Operation ..................................................... 6-28 Troubleshooting an IPMP Configuration........................... 6-30 Exercise: Configuring IPMP ........................................................... 6-32 Preparation............................................................................... 6-32 Tasks ........................................................................................ 6-34 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 6-39 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 6-40 Configuring Routing ........................................................................ 7-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 7-1 Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing ...................................... 7-3 Purpose of Routing ................................................................... 7-3 Types of Routes ......................................................................... 7-4 Introducing the Routing Table......................................................... 7-6 Static Routes............................................................................... 7-6 Dynamic Routes ....................................................................... 7-7 Introducing Routing Protocol Types............................................... 7-8 Autonomous Systems............................................................... 7-8 Interior Gateway Protocols...................................................... 7-9 Exterior Gateway Protocols ................................................... 7-10 Working With the Routing Table .................................................. 7-12 Displaying the Routing Table ............................................... 7-12 Introducing Routing Table Information .............................. 7-13 Searching the Routing Table................................................. 7-14 Associating Names and Network Numbers ....................... 7-16 Configuring Static Routes............................................................... 7-18 Configuring Static Direct Routes .......................................... 7-18 Configuring the /etc/defaultrouter File ...................... 7-19 Configuring the /etc/gateways File ................................. 7-20 Configuring Static Routes on the Command Line ............ 7-21 Configuring Dynamic Routing ...................................................... 7-25

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

RIP Version 1 ........................................................................... 7-25 RIP Version 2 ........................................................................... 7-27 The in.routed Daemon ....................................................... 7-28 The RDISC Protocol ............................................................... 7-30 ICMP Redirects........................................................................ 7-31 Introducing CIDR ............................................................................ 7-33 Purpose of CIDR ..................................................................... 7-33 Operation of CIDR .................................................................. 7-33 Configuring Routing at Boot Time ................................................ 7-38 Initializing a Router ................................................................ 7-38 Configuring a Router Without Rebooting........................... 7-40 Initializing a Multihomed Host ............................................ 7-40 Initializing a Non-Router ....................................................... 7-41 Troubleshooting Routing................................................................ 7-42 Troubleshooting the Router Configuration......................... 7-42 Troubleshooting Network Names....................................... 7-44 Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration................................ 7-45 Preparation............................................................................... 7-45 Tasks ........................................................................................ 7-47 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 7-59 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 7-60 Configuring IPv6...............................................................................8-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 8-1 Introducing IPv6 ................................................................................ 8-3 The Need for IPv6 ..................................................................... 8-3 Features of IPv6 ........................................................................ 8-4 Introducing IPv6 Addressing........................................................... 8-5 Address Types ........................................................................... 8-5 IPv6 Address Representation.................................................. 8-6 Format Prefixes.......................................................................... 8-6 Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration .............................................. 8-8 Stateful Autoconfiguration ...................................................... 8-8 Stateless Autoconfiguration .................................................... 8-8 Interface Identifier Calculation ............................................... 8-9 Duplicate Address Detection ................................................ 8-10 Introducing Unicast Address Types ............................................. 8-11 Link-Local Addresses ............................................................. 8-11 Site-Local Addresses............................................................... 8-12 Aggregatable Global-Unicast Addresses............................. 8-12 Prefix Notation ........................................................................ 8-13 Embedded IPv4 Addresses.................................................... 8-13 Unspecified Address Types................................................... 8-14 Loopback Address Types ...................................................... 8-14 Introducing Multicast Address Types .......................................... 8-15

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Purpose of Multicast Addresses ........................................... 8-15 Scope Bits................................................................................. 8-16 ICMPv6 Group Membership................................................. 8-17 Enabling IPv6.................................................................................... 8-18 The in.ndpd Daemon on a Non-Router.............................. 8-18 Configuring IPv6 on Non-Routers ....................................... 8-19 Troubleshooting a Non-Router Configuration................... 8-22 The in.ndpd Daemon on the Router ................................... 8-23 IPv6 Routing Information Protocol ...................................... 8-23 Configuring an IPv6 Router ................................................. 8-24 Configuring an IPv6 6to4 Router.......................................... 8-30 Configuring a 6to4 Boundary Router.................................. 8-31 Troubleshooting a Router Configuration ............................ 8-33 Managing IPv6 ................................................................................. 8-35 Displaying the State of IPv6 Interfaces ................................ 8-35 Modifying the Configuration of an IPv6 Interface............. 8-35 Configuring Logical Interfaces.............................................. 8-36 Troubleshooting IPv6 Interfaces ........................................... 8-36 Displaying the IPv6 Routing Table ...................................... 8-36 Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 .......................................................... 8-37 Preparation............................................................................... 8-37 Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet ................. 8-37 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing...................................... 8-39 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network................................................................................ 8-41 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 8-44 Exercise 1 Solutions ......................................................................... 8-45 Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet ................. 8-45 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing...................................... 8-48 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network................................................................................ 8-52 Configuring IPv6 Multipathing ..................................................... 8-58 Configuring IPMP Manually................................................. 8-58 Configuring IPMP at Boot Time .......................................... 8-68 Configure a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6........................ 8-73 Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing.................................. 8-74 Preparation............................................................................... 8-74 Tasks ......................................................................................... 8-74 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 8-77 Exercise 2 Solutions ......................................................................... 8-78 Task Solutions.......................................................................... 8-78

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Describing the Transport Layer ......................................................9-1 Objectives ............................................................................................ 9-1 Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals ................................. 9-2 Protocol Characteristics............................................................ 9-2 Transport Protocols in TCP/IP .............................................. 9-8 Introducing UDP................................................................................ 9-9 Purpose of UDP......................................................................... 9-9 UDP Datagram Header ............................................................ 9-9 Introducing TCP............................................................................... 9-10 TCP Segment Header ............................................................. 9-10 Virtual Circuit Connection .................................................... 9-11 Full-Duplex Connection......................................................... 9-11 Unstructured Stream Orientation......................................... 9-11 Buffered Transfer .................................................................... 9-11 Introducing TCP Flow Control ...................................................... 9-12 Receiver-Side Window Advertisements.............................. 9-12 Sender-Side Congestion Window......................................... 9-12 TCP Large Window ................................................................ 9-13 Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer..................................... 9-14 Preparation............................................................................... 9-14 Tasks ......................................................................................... 9-14 Exercise Summary............................................................................ 9-15 Exercise Solutions ............................................................................ 9-16 Configuring DNS.............................................................................10-1 Objectives .......................................................................................... 10-1 Introducing DNS Basics .................................................................. 10-2 BIND ......................................................................................... 10-2 Top-Level Domains ................................................................ 10-2 Zones of Authority.................................................................. 10-4 Server Types ............................................................................ 10-4 Answer Types.......................................................................... 10-7 Name-Resolution Process ...................................................... 10-7 Resource Records .................................................................. 10-11 Configuring a DNS Server............................................................ 10-15 Gathering Information ......................................................... 10-15 Editing the BIND Configuration File ................................. 10-16 Editing the named.root File .............................................. 10-19 Editing the Forward Domain File...................................... 10-21 Editing the Reverse Domain File ....................................... 10-24 Editing the Reverse Loopback Domain File...................... 10-25 Configuring Dynamic Updates.......................................... 10-26 Configuring Security ........................................................... 10-27 Configuring Secondary DNS Servers................................ 10-29 Checking Configuration and Database Files.................... 10-31 Configuring DNS Clients.................................................... 10-32

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities.......................................................................................... 10-33 Implementing named Logging............................................. 10-33 Examining the/var/adm/messages File........................... 10-35 Using the dig Utility ........................................................... 10-36 Dumping a Snapshot of the DNS Database by Using the rndc Utility ...................................................... 10-39 Forcing the named Daemon to Reread the Configuration and Changed Zone Files ......................... 10-44 Managing a DNS Server by Using the rndc Utility .................................................................................. 10-45 Exercise: Configuring DNS.......................................................... 10-50 Preparation............................................................................. 10-50 Task Summary....................................................................... 10-51 Tasks ....................................................................................... 10-51 Exercise Summary.......................................................................... 10-57 Exercise Solutions .......................................................................... 10-58 Task Solutions........................................................................ 10-58 Configuring DHCP ......................................................................... 11-1 Objectives .......................................................................................... 11-1 Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP ..................................... 11-2 Purpose of DHCP.................................................................... 11-2 DHCP Client Functions.......................................................... 11-3 DHCP Server Functions ......................................................... 11-4 Configuring a DHCP Server........................................................... 11-7 Configuring DHCP by Using Different Methods ............. 11-8 Performing Initial DHCP Server Configuration by Using the dhcpmgr Utility.................................................. 11-9 Adding Addresses by Using the dhcpmgr Utility ............ 11-21 Using the dhcpconfig Command..................................... 11-28 Introducing DHCP Network Files...................................... 11-30 Using the pntadm Command .............................................. 11-31 Introducing the dhcptab Table........................................... 11-34 Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients................................ 11-39 Configuring a DHCP Client ................................................ 11-39 Troubleshooting a DHCP Server ................................................. 11-42 Troubleshooting DHCP Clients ................................................... 11-45 Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client..................... 11-46 Preparation............................................................................. 11-46 Task Summary...................................................................... 11-47 Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server............................. 11-47 Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client ............................ 11-48 Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction................................................... 11-48 Exercise Summary.......................................................................... 11-50 Exercise Solutions .......................................................................... 11-51 Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server............................. 11-51
xiv Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

..................................................................................................................................................................... 12-22 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall................................ 12-13 Stopping the NTP Client Daemon............................................................................................................. 13-8 Changing and Updating the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration ...... 13-16 xv Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.......................................................... 12-15 Using the snoop Utility ........... 13-3 Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Actions .................................12-1 Objectives ......... 12-10 Determining NTP Peers .............................................................. 12-15 Viewing Messages............................................................................................................................................................... 13-7 Configuring Specific Matching ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13-15 Configuring Logging in the Solaris IP Filter Firewall.......... 13-3 Enabling Packet Filtering With the Solaris IP Filter Firewall ............................................................. 12-21 Exercise Solutions ..................... 12-16 Exercise: Configuring NTP .................................................. 12-2 How Computers Keep Time............ 13-6 Configuring Filter Rules.................................................................................... Sun Services................................................... 12-17 Preparation........................... 13-1 Identifying Firewall Basics . 12-22 Task Solutions............. 13-14 Viewing the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration ...................................................................................... Inc.................................................................................................. 12-18 Exercise Summary...... 12-12 Configuring an NTP Client ........................... 12-7 Using External NTP Reference Servers............................................................................. 12-13 Starting the NTP Client Daemon ..................... 13-5 Configuring Packet Direction.............................................................................................................. 12-5 Using an Undisciplined Local Clock........... 12-17 Tasks .............................................. 12-9 Managing Daemons...... 12-1 Identifying NTP Basics.Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client ................... 13-2 Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall ...................................................................................... 12-3 NTP Terms . All Rights Reserved................................................. 12-2 Uses of NTP ........ 12-3 Configuring an NTP Server..................................................................................................................................... Revision A................................ 11-70 Configuring NTP .......................... 12-14 Troubleshooting NTP .........................1 ....................................................... 12-13 Establishing Basic Configuration...............................13-1 Objectives ........................................................... 11-69 Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction.................... 12-17 Task Summary..........................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................. Bibliography-4 Glossary/Acronyms .............................. 13-19 Preparation........................................................................................ 13-32 Task 2 Solutions...... All Rights Reserved....................... Sun Services.... 1-1 xvi Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems...... 13-19 Task Summary...........................................................................................................................................................................................1 ...................... Inc.................................... 13-41 Bibliography ..........Glossary-1 Index................. Bibliography-3 RFCs ............ 13-26 Exercise Summary....................... Revision A............................................................. 13-31 Exercise Solutions ............... 13-19 Task 1 – Configuring Firewall Rules ........................................................................................... Bibliography-2 Online References ........... 13-32 Task 1 Solutions............................................................ Bibliography-1 Sun Microsystems Publications ................... 13-20 Task 2 – Disabling Services...................................................................................................................Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall ................................................ Bibliography-1 Books...............................

Preface About This Course Course Goals Upon completion of this course. All Rights Reserved.1 . Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. you should be able to: q q q Configure the Network Interface layer Configure the network (Internet and Transport layers) Configure and manage network applications Preface-xvii Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

All Rights Reserved. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Configuring NTP Preface-xviii Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Course Map Course Map The course map enables you to see what you have accomplished and where you are going in reference to the instructional goals. Sun Services. Inc. Revision A.1 .

1 Preface-xix .Topics Not Covered Topics Not Covered This course does not cover the following topics. Many of these topics are covered in other courses offered by Sun Educational Services: q Solaris™ Operating System (Solaris OS) system administration – Covered in SA-200-S10: Intermediate System Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System and SA-202-S10: Advanced System Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Server storage administration – Covered in ES-222: Solaris™ Volume Manager Administration and ES-310: Volume Manager With Sun StorEdge™ Network Information Services Plus (NIS+) – Covered in SA-385: NIS+ Administration Solaris OS tuning – Covered in SA-400: Solaris™ Systems Performance Management Network Troubleshooting . Inc. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.Covered in IN-425: TCP/IP Network Troubleshooting in the Solaris™ OS q q q q Refer to the Sun Educational Services catalog for specific information and registration.

such as startup and shutdown.How Prepared Are You? How Prepared Are You? To be sure you are prepared to take this course. Revision A.1 . Sun Services. to initialize certain network configuration changes? Can you manipulate startup and shutdown scripts to configure networks? Can you set up user accounts when configuring network services for system users? Can you locate and install network software packages required to set up various network services? q q q Preface-xx Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. can you answer yes to the following questions? q Can you perform basic host operations. Inc.

All Rights Reserved. introduce yourself to the other students and the instructor. Sun Services. Inc.1 Preface-xxi . and job responsibility Experience related to topics presented in this course Reasons for enrolling in this course Expectations for this course About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. function.Introductions Introductions Now that you have been introduced to the course. addressing the following items: q q q q q q Name Company affiliation Title.

Activities are used to facilitate mastery of an objective. Visual aids commonly contain graphics. and demonstration. Sun Services. q q q Note – Many system administration tasks for the Solaris OS can be accomplished in more than one way. these course materials employ a learning module that is composed of the following components: q Objectives – You should be able to accomplish the objectives after completing a portion of instructional content. All Rights Reserved. such as a process. discussion. The methods presented in the courseware reflect recommended practices used by Sun Educational Services.How to Use Course Materials How to Use Course Materials To enable you to succeed in this course. animation. Activities – The activities take on various forms. Visual aids – The instructor might use several visual aids to convey a concept. Objectives support goals and can support other higher-level objectives. and video. such as an exercise. This information will help you learn the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed with the activities. Inc.1 . Preface-xxii Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. self-check. Lecture – The instructor will present information specific to the objective of the module. Revision A. in a visual form.

Icons Discussion – Indicates a small-group or class discussion on the current topic is recommended at this time. Revision A. or the operating system. Inc.Conventions Conventions The following conventions are used in this course to represent various training elements and alternative learning resources. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. or risk of irreversible damage to data.1 Preface-xxiii . ! ? Note – Indicates additional information that can help students but is not crucial to their understanding of the concept being described. A caution indicates that the possibility of a hazard (as opposed to certainty) might happen. depending on the action of the user. Examples of notational information include keyword shortcuts and minor system adjustments. About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Caution – Indicates that there is a risk of personal injury from a nonelectrical hazard. Students should be able to understand the concept or complete the task without this information. software.

Courier italic bold is used to represent variables whose values are to be entered by the student as part of an activity. programming code. host names. for example: Read Chapter 6 in the User’s Guide. directories. These are called class options. type the following: # ls Courier italics is used for variables and command-line placeholders that are replaced with a real name or value. Preface-xxiv Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. for example: To delete a file. for example: Use the ls -al command to list all files. new words or terms. Palatino italics is used for book titles. Revision A. for example: Type chmod a+rwx filename to grant read.Conventions Typographical Conventions Courier is used for the names of commands. Sun Services. files. host1# cd /home Courier bold is used for characters and numbers that you type. and execute rights for filename. Inc. use the rm filename command. and on-screen computer output. for example: To list the files in this directory. All Rights Reserved. write.1 . user names. or words that you want to emphasize.

Revision A.1 Preface-xxv . conjunctions (operators). Broken code is indented four spaces under the starting code. both commands are shown.” refers to a method called doIt that takes no arguments.. If a command used in the Solaris OS is different from a command used in the Microsoft Windows platform. All Rights Reserved.. for example: If working in the Solaris OS $ cd $SERVER_ROOT/bin If working in Microsoft Windows C:\> cd %SERVER_ROOT%\bin q About This Course Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. for example: “The doIt method. “The doIt() method. or white space in the code.. Sun Services.” refers to any method called doIt.Conventions Additional Conventions Java™ programming language examples use the following additional conventions: q Method names are not followed with parentheses unless a formal or actual parameter list is shown. q Line breaks occur only where there are separations (commas)..

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Inc. Upon completion of this module. Revision A. and Application layers. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 1-1 1-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you should be able to: q q q q Describe network model fundamentals Describe the layers of the TCP/IP model Describe basic peer-to-peer communication and related protocols Identify TCP/IP protocols The course map in Figure 1-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. this module describes basic peer-to-peer communication and some common TCP/IP protocols. This module also describes the layers of the TCP/IP model. All Rights Reserved. Internet. Sun Services. In addition. Transport.1 . including the Network Interface.Module 1 Introducing the TCP/IP Model Objectives This module describes the fundamentals of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model. including network protocols and concepts.

All Rights Reserved. Each protocol provides a function essential for data communication. They form a communication architecture.Introducing Network Model Fundamentals Introducing Network Model Fundamentals The fundamentals required to understand computer networking are the network model. manageable processes. Each software module that implements a protocol can be developed and updated independently of other modules. as long as the interface between the modules remains constant. the functions of the layers. Network Protocols Computer networks use protocols to communicate. firmware. Sun Services. These rules describe: q q q Syntax – Data format and coding Semantics – Control information and error handling Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Functions of Protocols A protocol defines how systems can communicate and facilitates communication between software. Many protocols are used so that communication can be broken into smaller. Revision A. 1-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Protocols define the procedures to be followed by the systems involved in the communication process.1 . The TCP/IP model is a protocol stack used by the Solaris OS for data communication. Many protocols provide and support data communication. and other devices in data transfer. and the protocols that govern data transfer between two or more systems. A data communication protocol is a set of rules that must be followed for two electronic devices to communicate with each other. Inc. also known as a protocol stack.

All Rights Reserved.Introducing Network Model Fundamentals The features of a protocol stack are: q Each layer has a specific purpose and exists on both the source and destination hosts. Each layer communicates with its peer layer on another host in a given process of communication. q q Network Model Concepts A networking model refers to a common structure that enables communication between two or more systems. Sun Services. enabling inter-operability between software and hardware vendors Simplifies troubleshooting q q q Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. The following mapping helps you to understand the network model: q q q Model = structure Layer = functions Protocol = rules Advantages of Using a Layered Model Some of the advantages of a layered model are that it: q Separates the complexity of networking into many functions or layers Enables you to introduce changes or new features in one layer without having to change the other layers Provides a standard to follow. You can think of layers as a series of steps or functions that must be sequentially completed for communication to occur between two systems.1 1-3 . Each layer on a host acts independently of other layers on the same machine but is synchronous with the same layer on other hosts. Revision A. Networking models consist of layers.

1-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . All Rights Reserved.html. Sun Services. For a complete listing of RFCs.org/rfc. visit http://www. The TCP/IP model is a four-layered structure resting on a common hardware platform.ietf. Revision A.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Table 1-1 shows the four layers of the TCP/IP model. Table 1-1 TCP/IP Network Model TCP/IP Layer Application Description q Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services Defines how cooperating networks represent data Manages the transfer of data by using acknowledged and unacknowledged transport protocols Manages the connections between cooperating applications Manages data addressing and delivery between networks Fragments data for the Network Interface layer Manages the delivery of data across the physical network Provides error detection and packet framing q Transport q q Internet q q Network Interface q q RFCs are a frame of reference for describing the protocol architecture and functions specific to the TCP/IP protocol stack. It has standards that are defined and described in Request for Comment (RFC) documents. Inc. The TCP/IP model was developed by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) in the 1970s.

All Rights Reserved. and cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Preamble Destination Address Source Address Type Data CRC Figure 1-3 Structure of a Frame Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. data. Sun Services. frame length or type. where the bits are divided into fields containing information labels.1 1-5 . Revision A. Figure 1-3 shows a specific type of PDU known as an Ethernet frame. The primary functions of this layer are: q q q Managing the delivery of data across the physical network Detecting errors Framing packets TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Packet data unit Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-2 TCP/IP Network Interface Layer The Network Interface layer services the Internet layer by providing communication between nodes on the same network. This layer defines how bits are assembled into manageable units of data.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Network Interface Layer Figure 1-2 shows the position of the Network Interface layer in the TCP/IP network model. Inc. destination and source hardware address. A packet data unit (PDU) is a structured series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end. such as preamble.

Revision A. Inc.3 – Ethernet standards IEEE 802.5 – Token ring standards IEEE 802. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Examples of Network Interface layer protocols are: q Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.4 – Token bus standards IEEE 802. Figure 1-4 shows the position of the Internet layer in the TCP/IP network model.1 .11 – Wireless network standards q q q Internet Layer The Internet layer attempts to ensure that messages reach their destination system using the most efficient route. The primary functions of the Internet layer are: q q Routing data between networks Fragmenting and reassembly of data TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Datagram Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-4 TCP/IP Internet Layer 1-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Revision A. the Internet layer determines the next directly accessible node in the path to a packet’s destination. The Internet layer uses the Internet Protocol (IP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). which in turn are encapsulated inside Network Interface layer PDUs. Transport Layer The Transport layer manages the transfer of application data between communicating hosts.1 1-7 . TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Segment or datagram Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-5 TCP/IP Transport Layer The mechanisms used by the Transport layer to determine whether data has been correctly delivered are: q q q Acknowledgement responses Sequencing Flow control Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model Using routing information. It also controls the flow of data and defines the transport quality of the data transmission. IP encapsulates data in datagrams. IP is responsible for fragmenting and routing data. or the next gateway node in the route if the destination is on another network. and ICMP assists routing and performs error detection and other network management tasks. Sun Services. Figure 1-5 shows the position of the Transport layer in the TCP/IP network model. This node is either the destination itself if the destination is on the local network. All Rights Reserved. Inc.

Both TCP segments and UDP datagrams are encapsulated in Internet layer datagrams for transmission to the next node. Inc. Application Layer The top layer of the TCP/IP stack is the Application layer. Sun Services.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model The Transport layer facilitates end-to-end data transfer. The Transport layer facilitates two types of communication: q Connection-oriented (TCP) – A connection must be established at the Transport layer of both systems before the application can transmit any data. TCP uses packets called segments. It supports multiple operations simultaneously. q TCP is a more reliable form of data exchange than UDP. All Rights Reserved. and UDP uses packets called datagrams. Revision A. Connectionless (UDP) – Systems do not need to establish a connection with the recipient prior to data exchange. Figure 1-6 shows the position of the Application layer in the TCP/IP network model. TCP/IP Layers Stream or Message Layer 4 Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 1-6 TCP/IP Application Layer 1-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Two Transport layer protocols are found in the Solaris OS TCP/IP stack: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).1 .

Inc. the Application layer makes sure that it reaches the end users in this format. q q Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Protocols operating at this layer of the model encapsulate packets into streams or messages. Application layer protocols. use RPC for session management between clients and servers. Transporting data – The Application layer stipulates a transfer syntax. and new protocols are frequently included in the Solaris OS TCP/IP stack. The primary functions of this layer are: q Formatting data – Data is formatted based on a computer’s architecture.Introducing the Layers of the TCP/IP Model The Application layer includes all of the protocols that use Transport layer protocols to deliver data to the Internet layer. alphanumeric characters are represented by using American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) on a UNIX® host. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. The Application layer also provides translations between locally represented data and data used for transfer between end systems. There are many application protocols. For example.1 1-9 . Presenting data – If end users specify how they want their data presented to them. Sun Services. Remote procedure call (RPC) libraries enable high-level language programs to make procedure calls to other machines on a network. and Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) on an IBM mainframe computer. which represents a coding agreement for the data to be formatted and transferred. Some common TCP/IP applications or protocols include: q q q q q q q q q Telnet Protocol File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Domain Name System (DNS) Network Information Service (NIS) Network File System (NFS) Secure shell (SSH) The Application layer handles the details of the particular application. such as NIS and NFS. A common syntax ensures compatibility between various end-user applications and machines.

Encapsulation. For example. the Application layer on the source system interacts with the Application layer on the destination system. and Decapsulation In the TCP/IP model.Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. All Rights Reserved. Figure 1-7 illustrates the peer-to-peer communications between the layers at either end of a network interaction. and the corresponding layers at either end are also considered to interact with each other. Inc. and Decapsulation Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. Sun Services. Source System Destination System Application X Application Y Application Layer Encapsulation User Data Decapsulation Message or Message or Stream Stream User Data Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer NH IH TH A-PDU Segment or Segment or Datagram Datagram TH A-PDU Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer T-PDU Datagram Datagram IH T-PDU I-PDU NT Frame Frame NH I-PDU NT Signal Communication Path Physical Transmission Medium TH = Transport Header IH = Internet Header NH = Network Header NT = Network Trailer Figure 1-7 Peer-to-Peer Communication 1-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Encapsulation. adjacent layers in the model interact with each other. Peer-to-Peer Communication Peer-to-peer communication occurs when one layer on a system communicates with a corresponding layer on another system. Revision A.

At the final layer. q Figure 1-7 on page 1-10 shows data encapsulation occurring on the source system. and Decapsulation Encapsulation and Decapsulation Data passed down through each layer on the sender is encapsulated. Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Figure 1-7 on page 1-10 shows data decapsulation occurring on the destination system. Inc. During encapsulation: q Header information is added at each layer before the data is passed down to the next layer. Sun Services.1 1-11 . Data arriving at a destination system is decapsulated. Encapsulation. trailer information is also added.Describing Basic Peer-to-Peer Communication. The header information helps the destination system to direct the data to the appropriate protocol. All Rights Reserved. During decapsulation: q q Data travels up through the layers. Headers and trailers are removed at each layer before the data is passed up to the next layer.

their corresponding RFCs.TCP/IP Protocols TCP/IP Protocols The following tables describe briefly the common TCP/IP protocols. point-to-point links. Point-to-Point Protocol transmits datagrams over serial.1 . All Rights Reserved. Table 1-2 shows a list of Network Interface layer protocols. 1-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Revision A. Inc. and a short description of each protocol. Table 1-2 Some TCP/IP Network Interface Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 1055 1661 Protocol SLIP PPP Description Serial Line Internet Protocol compresses IP datagrams on serial lines.

All Rights Reserved. 2402. Internet Control Message Protocol communicates error messages and other controls within IP datagrams.TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-3 shows a list of Internet layer protocols. Sun Services. based on the destination host’s IP address. stream service on which many application protocols depend.1 1-13 . 2406. User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless protocol that provides non-acknowledged datagrams delivered over reliable networks. 922 792 2401. Inc. Internet Protocol determines the path that a datagram must take. • Internet Protocol Security Architecture • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) • IP authentication header • Internet IP security domain of interpretation for the Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) Table 1-4 shows a list of Transport layer protocols. Revision A. their corresponding RFCs. their corresponding RFCs. 2408 Protocol ARP RARP IP ICMP IPSecrelated RFCs Description Address Resolution Protocol defines the method used to map a 32-bit IP address to a 48-bit Ethernet address. 950. Table 1-3 Some TCP/IP Internet Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 826 903 791. Table 1-4 Some TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 793 Protocol TCP Description Transmission Control Protocol is a connection-oriented protocol that provides the full-duplex. and a short description of each protocol. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol defines the method used to map a 48-bit Ethernet address to a 32-bit IP address. and a short description of each protocol. 2407. 919. 768 UDP Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Simple Network Management Protocol enables system administrators to monitor and control network devices. version 3. IMAP4 is suited to mobile users because the mail remains on the server. Inc. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol transfers electronic mail (email) messages from one machine to another. Post Office Protocol. enables users to access their email box across the network from an IMAP4 server. Sun Services. Revision A.1 . and a short description of each protocol. IMAP4 is server-centric.TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-5 shows a list of some Application layer protocols. 959 854. distributed database for domain names. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is responsible for automatically assigning IP addresses in an organization’s network. All Rights Reserved. whereas POP3 is client-centric. Table 1-5 Some TCP/IP Application Layer Protocol Descriptions RFC 1034. host names. Telnet Protocol enables terminals and terminal-oriented processes to communicate on a network by using TCP/IP. version 4. Domain names index a hierarchical tree of names and ultimately identify hosts and domains. Internet Message Access Protocol. their corresponding RFCs. 855 FTP Telnet 1258. File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer files between systems. enables users to access their email box across a wide area network (WAN) or local area network (LAN) from a POP3 server. The rlogin command enables users to log in to remote hosts. 1280 2131 Remote login DHCP 2821 1157 SMTP SNMP 1939 POP3 2060 IMAP4 1-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and IP addresses. 1035 Protocol DNS Description Domain Name System is a text-based.

Secure shell is based on a number of drafts. Inc. SSH logs in securely to a system across a network. None SSH Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. pictures.TCP/IP Protocols Table 1-5 Some TCP/IP Application Layer Protocol Descriptions (Continued) RFC 1945. 2068 None Protocol HTTP HTTPS Description Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol are used on the World Wide Web to transfer text. All Rights Reserved.1 1-15 . Sun Services. Revision A. and other multimedia information that is accessible through a web browser. audio.

_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 1-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ Name:_______________________________________________________ Function: ____________________________________________________ 2. Tasks Perform the following steps: 1. you review the TCP/IP model. List the layers of the TCP/IP network model by their name and function.1 . Preparation There is no preparation for this exercise. Sun Services. In your own words. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Inc. In your own words. define the term peer-to-peer. All Rights Reserved. define the term protocol.Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model In this exercise. Revision A.

c. Headers and trailers are removed before the data is passed up to the next layer. Which statements describe data encapsulation? Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a.1 1-17 . Headers and trailers are added before the data is passed down to the next layer. c.Exercise: Reviewing the TCP/IP Model 4. ARP IP TCIP ICMP Data travels up through layers at the destination system’s end. b. d. Data travels down through layers at the source system’s end. 5. Which protocols are part of the TCP/IP suite? a. Inc. b. All Rights Reserved. d. Sun Services. Revision A.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 1-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. issues. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Sun Services.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A. Inc.1 .

This layer is also responsible for defining the way in which cooperating networks represent data. In your own words. All Rights Reserved. 2. Name: Application Function: Consists of user-accessed application programs and network services. These rules describe: q q q Syntax – Data format and coding Semantics – Control information and error handling Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Introducing the TCP/IP Model Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This layer provides error detection and packet framing. Sun Services. Name: Transport Function: Manages the transfer of data using connection-oriented and connectionless transport protocols. In your own words. as well as fragmenting data for the Network Interface layer. define the term protocol. define the term peer-to-peer.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. Peer-to-peer communication is the ability of a specific layer to communicate with a corresponding layer on another host. Name: Internet Function: Manages data addressing and delivery between networks. Inc. 3. Name: Network Interface Function: Manages the delivery of data across the physical network. List the layers of the TCP/IP network model by their name and function. Revision A.1 1-19 . A protocol is set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities.

Revision A. b. Sun Services. Inc. Which statements describe data encapsulation? 1-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 5. b. d. Headers and trailers are added before the data is passed down to the next layer. d. Which protocols are part of the TCP/IP suite? a. All Rights Reserved.1 .Exercise Solutions 4. ARP IP ICMP Data travels down through layers at the source system’s end.

This module also introduces LAN media.1 . including shared hubs. Sun Services. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 2-1 2-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. including IEEE LAN media identifiers and Ethernet media. bridges. Inc. this module introduces network devices. Revision A. and switches. you should be able to: q q q Describe network topologies Describe LAN media Describe network devices The course map in Figure 2-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.Module 2 Introducing LANs and Their Components Objectives This module describes LANs and their components. Upon completion of this module. In addition.

any failover requirements. Revision A. Many different network topologies are commonly implemented in today’s network environments. Inc. A typical bus configuration has coaxial cables running through an area. All Rights Reserved. Topology is one of the most important considerations when you design a network. The bandwidth of the cable is shared between all the systems connected to the cable. and the amount of network traffic you expect when you make decisions about which topology to use. Figure 2-2 shows an example of a bus configuration. Consider the size of the network.1 . Systems are attached at points along the cable to enable communication with each other. Figure 2-2 Bus Configuration 2-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Bus Topologies The bus configuration was the typical LAN topology for the original Ethernet network specification. the type of business. Sun Services.Introducing Network Topologies Introducing Network Topologies The topology of a network relates to the way nodes on the network are physically wired together.

there is a limit to the number of segments that can be linked together. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. A benefit of the star configuration is that a fault on the cable to a node affects only that node. An intelligent hub controls: q q Which messages are transferred between which ports What devices are connected to each port or segment Note – A non-intelligent hub does not make any decisions about which ports to send data. or hub.Introducing Network Topologies Star Topologies The LAN topology in a star configuration uses a central location. 0K> Figure 2-3 Star Configuration Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 2-3 . Figure 2-3 shows an example of the star configuration. from which a number of signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on a branch. This essentially makes star configurations behave exactly like bus configurations from the point of view of the nodes. Star configurations are well suited to many of today’s LAN network methodologies. Depending upon the LAN methodology. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 2-4 shows a star-wired ring configuration.1 .Introducing Network Topologies Ring Topologies In a ring configuration. Revision A. Figure 2-4 Ring Configuration 2-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The reliability is a result of the intelligent hub’s ability to bypass a non-functioning node in the ring. which affects communication on the network. Each node in the ring is between two other nodes. a ring configuration can be implemented with the reliability of a star configuration. Sun Services. Inc. if one node stops functioning the ring can be broken. In a ring network. With the invention of the intelligent central hub. All Rights Reserved. the output of one node connects to the input of the next node.

and traffic does not pass between the two networks. All systems are physically connected to the same device. 4. This makes the task of defining the term VLAN difficult. All systems on the same broadcast domain Figure 2-5 VLAN With All Systems on the Same Domain Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example. ports 1. Figure 2-5 shows an example of a network with all systems on the same broadcast domain. Using VLANs reduces the size of broadcast domains. 2. You can move computer systems between VLANs without any hardware configuration. and 8 can be assigned to network B. or the protocols used by the systems. Revision A. 5. The traffic on network A is separated from the traffic on network B. A VLAN topology is implemented with a central device that supports VLAN technology. Ports can be assigned to different VLANs based on port number.1 2-5 . Sun Services. and 6 can be assigned to network A. Although the term VLAN is in common use. while ports 3. the device is configured with multiple logical networks (the VLANs) that have one or more ports on the switch assigned to them. 7. on an 8-port switch. Inc. however. the hardware or software address of the systems. every vendor provides their own VLAN implementation and enhancements.Introducing Network Topologies VLAN Topologies Virtual local area network (VLAN) topologies are becoming increasingly popular. All Rights Reserved.

smaller broadcast domains. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Revision A.Introducing Network Topologies Figure 2-6 shows how a single switch can be configured into three VLANs so that there are three separate.1 . Inc. Smaller Broadcast Domains Figure 2-6 VLAN Configurations 2-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Revision A.1 2-7 . how the three VLANs are configured by using software on the switch to which all systems are connected. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Network Topologies Figure 2-7 shows. Sun Services. through shading. Three VLANs defined (by color) Figure 2-7 Three VLANs Defined Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.

Inc. which is rounded up from the 185-meter maximum length for individual thin coaxial segments. represents a media speed of 10 megabits per second (Mbps). All Rights Reserved. baseband signaling is used. The designation T indicates that the segment type is twisted-pair. which means that the transmission speed is 100 megabits per second. 100. Two systems cannot transmit signals at the same time.Introducing LAN Media Introducing LAN Media Many types of LAN methodologies include the media’s specifications as part of the LAN’s name (identifier). Type of Signal = Baseband Speed = 10 Mbs 10 BASE-5 Segment Length = 500 Meter 10 BASE-T Type of Media = Twisted Pair Figure 2-8 IEEE Media Identifier 2-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Baseband signalling uses the entire bandwidth of the cable for one signal. q q An example identifier is 100BASE-T. 2 indicates 200 meters. BASE. stands for baseband. 100 Mbps. The third piece of information indicates the segment type or the approximate segment length. Figure 2-8 shows how baseband segments are designated. For thin coaxial cable. Sun Services. 5 indicates the 500-meter maximum length allowed for individual segments. IEEE Identifiers For the various types of LANs. or 1000 Mbps. or 1000. and the designation F stands for fiber-optic cable. 10. Revision A. The second piece of information. which is a type of signalling.1 . respectively. the IEEE identifier indicates the types of media used. For thick coaxial cable. These identifiers include three pieces of information: q The first piece of information. and the media is twisted pair.

the security. 100BASE-TX Media Type The 100BASE-TX media type is based on specifications published in the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Twisted-Pair – Physical Media Standard (TP-PMD). Consider the physical distance. This is a standard technique that improves the signal-carrying characteristics of a wire pair. The 10BASE-T media type uses two pairs of wires: one pair receives data signals. The two wires in each pair must be twisted together for the entire length of the segment. Revision A. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and the other pair transmits data signals. This is one of the most widely used media types for connections to the desktop. Sun Services. 10BASE-T Media Type The 10BASE-T media type uses twisted-pair cables.1 2-9 . The twisted-pair segment type is widely used today for making network connections to the desktop. the cost of the media. IEEE 802. followed by the twisted-pair and fiber-optic media segments. 100BASE-TX uses both. The specifications for this media type were published in 1990. The thin coaxial cable media segment was defined next. You can only implement 100BASE-TX over Category 5 cable. You can implement 10BASE-T over Category 3 (two to three twists per foot) or Category 5 (two to three twists per inch) twisted-pair cable. All Rights Reserved. from half-inch thick coaxial cable to optical fibre measured in microns.Introducing LAN Media The thick coaxial cable media segment was the first media segment to be defined in the Ethernet specifications. and the media that is supported by current technology when you make decisions about which LAN media to use.3 Types Many different types of LAN media have been used. Multiple twisted-pair segments communicate using a multiport hub or switch. Inc. The 100BASE-TX media type carries 100 Mbps signals over two pairs of wire. Because the ANSI TP-PMD specification provides for the use of either unshielded twisted-pair or shielded twisted-pair cable. the cost to install the media.

Fiber also provides more security because the optical signal does not cause induction. 2-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. The 1000BASE-X standard refers to two implementations of fiber-optic segment types: 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX. Gigabit Ethernet is an extension of the successful 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps 802. An advantage of the 100BASE-FX fiber-optic link segment is that it can span long distances. The signaling system makes it possible to provide fast Ethernet signals (100 megaHertz (MHz)) over any existing standard voice-grade Category 3 or 4 unshielded twisted-pair cable that might be installed. The use of fiber provides superior electrical isolation for equipment at each end of the fiber link. This complete electrical isolation provides immunity from much larger electrical hazards. All Rights Reserved. Gigabit Ethernet provides a raw bandwidth of 1000 Mbps and maintains full compatibility with the installed base of over 100 million Ethernet nodes. Sun Services. While LAN equipment used in metallic media segments has protection circuits designed for typical indoor electrical hazards. Revision A. Complete electrical isolation is essential when using LAN segments to link separate buildings.Introducing LAN Media 100BASE-T4 Media Type The 100BASE-T4 media type operates over four pairs of wires.1 . One pair of wires transmits data (TX). and two pairs are bidirectional (BI) data pairs. 100BASE-FX Media Type The 100BASE-FX (fast fiber-optic) media system uses pulses of light instead of electrical currents to send signals. such as lightning strikes. and from the flow of current that can result from having different levels of electrical ground currents that can be found in separate buildings. The 100BASE-T4 specifications recommend using Category 5 patch cables. 1000BASE-X Media Type In 1998. fiber-optic media is nonconductive. jumpers. one pair receives data (RX). Gigabit Ethernet includes both full-duplex and half-duplex operating modes.3 standards. and connecting hardware whenever possible because these higher-quality components and cables improve the reception of signals on the link. the IEEE Standards Board approved the gigabit Ethernet standard for 1000 Mbps over multimode fiber (MMF) and single-mode fiber.

and 100BASE-T4 for its signal methodology. All Rights Reserved.Introducing LAN Media 1000BASE-SX Media Type The 1000BASE-SX media system is the shortest wavelength specification because it uses short wavelength lasers to transmit data over fiber-optic cable. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-T system specification supports distances up to 100 meters over four pairs of Cat-5 UTP (using a complex encoding scheme). Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-CX system specification supports the 25 meters over twin-axial cable. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-SX system specification supports the following distances: q q 300 meters over 62. 1000BASE-T Media Type In 1999. Sun Services.5-micron MMF cable 550 meters over 50-micron MMF cable 1000BASE-LX Media Type The 1000BASE-LX media system is the longest wavelength specification because it uses longwave lasers to transmit data over fiber-optic cable. such as wiring closets. Inc. Sun’s implementation of the 1000BASE-SX system specification supports the following distances: q q 550 meters over 62. The 1000BASE-T system uses the previously defined standards 100BASE-TX. 100BASE-T2.1 2-11 . the IEEE Standards Board approved the standard for the 1000BASE-T media system. for data transmissions of 1000 Mbps. The 1000BASE-CX system uses connecting equipment in small areas.5-micron and 50-micron MMF cable 3000 meters over 9-micron single-mode fiber cable 1000BASE-CX Media Type The 1000BASE-CX media system is the shortest-haul copper specification because it uses high-quality shielded copper jumper cables to connect devices. This standard is for gigabit Ethernet over four pairs of Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cable. Revision A. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Hubs are typically used in small LANs in which network performance is not critical. Revision A. bit by bit. Switches Switches are multiport devices that control the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments. Devices that are found on LANs range from printers to sophisticated switching devices. Sun Services. Switches reduce the number of collisions on a network by replacing a single shared data path with multiple dedicated data paths. A repeater does not read or interpret the data. Collisions commonly occur on a network implementing hubs because the collision domain consists of all systems connected to the hub. Switches are high-bandwidth devices because multiple data paths can be established and used simultaneously. 2-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Repeaters Repeaters are devices that amplify and regenerate the data signal. Bridges A bridge is a network-layer device that reads and interprets addresses for filtering or forwarding packets. Inc. Collisions commonly occur on a bridged network because the collision domains often consist of more than one system. All Rights Reserved.1 . Bridges connect two or more network segments. Hubs Shared hubs are the central devices of a star topology network. to extend the distance of the transmission.Introducing Network Devices Introducing Network Devices Networks consist of many different devices and device types. The hubs connect all the hosts in a twisted-pair Ethernet installation.

1 2-13 . Hub Hub 10BASE-T 10BASE-T Ethernet Switch 10BASE-T 100BASE-T Hub 10BASE-T 10BASE-T Hub Hub Figure 2-9 Ethernet Switches Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the cost of a speed increase is minimized. Because connecting multiple subnets to an intranet using a switch requires no protocol changes. Sun Services. Interconnecting the hubs increases intranet transfer rates greatly and makes connections more economical. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Network Devices Figure 2-9 shows how you can use an Ethernet switch to interconnect shared hubs. Revision A. Inc.

1 . answer the following questions: 1. Match the terms to their definition. Inc. Revision A. Sun Services. The multiport device that provides for the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments without operator intervention.Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components In this exercise. _____ Category 5 d. The IEEE standard for 100-Mbps. Ethernet installation. All Rights Reserved. c. each individual device can be configured to be in its own broadcast domain. _____ _____ _____ VLAN topology 100BASE-TX b. 2-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This topology uses a central device. _____ _____ Switch Shared hub e. from which signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on this branch. twisted-pair media. Additionally. Star topology a. The central device through which all hosts connect in a single broadcast domain in a twisted-pair. This topology uses a central device. unshielded. from which signal-carrying cables are connected to each individual device on a branch. f. twisted-pair media. The cabling standard for 100-Mbps. you test your knowledge about common LAN terminology. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Tasks To test your knowledge about common LAN terminology.

a. 3. Ring Star Bus Wing 10BASE-5 10BASE-2 100BASE-FX 10BASE-T 100BASE-T4 100BASE-TX Which specifications support a media speed of 100 Mbps? Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. c. Which are topologies found in LANs? a. f. Revision A. b. All Rights Reserved. e.Exercise: Reviewing LANs and Their Components 2. d. d.1 2-15 . c. b. Sun Services. Inc.

Inc. Revision A. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 2-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. issues. Sun Services.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. All Rights Reserved.1 .

a VLAN topology b. Ethernet installation. Sun Services. The IEEE standard for 100-Mbps. f c Switch Shared hub e. Match the terms to their definition. All Rights Reserved. d Star topology a. This topology uses a central device.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. twisted-pair media. This topology uses a central device. twisted-pair media. The cabling standard for 100-Mbps. e 100BASE-TX c. Inc. f. Revision A. Additionally.1 2-17 . each individual device can be configured to be in its own broadcast domain. b Category 5 d. from which signal-carrying cables extend to each individual device on this branch. unshielded. Introducing LANs and Their Components Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. from which signal-carrying cables are connected to each individual device on a branch. The central device through which all hosts connect in a single broadcast domain in a twisted-pair. The multiport device that provides for the logical dynamic connection and disconnection between any two cable segments without operator intervention.

Which are topologies found in LANs? a. Inc. c. All Rights Reserved. b. Revision A.Exercise Solutions 2. Sun Services. e. Ring Star Bus 100BASE-FX 100BASE-T4 100BASE-TX Which specifications support a media speed of 100 Mbps? 2-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . c. f. 3.

you should be able to: q q q Describe Ethernet concepts Describe Ethernet frames Use network utilities The course map in Figure 3-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. frame fields. Sun Services. encapsulation. Revision A. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 3-1 3-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Upon completion of this module. All Rights Reserved.Module 3 Describing Ethernet Interfaces Objectives This module describes Ethernet’s Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) access method. This module also describes the Ethernet frame. In addition.1 . Inc. and errors. this module describes network utilities that assist in configuring and troubleshooting the system’s network interfaces. including addresses. maximum transmission units (MTUs).

the transceiver circuitry detects a transmit collision (Collision Detection). If two interfaces try to transmit data at the same time. The wait period is determined by using an exponential back-off algorithm.1 . Devices connect to the network and compete for access to a shared communications channel. Both interfaces must wait a short period of time before they attempt to resend data. each interface has an equal chance to transmit data (Multiple Access). The IEEE 802. During a gap between transmissions.3 standard for Ethernet was defined in 1985. Ethernet standards are implemented at the Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP protocol model. called frames – These are units of data sent across the network. Major Ethernet Elements The three major elements of Ethernet networks are: q Ethernet packets. Each interface monitors the network for a carrier signal (Carrier Sense). connectors. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services. Hardware cables. 3-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. CSMA/CD – This method controls packet transmission and information flow across the Ethernet hardware. Inc.Introducing Ethernet Concepts Introducing Ethernet Concepts Ethernet was designed as a packet-switching LAN over broadcast technology. and circuitry – These transfer data to and from systems across the network. q q CSMA/CD Access Method Non-switched Ethernet uses a broadcast delivery mechanism in which each frame that is transmitted is heard by every station. CSMA/CD is an arbitrary access method that provides a method to detect and recover from simultaneous transmissions. The Ethernet access method.

Collision Detect Was there a collision? No Yes Success. Carrier Sense Is there traffic on the network? Yes No The host sends a message. Sun Services.1 3-3 . The figure represents the CSMA/CD developed for the original Ethernet topology. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Ethernet originally consisted of a single-wire. but Ethernet topologies use more advanced components that permit a higher transmission rate. Send the jam signal. Revision A. Figure 3-2 Structure of CSMA/CD Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The theory of operation is still the same today. Wait.Introducing Ethernet Concepts Figure 3-2 shows how CSMA/CD accesses the network. bidirectional backbone. Back off exponentially. Multiple Access The host has a message.

For example. Half-duplex network mode is when a system can either send or receive data on a bidirectional network. assume that the netstat command reports 12 collisions and 1302 output packets. All Rights Reserved. such as the collision rate. for example: # netstat -i Name Mtu Net/Dest lo0 8232 loopback hme0 1500 sys11 # Address localhost sys11 Ipkts 52559 18973 Ierrs Opkts 0 52559 0 30292 Oerrs Collis Queue 0 0 0 0 0 0 Collision Rates Collisions occur when two or more systems attempt to transmit data on the network at the same time. To compute the collision rate. The system cannot send and receive data simultaneously. multiply 100 by the number of collisions. Use collision rates to diagnose network performance problems that are caused by collisions on a network.0 percent collision rate 3-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. collisions occur frequently. execute the netstat command with the -i option. Calculate the collision rate as follows: 100 * 12 / 1302 = 1. The collision rate increases exponentially until there is almost no throughput of data. To display the current usage of the Ethernet interfaces. and divide the product by the total number of output packets. In a shared-media topology. Revision A. Ethernet Statistics The netstat command provides statistics on network-related information. Inc.Introducing Ethernet Concepts Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Mode Full-duplex network mode is when a system can send and receive data simultaneously on a bidirectional network. the greater the likelihood that collisions occur because of an increase in network traffic. The more transmitting nodes there are on a network.1 . Sun Services. Collision rates indicate the number of collisions that occur on a network. Full-duplex networking is more efficient than half-duplex networking.

and 10 percent on a 100-Mbps Ethernet network. hub.1 3-5 .Introducing Ethernet Concepts In general: q Collision rates higher than 5 percent on a 10-Mbps Ethernet network. Switches minimize collisions by limiting the collision domain to one system. switch. Inc. Technical experts use special electronic equipment to detect the elements that cause a collision and to provide a solution. Sun Services. are the first indication of network overload. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. or router A faulty interface Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q q Input and Output Errors If the netstat command reports large numbers (approximately 20–25 percent) of input or output errors on the network system. Faulty network cabling frequently causes collisions through electrical problems. you can attribute the problem to one of the following reasons: q q q q Duplicate IP addresses used on the same network A faulty cable A faulty port on a concentrator.

Sun assigns the last three octets to the products it manufactures to ensure that each node on an Ethernet network has a unique Ethernet address. Sun Services. Sun has various Ethernet prefixes. 00:00:be. Inc. An Ethernet address is sometimes referred to as a media access control (MAC) address. For example. q The IEEE administers unique Ethernet addresses. All Rights Reserved. which include 08:00:20. By default. The list of vendor specific Ethernet addresses can be found at: http://standards. and 00:03:ba.ieee. Ethernet Addresses An Ethernet address is the device’s unique hardware address. even though each Ethernet interface controller has a built-in Ethernet address. By default. Sun uses host-based addressing on its networks interface cards (NICs). It is a series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end. either the NVRAM or the special board.Introducing Ethernet Frames Introducing Ethernet Frames An Ethernet frame is a single unit of data transported across the LAN. IEEE designates the first three octets as vendor-specific. all interface addresses on a system use just one Ethernet address. Revision A. An example of an Ethernet address is 08:00:20:1e:56:7d.txt q The IEEE specification enables the vendor to decide whether to use the host-based addressing approach or the port-based addressing approach. while some large server systems obtain their address from a special board installed in the system. 3-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .org/regauth/oui/oui. The network interface drivers in Sun systems obtain the Ethernet address for the Ethernet interface from a system’s hardware. An Ethernet address is 48 bits long and is displayed as 12 hexadecimal digits (six groups of two digits) separated by colons. you need a unique Ethernet address that is different from the primary host-based assigned Ethernet address. The Ethernet specification describes how bits are encoded on the cable and how devices on the network detect the beginning and the end of a transmission. For systems configured to have more than one interface on the same physical subnet. desktop systems use the address in the nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) chip.

In Ethernet multicast addressing. The system uses a unicast address to send a message to another system on the local Ethernet network. The last three octets determine the specific multicast’s group identity. Multicast Addresses A system uses a multicast address to send a message to a subset of systems on the local Ethernet. When the Network Interface layer receives an Ethernet frame with a destination address of all 1s. Inc. All Rights Reserved. it passes the address to the next layer for processing. Broadcast Addresses A device uses a broadcast address to send messages to all systems on the local Ethernet network. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The Ethernet broadcast address is represented in the form of all 1s in binary format and as ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff in hexadecimal format. broadcast.1 3-7 . Sun Services. Revision A. the value of the first three octets determines if the address is multicast.Introducing Ethernet Frames Types of Ethernet Addresses There are three types of Ethernet addresses: unicast. You can use a system’s unique Ethernet address as a unicast address. Unicast Addresses Unicast addresses are used for one-to-one communication. and multicast.

often on the same subnet or collision domain. Revision A. many systems have multiple interfaces. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Because an Ethernet address targets systems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.Introducing Ethernet Frames Setting a Local Ethernet Address In today’s network environments. Host ID: 80b97223.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Set the local-mac-address? variable in the system’s electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) to true to enable the use of port-based Ethernet addresses. execute the following command: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # 3-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. execute the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING. ok To display the Ethernet address assigned to each interface. Ethernet address 8:0:20:b9:72:23. Serial #12153379.LOOPBACK. No Keyboard OpenBoot 3.19.0.MULTICAST. each interface on the same network or subnet on a multi-interface system must have a unique Ethernet address. execute the banner command at the ok prompt: ok banner Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 360MHz).BROADCAST. Sun network adapters have local Ethernet addresses encoded in their programmable read-only memories (PROMs).RUNNING.168. host-based Ethernet address.1. To view the current.1.1 .IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc. Sun Services. 128 MB (50 ns) memory installed. To view the current value of the local-mac-address? variable in the EEPROM.MULTICAST.

This enables network drivers to use their own port-based addresses after a reboot and not the system-default.BROADCAST. type the following command: # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # You can also use the ifconfig ether command to configure port-based addressing. modify the /etc/hostname. Sun Services. You can change the interface Ethernet address of 8:0:20:b9:72:23 from an Ethernet address assigned globally to an address of 0a:0:20:f0:ac:61 assigned locally by changing the seventh bit to 1. Revision A. To make the change persistent across reboots. To change the Ethernet address.RUNNING.1.168.255 ether a:0:20:f0:ac:61 # This change of Ethernet address is effective until you reboot the system. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.1 3-9 .168. This might be necessary if the interface card cannot supply its own unique Ethernet address. and assigning a local unique number to the last three bytes. host-based addresses. type the following command: # ifconfig hme0 ether a:0:20:f0:ac:61 # To verify a change in the Ethernet address.Introducing Ethernet Frames You can set the local-mac-address? variable to true by using the eeprom command. To make this change.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. type the following command: # ifconfig hme0 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Inc.interface file.

1 . while in the 802.3 format. the fourth field is a frame length field. typically the Ethernet-II frame format is used. the fourth field is a type field.Introducing Ethernet Frames Ethernet-II Frame Analysis The Ethernet-II frame is a single unit of data transported through the LAN. The primary difference between these formats is that in the Ethernet-II format. Sun Services. 3-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.3) format. It is a series of bits with a definite beginning and a definite end. =@ @H 4 8 B its 5 =@ @H 48 Bits xim um ) Typ e 16 Bits (Ma xim Da ta um 150 0 Las t 4 Oc tets Byt es) CR 32 C Bits Figure 3-3 Ethernet-II Frame Note – There are two common Ethernet frame formats: the Ethernet-II format and the logical link control (802. Figure 3-3 shows the Ethernet-II frame format. In the TCP/IP environments. Oc tet Loc atio n: 1-6 7-1 2 1314 15151 4 (M a Pre 64 am Bits ble . All Rights Reserved. The Ethernet specification describes how bits are encoded on the network and how hosts on the network detect the beginning and the end of a transmission. Revision A.

The Ethernet address of the source host. Interface synchronization helps the receiving network interfaces determine where the Ethernet frame begins. The Ethernet address of the destination host. Inc.Introducing Ethernet Frames The information in each frame is necessary to receive and transmit data. The type of data encapsulated in the Ethernet frame. Sun Services. Table 3-1 shows a description of each frame field. Table 3-1 Ethernet-II Frames Field Preamble Description The 64-bit Ethernet preamble field is used for synchronization and is composed of 1s and 0s.1 3-11 . such as IP. The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) used for error detection. Revision A. The value is calculated based on frame contents by both the sending and the receiving hosts. which consists of header information and data from the higher-level protocols. ARP. The data payload. D addr S addr Type Data CRC Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. the frame is discarded. and IP version 6 (IPv6). RARP. If the two values are not equivalent.

All Rights Reserved. or loops back. while the MTU is 8232 bytes for a loopback interface. Note – The Sun GigaSwift Ethernet adapters hardware implements jumbo frames.Introducing Ethernet Frames Maximum Transmission Units The maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a physical network. Inc. Revision A. which support MTUs of up to 9194 bytes. the MTU is 1500 bytes.1 . The loopback interface is a pseudo device that communicates. Figure 3-4 shows how application data is broken down according to the maximum frame size across the LAN. For a physical Ethernet interface. to the host itself. Sun Services. The MTU is hardware specific. Application Layer Application Data Transport Layer Transport Datagram Internet Layer Internet Datagram Network Interface Layer 1500-byte Payload Hardware Layer Figure 3-4 Transportation of Data Across an Ethernet Network 3-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

the packet is corrupted and discarded. are too long and are discarded. Inc. the Ethernet interface performs integrity checking to verify Ethernet frame validity. Sun Services. including the header. These indicate that a device has electrical problems. A frame that is more than 6000 bytes long.1 3-13 . Frames that are greater than 1518 bytes. Jabbers Long Giant Bad CRC Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing Ethernet Frames Ethernet Frame Errors Ethernet frames can be significantly damaged when they traverse a network. are too short and are discarded. is too long. including the header. A frame that is between 1518 bytes and 6000 bytes in length. including the header. Table 3-2 shows some of these error conditions. All Rights Reserved. When a host receives a frame. These are often caused by faulty hardware or software on the sending system. Table 3-2 Error Conditions Error Runts Definition Packets that are less than 64 bytes. If the received packet fails the CRC. including the header. This is also known as a frame check sequence (FCS) error. These can be formed by poor wiring and electrical interference. Revision A. Runts are usually caused by collisions. These are often caused by faulty hardware or software on the sending system. is too long.

168. decreasing packet loss under high-traffic conditions. Only data that pertains to the highest-level protocol header is displayed.1.1. For example. you can capture packets to a file as they are received. The snoop utility displays packet data in one of three forms: q Summary – This is the output mode when the -v or -V options are not used on the command line. Inc. use the -v option on the command line.1.168. Alternatively. type the following: # snoop -d hme0 broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous 192.3. All Rights Reserved. an NFS packet only displays NFS information.Using Network Utilities Using Network Utilities The Solaris 10 OS includes many different utilities to help you configure and troubleshoot the system’s network interfaces.1. Multiple lines of output display for every protocol header in the network packet. sys11 ? Verbose – To invoke the verbose option. Using the snoop Utility The superuser can run the snoop utility to capture network packets and to display the packet contents on the screen. and Ethernet frame header information are not displayed. Sun Services. To examine only broadcast frames on the hme0 interface in summary mode.12 -> (broadcast) ARP C sys12 -> (broadcast) ARP C sys12 -> (broadcast) ARP C # q mode) Who is 192. IP.168. sys13 ? Who is 192. 3-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys12 ? Who is 192.1. You can use the snoop utility to display the contents of the file.1 .168.2. Revision A. The underlying RPC. UDP.

All Rights Reserved.168.Using Network Utilities To examine only broadcast packets on the hme0 interface in the verbose mode.1 3-15 . perform the following command: # snoop -d hme0 -V 192. size = 98 bytes sys11 -> sys12 IP D=192.. sys12 -> sys11 ETHER Type=0800 (IP). For example.2 S=192. to examine packets by using verbose summary mode and by filtering the packets by IP address on the hme0 interface.1 LEN=84.168.1. The snoop utility only displays output when there is network traffic and the traffic matches the filter criteria.168.2 LEN=84. TTL=255 sys12 -> sys11 ICMP Echo request (ID: 345 Sequence number: 0) . TOS=0x0. TTL=255 sys11 -> sys12 ICMP Echo reply (ID: 345 Sequence number: 0) # Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can examine packets by using both verbose summary mode and by filtering the packets by IP address.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 8 arrived at 13:18:44. TOS=0x0.2.1. sys11 -> sys12 ETHER Type=0800 (IP).1.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 1 (ARP Request) ARP: Sender's hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Sender's protocol address = 192.1.1.168.1 S=192.2 Using the /dev/hme device (promiscuous mode) .. sys12 ARP: Target hardware address = ? ARP: Target protocol address = 192. ID=48009. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7.1. Sun Services. Revision A.168..168.. sys11 ARP: q Verbose summary – A single line of output is displayed for every protocol or application contained within the packet. size = 98 bytes sys12 -> sys11 IP D=192.168. ID=45375.1.1.01 ETHER: Packet size = 60 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. type the following: # snoop -v -d hme0 broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----. Inc.

1 LEN=84. 1 1 1 .1 S=192..168.2 Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 2 <Control>-C # To capture broadcast traffic on the hme0 interface and store it in the /tmp/snooper file. type the following command: # snoop -d qfe0 -o /tmp/snooper broadcast # While the snoop utility is capturing information. the egrep -iv 'nfs|ack|contin|ftp|ip' command ignores case (-i) and prints all lines except (-v) lines that contain the patterns nfs. ID=48010.00010 sys12 -> sys11 sys11 -> sys12 ICMP Echo request (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) ICMP Echo reply (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) .168. ftp.1 . Inc. The information in the file that is captured by the snoop utility is in a data-compressed format. TTL=255 ICMP Echo request (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) ETHER Type=0800 (IP).1.168. size = 98 bytes IP D=192. TTL=255 ICMP Echo reply (ID: 346 Sequence number: 0) To filter out specific protocols or portions of the network trace. TOS=0x0.00010 0..2 S=192. You finish the capture by typing a Control+C key sequence.00000 0. Sun Services. 1 0.00000 0. Revision A. pipe the output from the snoop -i command through the egrep command. a record counter displays the number of recorded packets. type the following command: # snoop -d hme0 -o /tmp/snooper 192. and ip.version 2 # To read this format. 2 # 3-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.00010 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 sys11 -> sys12 sys11 -> sys12 sys11 -> sys12 ETHER Type=0800 (IP).168. # snoop -i /tmp/snooper -V | egrep -iv 'nfs|ack|contin|ftp|ip' .168... 2 2 2 # 0. ID=45376. ack. type the following command: # snoop -i /tmp/snooper -V . TOS=0x0. and can only be read by executing the snoop -i command.00010 0.00000 0... contin. # file /tmp/snooper /tmp/snooper: snoop capture file .1. For example.1.2 LEN=84.1.Using Network Utilities To capture this information to a file. All Rights Reserved..00000 0.. size = 98 bytes IP D=192.

Table 3-3 The netstat Output Field Descriptions Field Name Mtu Net/Dest Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Collis Queue Description The name of the device (interface). Sun Services. To display the current usage of the Ethernet interfaces.Using Network Utilities Using the netstat Command The netstat command includes many options and is useful as a network troubleshooting tool. The IP address for that interface. The address can be resolved to a name in the /etc/inet/hosts file. The network number. Output packets. Inc. The MTU in bytes. The number can be resolved to a name in the /etc/inet/networks file. All Rights Reserved. Output errors. The number of packets that are waiting for transmission. Revision A. The number of collisions on this interface.1 3-17 . Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Input errors. Input packets. use the netstat command with the -i option: # netstat -i Name lo0 hme0 # Mtu Net/Dest 8232 loopback 1500 sys11 Address localhost sys11 Ipkts 83505 21775 Ierrs Opkts 0 83505 0 53541 Oerrs Collis Queue 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 3-3 shows the descriptions of the output fields from the netstat command.

To list the parameters for the hme driver. IGMP: 123079 messages received ...... Revision A........ instance lance_mode ipg0 # (read (read (read (read (read (read only) only) only) only) only) and write) (read and write) (read and write) (read and write) 3-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # rawipInErrors = 0 udpInErrors tcpRtoMin ipDefaultTTL = = = 0 400 255 255 0 0 ipv6DefaultHopLimit = icmpInErrors icmp6InErrors = = Using the ndd Command You use the ndd command to examine and set many parameters associated with networking...... perform the command: # ndd /dev/hme \? ? transceiver_inuse link_status link_speed link_mode ipg1 . Inc. use the netstat command with the -s option: # netstat -s <truncated output> RAWIP rawipInDatagrams = 298 ..Using Network Utilities To display protocol-related statistics. .. UDP udpInDatagrams = 45966 . Sun Services... ICMPv6 icmp6InMsgs = 0 . IPv4 ipForwarding = 1 . IPv6 ipv6Forwarding = 2 .1 .. . ICMPv4 icmpInMsgs = 3719 . TCP tcpRtoAlgorithm = 4 . All Rights Reserved.

to see which parameters are available for other drivers. Revision A. however. except for network card configuration. Because multiple hme interfaces might exist.Using Network Utilities The \ character prevents the shell from interpreting ? as a special character. Using the ? parameter lists all parameters for the driver and indicates whether the parameter is read-only or read and write. The following example shows how to use the ndd command to examine the value of the link_speed parameter for the hme0 interface. use the ndd command to set the instance parameter first. You can read the current parameter value or status information for the parameters that are marked with at least a read. Sun Services. You can adjust most parameters accessible through the ndd command without rebooting the system. Inc.1 3-19 . type the commands: # # # # ndd ndd ndd ndd /dev/arp \? /dev/ip \? /dev/icmp \? /dev/tcp \? Sun Microsystems does not currently provide extensive ndd parameter documentation. use the following command: # ndd -set /dev/hme instance 0 # To view the current link speed of the hme0 interface. For example. you may only change a value if it is marked as read and write. To set the instance to 0. All Rights Reserved. The instance parameter determines which hme interface is addressed by subsequent ndd commands. The ndd parameters are also available for other network devices and protocols. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and a value of 0 indicates that the hme0 interface is running at 10 Mbps. type the command: # ndd /dev/hme link_speed 1 # The output of 1 indicates that the hme0 interface is currently running at 100 Mbps.

Using Network Utilities There are several trade-offs involved in setting driver parameters.sun. You can set device driver parameters in two ways: by using the ndd command or by creating a Service Management Facility (SMF) service. changing most driver parameters requires you to change the Solaris 10 OS configuration. Sun might also change the names of parameters in future versions of the Solaris OS. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. 3-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The default settings are suitable for most situations. A good way to test parameter settings is by using the ndd command on the command line.1 . Revision A. q Use the ndd command to set parameters that are valid until you reboot the system.com. You can also create an SMF service. because adjusting parameters can affect normal system operation. Sun Microsystems does not encourage making parameter changes. Because the Solaris 10 OS is preconfigured. q Note – Information about setting ndd parameters in system startup scripts can be found in Chapter 4 of the Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual located at the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) http://docs. Inc.

Sun Services. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. f. Revision A. Inc. e. A general term that describes the unit of data sent across a packet-switching network The process of passing data from layer to layer in the protocol stack and adding header information to the data at each layer The field in the Ethernet frame that describes the type of data being carried in the frame An address format that reaches a specific host The field in an Ethernet frame used for synchronization purposes The maximum number of bytes that are contained in the payload section in a Network Interface layer frame The unit of data sent from the Ethernet interface to the Hardware layer _____ _____ Unicast b. All Rights Reserved. _____ Preamble c. Tasks Perform the following steps: 1. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. MTU a. _____ Type field g. you review many Ethernet concepts.Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces In this exercise. _____ _____ _____ Encapsulation Packet Frame d. Match the terms to their definition.1 3-21 .

and type the rup command. Let this command run for the next step. and execute the netstat command to determine the name of your Ethernet interface. Open another terminal window. and type the command: 5. In one terminal window.1 .Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces 2. Does the rup command send broadcast frames? ________________________________________________________ Do you see the replies to the rup command? Why? ________________________________________________________ Open a terminal window. Which snoop option displays the most verbose output? ________________________________________________________ Which snoop option displays frames arriving on a non-primary interface? ________________________________________________________ 3. and what are their purposes? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Using another terminal window. a. Which snoop option captures packets to a file instead of to standard output? ________________________________________________________ c. All Rights Reserved. 3-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. execute the snoop utility on the default interface to capture only broadcast frames. What are the names of the Ethernet interfaces on your system. log in to another host on your subnet. b. d. Revision A. a. # man snoop Look at the various modes and options for capturing and viewing frames available to you. Inc. Which snoop option displays the size of the entire Ethernet frame in bytes on the summary line? ________________________________________________________ b.

Revision A. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 8. and execute the snoop utility in verbose summary mode. Note – While you might not understand everything that you see in this section of the exercise. and quit all instances of the snoop utility that you are running. All Rights Reserved. and output format of the ndd command. Stop the snoop utility. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9.1 3-23 .Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces Now you use different options of the snoop utility to provide different amounts of output. Stop the snoop utility that is currently running. execute the rup command again. Capture only broadcast frames. capturing only broadcast frames. Log off of the remote host. 6. execute the rup command again. you should at least become familiar with the command syntax. How do the two formats differ? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. depending on the type of network interface in the system. Observe the format of the output from the snoop utility running in verbose mode. Inc. options. and restart the snoop utility in verbose mode. The results of the exercise vary. In the terminal window that is logged in to the remote host. In the terminal window logged in to the remote host. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Sun Services.

What command do you use to make the ndd command set your system’s link_status parameter to 0? _____________________________________________________________ 14. All Rights Reserved. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Do you expect your command from Step 13 to work if you entered it at the command line as the root user? Why? ________________________________________________________ 3-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you manipulate a specific interface on your system. Sun Services. use /dev/hme as the parameter. if your system’s interface is an hme0 interface. Use the ndd command to determine the read and write attributes of ndd parameters for your interface driver. A status of 0 indicates that the interface is down. A status of 1 indicates that the interface is up.1 . 11. Use the ndd command to determine the value of the link_status parameter of the primary network interface on your system.Exercise: Reviewing Ethernet Interfaces In this part of the exercise. Revision A. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 13. Use the appropriate argument with the ndd command to make sure that any instance information retrieved is for the primary network interface. Inc. For example. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 12.

Revision A. Sun Services. issues. Inc. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss the experiences.1 3-25 . or discoveries that you had during the lab exercises. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

e. e Preamble c. and type the command: Look at the various modes and options for capturing and viewing frames available to you. b a g Encapsulation Packet Frame d.1 . 2. # man snoop Open a terminal window. a. All Rights Reserved. Inc.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. A general term that describes the unit of data sent across a packet-switching network The process of passing data from layer to layer in the protocol stack and adding header information to the data at each layer The field in the Ethernet frame that describes the type of data being carried in the frame An address format that reaches a specific host The field in an Ethernet frame used for synchronization purposes The maximum number of bytes that are contained in the payload section in a Network Interface layer frame The unit of data sent from the Ethernet interface to the Hardware layer d Unicast b. f Match the terms to their definition. -o filename 3-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Which snoop option displays the size of the entire Ethernet frame in bytes on the summary line? Which snoop option captures packets to a file instead of to standard output? -S b. MTU a. Revision A. Sun Services. f. c Type field g.

# snoop -V broadcast Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Capture only the broadcast frames. Open another terminal window. Inc. Now you use different options of the snoop utility to provide different amounts of output. Using another terminal window. Sun Services. In one terminal window. the qfe0 interface. What are the names of the Ethernet interfaces on your system. execute the rup command again. -d interface name 3. a. 6. log in to another host on your subnet. -v d. and what are their purposes? The hme0 interface. you will observe the rup utility sending remote status (RSTAT) requests. Stop the snoop utility that is currently running. b. Does the rup command send broadcast frames? Yes. depending on your system. capturing only broadcast frames. Do you see the replies to the rup command? Why? No status replies are seen because the replies are sent to the host by using a unicast address. Observe the format of the output from the snoop utility running in the verbose mode. # snoop -v broadcast 7. Let this command run for the next step. or perhaps the eri0 interface. Stop the snoop utility. execute the snoop utility on the default interface to capture only broadcast frames. Which snoop option displays frames arriving on a non-primary interface? Which snoop option displays the most verbose output? # netstat -i # snoop broadcast 5. Revision A. and execute the netstat command to determine the name of your Ethernet interface. All Rights Reserved.1 3-27 . and type the rup command. and execute the snoop utility in verbose summary mode. and restart the snoop utility in the verbose mode. 8. In the terminal window logged in to the remote host. The purpose of the network interface is to provide access to the LAN. 4.Exercise Solutions c.

execute the rup command again.1 . you should at least become familiar with the command syntax. Use the ndd command to determine the value of the link_status parameter of the primary network interface on your system. The results of the exercise vary. All Rights Reserved. In this part of the exercise. depending on the type of network interface in the system. # ndd /dev/hme link_status 3-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Log off of the remote host. and quit all instances of the snoop utility that you are running. Note – While you might not understand everything that you see in this section of the exercise. This is halfway between the summary mode and verbose mode in degree of verbosity. # ndd -set /dev/hme instance 0 12. Inc. A status of 1 indicates that the interface is up. 11. In the terminal window that is logged in to the remote host. How do the two formats differ? The -v option executes the verbose mode. you manipulate a specific interface on your system. It displays a single summary line for each protocol layer in the packet instead of displaying multiple lines from each layer of encapsulation. It prints packet headers in great detail. Use the appropriate argument of the ndd command to make sure that any instance information retrieved is for the primary network interface. and output format of the ndd command. This display consumes many lines per packet and should be used only on selected packets.Exercise Solutions 9. Sun Services. The -V option executes the summary verbose mode. A status of 0 indicates that the interface is down. options. Revision A. 10.

Exercise Solutions 13. Revision A. For example. use /dev/hme as the parameter. Use the ndd command to determine the read and write attributes of ndd parameters for your interface driver. All Rights Reserved. # ndd /dev/device_of_interest \? Do you expect your command from Step 13 to work if you entered it at the command line as the root user? Why? The command would fail because the link_status parameter is read only. Sun Services.1 3-29 . if your system’s interface is an hme0 interface. Describing Ethernet Interfaces Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. What command do you use to make the ndd command set your system’s link_status parameter to 0? # ndd -set /dev/hme link_status 0 14.

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Upon completion of this module. the in. Sun Services. you should be able to: q q Describe ARP Describe RARP The course map in Figure 4-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Configuring the Network Interface Layer Introducing the TCP/IP Model Introducing LANs and Their Components Course Map Describing Ethernet Interfaces Describing ARP and RARP Figure 4-1 4-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 .Module 4 Describing ARP and RARP Objectives This module describes the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). Additionally. Revision A.rarpd RARP daemon. Inc. and the /etc/inet/hosts and /etc/ethers databases. this module describes the ARP table. All Rights Reserved.

ARP supplies the destination Ethernet address information if the sending system does not already know the destination address. TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer ARP Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 4-2 ARP in the TCP/IP Model Data is encapsulated into an Ethernet frame before it is transmitted. Inc. Revision A. Purpose of ARP The ARP function occurs between the Internet and Network Interface layers of the TCP/IP model.Introducing ARP Introducing ARP ARP is the method used to map a 32-bit IP address to a 48-bit Ethernet address. Sun Services. Figure 4-2 shows the location of the ARP function in the model. they need each other’s Ethernet addresses. Figure 4-3 shows the Ethernet frame. All Rights Reserved. 4-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. An Ethernet frame includes a destination Ethernet address. Destination Ethernet Address Figure 4-3 Source Ethernet Address Type Data Cyclic Redundancy Check Ethernet Frame When two systems need to communicate.1 .

1. Revision A. Inc. The sys11 system sends an ARP request to the local network by using the Ethernet broadcast address (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff). All Rights Reserved.1 4-3 .3? 192.1.2 sys12 Who is 192. The sys12 and sys13 systems recognize that the ARP request contains the IP address and the Ethernet address of the sys11 system.1. only one address resolution is required.Introducing ARP Operation of ARP If the final destination (receiving system) of the message being sent is on the same LAN as the sending system.3 sys13 192. 3. and add this information to their ARP tables if it is not already present. Sun Services.168. an address resolution might be required on each network that the message traverses on the path to its final destination. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The ARP request includes the IP address of the sys13 system. 192.168.168. This type of entry is known as an unsolicited entry because the information was not explicitly requested.168. The broadcast is seen by the sys12 and sys13 systems. assume that the sys11 system must communicate with the sys13 system: 1. 2.1 sys11 1 192. If the final destination is on a different network.1.168. Figure 4-4 shows a simplification of the address resolution process.1.3 is 8:00:20:c0:78:73 Figure 4-4 Address Resolution Process 2 For example.

Use the ndd /dev/ip ip_ire_arp_interval command to display the length of time that solicited ARP entries are cached. Solicited entries are those for which an Ethernet address was asked specifically by a host. Revision A. The default value is 1200000. and it is sent using the unicast Ethernet address of the sys11 system (8:0:20:b9:72:23). The default value is 300000. This value is stored in milliseconds and translates to 20 minutes. 4-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . The sys13 system identifies its own IP address in the ARP request and sends an ARP reply to the sys11 system. The sys11 system receives the ARP reply and stores the information about sys13 in its ARP table. Use the ndd /dev/arp arp_cleanup_interval command to display the length of time that unsolicited ARP entries are cached. The ARP reply includes the Ethernet address of the sys13 system. All Rights Reserved. This value is stored in millisecond and translates to 5 minutes. Sun Services. an ARP request is sent to the local network. If an Ethernet address does not appear in the ARP table. whereas unsolicited entries are a result of storing information learned about a host that was performing an ARP request on the local network. held in memory. This type of entry is a solicited entry because the sys11 system requested the information. ARP Table ARP responses are stored in the ARP table so that the information is available if it is required again in the near future. This table is read each time a destination Ethernet address is required to prepare an Ethernet frame for transmission. stores IP addresses and Ethernet addresses. The ARP table. Other hosts that see the ARP request also update their ARP table with the IP and Ethernet addresses of the requesting host.Introducing ARP 4. Inc. 5.

0.0 # Mask --------------255.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys11 hme0 224.1 4-5 . also known as the MAC or the Ethernet address. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services.0. Incomplete entries contain an IP address only.255 240. A system can be configured to publish (advertise) an ARP entry on behalf of systems that cannot respond to ARP requests.255 255.0 Flags Phys Addr ----. This is used for the 224.0. M is a mapped entry. to examine all entries in the ARP table type the command: # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----. U is an unresolved or incomplete entry.0. Complete entries map an IP address to an Ethernet address. This indicates whether the entry refers to a host or the multicast address range.--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 The fields displayed in the output from the arp -a command are shown in Table 4-1. Table 4-1 ARP Fields Field Device Description The network device (network interface) for this entry.0 multicast entry only.255.255. This is the interface connected to the network on which this system resides.255.Introducing ARP ARP Table Management The arp command displays and controls the ARP table entries that map IP addresses to Ethernet addresses. For example. The IP address or host name of the system to which this entry applies. The status of the ARP entry: q q IP Address Mask Flags S is a static entry.0.0. P is a published entry. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Static entries do not time out.255. The host mask value applied. q q Phys Addr The physical address for the entry. Inc.

Inc. To add a static (until reboot) ARP table entry. to add a host’s Ethernet address manually to the ARP table. Use a published ARP entry when you want a host to answer an ARP request on behalf of another host. For example.1) at 8:0:20:b9:72:23 permanent published # The keyword permanent relates to the S flag.99 1:2:3:4:5:6 Use the arp and grep commands to search for the new table entry: # arp -a | grep 99 hme0 192. such as a system which is reached through a modem connection. Sun Services. The keyword published refers to the P flag.255. type the command: # arp -s hostname ethernet_address The preceding command overrides the default time-to-live (TTL) value for ARP table entries by creating a static entry. This is a useful option for heterogeneous environments and for some SLIP or PPP configurations in which some hosts cannot respond to ARP requests for themselves. All Rights Reserved. For example: # arp sys13 sys13 (192.1.Introducing ARP To examine a specific ARP table entry.255 S 01:02:03:04:05:06 Populate an ARP table manually in situations in which the destination device cannot respond to ARP requests. type the command: # arp hostname where hostname is the name of the host or its decimal-dot notated IP address.168. type the command: # arp -s 192.99 # 255.1 .168.1.168.3) at 8:0:20:c0:78:73 # Information about any flags is also displayed.168.1. execute the command: # arp -s hostname ethernet_address pub 4-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Revision A. For example: # arp sys11 sys11 (192.255. To add a published ARP table entry.

For example. to remove the static entry that was added.1. execute the command: # arp -d hostname where hostname is the name of the host or its decimal-dot notated IP address. execute the command: # arp -f filename Entries in the file can be in the following form: hostname ethernet_address [pub] To delete an ARP table entry. use the snoop utility: # snoop -v -d hme0 arp In a second window.99 (192. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----. Revision A.1 4-7 .Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 13:47:30.Introducing ARP To add ARP table entries from a file. Inc.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. use the ping utility to contact another system on the network that is not listed currently in the system’s ARP table: # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # Observe the output from the snoop utility: Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----.99) deleted # To view the network traffic generated by an ARP request.99 192. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:b9:72:23. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.168.168. type the command: # arp -d 192.1.168.1.00038 ETHER: Packet size = 42 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff.

1.1.1 . All Rights Reserved.168. Sun ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 2 arrived at 13:47:30.1. Sun Services.168. Revision A.1. sys12 ETHER: ----. Inc.168.2.168. sys11 Target hardware address = ? Target protocol address = 192.1.2. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0806 (ARP) ETHER: ARP: ----.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 2 (ARP Reply) ARP: Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Sender’s protocol address = 192. sys11 ARP: <Control>-C# 4-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys12 ARP: Target hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ARP: Target protocol address = 192.Introducing ARP ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) Length of hardware address = 6 bytes Length of protocol address = 4 bytes Opcode 1 (ARP Request) Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 Sender’s protocol address = 192.1.00038 ETHER: Packet size = 60 bytes ETHER: Destination = 8:0:20:b9:72:23.

The RARP request is reported as a REVARP request by the snoop utility. Operation of RARP A system sends a RARP request to the Ethernet broadcast address when the system is booting and does not have any way to determine what its IP address will be without requesting the information over the network. Inc. For example: # snoop -v -d hme0 rarp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----. All Rights Reserved. To request the correct network boot file.Introducing RARP Introducing RARP RARP is the method used to map a 48-bit Ethernet address to a 32-bit IP address.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 12:52:11.1 4-9 . each client uses RARP to obtain its IP address at boot time. Diskless clients and JumpStart™ software clients depend upon another host or server from which to retrieve a network boot file. Each network boot file has a name that is based on the IP address of each client. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7.00053 ETHER: Packet size = 64 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. Revision A.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 8035 (RARP) ETHER: ARP: ----.rarpd). and that also has appropriately configured files or network naming service information. Sun Services. Any system on the subnet running the RARP server daemon (in. Purpose of RARP RARP is one of the protocols that a system can use when it needs to determine its IP address. RARP operations include a request and a reply. responds with the booting system’s IP address.

1.1 . sys11 ARP: Target hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 ARP: Target protocol address = 192.00053 ETHER: Packet size = 42 bytes ETHER: Destination = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7. sys12 ARP: <Control>-C# By default. Sun ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:b9:72:23.168.1. All Rights Reserved.1.0. OLD-BROADCAST Target hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Target protocol address = ? <Control>-C# The RARP reply is reported as a REVARP reply by the snoop utility.168.0.2.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 1 arrived at 12:52:19.0. To force a system to perform a RARP boot. Inc. For example: # snoop -v -d hme0 rarp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) ETHER: ----.ARP/RARP Frame ----ARP: ARP: Hardware type = 1 ARP: Protocol type = 0800 (IP) ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes ARP: Length of protocol address = 4 bytes ARP: Opcode 4 (REVARP Reply) ARP: Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ARP: Sender’s protocol address = 192. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 8035 (RARP) ETHER: ARP: ----. type the command: ok boot net:rarp 4-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the OpenBoot™ PROM is configured to use RARP as the network boot strategy. Sun Services.Introducing RARP ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: ARP: Length of hardware address = 6 bytes Length of protocol address = 4 bytes Opcode 3 (REVARP Request) Sender’s hardware address = 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Sender’s protocol address = 0. Revision A.

Whether the boot server uses the local /etc/ethers and /etc/inet/hosts files or the corresponding naming service database.server start script if either the /tftpboot directory or the /rplboot directory existed. Revision A. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS.d/S16boot.rarpd RARP daemon must be running (as the root user) on systems that provide RARP responses to requests. the /etc/ethers file is created on boot servers only. the in. The /etc/ethers and the /etc/inet/hosts Databases The /etc/ethers and the /etc/inet/hosts files (or the corresponding network-naming service databases) support the Ethernet address-to-IP address relationship.Introducing RARP The in.rarpd RARP daemon was started by the /etc/rc3. for example: # cat /etc/ethers 8:0:20:c0:78:73 sys13 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 sys12 # Note – Usually. the in. Before the Solaris 9 OS.1 4-11 .rarpd RARP daemon was started by the /etc/rc3. The resulting IP address is returned to the system that made the RARP request. View the /etc/ethers file with any text viewer.rarpd RARP daemon. The svc:/network/rarp SMF service enables the in. The in.server start script. Inc.d/ S15nfs.rarpd daemon queries the /etc/ethers file (or corresponding network-naming service database) for the host name of the system that is performing the RARP request.conf file. Sun Services. is specified in the /etc/nsswitch. The host name is resolved to an IP address by using the /etc/inet/hosts file (or corresponding network-naming service database) on the server. All Rights Reserved.rarpd RARP Daemon The in. The /etc/ethers file contains the Ethernet address and corresponding host name for a system. which is needed to respond to RARP requests.

Revision A. You force systems to perform ARP requests. you become more familiar with the ARP table and the arp command. Work with other students to make sure that you all can see the expected results in the next part of this exercise.Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs In this exercise. and you view the ARP transactions with the snoop utility. Be sure to write. any commands that you use during the exercise so that you can use this exercise as a reference after you have completed this course. Sun Services. Inc.1 . 4-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. in the space provided.

All Rights Reserved.1 4-13 . _____________________________________________________________ 6.x) and your host’s own entries.0. In another window. Why did you receive this result? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Observe the new ARP entry for the host with which your system just communicated. _____________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________ 7. Sun Services. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ To communicate with another host. Examine the ARP table again. the system must first learn the Ethernet address of that host. ____________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________ 5. Revision A. Use the ping command to communicate with a host that is not in your system’s ARP table. and check the contents of your ARP table for another host in your subnet that is not currently listed. Examine the output from the snoop utility.Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs Tasks Perform the following steps: 1. _____________________________________________________________ Explain why the table contents contain the entries reported by the arp command. start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the broadcast frames. Inc. Use the arp command to delete all host entries except for the multicast entry (224. display the current contents of the ARP table on your host. _____________________________________________________________ 4. 2. In a terminal window. Open a terminal on your local host.0. Issue the ping command to a host in your local network that is not currently in your ARP table.

Exercise: Reviewing ARPs and RARPs 9. ____________________________________________________________ 12. b. ____________________________________________________________ 4-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ____________________________________________________________ 13. Start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the ARP frames. ____________________________________________________________ 15. Stop the snoop utility. Did you see the ARP request? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 16. Delete the ARP table entry for the host that you previously used. ____________________________________________________________ 11. Revision A. Use the ping command. Did you see the ARP request? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ Did you see the ARP response? _______________________________________________________ Why? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 14. Use the ping command. Inc. Examine the output from the snoop utility. All Rights Reserved. ____________________________________________________________ 10. Sun Services. and attempt to contact the host again. c. a. Examine the output from the snoop utility. d. Quit the snoop utility. and attempt to contact the host again. b. a.1 .

Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.1 4-15 . All Rights Reserved.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. issues. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Inc. display the current contents of the ARP table on your host.0.--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 Explain why the table contents contain the entries reported by the arp command.0 Flags Phys Addr ----.255 255. Unsolicited entries generated by ARP requests from other hosts might also be present.255. In a terminal window.0.255.0. published entries and multicast entries by default. an entry is present.255 240. Sun Services.0.0 # Mask --------------255.0 Flags Phys Addr ----.255 255. Issue the ping command to a host in your local network that is not currently in your ARP table. Locally configured interfaces have their own static.0. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 3.255. Revision A.255.0. Observe the new ARP entry for the host with which your system just communicated.0.255.1 . All Rights Reserved.0. Examine the ARP table again.255. the system must first learn the Ethernet address of that host.255. # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----. To communicate with another host.0 # Mask --------------255.255.--------------08:00:20:c0:78:73 08:00:20:90:b5:c7 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 4-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255. If the system has previously contacted another system on the LAN.255.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1.255 255. 2.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys11 hme0 224.255 240. # arp -a Net to Media Table: IPv4 Device IP Address -----.-------------------hme0 sys13 hme0 sys12 hme0 sys11 hme0 224.

resulting in the broadcast requests that are observed in the snoop utility’s output.1. Examine the output from the snoop utility.0. Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. -d sys12 (192.Exercise Solutions 4.1. Why did you receive this result? The following is observed in the terminal running the snoop utility: ________________________________ sys11 -> (broadcast) ETHER Type=0806 (ARP).255.2) deleted -d sys13 (192.0. Revision A.--------------. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 8. The snoop utility is filtering on broadcasts.--------------sys11 255.0. # arp sys12 # arp sys13 # Use the arp command to delete all host entries except for the multicast entry (224.0. All Rights Reserved.1 4-17 .0 SM 01:00:5e:00:00:00 7. Open a terminal on your local host. # snoop -V broadcast Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 6. In another window.0 240.168. Inc.3) deleted 5. # arp -a Net to Device -----hme0 hme0 # Media Table: IPv4 IP Address Mask Flags Phys Addr -------------------.0. size = 42 bytes sys11 -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192. and check the contents of your ARP table for another host in your subnet that is not currently listed.168. start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the broadcast frames. which explains why the ARP reply and the ICMP traffic were not observed.2.0.1.----. Sun Services. Use the ping command to communicate with a host that is not in your system’s ARP table.255.x) and your host’s own entries. Recall that ARP replies are unicasts.255 SP 08:00:20:b9:72:23 224. sys12 ? An address resolution was required because the host did not have the destination host address information in its ARP table.168.

Use the ping command. All Rights Reserved. c. Control-C# 10. size = 60 bytes 192. sys12 is 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 Stop the snoop utility. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # Type=0806 (ARP). Use the ping command.1. Yes. # arp -d sys12 sys12 (192. Why? The snoop utility is filtering out all but ARP packets. Start the snoop utility in verbose summary mode to filter out all but the ARP frames. # snoop -V arp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 11. Press the Control+C key sequence to stop the snoop utility.168.2.168. and attempt to contact the host again.1. Why? The snoop utility is filtering out all but the ARP packets. Examine the output from the snoop utility. Revision A.168. sys12 ? Type=0806 (ARP). Inc. Delete the ARP table entry for the host that you previously used.1.1 . Sun Services. size = 42 bytes Who is 192.2. Did you see the ARP response? Yes. ________________________________ sys11 -> (broadcast) ETHER sys11 -> (broadcast) ARP C ________________________________ sys13 -> sys11 ETHER sys13 -> sys11 ARP R a. b.Exercise Solutions 9. Did you see the ARP request? 4-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 14. The ARP responses are unicast but are still ARP packets. and attempt to contact the host again.2) deleted # 12. d. # ping sys12 sys12 is alive # 13.

Revision A. Examine the output from the snoop utility. The snoop utility filters out all but ARP packets. 16. Did you see the ARP request? No. Why? The system resolved the destination Ethernet address by using its local ARP table. a. therefore. Quit the snoop utility.Exercise Solutions 15. Control-C# Describing ARP and RARP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.1 4-19 . an ARP request was unnecessary. which explains why you did not see any ARP traffic resulting from the ping command. b. All Rights Reserved. Inc. No output is seen from the snoop utility. Press the Control+C key sequence.

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including the purpose of IP. Sun Services. this module explains the purpose of interface configuration files and describes how to configure logical interfaces. This module also describes subnetting and the variable length subnet mask (VLSM). the IP datagram.Module 5 Configuring IP Objectives This module describes the features of IP.1 . Revision A. and IP address types. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Additionally. Upon completion of this module. you should be able to: q q q q q q Describe the Internet layer protocols Describe the IP datagram Describe the IP address types Describe subnetting and VLSMs Describe the interface configuration files Administer logical interfaces 5-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 5-1 Course Map 5-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Objectives The course map in Figure 5-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services.1 . Revision A.

LOOPBACK.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. router advertisement.0. enables systems to send control or error messages to other systems. Revision A. If the amount of application data is larger than the MTU. Inc. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) specifies that fragmentation occur at each router.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Message types that are sent include echo request. echo reply. fragments are created as units of data that are broken into smaller units for transmission.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols IP is implemented at the Internet layer and is documented in RFC 791. Application data must fit in the data portion of an Ethernet frame.BROADCAST. To view the MTU of an interface. These messages provide a communication mechanism between the IP layer on one system and the IP layer on another system. Purpose of IP IP is provided by a loadable kernel module and has two main functions. and time exceeded. redirect.1. type the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. ICMP.1 5-3 .1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. based on the MTU of the interface through which the IP datagrams must pass.RUNNING. The upper limit on the amount of data in the Ethernet frame is defined by the MTU of the Network Interface layer. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IP provides: q q Connectionless delivery of datagrams on the network Fragmentation and reassembly of data to accommodate data links that implement different sizes of MTUs A companion protocol for IP.168.MULTICAST.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0. router solicitation.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. destination unreachable.

This communication can include a control message. Inc. ICMP messages are defined in RFC 792. use this error messaging feature as a diagnostic tool. Network administrators and system utilities. All Rights Reserved. For example. Revision A. The ICMP header appears after the IP header and varies depending on the type of ICMP message. 2 0 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Code Unused Checksum Figure 5-2 ICMP Destination Unreachable Header Template Format 5-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. view the /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp. such as Network is unreachable.1 . or an error message. Figure 5-2 shows an ICMP header when the destination is unreachable. Sun Services. ICMP Message Types Some common ICMP message types include: q q q q q q Echo request and reply Destination unreachable Router advertisement Router solicitation Redirect Time exceeded Note – To obtain supported ICMP message type information.h file. such as the traceroute command.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Purpose of ICMP ICMP enables IP on one system to send control and error messages to IP on other systems. such as a routing redirect.

1 5-5 . Sun Services. Inc.Introducing the Internet Layer Protocols Figure 5-3 shows an ICMP header for a redirect message. 0 2 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Code Gateway Internet Address Checksum Figure 5-3 ICMP Redirect Message Header Template Format Figure 5-4 shows an ICMP header for an echo request or echo reply message. 0 2 1 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Type Identifier Code Checksum Sequence Number Figure 5-4 ICMP Echo Request or Echo Reply Message Header Template Format Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.

Introducing the IP Datagram Introducing the IP Datagram IP datagrams are the basic units of information that are passed across a TCP/IP network.1 . IP Datagram Header Fields Figure 5-5 shows the IPv4 datagram header fields. These protocols are UDP. Sun Services. such as the source IP address and the destination IP address. The datagram header contains information. Revision A. " *EJI Versio n Heade Lengt r h Datag Time t o " *EJI " *EJI Type o Servic f e entifie r " *EJI " *EJI " *EJI Datag ram L ram Id " *EJI ength ent Of fset " *EJI Live Flags ol e IP A Protoc Fragm Check Sourc Destin IP Op tions a sum ddres s ation I P Add ress uired nd Pa dding If Req Figure 5-5 IPv4 Datagram Header Fields 5-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. TCP. All Rights Reserved. and ICMP. The TTL field determines how many routers or hosts can process a datagram before the datagram must be discarded. The header also contains information about which protocol will receive data from IP. Inc.

1 5-7 . Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The length of the entire datagram. Inc. Revision A. The location of the fragment in the overall set of application data. if required. The header checksum used to verify that the header is not damaged. This value must be at least 20 bytes The specified quality of service. Optional information and padding. These flags define whether the datagram can be fragmented and whether the datagram is part of a message that was fragmented.Introducing the IP Datagram The fields in the datagram header are described in Table 5-1. All Rights Reserved. The destination system’s IPv4 address. The source system’s IPv4 address. measured in bytes. The value assigned by the sender to make reassembly of fragments possible for the receiving system. Table 5-1 IP Datagram Header Fields Field Version Header length Type of service Datagram length Datagram identifier Flags Description The version of the protocol. Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Checksum Source IP address Destination IP address IP options and padding Refer to RFC 791 for detailed information about the header fields. The maximum number of routers through which the datagram can pass. The Transport layer protocol to which the data in this datagram is delivered. Sun Services. The length of a datagram header. Information related to fragmentation. for example 4 (IPv4).

All Rights Reserved. or an Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) message. Inc.1 . an ICMP message. 5-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.Introducing the IP Datagram IP Datagram Payload The IP datagram payload can contain any one of the following: a UDP datagram. Revision A. a TCP segment.

777. 0 1 . Each IPv4 address identifies a network and a unique interface on that network. The value of the high-order bits (first three bits) determines which portion of the IPv4 address is the network number and which portion is the host number. There are three classes of unicast addresses: Class A.255 for private networks.0 address range cannot be used because 127.0. 8-bit fields.0 –10.150.214 host addresses. Inc. All Rights Reserved.127 Figure 5-6 Example: 10. Sun Services. Class A Addresses Class A addresses are for very large networks and provide 16.0.31).0. They are normally represented as four dot-separated. 129.255. and the remaining 24 bits define the host number.0. Class B.182. Unicast addresses are used when a system needs to communicate with another system.1 is reserved for the loopback interface. Revision A. Figure 5-6 shows the beginning of the address in binary format.102.2. These addresses are not routed in the Internet. In addition.1 5-9 . and Class C. This addressing scheme is called classful IPv4 addressing. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the Class A network 10. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details.0. Unicast Addresses Unicast addresses identify a single interface on a network.0. This makes possible up to 128 Class A networks. each represented by a decimal number between 0–255 (for example.Introducing IP Address Types Introducing IP Address Types IPv4 addresses are 32 bits in length.255. or octets. the 127. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. that bit and the next seven bits define the network number.113 Class A Unicast Addresses If the first bit is 0.

and the remaining 16 bits define the host number.255 Example: 192.255 Figure 5-8 0 . those two bits and the next 14 bits define the network number. These addresses are not routed in the Internet.255 Figure 5-7 Example: 129.384 Class B networks.0–192. 10 128 . Revision A.13 Class C Unicast Addresses If the first three bits are 110.150.255 for private networks. These addresses are not routed in the Internet.255. This makes possible 16.1 . The IANA has reserved the Class B networks 172. The IANA has reserved the Class C networks 192.097.168.227.0–172. All Rights Reserved.534 host addresses. Inc.9.255.255 for private networks. 110 192 .2 Class B Unicast Addresses If the first two bits are 10.16.254.31. Sun Services. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details.0.Introducing IP Address Types Class B Addresses Class B addresses are for large networks and provide 65. Figure 5-7 shows the beginning of the address in binary format. Figure 5-8 shows the beginning of the address in binary format. those three and the next 21 bits define the network number.223 0 . This makes possible up to 2.191 0 .168. and the remaining eight bits define the host number. Refer to RFC 1918 for additional details.0.152 Class C networks. 5-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Class C Addresses Class C addresses are for small-sized and medium-sized networks and provide 254 host addresses.

Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255 Example: 224.1 5-11 . Sun Services. Multicast Addresses Multicasting is a very efficient way to send large amounts of data to many systems at the same time.0. Packets that are sent to a multicast address are received by all interfaces that are associated with the multicast address.255 0 . or C address is an address for an individual host. Therefore. B.0. The low-order 23 bits of the IPv4 multicast address are placed into the low-order 23 bits of the Ethernet multicast address.1 maps to 01:00:5e:00:00:01. Inc.1.1.239 0 . 1110 224 . an IPv4 multicast address of 224.168.8 Figure 5-9 Multicasting If the first four bits are 1110. the address is a multicast address.Introducing IP Address Types Broadcast Addresses A broadcast address is the address that reaches all systems on a particular network. All Rights Reserved. A broadcast means that data is sent to all of the hosts on the LAN. Figure 5-9 shows the beginning of a multicast address in binary format. Revision A. An example of a broadcast address is 192. The IPv4 multicast address maps to an Ethernet multicast address so that the network interface listens for a multicast traffic. You use the ifconfig command to configure an interface’s broadcast address. In the Solaris 10 OS. which makes the first field an integer value between 224 and 239.255.0. the default broadcast address is an address that has a host number of all ones when represented in binary.255 0 . The remaining 28 bits comprise a group identification number for a specific multicast group. while a Class A. A multicast address identifies interfaces that belong to a specific multicast group. An IPv4 multicast address is a destination address for one or more hosts.

which is to divide the standard host number field into two parts: the subnet number and the host number on that subnet. Each router interface must be on a unique network and must have a unique address. Two-level Hierarchy Network Number Host Number Three-level Hierarchy Network Number Figure 5-10 Subnetting Subnet Number Host Number 5-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Assigning different IP addresses to different networks is required because of the IP addressing scheme required by routers. Sun Services. Inc. Subnetting and VLSMs are two ways of dividing an assigned network address into multiple. These smaller networks are referred to as subnetworks. smaller networks for use within an organization. Revision A. Subnetting You can divide a network into subnets to do the following: q Isolate network traffic within local subnets. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Introducing Subnetting and VLSM The Internet is composed of many routers that interconnect different networks. therefore reducing contention for network bandwidth Secure or limit access to a subnet Enable localization of specific network protocols to a subnet Permit the association of a subnet with a specific geography or a department Enable administrative work to be broken into logical units q q q q Figure 5-10 shows the basic idea of subnetting. or subnets.1 .

The netmask is the mechanism by which this is determined.255.0.0.0. Netmasks are written by using the same decimal dot-separated notation that is used for IP addresses. In a subnet environment. you need to be able to determine how much of the IP address represents the network and how much of the IP address represents the host number. A netmask is 32 bits in length.0 There are standard netmasks for the three classes of unicast address. All Rights Reserved. The netmask for a Class A network is 255. The corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host number.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Netmasks An IP address contains both the network on which the Solaris OS is located and the host number on the network assigned to that system. The netmask for a Class B network is 255.255.0. The netmask for a Class C network is 255.255. Each bit in the netmask is used to state whether the corresponding bit in the IP address forms part of the network number or the host number. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a netmask which has the first sixteen bits set to 1 and the last sixteen bits set to 0 is written: 255. Inc. Revision A. Sun Services.0 A netmask which has the first twenty bits set to 1 and the last twelve bits set to 0 is written: 255.1 5-13 . For example.0. Each IP address has a netmask associated with it.255. The bit values are associated with either the network number or the host number as follows: 1 0 The corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number.255.0.0.240.

each with 8190 hosts.159.0 172.191.32.0.0.0 172.168.16.16.16.0. and the broadcast address is 172.168. All Rights Reserved.16. Revision A.128.64. This gives a single network of 65. this is 255.127.255 172.0. to create 8 separate networks you need three additional 1s in the netmask. If you choose to divide this single network into.223. Because the number 8 is the number 2 to the power 3. smaller networks.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM For example. eight smaller networks.255 172.255 172.255. you can do so by changing the netmask.192. The default netmask value (in binary) is: 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 The additional 1s are placed in the netmask next to the existing 1s to give: 11111111 11111111 11100000 00000000 Written in decimal format.16. This netmask creates eight new.255.31. you first need to know what power of 2 the number 8 is. Table 5-2 Netmask Network Addresses Network Number 172.1 .0 172. Sun Services.16.16.95. for example.16.16.255.168.63.255 172. By using a different netmask. Inc.16. it is possible to divide this single network in to more.255 172. (Netmasks always create a total number of networks that is a power of 2.224.0 Broadcast Address 172.16.16.0 172.0 172.255.) The power of 2 value determines how many extra 1s are required in the netmask.255.0.255 172.224.255 5-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.534 hosts.16.96.168.160. The network numbers and broadcast addresses of the eight new networks are listed in Table 5-2.255 172. consider the Class B network 172.16.0 172.0. To do this. smaller networks. The default netmask for this network is 255.0 172.

Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Contiguous Netmasks Each bit in a netmask is independent of any other bit. It is possible to have netmasks in which the 1s and 0s are interleaved. the netmask consists of a sequences of 1s followed by a sequence of 0s). RFC 950 recommends the use of contiguous subnet masks only. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1 5-15 . Revision A. For example: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000 Noncontiguous Netmasks Although RFC 950 recommends the use of contiguous subnet masks only. high-order bits (that is. For example: 11111111 11111111 11111111 01001010 Using noncontiguous subnet masks makes administration of the network more difficult and should be avoided if at all possible. All Rights Reserved. nothing prevents the use of noncontiguous subnet masks. A contiguous subnet mask is one that uses only contiguous. but this is not recommended. Sun Services.

RUNNING.0.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255.168.1. but it is possible to specify a netmask other than the default. Sun Services. use the netmask argument to set the netmask for an interface.240.LOOPBACK. When configuring an interface on the command line by using the ifconfig command.1.MULTICAST. specified as: q q q q Dot-separated decimals A single.168.LOOPBACK.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.0.0 # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. hexadecimal value preceded by 0x A + (plus) sign A name listed in the /etc/inet/networks file or equivalent naming service database For example: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168.1 . Inc.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.1.1.RUNNING.RUNNING. The default behavior is to apply the appropriate class of netmask depending upon the address.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.0.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 netmask 255.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 5-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Configuring the Netmask A netmask is configured on each network interface when an IP address is assigned. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. The netmask argument is followed by the netmask value.0.

0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.0. the ifconfig command can be supplied with a netmask as an argument. or it can determine which netmask to use based upon system information.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192. If the netmask is changed. the broadcast address must also be changed to reflect the new network.1 5-17 .IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The /etc/inet/netmasks File The svc:/network/physical SMF service configures the network interfaces at system boot.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM The broadcast address for an interface is related to the netmask. When configuring network interfaces.168.sh script.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.LOOPBACK.d/S30network.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 broadcast + # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. The simplest way to do this is to use the broadcast + argument to the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.15.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.RUNNING.168.1.MULTICAST. Inc.MULTICAST.1.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.BROADCAST.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS.sh in the Solaris 9 OS while earlier releases were configured as part of the S30rootusr. Sun Services.0. the network interfaces were configured at boot time during the execution of the /etc/rcS.BROADCAST.0. This method uses the ifconfig command to configure the network interfaces.

1 . Each entry in the /etc/inet/netmasks file contains the netmask definition of a network number. Revision A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. The /etc/netmasks file is linked symbolically to the /etc/inet/netmasks file. an individual line is entered into this file. Sun Services. For every network that is subnetted.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM Netmasks for particular networks can be defined in the /etc/inet/netmasks file. The /etc/inet/netmasks file enables the permanent assignment of a netmask. The ifconfig command consults the /etc/inet/netmasks file (or equivalent naming-service database) if no netmask is specified as an argument. 5-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

MULTICAST. Sun Services.0.0.168.0.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1.255. Inc.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM For example: # cat /etc/inet/netmasks # # The netmasks file associates Internet Protocol (IP) address # masks with IP network numbers.168.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING.1 netmask fffff000 broadcast 192.LOOPBACK. # # network-number netmask # # The term network-number refers to a number obtained from the Internet Network # Information Center.BROADCAST.1.1 5-19 .255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # ifconfig hme0 down # ifconfig hme0 netmask + broadcast + # ifconfig hme0 up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.0.32.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0 255.0 255.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1. # # Both the network-number and the netmasks are specified in # "decimal dot" notation. Revision A.168.LOOPBACK.0 # The netmask value in the netmask file can be specified when configuring the network interface by using the + (plus) argument with the netmask argument: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.0.255.255.g: # # 128.255. e. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.1.0 # 192.15.168.

0.3.3.0 12.0 12.0 12.3. 12. .0 12.3. Sun Services.255.254.6 OS.3.3.0 255.0.3.254.255.0.3.224 Note – VLSM subnet masks’ syntax has been recognized since the Solaris 2. .254.0 12.252.254.1.3.3. .254.3. q An example of VLSM entries in the /etc/inet/netmasks file is: 12.224 Figure 5-11 Subnet Mask Addresses 5-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM VLSM RFC 950 specifies how an IP network could use subnet masks.0 12.252. .3. Inc.64 . All Rights Reserved.254. 12.1.0 12.192 12.0. 12.32 12.0 12.0.0.0.0 12.0.0 12.0.0.255.0 12.253.2. Multiple subnet masks permit route aggregation.0.253.0 255.0 .0 255. . 16-bit Subnet Mask 24-bit Subnet Mask 27-bit Subnet Mask 12.255. Revision A.2. .3.1 . which can significantly reduce the amount of routing information at the backbone level within an organization’s routing domain. Figure 5-11 shows these additional subnet and host addresses.3.0 12.0 12.0 .254.3.0.0 12. Two of the main advantages to assign more than one subnet mask to a given IP network number are: q Multiple subnet masks permit more efficient use of an organization’s assigned IP address space.255.254. it is considered a network with VLSMs because the extended-network numbers have different lengths at each subnet level. When an IP network is assigned more than one subnet mask.

255. Figure 5-12 shows the breakdown of the number of networks and the number of hosts as a result of a fixed subnet mask being applied to the address.     1024 – Two Hosts Per Subnet 64 Subnets Figure 5-12 Breakdown of Hosts and Subnets Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.Introducing Subnetting and VLSM One of the major problems with supporting only a single subnet mask across a given network number is that once the mask is selected.0 yields additional subnet and host addresses.252. All Rights Reserved.1 5-21 . Sun Services. a Class B subnet that is masked with 255. Revision A. For example. it locks the organization into a fixed number of fixed-sized subnets.

conf file has the files keyword for host resolution.sh script reads the /etc/hostname. Revision A.Introducing the Interface Configuration Files Introducing the Interface Configuration Files System administrators often configure system interfaces from the command line so that the changes are made immediately without having to reboot the system. The /etc/hostname. The /etc/inet/hosts File The /etc/inet/hosts file contains the IPv4 addresses and the host names of the interfaces on your system. which is the name of the system. 5-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This file is also referenced at system startup when the interfaces are being configured.interface file. the S30rootusr. For example. In earlier releases of Solaris.hme0 and it contains at least one line.1 . The /etc/hosts file is linked symbolically to the /etc/inet/hosts file. Inc. Additional interfaces can be configured by creating additional hostname. This configuration must be performed manually each time the system is restarted for any reason because changes made at the command line are not stored in configuration files. The service assigns an IPv4 address on the local system for each IPv4 interface.interface files manually. Note – In the Solaris 9 OS.interface file.d/S30network. the file is called /etc/hostname. At least one /etc/hostname. sys11. All Rights Reserved. This file is referenced when the /etc/nsswitch.sh startup script reads the /etc/hostname. These files must contain at least one entry: the host name or the IPv4 address that is associated with the network interface. the /etc/rcS.interface File The svc:/network/physical SMF service reads the /etc/hostname.interface file.interface file must exist on the local system for each interface to be configured. if the hme0 interface is the primary network interface for a system called sys11. Configuration files enable systems to automatically configure interfaces during the boot process. Sun Services.

Revision A.0. Sun Services. the reserved network address that supports interprocess communication by permitting the local system to send packets to itself. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0.Introducing the Interface Configuration Files An example of an /etc/inet/hosts file is: # more /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127. If a system requires a host name change. the following files must be edited to reflect the new host name: q q q The /etc/inet/hosts file The /etc/nodename file The /etc/hostname.1.interface file Note – Versions of the Solaris OS before Solaris 10 OS required the /etc/net/*/hosts files to be edited when changing a system’s host name. This file establishes the canonical name for the system for applications. Every system on a TCP/IP network must use the IP address 127.1 localhost 192. the IPv4 address 127.1 for the local host. the /etc/nodename file contains the entry sys11. All Rights Reserved.0.1 is the loopback address. For example. Editing these files is not required in the Solaris 10 OS.0.0. The /etc/nodename File The /etc/nodename file contains one entry: the host name of the local system. Inc.0.1 5-23 . on system sys11.168.1 sys11 loghost # In this example.

You can configure a single. Easier to back up and administer – Backup and maintenance can be done on one host instead of on several hosts. Revision A. Logical interfaces do not have to exist on the same subnet as the primary interface. To view the number of logical addresses that can be configured. Example scenarios in which logical interfaces might be applied include: q q q Systems that use high-availability failover Web servers that require multiple web site URLs Servers that run several applications which must appear as separate systems Some advantages of logical interfaces are: q q Lower cost – You do not need to purchase additional Ethernet cards. The ndd command can be used to change this value up to a maximum of 8192. This is one way in which a single system can appear to be multiple systems. Introducing Logical Interfaces Each logical interface is assigned a unique IP address and a unique host name.Administering Logical Interfaces Administering Logical Interfaces Logical interfaces are also referred to as virtual interfaces. physical network interface to have many different IP addresses. All Rights Reserved. 5-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . including IP addresses that are in different IP classes. Sun Services. Inc. type the command: # ndd /dev/ip ip_addrs_per_if 256 # This represents the physical interface and a further 255 logical interfaces.

sys11. which can be a lengthy process when a large number of interfaces are configured.1 www.99 Figure 5-13 System Interfaces Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.com hme0:1 192. q Physical network interfaces have names of the form: driver-name physical-unit-number For example: hme0 qfe3 Logical interfaces have names of the form: driver-name physical-unit-number:logical-unit-number For example: hme0:1 qfe3:1 Figure 5-13 shows how a system with one interface can appear as two different systems.com www.sys11. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1.1 5-25 .168.1 www. Inc. Revision A.1.168. Web Server With One IP Address hme0 192. Slower system start – Each logical interface must be configured on system boot.sys99.Administering Logical Interfaces Some disadvantages of logical interfaces are: q Heavy network load – Having many logical addresses tied to a specific Ethernet interface can cause a network performance bottleneck.com Web Server Configured With Multiple IP Addresses on a Single Ethernet Interface hme0 192.168.

255 # The hme0:1 interface is now configured.LOOPBACK.168. Notice that the index number is unique for each physical interface.0.BROADCAST.169. and it has a broadcast address of 192. the logical interface is assigned an IP address of 192. 5-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. while logical interfaces use the physical interface’s index number.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. and is configured as up by the ifconfig command. use the ifconfig command.BROADCAST.255.255. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0.MULTICAST.RUNNING. it has a default netmask of ffffff00 (255. Revision A.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.169.1 .1.168. You can assign different values for the netmask and broadcast address if you choose to.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # To configure logical network interface 1 on the hme0 physical interface. In this example.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Administering Logical Interfaces Configuring Logical Interfaces After a physical interface is plumbed (it has STREAMS set up for IP and is open). Sun Services.169.LOOPBACK.1.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.1.169.RUNNING. Inc.1.1.RUNNING.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.169.0).BROADCAST.255.1: # ifconfig hme0:1 plumb 192.RUNNING.1.MULTICAST.1 up # To view the changes made to the interface.1. All Rights Reserved. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0. To view the current configuration of the interfaces on the system before adding a logical interface. you can configure logical interfaces that are associated with the physical interface by using separate plumb or addif options to the ifconfig command.

1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.hme0 file so that its contents are similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.168.255 # The hme0:1 interface is added and is functional.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 up Then reboot the system to configure the logical interface. which causes the command to use the next available logical interface.1.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. # init 6 # To view the changes made to the interface.LOOPBACK.1.Administering Logical Interfaces The addif Option It can be tedious to increment the logical interface number each time you add logical interfaces.168.1 5-27 .IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.168.55.BROADCAST. For example.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.55. to add the next logical interface with an IP address of 192.hme0 sys11 up addif 192.168.0.1.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.55.RUNNING.0. use the following command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.55.RUNNING.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. Inc. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 up Created new logical interface hme0:2 # The same results can be achieved by editing the /etc/hostname.168.MULTICAST.55.BROADCAST. Sun Services. The ifconfig command includes the addif option.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.

# ifconfig hme0 removeif 192. use the ifconfig command with the down and unplumb options.1 # Caution – If you are logged in remotely and are using this interface for your connection.55.1.RUNNING.0. use the ifconfig command with the removeif option. to unconfigure the hme0:1 interface. Inc.1. but you do not know to which logical interface the address is assigned.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The hme0:1 interface is no longer available.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. All Rights Reserved.1 . Revision A.MULTICAST. type the following: # ifconfig hme0:1 down unplumb # To verify that the interface is removed.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 5-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.0.168. When you know the logical interface’s IP address. For example.168. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Sun Services.BROADCAST. For example.168. Use the down option before the unplumb option to make sure that the interface is shut down in the correct order and that no data is lost.LOOPBACK.Administering Logical Interfaces Unconfiguring Logical Interfaces To unconfigure a logical interface. you will lose your connectivity to the system.RUNNING.

you define logical interfaces in two ways: by explicitly naming the logical interface and by using a command to automatically add the next available logical interface. and the remaining 8 bits represent the host portion of the address. Inc.255. q q Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Sun Services.0.2.168. Task Summary In this exercise.1. you accomplish the following: q Use the ifconfig command to define and configure a hme0:1 interface on a different network to the hme0 interface.Exercise: Reviewing IP Exercise: Reviewing IP In this exercise. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. The /24 means that the first 24 bits of the address represent the network address. For example. a netmask of 255.18.1.255.168 part of your system’s address with 172. and a broadcast address of 172. Define the RFC 1918-compliant address by replacing the 192. All Rights Reserved.18.1 5-29 .2.255.18/24. Configure the interface to use a Class C broadcast address. Revision A. configure the hme0:1 interface to have an IP address of 172. if your hme0 interface has an address of 192.

255. Inc.19. use 172.1.0. Revision A. Also notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface. Notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.168. Use the ifconfig command to view the system’s interface configuration before making any changes.0 and a broadcast address of 172.2 in the previous step. so that you can easily restore your system to its original state if needed.19. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0:1 interface with the appropriate IP address and a netmask of 255. then change it so that it begins with 172. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 3.255. Use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly.18. For example if you used 172. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5.18.255. Sun Services.Exercise: Reviewing IP Tasks Complete the following steps: 1.1.255. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. Configure a netmask of 255.2 for this interface. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. For example.255. All Rights Reserved. Be sure to use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly. Notice that the next sequential logical interface was defined (hme0:2 in this example).1 . View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. if your IP address begins with 192. Use the ifconfig command with the appropriate option to configure the next available logical interface with an IP address that is incremented by 1 in the second octet.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8. All Rights Reserved. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. Revision A. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. Use the removeif option of the ifconfig command to remove the first logical interface that you defined. Inc. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9.Exercise: Reviewing IP 6. Notice that the first logical interface is removed. Sun Services.1 5-31 . Use the appropriate command to specifically remove the second logical interface that you defined. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 5-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. issues. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Inc.1 .

BROADCAST. Use the ifconfig command to view the system’s interface configuration before making any changes.0.168.1 5-33 .BROADCAST.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1.168. For example.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. so that you can easily restore your system to its original state if needed. Sun Services.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.0.MULTICAST.168. Revision A.LOOPBACK.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly.1.1.0.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.18.0.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. Notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.18.RUNNING.RUNNING.18.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.255.168. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0:1 interface with the appropriate IP address and a netmask of 255.IPv4.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.255 # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4.2 netmask 255.0.255. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 2.255. then change it so that it begins with 172.MULTICAST. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. # ifconfig hme0:1 plumb 172.168.MULTICAST.18.255 up # 3. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Inc.18.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255.0 broadcast 172.1.1.MULTICAST. if your IP address begins with 192.RUNNING.

0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.19.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.0 broadcast 172.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172. Use the removeif option of the ifconfig command to remove the first logical interface that you defined.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4.1.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.1. Be sure to use the appropriate command to cause the interface to function properly.255 up Created new logical interface hme0:2 # 5.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172.RUNNING.1.168. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.168.18.RUNNING.RUNNING.Exercise Solutions 4.2 in the previous step.1.RUNNING. use 172.0.1. Notice that the next sequential logical interface was defined (hme0:2 in this example).255 # 6. Sun Services.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:2: flags=1000843<UP.0.IPv4.BROADCAST.255. Also notice that the index for the new logical interface is the same as the physical interface and that no Ethernet address is listed under the new logical interface.255.1.255 # 5-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.MULTICAST.255.MULTICAST.19. For example if you used 172.19.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.1.18.1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.255.1.1.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Use the ifconfig command with the appropriate option to configure the next available logical interface with an IP address that is incremented by 1 in the second octet.255 hme0:2: flags=1000843<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=1000843<UP.LOOPBACK.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.2 netmask 255.19.19.1 .1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.18.RUNNING.BROADCAST. Configure a netmask of 255.19.0 and a broadcast address of 172.18.19.BROADCAST. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.2 for this interface.255.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.1.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.19.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. # ifconfig hme0 addif 172.168.1. Inc.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.0.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. View the configuration of the interfaces on the system. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 172. Notice that the first logical interface is removed. # ifconfig hme0 removeif 172. Revision A.2 # 7.168.1.

1 5-35 .1. Inc.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Revision A.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 View the configuration of the interfaces on the system.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.0.MULTICAST. # Configuring IP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.BROADCAST.168.168.Exercise Solutions 8.IPv4. # ifconfig hme0:2 down unplumb # 9.0.MULTICAST.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Use the appropriate command to specifically remove the second logical interface that you defined.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.LOOPBACK.

.

Revision A. you should be able to: q q Describe IP multipathing Implement IP multipathing The course map in Figure 6-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. This module also describes the limitations of network interfaces. and troubleshooting. All Rights Reserved. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 6-1 Course Map 6-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Sun Services. Upon completion of this module.Module 6 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Objectives This module describes how to configure IP Network Multipathing (IPMP). IPMP requirements.1 . configuration of IPMP on the command line and at system boot.

1 . Inc. IPMP enables multiple interfaces with different IP addresses on the same subnet to be grouped together. All Rights Reserved. Figure 6-2 shows how a system can have multiple interfaces on the same LAN. Failure of any of these interfaces results in network failure. Limitations of Network Interfaces Network interfaces are exposed to failure because they connect to network cables and hardware components in the form of switches or hubs. which provides enhanced availability of network connections. GBA GBA GBA GBA! Server Client Figure 6-2 IPMP Configuration 6-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Sun Services.Increasing Network Availability Increasing Network Availability In today’s computing environments. The Solaris 10 OS includes the IPMP feature. even if the NIC that is in place does not fail. the availability of network connectivity is important. If any one of these interfaces fail. current network connections through that interface will be migrated to another interface in the group automatically to maintain network connectivity.

Revision A. It can be configured by adjusting the parameters in the /etc/default/mpathd file. Instead. It enables interfaces to be configured as standby interfaces. providing uninterrupted access to the network. If a failure occurs in the network link and an alternate adapter is configured. IPMP also provides increased throughput by spreading the outbound load across interfaces when multiple network adapters are connected to the same IP network. The network access changes automatically from the failed adapter to the new adapter. q q q Probe-based IPMP Configurations Compared With Link-based IPMP Configurations There are two methods for configuring IPMP: probe-based and link-based. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the interface kernel driver performs this function. IPMP has the following features: q It eliminates a single network adapter as a single point of failure in these cases: q q Network adapter failure Network link failure q It enables interfaces to fail over within approximately 10 seconds when using the default configuration. It can be configured for use with both IPv4 and IPv6. Link-based IPMP does not utilize test addresses. the IP address fails over. Sun Services.1 6-3 . Inc. unless they are explicitly chosen by an application.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Network Multipathing IPMP is a product that is included with the Solaris 10 OS and provides enhanced network availability. Probe-based IPMP utilizes test addresses to monitor the health of interfaces. Introducing IPMP IPMP enables the Solaris 10 OS to recover from network path failures. These types of interfaces are only used for failover and are not used for outbound load spreading. All Rights Reserved. such as to the same Ethernet switch.

Unique MAC addresses must be configured on each network interface. Interfaces that are to be deployed as part of an IPMP configuration must belong to an IPMP group. The default configuration for most Sun network adapters has all network interfaces on a system using the same MAC (Ethernet) address. must be installed.1 . The IPMP group name is local to the system and is not used across the network. The in. Each IPMP group has an IPMP group name. All Rights Reserved. q An IPMP group name must be assigned to interfaces. q Multiple network adapter interfaces must be connected on each subnet. Use a meaningful name that does not include spaces when you choose a group name. Inc. To use the full benefit of IPMP. Revision A. and notify the networking subsystem. Switched networks use MAC addresses when making decisions about where to send packets. make sure that two or more network interfaces are connected to the same subnet. as a minimum. Probe-based IPMP Requirements The following items are required to configure probe-based IPMP on a system: q q The Solaris 8 10/00 OS. you must change the system’s default configuration for MAC addresses to avoid a MAC address conflict. Sun Services.mpathd daemon uses the IPMP group names. 6-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can configure IPMP with a single network interface to take advantage of network failure detection. IPMP requires that all interfaces in an IPMP group be connected to the same IP link. Therefore.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Probe-based IPMP Configuration Probe-based failure detection for IPMP uses test addresses to detect failures.

All Rights Reserved. the physical interface is considered failed. The in. To detect the failure or repair of interfaces that belong to the IPMP group. Interface Failure Detection and Repair Network interfaces on which IPMP is configured are monitored by the in. If five consecutive probes do not receive replies. The test addresses are used to detect failure and recovery of an interface.mpathd daemon. which must be routable addresses. q Additional hosts or devices must exist on the same subnet. Communications that were taking place continue to function as though the original interface is still working properly.1). These addresses are deprecated at configuration time to make sure that they cannot be used as source addresses by other applications. either by addressing a default router on the local link or by using the all hosts multicast group (224.0.mpathd daemon uses test addresses. Inc. An interface is considered repaired only if both methods report that the interface is operational and can send and receive packets through the interface.000 milliseconds (10 seconds) in the /etc/default/mpathd file.1 6-5 .mpathd daemon determines which targets to probe dynamically. to test that the network link is functioning. the interface is considered failed. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The IP address that is associated with the failed address is moved to a new logical interface associated with another physical interface in the same IPMP group.0. The in. Sun Services. The in.mpathd daemon sends ICMP echo requests from the test addresses on the IPMP interfaces to targets connected to the local network.mpathd daemon can detect both the failure and the repair of an interface by: q Sending ICMP echo requests and receiving ICMP echo replies through the interface Monitoring the internal IFF_RUNNING flag on the interface q An interface has failed if either of these two detection methods indicates a failure. the in. When responses to the ICMP echo requests are not received and a specific time period has elapsed. to monitor the status of each individual interface. Revision A. The test interfaces are used to send ICMP echo requests to targets on the local link. Adjust the failure detection time by editing the FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME variable from the default value of 10.Configuring IP Network Multipathing q A test address is assigned to an interface.

168. Sun Services. The multipath group is called mpgrp-one. Note – To maximize the resistance of your configuration to failure. Revision A.1.168. Inc. 6-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The test addresses are: q q The 192.168.1 . arbitrary hosts on the link are chosen by sending a multicast packet to the all hosts multicast address.1. When you configure IPMP. be sure to have at least one additional system on the network that can act as a target. or you can work at the command line to avoid rebooting the system.1. This approach minimizes the number of common components in a configuration.mpathd daemon determines dynamically which targets to probe.1. and no fail over is performed. If no routers exist on the link.168. Configuring Probe-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing configured hme0 interface and on an existing but unconfigured qfe1 interface on the sys11 (192. the IPMP group should consist of interfaces that each reside on a different interface card.mpathd daemon flushes all of the current targets and attempts to discover new targets.21.168.1. this is a group failure. You can configure IPMP by changing configuration files and rebooting.1.1) system. All Rights Reserved.71 address for the qfe1 interface The data address for the hme0 interface remains as 192. The in. Default routers connected to the link are chosen as targets for probing.Configuring IP Network Multipathing ICMP echo requests are still attempted through the failed NIC to detect if a physical interface is repaired. You cannot configure the targets because the in. If all the NICs or targets appear to fail at the same time.51 address for the hme0 interface The 192. and the data address for the qfe1 interface is 192.

All Rights Reserved. Configure unique MAC addresses. You must know the state of the system if you need to restore it. All Rights Reserved.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Configure the interfaces. Revision A. 1. Before making any changes to the system. 3. 2.0. Inc.BROADCAST. Reboot the system.1.168.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. Sun Services. 5.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Inc. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Define IP addresses. Inc.LOOPBACK.RUNNING. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.168.1. View the interface configuration. 6. complete the following steps.RUNNING.1 6-7 . view the system’s interface configuration by executing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.0. which are described in greater detail in the next sections. Use is subject to license terms.Configuring IP Network Multipathing To configure probe-based IPMP.MULTICAST. Verify the Solaris OS release. All Rights Reserved.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 4. Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

0. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table 127.1.1. Use the eeprom command to change the local-mac-address? variable to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true # Note – Depending on the combination of your system’s firmware and hardware architecture. Sun Services.168.71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # Data address for hme0 # Data address for qfe1 # Test address for hme0 # Test address for qfe1 6-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. Revision A.51 sys11-test-hme0 192.1 localhost 192. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the system’s EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for every interface.168. After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false. you must either plumb an interface or reboot the system to enable unique MAC address assignment after changing the local-mac-address? variable. Inc.168.1 sys11 loghost # Modifications made for IPMP 192. All Rights Reserved.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted.1 .1.0. Define the IP Addresses Add the data and test IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity.168.

hme0 and /etc/hostname. Marks the address as a non-failover address. Assigns mpgrp-one as the name for the IPMP group of which this interface is a member.hme0 file. group mpgrp-one up addif sys11-test-hme0 deprecated -failover Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 6-9 . The output from the ifconfig -a command shows NOFAILOVER as one of the flags associated with this interface. The + (plus) indicates that the broadcast address should be calculated automatically from the IP address and netmask.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the Interfaces Multipath information is placed in the /etc/hostname. Addresses that are marked in this way do not fail over when the network interface fails.: Table 6-1 Interface Configuration Entries Entry sys11 netmask + broadcast + Purpose Assigns the address associated with the sys11 name. Looks up the netmask in the netmasks database. Assigns the broadcast address. Modify the /etc/hostname. Addresses that are marked as deprecated are not used as source addresses for outgoing packets unless either there are no other addresses available on this interface or the application is bound to this address explicitly. The output from the ifconfig -a command shows DEPRECATED as one of the flags associated with this interface. and assigns it the IP address associated with the sys11-test-hme0 name. Marks the address as a deprecated address.hme0 sys11 netmask + broadcast + group mpgrp-one up \ addif sys11-test-hme0 deprecated netmask + broadcast + -failover up # Table 6-1 describes the entries in the /etc/hostname. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Revision A. Marks the interface as up.qfe1 files. Creates the next unused logical interface. Sun Services.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.

Revision A. To prevent this. Note – In versions of the Solaris OS before the Solaris 10 OS.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Create the /etc/hostname. if your host does not act as a router currently. For a system that runs IPMP and is connected to a single IP link. All Rights Reserved. For example. at this point in the procedure.qfe1 file with contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. Inc. you had to disable the automatic configuration of the system as a router. Reboot the System Reboot the system to enable IPMP: # init 6 6-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this is undesirable.1 .qfe1 sys11-data-qfe1 netmask + broadcast + group mpgrp-one up \ addif sys11-test-qfe1 deprecated netmask + broadcast + -failover up # Cable the Interfaces You should ensure that all of the interfaces that are part of the IPMP configuration have cables connecting them to the same IP link. rebooting it with two interfaces configured causes it to be configured as a router after the reboot. Sun Services. type the command touch /etc/notrouter.

q q The system remains available to users if either of the interfaces fails or becomes unusable for any reason.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST. Revision A.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.168.BROADCAST.RUNNING.1.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.MULTICAST.DEPRECATED.168. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.IPv4. and the interface must not be failed if a communication failure occurs.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.255 This information includes the following: q q The interface’s index number is 2.168.1.1 6-11 .RUNNING.IPv4. The hme0:1 interface’s MAC address is not shown because logical interfaces use the same MAC address as the physical interface. The DEPRECATED and NOFAILOVER flags indicate that the interface is not to be used by any application (other than the in.168. the same as the physical interface.1.mpathd daemon to ensure that communications are functioning as expected.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.168.DEPRECATED.mpathd daemon).1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1.168.BROADCAST.BROADCAST.1.LOOPBACK.0.IPv4. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.MULTICAST.DEPRECATED.168.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. The RUNNING flag is also monitored by the in.1.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.168.255 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the hme0:1 interface: hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.168.IPv4.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Configuring IP Network Multipathing View the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.1.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1. Inc. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.

Sun Services. but unconfigured. and the data address for the qfe1 interface is 192. This example shows configuring IPMP on an existing configured hme0 interface and on an existing.1.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring Probe-based IPMP on the Command Line A system can be configured for IPMP without being rebooted if the system’s EEPROM is already configured to support unique MAC addresses. Although not shown in this section. you can also use the ifconfig command to change and delete IPMP group memberships. 7.168.168. 8. To configure IPMP. 6. complete the following steps. All Rights Reserved. Inc. qfe1 interface. The following steps demonstrate use of the ifconfig command to configure IPMP on the command line. Revision A.1) system. Configure unique MAC addresses. This configuration is on the sys11 (192.1.1.1. 3. which are described in greater detail in the next sections.1.168. Configure the qfe1 interface as part of the same IPMP group.168.168.1 .51 address for the hme0 interface The 192. Configure a test address for the hme0 interface. 2. Verify the Solaris OS release. 6-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Configure a test address for the qfe1 interface.71 address for the qfe1 interface The data address for the hme0 interface remains 192. where the test address is: q q The 192. Configure the hme0 interface as part of an IPMP group. where the IPMP group is called mpgrp-one. 1. 5.21. View the interface configuration. 4.1. Configure IP addresses.

RUNNING.BROADCAST.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Sun Services.LOOPBACK.0. Inc.1.IPv4. Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted. Use is subject to license terms. Revision A.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.1. Inc. Inc.168. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1 6-13 . Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.Configuring IP Network Multipathing You must know what state the system is in if you need to restore it. All Rights Reserved.0. Before making any changes to the system. view the system’s interface configuration by typing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. All Rights Reserved.

1.Configuring IP Network Multipathing The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface.168.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192.168.1. Inc.1. After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file.168. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false.0.51 sys11-test-hme0 192. you will have to either plumb the interface or reboot the system to enable unique MAC address assignment after changing the local-mac-address? variable.0.71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # Data address for hme0 # Data address for qfe1 # Test address for hme0 # Test address for qfe1 6-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 localhost 192. Type the command: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Note – Depending on the combination of your system’s firmware and hardware architecture. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true. Sun Services. Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true # Configure the IP Addresses You can add the data and test IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127.1 .1.1 sys11 loghost # Modifications made for IPMP 192.168.

LOOPBACK.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.mpathd daemon.168.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover) and must not be used by the system for any application data transmission (deprecated). Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.51 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 Setting netmask of hme0:1 to 255.1.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. specify the name of the group.0.1. When you define the address.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.LOOPBACK.168. you configure a test address for the hme0 interface.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. mark it so that the in.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.0. mpgrp-one.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 6-15 .BROADCAST.0.IPv4.1. Type the command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.DEPRECATED.0 # To view the changes to the interface.IPv4. of which the hme0 interface will be a member: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp-one To view the changes to the interface. You can assign an alias name to this address by using the /etc/inet/hosts file. All Rights Reserved.1.1.RUNNING.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configure a Test Address for the hme0 Interface Next.MULTICAST. Do not use this address for any purpose other than using it for the in.168.BROADCAST.168.0.RUNNING.168.RUNNING.255. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Revision A.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the hme0 Interface as Part of a Multipath Group To configure the hme0 interface as part of an IPMP group.IPv4.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Inc.255.255 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.

1.RUNNING.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. q 6-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.LOOPBACK.1. Type the commands: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb sys11-data-qfe1 netmask + broadcast + Setting netmask of qfe1 to 255.168.BROADCAST.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0 # ifconfig qfe1 group mpgrp-one up To view the changes to the interface.1.RUNNING. Inc.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.255.MULTICAST. Since lo0 is 1 and hme0 is 2.RUNNING. Revision A.1.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.0.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding output of the ifconfig command. for the qfe1 interface: qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.168.MULTICAST.168.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 This information includes the following: q The interface index number is incremented to 3 because a unique index number is assigned to each non-logical interface as it is configured. qfe1 is assigned 3. Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.IPv4. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4. The qfe1 interface’s MAC address is different from the hme0 interface’s MAC address.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure the qfe1 Interface as Part of the IPMP Group Now. you configure the qfe1 interface and make it part of the same IPMP group as the hme0 interface.168.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.0.255.168.MULTICAST.1 .BROADCAST.168.DEPRECATED.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1. which is caused by changing the local-mac-address? variable in the system’s EEPROM.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.BROADCAST.1.RUNNING.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.168.

DEPRECATED.RUNNING.RUNNING.1.168.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4.RUNNING. When you define the address.0.168.168.BROADCAST.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP. Sun Services.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4.BROADCAST.168.71 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface qfe1:1 Setting netmask of qfe1:1 to 255.1.DEPRECATED. mark it so that the in. Notice that the qfe1:1 interface MAC address is not shown because logical interfaces use the same MAC address as the physical interface that supports the logical interface.168.1 6-17 .BROADCAST.0 # To view the changes to the interface.MULTICAST.IPv4. Revision A.RUNNING.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover) and must not be used by the system for any application data transmission (deprecated).1.MULTICAST. Inc.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.1. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.BROADCAST.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Do not use this address for any purpose other than using it for the in.168.1.255 # The interface’s index number is 3.1. You can alias this address to a name by using the /etc/inet/hosts file.1. All Rights Reserved.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.MULTICAST.255.mpathd daemon.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. which is the same as the physical interface that supports this logical interface.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure a Test Address for the qfe1 Interface Now.1.255.MULTICAST. you configure a test address for the qfe1 interface.168.0.LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Type the command: # ifconfig qfe1 addif 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.

The contents of this file are: # cat /etc/default/mpathd # #pragma ident "@(#)mpathd. the in. That is. # FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME=10000 # # Failback is enabled by default.mpathd Daemon to Monitor the Interfaces The starting of the in. The minimum time # that can be specified is 100 ms. If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to no. including those that are not part of an IPMP group.mpathd daemon will track all interfaces. Inc.mpathd -a Note – Before the Solaris 10 OS. Turn off this option to track all network interfaces # on the system # TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS=yes # If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to yes.mpathd daemon starts.mpathd daemon was started during the execution of the /etc/rc2. the in. Revision A.dfl 1. the in.d/S69inet start script. To disable failback turn off this opti on # FAILBACK=yes # # By default only interfaces configured as part of multipathing groups # are tracked.mpathd >/dev/null 2>&1 || /usr/lib/inet/in.]mpathd /lib/svc/method/net-init /usr/bin/pgrep -x -u 0 in.mpathd daemon automatically.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Start the in. The in. the ifconfig command’s group option starts the in. as soon as you use the ifconfig command with the group option in the command.mpathd daemon is started by the svc:network/net-init SMF service: # grep in[.2 00/07/17 SMI" # # Time taken by mpathd to detect a NIC failure in ms. 6-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.1 .mpathd daemon is controlled by the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter in the /etc/default/mpathd file. All Rights Reserved.

to view the configuration of the interfaces.168. the in. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.BROADCAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.DEPRECATED.IPv4.mpathd daemon can be started from the command line by running the command as the root user: # /sbin/in.1.168.1. All Rights Reserved.168.RUNNING.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.0.1.IPv4.BROADCAST.168.RUNNING.168.255 # The system remains available to users if either of the network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.mpathd # View the Interface Configuration Now that IPMP is completely configured.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.MULTICAST.168.1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.0. Revision A.LOOPBACK.1 6-19 .1.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4.MULTICAST.1. Inc.BROADCAST.Configuring IP Network Multipathing If necessary.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.RUNNING.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.DEPRECATED.MULTICAST.BROADCAST. Sun Services.168.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.MULTICAST.

An IPMP group name must be assigned to interfaces.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Link-based IPMP Configuration Link-based failure detection for IPMP uses the network interface kernel driver to detect failures and notify the networking subsystem. Revision A. Sun Services. Network interfaces must use any of the following drivers: q q q q q q q hme eri ce ge bge qfe dmfe q q Unique MAC addresses must be configured on each of the interfaces. must be installed. at a minimum. All Rights Reserved.1 . Link-based IPMP Requirements The following items are required to configure link-based IPMP on a system: q q Solaris 9 12/02 OS. Inc. 6-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. You must know the state of the system if you need to restore it. Configure unique MAC addresses. Inc.168. Before making any changes to the system. Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1) system. Revision A.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring Link-based IPMP by Using Configuration Files This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing. 6. 4.1. and the data address for the hme1 interface is 192.1 6-21 .MULTICAST. The multipath group is called ipmp-group0. 2. which are described in greater detail in the next sections.0. 1. Configure the interfaces.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING. 3.1.IPv4.1. All Rights Reserved.168.LOOPBACK.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1. The data address for the hme0 interface remains 192.MULTICAST. View the interface configuration. complete the following steps. view the system’s interface configuration by executing the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168.BROADCAST. 5. To configure link-based IPMP.168.1. hme1 interface on the sys11 (192.RUNNING.21.1. Verify the Solaris OS release. but unconfigured. configured hme0 interface and on an existing. Reboot the system. Define IP addresses.0.

Inc. Sun Services. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.1 . Assembled 22 January 2005 # Configure Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Use is subject to license terms. All Rights Reserved.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Verify the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Use the eeprom command to change the local-mac-address? variable to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?=true" # Verify that the local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=true 6-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the system’s EEPROM: # eeprom "local-mac-address?" local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for every interface.

Sun Services.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.hme0 and /etc/hostname. Revision A.1.168.0. All Rights Reserved.21 sys11-hme1 # Data address for hme1 # Configure the Interfaces Network interfaces are configured in the /etc/hostname. Modify the /etc/hostname.0.1 6-23 . After editing the /etc/inet/hosts file.168.hme1 sys11-hme1 netmask + broadcast + group ipmp_group0 up # Cable the Interfaces You should ensure that all of the interfaces that are part of the IPMP configuration have cables connecting them to the same IP link. use the cat command to view the new information: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table 127. Reboot the System Reboot the system to enable IPMP: # init 6 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.hme0 sys11 netmask + broadcast + group ipmp_group0 up # Create the /etc/hostname.hme1 files.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Define the IP Addresses Add the IP addresses to the /etc/inet/hosts file for the sake of clarity.1 localhost 192.hme1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.1 sys11 loghost # Data address for hme0 # Modifications made for IPMP 192.1.

RUNNING.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.mpathd indicate that the system is configured for link-based IPMP.168.error] No test interface hme0.mpathd -a Messages to the console (and to /var/adm/messages) from in.BROADCAST.168.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP.1.1 . Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. disabling probe-based failure 6-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.1.BROADCAST.Configuring IP Network Multipathing View the Link-based IPMP Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.168.RUNNING.0.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # To verify that the IPMP daemon is running.0.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK. use the following command: # pgrep -fl mpathd 119 /usr/lib/inet/in.mpathd[119]: [ID 975029 daemon. disabling probe-based failure in.1.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.mpathd[119]: [ID 975029 daemon. Dec 16 12:40:33 sys11 address configured on detection on it Dec 16 12:40:33 sys11 address configured on detection on it in.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4. rather than for probe-based IPMP.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Inc. Sun Services.error] No test interface hme1.MULTICAST.1. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.

1) that was assigned to the physical hme0 interface before it failed. You can use this command to take a network interface offline (detach it). use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.OFFLINE> mtu 0 index 2 inet 0. the if_mpadm command can be used. to force a failback: # if_mpadm -r hme0 The message on the console indicates that the failback was successful: Dec 16 13:41:47 sys11 in.168. Reattach the hme0 interface.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Verify Link-based IPMP Operation To verify the system’s IPMP configuration.1. and a new logical interface hme1:1 is created on the remaining physical interface hme1.IPv4. The new logical interface has the IP address (192.mpathd[119]:Successfully failed back to NIC hme0 Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.IPv4.RUNNING.0.mpathd[119]: Successfully failed over from NIC hme0 to NIC hme1 To view the current status of the network interfaces.1.RUNNING.BROADCAST.1. All Rights Reserved.1.0. Take the hme0 interface offline to force a failover: # if_mpadm -d hme0 The message on the console indicates that the failover was successful: Dec 16 13:24:31 sys11 in. that the IP address of the hme0 interface is 0.MULTICAST. which forces a failover.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=89000842<BROADCAST.0 netmask 0 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP.0.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 hme1:1: flags=1000843<UP.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.255 Notice.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 6-25 . Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.NOFAILOVER.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.0. Inc.168. Sun Services.0.RUNNING.168.LOOPBACK.0. Messages are sent to the console and to /var/adm/messages that indicate any failovers or failbacks which occur.168.MULTICAST.

the data address can never move on to a different interface. it is not necessary to configure a separate test address because the system can use the data address for testing purposes. This enables you to monitor the status of the interface by using IPMP and to receive notifications about the interface’s status. Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group It is possible to configure an IPMP group that contains only one interface. Sun Services. and the hme1:1 logical interface is removed automatically.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1.MULTICAST.168. Inc. With only a single interface in the group.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.LOOPBACK.1 .Configuring IP Network Multipathing To view the current status of the network interfaces. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.BROADCAST.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1. 6-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. although it is not possible to fail the interface over onto another network interface.RUNNING.BROADCAST.168.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.168.1.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme1: flags=1000843<UP.168. and so is always associated with the interface being monitored.255 groupname ipmp_group0 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 # The hme0 interface is reassigned its original IP address. In this configuration.0.IPv4.0.1.RUNNING.

255 groupname singleton ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # Note – Do not use the deprecated option because this prevents applications from using the interface’s only IP address as a source address. ensure that the interface configuration file contains the group option and the IPMP group name: # cat /etc/hostname.1 6-27 . assign a multipath group name to the interface: # ifconfig hme0 group singleton # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1.IPv4.1 netmask ff000000 hme0 flags=1000843<UP.hme0 sys11 group singleton up # Note – Use IPMP only on a single interface if multiple default routers exist on the local network.MULTICAST.RUNNING.168.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configure a Single IPMP Group on the Command Line To create a singleton IPMP group. If the single interface will be included in an IPMP group with multiple interfaces. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. This enables multiple targets to be probed when checking the availability of the network.RUNNING.BROADCAST. Sun Services.MULTICAST.1. Configure a Single IPMP Group at System Boot To create a singleton IPMP group at system boot. Revision A.VIRTUAL> mtu823 2 index 1 inet 127.0. also set the NOFAILOVER flag on the interface by using the -failover option.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0. Inc.LOOPBACK.

RUNNING. or to change the operational status of IPMP interfaces.255 # 6-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.1.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.1 .1.168.RUNNING.NOFAILOVER.BROADCAST.RUNNING.0.MULTICAST.1.168.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.IPv4.RUNNING. use the if_mpadm command to reattach a detached interface.RUNNING. Note – This message appears in the console window and is not seen if you are using an xterm or dtterm window.IPv4.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. to detach the hme0 interface.0. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. For example.RUNNING.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.OFFLINE> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Inc.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=89000842<BROADCAST.IPv4.255 qfe1:2: flags=1000843<UP.1.LOOPBACK.0.MULTICAST.168.168.1.MULTICAST. type the command: # if_mpadm -d hme0 Aug 4 14:00:38 sys11 in. use the if_mpadm command.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Also.IPv4. If configuration errors occur. To view the status of the interfaces.NOFAILOVER. they appear at this stage.1.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.DEPRECATED.OFFLINE> mtu 0 index 2 inet 0.168. All Rights Reserved.1.mpathd[535]: Successfully failed over from NIC hme0 to NIC qfe1 # The message indicates that the failover was successful.0.168.0 netmask 0 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=89040842<BROADCAST.BROADCAST. Sun Services.1.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Viewing IPMP Operation To verify the system’s failover configuration.DEPRECATED. You can use this command to take an interface offline (detach) by forcing a fail over and verifying that an alternate interface takes over as expected.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.

1.168.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4.RUNNING. To reattach an offline interface.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved.DEPRECATED.RUNNING.BROADCAST.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.1. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1. To view the status of the interfaces.0.BROADCAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. is created automatically on the functional qfe1 physical interface. and the qfe1:2 logical interface is removed automatically.MULTICAST.255 # The hme0 interface is reassigned its original IP address.MULTICAST.DEPRECATED.IPv4.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 6-29 .255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.255 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.1. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring IP Network Multipathing The detached interface is assigned an IP address of 0.BROADCAST. Revision A.0.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:21 qfe1:1: flags=9040843<UP.MULTICAST.168.0.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.IPv4.168.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1. Sun Services.21 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. The message indicates that the fail back was successful. qfe1:2. type the command: # if_mpadm -r hme0 Aug 4 14:02:09 sys11 in.168.0.mpathd[535]: Successfully failed back to NIC hme0 # Note – This message appears in the console window and is not seen if you are using an xterm or dtterm window. Inc.168.MULTICAST.168.71 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1. The new logical interface has the IP address that was assigned to the physical hme0 interface while it was working. and a new logical interface.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.

1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.51 deprecated netmask + \ > broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 Setting netmask of hme0:1 to 255.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.0.Configuring IP Network Multipathing Troubleshooting an IPMP Configuration Incorrectly configured network interfaces might not properly fail over when connectivity to an interface fails for any reason. Carefully read messages in the /var/adm/messages file or in the console window to take the proper troubleshooting steps when you configure and test the IPMP.168.1 . For example: # Aug 4 13:54:51 sys11 in. All Rights Reserved. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig hme0 addif 192.1. To configure a test interface.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.0 # After defining a test interface with the ifconfig command. Sun Services.0.255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # The output indicates that the configuration process is not complete.1.BROADCAST.255.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. disabling probe-based failure detection on it The message indicates that the in. It is important to thoroughly test your network interface after you configure IPMP. Revision A. the following message appears: # Aug 4 13:55:37 sys11 in.MULTICAST.255.1. Recall that IPMP requires a test address on a logical interface for each physical interface.mpathd daemon with a process identifier (ID) of 535 senses that IPMP is not properly configured. Inc.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.mpathd[535]: No test address configured on interface hme0. enabling probe-based failure detection on it 6-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4.RUNNING. To investigate further.168.mpathd[355]: Test address now configured on interface hme0.

255 groupname mpgrp-one ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0:1: flags=9040843<UP.IPv4.MULTICAST.IPv4. To view the interface configuration.168.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1. Be aware that more than one interface is required to provide effective failover.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.255 # Both the physical and logical interfaces are configured properly.mpathd daemon reports that it can now perform failure detection.DEPRECATED.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.RUNNING. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Inc.MULTICAST.Configuring IP Network Multipathing The in.1.168.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168.1 6-31 .0.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.0.1.1. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.51 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services.LOOPBACK.BROADCAST.168.

Verify that your system meets the minimum requirements and has enough network cabling before you continue. q q q q 6-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.mpathd daemon uses this interface to monitor the status of the physical interface. You need the following information when you configure IPMP in this exercise: q The IPMP group name – This name is required for each physical interface that will be part of the IPMP group. A second physical interface – This interface must be connected with a network cable. Revision A. Sun Services. At least two interfaces of the same type (for example. An IP address for each logical interface – This is the test address. Work with another student if your system does not have enough interfaces. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. A data IP address for each physical interface – Users and applications use this address when accessing the system. A logical interface for each physical interface – The in. Inc. Caution – Remove any interfaces that you configured that are not part of previous exercises before starting this exercise. you configure IPMP on your system. Ethernet) are required for this exercise.1 . All Rights Reserved.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Exercise: Configuring IPMP In this exercise.

21.168. Inc. for example.1.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Write the names and addresses that you will use: q The IPMP group name is unique to your system. and the physical interface IP address of 192.1.1.1 uses test a test address of 192.1.71. Write the first logical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ Write the second logical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ q The following is an example of a complete list of the information that you need when you configure multipathing in the exercise. The second logical interface’s IP address is 192.21.168.1.168.1.1.168.21 uses a test address of 192.1.168. Write the IPMP group name: _____________________________________________________________ q The new physical interface uses an IP address of your system’s IP address plus 20. Revision A.1 6-33 .1. All Rights Reserved.1.168.51. Sun Services.168. q q Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.71. Write the new physical interface’s IP address: _____________________________________________________________ The test IP address for each logical interface is the physical interface’s IP address plus 50.51. the new interface has an address of 192. the physical interface address of 192.168. For example. Assuming that the existing IP address is 192. the new physical interface’s IP address is 192. The first logical interface’s IP address is 192. q q Assume that the IPMP group name is mpgrp-one.168.

Edit your /etc/inet/hosts file. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Open a console window to see any messages that might be sent to the console but perform the other steps in a different (non-console) window. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Inc. Reboot your system to enable unique MAC address assignment. so that you can compare the output after you configure IPMP. Write the command that you use: _________________________________________________ 3. Configure your system to use unique MAC addresses. Ignore the loopback interface that has an index of 1. Sun Services.1 . Can the system that displayed the preceding output be configured to support IPMP? Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5. and add entries for the interfaces. Verify that your system has a supported version of the Solaris OS. View and document your system’s current interface information with the ifconfig command. 8. Document the existing interface information. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. 6-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the interface type for index 2: _____________________________________________________________ 6. Use comments to help limit confusion.Exercise: Configuring IPMP Tasks Complete the following steps: 1.

Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. Assign the system’s existing interface to an IPMP group. configure the interface so that it is up. Be sure to set the appropriate netmask and broadcast addresses. Is the daemon running? Why or why not? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 11. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. Deprecate the interface. Then. q Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ Is the daemon running? Why or why not? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ q 10. Configure IPMP on your system without rebooting.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 9. Revision A. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just assigned to an IPMP group. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ c. as follows: a. Inc. Write the command that you use: ________________________________________________________ b. All Rights Reserved. and configure failover appropriately.1 6-35 .

Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just configured. and configure failover appropriately. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 14. ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________ 13. c.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 12. Start typing. Work with another teammate for this step. Deprecate the interface. Inc. b.1 . d. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. Write the command you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. configure the interface so that it is up. Specify the appropriate IP address and addresses for broadcast and netmask. Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. Configure and plumb the second physical interface. Revision A. While your teammate is typing. Write the command that you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ 6-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Do not assign it membership in the IPMP group yet or bring the interface up. Then. Sun Services. Assign the newly plumbed interface to the appropriate IPMP group and bring the interface up. All Rights Reserved. Be sure to configure the netmask and broadcast addresses. Verify that the new physical interface is connected to the network before proceeding with the following steps: a. Have your teammate: a. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session.

Revision A. Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. Reboot your system to test the IPMP configuration. Have your teammate: a. Document your configuration steps here: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16. b. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. Configure your system so that the interfaces are configured automatically for IPMP at boot time. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Inc. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session. Write the command that you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Work with another teammate for this step.1 6-37 . c. Start typing. All Rights Reserved. 17. Sun Services. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. d. While your teammate is typing. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Pay careful attention to the system’s console while it is booting. Be sure to make copies of your system’s original configuration files because you will need to restore your system’s configuration later in this exercise. Write the command you need if you used the if_mpadm command: ________________________________________________________ Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. Look for any error messages relating to interfaces and address assignments.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 15.

6-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. To prepare your system for future exercises. Inc. Revision A.Exercise: Configuring IPMP 18. Sun Services. b. Reboot your system. Restore the first hostname. complete the following steps and remove the IPMP configuration: a. All Rights Reserved.1 .interface file that you saved earlier and delete the second interface file.

1 6-39 . or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. issues.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.

0. This system can be configured with IPMP because it has a version of the operating environment that is at a minimum the Solaris 8 10/00 OS.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4. Assembled 22 January 2005 # 3. Use the eeprom command. # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2a SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Verify that your system has a supported version of the Solaris OS. Write the interface type for index 2: hme0 6.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # 5. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. 4. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. View and document your system’s current interface information with the ifconfig command.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.168. Open a console window to see any messages that might be sent to the console but perform the other steps in a different (non-console) window.MULTICAST. # dtterm -C & 2.MULTICAST. Can the system that displayed the preceding output be configured to support IPMP? Why or why not? Yes.1 . Sun Services.168.LOOPBACK. Inc. Revision A. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # 6-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.1. Document the existing interface information.0. so that you can compare the output after you configure IPMP. Inc. Configure your system to use unique MAC addresses.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Use is subject to license terms. Ignore the loopback interface that has an index of 1.

mpathd daemon automatically.71 sys11-qfe1-ipmp-test # 9.mpathd # q Is the daemon running? Why or why not? No.0.168.mpathd 603 /usr/lib/inet/in. Recall that the group option of the ifconfig command starts the in.1 6-41 .168. Reboot your system to enable unique MAC address assignment.51 sys11-hme0-ipmp-test 192.1.Exercise Solutions 7. # Existing phys hme0 interface # IPMP logical test addr for hme0 # IPMP phys interface for qfe1 # IPMP logical test addr for qfe1 Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. as follows: a. 10. the in.21 sys11-local-qfe1 192. Edit your /etc/inet/hosts file. Assign the system’s existing interface to an IPMP group. # pgrep -lf in.mpathd # c. and add entries for the interfaces. Inc.1 sys11 loghost # entries added for IPMP example 192. the in. All Rights Reserved.1. The following is an example of the /etc/inet/hosts file: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp-one # b.1 localhost 192.1.168. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Use comments to help limit confusion. Determine if the IPMP daemon is running on your system. q Write the command that you use: # pgrep -lf in.mpathd daemon should not be running because no interfaces were defined as part of an IPMP group. Revision A.mpathd daemon should be running because you just assigned an IPMP group name to an interface.1.168. Is the daemon running? Why or why not? Yes. # init 6 8.0. Configure multipathing on your system without rebooting.

1. Specify the appropriate IP address and addresses for broadcast and netmask. Inc. Deprecate the interface. Revision A. Be sure to set the appropriate netmask and broadcast addresses. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just assigned to an IPMP group. Deprecate the interface. # ifconfig qfe1 group mpgrp-one up 6-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise Solutions 11.168. enabling probe-based failure detection on it # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192.1 . Console message: in.mpathd[603]: Test address now configured on interface qfe1. configure the interface so that it is up.mpathd[603]: No test address configured on interface qfe1.71 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface qfe1:1 # Console message: in.1.51 deprecated netmask + \ broadcast + -failover up Created new logical interface hme0:1 # 12. Configure and plumb the second physical interface. All Rights Reserved.168.1. Verify that the new physical interface is connected to the network before proceeding with the following steps: a. Then. Assign the newly plumbed interface to the appropriate IPMP group and bring the interface up. Sun Services. Do not assign it membership in the IPMP group yet or bring the interface up. disabling probe-based failure detection on it 13. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig qfe1 addif 192. # ifconfig hme0 addif 192. and configure failover appropriately. configure the interface so that it is up. Then. Be sure to configure the netmask and broadcast addresses.168. and configure failover appropriately.21 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + b. Configure a test interface for the physical interface that you just configured.

Work with another teammate for this step. sys11 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + group mpgrp-one up addif 192. # if_mpadm -r qfe1 # Console message: in. Revision A.168.qfe1 file so that it has contents similar to the following: sys11-local-qfe1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + group mpgrp-one up addif 192. Have your teammate: a.51 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + -failover up c.1. a. All Rights Reserved. b. Start typing. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces.hme0 Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. Configure your system so that the interfaces are automatically configured for IPMP at boot time.mpathd[603]: Successfully failed over from NIC qfe1 to NIC hme0 Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. # if_mpadm -d qfe1 # Console message: in. Inc.mpathd[603]: Successfully failed back to NIC qfe1 15. Be sure to make copies of your system’s original configuration files because you will need to restore your system’s configuration later in this exercise.Exercise Solutions 14.hme0 /etc/_hostname. c.71 deprecated netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + -failover up Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Copy your system’s interface files for future use: Edit the /etc/hostname. Sun Services. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session.1 6-43 . even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled.hme0 file so that it has contents similar to the following: # cp /etc/hostname. d.1.168. While your teammate is typing. Create a /etc/hostname. b.

# if_mpadm -r qfe1 # Console message: in.1 . # if_mpadm -d qfe1 # Console message: in. Open an edit session by using an editor of your teammate’s choice in the telnet session. Inc. Reboot your system to test the IPMP configuration. c. Look for any error messages relating to interfaces and address assignments. b. Start typing. Revision A.Exercise Solutions 16. 17. Connect to one of your system’s physical IP addresses over the network by using the telnet command. Work with another teammate for this step. d. either unplug the network cable to the interface or use the if_mpadm command to detach one of your system’s IPMP interfaces. Have your teammate: a. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.mpathd[159]: Successfully failed back to NIC qfe1 Repair the interface by reconnecting the network cable or by using the if_mpadm command.mpathd[159]: Successfully failed over from NIC qfe1 to NIC hme0 Notice that your teammate’s work is frozen for a moment and then continues. While your teammate is typing. Write the command that you use: # init 6 # Pay careful attention to the system’s console while it is booting. even though the interface to which your teammate is connected is disabled. 6-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

qfe0 # rm /etc/hostname. complete the following steps and remove the IPMP configuration: a. To prepare your system for future exercises.Exercise Solutions 18. # init 6 Reboot your system. All Rights Reserved.qfe1 b. Configuring IP Network Multipathing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.qfe0 /etc/hostname.1 6-45 .interface file that you saved earlier and delete the second interface file. # cp /etc/_hostname. Sun Services. Restore the first hostname. Inc.

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routing schemes. routing types. Inc.1 . and troubleshooting.Module 7 Configuring Routing Objectives This module describes how to configure routing. Sun Services. Upon completion of this module. All Rights Reserved. you should be able to: q q q q q q q q q Identify the fundamentals of routing Describe routing table population Describe routing protocol types Describe the routing table Configure static routing Configure dynamic routing Describe classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) Configure routing at system boot Troubleshoot routing 7-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.

Sun Services.Objectives The course map in Figure 7-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Revision A. Inc. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 7-1 Course Map 7-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1 .

TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 7-2 TCP/IP Network Model Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Routers and routing eliminate the concept of one single. This function is primarily supported by IP. The process of sharing information about networks and routes to networks is called routing. All Rights Reserved. Inc. large. Purpose of Routing Routing is one of the important functions of the Internet layer in the TCP/IP network model. The process of forwarding IP datagrams to their destinations is called forwarding. An IP router can forward IP datagrams based on the information in the IP header and information obtained from its routing table.1 7-3 .Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Routers are devices that forward IP datagrams between networks. Sun Services. Revision A. An IP router connects two or more networks and forwards IP datagrams between them. Figure 7-2 shows the layer in the TCP/IP network model in which routing takes place. and very busy worldwide network.

Because the delivery of the datagram is not direct and other systems are involved in the delivery. Inc. An indirect route is a route in which the destination system is not on the same local network as the source system.Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Types of Routes Routes can be dividing in to two types: direct routes and indirect routes. A direct route is a route in which the destination system is on the same local network as the source system.1 . All Rights Reserved. The IP datagram is sent through one or more routers or gateways on its way to the destination. Note – A router connects two networks running the same protocol stack. This activity could be thought of as direct delivery of a datagram because no routers are required to complete the transaction. A gateway connects two networks running different protocol stacks. Sun Services. Revision A. this is called an indirect route. 7-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The source system can send the IP datagram to the destination system without any involvement from another system.

1 7-5 . 192. All Rights Reserved.0 sys11 instructor sys12 sys21 sys13 sys24 Direct Route Indirect Route Figure 7-3 Direct and Indirect Routes Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The sys11 system has a direct route to the sys13 system and an indirect route to the sys24 system through the sys21 router.1.4.168.Identifying the Fundamentals of Routing Figure 7-3 shows an example of direct and indirect routes. Sun Services.168. Revision A.168.30.0 192.0 192. Inc.

The /etc/defaultrouter file defines one or more static default routes for a system. A default route defines the router to use for all destinations that do not have an explicit routing table entry. Sun Services.Introducing the Routing Table Introducing the Routing Table The Solaris OS kernel uses a random access memory-based (RAM-based) table. called the routing table. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. even in single-user mode. The most common static entries are the direct routes that a system creates to its local networks. This table is populated with either static or dynamic entries. 7-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a system can route directly to its local network or networks because the interfaces are initialized by the ifconfig command. Static Routes Static routes are permanent entries in the routing table. to store information needed to deliver IP datagrams to their destinations. The /etc/gateways file is used to define static indirect routes to networks and hosts. The ifconfig command updates the routing table with static entries for networks that are directly connected to the local network interfaces when an interface is configured as up.1 . Inc. Static routes can be removed through manual intervention only. Therefore. Static routes can also be added to your system’s routing table manually by using the /etc/defaultrouter file or by using entries placed in the /etc/gateways file.

Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the router can forward or deliver datagrams to these networks.1 7-7 . Only those entries calculated to be the best paths to a network destination remain in the routing table.Introducing the Routing Table Dynamic Routes Dynamic routes are added to or removed from the routing table by processes. such as the in. The in. When the routing table is updated with information about other reachable networks.routed daemon. Routing in the Solaris 10 OS is implemented by the in.routed daemon implements three routing protocols: q q q Routing Information Protocol version 1 (RIPv1) Routing Information Protocol version 2 (RIPv2) ICMP Router Discovery Protocol Routers advertise the networks that they know about. Other hosts and routers listen to these periodic announcements and update their routing table with the most current and correct information. Inc. Revision A.routed daemons. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. The svc:/network/initial SMF service enables routing.

7-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. different protocols were developed to manage routing in different areas of the Internet.Introducing Routing Protocol Types Introducing Routing Protocol Types A single routing protocol cannot efficiently handle all situations because networks can be connected in many different ways. Autonomous Systems An autonomous system (AS). Revision A. Inc. Sun Services. This broad definition was incorporated into the Internet in an attempt to reduce excessively large routing tables. as shown in Figure 7-4. As a result. All Rights Reserved. )5 )5 )5 Figure 7-4 Autonomous Systems An autonomous system number is a unique 16-bit address that is assigned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The Internet can be considered to be a set of autonomous systems that are connected together.1 . is a collection of networks and routers under a single administrative control.

RIP is a distance-vector protocol that exchanges route information between IP routers. All Rights Reserved. in the form of hop counts. Revision A. Sun Services. 1/2 )5 1/2 )5 )5 Figure 7-5 1/2 Use of IGPs in Networks Many routing protocols are designed to pass routing information within an autonomous system. Distance-vector algorithms obtain their name from the fact that they compute the least-cost path by using information that is exchanged with other routers that describes reachable networks with their distances. IGPs manage the sharing of routing information between networks in the AS. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Two popular protocols are RIP and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol. There are two versions of RIP: RIPv1 and RIPv2. and are also responsible for sharing information about any external routes that the gateways (the routers which connect the AS to the rest of the Internet) might be advertising to the networks in the AS.1 7-9 . Inc. Figure 7-5 shows how IGPs are used in networks.Introducing Routing Protocol Types Interior Gateway Protocols Routing within an AS is managed by an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).

)5 -/2 -/2 -/2 )5 )5 Figure 7-6 Role of EGPs in Internet Routing EGP and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) are the two principal protocols that exchange routing information among autonomous systems. Inc. 7-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. OSPF maintains a map of the network topology instead of computing route paths that are based on distance vectors in the way that RIP computes the route paths.Introducing Routing Protocol Types OSPF is a link-state protocol. The map on each OSPF router is updated regularly.1 . Exterior Gateway Protocols An Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) is a routing protocol used to forward packets between autonomous systems. OSPF provides a view of the entire network and provides the shortest path choices on routes. such as the Internet or a large corporation’s intranet. Figure 7-6 shows the role of EGPs in Internet routing. Sun Services. EGPs are used between organizations or sites. for example in a large WAN. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.

The concept of an autonomous system developed out of the research and development of EGP. BGP generates an error condition. The path vector that is implemented by BGP causes the routing information to include a complete path (all autonomous system numbers) from the source to the destination. This eliminates the possibility of looping problems that might arise from complex network topologies. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. BGP was developed in the mid 1990s to replace EGP.1 7-11 . If this occurs. Inc. Revision A. A loop is detected by BGP when the path it receives has an autonomous system listed twice. BGP replaces the distance-vector algorithm of EGP with a path-vector algorithm. All Rights Reserved. such as the Internet.Introducing Routing Protocol Types EGP was developed in the early 1980s.

1 U 1 0 hme0 127. Sun Services.--------192.31 U 1 54 qfe0 192.0. For example: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.0 224.1. The -r option causes the routing table to be displayed.Working With the Routing Table Working With the Routing Table A system’s routing table is used to store routing information for the system. use the netstat command with the -r and -n options.1.168. The routing table is often interrogated when you troubleshoot connectivity issues. Revision A.0.0.30. The -n option causes the IP addresses to be displayed instead of resolving them to names. Displaying the Routing Table To display the contents of a system’s routing table without interpreting the names of the systems.0 192.0.168.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.----. Inc.1 . All Rights Reserved.----.0.168.0 127. The routing table is referenced when a path to another computer is required.1 U 1 51 hme0 192.30.168.1.1 UH 37 132 lo0 7-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-----.0.168.

H – Host route. The destination is a system. The local interface used to reach the destination. Table 7-1 Routing Table Entries Field Destination Description The destination network or host address. Sun Services. not a network. Revision A. For the localhost entry.1 7-13 . D – The entry was added dynamically by an ICMP redirect. q q Ref Use The current number of routes that share the same network interface (Ethernet) address. The system that delivers or forwards the datagram. Inc. This entry can also contain the keyword default to represent a default route. All Rights Reserved. The status of this route. Interface Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. it is a snapshot of the number of datagrams that are received. This field uses the following flags: q q Gateway Flags U – The interface is up. The number of datagrams that have used this route.Working With the Routing Table Introducing Routing Table Information Table 7-1 describes the output from the netstat -rn command. G – The delivery system is another system (an indirect route).

Working With the Routing Table Searching the Routing Table Figure 7-7 shows the kernel routing algorithm. Extract the destination IP address. and compute the network number. Does the destination IP address match a host-specific route in the route table? Yes Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the router associated with the host route table entry. Deliver the packet through the interface frame connected to the system. All Rights Reserved. Deliver the frame through the interface connected to the system. Does the network number match one found in the route table? Yes No Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the default router found in the route table. Inc. Is there a default entry in the route table? Yes No Generate a routing error message through ICMP Figure 7-7 The kernel Routing Algorithm 7-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. No Encapsulate the datagram by setting the destination Ethernet address to that of the router associated with the route table entry. Revision A.1 . Deliver the frame through the interface connected to the system.

Working With the Routing Table The kernel routing algorithm searches for routing table entries in the following order when determining where to send a datagram: 1. Inc. The destination network number is then compared with the network numbers of all of the local interfaces (interfaces that are physically attached to the system) for a match. The kernel cannot forward the datagram. 4. The kernel searches the routing table entries for a matching host IP address. sets the destination Ethernet address to that of the default router. but leaves the destination IP address unchanged. which signifies that a default route is configured. If a default route is found. The kernel searches the routing table for a default entry. The kernel routing algorithm checks the routing table for a route to a matching host IP address on a non-local network. 3. the kernel encapsulates the IP datagram inside an Ethernet frame and sends the frame to the router that is associated with that destination. the kernel encapsulates the IP datagram inside an Ethernet frame and sends it through the matching local interface for delivery. The kernel routing algorithm checks to see if the IP address is on a local network. If an entry that matches the host IP address is found. The error message states either No route to host or Network is unreachable. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. leaves the destination IP address unchanged. The kernel routing algorithm checks the routing table for a route to a matching network number. If the destination network number matches that of a local interface network number. Sun Services. the kernel routing algorithm check generates an ICMP error message. All Rights Reserved. 5. If there is no route to the destination. 2. The router that receives the frame repeats the execution of the route algorithm. Revision A. the kernel encapsulates the datagram. The kernel routing algorithm checks for a default route in the routing table. The kernel searches the routing table for a matching network number. The kernel extracts the destination IP address from the IP datagram and computes the destination network number. If a matching number is found.1 7-15 . the kernel sets the destination Ethernet address to that of the corresponding router and delivers the frame to that router. and delivers the datagram through the interface that is local to the default router.

Inc. the netstat command attempts to resolve IP addresses to names. The format of this file is: # # network-name network-number nicnames . IP addresses and host names are associated by using the /etc/inet/hosts file. The /etc/networks file is a symbolic link to the /etc/inet/networks file.168. .168. Sun Services. # # # The loopback network is used only for intra-machine communication # loopback 127 # # Internet networks # arpanet 10 one two three thirty # 192. An equivalent file for associating network names and numbers also exists: the /etc/inet/networks file. Revision A.0 1.1 192.3 192. and displays the names instead of the numbers.1 */ # # The networks file associates Internet Protocol (IP) network numbers # with network names.2 192. If the netstat -r command is used instead. .168. and nicknames. you can use the defined network name in a command instead of a network address. For example: # cat /etc/inet/networks #ident "@(#)networks 1. The fields in the /etc/inet/networks file are organized by network name. All Rights Reserved. network number.30 arpa one two three thirty # Historical When the /etc/inet/networks file is modified.168.1 . 7-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Working With the Routing Table Associating Names and Network Numbers The netstat -rn command displays the routing table without resolving any of the IP addresses in the routing table to names.4 92/07/14 SMI" /* SVr4.

0.----. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Working With the Routing Table To view how defined networks are displayed in the output from the netstat command. and the loopback address is replaced by its entry from the /etc/inet/hosts file.----. All Rights Reserved. Inc.--------sys11 U 1 53 hme0 sys11ext UG 1 0 sys11ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 56 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 3 132 lo0 Observe that the destination networks are now displayed by name instead of by network number. Revision A. Sun Services. use the netstat command with the -r option: # netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------one two three thirty 224.0.1 7-17 .-----.0 localhost # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.

0. Configuring Static Direct Routes Static direct routes are routes to local networks which do not expire from the routing table.31 192.1.1.168.0.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------. To view the static direct routes configured by the ifconfig command.1 entry in the routing table is a loopback route to the local host that is created when the lo0 pseudo interface is configured.1 U U UH 1 1 3 77 0 132 qfe0 hme0 lo0 The 127. All Rights Reserved. 7-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..30.0. 192.168.0 .1.168.0.-----. Static routes are not removed from the routing table by the system.0.168.0. use the netstat -rn command: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192. Inc.30.0 224.0 127.1 U 1 53 hme0 192.0.. Revision A.--------192.168.. .Configuring Static Routes Configuring Static Routes You can configure a route that does not change or time-out.1 127. Sun Services.1 . A static direct route is added to a network when a network interface is configured as up by the ifconfig command. The ifconfig command builds the direct route entries initially when the network interface is configured during system startup. This type of route is called a static route.----..0.----.

This can be an administrative problem on large. Sun Services. evolving networks. Some advantages of default routing are: q The /etc/defaultrouter file prevents unneeded routing processes from starting.1 7-19 . You must use host names that exist in the system’s /etc/inet/hosts file because no name-resolution services are available at the time that this file is read at system boot. Revision A. All systems must have a local /etc/defaultrouter file configured properly because this file cannot be administered by a name service. A system that is configured with an /etc/defaultrouter file does not execute the in.routed daemon. The system does not learn about other possible routes. Inc. q q q Some disadvantages of default routing are: q The default entries created by the /etc/defaultrouter file are always present. The default entries result in a smaller routing table. even when the default router is not available. q Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. which lists the host names or IP addresses of the default routers. Default route entries can be either static entries or dynamic entries. which reduces the processing time spent on each IP datagram. The /etc/defaultrouter file is used to define static default routes. which eliminate single points-of-failure within a network. All Rights Reserved. Systems that use default route entries do not depend on actual routing protocols. Multiple default routers can be identified.Configuring Static Routes Configuring the /etc/defaultrouter File Default routes are routing table entries that define the default routers to use if no specific host or network routes are available. Default routes mean that you do not need to define every reachable network because datagrams that are addressed to non-local destinations use a default router in the absence of an explicit route. You can define default routers by creating entries in the /etc/defaultrouter file.

For example. Static route entries in the /etc/gateways file use the format: net|host destination gateway gateway metric hops [passive|active|extern] For example: # cat /etc/gateways net 192. The /etc/gateways file also supports the use of directives to control the behavior of the system.1 . Inc. you can disable the RIP protocols (RIPv1 and RIPv2) by placing the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_rip Use the no_rip_v1in directive when you want your system to ignore RIPv1 information received on a specific interface. The in. is read by the in. use the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_ripv1_in if=qfe3 You can disable the RDISC protocol by placing the following directive in the /etc/gateways file: no_rdisc Refer to the gateways man page for more information on the /etc/gateways file. All Rights Reserved. to ignore RIPv1 information received on the qfe3 interface.routed daemon uses the contents of the /etc/gateways file to add additional static routes to the routing table. Sun Services.3.168.Configuring Static Routes Configuring the /etc/gateways File The /etc/gateways file.0 gateway sys31ext metric 1 # Note – It is a better practice to use IP addresses rather than the host names because it might not be possible to resolve host names. For example. 7-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.routed daemon when the daemon starts. Revision A. if it exists.

0 sys31ext add net 192.3. Inc.168. a network. remove. For example. Revision A. you use the route add command. All Rights Reserved. type the command: # route add default instructor add default: gateway instructor # To delete a route.1 7-21 . to add a static route to the 192. The route command can be used to add.3.0: gateway sys31ext # To add a static route to the sys24 host with the sys21ext system as the gateway.168. Sun Services.Configuring Static Routes Configuring Static Routes on the Command Line The route command enables manual manipulation of the routing table. type the command: # route add net 192. type the command: # route add host sys24 sys21ext add host sys24: gateway sys21ext # To add a default route with the instructor system as its gateway. or a default route. To add routes to the routing table. you use the route delete command. Its basic format is: route delete destination gateway For example.3.168.0 network with the sys31ext system as the gateway. Its basic format is: route add destination gateway The destination can be a host. The route command uses sub-commands to perform its tasks. type the command: # route delete sys24 sys21ext delete host sys24: gateway sys21ext # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. to delete the route to the host sys24 using the gateway sys21ext. and change routing table entries.

to retrieve information about the default route.255.DONE.NETMASK> 192.GATEWAY.1 . type the following command: # route get default route to: default destination: default mask: default gateway: instructor interface: hme0 flags: <UP. use the route flush command. flags:<UP. to receive the following output.3. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.ms rttvar.GATEWAY.0 sys11ext 255. route look-up misses. type the route monitor command: # route monitor got message of size 124 RTM_DELETE: Delete Route: len 124. Inc.168. For example.20. use the route monitor command. For example: # route flush 192.GATEWAY. or suspected network partitionings.DONE.ms 0 0 0 0 0 # hopcount 0 mtu 1500 expire 0 To change the routing table. For example. use the route change command.4.STATIC> recvpipe sendpipe ssthresh rtt.255.Configuring Static Routes To retrieve information about a specific route. use the route get command.STATIC> locks: inits: sockaddrs: <DST.168.0 To flush (remove) the routing table of all gateway entries. to change the default route from instructor to sys41.248 done done done done 7-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. pid: 633. Sun Services.9 two two default # sys13 sys13 sys11ext 172. seq 1. errno 0. type a command similar to the following: # route change default sys41 change net default: gateway sys41 # To continuously report any changes to the routing table. For example. when a route is deleted.

168.168.168.0/4 ‘uname -n‘ Note – You can find the command syntax in the /lib/svc/method/net-svc SMF method file.168.3.255. hence the /27 after the network address.0 sys21ext add net 192.0/27 The 255.255.0: gateway sys21ext # To add a route manually to the multicast address range of 224–239. All Rights Reserved. A command similar to the following is identical to the command in the preceding example: # route add net 192.2. For example. specify the length of the subnet mask after the destination.224 netmask for the 192. Revision A.0/27: gateway sys31ext # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. There are 27 ones (1s) in the binary netmask.0 sys31ext -netmask 255.0 network that uses a netmask of 255.3.168.168.0/27 sys31ext add net 192.3.3. For example.3. type a command similar to the following: # route -f add net 192.11100000 in binary format. use the flush option in combination with other options. type the command: # route add 224.11111111.224 add net 192.0 network.3.Configuring Static Routes To cause the routing table to flush before the remaining options are evaluated. Sun Services. For example.0: gateway sys31ext # To achieve the same results in a more concise way.2. use the -netmask option with the route command.2.255.168. type the command: # route add net 192.255. To define a route that uses a specific netmask to support a network.11111111. Inc.0 network is 11111111. to add a route to the 192.168.168. enter: 192.168.3.255.1 7-23 .255. to flush the routing table of gateways and to add a route to the 192.224.

168. routes that are added. for example. Sun Services. and then restart the in. All Rights Reserved. Network names can also be used to define routes. 7-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.routed process. Revision A.168.1 .Configuring Static Routes Note – The in. Inc. Instead. This ensures that the in. make the required changes. To add a route to the two network.30. type a command similar to the following: # route add net two 192. Therefore. deleted. or flushed as a result of the route command.31 add net two: gateway 192.routed process.routed process is running.30.31 # Note – Use of the metric argument in the route command is no longer supported. defined in the /etc/inet/networks file. do not perform these types of changes while the in.routed process learns of any changes. shut down the in.routed process does not detect any routing table changes that are performed by other programs on the machine.

RIP version 1 does not support VLSM or CIDR. triggered updates.1 7-25 . Distance-Vector Protocols Distance-vector algorithms compute the least-cost path of a route by using information that is exchanged with other routers. This information describes how far away (in distance) reachable networks are from the sending or receiving system. Inc. These stability features include a hop-count limit. Figure 7-8 shows the least hop count between a source host and a destination host. RIPv1 and RIPv2 are bundled with the Solaris 10 OS. All Rights Reserved. RIP Version 1 RIP version 1 is a distance-vector protocol that exchanges route information between IP routers. hold-down states. When multiple paths to a destination exist. RIP is an Application layer protocol. The efficiency of a route is determined by its distance from the source to the destination. split horizons. The total number of hops is called the hop count. This distance is measured by a metric known as a hop.Configuring Dynamic Routing Configuring Dynamic Routing RIP is a routing protocol that is used commonly on computer systems to provide dynamic routing. RIP maintains only the best route to a destination. Sun Services. only the first path with the lowest hop count is maintained. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Metric = 1 (propagated to route tables) Router Router Source Host Router Destination Metric = 2 (discarded) Host Figure 7-8 Least Hop Count RIP specifies a number of features that make its operation more stable in the face of rapid network topology changes. and route poisoning.

This activity begins a wave of route updates that filter through the network. These routers then calculate new routes and send route update messages to inform their neighbors of the route change. All Rights Reserved. Hold-Down States Hold-down states prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that has gone bad. Revision A. it advertises this information immediately rather than waiting until the next 30-second (default) advertisement interval occurs. Triggered Updates Triggered updates propagate changing route information quickly throughout the network. This upper limit of 15 does not cause problems since RIP is an IGP and is used within autonomous systems only. These updates do not instantly arrive at every network device. It is possible that a device that has yet to be informed of a network failure can send a regular update message (indicating that a route that has just gone down is still available) to a device that has just been notified of the network failure. This helps prevent two-node routing loops. As the router becomes aware that new routes are available or that existing routes are not available. Hold-down states tell routers to hold down any changes that can affect recently removed routes for a specified period of time. Split Horizons Split horizons derive from the fact that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. The hold-down period is usually calculated to be just greater than the period of time that is necessary to update the entire network with a route change. When a route goes down. The split-horizon rule prohibits this from happening. A destination greater than 15 hops away is tagged as unreachable. neighboring routers detect this condition. 7-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The maximum hop count of RIP greatly restricts its use in large networks but prevents a problem called count to infinity from causing endless network routing loops.1 . the latter device now contains (and potentially advertises) incorrect route information.Configuring Dynamic Routing Hop-Count Limits RIP permits a maximum hop count of 15. In this case. Inc. Sun Services.

Sun Services.0. RIPv2 includes support for simple authentication of messages. and the hosts and routers remove the route entry. RIP Version 2 RIP version 2 was developed to address some of the limitations of RIPv1. it issues a triggered update for that destination. q Note – RIP version 2 is defined in RFC 2453.9 multicast address is reserved for RIPv2. The 224. Inc. RIPv2 uses muticast to advertise routes. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 7-27 . while maintaining backward compatibility combined with the simplicity of RIPv1. Revision A.Configuring Dynamic Routing Route Poisoning When a router learns that a destination is no longer available. This update includes a hop-count advertisement of 16.0. This is to ensure that other systems do not attempt to use the bad route. RIPv2 has the following characteristics: q q RIPv2 supports VLSM and non-byte-bounded subnet masks. All Rights Reserved. All other hosts and routers consider the destination as unreachable.

If RIPv2 multicasts are being processed.ripngd" "-s" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in. Sun Services.routed" "" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in. or if the /etc/defaultrouter file is empty or does not exist.routed daemon. If RIPv1 broadcasts are being processed.routed daemon can be stopped and started on the command line by using the routeadm command.routed daemon. A router sends routing information to the networks to which it is directly connected every 30 seconds. The in. but only those hosts that run the in. The /usr/sbin/in. Stopping and Starting the in. Inc.routed routing daemon and whether a system forwards IP packets between networks. Routers and non-routers run the in.routed.routed Daemon The in. The routeadm command is used to control whether a system runs the in.pid‘" "/usr/lib/inet/in.routed Daemon RIPv1 and RIPv2 are implemented by the /usr/sbin/in.pid‘" 7-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.ripngd. all hosts receive the information. You cannot change this time interval. To view the current configuration.1 .routed daemon causes a system to broadcast its own routing information if IP forwarding and IP routing are enabled by the routeadm command.Configuring Dynamic Routing The in. only those hosts listening for the RIPv2 multicast address process the information.routed daemon use the information.routed daemon is started at boot time if the ipv4-routing option is specifically enabled by using the routeadm command. Revision A. type the routeadm command with no arguments: # routeadm Configuration Option IPv4 forwarding IPv4 routing IPv6 forwarding IPv6 routing IPv4 routing daemon IPv4 routing daemon args IPv4 routing daemon stop IPv6 routing daemon IPv6 routing daemon args IPv6 routing daemon stop # Current Configuration default default default default (disabled) (enabled) (disabled) (disabled) Current System State disabled enabled disabled disabled "/usr/sbin/in.

All Rights Reserved. Note – Using the routeadm command without the -u option causes the configuration to be changed in the /etc/inet/routing. To cause the system to revert to default behavior at system boot (start the in.Configuring Dynamic Routing To stop the in. Inc.routed daemon unless the /etc/defaultrouter file is not empty). Revision A.routed daemon.1 7-29 . type the command: # routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing # The -d option changes the contents of the /etc/inet/routing.conf file to list the argument as enabled explicitly.conf file to list the argument as disabled explicitly. The -e option changes the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. Sun Services.conf file. type the command: # routeadm -r ipv4-routing # Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.routed daemon. type the command: # routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing # To start the in. The -u option updates the system’s current configuration by using the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. but does not change the current configuration of the system.conf file.

0. Non-routers running the in. Some advantages of the RDISC Protocol are that it: q q q q Is independent of routing protocol Uses a multicast address Results in small routing tables Provides redundancy through multiple default-route entries Note – The RDISC Protocol was previously implemented by using the in. Revision A.1 multicast address for these router advertisement messages.1 multicast address every 600 seconds (10 minutes). q The behavior of the RDISC protocol can be controlled by entries in the /etc/gateways file. The default lifetime for a non-advertised route is 30 minutes (three times the advertising time interval).routed process builds a default route entry for each router from which an advertisement is received. In the Solaris 10 OS. Some disadvantages of the RDISC protocol are: q An advertisement period of 10 minutes can result in a black hole. The RDISC protocol provides a default route from hosts to routers. to change the advertisement interval to 100 seconds.0. create the entry: rdisc_interval=100 7-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. While the in.0.1 . the in.routed daemon listen to the 224.routed daemon advertise their presence by using the 224. The in.routed daemon has been enhanced to include equivalent route discovery funtionality. Routers must still run a routing protocol. Sun Services. Routers that run the in. such as RIP. Inc. A black hole is the time period in which a router path is present in the table.Configuring Dynamic Routing The RDISC Protocol The RDISC Protocol sends and receives router advertisement messages pertaining to default routes. RFC 1256 specifies the format of related ICMP messages. All Rights Reserved.rdisc daemon is still present in the Solaris 10 OS. to learn about other networks. it is no longer started at system boot. The in.rdisc daemon.0. For example. not between routers.routed daemon implements the RDISC Protocol. but the router is not actually available.

which might initiate a denial of service attack if the newly specified router is not a router at all. Inc. Revision A. Figure 7-9 on page 7-32 shows an ICMP redirect process where the sys21 system needs to communicate with the server1 system and has a default route of sys11. However. Caution – An attacker might forge redirect errors to install false routes. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Use this ndd command to ignore IPv4 ICMP redirect errors: ndd -set /dev/ip ip_ignore_redirect 1. there is a separate entry in the sending system’s routing table. available at: http://www. Refer to the Sun BluePrints™ document Solaris Operating Environment Network Settings for Security. ICMP datagrams are always encapsulated in IP. all of which can be spoofed easily.com/solutions/blueprints/1200/ network-updt1. All Rights Reserved. The drawback to this method of routing is that for every ICMP redirect. There are rules governing valid redirect errors. telling it that the best route to the server1 system is through the instructor system. this method of routing also ensures that the datagrams that are going to all reachable hosts are taking the shortest route. ICMP on a router or gateway attempts to send reports of problems to the original source if an IP datagram cannot be delivered for some reason. or if there is only one way to forward the datagram. ICMP redirects occur when a system uses more than one default route. The information does reach the server1 system and the sys11 system sends an ICMP redirect to the sys21 system. it redirects the datagram using the better or only route and reports that route to the sender. If the router determines a more efficient route. This action can lead to a large routing table.sun.Configuring Dynamic Routing ICMP Redirects ICMP provides control and error messages.pdf.1 7-31 . The sending system’s routing table is updated with the new information.

Inc. Revision A. Sun Services.Configuring Dynamic Routing server1 4 5 Datagram Datagram #telnet server1 sys21 3 ICMP Redirect 1 Datagram 2 Datagram instructor sys11 Figure 7-9 ICMP Redirect 7-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1 .

Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.X/Y. and the remaining 14 bits identify the host. The first 18 bits identify the network. RFC 1519. and Class C) Block address allocation Hierarchical routing Operation of CIDR CIDR uses classless addresses. Netmasks are referred to as network prefixes and are used to create networks of varying sizes. dramatically increase the number of routes in the routing table. For example. All Rights Reserved. The value Y is an integer value that specifies the number of 1s in the netmask.X. Inc. The network prefix is expressed in the following notation: X.1 7-33 . Revision A. Purpose of CIDR A task force was created by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to develop a solution to the scale and growth problems. and is a way to make more-efficient use of the IP address space. Large routing tables cause poor router performance because the router spends excessive time performing address lookups.0. Sun Services. or supernetting.192. RFC 1518. The most severe problems are: q q Impending depletion of Class B networks Increasing the size of routing tables Depletion of Class B networks creates a problem for large organizations because Class C addresses with 254 as their maximum number of host addresses are not large enough. Three important features of CIDR that address scalability and growth issues for the Internet are: q q q Elimination of network classes (Class A.X.Introducing CIDR Introducing CIDR The rapid growth of the Internet in the early 1990s created concerns about the ability to scale and support future growth. CIDR is documented in RFC 1517. Assigning multiple Class C networks to companies will. using /18 is equivalent to a netmask of 255. Class B. over time.255. and RFC 1520. The solution became known as CIDR.

0/23 Broadcast address – 192.255. 0xffffff00.3/24 (11000000.254 (510 addresses).168.168.Introducing CIDR Figure 7-10 shows an example of a CIDR prefix.2.0).168.00000000.255.pppppppp. or 255.ssssssss.10101000.255 Valid host addresses for this supernetted network range from 192. The 192.168. Sun Services. Inc.254.10101000.0) can be supernetted by using a prefix of /23 (11000000.nnnnnnnn. All Rights Reserved.0 addresses are valid host addresses.255. but they are not used in the Solaris 10 OS.168. For example.ssssssss.sshhhhhhh Classless Routing Protocols pppppppp. 192.00000000 10nnnnnn. 0xfffffe00.255 and 192. 0xffffff00.255.168.2/24 (11000000.2.nnnnnnnn.ss0000000 10nnnnnn.0) and 192.1 .pp000000. Evolution of Routing Protocols Classful Routing Protocols Network Route Subnet Route Host Route 10nnnnnn.0000001X.168. 7-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or 255. Supernetting is the combining of two or more contiguous network addresses.00000010. The systems on the supernetted networks must all use the following in order to properly communicate without a router: q q Network address – 192.nnnnnnnn.00000000 Prefix Route Prefix Length n = Network s = Subnet h = Host Figure 7-10 CIDR Prefix This use of variable length subnet masks means making efficient use of network address space by supernetting or subnetting.168.255. Revision A.1–192.10101000.3.3.3.2.00000011. or 255.

168.RUNNING.255 127.0. an Internet service provider (ISP) could be allocated blocks of address space. Sun Services.-----.221. CIDR and VLSM permit a portion of the IP address space to be divided into successively smaller pieces.2.RUNNING. Subnetting is the application of a netmask on an IP address to divide the network up into smaller pieces.255.168. 204.239 eri0 1500* 0 1 U 127. for example.--. Inc.0.1 lo0 8232* 0 1 UH # Out In/Fwd ---.----.20. must be used on the router that connects this supernetted network to other networks.---.3.255 192. which they then assign in subset address blocks to smaller ISPs.239/23 broadcast + up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. CIDR and VLSM make this aggregation and subdivision of address space possible.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 4 inet 192. All Rights Reserved.106.1 netmask ff000000 eri0: flags=1000843<UP.168. The routing table entry for each ISP or organization reflects the first address in the block assigned to it.--------------.0 192.0/22.255.0.255. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 255.6 255.-----0 0 0 0 10 0 A CIDR and VLSM aware routing protocol.254 1500* 0 1 UGH 192. These smaller ISPs can then supply an even smaller subset of addresses to a customer or private organization.239 netmask fffffe00 broadcast 192.255 ether 0:3:ba:2a:9d:7a # netstat -rnv IRE Table: IPv4 Destination Mask Gateway Device Mxfrg Rtt Ref Flg --------------.LOOPBACK.1 7-35 . such as RIPv2.Introducing CIDR Following is an example that configures an interface on this supernetted network: # ifconfig eri0 plumb 192. Revision A.3.255.3. For example.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.0.1 255. A range of CIDR addresses is known as a CIDR block.8.2.--------------.255.168.--172.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.3. This support of network addresses eliminates the number of entries required in the backbone routing tables. even though there can be additional network addresses that are associated with the block.MULTICAST.254.168.0.0.168.

Sun Services.Introducing CIDR Consider an ISP that requires IP addresses for 1000 clients. every address on the four networks has the same network address. Therefore.0 204. if you consider the first 22 bits only of an address on any of these networks to represent the network portion of the address. Based on 254 clients per Class C network.1 .9. All Rights Reserved.106. for example: q q q q 204.11. the ISP requires four Class C networks. Inc.106.106.0 Figure 7-11 shows the network addresses that can result from applying different network prefixes. 7-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The networks can therefore be supernetted and a single route can be used to reach all four networks.0 204. Revision A.106.0 204.10. You can supernet four Class C networks.8. Figure 7-11 CIDR Network Addresses It can be seen from Figure 7-11 that the four networks being considered have identical values in their first 22 bits.

536 Host Addresses) Internet 204. Revision A. Inc.1 7-37 .8.0 Figure 7-12 Supernetting Example An ISP who is given a block of supernetted addresses can then divide the range into different sized blocks to suit the needs of their customers.Introducing CIDR Figure 7-12 shows an example of supernetting.0. 204.106.106.11.106.106.106.106. All Rights Reserved.0. while minimizing the number of routing table entries required.0.0/21 Internet Service Provider (2048 Host Addresses) Address Range 204.0/20 (4096 Host Addresses) Address Range 204.106.0–204.0/22 (1024 Host Addresses) 204.0. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0–204.0 204.8.7.106.0/16 (65. Sun Services.

Sun Services. or is empty. Initializing a Router When a system boots. the system first checks the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. The ipv4-forwarding option refers to whether a system will be configured to forward packets between networks.conf file.Configuring Routing at Boot Time Configuring Routing at Boot Time The behavior of a Solaris 10 system in regard to route configuration is different to previous versions of the Solaris OS. IPv4 routing is disabled if the /etc/defaultrouter file is not empty. then the system determines whether or not to enable or disable each option.1 .routed daemon. Inc. If the ipv4-routing or ipv4-forwarding options are set explicitly to either enabled or disabled. The ipv4-routing option refers to whether a system will start the in. The /etc/inet/routing. All Rights Reserved. 7-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. If the /etc/defaultrouter file is not present. IPv4 forwarding is disabled by default and must be enabled explicitly by using the routeadm command.routed daemon is started).conf file contains two options regarding route configuration on a Solaris 10 system: ipv4-routing and ipv4-forwarding. the setting is applied. If either option has not been set explicitly. IPv4 routing is enabled (the in.

All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Inc.1 7-39 .Configuring Routing at Boot Time Figure 7-13 shows how the /lib/svc/method/net-init method configures a system for IPv4 forwarding and routing. Start Disable IPv4 forwarding /etc/defaultrouter exist? Does Yes Disable IPv4 routing No IPv4 routing enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv4 routing Yes Enable IPv4 routing IPv4 forwarding enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv4 forwarding Yes Enable IPv4 forwarding End Figure 7-13 IPv4 Router Initialization Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.

All Rights Reserved. Become a superuser on the prospective multihomed system.routed daemon: # routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing # routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing # The system now functions as a router. Do one of the following: q Turn on IP forwarding on all of the interfaces: Turn on IP forwarding for specific interfaces: # routeadm -u -e ipv4-forwarding q # ifconfig specific_interface router 3. To create a multihomed host. Sun Services. Revision A. complete the following steps: 1.interface file for each additional network interface that is installed in the system.qfe2 sample-hostname-for-qfe2 # This causes the interfaces to be configured by the SMF methods at boot time. containing contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname.Configuring Routing at Boot Time Configuring a Router Without Rebooting To configure a Solaris OS system as a router without rebooting. Initializing a Multihomed Host A multihomed host is a system with two or more physical network interfaces that does not forward IP datagrams between the networks to which it is attached. In the Solaris 10 OS. Stop and restart the in. if the qfe2 interface is to be enabled and known on the network.interface and the /etc/inet/hosts files are configured properly. 7-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you create the /etc/hostname. 2. Verify that the /etc/hostname.qfe2 file.1 . Inc. 2. complete the following steps: 1. all systems with two or more physical network interfaces are multihomed hosts by default. Create an /etc/hostname. For example.

but do not enable the interface at this stage: # ifconfig qfe2 plumb 192. Add an entry to the /etc/inet/hosts file so that the interface can be assigned an IP address at boot time. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.1 7-41 . Use the routeadm command to disable IP forwarding explicitly: # routeadm -u -d ipv4_forwarding # 3. Inc.168. To initialize a non-router. Complete the following steps to enable the configuration without rebooting: 1. use the routeadm command to disable IP forwarding on all interfaces by typing the following command: # routeadm -u -d ipv4_forwarding Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 netmask + broadcast + # 2. Use the ifconfig command to configure the new interface as appropriate.1 sample-hostname-for-qfe2 # 4. Use the ifconfig command to enable the interface: Initializing a Non-Router Disabling IP forwarding stops a router from forwarding packets between the networks to which it is connected.19.19. Revision A.Configuring Routing at Boot Time 3. The entry looks similar to the following: # grep sample /etc/inet/hosts 192.168. Do either of the two following procedures: q q Reboot the system with the init 6 command. # ifconfig qfe2 up # The system is now a multihomed host that has connectivity to more than one network and can be used without concern of advertising routes and potentially causing routing issues on any of the networks to which it belongs.

and make sure that they are set correctly.qfe0 file is correct. q The correct device and file name are defined for the interface.Troubleshooting Routing Troubleshooting Routing One of the most challenging tasks that a network administrator has to perform is troubleshooting routing.qfe0 -rw-r--r-1 root other # 7-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.30. examine the inet (IP address). type the command: 113 Nov 16 14:58 /etc/hostname.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. to verify that the hostname. verify the following: q The device information tree recognizes the additional interfaces. If the IP address is set incorrectly. and broadcast entries. Use the prtconf command. to determine if the qfe interface is in the device tree.30. Revision A.1 .qfe. If the netmask and broadcast addresses are wrong. netmask.qfe0 # ls -al /etc/hostname.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 # If the interface is up. check the contents of the /etc/inet/netmasks file.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. SUNW. All Rights Reserved. and search for the interface with the grep command. SUNW. use the following command: instance instance instance instance #0 #1 #2 #3 # prtconf | grep qfe SUNW. # q The ifconfig command reports the interface to be configured as expected. Inc.RUNNING. Troubleshooting the Router Configuration When troubleshooting a problem.qfe.168. Router configuration and troubleshooting relies on mastering other basic network skills. check the contents of the /etc/inet/hosts file. For example. For example. use the following command: # ifconfig qfe0 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP. SUNW.168. For example. Sun Services.qfe. to determine if the qfe0 interface is configured as expected.qfe. if you are configuring the qfe0 interface.BROADCAST.

30.Troubleshooting Routing q The name that is assigned to the interface is correct.1 sys11 192. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.168.1 7-43 .qfe0 sys11ext # q The name that is defined in the hostname.168. to determine if qfe0 has an assigned host name of sys11ext.168.71 sys11-test-qfe1 # # # # # Data address for hme0 Data address for qfe1 qfe0:1 Test address for hme0 qfe1:1 Test address for qfe1 Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file and is associated with the correct address.1.168.168. Sun Services.1.31 sys11ext 192. Inc. to determine if sys11 has an assigned IP address of 192.1.168.21 sys11-data-qfe1 192.1.1. For example.1. type the command: # grep sys11 /etc/inet/hosts 192. type the command: # cat /etc/hostname.51 sys11-test-hme0 192. For example.

0 224.----.2.168. This can lead to errors when you configure a new interface.1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------. Revision A. when used with the -r option.168.0 localhost # Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.30.1 U 1 0 hme0 127. All Rights Reserved.3. displays routing table information.0.0.168. Sun Services. Inc.0 224.1.----.-----.33 UG 1 0 192.--------192.0 192.168.1 UH 3 132 lo0 7-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30.0.0 192.31 U 1 176 qfe0 192.0.0.168. To report addresses as numbers instead of names.1.0 127.Troubleshooting Routing Troubleshooting Network Names The netstat command.-----. use the -n option with the netstat command.32 UG 1 0 192.168.1 .1 U 1 191 hme0 192. For example: # netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------three one two 192.----.30. For example: # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.--------sys33ext UG 1 0 sys11 U 1 189 hme0 sys32ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 175 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 3 132 lo0 Observe how some of the destinations have names instead of numbers.30.1.168.0 192.----.0.30.168.168.0.0.168.

Be sure to watch for prompts in the task steps to ensure that you are working on the correct system.32 sys21ext 192.1.33 sys31ext 192.1 sys11 192.0.1.168.30 instructor # loghost # router to get to instructor->Internet # router to get to instructor->Internet # router to get to instructor->Internet Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.1. you are instructed to work as a group on the system that is your subnet’s router.3.1 7-45 .168.2. Populate your system’s /etc/inet/hosts file with all of the hosts in the class network if this is not already done.4 sys24 # 192.4 sys14 # 192.168.2.168.4 sys34 # 192.168.2 sys32 192.2 sys22 192.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration In this exercise.3 sys23 192.30.2 sys12 192.168. Your /etc/inet/hosts file should have contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # # Internet host table # 127.168. At times.168.30.1 sys21 192.168.168. Revision A.1 sys31 192.168. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed.3 sys33 192.168.168. you configure a Sun Microsystems workstation as a router and use the route command to configure the system’s routing tables manually.3 sys13 192.168.1 localhost # SA-300-S10 host information 192.2. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.30. Inc.30.168.31 sys11ext 192.3.2.168.0.3.3.

xxx.0 Internet . If the interface is configured.1 sys11 .3 sys23 sys33 . All Rights Reserved.4 sys14 .4 Figure 7-14 Classroom Network Diagram 7-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.4 sys24 sys34 .xxx.2 sys22 sys32 . the command output will not match the solutions properly for the exercises.2 .1 . verify that its second interface is not configured. Inc.1.168.33 192.168.32 .31 192.30 . Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with the diagram.xxx 192.168.1 sys21 sys31 . instructor xxx.0 192. Revision A.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Caution – If your system is designated by the instructor as being a router.2 sys13 .2 sys12 .0 .168. Sun Services.3.30. Figure 7-14 shows the classroom’s network diagram.1 .0 .3 .2.

Default route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2. define each of the following routing schemes: a. Dynamic route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Tasks Complete the following steps: 1. Sun Services. What is a multihomed host? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. describe the differences between an interior gateway protocol and an exterior gateway protocol. Static route ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ b. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 5. All Rights Reserved. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 4. In your own words. Revision A. In your own words. Give two examples of an interior gateway protocol. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Define the term autonomous system.1 7-47 .

Sun Services.interface files. How many bits of your IPv4 address are currently being used for your network address? ________________________________________________________ 7-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Before making any changes to the interfaces. Inc. Give two examples of an exterior gateway protocol. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. Command used: ______________________________________________ Netmask: ____________________________________________________ Broadcast: ___________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. Revision A. B.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 6. Explain the purpose of ICMP redirects. 2. remove the relevant /etc/hostname. a. Remove the file/s. If additional interfaces are configured. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. write the netmask and broadcast values of the Ethernet interface. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on the Routers 8. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. Which class of IPv4 address (A.1 . The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. or C) is assigned to your system? ________________________________________________________ b.

Revision A. If it does not. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 10. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. a.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file. and place the host name in it so that the second interface is configured automatically at boot time. and place an appropriate name in the file. edit the /etc/inet/hosts file. b. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 12. What is the difference between this output and the previous netstat -r output? _____________________________________________________________ 11. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. Create the /etc/hostname. Write down which route destinations are available. Sun Services. Inc. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 9. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on the Routers 13. Use the netstat -r command to observe your current routing table. Use the netstat command with the -rn options.interface file for your system’s second interface. All Rights Reserved.1 7-49 . Verify that the name to be associated with the second interface that is used in the /etc/hostname. Configure the router for your subnet.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 16. Sun Services. a. 15. Display the contents of the routing table.1 .Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration 14. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ What does this daemon do? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 7-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Reboot the router. Which network destinations are now available? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c. Determine that the routing daemon is running on the router. Inc. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. Display the configuration of each network interface. How many external interfaces are configured and running now? ________________________________________________________ b. Verify that each router is correctly configured. Revision A. Configure IP forwarding and IP routing for IPv4 to become enabled on the next boot of the router.

Run the netstat -r command. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. Run the ifconfig -a command. All Rights Reserved. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. Complete the following steps: a. and record the current network destinations. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. remove the relevant /etc/hostname. Determine if the routing daemon is running on each non-router system. Sun Services.interface files. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. If additional interfaces are configured. 2. Revision A.1 7-51 . and record the current netmask and broadcast values. 17. Remove the file/s. and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. Inc. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Why is this daemon running? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ c.

Start the snoop utility on the router to watch for network traffic associated with multicast address 224.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 18. Which new type of entry is now present? How was it entered into the routing table? _____________________________________________________________ 22. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 20. Reboot your non-router workstation.0.) Be sure to use the snoop utility on the appropriate interface for the network that you want to monitor.0. All Rights Reserved. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 21. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 19. Inc. (Hint: Use the icmp option on the snoop command line. Observe the snoop output on the router system. Be prepared to see ICMP router advertisements after the next step. Revision A.2 as the non-routers reboot. and observe the change to the routing tables. Use the ps command on the non-router systems to determine if the routing daemon is now running. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Why is this daemon running? _____________________________________________________________ 7-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the netstat -r command.1 . Sun Services.

and then start a verbose snoop trace in a separate window on your router system. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 27. All Rights Reserved. Terminate the snoop trace that you had running. Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.routed daemon terminates gracefully. as reported by the snoop trace? ________________________________________________________ What protocol did the router notification use? ________________________________________________________ What was the destination IP address of the router notification? ________________________________________________________ b. d. Sun Services. 26. Look for the router notification when the in.routed daemon terminated gracefully? ________________________________________________________ What was the ETHER destination. a. use the routeadm command to terminate the in. Working in a new window. Examine the snoop trace. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 24. Revision A. Inc. c.1 7-53 . Hint: Look for multicasts and ICMP messages. Did you see the router notification when the in.Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 23. View the output from the snoop utility. What is missing? _________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems. Verify that the process has been terminated. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 25.routed process on the router.

Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
28. Verify that the snoop session started earlier on your router is still running, and then start the in.routed process on your router system, changing the advertisement interval to 90 seconds by placing the appropriate entry in the /etc/gateways file. What entry do you place in the /etc/gateways file? _____________________________________________________________ Which command do you use to restart the in.routed daemon? _____________________________________________________________ Observe ICMP and other traffic as the in.routed daemon is started.

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
29. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems to verify that the default route has been inserted into the routing table. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ In this section, you test to see how long it takes for the default route to be removed when no communications are received from a router. You use the 9 (KILL) signal to kill the in.routed daemon, so that the daemon does not have a chance to advertise that it is going down. 30. On a non-router, use the date and netstat commands to determine how long before the default route entry is removed. Note – The while statement syntax assumes that you are using the Bourne shell: while true > do date; netstat -rn | grep default; sleep 20 > done

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Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
31. Simulate a router crash, and kill the in.routed daemon on the router again, but use the 9 (KILL) signal this time. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
32. Watch the output from the script, and keep track of the time. When the default entry stops being reported, subtract the start time from the finish time to determine how long the system took to remove the default route entry. Approximately how long did it take for the default entry to be removed from the table? _____________________________________________________________ When done, stop the script by pressing the Control+C key sequence. 33. Stop the in.routed daemon on the non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.

Individually: Working on All Systems
34. Flush the routing tables on routers first and then the non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
35. Working on a non-router system, use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. What is the response from the ping command? _____________________________________________________________

Configuring Routing
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Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
36. Add routes manually to the other subnets by using the route command. Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
37. Add routes manually by using the route command to the remote subnets. Write the commands that you use. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.

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Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Individually: Working on All Systems
38. Working on all systems, observe the routing tables. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
39. Working on a non-router system, use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets. What is the response from the ping command? _____________________________________________________________ 40. Edit the contents of the /etc/inet/networks file, and add the one, two and three network names. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 41. Observe the changes to the routing table on all non-router systems. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Are the networks described in the /etc/inet/networks file present in the routing table? _____________________________________________________________ Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 42. Reboot the routers. Schedule a job so that the non-routers reboot two minutes later. Check to see if the in.routed daemon was started on each of the non-router systems. Explain why you see the results that you do. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Configuring Routing
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Exercise: Reviewing Routing Configuration

Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System
Perform the following steps to leave your router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 43. Configure to enable IPv4 routing when the system next boots. _____________________________________________________________ 44. Configure to enable IPv4 forwarding when the system next boots. _____________________________________________________________ 45. If they exist, remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 46. Reboot the system. _____________________________________________________________

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
Perform the following steps to leave your non-router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 47. Remove the /etc/inet/routing.conf file. _____________________________________________________________ 48. If they exist, remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. _____________________________________________________________ 49. Reboot the system _____________________________________________________________

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Exercise Summary

Exercise Summary
Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences, issues, or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.
q q q q

!
?

Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications

Configuring Routing
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions

Exercise Solutions
Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. In your own words, define each of the following routing schemes: a. Static route Static routes are routes that are do not time-out and must be removed manually. Rebooting the system removes the static entries. The most common static entry is a system that routes datagrams to the locally connected networks. b. Dynamic route Dynamic routing means that the routing environment changes. Dynamic routing identifies other network destinations that are not connected directly but are reachable through a router. After the routing table identifies the other reachable networks, the identified router can forward or deliver the datagrams. c. Default route A default route is a table entry that permits a system to define default routes to use if a route entry for a specific destination does not exist. It is used for all indirectly connected workstations. The default routers must be reliable. There is no need to define every reachable network. All indirectly connected datagram destinations go to the default router. 2. What is a multihomed host? A multihomed host is a host that has more than one physical network interface and does not forward IP datagrams between networks. 3. Define the term autonomous system. An autonomous system is a collection of networks and routers under a single administrative control. This intentionally broad definition was incorporated into the Internet to handle overly large routing tables. 4. In your own words, describe the differences between an interior gateway protocol and an exterior gateway protocol. A routing protocol used within an autonomous system is called an interior gateway protocol. A routing protocol that communicates routes between autonomous systems is called an exterior gateway protocol. 5. Give two examples of an interior gateway protocol. OSPF protocol and RIP.

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Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions 6. 7. Give two examples of an exterior gateway protocol. EGP and BGP. Explain the purpose of ICMP redirects. ICMP redirects are used most commonly when a system uses default routing. If the router determines a more efficient way to forward the datagram, it redirects the datagram using the best route and reports the correct route to the sender.

Subnet Group: Working on the Routers
8. Before making any changes to the interfaces, write the netmask and broadcast values of the Ethernet interface.

router# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 The netmask is ffffff00. The broadcast address is 192.168.1.255. Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. If additional interfaces are configured, remove the relevant /etc/hostname.interface files, and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exist on your system: 1. Remove the file/s. 2. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. a. Which class of IPv4 address (A, B, or C) is assigned to your system? Class C (this might be different in your classroom). b. How many bits of your IPv4 address are currently being used for your network address? Twenty-four bits (this might be different in your classroom).

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Exercise Solutions 9. Use the netstat -r command to observe your current routing table. Write down which routing destinations are available.

router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 224.0.0.0 localhost

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------sys11 U 1 0 hme0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0

10. Use the netstat command with the -rn options. What is the difference between this output and the previous netstat -r output? The netstat -rn command displays the table in numeric form. router# netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 224.0.0.0 127.0.0.1

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------192.168.1.1 U 1 0 hme0 192.168.1.1 U 1 0 hme0 127.0.0.1 UH 2 6 lo0

11. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 153 1 0 04:42:54 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

The in.routed process is running.

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
12. Use the ps command to determine if the routing daemon is currently running on the system. non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 153 1 0 04:45:56 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

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Exercise Solutions

Subnet Group: Working on the Routers
13. Configure the router for your subnet. a. Create the /etc/hostname.interface file for your system’s second interface, and place the host name in it so that the second interface is configured automatically at boot time. For example, if your second interface is qfe0, the contents of the /etc/hostname.qfe0 file should be similar to: router# cat /etc/hostname.qfe0 sys11ext b. Verify that the name to be associated with the second interface that is used in the /etc/hostname.interface file exists in the /etc/inet/hosts file. If it does not, edit the /etc/inet/hosts file, and place an appropriate interface name in the file.

router# grep sys11ext /etc/inet/hosts 192.168.30.31 sys11ext # router to get to instructor->Internet 14. Configure IP forwarding and IP routing for IPv4 to become enabled on the next boot of the router. Write the command that you use: router# routeadm -e ipv4-forwarding router# routeadm -e ipv4-routing Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. 15. Reboot the router. Write the command that you use: router# init 6

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Exercise Solutions 16. Verify that each router is correctly configured. a. router# ifconfig -a
lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4, VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.30.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.30.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20

Display the configuration of each network interface.

How many external interfaces are configured and running now? Two interfaces: hme0 and qfe0. The interfaces might be different on your system. b. router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 192.168.30.0 224.0.0.0 localhost Display the contents of the routing table.

Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------sys11 U 1 0 hme0 sys21ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 1 qfe0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Which network destinations are now available? You should see the following routes if all of the groups in the classroom have configured their routers (you may have to wait up to 5 minutes):
q q q q q q

192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0 192.168.3.0 192.168.30.0 224.0.0.0 127.0.0.1 (localhost)

c.

Determine that the routing daemon is running on the router. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 94 1 0 10:52:12 ?

What does this daemon do? The /usr/sbin/in.routed daemon sends ICMP router advertisement messages and RIP messages.
7-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions

Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems
Caution – Do not proceed if your system has more than one physical interface configured. If additional interfaces are configured, remove the relevant /etc/hostname.interface files, and use the ifconfig command or reboot the system to remove the interface configuration. The success of this exercise depends on your system having only one configured physical interface. If the /etc/defaultrouter file or the /etc/gateways file exists on your system: 1. Remove the file/s. 2. Reboot the system in order to restore it to a default state for this exercise. 17. Complete the following steps: a. Determine if the routing daemon is running on each non-router system. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.routed

non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.] root 156 1 0 13:31:57 ?

Why is this daemon running? The daemon is responsible for listening for ICMP router advertisements and RIP messages. b. Run the netstat -r command, and record the current network destinations.

non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------- -------------------- ----- ----- ------ --------192.168.1.0 sys12 U 1 1 hme0 192.168.2.0 sys11 UG 1 1 hme0 192.168.30.0 sys11 UG 1 1 hme0 224.0.0.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 c. Run the ifconfig -a command, and record the current netmask and broadcast values.

non-router# ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4, VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1
inet 127.0.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST,IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.1.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255 ether 8:0:20:a4:8f:80

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7-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 sys11 -> 224.1 sys11 -> 224.0.) Be sure to use the snoop utility on the appropriate interface for the network that you want to monitor.0.0.0. (Hint: Use the icmp option on the snoop command line. Observe the snoop output on the router system.0.0.Exercise Solutions Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 18.0. sys11 -> 224.0.2 as the non-routers reboot. Revision A. Reboot your non-router workstation. Be prepared to see ICMP router advertisements after the next step. Sun Services. non-router# init 6 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 20.1 ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) ICMP Router advertisement (Lifetime 1800s [1]: {sys11 0}) Notice that routers send direct advertisements to the multicast adddress to which clients are listening. All Rights Reserved. Start the snoop utility on the router to watch for network traffic associated with multicast address 224. router# snoop -d hme0 icmp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 19. Inc.1 .

Working in a new window. You can view the configuration by looking at the contents of the /etc/inet/routing. router# snoop -v -d hme0 Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 24. Sun Services.routed daemon is running because the daemon is invoked by default.0. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in. use the routeadm command to terminate the in. non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.routed process on the router.] root 91 1 0 12:36:05 ? Why is this daemon running? The in. The system learns the default route from routers on the subnet through the router discovery ICMP messages.-------------------.routed Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 23. Inc. and then start a verbose snoop trace in a separate window on your router system.-----.--------192.168.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 224.conf file.1 7-67 .Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 21. at boot time.1.----. and observe the change to the routing tables. Use the ps command on the non-router systems to determine if the routing daemon is now running. All Rights Reserved. Terminate the snoop trace that you had running. Revision A. Use the netstat -r command.----. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------. 22.0. router# routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This is controlled by the routeadm utility.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 default sys11 UG 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Which new type of entry is now present? How was it entered into the routing table? The newest entry is a default route.

ETHER: ----.1.1..0. . Verify that the process has been terminated. as reported by the snoop trace? 1:0:5e:0:0:1.routed daemon terminated gracefully? Yes.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 8 arrived at 12:46:52. Sun Services.1... 26..27 ETHER: Packet size = 50 bytes ETHER: Destination = 1:0:5e:0:0:1. .. Inc. Did you see the router notification when the in.1 . b.0. c.0. Sun ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: . Look for the router notification when the in.routed daemon terminated gracefully.Exercise Solutions 25. (multicast) ETHER: Source = 8:0:20:ac:9b:20. Revision A. Hint: Look for multicasts and ICMP messages.0. d. sys11 IP: Destination address = 224.. IP: Protocol = 1 (ICMP) IP: Header checksum = ea98 IP: Source address = 192. router# ps -ef | grep routed root 94 1 0 10:52:12 ? 0:00 grep routed 7-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. View the output from the snoop utility.0. a.. What was the destination IP address of the router notification? 224. What protocol did the router notification use? ICMP.168. Examine the snoop trace. All Rights Reserved.. 224.0.1. What was the ETHER destination.1 .

Packet 8 arrived at 16:39:16.0. Sun Services.----.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 27. . Inc.0.1 7-69 .0 sys12 U 1 0 qfme0 224. Output from snoop trace: ETHER: ETHER: ETHER: ETHER: . and then start the in.--------192.routed daemon is started. What is missing? non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------. What entry do you place in the /etc/gateways file? rdisc_interval=90 Which command do you use to restart the in.. All Rights Reserved.routed daemon? router# routeadm -u -e ipv4-routing Observe ICMP and other traffic as the in..0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 The default route through the sys11 system was removed. Sun Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-----. (multicast) Source = 8:0:20:ac:9b:20.1. Note – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step..routed process on your router system.. Verify that the snoop session started earlier on your router is still running. Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 28.-------------------.168.----. Revision A.72 Packet size = 50 bytes Destination = 1:0:5e:0:0:1. changing the advertisement interval to 90 seconds by placing the appropriate entry in the /etc/gateways file. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems.

-------------------.routed daemon.0..168.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 224. non-router# while true > do > date > netstat -rn | grep default > sleep 20 > done Tue Dec 4 17:17:44 MST 2004 7-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1.1 IP: No options IP: ICMP: ----. sys11 IP: Destination address = 224. Use the netstat command to view the routing tables on one of the non-router systems to verify that the default route has been inserted into the routing table. Inc.1. You use the 9 (KILL) signal to kill the in.1. 224.----. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 29. On a non-router.1 . use the date and netstat commands to determine how long before the default route entry is removed.----.0.ICMP Header ----ICMP: ICMP: Type = 9 (Router advertisement) ICMP: Code = 0 (Lifetime 270s [1]: {sys11 0}) .Exercise Solutions IP: Source address = 192.0. Sun Services.. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.0.168.0 sys12 U 1 0 qfe0 default sys11 UG 1 0 qfe0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 In this section.1. 30. ... Revision A.-----. you test to see how long it takes for the default route to be removed when no communications are received from a router.--------192.0. so that the daemon does not have a chance to advertise that it is going down.0. Note – The while statement syntax assumes that you are using the Bourne shell.

Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. . 33.routed Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 32.routed daemon on the non-router systems.... Inc.. . All Rights Reserved.1 7-71 .. and keep track of the time.] root 91 1 0 12:36:05 ? non-router# non-router# routeadm -u -d ipv4-routing 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.. 4 17:20:24 MST 2004 sys11 4 17:20:44 MST 2004 sys11 4 17:21:04 MST 2004 4 17:21:25 MST 2004 UG UG 1 1 0 0 Approximately how long did it take for the default entry to be removed from the table? Four and a half (4-1/2) minutes.routed Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.. When the default entry stops being reported. and kill the in. but use the 9 (KILL) signal this time. Stop the in. .. router# pkill -9 in.. When done. Watch the output from the script. Tue Dec default Tue Dec default Tue Dec Tue Dec . non-router# ps -ef | grep in[.. sys11 4 17:18:04 MST 2004 sys11 UG UG 1 1 0 0 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 31.routed daemon on the router again.Exercise Solutions default Tue Dec default . Sun Services. subtract the start time from the finish time to determine how long the system took to remove the default route entry. stop the script by pressing the Control+C key sequence. Simulate a router crash... . Revision A.

1.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Your Router System 34.168. Inc.30.2.0: gateway 192.168.168. Sun Services.2) to sys23 (192.30.0 192.1 .168.168.2.33 7-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2) for icmp from sys12 (192.32 route add net 192.33 192.2 sys21ext done Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems non-router# route flush Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 35. Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System 36.30.1.168. Flush the routing tables on routers first and then the non-router systems.168.0: gateway 192. Write the command that you use: router# route flush 192.168. use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets.168. Working on a non-router system.3 What is the response from the ping command? ICMP Host Unreachable from gateway.32 192.168.30. non-router# ping sys23 ICMP Host Unreachable from gateway sys12 (192. All Rights Reserved.2.3.168. router# add net router# router# add net route add net 192. Add routes manually to the other subnets by using the route command.0 192.3.168. Revision A.

Individually: Working on All Systems 38.168.168.3.168.0 192.0 192.168.0 sys11 UG 1 0 224.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 192.168.30.168.0.2.----.1.168.0 192.2.3.168.1.2.168.0: gateway 192.-------------------.1 Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step.168.-----.1. On non-router systems: non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1.1.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 37.----.168.0 224.0 192.3. Sun Services.1 add net 192.3.1.0 localhost Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.0.2.0.0: gateway 192.1 7-73 .----. Inc.30.168.--------sys11 U 1 16 hme0 sys21ext UG 1 0 sys31ext UG 1 0 sys11ext U 1 14 hme0 sys11 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-----.0 192. All Rights Reserved.168.0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost localhost UH 2 6 lo0 non-router# On router systems: router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.0.--------192.168.1 add net 192.0 sys11 UG 1 0 192.168.168.1 add net 192.0: gateway 192. Revision A.1 non-router# non-router# route add net 192.168. Add routes manually by using the route command to the remote subnets.0 sys11 UG 1 0 192.----.168.1.1. observe the routing tables.168. Working on all systems. non-router# route add net 192.168.30.30.1 non-router# non-router# route add net 192.0 192.

168. Observe the changes to the routing table on all non-router systems. Check to see if the in. 40. 7-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 two 192.Exercise Solutions Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems 39. All Rights Reserved.--------sys12 U 1 1 hme0 sys11 UG 1 2 sys11 UG 1 0 sys11 UG 1 0 sys12 U 1 0 hme0 localhost UH 2 6 lo0 Are the networks described in the /etc/inet/networks file present in the routing table? Yes. Working on a non-router system.0.168.0.0 localhost Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.----.30.1 .168. non-router# vi /etc/inet/networks non-router# tail -3 /etc/networks one 192. 42. Inc. Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. non-router# netstat -r Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------one two three 192.-----.0 224. Sun Services.routed daemon was started on each of the non-router systems. and add the one. Reboot the routers. Revision A. Explain why you see the results that you do.3 41. Schedule a job so that the non-routers reboot two minutes later.2 three 192. two and three network names. Edit the contents of the /etc/inet/networks file.168. non-router# ping sys23 sys23 is alive What is the response from the ping command? sys23 is alive.----. use the ping command to attempt to contact a non-router system on one of the other subnets.

rm /etc/defaultrouter Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class has completed this step. Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems non-router# at now+2minutes at> init 6 at> ^D<EOT> commands will be executed using /sbin/sh job 1007515599. rm /etc/defaultrouter Configuring Routing Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 7-75 ..a at Tue Dec 4 18:26:39 2004 Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System Perform the following steps to leave your router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 43. router# rm /etc/gateways. remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files. Reboot the system.. All Rights Reserved. router# routeadm -e ipv4-routing 44. Configure to enable IPv4 forwarding when the system next boots. router# routeadm -e ipv4-forwarding 45. router# init 6 Individually: Working on Non-Router Systems Perform the following steps to leave your non-router system in a known routing configuration for subsequent exercises: 47. Inc. non-router# rm /etc/gateways. Sun Services. 46.Exercise Solutions Subnet Group: Working on Your Router System router# init 6 INIT: New run level: 6 . Configure to enable IPv4 routing when the system next boots. If they exist. Revision A. If they exist. remove the /etc/gateways and /etc/defaultrouter files.

1 . non-router# rm /etc/inet/routing. Inc. Sun Services.conf file. Remove the /etc/inet/routing. All Rights Reserved.conf 49. non-router# init 6 7-76 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise Solutions 48. Revision A. Reboot the system.

1 . features. and IPv6 addressing and interfaces. Revision A. configuration and troubleshooting. you should be able to: q q q q q q q q q Describe IPv6 Describe IPv6 addressing Describe IPv6 autoconfiguration Describe IPv6 unicast address types Describe IPv6 multicast address types Enable IPv6 Manage IPv6 Configure 6to4 routing Configure IPv6 multipathing 8-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Module 8 Configuring IPv6 Objectives This module describes IPv6 management. Inc. Upon completion of this module. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.

Inc. Sun Services. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 8-1 Course Map 8-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Objectives The course map in Figure 8-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.1 .

There is no need to assign manually an IPv6 address.920.463.366.282. q Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Refer to RFC 2460 for a description of IPv6. as is done in IPv4 by editing the /etc/inet/hosts file and creating /etc/hostname. 2000).211. Inc. provides for more than 4 billion addresses. however. IPv4. The IAB predicted that all Class B networks would be allocated by 1994 and that all IP addresses would be allocated by 2002 (see Christian Huitema. This technique helps to alleviate the IP address shortage. the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) sponsored a working group to address a pending IP address shortage. Administrators. Routing in the Internet. with a 32-bit address scheme.347.463. Autoconfiguration – IPv6 systems configure their IPv6 addresses automatically. Second Edition. IPv6 was defined to resolve the following: q IPv4 address shortage – IPv6 implements a 128-bit address scheme that supports 340. The Need for IPv6 The IPv4 address shortage is only one reason that IPv6 was developed.431.456 nodes.Introducing IPv6 Introducing IPv6 IPv6 is the most recent version of the IP specification. A technique for using IP addresses on private networks without exposing them to the Internet is defined in RFC 1918. Sun Services. many of these addresses were not usable because classful addressing techniques wasted large numbers of possible IPv4 addresses.1 8-3 . In 1991. However. Autoconfiguration allocates IPv6 addresses to systems automatically. Revision A.xxx files.768. still have to administer the name-to-IPv6 address mapping.607.938.

q q q q 8-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Improved extension header and option support – This feature supports extension headers in addition to the primary header.Introducing IPv6 Features of IPv6 The IPv6 features are: q Expanded addressing – The address size is increased from 32-bit addresses to 128-bit addresses. Flows identify a sequence of datagrams from the same source to the same destination when the source requests special handling of the specified datagram sequence by the intervening routers. Sun Services. Simplified header format – This format reduces the number of header fields in an IPv6 datagram from 10 fields to 6 fields. All Rights Reserved. and the encapsulating security payload (ESP) header provides privacy. they provide special treatment of some datagrams without a performance penalty. therefore.1 . Quality of service – A flow label in the header provides for flows. Revision A. Authentication and privacy headers – An authentication header (AH) provides the authentication services. Inc. Extension headers are located between the required IPv6 datagram header and the payload.

All Rights Reserved. Unicast addressing is called point-to-point addressing in IPv4.Introducing IPv6 Addressing Introducing IPv6 Addressing IPv6 addressing uses 128 bits. followed by a routable prefix or padding. For sending messages. Sun Services. Inc. In IPv6 it is normal for several IPv6 addresses to be assigned to the same physical interface. Unicast Addressing With the unicast address type. A unicast datagram is sent to a single machine with the matching destination IPv6 address. The first part of the address is the format prefix. Revision A. Multicast addressing in IPv6 replaces broadcast addressing in IPv4. an address is assigned to a group of systems. a unique address is assigned to an interface. Multicast Addressing With the multicast address type. and is derived from the system’s MAC address. The second part of the address is the interface identifier. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 8-5 . Datagrams are delivered to all interfaces as identified by the multicast address. IPv6 has three types of addresses that you can use to communicate across a network. it is no more difficult to administer IPv6 addressing than it is with IPv4. IPv6 supports: q q q Unicast addresses Multicast addresses Anycast addresses IPv6 differs from IPv4 in that IPv6 does not provide broadcast addresses as a mechanism for communicating with other hosts on a subnet. analogous to the IPv4 host portion. Address Types Like IPv4. Because of the autoconfiguration capability in IPv6.

Revision A.Introducing IPv6 Addressing Anycast Addressing With the anycast address type. They are similar to the way Ethernet addresses are used to communicate on an Ethernet segment or subnet. q 8-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. for example: fe80:0000:0000:0000:0a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers in which 0s (zeros) are represented by a single leading 0.1 . To compress an address. an address is assigned to a group of systems. instead of being delivered to all members of a group. you can represent consecutive 16-bit 0 numbers with double colons (::). For example: q Link-local addresses are intended to identify hosts on a single network link. as identified by the routing protocol. IPv6 Address Representation RFC 2373 describes how IPv6 128-bit hexadecimal addresses can be represented in multiple ways: q Eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers. but not connecting to the Internet. Sun Services. You can compress leading or embedded 0s (zeros) with a double colon (::). for example: fe80:0:0:0:a00:20ff:feb5:4137 q IPv6 permits address compression. All Rights Reserved. You can only do this once in any address. Datagrams are delivered to the nearest interface member. Inc. for example: fe80::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Format Prefixes The format prefix (FP) in the address indicates the type of IPv6 address that is used. They are similar to an organization choosing a random IPv4 address class for the organization. Site-local addresses are valid across an intranet. Anycast addresses identify the nearest member of a group of systems that provide a particular type of service.

The FP represented by 001 should not be confused with 0001. A multicast address is an identifier for a group of systems. They are similar to an officially registered IPv4 address class for organizations connected to the Internet. For example. Inc. which is equal to 0x1. unused trailing bits in the byte are not shown. Table 8-1 Initial Allocation of Format Prefixes From RFC 2373 Allocation Link-local unicast addresses Site-local unicast addresses Aggregatable global-unicast addresses Multicast addresses FP (Binary) 1111 1110 10 1111 1110 11 001 1111 1111 FP (Hexadecimal) FE8 FEC 2 or 3 FF Note – Refer to RFC 2373 for information about FPs that are not related to the Solaris OS. All Rights Reserved. the FP represented by 001 is 0x2 or 0x3.1 8-7 . Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q Table 8-1 shows several common types of IPv6 addresses. Revision A. A node can belong to any number of multicast groups. As defined in RFC 2373. because the two binary values are 0010 and 0011. Sun Services. The FP byte is binary.Introducing IPv6 Addressing q Aggregatable global addresses are valid across the Internet.

8-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Routers advertise prefixes that identify the subnets associated with a link. such as addresses and routing prefixes Verifying the uniqueness of link-local addresses on the link q Stateful Autoconfiguration Stateful autoconfiguration requires the additional setup of a DHCP server. Sun Services. Inc.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration IPv6 address autoconfiguration includes: q Determining what information should be autoconfigured. link-local addresses are sufficient for permitting communication among systems that are attached to the same link. as defined in IPv6. stateful autoconfiguration is not a preferred configuration method. Revision A. Stateful autoconfiguration supplies address and service information similar to the way that DHCP provides information in IPv4.1 . Stateful autoconfiguration and stateless autoconfiguration. An address is formed by combining the advertised prefix and the interface identifier. For this reason. In the absence of routers. However. a host can generate only link-local addresses. All Rights Reserved. can coexist and operate together. Stateless Autoconfiguration The stateless mechanism permits a host to generate its own addresses by using a combination of information this is available locally and information that is advertised by routers. while hosts generate an interface identifier that uniquely identifies an interface on a subnet.

The following is an example of how a Sun Microsystems workstation computes an IPv6 interface identifier address from its MAC address. Figure 8-2 shows this address. Obtain the MAC address. where: q q 08:00:20 is the company identifier (CID) b5:41:37 is the vendor-supplied identifier (VID) To build an interface identifier. All Rights Reserved.  &    * # "  ! % Figure 8-3 Binary Representation of the MAC Address Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 08:00:20:b5:41:37 +1. Figure 8-3 shows the address in binary format.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration Interface Identifier Calculation Appendix A of RFC 2373 describes the process of automatically calculating an IPv6 interface identifier address.1 8-9 . MAC Address Convert the address to binary format. The initial MAC address is 08:00:20:b5:41:37.             +1. Revision A. Sun Services. Figure 8-2 2. 81. Inc. perform the following steps: 1. 81.

between the CID and the VID.             +1. Sun Services. Duplicate Address Detection Systems run a duplicate address detection algorithm on an address before that address is assigned to an interface. Inc. and include colons to show the IPv6-autoconfigured interface identifier address of 0a00:20ff:feb5:4137. 81. Figure 8-4 shows the address after conversion. The duplicate address detection algorithm works by sending a neighbor solicitation message to the network that contains the address in question.1 . 8-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. MAC Address Conversion to an Interface Identifier Insert two additional octets. . If the address in question is not unique.                 +1. a unique address must be configured manually. This converts the MAC address to an interface identifier. Toggle bit 7. The system receives a neighbor advertisement from any device that is currently using the address.Introducing IPv6 Autoconfiguration 3. This is done without regard to the manner in which the address was obtained. MAC Address With 0xFF and 0xFE Octets Convert the binary address to hexadecimal format. - * # "  ! % Figure 8-5 5. the universal/local bit. which is the seventh bit from the left. the systems assume that the address is available for use and is assigned to the interface. Revision A. . 0xFF and 0xFE. All Rights Reserved.  )    * # "  ! % Figure 8-4 4. if no response is received. Therefore. This unique interface identifier is the basis of autoconfigured IPv6 addresses on the system. Figure 8-5 shows the resulting interface identifier.  )    . This unique interface identifier is only 64 bits of the 128-bit address and is called an end-unit identifier-64 (EUI-64). 81.

as shown in Figure 8-6. All Rights Reserved. like IPv4. supports the concept of unicast addressing. Link-local addresses are not forwarded by routers. Revision A. The first 10 bits of the address prefix identify an address as a link-local address.  *EJI 1111111010 #" *EJI All Zeros (0) $" *EJI Interface ID fe80::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Figure 8-6 Link-Local Address Format Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Unicast addresses direct datagrams to a single interface or system. Link-Local Addresses Link-local addresses are valid on a local network link only. The link-local address format prefix is 1111 1110 10 in binary. Sun Services.1 8-11 . or FE8 in hexadecimal.Introducing Unicast Address Types Introducing Unicast Address Types IPv6. The ability to transmit network data in this way enables systems that are not included in the communication to efficiently ignore network data that is not addressed to them.

Inc. or FEC in hexadecimal format. The first 10 bits of the address prefix identify an address as a site-local address. Sun Services. as shown in Figure 8-7. q q 8-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. for example. and they designate that this address is a routable global-unicast address. ! *EJI ! *EJI 001 TLA ! *EJI NLA $ *EJI SLA $" *EJI Interface ID Figure 8-8 Aggregatable Global-Unicast Address Format The frame format of an aggregatable global-unicast address includes: q A prefix – The assigned prefix for aggregatable global addresses (001). Intranet routers can forward site-local addresses through the intranet but not outside of the intranet.1 . the IANA.Introducing Unicast Address Types Site-Local Addresses Site-local addresses are similar to link-local addresses but can be routed through an intranet. An aggregatable global address always starts with 2 or 3 in hexadecimal format. The top-level aggregator (TLA) – The identifying number of the Internet authority that assigned the provider portion of the address. Figure 8-8 shows the frame format of an aggregatable global-unicast address. The next level aggregator (NLA) – The address identifier that is assigned to a company or organization by its ISP. All Rights Reserved. The first three bits are always set to 001.The site-local address format prefix is 1111 1110 11 in binary.  *EJI 1111111011 !& *EJI All Zeros (0) $ *EJI Subnet ID $" *EJI Interface ID fec0::0003:a00:20ff:feb5:4137 Figure 8-7 Site-Local Address Format Aggregatable Global-Unicast Addresses Aggregatable global addresses can be routed through the Internet. Revision A.

This type of address is an IPv4-compatible IPv6 address. Inc. Sun Services. An example of a subnet prefix address is: fec0::0003:a00:20ff:feb5:4137/64 The /64 indicates that the subnet prefix is 64 bits in length. IPv6 systems that use this technique have special IPv6 unicast addresses assigned that carry an IPv4 address in the low-order 32 bits. the EUI-64 address. IPv6 addresses have two parts. q q fec0::0003 – The subnet prefix a00:20ff:feb5:4137 – The interface identifier Embedded IPv4 Addresses The IPv6 transition mechanisms include a technique for systems and routers to tunnel IPv6 datagrams dynamically under the IPv4 routing infrastructure. The first part is the format prefix. and yyyy:yyyy represents the 32 bits of the IPv4 address in hexadecimal format. Interface ID – The portion of the IP address that derives from the MAC address.Introducing Unicast Address Types q The site-level aggregator (SLA) – The subnet address assigned to networks in the company or organization. q Prefix Notation RFC 2373 describes how IPv6 addresses use prefix notation. The second part is the interface identifier and is analogous to the IPv4 host portion. All Rights Reserved. An example of an embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 address is: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:FFFF:yyyy:yyyy where FFFF indicates that an embedded IPv4 address is present. that is. The first 64 bits of the address contain a subnet mask.1 8-13 . Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. The address can be broken into a subnet prefix and a node address or into an interface identifier.

for example: 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000. or ::1 to send datagrams to themselves. This address is analogous to the 127.1 local address used by IPv4 systems. Sun Services.0.1 . Inc. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1. 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0.0. All Rights Reserved. 8-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or :: in compressed format. Revision A. Loopback Address Types IPv6 systems use the loopback address of 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001.Introducing Unicast Address Types Unspecified Address Types The source address of a system that has not had an address assigned will be all zeros.

FP 8 Bits  Flags Scope 4 Bits : 4 Bits :::: Multicast Group ID 112 Bits ff02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 Figure 8-9 Multicast Address Types Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 8-15 . All Rights Reserved. Multicast addresses include 4 bits of flags after the initial FF in the format prefix. A single interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses assigned to it. Revision A. Purpose of Multicast Addresses The low-order 112 bits in an IPv6 address identify the multicast group to which the datagram belongs. Figure 8-9 shows the multicast address types. including multicast addresses. An IPv6 multicast address can be thought of as a single identifier for a group of IPv6 systems that belong to the multicast group. The fourth flag bit is set to 0 if a well-known IANA-assigned multicast address is used. the fourth bit is set to 1 if a temporary multicast address is used.Introducing Multicast Address Types Introducing Multicast Address Types A datagram addressed to a multicast address is delivered to all systems that are part of the multicast group. Sun Services. Three of the flag bits are reserved and are always set to 0. Inc. The FP of 11111111 or FF in hexadecimal format in an address identifies the datagram as being a multicast datagram.

Sun Services. Route to all members of the group at the same site as the sender. Revision A. Route to all members of the group on the same node as the sender. Organization-local – FF08. The scope bits determine how far the multicast datagram is routed: q Node-local – FF01. RIPv2 routers The multicast addresses for all systems are: q q FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 – Node-local systems FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 – Link-local systems Refer to RFC 2373 for additional IPv6 multicast information. the multicast addresses for all routers are: q q q q FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Node-local routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Link-local routers FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 – Site-local routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:9 – Link-local. Site-local – FF05.1 . Global – FF0E. Inc.Introducing Multicast Address Types Scope Bits Multicast addresses include four scope bits after the flag bits. Route to all members of the group on the same link as the sender. Link-local – FF02. Route to all members of the same organization as the sender. 8-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Route to all members of the group on the Internet. q q q q For example. All Rights Reserved.

which is defined in RFC 1885. The following three IGMP version 2 messages are relevant to this introduction: q Membership query – Determines which groups have members on a network Membership report – Reports if a system is part of a multicast group Leave group – Determines when a system leaves a multicast group q q All of the IGMP functionality has moved to ICMP version 6. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Revision A.Introducing Multicast Address Types ICMPv6 Group Membership RFC 2236 describes IGMP version 2 for IPv4.1 8-17 . or leave multicast groups use IGMP version 2 to report this information to local multicast routers. Inc. belong to. Hosts that join.

IPv6 neighbor discovery replaced the function that the IPv4’s RDISC protocol provided. Neighbor solicitations are also used for duplicate address detection.ndpd Daemon on a Non-Router The in. Systems send router solicitations to prompt routers to send router advertisements.ndpd daemon can also send unsolicited neighbor advertisements to announce a link-layer address change. hosts had no way of knowing how to locate routers unless the host had a static route defined or it was running a type of routing protocol.1 . Discover routers – In IPv4. A solicitation can be sent if a node does not have an entry for a system in its neighbor cache. Revision A. This eliminates the common duplicate IP address problem experienced on IPv4 networks. Obtain MAC addresses – Neighbor solicitation messages are sent by a node to determine the link-layer address of a neighbor or to verify that a neighbor is still reachable by a cached link-layer address. The in. The in.ndpd daemon sends unsolicited neighbor advertisements to discover newly available systems. Systems use received neighbor advertisements to update their neighbor cache with the MAC address of the sender. Gather reachability information about paths to active neighbors – The in. Note – You can also enable IPv6 during initial installation of the Solaris 10 OS. Inc. Systems on the same network link use ND for IPv6 to: q Perform address autoconfiguration – Systems configure an address for an interface automatically.ndpd daemon implements the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND). q q q 8-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This is similar to the ARP in IPv4. Sun Services.Enabling IPv6 Enabling IPv6 You can enable IPv6 from the command line or by creating specific files that are read by the /lib/svc/method/net-init and /lib/svc/method/net-physical SMF methods at boot time. All Rights Reserved.

a suggested hop limit value. All Rights Reserved.1 8-19 . Note – The /etc/hostname6. This enables the host to become part of a network more quickly than it would have if it waited for a normal router advertisement. Configuring IPv6 on Non-Routers You configure a system to support both IPv4 and IPv6. The /etc/inet/ipnodes file can contain both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses. Sun Services. q q Provide router redirects – A router informs a host of a better first-hop node to reach a particular destination. hosts can send router solicitations that request routers to generate router advertisements immediately. There is no link from the /etc/ipnodes file.Enabling IPv6 Routers advertise their presence with various link and Internet parameters. rather than at their next scheduled time. IPv6 introduces new files. This configured system is known as a dual-stack system. Refer to RFC 2461 for more information about neighbor discovery.interface file but contains no IP address or host name information. and other information. When an interface becomes enabled. q Router advertisements contain prefixes used for on-link determination or address configuration. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Systems use router advertisements to populate their neighbor cache with the MAC address of the router. either periodically or in response to a router solicitation message. q /etc/inet/ipnodes – This file has similar functionality to the /etc/inet/hosts file. Revision A.interface – This file has similar functionality to the /etc/hostname. Inc. including: q /etc/hostname6.interface file can still contain an IPv6 address or a resolvable host name to disable autoconfiguration and enforce a given IPv6 address.

the /etc/inet/ipnodes file is consulted first.Enabling IPv6 Note – If an application is IPv6-capable. to configure IPv6 on a system’s hme0 interface.0. create a /etc/hostname6.BROADCAST. # touch /etc/hostname6.1.LOOPBACK.hme0 # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 8-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Configuring an Interface for IPv6 To configure an IPv6 interface on a system. complete the following steps: 1.168. and then reboot the system. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127. Inc.interface file and reboot the system. View the configuration of the system’s interfaces before making any changes.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.1 . The /etc/inet/hosts file is the only file that is contacted for IPv4 applications. or use the ifconfig command to configure the interface manually.RUNNING. and then the /etc/inet/hosts file is consulted.1. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.IPv4.168. For example.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 # 2.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.hme0 file to cause the interface to configure with IPv6. Create the /etc/hostname6. Revision A. and it can only contain IPv4 addresses.RUNNING.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.

LOOPBACK.RUNNING.RUNNING. to name this system’s IPv6 hme0 interface sys12-v6.Enabling IPv6 3.RUNNING.168.0.IPv6. 4.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 825 2 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. you can add an entry to the /etc/inet/ipnodes file to make it look similar to the following: # tail -2 /etc/inet/ipnodes # added for ipnode example fec0::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 # sys12-v6 The /etc/inet/ipnodes file on each system on the local link that is running IPv6 can be configured with a similar entry.VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Sun Services.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Notice how both the lo0 and hme0 interfaces have inet6 components and that each interface has an inet6 address. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:90:b5:c7 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 # View the system’s interface configuration after the boot. Inc. For example. Recall from a previous step that an IPv6 address was not defined.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Revision A.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 8-21 . you can apply names to IPv6 addresses so that you can more easily refer to a system.0.IPv4. Configuring IPv6 Name Service Lookup Like IPv4. You can now address a system by its IPv6 interface by using the sys12-v6 host name. For example: # uname -n sys11 # ping sys12-v6 sys12-v6 is alive # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.1. View the startup log files in the /var/svc/log directory.

0.0.3.0.1 .f.e.Enabling IPv6 Name service lookup configuration for IPv6 is similar to name service lookup configuration for IPv4.edu. which uses the g option for groups: # netstat -f inet6 -g Group Memberships: IPv6 8-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This table has similar functionality to the hosts.byaddr maps. All Rights Reserved.byaddr files in IPv4.5. A new DNS record type.org_dir.0. IN PTR sys22. table in IPv4. To view only the IPv6 routing table. perform the command: # netstat -f inet6 -r Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default localhost # Gateway --------------------------sys12-v6 sys12-v6 sys12-v6 localhost Flags Ref Use If ----.0. An additional NIS+ IPv6 table is created: ipnodes. Inc.0.1.two.--. The reverse is similar to a normal PTR record but is much longer.0.ip6.0.conf file for IPv6 system name resolution. perform the following command. Sun Services.f.byname and ipnodes.0.f.two.e. Revision A.0.b.edu.4. The following are additional files: q Two new NIS IPv6 maps are the ipnodes.byname and hosts. The netstat command has multiple forms and produces different types and levels of output depending on the options that are used with the command. q The ipnodes line is used in the nsswitch.int.0.0.0.org_dir.0. AAAA (quad A) is available. These maps have similar functionality to the hosts.f. 7.0. Following is an example of an AAAA record and a PTR record: IN AAAA fec0::a00:20ff:feb5:4137 q q sys22.0. hosts: files nisplus dns ipnodes: files nisplus dns Troubleshooting a Non-Router Configuration You can use the netstat command with the address-family -f inet6 option to display only IPv6-specific information when you troubleshoot.0.2.a.c.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 To view multicast group information for IPv6 interfaces.-----.

Inc.RUNNING. Sun Services.VIRTUAL> mtu 825 2 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.ndpd Daemon on the Router The IPv6 ND is implemented by the in. perform the command: # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. The in.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 # The in.RUNNING.ndpd daemon implements IPv6 functions. For example.Enabling IPv6 If ----lo0 lo0 hme0 hme0 hme0 Group RefCnt --------------------------.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Revision A. to view the configuration of all IPv6 interfaces. including: q q q q q Router discovery Prefix discovery Address autoconfiguration Address resolution Neighbor unreachability detection IPv6 Routing Information Protocol Routing in IPv6 is almost identical to IPv4 routing in CIDR.IPv6. All Rights Reserved.ripngd daemon is the IPv6 routing daemon for the Solaris OS.-----ff02::1:ff00:1 1 ff02::1 1 ff02::202 1 ff02::1:ff90:b5c7 1 ff02::1 2 # You can use the ifconfig command to obtain IPv6-specific information by using the inet6 address family parameter. except that the IPv6 addresses are 128 bits instead of 32 bits. The in.ndpd daemon.1 8-23 . Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.LOOPBACK.

type the following: # touch /etc/hostname6. Configuring an IPv6 Router You can use the command line to configure an IPv4 router to support IPv6. Use the ifconfig command to configure the hme0 interface.1. configure the hme0 and hme0 interfaces from the command line as follows: 1. it supplies copies of its routing table periodically to any directly connected host and network.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Revision A.MULTICAST. use the touch command to create a /etc/hostname6. 2.RUNNING.1.MULTICAST.RUNNING.BROADCAST. All Rights Reserved.BROADCAST. Inc.VIRTUAL> mtu 823 2 index 1 inet 127.interface file for each IPv6 interface.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. You can activate IPv6 by starting specific processes or by rebooting the system.Enabling IPv6 The in.ripngd Daemon In normal operation.0.1 .30. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. Configuring Interfaces for IPv6 To designate which interfaces are configured with IPv6 at boot time.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 # View the configuration of the interfaces.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. Sun Services.hme0 /etc/hostname6.168. For example.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ripngd process listens on UDP port 521 for routing information datagrams.MULTICAST.168.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4.30. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 plumb up # 8-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.LOOPBACK. the in.qfe0 # Alternatively.168. to configure the system to configure the hme0 and hme0 interfaces with IPv6 at boot time. If the host is a router.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.

IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.0.conf File Configure the /etc/inet/ndpd. An aggregatable global-unicast address starts with 2 or 3.1 8-25 . You do not advertise link-local addresses on a router because a link-local address cannot be routed.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. # ifconfig qfe0 inet6 plumb up # 4.RUNNING.0.1.conf The IPv6 name service lookup mechanism is controlled in the same way as IPv4.30.1.BROADCAST. Recall that: q q q A link-local address starts with FE8. For example.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 View the configuration of the interfaces. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.168.30.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.conf ipnodes: files # Configuring the /etc/inet/ndpd.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4. Revision A. Inc. Use the ifconfig command to configure the qfe0 interface. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0: flags=2000841<UP.MULTICAST.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.168. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. A site-local address starts with FEC. Sun Services.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.Enabling IPv6 3.BROADCAST.conf file to contain the subnet’s prefix configuration information on the routers.RUNNING.MULTICAST. # Configuring IPv6 Name Service Lookup in /etc/nsswitch.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. make sure that the following entry exists if the ipnodes database uses the system’s local file: # grep ipnodes /etc/nsswitch. Verify that the ipnodes database is defined correctly for your site’s name-service lookup mechanism.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.RUNNING.

A site-local address on which the qfe0 interface has a prefix of fec0:0:0:9256::0/64.1 . q q q Complete the following steps: 1. An aggregatable global-unicast address on which the qfe0 interface has a prefix of 2000:0:0:9256::0/64. Define the /etc/inet/ndpd. All Rights Reserved.conf file to have the following contents: # cat /etc/inet/ndpd. Inc. An aggregatable global-unicast address on which the hme0 interface has a prefix of 2000:0:0:9255::0/64. Sun Services. Revision A.Enabling IPv6 The following example demonstrates how to configure this information: q q Router advertisements are to be sent out to all interfaces. A site-local address on which the hme0 interface has a prefix of fec0:0:0:9255::0/64.conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) site local prefix and global # prefix using the default lifetimes prefix fec0:0:0:9255::0/64 hme0 prefix 2000:0:0:9255::0/64 hme0 # prefix fec0:0:0:9256::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:9256::0/64 qfe0 # 8-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

MULTICAST. # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_ignore_redirect 1 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv6.ROUTER..ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.Enabling IPv6 2. 3. . Configure the system to send routing redirects. Revision A.RUNNING. # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 . # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Switch IPv6 IP forwarding on.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP. b. Proceed to the Step 3 to configure the system from the command line.RUNNING.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.ROUTER. complete the following steps: a.ROUTER.RUNNING. a.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.1 8-27 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP. or # routeadm -u -e ipv6-forwarding # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_forwarding 1 # b. Do one of the following: q q Reboot the system. Inc.ROUTER. All Rights Reserved.. Configure the system to ignore routing redirects for IPv6.. Sun Services.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # View the IPv6 configuration of the interfaces..RUNNING. # /usr/sbin/ndd -set /dev/ip ip6_send_redirects 1 # c.MULTICAST.ROUTER.MULTICAST.ROUTER. To configure your system without rebooting it.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Observe how the site-local and aggregatable global-unicast addresses are assigned to logical interfaces.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.

RUNNING. # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. # /usr/lib/inet/in.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.MULTICAST.ROUTER.IPv6.MULTICAST.ndpd # e.ADDRCONF. # /usr/lib/inet/in.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.conf file.1 . Restart it if it is already running. Revision A.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.ROUTER.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Sun Services.ripngd -s # f. All Rights Reserved.ROUTER. Start the in.Enabling IPv6 d. Inc.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # View the interface configuration.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.ROUTER. and force it to supply routing information to the network.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP.ripngd daemon. 8-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ADDRCONF.ROUTER.LOOPBACK.ndpd daemon that reads the /etc/inet/ndpd. Start the in.

1 8-29 .Enabling IPv6 Figure 8-10 shows how the /lib/svc/method/net-init method configures a system for IPv6 forwarding and routing.conf exists? IPv6 routing enabled by routeadm and Yes Enable IPv6-routing No Disa ble IPv6-routing IPv6 forwarding enabled by routeadm? No Disable IPv6 forwarding Yes Enable IPv6 forwarding End Figure 8-10 IPv6 Router Initialization Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Inc. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Start Disable IPv6-forwarding /etc/inet/ndpd.

31. A 6to4 tunnel is created and the intermediate network does not need to be IPv6 aware. Use of the 6to4 mechanism requires a boundary router on each IPv6 network. All Rights Reserved. The 2002 prefix is combined with the IPv4 address used on the boundary router to generate the format prefix for all networks served by a particular boundary router. 192 is c0 in hexadecimal. For example. if the boundary router’s IPv4 address 192.1 . 168 is a8 in hexadecimal.30. part of the aggregatable global-unicast address space. IPv6 Network IPv6 Network Gateway System IPv4 Network Gateway System Figure 8-11 Connecting IPv6 Networks Over an IPv4 Network Implementing the 6to4 mechanism requires the use of a particular IPv6 address prefix. The boundary router is configured with one interface running IPv4 and connected to the public internet by using a public IPv4 address. Inc. The 2002 prefix. Revision A.168. giving the representation c0a8:1e1f. is reserved for 6to4 addresses. Sun Services. as shown in Figure 8-11.Enabling IPv6 Configuring an IPv6 6to4 Router The 6to4 router mechanism is designed to support the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 addressing. and 31 is 1f in hexadecimal. The IPv4 address of the boundary router needs to be converted to hexadecimal notation as part of the process. Using the 6to4 mechanism. 8-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. two IPv6 networks can communicate with each other over an intermediate IPv4 network. 30 is 1e in hexadecimal.

168. Configure a 6to4 tunnel. use the syntax: ifconfig ip. The tunnel has a unique network number in its prefix. Inc. The 6to4 tunnel bridges between the local IPv6 networks and the public IPv4 network.30. 2. Calculating 6to4 Network Addresses The 6to4 addresses have a defined format for the network portion of the address: q q A 16-bit prefix that denotes the address as a 6to4 address (2002) A 32-bit.conf file to advertise 6to4 prefixes to the local IPv6 networks.1 8-31 .6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4_Address up For example. If no IPv6 host address is specified. All Rights Reserved. A 6to4 tunnel can be configured without specifying explicitly an IPv6 host address.30. Sun Services. To configure a 6to4 tunnel with no IPv6 host address.31. perform the following tasks: 1. public IPv4 address on the boundary router in hexadecimal notation A 16-bit subnet ID unique to each subnet – One subnet ID is used by the end point of the tunnel q Configuring a 6to4 Tunnel Configuring a 6to4 tunnel is a two-part process: 1. The tunnel end points are the global IPv4 address and an IPv6 host address on a unique subnet within the 6to4 address range. type the command: # ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 2. to configure a 6to4 tunnel with no IPv6 host address and a public IPv4 address of 192. Revision A.168. Plumb the 6to4 tunnel: Configure the tunnel end points. Configure the /etc/inet/ndpd.Enabling IPv6 Configuring a 6to4 Boundary Router To configure a system as a 6to4 boundary router.31 up # # ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192. the tunnel is configured with a subnet ID of 0 (zero) and a host ID of 1 (one).

30.0. For example: # cat /etc/hostname6.31 2002:c0a8:1e1f:ffff::1/64 up # The 6to4 tunnels can be configured at system boot by creating an /etc/hostname. All Rights Reserved. Inc.0.MULTICAST.1 .VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.RUNNING.30.BROADCAST.30.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.ip.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv4.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192.ROUTER.Enabling IPv6 This configures the tunnel endpoint with a subnet number of zero (0) and a host number of one (1).IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST.IPv6.168.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.31 2002:c0a8:1e1f:ffff::1/64 up 8-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.168.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip.ROUTER.RUNNING.6to4tun0 file.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. For example.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 # To configure a 6to4 tunnel with an explicit IPv6 host address as the tunnel end point.RUNNING.30.RUNNING.ROUTER.ROUTER.MULTICAST.168. Sun Services.ROUTER.168.ip.1.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.RUNNING. The tunnel configuration can be seen in the output from the ifconfig -a command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. The contents of the file are the arguments that follow the inet6 keyword on the command line.NONUD.RUNNING.RUNNING.BROADCAST.LOOPBACK. The subnet ID used for the 6to4 tunnel must not be used on any of the local IPv6 networks.1.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192.168.ROUTER.6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.ADDRCONF. use the syntax: ifconfig ip.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.30.168.MULTICAST. to configure the tunnel end point as host ID 1 (one) on subnet ffff: # ifconfig ip.168.6to4tun0 tsrc 192.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc IPv4_Address IPv6_Address up Note – The 6to4 tunnel end point resides on its own IPv6 subnet.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.

All Rights Reserved. Inc.ndpd # # uname -n sys21 # pgrep -lf ndpd 1497 /usr/lib/inet/in.ndpd q View the IPv6 routing table on each router in question. # uname -n sys11 # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:9255::/64 fec0:0:0:9255::/64 2000:0:0:9256::/64 fec0:0:0:9256::/64 2000:0:0:9257::/64 fec0:0:0:9257::/64 fe80::/10 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 ::1 # # uname -n # sys21 # Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------.----2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0:1 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0:2 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 qfe0:1 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 qfe0:2 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U 1 0 hme0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 2 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U 1 0 hme0 ::1 UH 1 0 lo0 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.--.1 8-33 . Revision A. Sun Services.-----.Enabling IPv6 Troubleshooting a Router Configuration To perform basic troubleshooting of an IPv6 router. # uname -n sys11 # pgrep -lf ndpd 108 /usr/lib/inet/in.----. confirm that processes are running by examining the routing table. as shown in the following examples: q Determine if the ND daemon is running on each of the routers in question.

Revision A. # ping fec0::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d fec0::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d is alive # # ping 2000::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d 2000::9255:a00:20ff:fec0:449d is alive # 8-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.-----. Inc.----2000::9257:a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 0 hme0:1 fec0::9257:a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 0 hme0:2 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0:1 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0:2 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 UG 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:2b08 U 1 0 qfe0 fe80::a00:20ff:fec0:449d U 1 1 hme0 Send an ICMP echo request to a remote system to determine if you receive an ICMP echo response from the remote system.----. Do not attempt to communicate with the link-local address of a system across a router because routers do not forward link-local addresses.Enabling IPv6 # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:9257::/64 fec0:0:0:9257::/64 2000:0:0:9256::/64 fec0:0:0:9256::/64 2000:0:0:9255::/64 fec0:0:0:9255::/64 fe80::/10 fe80::/10 # q Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1 .--.

ADDRCONF. for example: ifconfig hme0 inet6 configuration options Caution – Be sure to specify the inet6 family.ADDRCONF.ROUTER.RUNNING.ROUTER.RUNNING.IPv6.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.1 8-35 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP. All Rights Reserved.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Revision A.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK. Sun Services.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 # Modifying the Configuration of an IPv6 Interface Use the ifconfig command to modify IPv6 interface configuration in a similar manner to IPv4 interfaces.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.ROUTER.ROUTER. The family type of IPv6 must be defined in the command after the interface option.MULTICAST. or the command changes the configuration of an IPv4 interface.RUNNING. for example: # ifconfig -a inet6 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::9256:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.Managing IPv6 Managing IPv6 The tasks you use to manage IPv6 interfaces are similar to the tasks you use to manage IPv4 interfaces.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP. Inc.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::9255:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP. Displaying the State of IPv6 Interfaces Use the ifconfig command with the inet6 option to display the state of the IPv6 interfaces.MULTICAST. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

for example: # ifconfig qfe0:3 inet6 down unplumb # Troubleshooting IPv6 Interfaces You troubleshoot IPv6 interfaces like you troubleshoot IPv4 interfaces.-----. for example: # netstat -f inet6 -r Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default localhost # Gateway --------------------------sys11-v6 sys11-v6 sys11-v6 localhost Flags Ref Use If ----.--. Displaying the IPv6 Routing Table You use the netstat command with the address-family -f inet6 option to display the IPv6 routing table. Sun Services. Recall that different FPs are required on addresses destined beyond the local subnet.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 8-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1 . Revision A. Therefore. for example: ifconfig qfe0:3 inet6 plumb configuration options To remove the logical interface. disable the interface.Managing IPv6 Configuring Logical Interfaces You can configure logical IPv6 interfaces by using the ifconfig command with the inet6 parameter in a similar way as for IPv4. and then use the unplumb parameter. All Rights Reserved. do not spend time attempting to determine why you cannot access a system on another subnet with an IPv6 address that starts with fe8.

______________________________________________ 3. Reboot the system. Display the configuration of the system’s interfaces before you make any changes. sysX3.1 8-37 . ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Create the relevant file to cause your system’s primary interface to be configured with both IPv4 and IPv6. Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet To configure IPv6 on the local subnet. sysX4) To configure IPv6 on a non-router.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 In this exercise. Sun Services. Work with another group for these tasks if your system functions as a router in the classroom. you configure IPv6 on a router and on a non-router. Working on All Non-Router Systems (sysX2. ______________________________________________ 2. All Rights Reserved. complete the following steps: 1. Inc. Revision A. The exercise consists of the following tasks: q q Configure IPv6 on your local subnet Configure 6to4 routing so that you can contact IPv6 systems on other subnets Configure the whole classroom network to use IPv6 q Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. complete the following sections.

Use the ps command to determine which routing daemons are currently running on the system. View the current routing table so that you will be able to see the difference after the router is reconfigured later.1 . Revision A. ______________________________________________ Describe why the process or processes are running. Use the ping command to verify that your system can send and receive ICMP echo messages with another local IPv6 system. ______________________________________________ Write your system’s IPv6 IP address: ______________________________________________ Can this IPv6 IP address be used by systems on other subnets to contact your system? Why or why not? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 5. Inc. View the system’s interface configuration after the boot. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. ______________________________________________ 8.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 4. Write the IP address: ______________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 8-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Ask another group on your subnet for its link-local IPv6 IP address.

168.30. configure IPv6 on the network interface connected to the local subnet. Also create the necessary file to enable this same configuration at any subsequent boot.ip. ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 4. Working on Your Subnet’s Router Complete the following steps: 1. All Rights Reserved. Inc. ______________________________________________ 6. Revision A. From the command line.X network (for example 192. ______________________________________________ Plumb an IPv6 6to4 tunnel. ______________________________________________ Configure the IPv6 tunnel using the router’s IPv4 address on the 30. Enable IPv6 routing. Create an /etc/hostname6. and use network number 0 (zero) and host number 1 (one) for the tunnel end point. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ Enable IPv6 forwarding. 3.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing Complete the steps in the following sections.1 8-39 . 5.6to4tun0 file so that the 6to4 tunnel is created automatically with the appropriate source when the system boots. Sun Services.31).

All Rights Reserved. View the daemons running on the router. View the routing table on the router. ______________________________________________ 13. sysX3.1 .0. Inc. use 1 (one) as your subnet ID).Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 7. 8-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. ______________________________________________ 11. Create an /etc/inet/ndpd. 9. Sun Services. Obtain the IPv6 6to4 address of a system on a different subnet. ______________________________________________ Log in to the router and view the configuration of its network interfaces. sysX4) Continue as follows: 12. ______________________________________________ Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class completes this step.1.conf file to advertise a 6to4 address prefix and a site-local address prefix to your local subnet. Use the following prefix lines: q For sys11: prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 q For sys21: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e20:2::0/64 q For sys31: prefix fec0:0:0:3::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e21:3::0/64 8. (For example. ______________________________________________ 10. Attempt to contact a system on a different subnet by using its IPv6 6to4 address. ______________________________________________ Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2. if you are on subnet 192. Reboot the router. Revision A. Make the subnet ID for both prefixes the same as the subnet ID used in your IPv4 addresses.

complete the following steps: 1. Determine which. if so. with what options.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network In this section you will remove the 6to4 tunnel just constructed so that you can enable IPv6 across the whole network. Revision A. Complete the steps in the following sections. Verify that the files that you use to configure the router’s interfaces with IPv6 at boot time exist. If they do not.1 8-41 . Unconfigure the 6to4 tunnel interface. All Rights Reserved. ______________________________________________ 2. Display the router’s interface configuration so that you can back out of the configuration at any stage. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. create them. processes related to IPv6 routing are running and. Why are the processes running with these options? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 4. To configure IPv6 on a router. Inc. if any. Working on Your Subnet’s Router Work with another teammate’s group for this task if your system functions as a non-router in the classroom. Sun Services. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 3.

0 uses fec0:0:0:1::0/64 and 2000:0:0:1::0/64 192. View your router’s IPv6 routing table. All Rights Reserved. Edit the correct file on your router to cause it to use a site-local and an aggregated global-unicast address for each interface on the router. Document your work.0 uses fec0:0:0:2::0/64 and 2000:0:0:2::0/64 192. Revision A.168. and why? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 8-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ______________________________________________ Verify that each router is configured correctly.1 .30.168. 6. 7.3.0 uses fec0:0:0:30::0/64 and 2000:0:0:30::0/64 q q q Configure the file to cause the routing daemon to advertise IPv6 out of all interfaces. Reboot the router systems. Sun Services.168. 9. Display the configuration of each network interface.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 5.1.168.0 uses fec0:0:0:3::0/64 and 2000:0:0:3::0/64 192. ______________________________________________ 8. Which options are running with each routing daemon.2. Use the following addresses: q 192. What routes are available? ______________________________________________ Determine which routing daemons are running on the router. Be sure to remove an existing prefix 2002 lines. Inc.

or global)? ______________________________________________ 14. site-local. Use the ping command to send ICMP echo requests from a nonrouter system to the site-local address of another non-router system on another subnet to verify that the routing is functioning as expected. What type of routes are in the routing table (link-local. ______________________________________________ 11.Exercise 1: Configuring IPv6 Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2.1 8-43 . Which options are running with each routing daemon. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Determine which routing daemons are running on each non-router system. sysX3. Either reboot the non-router systems. Notice the logical addresses that provide access to the different networks based on the FP. Display the system’s interface configuration. or wait a few minutes for the route information to propagate the network. and why? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 13. Revision A. ______________________________________________ Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. (You may have to wait enough time for the routing information to be updated after the prior step’s system boot) ______________________________________________ 12. sysX4) Continue as follows: 10. Display the system’s routing table.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications 8-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Revision A. Sun Services. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences.1 . All Rights Reserved. issues.

Please wait.0.MULTICAST.Exercise 1 Solutions Exercise 1 Solutions The following solution is specific to an individual system.1 8-45 .IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. # init 6 # INIT: New run level: 6 svc. Working on All Non-Router Systems (sysX2. Inc. sysX4) To configure IPv6 on a non-router. Create the relevant file to cause your system’s primary interface to be configured with both IPv4 and IPv6.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 Display the configuration of the system’s interfaces before you make any changes.168.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Sun Services.BROADCAST. Reboot the system. All Rights Reserved.168.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. complete the following steps: 1.1. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP. Your results will be different if you are working on different systems.hme0 3. Task 1 – Configuring IPv6 on the Local Subnet To configure IPv6 on the local subnet. # touch /etc/hostname6.. sysX3.RUNNING.. . # 2.RUNNING.IPv4. complete the following sections.startd: The system is coming down. . VIRTIAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.0. Revision A.LOOPBACK...1.

Use the ping command to verify that your system can send and receive ICMP echo messages with another local IPv6 system.Exercise 1 Solutions 4.0. # The system’s primary interface is now configured with both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol stacks.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. Revision A. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 View the system’s interface configuration after the boot. Write the IP address: fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7/10 6. All Rights Reserved. Ask another group on your subnet for its link-local IPv6 IP address.0. The FP defines the scope that an IPv6 datagram is able to travel. Sun Services.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168. Write your system’s IPv6 IP address: fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 Can this IPv6 IP address be used by systems on other subnets to contact your system? Why or why not? No. which is a link-local address and is limited to the local subnet.RUNNING.BROADCAST.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.1. other systems cannot contact this IPv6 IP address because the address has an FP of fe8.1 .MULTICAST. 5.MULTICAST. # ping fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 fe80::a00:20ff:fe90:b5c7 is alive # 8-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.168.1.RUNNING.RUNNING. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv4.RUNNING.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.

Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.----.0.0. The in.1.--------192. 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.1.3 U 1 0 hme0 192.0 224. Sun Services.ndpd daemon provides the autoconfiguration components of neighbor discovery and is not really considered to be a routing daemon.1 UH 2 6 lo0 View the current routing table so that you will be able to see the difference after the router is reconfigured later.--. Use the ps command to determine which routing daemons are currently running on the system.0.Exercise 1 Solutions 7.168.1 8-47 . Inc.0.----U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 # 8. netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.1 Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1.168.----.ndpd # ps -ef | grep in[. and is listening for IPv4 routing messages after it boots.3 U 1 2 hme0 192.1 UG 1 0 hme0 127.1.0.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. The in. All Rights Reserved.routed daemon is attempting to locate routers by sending solicitation.] root 102 1 0 12:10:10 ? root 109 1 0 12:10:10 ? # Describe why the process or processes are running.-----.0 default 127.-----.0. Revision A. Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default ::1 Gateway --------------------------fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----.168.

ripngd.routed" "" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in. # routeadm -u -e ipv6-forwarding # 8-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Working on Your Subnet’s Router 1. "/usr/sbin/in.1 . Also create the necessary file to enable this same configuration at any subsequent boot. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 plumb up # touch /etc/hostname6. configure IPv6 on the network interface connected to the local subnet.Exercise 1 Solutions Task 2 – Configuring 6to4 Routing Complete the steps in the following sections.routed. Sun Services. Revision A. Inc.ripngd" "-s" "kill -TERM ‘cat /var/tmp/in.pid‘" "/usr/lib/inet/in. From the command line.pid‘" IPv4 IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 # Enable IPv6 forwarding.hme0 # 2. # routeadm -u -e ipv6-routing # routeadm Configuration Current Current Option Configuration System State --------------------------------------------------------------IPv4 forwarding enabled enabled IPv4 routing enabled enabled IPv6 forwarding enabled enabled IPv6 routing enabled enabled IPv4 routing daemon routing daemon args routing daemon stop IPv6 routing daemon routing daemon args routing daemon stop 3. Enable IPv6 routing.

0 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 fe80::32:0:10/10 5. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.ip. All Rights Reserved.IPv4.MULTICAST.ip.0. Plumb an IPv6 6to4 tunnel.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.ROUTER.RUNNING.0.1 8-49 .6to4tun0 tsrc 192.31 up ______________________________________________ 7.168.ip.0.IPv6> mtu 65515 index 4 inet tunnel src 0.30.168.MULTICAST.conf file to advertise a 6to4 address prefix and a site-local address prefix to your local subnet.30.BROADCAST.168. Configure the IPv6 tunnel using the router’s IPv4 address on the 30.ROUTER.168.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:22 hme0: flags=2100841<UP. # echo tsrc 192. Use the following prefix lines: q For sys11: prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 hme0 hme0 hme0 q For sys21: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e20:2::0/64 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # ifconfig ip.6to4tun0 inet6 plumb # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.6to4tun0 # cat /etc/hostname6.6to4tun0 tsrc 192.31 up 6.1.0.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.31 up > /etc/hostname6.BROADCAST.30.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 ip.X network (for example 192.RUNNING.6to4tun0 file so that the 6to4 tunnel is created automatically with the appropriate source when the system boots.MULTICAST.30. Create an /etc/inet/ndpd.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.31 up # cat /etc/hostname6.6to4tun0 inet6 tsrc 192.168.30.NONUD.Exercise 1 Solutions 4.168.LOOPBACK.30.168.RUNNING.168.RUNNING. and use network number 0 (zero) and host number 1 (one) for the tunnel end point.168.6to4tun0: flags=2300040<RUNNING.1. Make the subnet ID for both prefixes the same as the subnet ID used in your IPv4 addresses.31). (For example. use 1 (one) as your subnet ID).1. Sun Services. if you are on subnet 192.MULTICAST.ROUTER.ROUTER.ip.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe2: flags=1100843<UP. # ifconfig ip.168.30. Create an /etc/hostname6.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Inc.

Revision A.NONUD.MULTICAST.ROUTER.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. # init 6 9.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.ADDRCONF.168.MULTICAST.0.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.LOOPBACK.1. 8-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.ROUTER.MULTICAST.168.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192. Log in to the router and view the configuration of its network interfaces.MULTICAST.0.IPv4.30.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. Sun Services.LOOPBACK. Inc.RUNNING.ROUTER.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP.168.ROUTER.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local address prefix fec0:0:0:1::0/64 hme0 # 6to4 address prefix 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::0/64 hme0 # 8.BROADCAST.ADDRCONF.BROADCAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING.30. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.30.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv6.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.MULTICAST.1 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip.Exercise 1 Solutions q For sys31: prefix fec0:0:0:3::0/64 prefix 2002:c0a8:1e21:3::0/64 hme0 hme0 # cat /etc/inet/ndpd.ROUTER.1.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 # Reboot the router.MULTICAST.

1. View the routing table on the router.0.6to4tun0 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 18 hme0 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 0 hme0 ::1 UH 30 494 lo0 11.0.30.32 192.3 127.1 Flags Ref Use Interface ----.0 127.] root 147 1 root 149 1 root 151 1 # 0 15:42:56 ? 0 15:42:56 ? 0 15:42:56 ? 0:32 /usr/sbin/in.0 192.31 192. # netstat -rn Routing Table: IPv4 Destination -------------------192.----2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 6 hme0:1 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723 U 1 0 hme0:2 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1 U 1 0 ip.0.-----.30.6to4tun0 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1 U 1 1 ip.--------U 1 38 hme0 UG 1 0 qfe0 U 1 34 qfe0 U 1 0 hme0 UH 9 152065 lo0 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2002:c0a8:1e1f:1::/64 fec0:0:0:1::/64 2002:c0a8:1e1f::/64 2002::/16 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 ::1 # Gateway Flags Ref Use If --------------------------. Sun Services.----.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.2. # ping 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de is alive # Caution – Do not proceed beyond this point until everyone in the class completes this step. View the daemons running on the router.1 Gateway -------------------192.168.1 8-51 . Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ndpd 0:02 /usr/lib/inet/in. # ps -ef | grep in[.168.3 192.168.1.168. 2002:c0a8:1e20:2:a00:20ff:feb6:c5de 13.168.0 192.0.--.30.----.ripngd -s Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2.168.-----. Attempt to contact a system on a different subnet by using its IPv6 6to4 address. sysX4) Continue as follows: 12.0 224. All Rights Reserved. sysX3. Inc.1. Revision A. Obtain the IPv6 6to4 address of a system on a different subnet.168.Exercise 1 Solutions 10.0.0.

LOOPBACK.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.6to4tun0: flags=2300041<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fef8:b723/10 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST. To configure IPv6 on a router. Inc.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f:1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.30. All Rights Reserved.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fef8:b723/64 ip.6to4tun0 # 3.ip.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.30. Determine which.ROUTER.MULTICAST.Exercise 1 Solutions Task 3 – Configuring IPv6 Across the Whole Network In this section you will remove the 6to4 tunnel just constructed so that you can enable IPv6 across the whole network. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.] 8-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.RUNNING.LOOPBACK. processes related to IPv6 routing are running and. # 2.RUNNING. Unconfigure the 6to4 tunnel interface # ifconfig ip.MULTICAST.1.NONUD. if any.ROUTER. Revision A.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168. with what options.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168. if so.ROUTER.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.30.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.6to4tun0 inet6 down unplumb # rm /etc/hostname6.RUNNING. Complete the steps in the following sections.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4.0.MULTICAST.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP.MULTICAST.1 . Working on Your Subnet’s Router Work with another teammate’s group for this task if your system functions as a non-router in the classroom.168.ADDRCONF.ROUTER.168. Sun Services.BROADCAST.ROUTER.31 tunnel hop limit 60 inet6 2002:c0a8:1e1f::1/64 Display the router’s interface configuration so that you can back out of the configuration at any stage.0.RUNNING. Why are the processes running with these options? # ps -ef | grep in[.RUNNING. complete the following steps: 1.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ADDRCONF.IPv6.ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 8212 index 4 inet tunnel src 192.255 ether 8:0:20:f8:b7:23 qfe0: flags=1100843<UP.1.168.

conf # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local addresses: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix fec0:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 # Aggregatable global unicast addresses prefix 2000:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 Edit the sys21 router’s /etc/inet/ndpd.0 uses fec0:0:0:3::0/64 and 2000:0:0:3::0/64 192.168.168.168. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router. Verify that the files that you use to configure the router’s interfaces with IPv6 at boot time exist.conf Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30. create them.ndpd 0:01 /usr/sbin/in. Edit the sys11 router’s /etc/inet/ndpd.conf file to contain contents similar to the following: sys21# cat /etc/inet/ndpd.3. Revision A. # touch /etc/hostname6.ripngd -s The in.conf file to contain contents similar to the following: sys11# cat /etc/inet/ndpd.qfe0 # 5.1.routed daemon runs to supply routing information to the local networks.hme0 # touch /etc/hostname6. 4.2.1 8-53 .0 uses fec0:0:0:2::0/64 and 2000:0:0:2::0/64 192. Be sure to remove existing prefix 2002 lines. Inc.Exercise 1 Solutions root root root 161 158 163 1 1 1 0 14:25:20 ? 0 14:25:20 ? 0 14:25:20 ? 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. Document your work.0 uses fec0:0:0:30::0/64 and 2000:0:0:30::0/64 q q q Configure the file to cause the routing daemon to advertise IPv6 out of all interfaces. If they do not. Sun Services. Edit the correct file on your router to cause it to use a site-local and an aggregated global unicast address for each interface on the router.168. Use the following addresses: q 192.0 uses fec0:0:0:1::0/64 and 2000:0:0:1::0/64 192.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. All Rights Reserved.

Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.1 . Inc. Revision A.Exercise 1 Solutions # Send router advertisements out all interfaces ifdefault AdvSendAdvertisements on # Advertise an unregistered (bogus) global prefix and a site # local prefix using the default lifetimes # Site-local addresses: prefix fec0:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix fec0:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 # Aggregatable global unicast addresses prefix 2000:0:0:2::0/64 qfe0 prefix 2000:0:0:30::0/64 hme0 8-54 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

.MULTICAST. .ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 2 2 3 3 8. Sun Services.--------------------------2000:0:0:30::/64 2000::30:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 fec0:0:0:30::/64 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feb9:7223 2000:0:0:1::/64 2000::1:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 fec0:0:0:1::/64 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feac:9b20 2000:0:0:2::/64 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5d34 UG fec0:0:0:2::/64 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5d34 UG fe80::/10 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U fe80::/10 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 U ff00::/8 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223 U ::1 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----..IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.168.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.LOOPBACK.----U 1 0 hme0:1 U 1 0 hme0:2 U 1 0 qfe0:1 U 1 0 qfe0:2 1 0 hme0 1 0 hme0 1 0 hme0 1 0 qfe0 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST. # ifconfig -a Please wait.RUNNING.RUNNING.BROADCAST. .30.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.ROUTER.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST. Display the configuration of each network interface.ROUTER.--.1. 7.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.ADDRCONF.Exercise 1 Solutions 6.ROUTER. What routes are available? # netstat -f inet6 -rn Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask Gateway --------------------------.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP. Reboot the router systems.RUNNING..BROADCAST.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.30. View your router’s IPv6 routing table.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.0.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.1. lo0: flags=1000849<UP.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Revision A..ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. # init 6 # svc.1 8-55 .RUNNING.startd: The system is coming down.ROUTER.-----.ROUTER.MULTICAST.0. Verify that each router is configured correctly.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.168.255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.RUNNING.IPv4.RUNNING. Inc.

. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router.ripngd -s # ps -ef | grep in[.. Revision A. 8-56 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Working on all Non-Router Systems (sysX2.ripngd process runs with the -s option to force the process to supply routing information..startd: The system is coming down.. sysX4) Continue as follows: 10.Exercise 1 Solutions 9. This is possible even if this system is not configured as a router. or wait a few minutes for the route information to propagate the network. Please wait.. . 11. # ping fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 is alive # .. (You may have to wait enough time for the routing information to be updated after the prior step’s system boot). The in.routed process runs to supply routing information to the local networks. # init 6 svc. Determine which routing daemons are running on the router... The in. Inc.. Either reboot the non-router systems. Which options are running with each routing daemon.. Use the ping command to send ICMP echo requests from a nonrouter system to the site-local address of another non-router system on another subnet to verify that the routing is functioning as expected.] root 107 1 0 12:36:01 ? root 116 1 0 12:36:02 ? root 118 1 0 12:36:02 ? # The in.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. Sun Services. and why? 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.1 .ndpd 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in. # ping fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 ICMPv6 Address Unreachable from gateway . sysX3.ndpd process provides the autoconfiguration components of neighbor discovery and is not really considered to be a routing daemon. All Rights Reserved.

0.168.1.RUNNING. Notice the logical addresses that provide access to the different networks based on the FP.Exercise 1 Solutions 12.ADDRCONF. and why? # ps -ef | grep in[. site-local.----U 1 0 hme0:1 U 1 0 hme0:2 U 1 0 hme0 U 1 0 hme0 UG 1 0 hme0 UH 1 0 lo0 The fe8.MULTICAST. Sun Services.routed daemon is listening for IPv4 routing information.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. and global networks.168. Display the system’s interface configuration.RUNNING.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Revision A. and 200 FPs indicate that the system is aware of link-local.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.] root 102 1 0 12:51:52 ? root 109 1 0 12:51:52 ? # 0:00 /usr/sbin/in.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 13.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.--.RUNNING.-----.MULTICAST.ndpd The in. Determine which routing daemons are running on each non-router system.0.1.IPv4> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING. Display the system’s routing table. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.BROADCAST. site-local. Inc. 14. fec.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. or global)? # netstat -rn -f inet6 Routing Table: IPv6 Destination/Mask --------------------------2000:0:0:1::/64 fec0:0:0:1::/64 fe80::/10 ff00::/8 default ::1 # Gateway --------------------------2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20 ::1 Flags Ref Use If ----. All Rights Reserved.1 8-57 .LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.RUNNING. What type of routes are in the routing table (link-local. Which options are running with each routing daemon.LOOPBACK.routed 0:00 /usr/lib/inet/in.

8-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Confirm that the system recognizes unique MAC addresses.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring IPv6 Multipathing You can configure IPv6 multipathing either from the command line or by editing a file to cause multipathing to be configured at boot time. This example shows how to configure IPMP on an existing IPv6-configured hme0 interface and on an existing. Sun Services. 8. Observe the IPMP failover. 6.1 . IPv6 multipathing is similar in operation to the multipathing operation in IPv4. All Rights Reserved. complete the following steps. 2. View the interface configuration. qfe1 interface. 3. in which the multipath group is called mpgrp6-one. 4. Inc. but it has a significantly different configuration procedure. Configure the qfe1 interface as part of the hme0 interface multipath group. Configure a test address for the qfe1 interface. 5. Configure a test address for the hme0 interface. but unconfigured. Configure the hme0 interface as part of a multipath group. Configuring IPMP Manually You can configure a production server for IPv6 IPMP without rebooting if your system was configured previously to support local MAC addresses. Revision A. To configure IPMP at the command-line prompt by using the ifconfig command. which are described in greater detail in the next sections: 1. 7. Verify the Solaris OS release.

3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. Inc.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system.MULTICAST.168. Inc.RUNNING. Use is subject to license terms.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems.1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. Assembled 09 September 2004 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.ADDRCONF.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.0.RUNNING. Sun Services.0. Inc.IPv4.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.LOOPBACK. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason. Perform the command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.MULTICAST. VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2000849<UP. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 s10_67 SPARC Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems.1 8-59 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Verifying the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Revision A.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.RUNNING.

Revision A.1 . All Rights Reserved.mpathd[309]: Failures cannot be detected on hme0 as no IFF_NOFAILOVER address is available Note – You only see this and subsequent failure messages if you are viewing the console. You can also set the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable from the OpenBoot PROM. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Verify that the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. of which the hme0 interface will be a part: # ifconfig hme0 group mpgrp6-one # Dec 19 12:49:04 sys13 in. Inc. specify the name of the group. mpgrp6-one. Sun Services. Configuring the hme0 Interface as Part of a Multipath Group To configure the hme0 interface as part of a multipath group. You now use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true. This is indicated by the setting of the local-mac-address? variable to false. use the eeprom command to view the contents of the EEPROM: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring Unique MAC Addresses To determine if unique MAC addresses are enabled. 8-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. View the changes to the interface: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. All Rights Reserved.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.1.168.RUNNING. When you configure the address.RUNNING.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not fail over (-failover). Revision A.0. you configure a test address for the hme0 interface.LOOPBACK.0.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing You can ignore the preceding message because the interface is still being configured.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.1 8-61 .MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv6. Inc.MULTICAST.IPv4.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF. you use the link-local address.1.168.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP. Enter the following: # ifconfig hme0 inet6 -failover # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. mark it so that the in.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Observe the additional information in the preceding ifconfig output for the inet6 hme0 interface output that indicates the new multipath group information: groupname mpgrp6-one Configuring a Test Address for the hme0 Interface Next. Sun Services.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST. To configure an IPv6 test address.

LOOPBACK.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the hme0 interface: hme0: flags=a000841<UP.LOOPBACK.IPv4.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one This information includes the following: q The NOFAILOVER flag indicates that the interface must not be used as a failover interface if another interface in the group fails.RUNNING.0. Inc. Sun Services.IPv6.MULTICAST.IPv6. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.RUNNING.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.0.mpathd daemon to ensure that communications are functioning as expected. The RUNNING flag is monitored by the in.168.1. 8-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.BROADCAST.168.MULTICAST.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing To view the changes to the interface.1 . use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. You do not need to mark IPv6 test addresses as deprecated.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING. Revision A.IPv6.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST. q Be aware that the logical interface cannot function if the physical interface fails.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.

BROADCAST. Type the following: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192.1 8-63 . Revision A.1.RUNNING.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.168.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.168.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=2000841<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.200 netmask + broadcast + group \ > mpgrp6-one up # Configure the new interface to also support IPv6. Now.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv4. and broadcast addresses.IPv6.168.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.1.RUNNING.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.0.ADDRCONF. You must also configure it as part of the same IPMP group as the hme0 interface. you configure the qfe1 interface with IPv4. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. Inc.IPv6.LOOPBACK.168.MULTICAST.RUNNING.MULTICAST.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. You do not need to assign the interface to group because the IPv6 interface assumes the same group membership as the IPv4 interface. Type the following: # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 plumb up To view the changes to the interface. Sun Services.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring the qfe1 Interface as Part of the hme0 Interface Multipath Group Half of the interface configuration is complete. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. netmask.1.1.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.

RUNNING. Configuring an IPv6 Test Address for the qfe1 Interface Now you configure an IPv6 test address for the qfe1 interface. and 3 for qfe1. When you configure the address. Perform the command: # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 -failover # Dec 19 14:47:47 sys13 in. Revision A.mpathd[309]: Failure detection restored on qfe1 as an IFF_NOFAILOVER address is available 8-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 2 for hme0.mpathd daemon recognizes it as a test address that must not be used as a failover interface (-failover) if another interface in the group fails. Sun Services.MULTICAST.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Observe the additional information that is reported by the preceding ifconfig command for the qfe1 interface: qfe1: flags=2000841<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one The interface index number is incremented to 3 because every physical interface obtains its own index number (which is identical for a physical interface’s different virtual interfaces): 1 for lo0. mark it so that the in. Inc. All Rights Reserved.1 .

MULTICAST.168.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.168.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.0.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing To view the changes to the interface. Sun Services.RUNNING.1.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.IPv6. All Rights Reserved.0.1.MULTICAST.IPv4.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.IPv6. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.168.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.IPv6.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP. Inc.RUNNING.168.1 8-65 .BROADCAST. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.

Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Starting the in.dfl 1. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to no.mpathd Daemon to Monitor the Interfaces The start process of the in. Sun Services. # FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME=10000 # # Failback is enabled by default. the ifconfig command’s group option starts the in.mpathd daemon is controlled by the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter in the /etc/default/mpathd file.mpathd daemon at boot time. Turn off this option to track all network interfaces # on the system # TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS=yes # If the TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS variable is set to yes.1 . To disable failback turn off this option # FAILBACK=yes # # By default only interfaces configured as part of multipathing groups # are tracked. The contents of this file are: # cat /etc/default/mpathd # #pragma ident "@(#)mpathd.mpathd # 8-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.mpathd daemon automatically.2 00/07/17 SMI" # # Time taken by mpathd to detect a NIC failure in ms. If you need to start the in. then the /lib/svc/method/net-init SMF method starts the in. use the following command as the root user: # /sbin/in. The minimum time # that can be specified is 100 ms.mpathd daemon from the command line. Inc.

0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1.0.RUNNING.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Viewing the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces.1.RUNNING.RUNNING.1 8-67 .MULTICAST.MULTICAST.1.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP. now that multipathing is completely configured.ADDRCONF.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # The system now remains available to users even if either of the multipath network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.LOOPBACK.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP. Sun Services.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. Inc.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.MULTICAST. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.168.IPv6.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv4.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.168.168.IPv6.LOOPBACK.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.168. All Rights Reserved.IPv6.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.

View the interface configuration.168. 2. View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system.3) system.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168. Configure unique MAC addresses. 4.IPv6. Sun Services. The multipath group is called mpgrp6-one. which are described in greater detail in the next sections. 1. To configure IPMP.168. Revision A. 3. All Rights Reserved.RUNNING.BROADCAST.MULTICAST. Reboot the system.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. complete the following steps.MULTICAST.0.LOOPBACK.RUNNING. but unconfigured.RUNNING.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. 5.1 .255 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. Observe the IPMP failover. Verify the Solaris OS release. Inc.0. Configure the interfaces. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring IPMP at Boot Time This example shows IPMP configuration on an existing IPv6-configured hme0 interface and on an existing.IPv4.1.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 # 8-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.LOOPBACK.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1. 6.MULTICAST.RUNNING. qfe1 interface on the sys13 (192.

Use is subject to license terms. All Rights Reserved.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Verifying the Solaris OS Release The /etc/release file contains information about the installed version of the Solaris OS. Assembled 31 August 2000 # The following system exceeds the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 s10_67 SPARC Copyright 2004 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1 8-69 . Inc. Sun Services. Assembled 09 September 2004 # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. The following system meets the minimum requirements: # cat /etc/release Solaris 8 10/00 s28s_u2wos_11b SPARC Copyright 2000 Sun Microsystems. Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. determine if the code in your system’s EEPROM supports unique MAC addresses. Inc. Revision A. You now use the eeprom command to change the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable to true. 8-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . You can also set the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable from the OpenBoot PROM level. To determine if unique MAC addresses are permitted.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring Unique MAC Addresses Before attempting to configure MAC addresses. # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Verify that the EEPROM’s local-mac-address? variable is set to true: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. use the eeprom command to view the current value of the local-mac-address? variable: # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=false # The preceding output indicates that the system is still in its default mode and uses the same MAC address for each interface.

Marks the interface as up.qfe1 files.qfe1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname. Inc.qfe1 192. Revision A.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configuring the Interfaces Multipath information is placed in the /etc/hostname6. Assigns mpgrp6-one as the name for an IPMP group.hme0 and /etc/hostname6.hme0 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname6.168. Sun Services. Interfaces that are marked in this way do not fail over to another physical interface in the multipath group in a failover scenario.1. Create the /etc/hostname.qfe1 file to contain contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/hostname6.qfe1 -failover group mpgrp6-one up # Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Forces the ifconfig command to configure the interface as an IPv6 interface.qfe1 file to permit the IPv4 stack to be configured on the qfe1 interface at boot time. Marks the interface as a non-failover interface.hme0 -failover group mpgrp6-one up # where: hme0 hostname6 -failover Assigns an interface.200 # Create the /etc/hostname6. Modify the /etc/hostname6. group mpgrp6-one up Configure the /etc/hostname. and initializes the hardware.1 8-71 .

IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.ADDRCONF.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.1.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.1. Revision A.RUNNING. Sun Services.BROADCAST. 8-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname mpgrp6-one hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/64 # The system remains available to users.IPv6.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.1 .3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.168. use the ifconfig command: # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.IPv6.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING. # init 6 # Viewing the Interface Configuration To view the configuration of the interfaces when the system is booted.IPv4.168.1.RUNNING.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.RUNNING. even if either of the multipath network interfaces fail or become unusable for any reason.IPv6.RUNNING.MULTICAST.1.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Rebooting the System Reboot system to enable IPMP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.200 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.168.MULTICAST.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b7:4e:5d inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb7:4e5d/10 groupname mpgrp6-one qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Inc.168.255 groupname mpgrp6-one ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.0.

1.hme0 group singleton# Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST. Inc.RUNNING.MULTICAST. Sun Services.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:c1:4b:44 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/10 groupname singleton hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST. ensure that the interface configuration file contains the group option and the IPMP group name: # cat /etc/hostname6.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.BROADCAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:fec1:4b44/64 # If the single interface will be included in an IPMP group with multiple interfaces in the future.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST. This enables you to monitor the status of the interface by using IPMP and to receive notifications about the interface’s status.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.VIRTUAL> mtu8232 index 1 inet 128.IPv4. All Rights Reserved. and so are always associated with the monitored interface.255 groupname singleton ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.RUNNING. Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 at System Boot To create a singleton IPMP group at system boot.0.Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Configure a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 It is possible to configure an IPMP group that contains only one IPv6-enabled interface.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. data addresses can never move to a different interface.RUNNING. assign a multipath group name to the interface: # ifconfig hme0 inet6 group singleton # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.168.MULTICAST. With a single interface in the group.RUNNING.1 8-73 .1.ADDRCONF. Revision A. Configuring a Singleton IPMP Group in IPv6 on the Command Line To create a singleton IPMP group. although it is not possible to fail the IPv6 addresses over on to another network interface. you should also set the NOFAILOVER flag on the link local by using the -failover option.0.ADDRCONF.1 netmask ff000000 hme0 flags=1000843<UP.

You can use any name that you choose for your multipath group. That is. Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. You use both interfaces for regular network traffic. All Rights Reserved. your system runs at half of its potential capacity in the event of a network failure on any of the two NICs. Preparation Unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured before beginning this exercise. Working on Any System In this section of the exercise. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system. Sun Services. Inc. you configure IPv6 multipathing on two interfaces on your systems.1 .Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing In this exercise. you configure IPv6 multipathing. 1. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. Revision A. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason. Verify that your operating system release can support multipathing. Tasks Complete the following steps.

bring down and unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured. and set the failover option appropriately for a multipathing test address. Verify that your system is configured to use unique MAC addresses. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing 3. Configure your first interface as part of the multipath group that you will use. 7. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 6. Check your system for interfaces. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ What command do you use to cause your system to use unique MAC addresses? _____________________________________________________________ Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. Complete the following fields: Multipath group name: _________________________ First interface: _______________________________ Second interface: _____________________________ IPv4 address for second interface: __________________ 5. Revision A. Configure a test address for your system’s first multipath interface. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the name that you are going to assign to your multipath group: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Inc. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 8. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. and decide which interfaces that you will use for multipathing. Caution – Before performing the next step.1 8-75 . as described in the preparation section at the beginning of this exercise.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 11. and assign it a status of up. 14. Assign an IP. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface. Plug in the cable. and assign it a status of up. 8-76 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise 2: Configuring IPv6 Multipathing 9. Configure the IPv4 component of your system’s second interface. Revision A. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 10. assign it to the multipath group. Configure IPv6 on your system’s second multipathing interface. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface. simulate a network failure and disconnect the network interface cable connected to the interface that you are using the ping command to detect. Use the ping command to send an echo request every second from any other IPv6 system to a site-local address on your system. 13. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. netmask. Sun Services. and notice that the output from the ping command continues without interruption when the interfaces fail back. set an appropriate failover option to cause it to function properly as a multipathing test address. 12. Verify that the multipathing is working as expected. Verify that the multipathing daemon is running.1 . and broadcast address. All Rights Reserved. Inc. While the ping command is running.

q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. issues.1 8-77 .Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Revision A. Sun Services. Inc. All Rights Reserved.

MULTICAST. All Rights Reserved.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.IPv6. You can use any name that you choose for your multipath group.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.RUNNING.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.1 . You use both interfaces for standard network traffic.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.ADDRCONF. That is. Inc. View your system’s interface configuration to have a baseline before you make any changes to the system.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # 8-78 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.IPv4. Sun Services.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST.2.RUNNING.MULTICAST. Your results will be different depending upon the system on which you are working. Task Solutions This section provides solutions to the exercise tasks.BROADCAST.168.0.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.ADDRCONF. Revision A. Working on Any System In this section of the exercise.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.Exercise 2 Solutions Exercise 2 Solutions The output in the following solution is specific to an individual system.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. so that you know the state of the system if you need to restore the system for any reason.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.2.168. 1. you configure IPv6 multipathing on two interfaces on your systems. your system runs at half of its potential capacity in the event of a network failure on any of the two NICs.RUNNING.

MULTICAST.BROADCAST. Sun Services. # eeprom local-mac-address? local-mac-address?=true # This system assigns unique MAC addresses to each interface. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Complete the following fields: Multipath group name: _________________________ First interface: _______________________________ Second interface: _____________________________ IPv4 address for second interface: __________________ # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.RUNNING.1 8-79 .RUNNING.IPv4.LOOPBACK.2.IPv6. Verify that your operating system release can support multipathing.LOOPBACK. and decide which interfaces that you will use for multipathing.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP. What command do you use to cause your system to use unique MAC addresses? # eeprom local-mac-address?=true # Note – You must reboot the system for EEPROM changes to take place. Inc.RUNNING. Assembled 12 January 2005 This system can support multipathing because it is more recent than the Solaris 8 10/00 OS. Use is subject to license terms.MULTICAST. 4.168.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.Exercise 2 Solutions 2.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP. 3.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.2.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. Revision A.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.MULTICAST.0.168. Verify that your system is configured to use unique MAC addresses.RUNNING. Check your system for interfaces. Write the name that you are going to assign to your multipath group: This solution uses a multipath group name of mp-demo. # cat /etc/release Solaris 10 3/05 s10_74L2 SPARC Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.MULTICAST.0.

2.2.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # This solution demonstrates use of the hme0 and qfe1 interfaces.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.RUNNING. For example.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST. and set the failover option appropriately for a multipathing test address. The qfe1 interface is not configured for any network traffic at this stage.RUNNING.MULTICAST. Observe that the IPv4 interface has also joined the multipath group.0.RUNNING.RUNNING. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 group mp-demo # 6.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.RUNNING. All Rights Reserved.168.IPv6.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.MULTICAST. Configure a test address for your system’s first multipath interface.168.ADDRCONF. 192. q q q Multipath group name – mp-demo First interface – hme0 Second interface – qfe1 The IPv4 address used for the secondary will be the primary interface’s address plus 200. Revision A. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.168.LOOPBACK.RUNNING. Sun Services.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. 7.2.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Inc.Exercise 2 Solutions inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.1 .IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.IPv4.ADDRCONF. 5. Configure your first interface as part of the multipath group that you will use.3 uses 192.203 for the secondary interface.RUNNING.LOOPBACK. # ifconfig hme0 inet6 -failover # 8-80 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.168.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2000841<UP.ADDRCONF.

1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.168. netmask.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.MULTICAST.0. All Rights Reserved.MULTICAST.LOOPBACK.MULTICAST.BROADCAST.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP. Inc.IPv6.255.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.LOOPBACK.168.LOOPBACK.LOOPBACK.168.BROADCAST.168.1 8-81 .IPv6.2.BROADCAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.168.IPv4.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP. Revision A.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Configure the IPv4 component of your system’s second interface.255. Assign an IP.MULTICAST.RUNNING. Sun Services.168.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.RUNNING.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Observe that only the IPv6 interface has a test address assigned to it.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING.IPv6.0.ADDRCONF.2.2.203 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. and broadcast address.2.IPv4.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.IPv6.RUNNING. Write the command that you use: # ifconfig qfe1 plumb 192.RUNNING.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.Exercise 2 Solutions 8.RUNNING. as described in the preparation section at the beginning of this exercise.2.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 # Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected. Caution – Before performing the next step.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP.2. 9.203 netmask 255.168. Be sure to use the plumb option to enable the interface.2.RUNNING.MULTICAST.RUNNING.0 + broadcast + up # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. and assign it a status of up.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.0. bring down and unplumb any secondary interfaces that might be configured.

IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/64 qfe1:2: flags=2080841<UP.IPv6.ADDRCONF. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.0.RUNNING.2.IPv6.VIRTUAL> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=a000841<UP. All Rights Reserved. Use the ifconfig command to verify that the interfaces were configured as expected.IPv4.LOOPBACK. # ifconfig qfe1 inet6 plumb group mp-demo -failover up # 11.RUNNING.MULTICAST.3 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.0.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Revision A.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 2000::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 qfe1: flags=1000843<UP.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/64 # 8-82 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.IPv6.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.255 groupname mp-demo ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 lo0: flags=2002000849<UP.168.RUNNING.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF. Set an appropriate failover option to cause it to function properly as a multipathing test address and assign it a status of up.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 10.LOOPBACK. Configure the new IPv6 multipathing interface to be part of the multipathing group. Sun Services.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.2.MULTICAST.RUNNING.RUNNING.168.168.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c8 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/10 groupname mp-demo hme0:1: flags=2080841<UP.2.RUNNING.BROADCAST.1 . Inc.2.RUNNING.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 inet6 fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8/64 qfe1: flags=a000841<UP.RUNNING.MULTICAST.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.203 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.Exercise 2 Solutions hme0:2: flags=2080841<UP.NOFAILOVER> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:b8:30:c9 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb8:30c9/10 groupname mp-demo qfe1:1: flags=2080841<UP.

Exercise 2 Solutions 12. simulate a network failure. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=19. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=20. Inc. All Rights Reserved. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=14. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=15. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=4. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=16. time=0. time=0. Plug in the cable. and notice that the output from the ping command continues without interruption when the interfaces fail back. 14. time=0. time=0. time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=18. # ps -ef|grep mpath root 480 273 root 457 1 # 0 12:34:29 console 0 11:46:17 ? 0:00 grep mpath 0:00 # /usr/lib/inet/in. # ping -s fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8 PING fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: 56 data bytes 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=0. the multipathing process is running as expected. 13. Configuring IPv6 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ms <Control>-C # Notice how nine seconds worth of data from the ping command was lost. Verify that the multipathing daemon is running. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=3. time=0. Use the ping command to send an echo request every second from any other IPv6 system to a site-local address on your system. time=0. Sun Services. and disconnect the network interface cable connected to the interface that you are using the ping command to detect. Revision A. time=0.1 8-83 . ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=17. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=1.mpathd Yes. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=2. Verify that the multipathing is working as expected. time=0. time=0. time=0. ms 64 bytes from fec0::2:a00:20ff:feb8:30c8: icmp_seq=5. time=0. time=1. as can be seen by looking at the ICMP sequence numbers. While the ping command is running.

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Upon completion of this module you should be able to: q q q q Describe Transport layer fundamentals Describe UDP Describe TCP Describe TCP flow control The course map in Figure 9-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. including the different characteristics of UDP and TCP. In addition. All Rights Reserved. this module explains TCP flow control.1 . Inc. Sun Services.Module 9 Describing the Transport Layer Objectives This module describes Transport layer fundamentals. Configuring the Network Configuring IP Network Multipathing Configuring IP Configuring Routing Configuring IPv6 Describing the Transport Layer Figure 9-1 Course Map 9-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.

The Transport layer provides a transport service for application data.1 . you must be familiar with the different characteristics of network protocols. Figure 9-2 shows the position of the Transport layer in the TCP/IP network model. TCP and UDP. Application designers decide which transport protocol to use for their application.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals The Transport layer transports data to and from the correct application. Sun Services. To understand the differences between TCP and UDP. Revision A. TCP and UDP. The two protocols associated with the Transport layer. All Rights Reserved. are provided by a kernel-loadable module. This process is known as end-to-end communication. TCP/IP Layers Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer Hardware Layer Figure 9-2 Position of the Transport Layer in the TCP/IP Network Model Protocol Characteristics There are two main protocols that operate at the Transport layer. Inc. 9-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

1 9-3 .  Figure 9-3 Connection-Oriented Protocol Logical Connection This method of connection: q q Is highly reliable because of acknowledgements Requires more computational processing than connectionless protocols Has more overhead because of connection establishment and termination q Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. you must establish a logical connection with the communication partner before exchanging data. Figure 9-3 illustrates how a connection-oriented protocol could work. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Connection-Oriented Protocols With connection-oriented protocols.

establishing a connection before sending data is not necessary. This avoids the protocol having to wait for multiple acknowledgements and having to know how many acknowledgements to expect. All Rights Reserved. This method is also suited to protocols that use a broadcast approach to transmit information.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Connectionless Protocols Figure 9-4 illustrates how a connectionless protocol could work. Sun Services. Connectionless protocols transmit self-contained messages. Mail Figure 9-4 Connectionless Protocol With connectionless protocols. Inc. Revision A.1 . Self-contained messages: q q Include the full message Do not require any response The connectionless protocol method has virtually no reliability features. and therefore is best suited for use in highly reliable networks. This method also requires lower overhead because it has no connection and no setup requirements. 9-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Figure 9-5 illustrates how interaction in a stateful protocol could work. Connectionless protocols are typically stateless. A stateless protocol does not support most reliability features. Revision A. Sun Services. Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. data that is sent can be lost or delivered out-of-sequence. Client Server Figure 9-5 Stateful Protocol Stateless Protocols A stateless protocol is a protocol in which neither the client nor the server system has an obligation to keep track of the state of the communication session. Both systems keep track of the state of the communication session. therefore. All Rights Reserved. Client Figure 9-6 Server Stateless Protocol The advantages of a stateless protocol are that it has lower overheads and it has a degree of isolation between the client and the server.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Stateful Protocols A stateful protocol is a protocol in which part of the data that is exchanged between the client and the server systems includes state information. Figure 9-6 illustrates how interaction in a stateless protocol could work. Inc.1 9-5 .

Sender Receiver Time Send Packet 1 1 Receive Packet 1 Send Acknowledgement (ACK) 2 Receive ACK Send Packet 2 3 Receive Packet 2 Send ACK 4 Receive ACK Send Packet 3 5 Packet Lost Timeout Resend Packet 3 6 7 Receive Packet 3 Figure 9-7 Reliable Protocol 9-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. if necessary.1 . Figure 9-7 shows how a reliable protocol could work.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Reliable Protocols A reliable protocol requires that each transmission is acknowledged by the receiving host. The sender retransmits. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Revision A. Inc.

Inc. Sun Services.1 9-7 . Figure 9-8 shows how an unreliable protocol could work. All Rights Reserved.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Unreliable Protocols An unreliable protocol does not require that each transmission is acknowledged by the receiving host. Revision A. Sender Receiver Time 1 Send Packet 1 2 Send Packet 2 3 Send Packet 3 Packet Lost 4 Send Packet 4 Figure 9-8 Unreliable Protocol Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

The TCP/IP protocol stack features two Transport layer protocols. Figure 9-9 shows an analogy that compares TCP and UDP. 6+2 Certified 7.2 Uncertified Figure 9-9 TCP and UDP Analogy 9-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the Transport layer handles error detection. and flow regulation depends on which protocol is used. In addition. and can regulate the flow of information.Introducing Transport Layer Fundamentals Transport Protocols in TCP/IP The Transport layer header includes a destination port number that identifies the destination application program on the remote machine and a source port number that identifies the application on the originating machine. Inc. the sequence of data. The way in which the Transport layer handles error detection. TCP and UDP. can handle recovery problems. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.1 . Sun Services.

and flow control. UDP is designed for applications that do not require a reliable Transport layer mechanism. duplicated. that contains the source and destination port numbers. The application program that uses UDP is responsible for reliability. UDP datagrams are sent to the Internet layer for encapsulation and delivery. Large UDP datagrams can be fragmented by IP. UDP has low overhead. if required. All Rights Reserved. stateless. Sun Services. Inc.Introducing UDP Introducing UDP UDP is a connectionless. Purpose of UDP UDP gives an application direct access to the Internet layer and includes the source and the destination port numbers. and unreliable protocol. Revision A. UDP Datagram Header UDP receives incoming data from the application and encapsulates the data in UDP datagrams. and it is designed for high-speed applications that run on reliable networks. sequencing. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Type Source Port Length Destination Port Checksum Figure 9-10 UDP Header Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. followed by the data section.1 9-9 . UDP is also used by Application layer protocols that transmit information by broadcast mechanisms. shown in Figure 9-10. UDP packets can be lost. UDP does not require that the receiving host acknowledge transmissions. or delivered out-of-order. UDP datagrams have a leading header section.

stateful. TCP is suited for situations where large volumes of data must travel between systems. Refer to RFC 793 and RFC 3168 for additional information. All Rights Reserved. and reliable protocol. Figure 9-11 shows the segment header with its fields. Inc. TCP has four main features: q q q q Virtual circuit connection Full-duplex connection Unstructured stream orientation Buffered transfer TCP Segment Header The TCP segment header has many fields. particularly across multiple routers and gateways. Sun Services.Introducing TCP Introducing TCP TCP is a connection-oriented. Revision A.1 . Figure 9-11 TCP Segment Header Notice that the segment header includes sequence and acknowledgment numbers that are used for connection-oriented and stateful connections. 9-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

This process is called piggybacking. To ensure the efficient flow of data to and from the application. This is similar to making a phone call: the line must be established before you can begin to talk. and a data section. Sun Services. Full-Duplex Connection TCP connections provide concurrent transfer in both directions. Inc. The input and output buffers also enable the application to see TCP as a full-duplex connection. The TCP protocol software sends control information for one stream back to the source in the segments that carry data in the opposite direction. TCP provides both input and output buffers to regulate the flow of data. This stream of bytes is divided into packets called segments.Introducing TCP Virtual Circuit Connection TCP must establish a connection between the sender and receiver before the transmission can start. All Rights Reserved. and it reduces network traffic.1 9-11 . Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Unstructured Stream Orientation Data originating from the Application layer flows to TCP as a stream of bytes. As seen previously. source and destination port numbers. Data can flow fast or slow. TCP then sends the segments to the Internet layer for encapsulation and delivery. TCP segments have a leading header section that contains control information. A full-duplex connection consists of two independent streams of data that flow in opposite directions. Revision A. The content in the data section is not read or translated by TCP. Buffered Transfer Data that comes from the application is a flowing stream.

With window advertisements. Receiver-Side Window Advertisements A TCP window advertisement determines the maximum amount of data that can be sent before the sender must wait for an acknowledgement from the receiver. TCP reduces the congestion window size by one-half. 9-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. TCP maintains a congestion window on the sending side. Each TCP segment from the receiving side carries an acknowledgement and a window advertisement. The slow-start algorithm quickly increases window size by doubling it for each successful transmission. the receiving side manages flow control. Sender-Side Congestion Window To avoid network congestion. The size contained in the window advertisements varies over time. Depending upon the severity of the congestion. TCP can use either a slow-start or congestion-avoidance algorithm to begin to increase the size of the congestion window. Revision A. The algorithm that implements flow control on both the sender side and the receiver side follows what is known as the sliding window principle. the receiving host continually informs the sending host of how much data it is prepared to receive. By advertising its window size.1 . The congestion window adjusts the amount of data that can be sent according to the number of segments that were recently lost or acknowledged in transit. Sun Services. Lost segments are detected if a transmission timeout occurs before an acknowledgement for the segment is received. TCP doubles the size of the congestion window. If congestion is detected. the congestion window can be reduced in size by one-half multiple times. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Each acknowledgement specifies that a particular segment was received. If congestion continues. As acknowledgements begin to be received. and each window advertisement specifies how many additional bytes the receiver is prepared to accept. it is considered a sliding window. therefore. The congestion-avoidance algorithm slowly increases the window’s size by increasing it only one segment at a time for each successful transmission. TCP has sophisticated algorithms to optimize flow control on both the sender side and the receiver side.Introducing TCP Flow Control Introducing TCP Flow Control TCP is more than a basic send-receive-acknowledge-send progression.

Revision A. RFC 1323 introduces a mechanism to increase the window size to 230 or 1 gigabyte (Gbyte). All Rights Reserved.1 9-13 . Sun Services. A standard TCP header uses a 16-bit field to report the receiver window size to the sender. high-bandwidth networks. the largest window that can be used is 216 or 64 kilobytes (Kbyte). Therefore. which permits larger TCP window advertisement sizes to enhance performance over high-delay.Introducing TCP Flow Control TCP Large Window The Solaris 10 OS implements RFC 1323. Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. such as satellite networks. Inc.

you: q q Define Transport layer terms Describe why an application programmer uses an unacknowledged transmission protocol Review the differences between TCP and UDP q Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. 2. Tasks Complete the following steps: 1. Revision A. Why would an application programmer use an unacknowledged transmission protocol? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.1 . _____ _____ Connection-oriented protocol TCP c. and connection-oriented Transport layer protocol An unacknowledged Transport layer protocol A principle that optimizes TCP flow control _____ _____ UDP b. Sun Services. Sliding window a. All Rights Reserved. A protocol that establishes a communication session before sending data A reliable. stateful.Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer Exercise: Describing the Transport Layer In this exercise. Match the terms to their definition. d.

Revision A. Inc. Sun Services.1 9-15 . or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Describing the Transport Layer Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. issues.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences.

A protocol that establishes a communication session before sending data A reliable. 2. a b Connection-oriented protocol TCP c. Sun Services. Why would an application programmer use an unacknowledged transmission protocol? UDP has less overhead than TCP. d. d Match the terms to their definition. UDP is best suited for short bursts of communication or broadcast communication.1 . 9-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. stateful.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to the exercise are as follows: 1. and connection-oriented Transport layer protocol An unacknowledged Transport layer protocol A principle that optimizes TCP flow control c UDP b. Inc. Sliding window a.

zones of authority. Upon completion of this module. top-level domains. Revision A. and performing basic troubleshooting procedures. the name resolution process. including gathering needed information. server types. and resource records. Inc. editing the BIND configuration file and other relevant files. This module also describes DNS configuration. Sun Services. Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 10-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 10-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Module 10 Configuring DNS Objectives This module describes the basic components of DNS. you should be able to: q q q Describe the basics of DNS Configure a DNS server Troubleshoot a DNS server by using basic utilities The course map in Figure 10-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. including the Berkeley Internet name domain (BIND). All Rights Reserved.1 .

Note – Earlier versions of the Solaris OS implemented the BIND 8 software.4 software. In other words. Can be broken into subdomains and can delegate authority for those subdomains to another group of administrators. A single network can consist of hosts that belong to many different domains. In BIND 9 the daemon is /usr/sbin/named. a domain can span a large physical area. q q q q 10-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. In BIND 8 the daemon is /usr/sbin/in. You can download and compile the latest version. Inc. however. A domain is maintained by a group of administrators. not physical entity. Inc. Is an index for looking up information in the DNS distributed database. The latest versions of the BIND software are available from the Internet Systems Consortium’s (ISC) Web site.named. does not support this action.2. Sun Services. version 9.1 . BIND BIND is the most frequently used implementation of DNS in the UNIX environment.Introducing DNS Basics Introducing DNS Basics The DNS name space is composed of a set of hierarchical domains arranged in a manner similar to the branches of an inverted tree. Branches represent collections of names in a common domain. Can be branches or leaves in the DNS tree. which might not be in physical proximity. Leaves represent individual nodes and are considered domains unto themselves. Represents nodes or systems by name in the DNS naming tree. Sun Microsystems. Revision A.isc. http://www. The Solaris 10 OS implements the BIND 9. All Rights Reserved.org/. Top-Level Domains A domain: q Is a collection of names that identifies network hosts and is a logical.

Introducing DNS Basics The top of the DNS hierarchy contains a nameless root domain.1 10-3 . This domain is a place holder containing names and servers for the top-level domains.S. The ICANN. Top-level domains (TLDs) include currently domains such as com. All top-level domains are controlled currently by the ICANN. The second-level domain. The ICANN non-profit group is the governing body of all IP address assignments and domain names and controls the root domain. sun. The second level is usually the first place that the ICANN delegates authority for a domain to some other local organization. not ICANN.org/tlds URL. All Rights Reserved. edu. Inc. gov. available at the http://www.S. Sun Services.com. Top-level domains are below the root domain. The IANA controls the root domain. The proposals for new TLDs are available at the http://www. Canada in this example Top-level domains have two main categories: organizational domains and geographical domains. Table 10-1 DNS Top-Level Domain Examples Domain com edu gov mil net org arpa ca Description Commercial organizations (predominately in the United States (U.icann. Second-level domains are below the top-level domains. Table 10-1 shows top-level domains and their descriptions.S.org Web site.icann. Geographical domains are based on the physical location of the domain. is controlled by administrators of Sun Microsystems. Organizational domains are based on the function or the purpose of the domain. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. for example. Revision A. authorizes domain registrars to sell domain names.) Military organizations (U.) Networking organizations and ISPs Non-profit and other organizations Reverse address lookups Country-based domains.)) Educational organizations Governmental organizations (U. org and arpa.

Fully qualified is analogous to an absolute path in a file name. Inc. All Rights Reserved. contains information for domains over which the server has naming control in the form of resource records in the servers’ configuration files) Consist of at least one domain and its associated data Can span one or more domains q q Server Types DNS implements name resolution. Sun Services. A university might divide its domain into department-based domains. which are described in more detail in this section. and a 63-character limit for an individual domain name. a system might be a primary server for one zone and a secondary server for a different zone. Lower-level domains can be split into more lower-level domains as needed. Revision A. The types of server are: q q q q q Root servers Primary servers Secondary servers Caching-only servers Forwarding servers 10-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. political. These zones: q Are the portion of the name space for which a server is authoritative (that is. For example. the name space also divides into various zones of authority. This is usually done on an organizational. Note that a single system can fulfill more than one role. For example.1 . a large. There is a 255-character maximum for a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). multinational corporation might divide its domain into country-based domains. All domains are subject to naming length restrictions. All servers also cache information. or as-needed basis.Introducing DNS Basics An organization can break up their second-level domains into lower-level domains. The following are some of the more common server types. Zones of Authority In addition to dividing the name space into administrative domains.

Although DNS does not prohibit having more than one primary server.internic. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Primary servers have the following features: q q They are the system on which all changes are made to the zone.net/domain/named. maintaining multiple primary servers is difficult and is prone to having errors occur.net.root-servers. (See the following sections for definitions of authoritative and non-authoritative servers. and so on. B. Primary Servers Each DNS zone must have a primary server. therefore.conf file. nine serve the root and top-level domains. and four serve the root domain only. from the ftp://ftp.root-servers.root URL. Revision A.net. and the servers are moved to a common domain for consistent naming purposes. All Rights Reserved. You can download a current copy of the named. which contains a list of the current root servers. The root servers are currently named A. Of these servers. They can specify the delegation of authority for subdomains.1 10-5 . q q Secondary Servers Each domain should have at least one secondary server. ICANN maintains the root servers.Introducing DNS Basics Root Servers Root servers maintain data about each of the top-level zones. the keyword master indicates the primary server.rs. Sun Services. The ICANN does not permit a domain to be registered officially as a subdomain of a top-level domain until a site demonstrates two working DNS servers. In the /etc/named. 2004) 13 root servers. Inc. There are (as of September.) They provide update information and synchronize secondary servers when the secondary servers request information. They are authoritative servers for all zones that they serve. it is not frequently done.root file..

q q q Forwarding Servers Forwarding servers are DNS servers intended to act as focal points for all off-site DNS queries. They permit DNS client access to naming information that is locally cached without the expense of setting up a primary or a secondary DNS server. They are authoritative for all of the zones that they serve. with the exception of the loopback address. Caching-only servers have the following features: q They provide a rich cache of the most commonly accessed namespace information.1 . but instead caches responses from other. Sun Services. q Caching-Only Servers All DNS servers cache information for any domain for which they are not authoritative. The server that is used as a forwarder builds up a rich cache of information. If no reply is received from the forwarders. 10-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. the name server resumes normal operations and contacts the remote name servers itself. Caching-only servers are servers that are not authoritative for any zone. which reduces the number of redundant off-site requests. They obtain a copy of the zone information through zone transfers for all domains that they serve from the appropriate primary server or from another secondary server for the zone. that is. Designating a server as a forwarding server causes all off-site requests to consult initially the forwarding server or servers. and to wait for a reply. Forwarding servers have the following features: q q All off-site queries go through forwarders first. They are never authoritative for any domain. All Rights Reserved. name servers. They reduce overhead that is associated with secondary servers that perform zone transfers from primary servers. Off-site queries are queries for remote information. Over time. Inc. the size of the cache grows. authoritative. their answers to queries are considered highly accurate.Introducing DNS Basics Secondary servers have the following features: q q There can be one or more secondary servers per zone.

Introducing DNS Basics q q Special setup on forwarders is not required. Usually correct. q Note – If a name server uses the directive forward only in addition to the forwarders directive.1 10-7 . then the name server may not contact remote name servers on its own. All Rights Reserved. Answers from non-authoritative DNS servers are: q q q Sourced from a server cache Usually correct Can be incorrect if the server’s cache contains stale data Name-Resolution Process DNS name resolution is the process of translating a domain name to an IP address or translating an IP address to a domain name. Revision A. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Because humans administer the DNS. Sun Services. Resolver code is built into the operating system libraries and is available to programs that use system interface calls.conf file on the local servers. Answers from authoritative DNS servers are: q q Sourced from a disk-based file. The local server can still contact the remote site if forwarders fail to respond to queries. it is possible for incorrect data to enter the DNS database. Servers using forwarders are configured by adding a forwarder directive to the /etc/named. Name resolution begins with client-side resolver code. Answer Types Answers that are returned from DNS servers can be described as authoritative or non-authoritative. Inc.

conf file hosts entry q 10-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Introducing DNS Basics Client-resolver code: q q Does not cache any information Queries the DNS servers that are specified in the /etc/resolv. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.conf file Is activated by a reference to DNS in the /etc/nsswitch.1 . Inc.

Revision A. Sun Services. Name Server Figure 10-2 DNS Name Resolution Process Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 10-9 .net.Introducing DNS Basics A DNS client uses the following steps to query a name server to resolve name-to-address or address-to-name requests.internic. Figure 10-2 shows a client attempting to resolve the ftp.conf File Local Name Server 5 6 Cache Local Name Server 7 8 root Name Server Local Name Server 9 10 net. 1 /etc/nsswitch. Inc. Name Server Local Name Server 11 12 internic. All Rights Reserved.conf File 2 /etc/inet/hosts File 3 LDAP Hosts Database 4 /etc/resolv.net name to an IP address.

net... If the address is in the local cache. The client system consults the /etc/nsswitch. Revision A. and then the DNS server. it is returned to the client as a non-authoritative answer. ftp. Inc.. the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server.1 localhost 192..conf file to determine the name resolution order. The client system consults the /etc/resolv. 1. to the LDAP server and finds no address. 10-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. hosts: files ldap dns . The client system sends a query asking for the IP address of the Internet name.0..net. All Rights Reserved.30.internic. 4. the order is the local file.168. The client system resolver routine sends a recursive DNS query asking for the IP address for the Internet name. 5.Introducing DNS Basics The following describes the DNS name-resolution process where the /etc/nsswitch. A recursive query states: “I will wait for the answer. 2. # The /etc/inet/hosts file has the following contents: # cat /etc/inet/hosts # Internet host table 127. The local DNS server consults the contents of its cached information in case this query has been recently resolved. 3.168. The client system consults the local /etc/inet/hosts file and does not find an entry.31 sys11ext 192. 6. to the local DNS server. In this example.conf file to determine the name resolution search list and the address of the DNS servers.conf .conf file has the following contents: # cat /etc/nsswitch.1 sys11 # loghost # router to get to instructor The following steps describe the DNS name-resolution process.” The client waits until the local server completes name resolution.1 .0.internic. Sun Services. and you do all of the work. ftp..1.

10. and the email address of the DNS administrator. 11. An iterative query states: “Send me the best answer you have. The root server returns these names and addresses along with a TTL value that specifies how long the local DNS server can cache this information. the assumption is that the answer is not cached and that a root server must be contacted.net. it contacts one of the root servers and sends an iterative query. along with a TTL value.net domain servers and makes the same query for the IP address for the Internet name. 9.net servers and a TTL value. 12. The net domain server that is contacted returns the best information it has. All Rights Reserved. the general format of any resource record is: [name] [ttl] class type data Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. ftp. An internic. including the server addresses. Revision A.internic. If the local DNS server does not have cached information about the net or internic domains.Introducing DNS Basics 7. cache time-out values. which are the names and addresses of the internic. Inc. and its contact information.internic. A resource record can contain information that pertains to a particular domain.net.1 10-11 . Resource records can also include information about a particular system including its IP address. Resource Records Resource records are entries contained in the name server zone files and are not case sensitive. The local DNS server contacts one of the internic. The local DNS server returns the requested address to the client system. Although each type of resource record has specific syntax. The root server returns the best information it has.net server returns the IP addresses of the Internet name.” In this example. Sun Services. and the client can proceed. its domain name. In this case. and I will do all of the work. 8. the only information you are guaranteed is that the root server has the names and addresses of all the net domain servers. The local DNS server contacts one of the net domain servers returned from the previous query and transmits the same iterative query that was previously sent to a root server. ftp.

Table 10-2 Resource Record Fields Field name Description Specifies the domain name for which the resource record is defining information. The sys12. Defines the appropriate data for this resource record and depends on the record type specified in field 4. which represents one day in seconds. this record also defines the possible key values that are used in DNS queries.edu names are examples of domain names. Record Types DNS zone files can contain blank lines and comments. Specifies the type of network. and an email address.Introducing DNS Basics Resource records have the fields shown in Table 10-2. Specifies the cache TTL value that is given to remote DNS servers when they query the information specified by this record. an IP address. which can also be expressed as 1d. Comments begin with a semicolon. Table 10-3 on page 10-13 shows commonly used resource record types. Because DNS is a distributed database. 10-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one.edu and one. Examples of a record type with multiple arguments include a host name. and other record types specify multiple arguments in this field. This value is expressed in seconds. and so on. ttl class type data Depending on the record type and other shortcuts being taken. Specifies the type of information that is defined for the domain in field 1. days. not all of the fields are always required. The examples in this module only use the IN or Internet class. hours. Revision A. the type field. Some record types specify a single argument in this field. An example is 86400. Inc. Sun Services.1 . All Rights Reserved.

retry (1hr. refresh (3hrs.) 3600 . version number 10800 .thirty. 192. IN SOA instructor. ( 20040923 . and default cache TTL values for all resource records in the domain.edu. Revision A. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one.edu. The address (A) record specifies an IP address for a host name.1 10-13 .edu. SOA NS A PTR CNAME AAAA Following are examples of resource record types: q The SOA resource record type: $TTL 8h . kept for 1 hour q The NS resource record type: IN NS A sys12. The canonical name (CNAME) record defines a host name alias (www can substitute for a specific host name).Introducing DNS Basics Table 10-3 shows examples of record types and their purposes. The quad-A (AAAA) record specifies an IPv6 address for a host name. All Rights Reserved. contact information.one.instructor.168. negative caching info. The start of authority (SOA) record identifies the primary name server. expire (8days) 3600 ) . root.edu.thirty. Inc. The pointer (PTR) record specifies a host name for an IP address (used for inverse lookups and IP address-to-host names).edu. Sun Services.) 691200 .1. The name server (NS) record specifies the name server for a domain. Table 10-3 Examples of Resource Record Types Record Type $TTL Purpose The $TTL record identifies the cache TTL value that remote DNS servers receive when they query the information specified by this record.2 The A resource record type: IN one. q sys12.

was not available for use until BIND 8.168.Introducing DNS Basics q The PTR resource record type: IN PTR CNAME sys12. 10-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one. The CNAME resource record type: IN 2.2. All Rights Reserved.one.1 .edu. The $TTL directive identifies the cache TTL value that remote DNS servers receive when they query the information specified by this directive. Inc.x versions.edu.192 q www. Sun Services. This directive. sys12.1. or control statement. Revision A.edu.one.

Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This information consists of name-to-address translations. The information required to resolve all domains for which the server is authoritative. supply the server with the following types of information: q q The names and addresses of root servers. Revision A.1 10-15 . All Rights Reserved. will have a dependency on the DNS client service to ensure that the system is a DNS client. The named daemon is started at boot time only if the /etc/named. Gathering Information When you configure a DNS server. Inc. Sun Services. This daemon provides a service in the SMF. Other services used for managing application and daemons that require DNS.conf file. but when enabled. such as LDAP. checks that the system is configured as a DNS client with an /etc/resolv.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring a DNS Server The DNS server daemon is the /usr/sbin/named process.conf file exists and the appropriate SMF service is enabled. The following svcs command is used to determine the status of the DNS-related services: # svcs -a | grep dns disabled Oct_22 disabled Oct_22 svc:/network/dns/client:default svc:/network/dns/server:default The following svcadm commands enable the DNS naming service and the default client service: # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 23:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default online 23:08:27 svc:/network/dns/server:default Note – The DNS client service will not start any new processes.

boot file can be converted to a named. they can contain a block of statements enclosed within curly braces ({}). A BIND version 4.conf file contains statements that: q q Indicate the location of the file that includes the root servers Establish the server as a primary.Configuring a DNS Server q The information needed to resolve all reverse domains for which the server is authoritative. This information consists of address-to-name translations.conf file when the daemon is started by the SMF. Statements end with a semicolon (. and can extend to the end of the line.x named. can follow either # or //. Revision A.conf file by running the /usr/sbin/named-bootconf script.).conf file contains statements and can contain comments. This information is sometimes referred to as parenting or delegating. Comments can start with /* and end with */. a secondary.x and earlier. The /etc/named. and each statement in the block is terminated with a semicolon (.9.conf. All Rights Reserved.x and later versions use a new configuration file. q Editing the BIND Configuration File BIND version 8.9. 10-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.x. Inc.1 . or a caching-only server Specify the server’s zones of authority Indicate the location of the server’s data files Apply security selectively for specific zones Define logging specifications Apply options selectively for a set of zones q q q q q The named daemon reads the /etc/named.boot file used in versions 4. /etc/named. The configuration file directs the named daemon either to other servers or to local data files for a specified domain. Sun Services. The names and addresses of servers for all domains that are one level below the domains being served by this server. The /etc/named. that replaced the /etc/named.).

conf statements and their definitions.Configuring a DNS Server Table 10-4 shows /etc/named. The named IP address match list must be defined by an acl statement before it can be used elsewhere. It applies options selectively on a per-zone basis. rather than to all zones. Controls global server configuration options. and sets default values for other statements. Defines a zone. Sun Services. options zone Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The address match list designates one or more IP addresses or IP prefixes. Revision A. Table 10-4 Statement Definitions for the /etc/named. All Rights Reserved.conf File Statement acl Definition Defines a named IP address match list used for access control. Inc. No forward references are permitted.1 10-17 .

0. file "reverse.0/24. file "loop. zone "1.back". acl "nets"{ {192.}.1 . Revision A.in-addr. }. allow-transfer {"nets".rzone". }. }.conf file. /etc/named.192." in { type hint. Sun Services.168. file "named.root forward. file "forward.168.in-addr. }.arpa" in { type master. }. }. zone ".edu" in { type master. Inc.1.root". zone "0. /* This is a comment */ // This is a comment # This is a comment /var/named named. All Rights Reserved.arpa" in { type master.rzone loop.Configuring a DNS Server Figure 10-3 shows the contents of the /etc/named.conf options { DIRECTORY "/var/named".back Figure 10-3 The /etc/named.zone reverse.127.}.zone".conf File 10-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. zone "one.

NET.ROOT-SERVERS.0. C.NET.41. operated by WIDE .EDU .9.NET.ROOT-SERVERS. End of File Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.root file specifies name-to-address mappings for the root servers. The name daemon uses this list that is returned from the root server and does not use the servers that are specified in the hints file again until the TTL value expires on the cached root-server information.NET.NET. The responding root server returns a list of root servers.33. 3600000 IN NS B.12 < Part of file truncated> .1 10-19 .Configuring a DNS Server Editing the named.ISI.12.NET. formerly NS. 3600000 A 198. formerly NS1.internic.NET. 3600000 A 128. . M. A. All Rights Reserved.0. . The information in this file is described as hints to the named daemon because the daemon attempts to contact one of the root servers listed until one of the servers responds. housed in Japan. .ROOT-SERVERS.ROOT-SERVERS. . Revision A. 3600000 A 202.root file available at the ftp://ftp. The following is a modified (the IN entries for servers D–L have been removed in order to conserve space on this page) excerpt taken from the named.107 .rs. . B.NET .ROOT-SERVERS.4 . Accordingly. formerly C.ROOT-SERVERS. Inc.INTERNIC.net/ domain/named.4. 3600000 A 192. 3600000 IN NS A. 3600000 IN NS M.ROOT-SERVERS. it is not imperative that this file be precisely up-to-date.PSI.NET.33 . but it should be checked every few months because root servers change from time to time.NET .ROOT-SERVERS.root File The /var/named/named. 3600000 IN NS C. .27. Sun Services.root URL: .

Note the trailing dot associated with this field. the fourth data field contains the IP address of the root server that is specified in the first field. This field is historic and is not used in this file. Revision A. Sun Services. as appropriate. The record type. q q q In the second record: q The first (domain) field contains the FQDN of the root server that is defined in the previous record. contains an IP address. The NS record type indicates that a name server is being defined for the root domain. The TTL field is 3600000 seconds. This field is historic and is not used in this file. The TTL field is 3600000 seconds. 10-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.) in the first field denotes the root domain. For A records. A. All Rights Reserved.1 . q q q The NS and A records combine to define the name and address of a single root server. This file specifies additional pairs of records. The IN class stands for Internet. Inc. The fifth field of the first record (the data field) is the FQDN of a root server.Configuring a DNS Server In the first record: q q The dot (.

1 . root.one.one. See Figure 10-3 on page 10-18 for more information on this example. .0.sys12.edu.1.4 localhost IN A 127.{name} {ttl} Class CNAME Canonical Name .edu.0.edu. .Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Forward Domain File The forward domain file (db.2 sys13 IN A 192.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .------------------------------------------------sys11 IN A 192.one.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .168.1. this file must specify an SOA record and NS records for all name servers for this domain. Minimum (24 Hours) . . Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. In addition.edu.one.1. Sun Services. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .168.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address .1 sys12 IN A 192.1 10-21 .------------------------------------------------------router IN CNAME sys11 dns IN CNAME sys12 The $TTL directive sets the default time to live for the zone’s information to eight hours. Revision A. ( 2005010101 . IN NS sys13.168. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) .3 sys14 IN A 192.1. . $TTL 86400 .edu.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. Inc. in this example) contains the mappings of host names to IP addresses for all systems in the domain that are being served by this name server.one. Serial 3600 . All Rights Reserved.

Inc. q q q q q q q You should define an NS record for all name servers in this domain that you want to be recognized by DNS servers. The @ also defines the default origin that determines the domain appended to any partially qualified domain name in the configuration file’s resource records.Configuring a DNS Server The SOA record is mandatory and has the following items: q An at sign (@) in the name field – This is a shortcut for the domain that is being served (one.1 .sys12. if it has.one. This timer is usually set to a smaller value than the refresh timer. Any time you make changes to this file. in seconds. Data field argument 6 – The expire timer is the time interval in seconds after which. Data field argument 7 – The negative caching timer (Minimum) is the default value of time that the server keeps negative responses from other authoritative servers.) – This is the name of the primary master server for this domain in FQDN format. after which the secondary servers check back if a normal refresh failed. Data field argument 1 (sys12. Data field argument 4 – The refresh timer is the time interval. Data field argument 2 (root. remember to update this number in such a way that it gets larger.edu. in this case). in the format of DNS_admin_name. The actual value for the @ comes from the second field of the appropriate record in the named. Revision A. the entire zone data should be discarded. Note that the @ is replaced with a dot in the SOA record because the @ has special meaning in this file. 10-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu. if a secondary server cannot contact the primary server or another secondary server. in seconds.edu) – This is an email address. a zone transfer needs to occur. as shown in this example. The administrator is usually the root user. This prevents the secondary servers that have lost contact with the rest of the name servers from continuing to give out potentially stale information. Sun Services. Data field argument 3 – This is the version (Serial) number that the secondary slave servers use to determine if they need to perform a zone transfer to get a fresh copy of zone data.one. after which the secondary servers should check to determine if the serial number has changed.domain_name. It is always safe to start at 1 and add 1 with each change. or to use today’s date. Data field argument 5 – The retry timer is the time interval.conf file that references this file. All Rights Reserved. that you can use to report problems with the domain. and.

The CNAME record defines host aliases. Most of the host names are not fully qualified. This shorthand method can save typing and improve the readability and maintainability of the file.168. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 10-23 . All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services. or nicknames for hosts.1. The names that are not fully qualified have the domain name origin (the value of the @ in the SOA record by default) appended to them. Revision A. The CNAME record in this instance is similar to the following entry in a /etc/inet/hosts file: 192.1 sys11 router The localhost entry specifies the loopback address for all hosts.Configuring a DNS Server Most of the remaining resource records are address records for each system in the domain.

Observe the following about this file: q The @ (at the top of this resource record) in this example refers to the 1. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Reverse Domain File Reverse domain files (db. 4 IN PTR sys14.192. q 10-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one.edu. in this example) contain mappings for address-to-name translation.edu. Because these resource records do not end with a . root. Serial 3600 . (dot).-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR sys11.edu. The domain field in the PTR record contains the host portion of the IP address. web servers. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name . . and sendmail. IN NS sys13. .one. .one.edu. $TTL 86400 . Minimum (24 Hours) . 3 IN PTR sys13.in-addr.edu. ( 2005010101 . the value of the @ is appended to each record.in-addr.192. Address-to-name translation is important and is used by various utilities.arpa. BIND.arpa. This completes the reverse address-to-name mapping.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.edu.168.sys12.one. . The address-to-name mappings are defined with the PTR record type.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . The argument field of the PTR record should contain the FQDN of the name of the system at which the record points. reverse domain.one.1. The following is an example of a reverse domain file: . as indicated in the /etc/named.one.168.conf file in which this reverse file is referenced. such as NFS. Information for the "reverse" domain 1.192.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.one.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .edu. Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 IN PTR sys12.168. Sun Services.edu. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . Revision A.one.1 .

Sun Services. Revision A. Here is an example (db.arpa. . ( 2005010101 .edu. Observe the following about this file: q You can use the @ when the domain name is the same as the origin. Use all other lines as shown in this example.one. in this example. Serial 3600 .edu. . root.1 10-25 . IN NS sys13.{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name .in-addr. Every name server is the master for its own loopback address.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .edu.one. with the exception that the server name changes depending upon on which server the file is installed.127. Minimum (24 Hours) .-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.one. .0.one. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 . Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 . This file is required on all DNS servers. 127. The only items that you change from domain to domain in the SOA record are the host name (first) argument and the email address used to report problems. You must specify the name of the system being configured on the NS line.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . q q q Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.sys12.edu.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12. All Rights Reserved.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR localhost. Inc. The contents are hard-coded.Configuring a DNS Server Editing the Reverse Loopback Domain File Reverse loopback domain files specify the reverse loopback domain address-to-name translation.0) of a reverse loopback domain file: $TTL 86400 . .

168.1.0. }.1. Revision A. allow-update { 127. Inc.168. allow-update { 127.in-addr. edit the /etc/named.0. 192. and add allow-update statements to both the forward and reverse zones.0.edu". To configure a server to permit dynamic updates to occur. file "db.168. 192. 2.168.1". Restart the named process by using the svcadm commands.0. complete the following steps: 1. For example: # svcadm restart svc:/network/dns/server:default # or # svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default 10-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf file. All Rights Reserved. This enables nomadic DHCP users to have access to systems and services without manual administration. For example: zone "one. }.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Dynamic Updates Dynamic updates cause a DNS server to be updated automatically with DHCP host information from a DHCP server. }.192.2. zone "1.2. }.edu" in { type master.one.192.arpa" in { type master. file "db.1 .1.1. Sun Services. Log in as root on the DNS primary server.

}.x. Beginning with BIND version 8.168. only subnet 192. The IP address list determines which systems receive responses from the server.3/24. The allow-query statement enables you to establish an IP address-based access list for queries. All Rights Reserved. Inc. servers respond to any query or request for a zone transfer. For example: options { allow-query { 192.conf configuration file. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. }.3. }. You can restrict queries to all zones by using the allow-query keyword as an argument to the options statement for the zone. }.zone".168.0 has access to the resource records for this zone.168. You can apply this access list to a specific zone or to all queries that are received by the server. 192. security features are implemented through the /etc/named. Two important security considerations are the control of name queries and the control of zone transfers.168.x. allow-query { 192.xxx receive responses from the name server.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Security Because of the nature of the Internet. For example: zone "one.edu" in { type master. DNS can be vulnerable to unauthorized access.1/24. In this case.1. You can modify this behavior by using the allow-query and allow-transfer keywords.1 10-27 .168. By default. In this case.3. You can restrict queries for a specific zone by using the allow-query keyword as an argument to the zone statement. file "forward.xxx and 192. only systems with the IP addresses 192. Sun Services.168. Revision A.3/24.

The allow-transfer keyword can also be applied to a specific zone. For example: acl "local" { 192. }. }. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.0/24.3/32.168. allow-query { "local".1 .0/24.168.0/24.edu" in { type master.168. }. allow-transfer { "local". Revision A. For example: options { allow-transfer { 192.Configuring a DNS Server In the same manner. 10-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. the allow-transfer keyword can limit which systems may receive a zone transfer from a name server. Another feature that often is associated with restricting queries and transfers is access control lists (ACLs). The list of IP addresses used in the previous examples could be replaced by an ACL. You can configure ACLs by using the acl keyword to build an ACL list that can be used as an argument to the allow-query and allow-transfer keywords. }. }.2.168. 192.1. You can restrict zone transfers from a name server by using allow-transfer in the options statement. }.3. Inc. if you want. 192. zone "one.

slave".slave".one.conf file for a secondary server is: options { directory "/var/named". Sun Services. Revision A.127.1.1.slave".127. and the slave keyword denotes a secondary server for a domain when used as arguments to the type directive. masters { 192.root". }.conf file must contain keywords that are appropriate to both functions. }. Inc. file "db. zone "1.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring Secondary DNS Servers The contents of the /etc/named.168.1.168. All Rights Reserved. zone "one. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu" { type slave.2.in-addr.2.1 10-29 .192." { type hint. An example of an /etc/named. }.arpa" in { type slave.192. the /etc/named. The master keyword denotes a primary server for a domain.168. }. zone "0. masters { 192.0.2. file "db.168. }.arpa" { type slave.edu. masters { 192.168. file "db.in-addr. }. zone ". If a server is to act as both a primary server for some domains and a secondary server for other domains. }. }. file "db.0.1.conf file on the secondary DNS server can be less complex than that of the primary server.0.

q q q Secondary servers start the named daemon during the boot process if the /etc/named. except that the secondary name server is always listed as the primary for the loopback address. Secondary servers are configured with and use the same syntax for a reverse loopback domain file as the primary name server uses. The daemon is started by SMF. 10-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.rbackup files and their contents are created automatically by the secondary server’s named daemon after the primary name server is contacted successfully. Up to 10 IP addresses can be listed.1 . The server or servers listed can be the primary server or secondary servers. The IP address from which the secondary server should download its zone files is listed following the masters keyword. Inc.conf file exists.backup and reverse. Sun Services. The reverse.Configuring a DNS Server Observe the following about this file: q Secondary servers are configured with and use the same root server hints file as the primary name server. All Rights Reserved.

1 dns_master_load: db.edu zone in the db.edu db.192.edu db.conf:32: unknown option ’zonee’ Missing required keywords are reported: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named. All Rights Reserved.edu db. Inc.168.192.1: unknown class/type Missing NS records are reported: sys12# named-checkzone one. These commands report syntax errors.conf:32: missing ’. Revision A. Sun Services. A clean one.conf file.conf and database files.’ before ’zone’ Misspelled keywords are exposed: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named.168.168.edu’: type not present The named-checkzone command is used to check the any of the zone files.1 10-31 .192. The named-checkconf command is used to check the /etc/named.168.192.168.Configuring a DNS Server Checking Configuration and Database Files The named-checkconf and named-checkzone commands can be used to check the integrity of the named.edu/IN: loaded serial 2005010101 OK Typographical errors in the SOA record are detected: sys12# named-checkzone one.168.1 file is reported: # named-checkzone one.conf:38: zone ’one.1 zone one.1 zone one. Missing punctuation can be detected: sys12# named-checkconf /etc/named.192.1:10: unknown RR type 'SA0' zone one.edu/IN: loading master file db.192.edu/IN: has no NS records Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Starting the Client Service The following svcadm command enables the DNS default client service: # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 23:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default 10-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Modify the /etc/nsswitch. The following example shows a hosts entry configured for DNS: hosts: files dns The /etc/resolv. resolv. Note that the DNS server must also be configured as a DNS client if it intends to use its own DNS services.1 . In general.conf file specifies the resolver library routines to be used for resolving host names and addresses. and the search path to use for queries.conf file does not exists. Sun Services. The nameserver keyword specifies the IP address of the DNS servers to query. Revision A.conf files. The first domain listed following the search keyword designates the client’s domain.Configuring a DNS Server Configuring DNS Clients All DNS clients require the presence of the /etc/nsswitch. You can use up to three nameserver keywords to increase your chances of finding a responsive server.1. make sure that the files keyword is listed first. then the last one in the file is used and the other one(s) are ignored. The /etc/nsswitch. Do not specify host names.edu two. Inc. To ensure proper network interface configuration during the boot process.conf file for DNS clients of the one. the client’s domain name. The client attempts to use the loopback address if there is no nameserver keyword or if the /etc/resolv.edu three.3 Observe that the search keyword specifies domain names to append to queries that were not specified in the FQDN format.168. .2 nameserver 192. list the name servers that are nearer to the local network first.edu domain search one.conf file specifies the name servers that the client must use.edu nameserver 192.conf and /etc/resolv.168.conf file by editing the hosts entry and adding the dns keyword.1. If both "domain" and "search" keywords are present. All Rights Reserved.

Inc. Test representative samples. print-time yes. Sun Services.1 10-33 . Implementing named Logging Use logging (named. Logging starts as soon as the logging statement in the /etc/named. and test several servers in other domains to ensure that you have correctly identified the root servers. }. A logging channel controls the destination of the logged data. Revision A. }. category queries { logfile. you cannot test every record in your domain files. category default { default_syslog. All Rights Reserved. Add the following to the top of the primary DNS system's /etc/named.conf(4)) to cause the named process to write to a log file that you specify. print-category yes. }. severity debug 9.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Usually. print-severity yes.conf file is parsed.conf file and restart the named daemon: logging { channel logfile { file "/var/named/bind-log". }. logfile. so the logging statement should be the first entry in that file. Following is a description of each of the example entries: q q q /var/named/bind-log – File to hold logged data print-time yes – Print time of the event severity debug 9 – Debug output of level 9 and below to be logged print-category yes – Log category information print-severity yes – Log severity information q q Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

1#32811: using view '_default' Jan 12 16:02:19.924 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32810: senddone Jan 12 16:02:19.919 client: debug 3: client 192.1.1#32810: query Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32810: endrequest Jan 12 16:02:19.168.168.1.1.1.192.1 .edu/IN' approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.168.168.168.168. Sun Services.1.1.1#32810: recursion available: approved Jan 12 16:02:19.918 security: debug 3: client 192.168.1#32810: next Jan 12 16:02:19.168.1#32811: send Jan 12 16:02:19.168.1.1#32811: senddone Jan 12 16:02:19.edu IN A Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32810: query 'one. Inc.1.919 client: debug 3: client 192.923 client: debug 3: client 192.1.1.inaddr.168.924 security: debug 3: client 192.1.1.918 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: v6 synthesis denied Jan 12 16:02:19.168.918 queries: info: client 192.1#32810: query: one.925 client: debug 3: client @94f88: udprecv 10-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.168.919 client: debug 3: client 192.1.1.925 client: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: query '4.168.1.1.918 client: debug 3: client 192.inaddr.168.919 client: debug 3: client 192.918 client: debug 3: client 192.168.168.925 client: debug 3: client 192.168.168.1#32811: UDP request Jan 12 16:02:19. All Rights Reserved.1#32811: endrequest Jan 12 16:02:19.918 client: debug 5: client 192.1.1#32810: send Jan 12 16:02:19. } – Log to syslog and logfile category queries { logfile.168.1#32811: recursion available: approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.924 security: debug 9: client 192.924 client: debug 3: client 192.1. } – Log queries q Following is an example of logged information during query using the dig command: sys12# tail -f /var/named/bind-log Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32810: sendto Jan 12 16:02:19. Revision A.924 client: debug 5: client 192.168.168.1#32811: query: 4.192.1#32811: query Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32811: request is not signed Jan 12 16:02:19.1#32810: using view '_default' Jan 12 16:02:19.1.925 client: debug 3: client 192.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities The category section describes how the channel information is used.1#32811: sendto Jan 12 16:02:19.1.924 client: debug 3: client 192.168.1.924 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32811: next Jan 12 16:02:19.arpa IN PTR Jan 12 16:02:19.1.1.1#32810: UDP request Jan 12 16:02:19.1.924 queries: info: client 192.924 client: debug 3: client 192. logfile. Following is a description of each of the example entries: q category default { default_syslog.168.168.arpa/IN' approved Jan 12 16:02:19.1.168.918 security: debug 3: client 192.1#32810: request is not signed Jan 12 16:02:19.168.920 client: debug 3: client @94f88: udprecv Jan 12 16:02:19.919 client: debug 3: client 192.

Sun Services.4 Jan 11 12:04:32 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.arpa/IN: loading master file one.in-addr. the following highlighted entry shows that zone files without TTLs are now rejected: Jan 11 12:04:31 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.168. Inc. The contents of this file often show where configuration errors were made.rzone: file not found Jan 11 12:04:35 sys12 named[634]: [ID 873579 daemon.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Examining the/var/adm/messages File The named daemon sends messages to the syslogd daemon by using the daemon facility. For example.notice] starting BIND 9. All Rights Reserved.2.192.1 10-35 .warning] named.notice] couldn't add command channel ::1#953: address not available Jan 11 12:04:33 sys12 named[669]: [ID 873579 daemon.error] zone 1. Messages that are sent with level notice or higher are written to the /var/adm/messages file by default.crit] exiting (due to fatal error) Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. zone rejected Jan 11 12:04:33 sys12 named[669]: [ID 873579 daemon. Revision A.root:5: no TTL specified.

edu . the primary test tool bundled with BIND was the nslookup utility..1 . All Rights Reserved.one.1. the nslookup utility is included. ->>HEADER<<. Sun Services.sys12.168.2..edu. As of the Solaris 9 OS.4 <<>> @192.168.168.one.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:56:12 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .edu.edu. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.. <<>> DiG 9. . 86400 IN SOA sys12.one. In the Solaris 10 OS. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . id: 1440 10-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Got answer: . QUERY: 1...1..one.. Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192..Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Using the dig Utility Before the Solaris 9 OS.. Revision A.edu sys11.edu sys11. ->>HEADER<<.opcode: QUERY.1. flags: qr aa rd ra..opcode: QUERY. QUESTION SECTION: . Got answer: .2#53(192. but is marked as obsolete with a notification that it might be removed in a future release. AUTHORITY: 1.1.168.2 one. global options: printcmd . status: NOERROR...edu.edu . The dig utility is now preferred and does the following: q Sends queries and displays replies for any of the valid resource record types Queries the DNS server of your choice Debugs almost any domain that is not protected by a firewall q q Executing Forward Queries The syntax used for forward queries is as follows: dig @DNS_server domain_name system_name A typical debug query testing forward resolution might look like the following: # dig @192. the domain information groper (dig) utility was also bundled with the Solaris OS. .one. .2 one. ANSWER: 0. IN A . Inc. status: NOERROR. ADDITIONAL: 0 . id: 1334 . root.

1 . .edu.168.. IN A 86400 IN A 192. QUERY: 1..one.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities . QUESTION SECTION: .168.one.3 Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192. An answer number (on the flags line) greater than zero usually indicates success. AUTHORITY: 2. Sun Services. .1. AUTHORITY SECTION: IN A Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168..168.edu. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12. Revision A.. QUESTION SECTION: . ADDITIONAL: 2 .2#53(192.1. one. id: 1881 .edu.168.one.168..sys11.1 . QUERY: 1.1.168. status: NOERROR.edu.168.. global options: printcmd . All Rights Reserved.4 <<>> @192.168. ANSWER: 0.2. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192. <<>> DiG 9. flags: qr aa rd ra.edu.1 10-37 . Executing Reverse Queries The syntax used for reverse queries is as follows: dig @DNS_server domain_name -x IP_address A typical debug query testing reverse resolution might look like the following: # dig @192.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:56:12 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 119 The ANSWER SECTION lists the answer retrieved from the DNS server..1.one. ->>HEADER<<. .. ..edu.1.edu. . ANSWER SECTION: sys11.1.1.2 192.2 one. AUTHORITY: 1..edu.edu -x 192.. flags: qr aa rd ra. .opcode: QUERY.edu -x 192.1. sys13..one.one. Inc. Got answer: ..1 86400 86400 IN IN NS NS sys12.1. .2 one. sys13.one.. ANSWER: 1. .. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.edu. ADDITIONAL: 0 .

168. 86400 . PTR sys11..edu.. .one.edu.168. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12.2#53(192.168. .2#53(192.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities one.1. .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:55:11 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 10-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.opcode: QUERY. ANSWER: 1. IN IN NS NS sys13.one.edu. 86400 IN .arpa.1.192.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 16:55:11 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .2 192. Sun Services.1.1. Got answer: . All Rights Reserved.one. .168.in-addr. QUESTION SECTION: .1.in-addr.168. flags: qr aa rd ra. 86400 1. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192.one. IN PTR . AUTHORITY SECTION: 1.1.one.arpa.168.168.sys12. ADDITIONAL: 2 .in-addr..arpa.edu.1. .3 Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192.. ->>HEADER<<... ANSWER SECTION: 1. AUTHORITY: 2. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . status: NOERROR. id: 1932 ..in-addr. Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192..168.192...1.192.edu.edu.. Inc.. .arpa.1.edu..168. Revision A.168. sys13. 86400 IN SOA sys12.one.1 . sys12. root. .edu.192.one... QUERY: 1.

Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Dumping a Snapshot of the DNS Database by Using the rndc Utility The remote name daemon controller command. [class [view]] Schedule immediate maintenance for a zone. is used to dump the currently cached contents of the server. For example: sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Reload configuration file and new zones only. * == not yet implemented Version: 9. Flushes all of the server's caches. Write server statistics to the statistics file. Change the debugging level.db). Stop the server without saving pending updates.2. Dump cache(s) to the dump file (named_dump. Save pending updates to master files and stop the server.1 10-39 . Restart the server. [class [view]] Reload a single zone.4 Clearing the Cache Clear the server’s cached data by restarting the named daemon. sys12# rndc dumpdb All of the options for the rndc utility are listed when it is invoked without any as follows: # rndc Usage: rndc [-c config] [-s server] [-p port] [-k key-file ] [-y key] [-V] command command is one of the following: reload reload zone refresh zone reconfig stats querylog dumpdb stop halt trace trace level notrace flush flush [view] status *restart Reload configuration file and zones. Toggle query logging. Display status of the server. Increment debugging level by one. rndc. Flushes the server's cache for a view. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Set debugging level to 0.

1.opcode: QUERY.1.one. .1 . 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . AUTHORITY: 1. Revision A.. Query time: 2 msec SERVER: 192. root.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 06:59:29 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 10-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. QUERY: 1.. flags: qr aa rd ra. The following example shows an improper use of the dig command attempting a reverse query: sys13# dig @192. <<>> DiG 9. ->>HEADER<<. ADDITIONAL: 0 . global options: printcmd .168. ..1.edu.4 <<>> @192.1 .one.one. IN A . .. status: NOERROR. Cache dump of view '_default' .edu 192.168.2 one..168. id: 1328 .1..168.2.db .2#53(192. $DATE 20050112135516 Dump Examples Examining dumped caches is often a very productive way to troubleshoot errors.edu.edu. ANSWER: 0. .168..sys12.1..edu 192.1 ..2 one. QUESTION SECTION: .Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities online 5:09:25 svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcs -a | grep dns disabled 6:54:30 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 5:09:02 svc:/network/dns/client:default online 6:54:45 svc:/network/dns/server:default Verify that the cache has been cleared using the rndc command: sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump. Inc.edu. All Rights Reserved. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.1.. 86400 IN SOA sys12. Got answer: . Sun Services.

.edu.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 06:59:29 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 90 The highlighted entries shown above indicate an unsuccessful reverse resolution request.thirty.1 . Sun Services. flags: qr rd ra. The following example shows a successful reverse query: sys13# dig @192. .instructor.1. needed for reverse queries)..168.1.1 10-41 . 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . global options: printcmd Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.4 <<>> @192. ADDITIONAL: 0 .. additional instructor.168.edu. sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.. .30. QUERY: 1. Dumping the cached data provides insights.1.. QUESTION SECTION: . All Rights Reserved.1 .thirty.2#53(192. ->>HEADER<<. <<>> DiG 9.2 two.. $DATE 20050112135930 .30 The NXDOMAIN in the dumped data indicates that a non existent (NX) domain was requested.edu. 86381 A sys12# instructor..2.2.thirty.168. Query time: 4 msec SERVER: 192. Cache dump of view '_default' . IN A . .168.-$NXDOMAIN 192.1. authanswer . . root. Inc. Revision A..168.edu -x 192.168.2. AUTHORITY SECTION: .168.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities . id: 1204 .edu -x 192. Got answer: . 86381 IN NS .1.opcode: QUERY.168..1.192. status: NXDOMAIN. 10781 \-ANY . the IP address was mistaken for a domain. 10800 IN SOA instructor.1. Because the incorrect syntax was used (missing -x option.thirty.db . authauthority 192.edu. ANSWER: 0. .. AUTHORITY: 1.2 two.1.

status: NOERROR.2. QUESTION SECTION: .Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities . sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.edu. AUTHORITY: 2.. Revision A..in-addr. id: 1174 . PTR sys21.two.edu. root. ADDITIONAL: 0 . 86400 IN ......192.edu.edu. .. Got answer: . QUESTION SECTION: .edu.in-addr. IN A . status: NOERROR.arpa. .arpa.2#53(192..in-addr..two. QUERY: 1..192. Query time: 11 msec SERVER: 192. IN PTR . AUTHORITY: 1. sys22.two. Got answer: . flags: qr rd ra. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .1.arpa. 10800 IN SOA sys22.168. .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:07:30 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 109 The first highlighted QUESTION section indicates that the query is requesting data that is not locally authoritative.two..168.edu.sys22.192.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:07:30 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 . A forwarding of the request is required for information about the two.opcode: QUERY. . ANSWER: 0.two. id: 1982 . Examining the cached data details the resolution process.. Query time: 6 msec SERVER: 192.arpa. ->>HEADER<<..2.db .in-addr...168.1. QUERY: 1.1. .2.edu. ..168.two.. The second highlighted QUESTION and ANSWER sections are for the specified request for information about the 192. Sun Services.168. 86400 2. 10-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu domain. ANSWER: 1.1. AUTHORITY SECTION: 2. ->>HEADER<<.168.168. 86400 . flags: qr rd ra. ADDITIONAL: 0 . Inc.2#53(192.1 address.192. AUTHORITY SECTION: two.168.. All Rights Reserved. ANSWER SECTION: 1. IN IN NS NS sys23.168.1.1 .opcode: QUERY.

86353 86353 .edu. 86353 .168.2. $DATE 20050112150759 . glue sys23.edu.168.thirty.two. 86353 . sys21.edu.2.1 10-43 .192. 86353 .edu. Inc.thirty.arpa.in-addr.arpa. sys23.168.arpa zone (sys22. Sun Services. authauthority 2.2.edu. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30. sys22. 86353 86353 .in-addr. additional instructor. authauthority 10753 .-$NXRRSET 192.edu. The last highlighted entry shows the pointer information cached for the requested IP address.edu.168.edu. 86353 IN NS NS NS PTR A NS NS \-A A A instructor. 192. sys23. authanswer .two.two.edu. glue two.two. Revision A. 86353 .two. All Rights Reserved.168.two.edu. glue sys22.two. . authanswer 1.two.2 192.3 The first three entries in the cached data show the resolution process.in-addr.168.edu. Cache dump of view '_default' .30 sys22. The first highlight entry shows the forwarding of the request to the instructor.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities .thirty.192. The second highlighted entry shows that server supplying the and of the authoritative server for the 2.edu).192.

3 Forcing the named Daemon to Reread the Configuration and Changed Zone Files You can use the rndc utility with the reconfig command to cause the named process to reload its configuration file and implement any changes to the zone files as follows: sys12# rndc reconfig 10-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys23. 86357 NS 86357 NS .1.1 192.2. . Sun Services.168. 86357 IN NS .edu.-$NXRRSET 192.two.two. Inc. authauthority 10757 \-A .edu.168. $DATE 20050112151434 .Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities This next example cache dump shows a similar resolution for a forward query: sys13# dig @192.edu sys21.168. 86357 A . authanswer .db .edu.2. 192. 86357 A . . additional instructor.2 two.two.30.1 . Cache dump of view '_default' . glue sys22.168.edu.edu. 86357 A instructor.two.two. All Rights Reserved. authauthority two. glue sys23.two.168.thirty.edu.edu. Revision A.2 192.30 sys22. authanswer sys21.thirty.edu. 86357 A .2.edu <dig output omitted> sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.

A significant difference between ndc in BIND 8 and rndc in BIND 9 is that rndc uses its own configuration file.conf file has an entry for a rndc-key.conf file.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Managing a DNS Server by Using the rndc Utility Administrators use the remote name daemon control program (rndc) to control the operation of a name server.conf. Securing Control Sessions The rndc utility supports security using key-based authentication.conf key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5. the rndc utility replaces the ndc utility as the name daemon control application. rndc. All Rights Reserved.1 10-45 . secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".1#953 Jan 12 08:22:12 sys12 named[1346]: [ID 873579 daemon. Without a rndc-key reference in the /etc/named. configuring and using secret keys.0.conf file in place if the named. Name servers have always been controlled by administrators sending signals. The rndc.conf and /etc/named. You need only a rndc. such as SIGHUP and SIGINT. As of the Solaris 10 OS.conf file specifies which server controls and algorithm the server should use. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the rndc-confgen utility to generate the proper contents for the rndc. Implementing this security requires an rndc-key reference entry in the /etc/name.0. Remote clients are authorized specifically to control the daemon by establishing. albeit in a non-secure manner. Inc. sys12# /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen # Start of rndc. Sun Services.notice] command channel listening on 127. and it can be used both interactively and non-interactively. }.conf file and the appropriate key information in the rndc. options { default-key "rndc-key". Revision A. the following messages appear in the /var/adm/messages file: Jan 12 08:22:12 sys12 named[1346]: [ID 873579 daemon. The rndc utility provides a finer granularity of control.notice] couldn't add command channel ::1#953: address not available You can continue to use the rndc utility.conf file.conf files.

Revision A.conf key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5.0.conf options { directory "/var/named".conf file: sys12# cat /etc/named.1. default-server 127.0.0.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities default-server 127. Sun Services.0. Be sure to remove the comment indentifiers (#).conf sys12# Copy the rndc-key section into a new file called /etc/rndc. # # controls { # inet 127. }. }. # End of named. # End of rndc. } keys { "rndc-key".conf.1. }. # }.1.conf file. options { default-key "rndc-key". Add the named. # }. // added to stop couldn't add command channel ::1#953 messages // from showing up in /var/adm/messages // following is output from /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen 10-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf section to the /etc/named. Inc. # secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".0.0.0. default-port 953. adjusting the allow list as needed: # key "rndc-key" { # algorithm hmac-md5.1 . }. }. The following is an example of a finished /etc/named. default-port 953. secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".1 port 953 # allow { 127.conf.0.conf # Use with the following in named. All Rights Reserved. sys12# cat /etc/rndc.

2.notice] running The daemon starting without the command channel message implies a successful key configuration The rndc command can now be used securely.1 port 953 allow { 127.key addition . and examining the resulting /var/adm/messages file entries: sys12# svcadm disable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# tail -4 /var/adm/messages Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon. // end of rndc.0.0..conf file: sys12# rndc dumpdb Jan 12 10:13:40 sys12 named[1431]: invalid command from 127.1 10-47 .0. }. Revision A. }.1#953 Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon.. Inc.key by stopping and starting the named process. You will see an error message similar to the following if either there is a problem with the contents of the rndc. this host is not authorized to connect.notice] starting BIND 9. secret "jZOP5nh//i9t7BwHivvNzA==".Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities key "rndc-key" { algorithm hmac-md5. }.1#32839: bad auth rndc: connection to remote host closed This may indicate that the remote server is using an older version of the command protocol. } keys { "rndc-key".0. controls { inet 127. or the key is invalid. using the rndc utility. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.0.0. sys12# Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.notice] command channel listening on 127.0.4 Jan 12 08:58:48 sys12 named[1402]: [ID 873579 daemon.1. Test the rndc.0.

Before making any changes.db . $DATE 20050113141237 sys12# Changing the Debug Level of the Daemon Use the rndc utility to change the debug level of the server. determine the current debug level of the daemon. Inc. Cache dump of view '_default' . Revision A. .1 . Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Now test to verify that the rndc utility works as expected: sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 0 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running Flushing the Memory Cache You can use the rndc utility to flush the memory cache. sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 0 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running 10-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys12# rndc flush sys12# rndc dumpdb sys12# cat /var/named/named_dump.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Server Status The rndc utility can be used to query server status and report statistics.

the debug level is shown along with the logged messages: sys12# tail -f /var/named/bind-log Jan 13 07:12:37.249 general: debug 'trace' Jan 13 07:17:17. Inc.838 general: debug 'trace 8' Jan 13 07:17:37. Sun Services.598 general: debug 'status' Jan 13 07:17:15. Revision A.929 general: debug 'status' Jan 13 07:17:34.Troubleshooting the DNS Server by Using Basic Utilities Increment the debug level by one.149 general: debug 'status' 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command 1: received control channel command Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.548 general: debug 'dumpdb' Jan 13 07:17:02. All Rights Reserved. sys12# rndc trace sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 1 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running Assign the debug level to a specific level. sys12# rndc trace 8 sys12# rndc status number of zones: 5 debug level: 8 xfers running: 0 xfers deferred: 0 soa queries in progress: 0 query logging is ON server is up and running sys12# If logging is enabled.1 10-49 .

DNS client DNS client 10-50 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The system and server-client functions for these exercises are listed in Table 10-5. Sun Services.. Inc. you configure DNS.. respectively. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. DNS client Secondary DNS name server.edu.(root). edu.. All Rights Reserved. Before starting this lab.1 .loopback domains. The instructor has set up a root domain server for use in this lab.192.in-addr. The domains to be set up are named one.arpa. 30.in-addr.. q q The self-contained root server (instructor) serves the .Exercise: Configuring DNS Exercise: Configuring DNS In this exercise. two.edu. make sure that: q The classroom network is not connected to the public Internet because the names and addresses used are not registered with the ICANN. Revision A.168. Table 10-5 Exercise Host Functions Host instructor sysX1 sysX2 sysX3 sysX4 Function Root DNS name server Router Primary DNS name server.edu.arpa. and 127. and three..

conf file keywords? q q zone ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q options ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. such as the nslookup utility. complete the following steps. you experience most of the aspects of configuring DNS. Revision A. ______________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. q What is the purpose of the /etc/named. Tasks To configure DNS. perform the following: 1. Create the /var/named directory. You can create the file yourself. and move as a team to each system that is to be configured.Exercise: Configuring DNS Task Summary In this exercise. and configure a DNS primary server. Your first task is to configure your domain’s primary DNS server.1 10-51 . Sun Services. You practice using troubleshooting tools. Set up the /etc/named. and clients on your subnet. In this way. a DNS secondary server. Working on the Primary DNS Server To configure your domain’s primary DNS server. Inc. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. team up with the other students on your subnet. Work as a team.conf file? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the following /etc/named. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Sun Services. You can create the file yourself. Inc. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.1 .root file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Where can you obtain a current copy of the current root name servers? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the following resource record types? q q q NS ___________________________________________________ q A ___________________________________________________ 4. q What is the purpose of a domain’s zone file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the SOA resource record? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the CNAME resource record? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q q 10-52 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q What is the purpose of the db. Revision A. Set up the /var/named/db. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. You can create the file yourself. Set up the zone file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.Exercise: Configuring DNS 3.

All Rights Reserved. Set up the /etc/resolv. Set up the reverse lookup file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Working on all of your DNS clients and DNS servers.conf file on your DNS server and DNS clients. Your next task is to configure name resolution on all of your systems. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Write the command that you use: ___________________________________________________ q What is the purpose of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.dns file to the /etc/nsswitch. Working on All Systems To configure name resolution on all systems. perform the following: 7. Revision A. q What is the purpose of the reverse lookup zone file? ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the PTR resource record? ___________________________________________________ q 6. copy the /etc/nsswitch. You can create the file yourself.Exercise: Configuring DNS 5. You can create the file yourself. Inc.conf file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. q What is the purpose of the /etc/resolv.1 10-53 .conf file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What effect does the dns keyword have on this file? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q 8. Sun Services. Set up the loopback file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.

All Rights Reserved. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client. Working on the Client Systems Note – Since the client service was just enabled on the primary name server. Inc. 11. Use the svcadm command to enable the default client service and verify that it is enabled. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ b. c. Check the /var/adm/messages file for DNS error messages. Sun Services. ___________________________________________________ Check that the server daemon is running. Revision A. this step does not have to be done on those systems. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10-54 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. troubleshoot to eliminate any DNS-related error messages that appear in the /var/adm/messages file. Before continuing. ___________________________________________________ 10.Exercise: Configuring DNS q What is the purpose of the domain keyword? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ What is the purpose of the namesserver keyword? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ q Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 9.1 .

Exercise: Configuring DNS Working on Any System Troubleshoot DNS-related errors as follows: 12. Test and debug your setup by using the dig utility. list the contents of the domain by querying the primary name server for its resource records. testing both your local domain and your remote domain servers as they become available. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Create the /var/named directory. Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 14. Inc. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. Test your DNS server. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. sys12# rndc dumpdb b. Use the following command: Your final task is to configure a secondary DNS server.1 10-55 . Take a snapshot of the DNS information in memory. Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 16. Test and debug as required. Revision A. Update both the forward and reverse zone files on the primary server to support the secondary name server. View the dumped DNS data to look for errors. For example. All Rights Reserved. 13. Write the updates that you use in each file. Working on the Secondary DNS Server To configure a secondary DNS server: 15. Sun Services. a.

_____________________________________________________ 21.conf file on the DNS clients and servers in your domain.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. Write the updates that you put in the file: _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Working on the Secondary DNS Server Continue as follows: 18. _____________________________________________________ Check that the server daemon is running. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Revision A. 20. __________________________________________________________ 22. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a. Verify that the new zone files have been created in the /var/named directory.1 . 19.Exercise: Configuring DNS Working on All Systems Continue as follows: 17.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. Inc. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client. You can create the file yourself. Set up the /var/named/db. Add the secondary name server to the /etc/resolv. You can create the file yourself. c. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Sun Services. Verify that the secondary name server performs forward lookup requests as expected. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. All Rights Reserved. __________________________________________________________ 10-56 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Set up the /etc/named.

Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. issues. Inc. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.1 10-57 . Sun Services. Revision A.

Task Solutions To configure DNS. zone "one.edu" { type master.192. zone ". All Rights Reserved. Your first task is to configure your domain’s primary DNS server.conf file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/named. }.in-addr.root". file "db. }. file "db. file "db. }.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. perform the following: 1. }.one.1"." { type hint. Your /etc/named. Sun Services.168. complete the following steps. Set up the /etc/named.1 .edu".conf options { directory "/var/named".192.arpa" { type master. zone "1. Revision A. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. 10-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can create the file yourself.168. Working on the Primary DNS Server To configure your domain’s primary DNS server. Inc.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following section.

root file should be similar to the following: sys12# mkdir /var/named sys12# cat /var/named/db.conf file keywords? q zone It defines a zone of authority and applies options selectively on a per-zone basis. Revision A. The named.Exercise Solutions zone "0.root . 3. .edu.root . the domains served by this server. All Rights Reserved. file "db. .127. 2. }.--------------------------------------------------------instructor. the root servers. Set up the /var/named/db. . or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.edu.-------------------------------------------------------------.conf file is the configuration file read by the named daemon at system start up. Sun Services. q What is the purpose of the /etc/named.conf file? The /etc/named. and the type of server that this system will be for each of those domains. db. rather than to all zones. q What is the purpose of the following /etc/named.168. 604800 IN NS instructor.0.thirty.30 # Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address . q options It controls global server configuration options and sets default values for other statements. Create the /var/named directory.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .30. Inc. . You can create the file yourself.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. Your /var/named/db.conf file specifies the directory that contains the other configuration files. 604800 IN A 192.0".127.0.in-addr.thirty.arpa" in { type master.1 10-59 .

Be sure to check that the file’s syntax is correct.one. Minimum (24 Hours) . q What is the purpose of the following resource record types? q NS The NS record (name server record) identifies the name server of a domain. Serial 3600 .edu .edu $TTL 86400 . Revision A. and they maintain data about each of the top-level zones.edu.one.internic. root.edu.net/domain/named. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .Exercise Solutions q What is the purpose of the db. All Rights Reserved.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. db.one. Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . This file’s contents directs non-root servers to root servers. ( 2005010101 . Set up the zone file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server.root URL.one. .{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . Your /var/named/db. .root file? Root servers are positioned at the top. .1 . You can create the file yourself.one. Sun Services. of the DNS hierarchy.sys12. 10-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Non-root servers can begin queries at the root level if no other information is available.edu.edu file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db. q Where can you obtain a current copy of the current root name servers? You can retrieve them from the ftp://ftp.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.rs. q A The A record (address record) yields an IP address that corresponds to a host name. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .one. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . Inc. or the root. 4.

1 $TTL 86400 . Set up the reverse lookup file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s primary DNS server. ( 2005010101 . . Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) . In addition.1 sys12 IN A 192.1 . root.0. Revision A. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. You can create the file yourself. 5.edu.168. contact information.one. Serial 3600 .sys12.edu. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .192. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .2 sys13 IN A 192. and cache time-out values for the entries in the domain.Exercise Solutions .{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster .1 . Your /var/named/db.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address .0.168. .168.------------------------------------------------sys11 IN A 192.1. db.1 10-61 .---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.168. q What is the purpose of the SOA resource record? The SOA record identifies the primary server.168. q What is the purpose of the CNAME resource record? The CNAME record defines an alias for a host name.3 sys14 IN A 192.168.{name} {ttl} Class CNAME Canonical Name .1. Sun Services.192.------------------------------------------------------router IN CNAME sys11 dns IN CNAME sys12 q What is the purpose of a domain’s zone file? This file contains the mappings of names to IP addresses for all systems in the domain being served by this name server.168. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.192.one. .4 localhost IN A 127. Minimum (24 Hours) . this file must specify an SOA record and NS records for all name servers for this domain.1 file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db. All Rights Reserved.1. Inc.1.

Minimum (24 Hours) .0. You can create the file yourself.0 file should be similar to the following: sys12# cat /var/named/db. Sun Services. 3 IN PTR sys13.edu. 2 IN PTR sys12. Set up the loopback file for your domain on the system that will be your domains primary DNS server.{name} {ttl} Class SOA Origin Postmaster . . Expire (1 Week) 86400 ) .edu.Exercise Solutions .127.one. .-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. Serial 3600 .{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .0 $TTL 86400 .-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.0 .edu.{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name . q What is the purpose of the reverse lookup zone file? This file contains mappings for address-to-name translation. Refresh (1 Hour) 1800 .0. What is the purpose of the PTR resource record? The PTR record specifies a host name for an IP address. 4 IN PTR sys14. db.edu.127. ( 2005010101 . . .edu.edu.one. Inc.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------@ IN SOA sys12.one. Your next task is to configure name resolution on all of your systems.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR localhost. . 10-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. Retry (30 Minutes) 6048000 .0. Revision A. q 6.edu.-----------------------------------------------1 IN PTR sys11. . root.one. .one.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .sys12.{name} {ttl} Class PTR Real Name . All Rights Reserved.one.one.one. Your /var/named/db.127.edu.

conf file should have contents similar to the following: # cat /etc/resolv.conf file on your DNS server and DNS clients. Set up the /etc/resolv.1. q What effect does the dns keyword have on this file? The dns keyword causes the dns resolver library routine to be added when resolving host names and addresses. All Rights Reserved.dns /etc/nsswitch. copy the /etc/nsswitch. Its position in the hosts line determines the order in which it is used. Working on all of your DNS clients and DNS servers. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise Solutions Working on All Systems To configure name resolution on all systems.2 q What is the purpose of the /etc/resolv. perform the following: 7. Your system’s /etc/resolv. Sun Services. Write the command that you use: # cp /etc/nsswitch.conf q What is the purpose of the /etc/nsswitch.conf file.conf file? This file specifies the resolver library routines that the domain search list applies to any names that are not specified in the FQDN form and specifies the IP addresses of DNS servers to query. q What is the purpose of the namesserver keyword? The nameserver keyword specifies DNS servers to query by IP address. Revision A. q What is the purpose of the domain keyword? The domain keyword specifies domain names to append to names that were not specified in the FQDN format and in what order to append them. Inc.edu nameserver 192.conf file specifies which resolver library routines are to be used in resolving host names and addresses.dns file to the /etc/nsswitch.168.1 10-63 . 8.conf domain one.conf file? The etc/nsswitch.

notice] starting BIND 9. this step does not have to be done on those systems. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client.0.Exercise Solutions Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 9. Check the /var/adm/messages file for DNS error messages. All Rights Reserved. # svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default # svcs -a | grep dns online 15:02:34 svc:/network/dns/client:default .1#953 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 on ::1#953 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. Inc..notice] command channel listening named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online. sys12# svcs -a | grep dns online 14:53:08 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 14:56:04 svc:/network/dns/client:default c. Revision A.0. sys12# pgrep named 97 10. Sun Services. sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default b.4 named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. Working on the Client Systems Note – Since the client service was just enabled on the primary name servers.notice] command channel listening named[1516]: [ID 873579 daemon. sys12# tail -4 /var/adm/messages Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 Jan 12 13:23:18 sys12 on 127.. 11. Before continuing.2.1 . Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a. troubleshoot to eliminate any DNS-related error messages that appear in the /var/adm/messages file.notice] running Check that the server daemon is running. 10-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the svcadm command to enable the default client service and verify that it is enabled.

edu. QUESTION SECTION: . Test and debug your setup by using the dig utility. ADDITIONAL: 0 . ADDITIONAL SECTION: IN A 86400 IN A 192..4 <<>> @192.edu. ANSWER: 0.one.one.1.one.1. global options: printcmd . <<>> DiG 9. AUTHORITY: 1..one.. flags: qr aa rd ra.one.1 10-65 .2#53(192.edu . Got answer: .Exercise Solutions Working on Any System Troubleshoot DNS-related errors as follows: 12.opcode: QUERY. Sun Services.168. list the contents of the domain by querying the primary name server for its resource records.edu. .2 one. AUTHORITY SECTION: one. ->>HEADER<<. 86400 IN SOA sys12.168.1 86400 IN NS sys12. 13. status: NOERROR. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. AUTHORITY: 2. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .168. IN A .. QUERY: 1. .. . id: 53 .sys11. Revision A.edu sys11. Got answer: .sys12. .... flags: qr aa rd ra.2 one...opcode: QUERY. For example. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module. Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192.edu . .one.edu sys11. # dig @192. QUERY: 1.168. QUESTION SECTION: .one. Test and debug as required. Inc.1.. All Rights Reserved.. status: NOERROR. id: 106 . ANSWER: 1..168. ->>HEADER<<.edu. ANSWER SECTION: sys11.edu. ADDITIONAL: 2 .2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 13:27:39 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 . .edu.one. AUTHORITY SECTION: one. testing both your local domain and your remote domain servers as they become available. root..2...1.edu..edu.1.

1. 86400 IN A 192..1.2#53(192. 10-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2 DNS server determined that the sys11.1.Exercise Solutions sys12.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 13:27:39 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 119 The preceding output indicates that the 192.168.1. .one.edu system has an IP address of 192.one.1 .168.168. . . Revision A.edu.. .168..168. Inc. All Rights Reserved.1..2 Query time: 2 msec SERVER: 192.1. Sun Services.

sys13# mkdir /var/named Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 16. Inc. added under the existing name server configuration: .one. Write the updates that you use in each file. Test your DNS server.edu.db . $DATE 20050112203358 The dumped cache file is currently empty because the server has been started recently and no queries have been cached at this time.1 10-67 . All Rights Reserved. Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. IN NS sys13. sys12# rndc dumpdb b. Sun Services. Use the following command: Working on the Secondary DNS Server To configure a secondary DNS server: 15. Cache dump of view '_default' . Your final task is to configure a secondary DNS server. The addition to the forward zone file should be similar to the following. a. Revision A.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . sys12# view /var/named/named_dump. Use the techniques that are described in the lecture part of the module.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12. Take a snapshot of the DNS information in memory.one.Exercise Solutions Working on the Primary DNS Server Continue as follows: 14. Create the /var/named directory. . View the dumped DNS data to look for errors.edu. Update both the forward and reverse zone files on the primary server to support the secondary name server.

Your /etc/named.conf file on the DNS clients and servers in your domain. file "db.conf domain one. You can create the file yourself.1.one.conf options { directory "/var/named".1. Set up the /etc/named. 10-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. Working on All Systems Continue as follows: 17.edu. added under the existing name server configuration: .1 ." { type hint. All Rights Reserved. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you.conf file should be similar to the following: sys13# cat /etc/named.-----------------------------------------------------IN NS sys12.conf file should be similar to the following: # cat /etc/resolv. Add the secondary name server to the /etc/resolv.edu nameserver 192. }.root". }.one.168. zone ". Inc.2 nameserver 192. Write the updates that you put in the file: Your /etc/resolv.3 Working on the Secondary DNS Server Continue as follows: 18.Exercise Solutions The addition to the reverse zone file should be similar to the following. Sun Services.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name . IN NS sys13. Revision A.conf file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server.edu.

-------------------------------------------------------------.root .1.168. .slave".2.1. file "db.Exercise Solutions zone "one. Your /var/named/db.1 10-69 .arpa" in { type slave. 604800 IN NS instructor.--------------------------------------------------------instructor. 604800 IN A 192.root file for your domain on the system that will be your domain’s secondary DNS server. zone "1.in-addr.root file should be similar to the following: sys13# cat /var/named/db. or you can use the template file that your instructor makes available to you. }.slave". }. .168.edu.{name} {ttl} Class NS Nameserver Name .0.30 sys13# Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.2.thirty.192.168.0.1.arpa" { type slave.168. masters { 192.192. Set up the /var/named/db.edu. 19. You can create the file yourself. All Rights Reserved. }.2.one. file "db.0. masters { 192. masters { 192. zone "0. file "db.{name} {ttl} Class A IP Address . .edu" { type slave.30.127.thirty. Sun Services.in-addr. Inc. }.slave".root .edu.168.168. }.1.127. }. db. Revision A.

QUERY: 1... sys13# ls -al total 20 drwxr-xr-x 3 drwxr-xr-x 45 -rw------1 -rw------1 -rw------1 -rw-r--r-1 Check that the server daemon is running. ANSWER: 0.. ->>HEADER<<. status: NOERROR.168.168.168.3 one. flags: qr aa rd ra.edu – Designates the domain of interest sys14. db.root 22.3 – Designates which DNS server to use one.4 <<>> @192.one. <<>> DiG 9. Inc.edu – Designates the name to query sys11# dig @192. All Rights Reserved.4 .slave db.168. This example demonstrates using the dig utility where: q q q @192.4 . sys13# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/server:default sys13# svcadm enable svc:/network/dns/client:default b.edu.168. Start the name server daemon on your DNS server: a. AUTHORITY: 1.1. Use the svcs command to verify that the services are online.1.slave db.slave db.one.edu. root root root root root root root sys root root root root 512 1024 353 430 460 405 Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan 12 11 12 12 12 12 05:14 16:50 13:36 13:56 13:46 05:13 . sys13# svcs -a | grep dns online 14:53:08 svc:/network/dns/server:default online 14:56:04 svc:/network/dns/client:default c. Revision A.127.168.opcode: QUERY. Verify that the secondary name server performs forward lookup requests as expected.. global options: printcmd ..1. ADDITIONAL: 0 .0.0. QUESTION SECTION: .3 one. sys13# pgrep in..edu -x 192. IN A 10-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the svcadm command to enable both the name server daemon and the DNS client. .192. id: 2032 .Exercise Solutions 20. Got answer: .1.edu -x 192.2.named 853 21.1. Verify that the new zone files have been created in the /var/named directory.1 .one.1. Sun Services. You could use one of a few tools to test DNS lookup requests.

edu. 86400 IN SOA sys12. IN IN NS NS sys13. AUTHORITY SECTION: one.168... 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .in-addr.arpa.in-addr. Sun Services...3 Query time: 1 msec SERVER: 192.1 10-71 .1. id: 322 ..168. . flags: qr aa rd ra.192.one. 86400 1. Revision A.. PTR sys14. Query time: 3 msec SERVER: 192.1.sys12. ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys12. .one.3) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 14:25:50 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 . All Rights Reserved.opcode: QUERY.168..3#53(192.2 192.one..168.3) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 14:25:50 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 Configuring DNS Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1. ANSWER: 1..edu.edu.arpa.168.192. sys13.Exercise Solutions .192. . 86400 .1. . sys12. root.. AUTHORITY: 2. Inc.edu.3#53(192.1.one. 86400 IN .arpa. . AUTHORITY SECTION: 1.edu. IN PTR .1. ->>HEADER<<..168. 86400 86400 IN IN A A 192..one.edu.168.edu. QUESTION SECTION: .in-addr.1.edu.one. Got answer: . ADDITIONAL: 2 ..one. QUERY: 1.168.. ..4.arpa.in-addr.168.168. ANSWER SECTION: 4.1. . status: NOERROR..192.

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Upon completion of this module. All Rights Reserved. you should be able to: q q q q q Describe the fundamentals of DHCP Configure a DHCP server Configure and manage DHCP clients Troubleshoot a DHCP server Troubleshoot a DHCP client The course map in Figure 11-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Revision A. Sun Services.1 .Module 11 Configuring DHCP Objectives This module explains the fundamentals of DHCP. This module explains how to configure DHCP and how to troubleshoot a DCHP server. Inc. Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 11-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 11-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. including the purpose of DHCP and client and server functions.

Routers can be configured to act as a BOOTP relay agent. Revision A. DHCP evolved from the bootstrap protocol (BOOTP). such as: q q q IP address Boot server IP address DNS domain. in effect. Support is available for clients that need to boot over a network. you assign an IP address to each computer manually. With DHCP. Support is available for DHCP clients in the Solaris 10 OS. If a computer moves to another location in a different part of the network. you configure the DHCP server to distribute IP addresses from a central point. Inc. q Purpose of DHCP DHCP reduces the cost of managing networks by eliminating the need to manually assign or change IP addresses repeatedly. and default router q q q Lease periods are provided for IP address assignments. q Without DHCP. DHCP also reclaims IP addresses that are no longer needed or if the time period for their use has expired. The DHCP server would be reconfigured to provide the new IP addresses offered from this new ISP. q 11-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . DHCP also makes it easier to renumber the network if the ISP is changed. DHCP provides the following enhanced functionality: q Messages include network configuration for clients. All Rights Reserved. DNS server. which. You configure the DHCP server to send a new IP address automatically when a computer is moved to a different place on the network and requests a new IP address at boot time. you assign a new IP address to that computer manually. replaces the need for using RARP and the /etc/bootparams file.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP enables you to provide network-related information to client systems through a centrally located server system. IP addresses are assigned to each system when an organization sets up its computer network. Sun Services. These IP addresses can then be used by other clients.

Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP Client Functions DHCP has two client functions. Sun Services.1 11-3 . DHCP supplies: q q Sufficient information to properly configure the network interface Parameters needed by system-level and application-level software Figure 11-2 shows the DHCP client functions. DHCP Configure Network Interfaces • IP Address • Netmask • Router Parameters (System and Application) • NIS Server • WWW Server • NTP Server Figure 11-2 DHCP Client Functions To perform the first function. Inc. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. The client’s dhcpagent daemon: q q q q q Constructs and sends packets Listens for responses from servers Caches the configuration information received Releases or renews leases Configures the interfaces with sufficient information to enable communications with the network through the interface Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the dhcpagent daemon acquires an IP address that is valid for the network attached to the client’s hardware interface.

Client DHCP Server Time 1 DHCPDISCOVER DHCPOFFER All DHCP offers are evaluated and DHCPREQUEST is sent 3 2 DHCPACK 4 Figure 11-3 DHCP Client-Server Interaction 11-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved.dhcpd daemon runs on the DHCP server.1 . Sun Services. Figure 11-3 shows the interaction between a DHCP client and server. The in.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP DHCP Server Functions The DHCP server manages the IP address space of networks connected directly to that server and also manages remote networks connected by BOOTP relay agents. Inc. Revision A.

Sun Services. Multiple primary-DHCP servers can exist on the same network. Every primary DHCP server also acts as a secondary server. Primary and secondary DHCP servers must have access to the exact same data source that contains the IP addresses being served to clients. A secondary DHCP server confirms existing configurations supplied previously by a primary DHCP server when the primary DHCP server cannot respond to requests for confirmation. This common data access can be achieved by using NIS+ tables or by using NFS to share the DHCP network tables. A primary DHCP server can give an IP address to a client that is requesting a new configuration from the range of IP addresses for which it is responsible. Inc. as long as each server is responsible for a different IP address range. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. DHCP servers can be primary or secondary servers. All Rights Reserved. The DHCP server replies to the BOOTP relay. A primary DHCP server passes IP addresses to clients. The IP address is defined during the installation and configuration of the software on the server. Copies cannot be used.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP Figure 11-4 shows the difference that a BOOTP relay makes for a client that is attempting to contact a server. Client BOOTP Relay DHCP Server Time DHCPDISCOVER DHCPDISCOVER 2 DHCPOFFER All DHCP requests are evaluated and DHCPREQUEST is sent 4 DHCPACK 5 Figure 11-4 DHCP Client-Server BOOTP The BOOTP relay picks up incoming requests from clients and forwards them to the DHCP server.1 11-5 . Revision A. which then forwards the response on to the client.

configure the DHCP service database type and location. 11-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. and initialize the dhcptab file and DHCP network tables for any networks. Inc.1 . Sun Services.Introducing the Fundamentals of DHCP The dhcpconfig command and the dhcpmgr utility are available for use to configure DHCP servers and BOOTP relay servers. These utilities enable you to set startup options.

1 11-7 .conf DAEMON_ENABLED=TRUE RUN_MODE=server RESOURCE=SUNWfiles PATH=/var/dhcp CONVER=1 VERBOSE=TRUE ICMP_VERIFY=TRUE INTERFACES=hme0. type the command: # cat /etc/inet/dhcpsvc. Revision A.qfe0 UPDATE_TIMEOUT=15 LOGGING_FACILITY=7 BOOTP_COMPAT=automatic # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The DHCP server’s configuration information is stored in the /etc/inet/dhcpsvc. This file was the /etc/default/dhcp file prior to the Solaris 9 OS. To view the configuration information. Sun Services. Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring a DHCP server on the network consists mainly of configuring and starting the DHCP server daemon. All Rights Reserved.conf file. This file is created when the configuration commands are run and should never be edited manually.

Revision A. The dhcpconfig command enables you to specify the network information using command-line options.1 . You can change non-essential options after the initial configuration. Inc. Select options and enter data to create the dhcptab and DHCP network tables that the DHCP server uses. Use this process if you are an advanced user and want to use scripts. The dhcpconfig command is faster. The dhcpmgr utility speeds up the configuration process by omitting prompts for non-essential server options by using default values for them.Configuring a DHCP Server Configuring DHCP by Using Different Methods Use the graphical dhcpmgr (DHCP Manager) utility or the command-line dhcpconfig (DHCP configuration) command to configure a DHCP server. All Rights Reserved. The dhcpconfig command does not check the validity of user input as it is entered. The dhcpmgr utility checks the validity of user input as it is entered. Comparisons of how these two methods work is as follows: q The dhcpmgr utility enables you to view the information gathered from system files and to change the information if needed. q q 11-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. but you must specify values for many options.

type the command: This example uses the sys12 system to demonstrate how to configure a basic DHCP server by using the dhcpmgr utility.Configuring a DHCP Server Performing Initial DHCP Server Configuration by Using the dhcpmgr Utility Use the dhcpmgr utility to configure. Revision A. such as macros. If the system is not configured as a DHCP server or a BOOTP relay. All Rights Reserved. addresses. The DHCP Manager runs in an X-window system. and policies. the Choose Server Configuration window appears. networks. edit.1 11-9 . Inc. or the Sun Java Desktop System. the windows in this section do not appear. To start the dhcpmgr utility. Figure 11-5 enables you to configure the server as a DHCP server. complete the following steps: 1. # /usr/sadm/admin/bin/dhcpmgr & Figure 11-5 Choose Server Configuration Window Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the default Configure as the DHCP server. To configure the server. and manage DHCP services. such as the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). define. GNOME. Note – If the server is already configured. Sun Services.

The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window appears. Figure 11-6 shows you where to select the data storage format. Select Text files. All Rights Reserved. Inc. and click >.1 .Configuring a DHCP Server 2. Revision A. Figure 11-6 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 3. Click OK. 11-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services.

Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window appears. Figure 11-7 shows you where to enter a path for the data store.1 11-11 . Inc. Accept the default path name. and click >. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-7 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window 4. Revision A. Sun Services. This example uses the default directory.

1 . Revision A. Figure 11-8 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window 5. 11-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Select /etc/hosts. Figure 11-8 enables you to specify the name service in which to store host records. Sun Services.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window appears. and click >. Inc. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-9 shows you where to specify the length of the lease. Revision A. Sun Services.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window appears. Accept the defaults of 1 and days. This example uses the defaults 1 and days. and click >. Figure 11-9 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window 6. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 11-13 . Inc.

1 . Sun Services. Do not accept a DNS domain or DNS server. and click >. Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window appears. 11-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the default of no DNS. Figure 11-10 shows you where to specify the DNS domain and DNS servers. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-10 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window 7.

type a subnet mask. Figure 11-11 shows you where to specify the network address and a subnet mask. Specify a network address by either selecting one or typing one. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 11-15 . and click >.0 network.1. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.168.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window appears. This example uses the 192. Revision A. Inc. Figure 11-11 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window 8.

10. 11-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 window appears. Select either Use router discovery protocol or type the router information in the Use router field. 11. Sun Services. Revision A. Figure 11-12 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 Window 9. Figure 11-12 shows you where to specify information about the network.1 . Select either Local-Area (LAN) or Point-to-Point. Click >. This example uses the defaults Local-Area (LAN) and Use router discovery protocol. All Rights Reserved.

Figure 11-13 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 Window 12. and click Add for each NIS server that you are specifying. Click >. Inc. type the NIS server IP address in the NIS Servers field. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 window appears. If appropriate. This example uses the defaults of no NIS domain and no NIS server. 14.1 11-17 . Figure 11-13 shows you where to specify the NIS domain and servers. If appropriate. Revision A. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the NIS domain configuration in the NIS Domain field. 13.

Figure 11-14 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 Window 15. 17. Sun Services. 16.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 window appears. Inc. If appropriate. and click Add for each NIS+ server that you are specifying. All Rights Reserved. Click >. Revision A. type the NIS+ server IP address in the NIS+ Servers field.1 . 11-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the defaults of no NIS+ domain and no NIS+ server. type the NIS+ domain configuration in the NIS+ Domain field. If appropriate. Figure 11-14 shows you where to specify the NIS+ domain and servers.

1 11-19 . All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-15 shows you a summary of the information you entered previously.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 window appears. Figure 11-15 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 Window 18. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Review the information and. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A. This example uses the sample information indicated previously. if the information is correct. click Finish.

the main DHCP Manager Window appears. and the Start Address Wizard window appears. Sun Services. 11-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Configuration Manager Window closes. Revision A. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Click Yes to proceed with address configuration.1 . Figure 11-16 shows you where to indicate that you want to configure addresses for the server. The DHCP network file will now be populated. Figure 11-16 Start Address Wizard Window 19.

Modify the number of IP addresses to use. Click >. Note – The following steps are a continuation of initial server configuration. 2.Configuring a DHCP Server Adding Addresses by Using the dhcpmgr Utility Use the procedures described in this section to add addresses by using the dhcpmgr utility. Sun Services. Figure 11-17 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 1. This figure shows you where to specify the number of IP addresses to configure.1 11-21 . The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window appears as shown in Figure 11-17. Inc. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 3. This example uses five addresses and a comment of net1. Add a comment if necessary.

Verify that Managed by Server and Starting IP Address display the correct information. select Generate Client Names.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window appears. If appropriate. In this example. 11-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . 6. and the starting IP address is changed to 192. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.168. Figure 11-18 shows you where to specify the DHCP server and starting IP address.10. Inc. Sun Services.1. Click >. Figure 11-18 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window 4. This example uses sys12-dhcp for the root name. the Managed by Server field is set to the default. 5.

1 11-23 . Figure 11-19 shows you the IP addresses that you specified in the previous step.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window appears. Verify that the address information is correct. All Rights Reserved. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 11-19 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window 7. Revision A. Sun Services. Inc. and click >.

click View. 11-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Select Configuration Macro from the drop-down list box and verify that Addresses are unusable is unchecked. Figure 11-20 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window 8. click OK. All Rights Reserved. Click >.1 . Sun Services. To exit the contents window. If you want to view the contents of the selected macro. 10. Figure 11-20 shows you the name of the macro to be associated with the DHCP interface. 9. Inc.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window appears. Revision A.

and systems that provide services use permanent lease types. Sun Services. Figure 11-21 shows you where to specify the type of lease. Figure 11-21 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window Note – Normally. Inc. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Select either Dynamic or Permanent.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window appears. Revision A. mail servers. routers.1 11-25 . 11. This example uses the default of Dynamic. All Rights Reserved. and click >.

1 . Review the information. Sun Services. Figure 11-22 shows the information that you entered in previous steps.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window appears. and click Finish. 11-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 11-22 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window 12. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Revision A.

1.1 11-27 .168.11 sys13-dhcp-11 #net1 192.1.168. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the /etc/inet/hosts file. Choose Exit from the File menu to close the DHCP Manager window.1. 14.12 sys13-dhcp-12 #net1 192.1. use the grep command: # grep dhcp /etc/inet/hosts 192. Figure 11-23 shows the information that you have provided.1.168. Inc.10 sys13-dhcp-10 #net1 192. All Rights Reserved.1.168.18 sys13-dhcp-18 #net1 192.168. Figure 11-23 DHCP Manager Window 13.168.1.15 sys13-dhcp-15 #net1 192.17 sys13-dhcp-17 #net1 192.19 sys13-dhcp-19 #net1 # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.14 sys13-dhcp-14 #net1 192.16 sys13-dhcp-16 #net1 192. Sun Services.1.168.1.Configuring a DHCP Server The DHCP Manager Window appears.13 sys13-dhcp-13 #net1 192.168. Revision A.168.1.

/etc/inet/netmasks or others. Configuring a DHCP Server To configure a DHCP server for the first time. Inc. this is an absolute path name. Sun Services. such as /etc/inet/hosts. This option is the data-store-dependent location where the DHCP data is maintained. Revision A. SUNWbinfiles. on the DHCP server to determine values that are not provided on the command line. This command has options that enable you to: q q q Configure and unconfigure a DHCP server Convert to a new data store Import data to and export data from other DHCP servers Note – The dhcpconfig command is no longer menu-driven as it was in previous versions of the Solaris OS. type the command by using the following format: /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -D -r datastore -p location where: -D -r datastore This option specifies to configure the DHCP service. For SUNWnisplus.Configuring a DHCP Server Using the dhcpconfig Command Use the dhcpconfig command when you configure a DHCP server with scripts. For SUNWfiles and SUNWbinfiles. All Rights Reserved. which is one of the following: SUNWfiles. -p location The dhcpconfig command uses the appropriate system and network configuration files. or SUNWnisplus.1 . 11-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. this is an NIS+ table name. /var/dhcp. for example. This option is a data resource.

168.168. Created network table.168.1 11-29 .0 network (-N) and the 192. Sun Services. Created dhcptab. To configure the system to provide DHCP services for the 192. enter the following: # /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -D -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp Created DHCP configuration file.0.168.1 router (-t).1.Configuring a DHCP Server To configure (-D) a system for DHCP services using ASCII files for datastore (-r) and locate (-p) the datastore files in the /var/dhcp directory. DHCP server started. Added server macro to dhcptab .1 Added network macro to dhcptab .0 -t 192. you must configure the appropriate files to function as a DHCP server.1. The examples use the ASCII datastore format because the resulting files are viewed more easily. type the command: # /usr/sbin/dhcpconfig -N 192.168. Inc. All Rights Reserved.1. # Note – Using the ASCII datastore format (SUNWfiles) is much slower than storing the files in the binary datastore format (SUNWbinfiles).sys12. After the datastore location and type are established.1.192. # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Added "Locale" macro to dhcptab. Revision A.1.

30 Figure 11-24 The DHCP Network File One DHCP network file exists for each network that is served by the DHCP server.1 .1. These files map the client identifiers of DHCP clients to IP addresses and the associated configuration parameters of each IP address assigned to these clients. such as SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0. Sun Services.1 Server Address: 192. Figure 11-24 shows the interaction between the client ID and the client and the server addresses. The name always includes an IP address and an identifier about the file type (SUNWbinfiles.30.Configuring a DHCP Server Introducing DHCP Network Files DHCP network files contain the ranges of IP addresses that the DHCP server assigns and controls for networks.168. DHCP Network 92. or SUNWnisplus). All Rights Reserved. There is no table or file with the name SUNWfiles. Revision A.168.30.0 Client ID IP Address and Configuration Parameters 00 Client Address: 192. 11-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The name of each file is determined from the datastore format and the network address of the network that it supports.168. Inc. SUNWfiles.

Sun Services.1 11-31 .30. type the command: # pntadm -C 192.30.0 network. Inc.30. Binary files are faster and more efficient and are recommended for networks with a DHCP client base of many thousands of systems.0 DHCP Network To create a table for the 192.168.168. depending on the datastore used. Using the pntadm Command Use the pntadm command to manage DHCP network tables to: q q q Add and remove networks under DHCP management Add. or NIS+ tables. delete. type the command: # cat SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_1_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -. binary files.0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring a DHCP Server To view the initial contents of the DHCP network file. not the default database Uses the supplied path. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. and modify IP address records within network tables View tables You can use any one of the following option flags with the pntadm command: -C -A -M -P -D -r -p Creates a DHCP network table Adds an entry to a DHCP network table Modifies an entry made to a DHCP network table Views changes made to a DHCP network table Deletes an entry from a DHCP network table Uses the supplied datastore resource.168. not the default path Creating a Table for the 192.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # The DHCP network tables can exist as ASCII text files.

Inc.1.1 . To verify that the network table was created.0 To view the table and observe the changes made by the pntadm command. type the command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -. Revision A. use the cat command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -. type the command: # ls /var/dhcp | grep 30 SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # To view the initial contents of the new table.0 Table To add an entry to the SUNWfiles1_192.30.1|00|00|192.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead 192.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # Adding an Entry to the SUNWfiles1_192.168.1 192.30. All Rights Reserved.2|0|8214847195300495361|UNKNOWN| # 11-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30.0 table located in the /var/dhcp directory.168.168. type the command: # pntadm -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp -A 192.168. Sun Services.168.30.168.30.Configuring a DHCP Server Note – You can use an alias name for this network in place of the network number if the alias is defined in the /etc/inet/networks file.

1 -m mymacro -f ’PERMANENT+MANUAL’ 192. which represents the sum of 2 and 1.30. type the following: # pntadm -P 192.168. Refer to the DHCP network man page for more information.30.30.1 entry to 192.1. Revision A. where MANUAL is represented by 2 and PERMANENT is represented by 1.1 11-33 . Inc.0 To verify the changes. type the command: # pntadm -P 192.168.30.0 table.0 table to change the macro name (-m) to mymacro.0 # To view the changes.1 entry of the SUNWfiles1_192.168.168.1|00|03|192.2 192. type the command: # pntadm -M 192.2 (-n).30.168.168. To view the changes by using the table.30.30.168.1.30.168.2 Lease Expiration Zero Macro mymacro Comment # Note – Observe that the Flags value is 03.30.30.1. type the command: # cat /var/dhcp/SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # SUNWfiles1_192_168_30_0 # # Do NOT edit this file by hand -.168.30.0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.30. type the command: # pntadm -D 192.30.30.168.2 Lease Expiration Zero Macro mymacro Comment # To delete the 192. All Rights Reserved.168.30.168.168. Sun Services. and to set the flags field to MANUAL and PERMANENT.168.168.30.168.use pntadm(1M) or dhcpmgr(1M) instead # 192.2 192.Configuring a DHCP Server Modifying an Entry to the SUNWfiles1_192.30. type the command: # pntadm -M 192.168.168.30.2 Server IP 192.1 Server IP 192.168.2|0|8214847195300495362|mymacro| # To change the 192.30.168.168.0 Table To modify the 192.0 Client ID 00 Flags 03 Client IP 192.168.2 entry from the 192.1 -n 192.0 Client ID Flags 00 03 Client IP 192.

0 192. Inc. Revision A.168. View the contents of the dhcptab table by using the Macros and Options tabs in the DHCP Manager. type the command: # pntadm -L 192.0 Client ID Flags Client IP Server IP Lease Expiration Macro Comment # Removing DHCP Network Tables To list the existing DHCP tables.168.168.0 # To remove the 192. type the command: # pntadm -L 192.0 # To list the remaining DHCP tables.30. You can reference one macro in the definition of other macros.0 table.1 .30.168. The DHCP server uses these macros to return groups of configuration parameters to DHCP and BOOTP clients. The preferred methods of managing the dhcptab table are through the use of the dhcpmgr utility or dhtadm command.Configuring a DHCP Server To verify the changes. type the command: # pntadm -P 192. All Rights Reserved.1. 11-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. type the command: # pntadm -R 192.30.1. or by using the dhtadm -P command on the command line.0 # Introducing the dhcptab Table Use the dhcptab configuration table to organize groups of configuration parameters as macro definitions.168.30. Sun Services.

1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW.Configuring a DHCP Server Using the dhtadm Command Use the dhtadm command to manage the DHCP service configuration table.1. Revision A.IP. dhcptab. You can specify one of the following option flags: -C -A -M -D Creates the DHCP table Adds a symbol or macro definition to the DHCP table Modifies an existing symbol or macro definition Deletes a symbol or macro definition Symbols are individual parameters to which values can be assigned.0’ -r SUNWfiles -p /var/dhcp To add a macro called NewMacro to the dhcptab table.1. Macros are collections of symbols that are associated with an IP address and are used to define the set of information that is given to a DHCP client system To create the DHCP service configuration table.168.1.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.255. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :Timeserv=192.PCW.1 11-35 .LAN.PCW.168.1.1.168.255.0:Router=192.20.1. type the command: # dhtadm -C To add a symbol called NewSym to the dhcptab table.168.LAN.1:Broadcst=192. dhcptab. Inc. type the command: # dhtadm -A -s NewSym -d ’Vendor=SUNW.1:DNSserv=192.0 # Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. type the command: # dhtadm -A -m NewMacro ’:Timeserv=192.0 Macro :Subnet=255.IP.1.20.168.168.1:DNSserv=192.1.1.168.1. All Rights Reserved.1:’ # To view the changes.1: 192. Sun Services.168.

to remove the Timeserv symbol from the NewMacro macro.255.1.255.168.LAN.168.168.168.168.IP.168.Configuring a DHCP Server You can modify an existing symbol or macro definition. In this example.255.168.LAN. type the command: # dhtadm -D -s NewSym # To verify the changes.1.0 Macro :Subnet=255.255.1 .1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: # 11-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.1.1.168.0:Router=192.168.1.1.1.0:Router=192.168.1:Broadcst=192.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.168.168.1. Sun Services.0:Router=192.0 Macro :Subnet=255.255.PCW.IP.168.PCW.0 # To delete the NewSym symbol from the dhcptab table.1.1:LeaseTim=3600: 192.20.1: 192.1:LeaseTim=3600: 192.1.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1:Broadcst=192. All Rights Reserved.255.1.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: NewSym Symbol Vendor=SUNW.1.0 # To define a value for the LeaseTim symbol.0 Macro :Subnet=255. type the command: # dhtadm -M -m NewMacro -e ’LeaseTim=3600’ # To view the changes. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.168.20. type the command: # dhtadm -M -m NewMacro -e ’Timeserv=’ To view the changes.1.1.1:Broadcst=192. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== NewMacro Macro :DNSserv=192.1.168. Inc.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1. Revision A.

which is set to point to the server’s primary IP address. Contains options with values determined by input from the administrator who configured the DHCP server.255. LeaseTim and LeaseNeg. All Rights Reserved. The options apply to all clients that use addresses owned by the server. if you select negotiable leases. type the command: # dhtadm -D -m NewMacro To verify the changes.0:Router=192.255. The options: Palatinoerv. Inc. Macros and options with assigned values.conf Description Records keywords and values for server configuration options. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1.dhcpd daemon to start the DHCP daemon when the system boots. Revision A.0 Macro :Subnet=255.1 11-37 .168. if DNS is configured. Options used with the in.1:Broadcst=192. Contents Data store type and location. /etc/inet/dhcpsvc. Table 11-1 Items Created During DHCP Server Configuration Item The service configuration file.1:LeaseTim=86400:LeaseNeg: Locale Macro :UTCoffst=-25200: # Table 11-1 shows the items that are created during DHCP configuration. The server macro.168.1. The UTCoffst option.1.Configuring a DHCP Server To delete the NewMacro macro from the dhcptab table. and DNSdmain and DNSserv. type the command: # dhtadm -P Name Type Value ================================================== 192. Contains the local time zone’s offset in seconds from Coordinated Universal Time.168.255: sys12 Macro :Include=Locale:Timeserv=192.1. The dhcptab table The Locale macro (optional) Creates a dhcptab table if it does not already exist. named to match the server’s node name The Locale macro.168. Sun Services.

1 . The DHCP network table for the network 11-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. NISdmain and NISservs. which is named the same as the network address of the client’s network Description Contains options with values determined by input from the administrator who configured the DHCP server. All Rights Reserved. until you add the IP addresses. Inc. if NIS is configured. maximum transfer unit (MTU). The options apply to all clients that are located on the network specified by the macro name. if NIS+ is configured. Sun Services. if the network is a LAN. and NIS+dom and NIS+serv. Contents The options: Subnet Router or RDiscvyF Broadcst. None. Creates an empty table until you create the IP addresses for the network.Configuring a DHCP Server Table 11-1 Items Created During DHCP Server Configuration (Continued) Item The network address macro. Revision A.

Inc. All Rights Reserved.1 11-39 . Configuring a DHCP Client When you install the Solaris 10 OS from the installation compact disc. Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or shut down. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client system. 4. consult the client’s documentation for configuration instructions. You do not need to do anything else on the Solaris 10 OS client to use DHCP. 2. you are prompted to use DHCP to configure network interfaces. otherwise. # touch /etc/dhcp. the interface will not be plumbed. the DHCP client software is enabled on your system during Solaris 10 OS installation. Revision A. This causes the DHCP client to relinquish its address when it reboots or is shut down properly.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients Configuring DHCP clients is an easy process.interface file exists for the interface being configured using DHCP. 3. read-only memory (CD-ROM). If your client is not a Solaris 10 OS client. Enable DHCP on the client by creating the appropriate file for the external interface. Most management is performed on the DHCP server side. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and remove the # in front of the RELEASE_ON_SIGTERM=yes parameter. which is hme0 in this example. If you select yes in the installation script. Configuring a DHCP Client to Request a Dynamic Host Name If a client system is already running the Solaris 10 OS and is not using DHCP. This is a requirement for a successful DHCP configuration of the client. complete the following steps to configure the DHCP client to request dynamic host names: 1. Sun Services.hme0 Note – Verify that the /etc/hostname.

Observe the hostname. Sun Services.qfe0 inet dhcp-hostname-test # 5. Inc. If a client system is already running the Solaris 10 OS and is not using DHCP. Hostname: sys13-dhcp-14 Configuring a DHCP Client to Use its Own Host Name DHCP clients running the Solaris 10 OS can be configured to use their own hostname instead of a hostname supplied by the DHCP server. complete the following steps to configure the DHCP client to use its own host name: 1. for example: Copyright 1983-2004 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Find the keyword REQUEST_HOSTNAME in the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. 3. To have the client perform a full DHCP negotiation upon rebooting. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. and verify that the entry is not formatted as a comment and is set to yes: Edit the /etc/hostname. 2. For example.interface file on the client system. the file contents in this example are: # cat /etc/hostname. All Rights Reserved. Inc. and enter the following: where hostname is the name you want the client to use. Use is subject to license terms.1 . inet hostname # pkill dhcpagent # rm /etc/dhcp/interface. 6. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client system. 11-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Reboot the client.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients 5.dhc # init 6 Note – The state file is written only when the dhcpagent process is terminated and the dhcpagent program is not configured to release its IP address on termination. All rights reserved. and watch the system console as the system boots. type the commands: REQUEST_HOSTNAME=yes 4.

consult the client’s documentation for configuration instructions. Sun Services.1 11-41 . it can also update naming services with the client’s host name. Depending on how the DHCP server is configured. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. If your client is not a Solaris 10 OS client. Revision A. Inc. All Rights Reserved.Configuring and Managing DHCP Clients The DHCP server makes sure that the host name is not in use by another system on the network before the server assigns it to the client.

n dhcp-network table for DHCP client’s network This error message means that a client requests a specific IP address or seeks to extend a lease on its current IP address.n. but the DHCP server cannot find the DHCP network table for that address. 11-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command to view the DHCP network table. Recreate the DHCP network table by adding the network again using the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command. Sun Services. and correct either the DHCP server database or the host’s network configuration.n. This might occur if the IP address record is deleted from the DHCP network table after the address is selected. This type of problem can occur when a client attempts to obtain or verify an IP address.n. Determine the correct ownership of the address. No corresponding dhcp network record The IP address considered for a DHCP client does not have a record in a network table. create it with the DHCP Manager (select Create from the Edit menu on the Address tab) or use the pntadm command.n. q ICMP ECHO reply to OFFER candidate n.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server Troubleshooting a DHCP Server IP address allocation errors are reported using the syslog facility or as server debug output. The DHCP network table might have been deleted by mistake. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.n. q ICMP ECHO reply to the OFFER candidate is n. disabling The IP address considered for a DHCP client is already in use.n.n.1 . Inc. but before the duplicate address check is complete. The following are possible IP address allocation errors and solutions: q There is no n. This might occur if more than one DHCP server owns the address or if an address is manually configured for a non-DHCP network client.n. If the IP address is missing.

Inc.n.” The server cannot allocate a different address to this client. therefore. q n. The server selects the last manually assigned address it finds in the network table.1 11-43 .n. q No more IP addresses on n. and that address is marked “unusable.n network. q Manual allocation (n.n was manually allocated.n. q n.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server q DHCP network record for n.n.n. Use the dhcpmgr utility or the pntadm command to view the DHCP network table and.n. Sun Services. All IP addresses that are currently managed by DHCP on the specified network are allocated.n. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to modify IP addresses to remove the additional manual allocations.n. the server drops the request. ignoring request The record for the requested IP address is not in the DHCP network table.n. Revision A. client ID has n other records). All Rights Reserved.n. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to make the address usable. No dynamic address will be allocated. Should have 0. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to make the address usable. There should be only one address. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to create new IP addresses for this network. create it with the dhcpmgr utility (select Create from the Edit menu on the Address tab) or use the pntadm command.n is unavailable. if the IP address is missing. The client’s ID is assigned a manually allocated address. or manually allocate a different address to the client. The client that has the specified client ID is manually assigned more than one IP address.n currently marked as unusable The requested IP address cannot be offered because it is marked unusable in the network table.n.

The client’s request did not specify the offered IP address. The client restarts the protocol to obtain a new lease. Inc. The client’s ID should be bound to the specified IP address.n The server made an IP address offer to the client. and it has timed out. If this request times out. RFC 2131. edit the address properties to add the client ID. All Rights Reserved. select Modify from the Service menu. Update the client software. The DHCP server does not renew the lease. Sun Services.n expired.n. and correct if necessary. increase the cache-offer timeout for the DHCP server. Offer expired for client: n. In the DHCP Manager.n. q q Client: clientID REQUEST is missing requested IP option.n. an IP address it has not leased. Use the DHCP Manager or the pntadm command to examine the network table.n. The client issues another discover message.Troubleshooting a DHCP Server q Client: clientID lease for n. Revision A.n. If it is not. and the offer expired. but the client took too long to respond. so the DHCP server ignores the request. This problem occurs if you delete a client’s record while the client is still using the IP address. restart the DHCP agent on the client by typing the commands: q # ifconfig interface dhcp release # ifconfig interface dhcp start 11-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. To enable the client to receive a new lease immediately. This problem might occur if the client is not compliant with the updated DHCP.1 .n. Client: clientID is trying to renew n. The lease was not negotiable.n. The IP address recorded in the DHCP network table for this client does not match the IP address that the client specified in its renewal request.

Troubleshooting DHCP Clients

Troubleshooting DHCP Clients
The problems you might encounter with a DHCP client fall into the following categories:
q q

Problems communicating with the DHCP server Problems with inaccurate DHCP configuration information

After you enable the client software and reboot the system, the client tries to reach the DHCP server to obtain its network configuration. If the client fails to reach the server or if the client does not receive correct information, you can see error messages, such as: DHCP or BOOTP server not responding Need router-ip to communicate with TFTP server TFTP server’s IP address not known! Before you determine the problem, you must gather diagnostic information from both the client and the server, and analyze this information. To gather information, you can:
q q q

Run the client in debug mode. Run the server in debug mode. Start the snoop utility to monitor network traffic.

You can perform these tasks separately or concurrently. The information you gather can help you determine if the problem is with the client, server, or a relay agent.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-45

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client
In this exercise, you configure a basic DHCP server and client configuration.

Preparation
Before performing this exercise, do the following:
q

Refer to your network diagram to determine the function of each system on your subnet. Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed.

q

Note – Use the default configuration parameters in these exercises unless otherwise specified. The exercise examples show the DHCP server as 192.168.X.3 and the DHCP client as 192.168.X.4. The complete system and server-client functions for these exercises are shown in Table 11-2. Table 11-2 Exercise Host Functions Host Instructor sysX1 sysX2 sysX3 sysX4 Function Root DNS name server Router Primary DNS name server, DNS client Secondary DNS name server, DNS client, DHCP server DNS client, DHCP client

11-46

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Task Summary
In this exercise, you accomplish the following tasks:
q q q

Configure a DHCP server. Configure a DHCP client. Use the snoop utility to view DHCP client server interaction.

Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX3 System
In this part of the exercise, use the DHCP Manager graphical user interface (GUI) utility (dhcpmgr utility) to configure a DHCP server on your subnet. Permit the network wizard to start and configure at least five hosts with the address range starting at 192.168.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx is provided by the instructor depending on the classroom setup. Note – Use the default configuration parameters in this task unless otherwise specified. This example uses the sys13 system to demonstrate configuring a basic DHCP server with the dhcpmgr GUI utility. To configure the DHCP server, complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Start the dhcpmgr utility. Initially configure the DHCP server. Add at least five addresses. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the /etc/inet/hosts file, use the grep command.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

11-47

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client

Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX4 System
This example uses the sys14 system as the DHCP client. To configure the DHCP client, complete the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client. Enable DHCP on the client. Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or is shut down. Reboot the client, and watch the system console as the system boots.

Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction
An important part of troubleshooting DHCP issues is using the snoop utility to observe the network interaction between the server and the client. To view DHCP client-server interaction, complete the following steps: 1. Start the snoop utility on any system on the subnet other than the DHCP client. Be sure to use the snoop utility on an interface that is on the same subnet as the DHCP client, which is hme0 in this example. Have the snoop utility write to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.snp file. Reboot the DHCP client system. After the DHCP client is booted, stop the snoop utility by pressing the Control+C key sequence. View the summary of the captured information.

2. 3. 4.

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise: Configuring a DHCP Server and Client 5. Use the snoop utility to convert the trace data to ASCII text, and output that text to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.txt file for viewing with any text editor that provides easy navigation and searching of the data. Use the view utility to view the trace data in the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.txt file. Look for messages, such as DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPOFFER, DHCPREQUEST, and DHCPACK, in the trace. Observe the ETHER destination addresses, the source and destination IP addresses, and the DHCP messages. Prevent the client system from continuing to act as a DHCP by removing the /etc/dhcp.* files and rebooting the system.

6.

7.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Summary

Exercise Summary
Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences, issues, or discoveries you had during the lab exercise.
q q q q

!
?

Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications

11-50

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions

Exercise Solutions
Solutions to the exercise are provided in this section.

Task 1 – Configuring the DHCP Server
Complete the steps in this section.

Working on the sysX3 System
In this part of the exercise, use the DHCP Manager GUI utility (dhcpmgr utility) to configure a DHCP server on your subnet. Permit the network wizard to start and configure at least five hosts with the address range starting at 192.168.xxx.xxx, where xxx.xxx is provided by the instructor depending on the classroom setup. Note – Use the default configuration parameters in this task unless otherwise specified. This example uses the sys13 system to demonstrate configuring a basic DHCP server with the dhcpmgr GUI utility. To configure the DHCP server, complete the following steps: 1. 2. Start the dhcpmgr utility. Initially configure the DHCP server. # /usr/sadm/admin/bin/dhcpmgr &

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions If the system is not configured as a DHCP server or BOOTP relay, Figure 11-25 appears.

Figure 11-25 Choose Server Configuration Window Perform the following: a. Click OK. The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window in Figure 11-26 appears.

Figure 11-26 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window

11-52

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions b. Select Text files, and click >. The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window in Figure 11-27 appears. This example uses the default directory.

Figure 11-27 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window c. Accept the default path name, and click >.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window in Figure 11-28 appears.

Figure 11-28 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window d. Select /etc/hosts, and click >.

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window in Figure 11-29 appears. This example uses the defaults 1 and days.

Figure 11-29 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window e. Accept the defaults of 1, days, and Clients can renew their leases, then click >.

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window in Figure 11-30 appears. This example uses the default DNS information.

Figure 11-30 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window f. Accept the default DNS domain and DNS servers, and click >.

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Sun Services. type a subnet mask. and click >.168. Figure 11-31 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window g. Specify a network address by either selecting one or typing one. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. This example uses the 192.1 11-57 .1. Inc.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window in Figure 11-31 appears. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0 network.

Select Local-Area (LAN). Figure 11-32 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 Window h. Click >. j. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 7 window in Figure 11-32 appears. Select Use router discovery protocol.1 . i. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Inc. This example uses the defaults of Local-Area (LAN) and Use router discovery protocol. 11-58 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

Click >. as shown. Inc. l. Sun Services. Figure 11-33 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 Window k. Accept the defaults.1 11-59 . Revision A. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the defaults of no NIS Domain and no NIS Servers.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 8 window in Figure 11-33 appears. All Rights Reserved. no entries.

n. 11-60 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This example uses the defaults of no NIS+ domain and no NIS+ servers.1 . Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Figure 11-34 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 Window m. Accept the default of no entries.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 9 window in Figure 11-34 appears. as shown. Inc. Click >.

Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. if the information is correct. This example uses the sample information indicated previously. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 window in Figure 11-35 appears. Inc.1 11-61 . Revision A. click Finish. Review the information and. Figure 11-35 DHCP Configuration Wizard – Step 10 Window o.

Revision A. All Rights Reserved.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Configuration Manager Window closes.1 . 11-62 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and the Start Address Wizard window in Figure 11-36 appears. Inc. Click Yes to proceed with address configuration. Sun Services. Figure 11-36 Start Address Wizard Window p. the main DHCP Manager Window appears.

Add at least five addresses. Revision A. This example uses five addresses and a comment of net1.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 window in Figure 11-37 appears. b. c. (This is the comment appended to the end of each DHCP-managed IP address line added to the /etc/inet/hosts file). Click >. Figure 11-37 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 1 Window 3. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. Add the comment net1 in this example. Inc. Perform the following: a.1 11-63 . All Rights Reserved. Enter 5 in the Number of IP Addresses field.

e. g.10. Inc. This example allows client name generation and uses sys13-dhcp for the root name. Type a name in the Root Name field.1. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.168. f. Click >. and the starting IP address must be changed to 192. the Managed by Server field is set to the default. Verify that Managed by Server and Starting IP Address fields display the correct information. Figure 11-38 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 Window d. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 2 window in Figure 11-38 appears. Select Generate Client Names. In this example.1 . 11-64 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-39 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 Window h. Revision A. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 11-65 . Verify that the address information is correct. and click >. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 3 window in Figure 11-39 appears. Inc.

Revision A. j. 11-66 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Figure 11-40 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 Window i. Use the default Configuration Macro and verify that Addresses are unusable is checked. All Rights Reserved.1 . Click >. Inc. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 4 window in Figure 11-40 appears.

All Rights Reserved. and click >.1 11-67 . Figure 11-41 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 Window k. This example uses the default Dynamic. Select Dynamic.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 5 window in Figure 11-41 appears. Revision A. Sun Services. Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.

11-68 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. and click Finish.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 window in Figure 11-42 appears. Revision A. Review the information. Note – You can continue without problems if one or two addresses are already in use from earlier exercises.1 . Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Figure 11-42 DHCP Address Configuration Wizard – Step 6 Window l.

4.168.168.13 sys13-dhcp-13 #net1 192.1 11-69 . To configure the DHCP client.168. complete the following steps: 1.11 sys13-dhcp-11 #net1 192. use the grep command: # grep dhcp /etc/inet/hosts 192. Working on the sysX4 System This example uses the sys14 system as the DHCP client.168.1. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions The DHCP Manager window in Figure 11-43 appears. which is hme0 in this example.1.14 sys13-dhcp-14 #net1 # Task 2 – Configuring the DHCP Client Complete the steps in this section. Revision A.1. 2. Figure 11-43 DHCP Manager Window m.168. The command syntax used to enable the DHCP client is: # touch /etc/dhcp. To view the information that the dhcpmgr utility added to the/etc/inet/hosts file.12 sys13-dhcp-12 #net1 192. Log in as the root user on the DHCP client.10 sys13-dhcp-10 #net1 192.1. All Rights Reserved. Enable DHCP on the client. Select Exit from the File menu to close the DHCP Manager window.hme0 Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Create the appropriate file for the external interface.1. Inc.

which is hme0 in this example. Reboot the DHCP client system. Start the snoop utility on any system on the subnet other than the DHCP client. To view DHCP client-server interaction. # init 6 3. Configure the /etc/default/dhcpagent file on the DHCP client so that it releases its IP address if it is rebooted or is shut down. After the DHCP client has booted. # snoop -d hme0 -o /tmp/dhcp-snoop. the interface is not plumbed. complete the following steps: 1. Revision A. 3.10 Version Generic 64-bit Copyright 1983-2005 Sun Microsystems.snp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) 2.snp file. Use is subject to license terms. Inc. Inc. Edit the /etc/default/dhcpagent file. Be sure to use the snoop utility on an interface that is on the same subnet as the DHCP client. 4. Task 3 – Using the snoop Utility to View DHCP Client-Server Interaction An important part of troubleshooting DHCP issues is using the snoop utility to observe the network interaction between the server and the client. and remove the # in front of the RELEASE_ON_SIGTERM=yes parameter. Reboot the client. 11-70 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. stop the snoop utility by pressing the Control+C key sequence. All Rights Reserved. and watch the system console as the system boots.1 . This is a requirement for a successful DHCP configuration of the client. otherwise. Hostname: sys13-dhcp-14 All rights reserved. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions Note – Verify that the /etc/hostname. Have the snoop utility write to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.interface file exists for the interface being configured using DHCP. You should see something similar to the following: SunOS Release 5.

.168.1.one.14 DHCP/BOOTP DHCPOFFER ? -> (multicast) ETHER Type=0001 (LLC/802.01810 0...1.00656 0. Sun Services. Use the view utility to view the trace data in the /tmp/dhcp-snoop... 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 .snp | more 0.168. Look for messages. 1 2 .14.83990 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:45:39. Use the snoop utility to convert the trace data to ASCII text.. Observe the ETHER destination addresses.Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 24 arrived at 9:31:56.IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. Revision A... = normal reliability Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. such as DHCPDISCOVER.14 ? 192..14 DHCP/BOOTP DHCPACK OLD-BROADCAST -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192... = normal delay IP: .168.168. ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----.168.. in the trace.14 ICMP Echo request (ID: 4 Sequence number: 0) sys13. the source and destination IP addresses.168.00096 1.14 -> sys13.....37637 0.. DHCPOFFER..1.one.1.168.00254 1.1.. # snoop -v -i /tmp/dhcp-snoop.0 .14.txt file for viewing with any text editor that provides easy navigation and searching of the data.02589 fe80::203:baff:fe6b:5e06 -> ff02::9 RIPng R (6 destinations) 1.1.96445 192.1. = normal throughput IP: ..1.168. Inc. and output that text to the /tmp/dhcp-snoop.61469 0. DHCPRELEASE: ETHER: ----.txt file.0. 24 .1. 192...1 11-71 .snp > /tmp/dhcp-snoop.edu -> 192.3). . 0.1 -> 192.00432 OLD-BROADCAST -> BROADCAST DHCP/BOOTP DHCPDISCOVER sys13.51914 192. # snoop -i /tmp/dhcp-snoop. and DHCPACK.Exercise Solutions 4.txt 6. .1.1. size = 52 bytes OLD-BROADCAST -> BROADCAST DHCP/BOOTP DHCPREQUEST sys13. View the summary of the captured information.168.14 -> (broadcast) ARP C Who is 192.edu DHCP/BOOTP DHCPRELEASE 0.. ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3.one. . and the DHCP messages. DHCPREQUEST..255 RIP R (3 destinations) 1.168. All Rights Reserved. 192.edu -> 192.one. ..14 ? 5. = 0 (precedence) IP: ...79455 0.edu -> 192.

.. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets Relay agent hops = 0 Transaction ID = 0x6fdf1bbf Time since boot = 0 seconds Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 192...0. sys13... . .0.1 .1.1. .3.14 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0.0..(Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPRELEASE Error Message = DHCP agent is exiting DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168...1... Inc..0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----. 192.0.0.1.1.. Sun Services.. = last fragment Fragment offset = 0 bytes Time to live = 255 seconds/hops Protocol = 17 (UDP) Header checksum = 1cfd Source address = 192.168.UDP Header ----Source port = 68 Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) Length = 308 Checksum = B341 ----..0..14 Destination address = 192.0 = no ECN congestion experienced Total length = 328 bytes Identification = 55877 Flags = 0x4 ..edu No options ----.Exercise Solutions IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: IP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: UDP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: . = not ECN capable transport .0. = do not fragment ..168.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.3 DHCPDISCOVER: 11-72 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.1.14.168.one.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.

.0. = normal throughput IP: .. Sun Services.255.IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx.0 .95251 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff. = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 7aa1 IP: Source address = 0. .. (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3. BROADCAST IP: No options IP: UDP: ----..... .0..1... . = do not fragment IP: . = normal reliability IP: .1 11-73 .255.0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 328 bytes IP: Identification = 4 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: ... 0.. Revision A. = not ECN capable transport IP: ....Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 105 arrived at 9:34:5..255.0.0. ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----.. .Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x926aa722 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds Configuring DHCP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems... ..0. .......Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----..... = 0 (precedence) IP: ..0.. = normal delay IP: .. Inc. OLD-BROADCAST IP: Destination address = 255.UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 68 UDP: Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) UDP: Length = 308 UDP: Checksum = E7EC UDP: DHCP: ----. All Rights Reserved.

Revision A. All Rights Reserved.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0.(Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPDISCOVER Maximum DHCP Message Size = 1472 bytes IP Address Lease Time = -1 seconds Client Class Identifier = "SUNW.0.UltraAX-i2" Requested Options: 1 (Subnet Mask) 3 (Router) 6 (DNS Servers) 12 (Client Hostname) 15 (DNS Domain Name) 28 (Broadcast Address) 43 (Vendor Specific Options) DHCPOFFER: 11-74 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----.0.0. Sun Services.1 .0. Inc.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0.

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 107 arrived at 9:34:6.96163 ETHER: Packet size = 359 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:45:39, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 345 bytes IP: Identification = 42935 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 4f7a IP: Source address = 192.168.1.3, sys13.one.edu IP: Destination address = 192.168.1.14, 192.168.1.14 IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 67 UDP: Destination port = 68 (BOOTPC) UDP: Length = 325 UDP: Checksum = 84B8 UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x926aa722 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 192.168.1.14 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPOFFER DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 UTC Time Offset = -25200 seconds RFC868 Time Servers at = 192.168.1.3 IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds DNS Domain Name = one.edu DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.2 DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.3 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255 Perform Router Discovery Flag flag = 0x1 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 Client Hostname = sys13-dhcp-14

DHCPREQUEST:

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 109 arrived at 9:34:8.13256 ETHER: Packet size = 342 bytes ETHER: Destination = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, (broadcast) ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 328 bytes IP: Identification = 5 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 7aa0 IP: Source address = 0.0.0.0, OLD-BROADCAST IP: Destination address = 255.255.255.255, BROADCAST IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 68 UDP: Destination port = 67 (BOOTPS) UDP: Length = 308 UDP: Checksum = 9B2C UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x21a95f6 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPREQUEST IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds Maximum DHCP Message Size = 1472 bytes Requested IP Address = 192.168.1.14 DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 Client Class Identifier = "SUNW.UltraAX-i2" Requested Options: 1 (Subnet Mask) 3 (Router) 6 (DNS Servers) 12 (Client Hostname) 15 (DNS Domain Name) 28 (Broadcast Address) 43 (Vendor Specific Options)

DHCPACK:

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Exercise Solutions ETHER: ----- Ether Header ----ETHER: ETHER: Packet 110 arrived at 9:34:8.15066 ETHER: Packet size = 359 bytes ETHER: Destination = 0:3:ba:68:44:d3, ETHER: Source = 0:3:ba:68:45:39, ETHER: Ethertype = 0800 (IP) ETHER: IP: ----- IP Header ----IP: IP: Version = 4 IP: Header length = 20 bytes IP: Type of service = 0x00 IP: xxx. .... = 0 (precedence) IP: ...0 .... = normal delay IP: .... 0... = normal throughput IP: .... .0.. = normal reliability IP: .... ..0. = not ECN capable transport IP: .... ...0 = no ECN congestion experienced IP: Total length = 345 bytes IP: Identification = 44125 IP: Flags = 0x4 IP: .1.. .... = do not fragment IP: ..0. .... = last fragment IP: Fragment offset = 0 bytes IP: Time to live = 255 seconds/hops IP: Protocol = 17 (UDP) IP: Header checksum = 4ad4 IP: Source address = 192.168.1.3, sys13.one.edu IP: Destination address = 192.168.1.14, 192.168.1.14 IP: No options IP: UDP: ----- UDP Header ----UDP: UDP: Source port = 67 UDP: Destination port = 68 (BOOTPC) UDP: Length = 325 UDP: Checksum = 84B8 UDP: DHCP: ----- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ----DHCP: DHCP: Hardware address type (htype) = 1 (Ethernet (10Mb)) DHCP: Hardware address length (hlen) = 6 octets DHCP: Relay agent hops = 0 DHCP: Transaction ID = 0x21a95f6 DHCP: Time since boot = 48 seconds

Configuring DHCP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

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Exercise Solutions DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: DHCP: Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Flags = 0x0000 Client address (ciaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Your client address (yiaddr) = 192.168.1.14 Next server address (siaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Relay agent address (giaddr) = 0.0.0.0 Client hardware address (chaddr) = 00:03:BA:68:44:D3 ----- (Options) field options ----Message type = DHCPACK DHCP Server Identifier = 192.168.1.3 UTC Time Offset = -25200 seconds RFC868 Time Servers at = 192.168.1.3 IP Address Lease Time = 86400 seconds DNS Domain Name = one.edu DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.2 DNS Servers at = 192.168.1.3 Broadcast Address = 192.168.1.255 Perform Router Discovery Flag flag = 0x1 Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.0 Client Hostname = sys13-dhcp-14 7. # rm /etc/dhcp.* # init 6 Prevent the client system from continuing to act as a DHCP by removing the /etc/dhcp.* files and rebooting the system.

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Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Module 12

Configuring NTP
Objectives
This module introduces how to configure the Network Time Protocol (NTP). This module also introduces NTP basics, including how computers keep time, the uses of NTP, and NTP terms. This module also describes how to configure an NTP server and an NTP client. In addition, this module describes how to troubleshoot NTP, including how to view logs and how to use the snoop utility. Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
q q q q

Identify NTP basics Configure an NTP server Configure an NTP client Troubleshoot NTP

The course map in Figure 12-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal.

Configuring and Managing Network Applications
Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall

Configuring DNS

Configuring DHCP Figure 12-1 Course Map

Configuring NTP

12-1
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Identifying NTP Basics

Identifying NTP Basics
Before you configure NTP, you must be aware of some basic computer clock and NTP-related concepts.

How Computers Keep Time
This section describes how computers keep time. This is a high-level introduction and is not meant to be all inclusive. When the system is not running the Solaris OS, the time-of-day chip maintains basic 24-hour time. This time is copied into a 64-bit counter used by the kernel to maintain 24-hour time for a running system. Sun systems use a combination of an oscillator and a 64-bit counter to keep track of time. A specific number of oscillations cause an interrupt that, if processed, will cause the counter to increment. The Sun system central processing units (CPUs) generate the regular interrupts. By default, 100 interrupts are generated per second. For the system’s counter to increment, the CPUs interrupt must be processed by the kernel. Each interrupt that gets processed is known as a clock tick. However, not all interrupts get processed. This is often due to high system loads and higher priority tasks that take precedence within the kernel. Therefore, gradually, a clock will fall slightly behind because not all time interrupts are processed. However, the controller boards in Sun FIre™ 12k to 25k high-end servers use a real-time clock, not the normal 100 interrupts per second method. This makes them excellent NTP servers, since the clock does not drift as it does on a regular server or workstation. However, making them an NTP client can cause issues with the SMS software. Note – The 32-bit time counter would reach its limit in the year 2038. The 64-bit time counter was started at 0 at midnight, January 1, 1970 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The counter will reach its limit in about 290 million years. Variation in the frequency of the oscillator and delays to the kernel interrupt routine cause clock drifts. NTP disciplines the system clock frequency and time, producing more accurate timing mechanisms for the system.

12-2

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Identifying NTP Basics

Uses of NTP
Many network applications need synchronized clocks to properly function. For example:
q

Encryption – This application often uses time as a component of encryption keys. Network management – This application uses time to determine exactly when something took place. Logging – The syslog facility uses time to display system events. File systems – Applications time stamp files when they are created or modified. Many backup applications are configured to use time as a criteria for determining backups, so that clock synchronization between the backup server and other systems is important. Cluster Nodes – Individual nodes in a Sun Cluster configuration use NTP to ensure that they all agree on the time.

q

q q

q

NTP Terms
Several terms are used when describing time-related topics. These terms are described in Table 12-1. Table 12-1 NTP Terms Term Reference clock Strata Description A clock that provides current time by accurately following a time standard, such as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). NTP servers are arranged in a hierarchy of levels, called strata. A stratum-1 server is more accurate than a stratum-10 server. There are 16 strata. A highly available NTP server that has its own reference clock. The smallest increment in time that a clock offers. For example, a wristwatch usually has a resolution of one second. The smallest increase in time that a computer program can use.

Stratum-1 server Resolution

Precision

Configuring NTP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

12-3

Identifying NTP Basics Table 12-1 NTP Terms (Continued) Term Jitter Accuracy Reliability Wander Drift file Description The difference of the differences experienced when repeatedly measuring time. How close a clock follows an official time reference, such as UTC. The length of time that a clock can remain accurate within a specified range. All clocks suffer from frequency variations. This variation is called wander. A file that contains the frequency offset of the local system’s clock oscillator. Drift file contents can be used by protocols, like NTP, to cause a system’s clock to be more accurate. The default location for Sun’s NTP drift file is /var/ntp/ntp.drift. The NTP daemon. A file that causes the xntpd daemon to start in either the client or the server mode and provides configuration statements that control the behavior of the xntpd daemon. You can use the fudge command in the ntp.conf file as a keyword to configure reference clocks in special ways, such as defining calibration constants to force a time offset to a particular external-time standard. A general term used for various actions carried out by some protocol, which helps keep a local clock better synchronized to an official time source, such as UTC.

xntpd The ntp.conf file

The fudge command

Discipline

12-4

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Configuring an NTP Server

Configuring an NTP Server
The /etc/inet/ntp.server file is a template for configuring an NTP server. Copy this file to /etc/inet/ntp.conf, and edit it to meet your network’s requirements. When viewing contents of the /etc/inet/ntp.server file, remember that an NTP server is also an NTP client. The xntpd daemon is started at system boot if the /etc/inet/ntp.conf file exists and the NTP service is enabled by the SMF. The xntpd daemon starts in either the client or the server mode, depending on the contents of the ntp.conf file. The following steps describe the behavior of the xntpd daemon: 1. Broadcast NTP servers advertise every 64 seconds, by means of a multicast address (224.0.1.1), that they are NTP servers. Any NTP client that is not configured with the unicast address of an NTP server multicasts to this same address when the xntpd daemon is started. View the line that causes the system to act as an NTP server by typing the following:

# grep broadcast /etc/inet/ntp.server broadcast 224.0.1.1 ttl 4 # 2. 3. Local NTP servers answer the multicast advertisements. The NTP client sends time request packets to all of the NTP servers by using the servers’ unicast addresses. Included in the time request packet is the client’s local time. The NTP server replies by inserting UTC time into the packet and then returns the packet to the client. The client compares its original request time with its own time when it receives the response from the server. This enables the client to determine how long the packet was in transit on the network. The client uses the UTC time value from the NTP server after it receives several responses from the NTP server. It can take up to five minutes for an NTP client to synchronize with an NTP server.

4. 5.

6.

Configuring NTP
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

12-5

Configuring an NTP Server Table 12-2 shows the parts of an NTP server’s configuration file and their descriptions. Table 12-2 NTP Configuration File Parts Part server 127.127.1.0 prefer Description The IP address of the preferred NTP server. In this case, the loopback network is used, indicating the use of a local clock. The server keyword indicates an IP address of an NTP server from which time will be received. If the system is a stratum-1 server, then you use X in the 127.127.X.0 syntax to identify a reference clock source. If X is set to 1, the system uses its local clock as the reference clock source. If the server is a stratum-2 (or higher), this entry is an IP address of another NTP server to contact for time information. The prefer keyword means that if multiple systems of the same strata are used to getting clock information, a preferred server is the one that is always used when performing calculations. The fudge entry is available to change (fudge) the stratum that the server advertises. The address the server uses to advertise to the network along with the TTL value to use in IP datagrams. The configuration entry that enables authentication and the monitoring facility. The location of the drift file. The location of NTP statistics. The conventional name of the key file used for authentication. The encryption identifier. (Refer to RFC 1305 for more information.) The key identifier. (Refer to RFC 1305 for more information.)

fudge 127.127.1.0 stratum 0 broadcast 224.0.1.1 ttl 4

enable auth monitor driftfile /var/ntp/ntp.drift statsdir /var/ntp/ntpstats/ keys /etc/inet/ntp.keys trustedkey 0 controlkey 0

Note – Different types of facilities, such as loopstats or clockstats, can also be enabled (refer to the xntpd man page for more details).

12-6

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

server file. All Rights Reserved.0 stratum 0 to: server 127.1.conf file.XType.conf file.XType. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.127. Create a drift file as specified by the driftfile /var/ntp/ntp. where the number 1 represents the undisciplined local clock. Change: server 127. # touch /var/ntp/ntp. Open the /etc/inet/ntp.127. use their own undisciplined local clock as an official.drift # ls -al /var/ntp/ntp.127. Comment out the fudge keyword because special configuration is not needed for the local reference clock.0 fudge 127.conf Note – Choices for XType are listed in the comments of the /etc/inet/ntp. and change the server IP address to 127.127. 3.drift # Note – The xntpd daemon creates the contents of the drift file dynamically. but should not.conf # 2.conf file for editing. 0 Aug 16 11:06 /var/ntp/ntp.drift entry in the /etc/inet/ntp.Configuring an NTP Server Using an Undisciplined Local Clock NTP servers can. Revision A. Sun Services.drift -rw-r--r-1 root root # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.XType. complete the following steps: 1.1 12-7 . To use an undisciplined local clock. Verify that the file exists.127.0. 4. Inc. reliable time source.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp.0 prefer # fudge 127.1.0 stratum 0 # vi /etc/inet/ntp. Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.server /etc/inet/ntp.

98016) Note – Notice the 64-second interval between NTP advertisements sent out. 12-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. This is due to the NTP polling value of 6.1 .1.0. Revision A. When a local clock is configured to act as an accurate source of time.98017) 11:14:00. The polling value can be seen by using the snoop -v command.1. the fudge keyword can be used to alter this behavior. All Rights Reserved.1. Use the snoop utility to view NTP server multicast advertisements.Configuring an NTP Server 5. 26 is 64. until they establish their correct stratum level. Configure the Stratum You can configure the stratum of an NTP server manually by editing the fudge entry in the /etc/inet/ntp. NTP detects this.98017) 11:12:56..conf file.1. Systems that use their own clock as a time source advertise themselves as a stratum-4 server by default. Inc. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command.0.0. Verify that the NTP daemon is running. This is useful when you do not have access to an external NTP server and you have to synchronize with another system manually. # snoop | grep -i ntp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) sys11 -> 224..0. However. The fudge configuration entry can use the stratum option to override the stratum level sent out with the NTP server’s time advertisements... NTP servers and clients that are in the process of synchronization have a stratum level of 0 (zero) initially.1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224. Note – The snoop utility output includes the stratum level of the server. . # pgrep -lf ntp 1585 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd # 7. Sun Services.1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224. # 6. [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 11:11:52. # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled.1 NTP broadcast sys11 -> 224.1 NTP broadcast .98016) 11:15:04.

0 fudge 127.drift -rw-r--r-1 root root # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Open the /etc/inet/ntp. Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.drift entry in the /etc/inet/ntp. # vi /etc/inet/ntp.XType. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.conf file.conf # touch /var/ntp/ntp. Sun Services. Inc.127.127.1 12-9 . To use external NTP reference servers. 0 Aug 16 14:41 /var/ntp/ntp. You must notify the NTP server’s administrators of your intention to use their NTP server as a reference server so that the administrator can properly size NTP servers for the additional NTP load.Configuring an NTP Server Using External NTP Reference Servers Determine which NTP servers are reachable by your NTP server. Verify that the file exists.conf file for editing.drift # 4. Change: server 127.XType. and change the server entry.127.html for links to lists of public NTP servers.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp.server /etc/inet/ntp.XType.udel.conf file.drift # ls -al /var/ntp/ntp.0 stratum 0 3. All Rights Reserved. Refer to http://www. Revision A. Comment out the fudge keyword because special configuration is not needed for an external reference clock.0 stratum 0 to: server external-time-server-a server external-time-server-b server external-time-server-c # fudge 127.edu/~mills/ntp/servers.conf # 2.eecis. Create a drift file as specified by the driftfile /var/ntp/ntp. complete the following steps: 1.

Revision A. All Rights Reserved. 6.1 . Check to see if the NTP daemon is running. Use the ? command to view a list of commands available inside xntpdc. Managing Daemons By default. Sun Services. use the tail command with the follow (-f) option. When time synchronization is established. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command. which was introduced in the Solaris 8 OS. You can query or configure a running xntpd daemon by using the xntpdc utility. 1024 seconds. all NTP messages are sent to the syslog facility. # xntpdc xntpdc> ? Commands available: addpeer addrefclock broadcast clkbug ctlstats debug dmpeers enable host hostnames keytype leapinfo monlist passwd addserver clockstat delay exit iostats listpeers peers addtrap clrtrap delrestrict fudge kerninfo loopinfo preset authinfo controlkey disable help keyid memstats pstats 12-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.Configuring an NTP Server 5. The xntpdc command provides an extensive view of the state of the xntpd daemon. Inc.error] 0 makes a poor control keyid . You can view statistical information interactively or on the command-line. To view the logged information in pseudo real-time. or 210 seconds). the polling interval increases to 17 minutes and 4 seconds (that is..conf file use a 64-second polling interval initially. # pgrep -lf ntp 1595 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd # Note – NTP servers and client that are synchronizing with specific servers defined in the /etc/inet/ntp. For example: # tail -f /var/adm/messages Aug 16 14:25:37 sys11 xntpd[1614]: [ID 450285 daemon.. # svcadm -v svc:/enable network/ntp network/ntp enabled.

Configuring an NTP Server quit restrict timerstats untrustedkey xntpdc> readkeys showpeer traps version requestkey sysinfo trustedkey reset sysstats unconfig reslist timeout unrestrict The commands can be used to display and configure the NTP setup. perform the command: # svcadm -v disable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp disabled.2ce5f000 Tue.00081 s 0.31441 s [192. # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # To start the daemon.30] c4cc99b1.30. For example. Revision A. All Rights Reserved.conf file exists and the NTP service was enabled by SMF.345 ppm 0.003906 s 0. perform the command: # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled.000122 s The NTP service is started automatically at boot time if the /etc/inet/ntp.1 12-11 . You can stop the service manually by using the svcadm command. Inc. the sysinfo command displays information about the current configuration: xntpdc> sysinfo system peer: system peer mode: leap indicator: stratum: precision: root distance: root dispersion: reference ID: reference time: system flags: frequency: stability: broadcastdelay: authdelay: xntpdc> quit # instructor client 00 2 -14 0. Aug 17 2004 15:50:25. To stop the daemon.168. Sun Services.175 auth monitor pll stats kernel_sync -16.000 ppm 38.

For example: # ntpq ntpq> peers remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset disp ============================================================================== *instructor .LCL.0 ntpq> exit # 12-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 1 u 29 64 377 0.06 224.1 .1.000 0. All Rights Reserved.0. Sun Services.0 16 64 0 0.0. Use the ntpq utility to identify NTP peers on the network. Revision A.1 0. Inc.000 16000.00 0.69 0.0.Configuring an NTP Server Determining NTP Peers The ntpq utility is the standard NTP query program.

uses the ntpdate command to synchronize the client’s clock to UTC.1 12-13 . complete the following step: Copy the /etc/inet/ntp.conf file.client file to the /etc/inet/ntp. the xntpd daemon is started by the SMF method to maintain synchronization. /lib/svc/method/xntp. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.d/xntpd start 1676 /sbin/sh /etc/init.Configuring an NTP Client Configuring an NTP Client Configuration of an NTP client also requires the /etc/inet/ntp. # tail -1 /etc/inet/ntp. Inc.1. Establishing Basic Configuration To initialize the file configuration. All Rights Reserved.0.0.1. # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp network/ntp enabled.client /etc/inet/ntp. perform the following: 1. as it does with NTP servers. Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. # The SMF NTP method. Sun Services. Revision A.conf file to be created.d/xntpd start # Check to determine if the NTP daemon is running. After the ntpdate command is executed.1 1679 /sbin/sh /etc/init. Start the NTP daemon by using the svcadm command.conf # The /etc/inet/ntp. # pgrep -lf ntp 1680 /usr/sbin/ntpdate -s -m 224.1 Starting the NTP Client Daemon To start the NTP client daemon. which configures the client to use the default multicast address to solicit for servers.client file contains only one entry.client multicastclient 224. # pgrep -lf ntp # 2.

Configuring an NTP Client Note – The ntpdate command runs automatically to gather NTP inputs and to set the initial time on this system. # pgrep -lf ntp # 12-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. The ntpdate command might perform this initial setting by means of a step or a slew. Stopping the NTP Client Daemon Stop the NTP client daemon by using the svcadm command. # The xntpd daemon is no longer running. Sun Services.1 . Inc. Revision A. # svcadm -v disable network/ntp network/ntp disabled. Refer to the ntpdate(1M) man page for further details.

hz = 100 Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 266339 daemon. All Rights Reserved.notice] tickadj = 5.004158 sec Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 702911 daemon. to troubleshoot NTP.30 offset 0.notice] trying ttl 1 for multicast server synchronisation Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 558725 daemon.93 e+sun 03/08/29 16:23:05 (1.Troubleshooting NTP Troubleshooting NTP Use a combination of tools. drift correction 0. Revision A. Sun Services.168. Inc.30.notice] no server suitable for synchronisation found yet Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 147394 daemon.1 12-15 . est. # tail -50 /var/adm/messages | grep -i ntp Aug 17 15:21:46 sys11 ntpdate[1680]: [ID 318594 daemon. tick = 10000.4) Aug 17 15:22:48 sys11 xntpd[1676]: [ID 301315 daemon. such as viewing system error logs and using the snoop utility.notice] adjust tim e server 192. The system sends out its periodic (every 64 seconds) NTP requests with the incorrect time. the client changes its time and writes a message to the /var/adm/messages file. The NTP servers respond with the correct time. After receiving multiple updates from the NTP servers.00000 # Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.notice] xntpd 3-5.notice] using kernel phase-lock loop 0041. tvu_maxslew = 495. Viewing Messages Log messages result from setting the time forward on the system.

# snoop port Using device sys11 sys11 sys11 sys11 <Control>-C# ntp /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) -> 224.98016) 11:15:04. the NTP client acknowledges that its time is incorrect. Inc. sys11 -> sys12 sys12 -> sys11 sys12 -> sys11 4.0. 3. 2.1 . Revision A. NTP NTP client [st=0] (2004-08-17 15:25:21.98017) 11:14:00.1.Troubleshooting NTP Using the snoop Utility To view NTP server multicast advertisements.0. The client then takes action to change its own time.1 NTP broadcast -> 224. The NTP server responds with the correct time. Eventually.1 NTP broadcast -> 224.98016) Clients synchronize with servers using unicast packets.32839) The NTP server responds again with the correct time.1 NTP broadcast -> 224.0.32955) Note that the client is at stratum 0 initially.32834) This exchange between the NTP server and the NTP client repeats many times.1.0.32958) server [st=1] (2004-08-17 15:25:21. All Rights Reserved.1. It sets the correct stratum level after synchronization is established. NTP server [st=1] (2004-08-17 15:24:17.1 NTP broadcast [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] [st=1] (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 (2004-08-16 11:11:52. Sun Services. The NTP client sends a message to an NTP server with its idea of the local time.98017) 11:12:56. as follows: 1.1. NTP client [st=0] (2004-08-17 15:24:17. sys11 -> sys12 12-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. use the snoop utility. based on NTP time advertisements received from one or more NTP servers. Information about the actions taken by the NTP client is sent to the syslog facility for proper processing.

Sun Services. you configure NTP. All Rights Reserved. Task Summary In this exercise. Preparation Refer to the lecture notes as necessary to perform the tasks listed. Revision A. it broadcasts NTP updates to your local subnet. This configuration must be completed at least five minutes before this exercise starts so that the NTP server has an opportunity to initialize itself properly. Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The instructor’s system must be configured as a stratum-0 server even though the system might be using its local clock. Inc. After the NTP server is configured.Exercise: Configuring NTP Exercise: Configuring NTP In this exercise.1 12-17 . Your NTP server uses the instructor system as an external NTP server. Team up with other students in your subnet group so that you can experience most aspects of NTP configuration. you configure an NTP server and an NTP client on your subnet.

Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 2. In another window. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 6. While you edit the file. and write the output of the command: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Write the command that you use. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 3. (Either use the -c 1 option to the snoop command so that only one NTP broadcast packet is captured or remember to terminate the snoop session when you are finished with this step. Edit the NTP configuration file. Ensure that the instructor system is your preferred server. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 5. comment out the fudge and keys entries and modify the broadcast entry. Start the snoop utility on your router system’s to observe NTP traffic between the router and the instructor system. Sun Services.Exercise: Configuring NTP Tasks Your first task is to configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server. Copy and rename the NTP configuration template in preparation for specifying configurations in that file the next time the NTP service is enabled. All Rights Reserved. 12-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Inc. determine if the NTP daemon is running on your system. Working on Your Subnet Group’s Router To configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server. Revision A. perform the following: 1. Create a drift file as specified by the drift file entry in the configuration file. Verify that your router is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system. Be sure not to let snoop run continually). and modify the server entry so that your system looks to the instructor system for NTP updates.

Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 9.1 12-19 . Start a snoop session on the appropriate interface on the client. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 10. terminate the snoop session. and write your answer: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 11. continue as follows: 8. When you are finished. After you start the NTP service in the next step. be prepared to examine the trace carefully. Sun Services. Start the NTP daemon. In the window running the snoop trace on the NTP client. Write the command that you use. Copy and rename the NTP client configuration template to specify the configuation of the NTP service when it is enabled. and view the NTP transactions that can be seen on the snoop trace that is running.Exercise: Configuring NTP 7. When you are finished. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Determine if the NTP daemon is running. terminate the snoop session. Write the command that you use: _____________________________________________________________ Your second task is to configure an NTP client on any of the remaining systems on your subnet. Watch the transactions for a few minutes to see your system’s time becoming synchronized with the instructor’s stratum-0 NTP server. Write the commands that you use: _________________________________________________ Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. Working on a Non-Router System To configure an NTP client on remaining systems on your subnet. Use the snoop utility to verify that your system is receiving the NTP broadcasts from your subnet’s NTP server.

Exercise: Configuring NTP 12. (Hint: Use X-Off (Control+S key sequence) to stop the snoop trace from scrolling and use X-On (Control+Q key sequence) to enable scrolling again. Examine the snoop trace and locate the part of the snoop trace where the client time changed to match the server’s time. All Rights Reserved. Inc.1 . Revision A. Start the NTP daemon and verify that it is running. Sun Services. 12-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the commands that you use: _____________________________________________________________ 13.

Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. issues.1 12-21 . Revision A. q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc.

255 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 lo0: flags=2000849<UP.1.1. All Rights Reserved. perform the following: 1. Be sure not to let snoop run continually).ROUTER.IPv6> mtu 8252 index 1 inet6 ::1/128 hme0: flags=2100841<UP.30.RUNNING.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 qfe0: flags=2100841<UP.255 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 qfe0: flags=1000843<UP.ADDRCONF.MULTICAST.ADDRCONF.0.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 qfe0:2: flags=2180841<UP.MULTICAST. Inc.ROUTER. determine which interface is on the instructor system’s 192.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.30.RUNNING.RUNNING. Verify that your router is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system.168.168.168.LOOPBACK.RUNNING.RUNNING.RUNNING. Revision A.MULTICAST.168.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 3 ether 8:0:20:ac:9b:20 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feac:9b20/10 qfe0:1: flags=2180841<UP. (Either use the -c 1 option to the snoop command so that only one NTP broadcast packet is captured or remember to terminate the snoop session when you are finished with this step.ADDRCONF.RUNNING.MULTICAST.MULTICAST.MULTICAST. Sun Services.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following section.MULTICAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.ROUTER.MULTICAST.ROUTER.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192. Task Solutions Your first task is to configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server.RUNNING.LOOPBACK.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 2000::1:a00:20ff:feb9:7223/64 hme0:2: flags=2180841<UP.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.0.RUNNING.1 . Working on Your Subnet Group’s Router To configure your subnet’s router as an NTP server.168.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.BROADCAST.0 network.MULTICAST.ROUTER. Write the commands that you use: First.IPv6> mtu 1500 index 2 ether 8:0:20:b9:72:23 inet6 fe80::a00:20ff:feb9:7223/10 hme0:1: flags=2180841<UP.IPv4. # ifconfig -a lo0: flags=1000849<UP.30.IPv6> mtu 1500 index inet6 fec0::30:a00:20ff:feac:9b20/64 2 2 3 3 12-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ROUTER.ADDRCONF.

thirty.conf file.XType.168. # cp /etc/inet/ntp.keys #trustedkey 0 #requestkey 0 #controlkey 0 Change the broadcast entry to be similar to the following: broadcast 192. Edit the NTP configuration file. Ensure that the instructor system is your preferred server.drift Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 2.conf file.127. Inc.30.30.edu -> 192.conf 3. Revision A. Edit the /etc/inet/ntp.server file to the /etc/inet/ntp.conf Change the server and fudge entries to be similar to the following: server 192. Create a drift file as specified by the drift file entry in the configuration file.83034) 1 packets captured # broadcast [st=1] You can continue to configure your system as an NTP server because it is receiving NTP updates from the instructor system that is acting as a stratum-0 server.1.server /etc/inet/ntp.30 prefer # fudge 127.255 NTP (2004-11-05 09:41:20. comment out the fudge and keys entries and modify the broadcast entry. Write the command that you use: # touch /var/ntp/ntp.168. Sun Services. and modify the server entry so that your system looks to the instructor system for NTP updates.Exercise Solutions Use a combination of the snoop and grep utilities to look for NTP updates on the interface (qfe0) closest to the instructor system as follows: # snoop -d qfe0 -c 1 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) instructor.168. Write the command that you use: Copy the /etc/inet/ntp. Copy and rename the NTP configuration template in preparation for specifying configurations in that file for the next time the NTP service is enable.0 stratum 0 Change the keys entries to be similar to the following: #keys /etc/inet/ntp.1 12-23 . While you edit the file.255 ttl 4 4. # vi /etc/inet/ntp. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved. and write the output of the command: # pgrep -lf ntp 1142 snoop -d qfe0 port ntp No. as expected. In another window. and view the NTP transactions that can be seen on the snoop trace that is running. Start the NTP daemon. Your second task is to configure an NTP client on any of the remaining systems on your subnet. 6. Write the command that you use.168.. determine if the NTP daemon is running on your system.30. Inc. Start the snoop utility on your router system’s to observe NTP traffic between the router and the instructor system. Write the command that you use: Start the snoop utility on the 192. 7.. Revision A. the NTP daemon is not running.45062) instructor -> sys11ext NTP server [st=1] (2004-11-05 10:09:39. 12-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Watch the transactions for a few minutes to see your system’s time becoming synchronized with the instructor’s stratum-0 NTP server..0 network. Sun Services.Exercise Solutions 5.255 NTP broadcast [st=1] (2004-11-05 10:04:48. Write the command that you use: # svcadm enable svc:/network/ntp:default svc:/network/ntp:default enabled # # snoop -d qfe2 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) sys11ext -> instructor NTP client [st=0] (2004-11-05 10:05:14.79242) ..168.1 . # snoop -d qfe0 port ntp Using device /dev/qfe (promiscuous mode) instructor -> 192.83026) .30.

Start the NTP daemon and verify that it is running. which acts as a stratum-2 server.one. Write the command that you use: # cp /etc/inet/ntp. the NTP daemon is not running. Copy and rename the NTP client configuration template to specify the configuation of the NTP service when it is enabled. Write the command that you use.1. and write your answer: # pgrep -lf ntp No.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System To configure an NTP client on remaining systems on your subnet. 11. All Rights Reserved. Inc..client /etc/inet/ntp. # # pgrep -lf ntp 1528 /usr/lib/inet/xntpd Configuring NTP Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Write the commands that you use: # svcadm -v enable svc:/network/ntp svc:/network/ntp:default enabled..255 NTP broadcast [st=2] (2004-11-05 10:18:16.1 12-25 . Use the snoop utility to verify that your system is receiving the NTP broadcasts from your subnet’s NTP server. Start a snoop session on the appropriate interface on the client. Write the command that you use: # snoop -d hme0 port ntp Using device /dev/hme (promiscuous mode) sys11.168. be prepared to examine the trace carefully. When you are finished. # snoop -d hme0 port ntp . Sun Services.conf 10. terminate the snoop session. 12. 9.edu -> 192. Determine if the NTP daemon is running.08248) You can continue with configuring your system as an NTP client because it is receiving NTP updates from your router system. continue as follows: 8. Revision A. After you start the NTP service in the next step. as expected. In the window running the snoop trace on the NTP client.

one.02497) {observe that server’s time is 15:57 while client’s time is 15:58} sys11..61034) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:12.one.edu sys12.06560) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:58:51.edu sys11.72945) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 16:00:59.255 sys11.one.edu sys12.edu sys11.one.one.06425) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.168.one.one.edu sys12.one.edu -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> sys12.edu sys12.1 NTP 224.61016) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:13.one. (Hint: Use X-Off (Control+S key sequence) to stop the snoop trace from scrolling and use X-On (Control+Q key sequence) to enable scrolling again.edu sys11.255 NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:59:22. Examine the snoop trace and locate the part of the snoop trace where the client time changed to match the server’s time.1.one.edu sys11.one.one.one.1.168.one.one.72968) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:59:55.edu sys12.edu 192.168.02556) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.0.edu sys11.Exercise Solutions 13. Sun Services. .edu sys12.one.edu sys11.edu NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP NTP server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.edu -> -> -> -> -> -> 224.0.edu sys11. All Rights Reserved.edu 192.edu sys12.one.one.255 NTP sys11.one.edu sys12.72968) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 16:00:26.1 NTP 224.1 .06474) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38. Inc.edu sys12.one.06518) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.61026) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:14.one.one. Revision A.edu sys12.1.0.one.one.one.064 12-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.02602) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.edu sys11.edu sys11..edu 192.1 NTP 224.edu sys12. sys12.1.one.edu sys12.1.edu sys11.edu NTP client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:11.06304) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:58:38.one.02645) server [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.one.one.edu sys11.06379) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 16:00:26.06343) client [st=0] (2005-02-02 15:59:22.one.72971) {observe that the client has updated its time to that of the server} sys11.61010) broadcast [st=2] (2005-02-02 15:57:47.edu -> -> -> -> -> sys12.one.0.1.168.one.edu sys12.255 sys11.1.1.1 NTP 192.

Configuring and Managing Network Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Configuring DNS Configuring DHCP Figure 13-1 Course Map Configuring NTP 13-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. This module also introduces the basics of the Solaris IP Filter firewall.1 . you should be able to: q q Identify Solaris IP Filter firewall basics Configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall behavior The course map in Figure 13-1 shows how this module fits into the current instructional goal. Revision A. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. Upon completion of this module. including how the firewall decides whether or not to pass a packet and how rules for the firewall can be defined based on various criteria.Module 13 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Objectives This module introduces how to configure the Solaris IP Filter host-based firewall.

An unprotected network connected to the Internet by an IP router exposes all of the systems on the network to the whole Internet.conf file. a firewall is selective about the traffic that it forwards. Anyone on the Internet can attempt to access any of the systems in any manner. by default. Access restrictions can be applied to systems outside the network looking to access systems inside the network. An IP router will. 13-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The decision to forward or not to forward traffic is controlled by a set of rules defined on the firewall. In a controlled or constrained environment. This is the purpose of a firewall. All Rights Reserved. The Solaris IP Filter firewall is an integral part of the Solaris 10 OS and can be configured on Solaris 10 OS systems acting as routers and on individual hosts. permitting free access. free access between networks where all the systems are known is not necessarily a problem. on port numbers and payload types. The behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is controlled by a configuration file. Inc. forward all traffic that arrives at one of its interfaces to another network. and can decide not to permit certain traffic to be forwarded. Solaris IP Filter firewall is a utility that enables a Solaris 10 OS system to act as a firewall. Revision A.Identifying Firewall Basics Identifying Firewall Basics IP routers are used to connect networks together and to pass traffic between the networks.1 . the network can be connected by using some form of device that is more restrictive in the access it permits. The rules in the firewall can be based on characteristics of traffic such source and destination IP addresses for both individual hosts and networks. unrestricted access is typically not desirable. When connecting a network to external networks. and to control the access that systems inside the network have to the rest of the Internet. similar to an IP router. A firewall is a device which runs some software designed to control traffic between networks. the /etc/ipf/ipf. An IP router can be considered to be an open door between networks. Unlike an IP router. Sun Services. To avoid this situation.

3. The default configuration in the Solaris 10 OS is that packet filtering is not enabled for any network interface. it is necessary to understand how the Solaris IP Filter firewall reads this file and compares any packet against the rules in the file. Enabling Packet Filtering With the Solaris IP Filter Firewall For the Solaris IP Filter firewall to function.1 13-3 . Discard any action remembered previously. When processing a packet. the Solaris IP Filter firewall performs the following tasks: 1. If the end of the rules is reached or the matched rule contains the quick keyword.ap file. If no rules match. Inc. qfe. 4.conf file. 2.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall When defining packet filtering rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Sun Services. Each rule in the file tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall to either permit or deny the packet to be sent or received. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and so on). The pfil kernel module is loaded on an individual network interface when the interface is plumbed if packet filtering has been enabled for that type of interface (hme. stop matching and perform the action. Revision A. Packet filtering is enabled on a particular network interface type by uncommenting the line relating to the network interface type in the /etc/ipf/pfil. the pfil kernel module must be loaded on each network interface on the system on which packet filtering is to be applied. 5. Each rule in the file contains: q q q An action A direction Criteria which are compared against the packet to determine whether the packet matches the rule The default behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is to read every rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Compare the packet against the direction and criteria in the rule. remember the action specified in the rule. If the packet matches.conf file. All Rights Reserved. pass the packet.

ap # IP Filter pfil autopush setup # # See autopush(1M) manpage for more information. Remove the leading comment character from the appropriate lines for the interface for which filtering is to be configured. 13-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example. Like other SMF services. you can use the autopush command to read changes to the /etc/ipf/pfil. # cat /etc/ipf/pfil. Revision A.ap Solaris IP Filter Services The svc:/network/pfil and the svc:/network/ipfilter SMF services control the pfild daemon process.ap file contains a list of network interfaces. Sun Services. # # Format of the entries in this file is: # #major minor lastminor modules #le #qe #hme #qfe #eri #ce #bge #be #vge #ge #nf #fa #ci #el #ipdptp #lane #dmfe # -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil pfil Any existing. # autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.1 . plumbed network interfaces to which you choose to apply filtering must be unplumbed and plumbed. use the svcs and svcadm commands to manage these filtering services.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall The /etc/ipf/pfil. All Rights Reserved. Inc.ap file before you unplumb and plumb the interfaces.

Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. All rules to block packets use this keyword: block .. Traffic Flow hme0 hme1 Block/pass in on hme0 Block/pass out on hme1 Internet Traffic Flow hme0 hme1 Corporate Network Block/pass out on hme0 Block/pass in on hme1 Figure 13-2 Filtering Based Upon Traffic Direction Using the block keyword The block keyword is an action keyword which tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall that the packet should be blocked (dropped) if the packet matches the rule.1 13-5 . There are two action keywords: block and pass. Sun Services.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Actions Every rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf.conf file starts with an action. All Rights Reserved. Figure 13-2 shows how filtering works when based upon traffic direction. The action states whether the Solaris IP Filter firewall will permit or deny the packet if the rule is matched. Inc..

. All rules that are intended to block packets arriving at a system start with the following: block in .. Sun Services.. 13-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The direction keyword relates to the movement of the packet in relation to the system on which the Solaris IP Filter firewall is running. All rules that are intended to pass packets arriving at a system start with the following: pass in . Using the in Keyword The in keyword is used for rules that relate to packets arriving at the system from the network.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Using the pass keyword The pass keyword is the action keyword that tells the Solaris IP Filter firewall that the packet should be accepted or sent if the packet matches the rule. All rules to permit packets to pass use this keyword: pass . Revision A.. Configuring Packet Direction The second keyword in all packet filtering rules is a direction keyword.1 . Inc. All Rights Reserved. There are two direction keywords in the Solaris IP Filter firewall: in and out. Any rule that contains the in keyword is applied only to packets arriving at the system from the network...

5 example. The quick keyword. The remaining rules are not processed against the packet for matches.. Any rule containing the out keyword is applied only to packets leaving the system.7 example.8 example.FW example.NAT example. Revision A. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..FW example.2 ip_rules nat. All rules that are intended to block packets leaving a system start with the following: block out .conf BASIC_1.eg tcpstate example. All rules that are intended to pass packets leaving a system start with the following: pass out .13 ftppxy nat-setup server BASIC_2. All Rights Reserved. is found between the direction keyword and the matching keywords in the rule. Configuring Filter Rules This section describes how to configure filter rules.12 ftp-proxy mkfilters pool. The quick keyword is used to change this behavior. The /usr/share/ipfilter/examples directory contains IPFilter examples to help you define rules.sr firewall Using the quick keyword Recall that the default behavior of the Solaris IP Filter firewall is to find every rule that matches and remember the action from the last rule matched. Sun Services. # ls /usr/share/ipfilter/examples BASIC.3 example. Inc. If a packet matches a rule containing the quick keyword.1 example.6 example.10 example.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Using the out Keyword The out keyword is used for rules that relate to packets leaving the system to go out on to the network...11 example.1 13-7 . if present.4 example.9 example. then the Solaris IP Filter firewall stops matching at that rule and applies the action contained in the rule.

All Rights Reserved. Configuring Filtering on a Specific Network Interface The Solaris IP Filter firewall applies each rule to every network interface on the system by default. start the rule with: pass out quick . start the rule with: block in quick . Use of the on keyword enables you to apply a rule to a particular network interface only. Sun Services.. use the rule: pass in all To permit all packets arriving at a system to be passed and to stop processing rules at this point use the rule: pass in quick all Configuring Specific Matching This section describes how to configure specific matching for filters. Matching All Packets The all keyword is used to match every packet either arriving or leaving at a system. Revision A..Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To define a rule that will block any incoming packet matching the rule and will stop the Solaris IP Filter firewall from processing any further rules. Inc. For example.1 . 13-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. to block every packet arriving at a system. To define a rule that will permit any outgoing packet matching the rule and will stop the Solaris IP Filter firewall from processing any further rules. use the rule: block in quick all To permit all packets arriving at a system to be passed.. use the rule: block in all To block every packet arriving at a system and stop processing rules at this point.

Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.255. For example. the to keyword is used. Sun Services.255. The rule: block out from any to 192.255. the from keyword is used. Revision A.0 and intended for any destination to enter the system from the network on any network interface.conf file.1.30. To filter packets based on the source IP address.255. IP addresses are suffixed by a netmask value specified by using prefix notation. the rule: pass in from 192. To specify a Class B network.30 as their destination. to permit all packets arriving and leaving the hme0 interface and to stop further processing rules at this point. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 all pass out quick on hme0 all Configuring Filtering on IP Address The Solaris IP Filter firewall can filter packets based on their source and destination IP addresses. use the suffix /16 or /255.168. use the suffix /32 or /255. use the suffix /24 or /255. Inc.0. The from and to keywords take IP addresses as arguments.255.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Note – The Solaris IP Filter firewall does not filter the loopback interface. All Rights Reserved. use the on keyword followed by the name of the interface.0. For example.ap file. To match any IP address.168.168. To apply a rule to a specific interface.168.30/32 will block any packets leaving the current system which have the host 192. To filter packets based on the destination IP address.1 13-9 .0/24 to any will permit any packets originating from the Class C network 192. To specify a Class C network.0. use the keyword any. You should not use the interface identifier lo0 in the /etc/ipf/ipf.1. Note that the lo identifier does not appear in the /etc/ipf/pfil.255. To specify an IP address for a single host.30.

1 .Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Network interfaces and IP addresses can be combined in rules. Inc.168.0/24 will block any packets arriving at the qfe0 network interface from any source IP address which are intended for the 192.3.168. For example.0 network.168.1. 13-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. For example.1.0 network. the rule block out on qfe0 from 192.3.168.0/24 will block any packet leaving the qfe0 interface which originated from the host 192. Revision A.1. All Rights Reserved. the rule: block in on qfe0 from any to 192. IP addresses can be used as both source and destination addresses.2 and is intended for the 192.2/32 to 192. Sun Services.168.1.

The icmp-type keyword can be used to specify a single ICMP type value for the rule. The protocols which can be filtered are TCP. The proto keyword is used to filter on protocol type. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Table 13-2 ICMP Type Values and Keywords ICMP Type Echo reply Echo request Router advertisement Router solicitation Value 0 8 9 10 Keyword echorep echo routerad routersol Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 13-11 . use the rule: block in on hme0 proto icmp from any to any In this form. this rule blocks all ICMP packets. The proto keyword is followed by a second keyword that identifies the protocol or protocols to be filtered. All ICMP packets contain a type value in the ICMP header. Some common ICMP types are shown in Table 13-2.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring Filtering on Protocol Type and Port Number The Solaris IP Filter firewall is also capable of filtering traffic based on the network protocol contained in a packet. to block all ICMP packets arriving on the hme0 interface. UDP and ICMP. Sun Services. Table 13-1 Protocol Keywords Keyword icmp tcp udp tcp/udp Protocols Filtered ICMP TCP UDP Both TCP and UDP For example. Table 13-1 shows the keywords and the protocols to which they relate. Revision A.

168. Other applications.1.conf(4) man page for details. anonymous-client port assignments.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Note – A complete list of ICMP type values can be found in the /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp. use the rule: block out quick on qfe0 proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echorep Filtering of TCP and UDP packets can be restricted to a particular port by using the port = keywords. The icmp-type keyword is appended to the end of a rule to make the rule apply to a specific type of ICMP packet.168.1.h file. Note – When configuring filtering based upon port number. The port to which the rule is to apply is specified after the equal sign (=). it is important to understand the manner in which the applications you are filtering uses ports.0/24 icmp-type 9 block in quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to any block out quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to any To block outgoing ICMP echo replies (responses to the ping command) on the qfe0 interface. Sun Services.0/24 to any icmp-type 10 pass out quick on hme0 proto icmp from any to 192. use the same port on the server and the client. but to block all other ICMP traffic on the hme0 interface. routing protocols.0 network and to send router advertisements on the same interface. All Rights Reserved. 13-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. For example.168. to permit a system to receive ICMP router discovery solicitations on the hme0 interface connected to the 192. FTP and telnet. Inc. For example. to block the default telnet server port (23) the keywords port = 23 are appended to the rule. the keep state keywords are a convenient way to avoid having to know the per-session. The type value can be specified numerically or textually. When writing rules for protocols like Telnet and FTP. Note that the spaces on either sides of the equals sign are required. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 proto icmp from 192.1 . for example. Some applications.1. Port-based filtering can be applied to the source address or the destination address. use a well-known port on the server side and an anonymous port for the client. for example. Revision A. See the ipf.

168.0 network. Sun Services.168.1. use the rules: pass in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from 192.1 13-13 . use the rule: block in quick proto tcp from any to any port = 23 To block all incoming telnet packets except those originating from the 192. Revision A. use the rules: pass in quick proto tcp from 192.1.168.0 network on the hme0 interface only.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To block all incoming packets intended for the telnet server port (port 23).0/24 to any port = 23 block in quick proto tcp from any to any port = 23 To permit incoming RPC requests to the rpcbind daemon from the 192.1.0 to any port = 111 block in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from any to any port = 111 To permit packets to leave the telnet server port if they are intended for the local subnet.1.0/24 Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.1. All Rights Reserved.168. use the rule: pass out quick proto tcp from 192.1/32 port = 23 to 192. Inc.168.1.

Inc. The -F option is combined with one of three choices of the rules to clear: -Fa -Fi -Fo Flush all rules (both input and output) Flush input rules only Flush output rules only For example. Revision A.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Changing and Updating the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration The ipf command is used to update the set of filtering rules in place on a system.1 . If a flush option is specified after an add rules option. Sun Services. The rules found in the file are appended to any existing rules: # ipf -f /etc/ipf/ipf. The -F (flush) option is used to clear rules. to clear all of the input rules. 13-14 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf file. the new rules will be added. then flushed along with the old rules.conf # The ipf command can also be used to remove rules from the current configuration. The -f option takes the name of a file containing the new rules as an argument.conf # Note – Options to the ipf command are executed in the order in which they are specified on the command line. type the command: # ipf -Fi # If you have made changes to the rule set in the /etc/ipf/ipf. All Rights Reserved. The -f option is used to add filtering rules. the flush option must be specified first. To clear the existing rules and load a new or updated set. you can load the new rules by combining a flush operation and an add operation in one command: # ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.

The out rules are listed in order first. Revision A.168. Running the ipfstat command with no arguments displays statistics about the Solaris IP Filter firewall: # ipfstat bad packets: in 0 out 0 input packets: blocked 37 passed 71 nomatch 71 counted 0 short 0 output packets: blocked 0 passed 77 nomatch 50 counted 0 short 0 input packets logged: blocked 0 passed 0 output packets logged: blocked 0 passed 0 packets logged: input 0 output 0 log failures: input 0 output 0 fragment state(in): kept 0 lost 0 fragment state(out): kept 0 lost 0 packet state(in): kept 0 lost 0 packet state(out): kept 0 lost 0 ICMP replies: 0 TCP RSTs sent: 0 Invalid source(in): 0 Result cache hits(in): 13 (out): 27 IN Pullups succeeded: 0 failed: 0 OUT Pullups succeeded: 10 failed: 0 Fastroute successes: 0 failures: 0 TCP cksum fails(in): 0 (out): 0 IPF Ticks: 1426 Packet log flags set: (0) none # The ipfstat command can also be used to display the rules being used currently by using the -io option: # ipfstat -io empty list for ipfilter(out) block in proto tcp from any to 192. Inc. and then the in rules are listed. Sun Services.1 13-15 . Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.0/24 port = telnet # Note – The ipfstat -io command does not display the rules in the same sequence as they are listed in the /etc/ipf/ipf. All Rights Reserved.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Viewing the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuration The ipfstat command is used to display information about the behavior and configuration of the Solaris IP Filter firewall.conf file.2.

2. add the log keyword to the block rule in the following example: pass in quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from 192.2.2.32861 -> 192. to log any packets which are received on the hme0 interface and intended for the rpcbind daemon.2.32861 -> 192.32861 -> 192.168.168.2.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring Logging in the Solaris IP Filter Firewall The Solaris IP Filter firewall includes the ability to log its actions. Sun Services.0 to any port = 111 block in log quick on hme0 proto tcp/udp from any to any port = 111 Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log to Standard Output To display logged information on standard output.607407 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:38.2.2.168. For example. Logged information is sent to the /dev/ipl device.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.1 .1. Inc.168.978075 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:45.168.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192. Configuring Logging of a Rule Match To configure a rule match to be logged by the Solaris IP Filter firewall.168.1.0 network.1.2. The ipmon command can log information to standard output.168.168.2.168.1.2.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192. use the ipmon command: # ipmon 23/07/2004 15:27:35.32861 -> 192.23 PR tc 13-16 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. to a file.1.2.248572 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:28:03.32861 -> 192.121993 p len 20 40 -R IN Control-C# hme0 @0:1 b 192.2. The /dev/ipl device can be monitored by running the ipmon command. but which do not originate from the 192. and any matches of that rule are sent to the /dev/ipl device. or send the information to the syslogd daemon.1. All Rights Reserved.23 PR tc hme0 @0:1 b 192.2.168. the log keyword is used. The log keyword is placed immediately after the direction keyword in a rule.1.168. Revision A.2.168.2.738002 p len 20 52 -S IN 23/07/2004 15:27:59.

warning local0. Packets blocked by Solaris IP Filter firewall. Table 13-3 Solaris IP Filter Firewall Message Levels Message Level local0. All Rights Reserved.txt <Control>-C # The ipmon process can be instructed to run as a daemon by using the -D option: # ipmon -D /var/tmp/filterlog2. and so the /etc/syslog. as show in Table 13-3. but that do not have the action associated with the rule applied.error local0. Revision A.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log to a File To capture logged information to a file. The Solaris IP Filter firewall sends packets by using the local0 facility. Packets passed by Solaris IP Filter firewall. but has been matched by a later rule in the /etc/ipf/ipf. supply the name of the file to log to as an argument to the ipmon command: # ipmon /var/tmp/filterlog.1 13-17 .notice local0.conf file subsequently. Packets matching a logged rule.info Meaning Packets that are logged and are short. The Solaris IP Filter firewall generates messages at four levels.conf file must be configured appropriately to record logging information sent to it by the ipmon command. This information tells you that the packet matches the rule. Sun Services. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.txt # Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall to Log by Using Syslog The -s option to the ipmon command causes log information to be sent to the syslogd daemon. Inc.

Sun Services.Configuring the Behavior of the Solaris IP Filter Firewall To configure the ipmon command to run as a daemon and to send logging information by using the syslogd daemon to the /var/adm/ipflog file: # cat /etc/syslog. Revision A. Inc.notice # touch /var/adm/ipflog # pkill -HUP syslogd # ipmon -D -s # .1 .conf local0. All Rights Reserved. /var/adm/ipflog 13-18 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems...

1 13-19 . Task Summary In this exercise. for example. There is no preparation for this exercise. Revision A. you configure packet filtering on your subnet’s router and on client systems in your subnet. issue the appropropriate svcadm commands on the appropriate systems to once again enable them. All Rights Reserved. the Solaris IP Filter firewall. can influence behavior that you observe locally. If the services are not running. Configurations on other group’s router firewall. you configure the Solaris OS IP filter. by performing the following: q q Configuring packet filtering rules Restricting access to a subnet Preparation Caution – Before beginning this exercise. Also.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall In this exercise. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. be aware of what other subnet groups are doing. Sun Services. check that DNS services are running as they were in the prior DNS exercise. Team up with other students in your subnet group so that you can experience most aspects of the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration. Inc.

Use another system to verify that your network is functioning properly and that your system can be accessed with the telnet utility. _____________________________________________________________ 4. Which file do you edit? _____________________________________________________________ 13-20 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. _____________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________ 2. All Rights Reserved. Inc. Revision A. perform the following: 1. Use the ifconfig command to determine to which interface to apply filter rules. After you verify that telnet access is permitted. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet To enable the packet filter to block all incoming telnet requests to your system. Sun Services. terminate the telnet session. Determine the current status of the svc:/network/ipfilter and svc:/network/pfil services by using the svcs command. The first set of exercise steps is to configure packet filtering in order to prevent any telnet requests from reaching your system.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Task 1 – Configuring Firewall Rules In the first part of the lab you will configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to show how to enable and disable access to services on a host and a network. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interface for packet filtering on your system.1 . Do this by removing the comment from the appropriate interface learned in the previous step.

All Rights Reserved. ________________________________________________________ 7. Edit the /etc/ipf/ipf. After you verify that telnet access is permitted. Inc. and write the command that you use. block in proto tcp from any to 192. b. although a rule to block telnet access was established and the ipfilter service enabled. _____________________________________________________________ Caution – Although you added a blocking rule in the /etc/ipf/ip. Enable the packet filter. Revision A. ________________________________________________________ Verify that the service started. Start the service. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. and write the command that you use.1 13-21 .conf file.conf # # IP Filter rules to be loaded during startup # # See ipf(4) manpage for more information on # IP Filter rules syntax.conf # # ipf. terminate the telnet session.2/32 port = 23 # 6. Your file should have contents similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/ipf. it is possible to use the telnet utility to access from another system to your system.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 5. Verify that.conf file and add the relevant rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your system. The system is not secure at this point. filtering rules do not take effect when the service is enabled.1. Sun Services. a.168.

Plumb your system’s interface to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack. ________________________________________________________ d. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Unplumb your system’s interface. ________________________________________________________ b.) a. and broadcast address. but block telnet requests from all other networks and not process any other rules.1 . mask. Revision A. Permits incoming telnet access only from other hosts on your local subnet Stops processing of subsequent rules by using the quick keyword. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. ________________________________________________________ 9. q Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Inc. As done previously. Sun Services.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 8. such as IP address. Use the ifconfig command to determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. 10. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ Did you put the new rule before or after the existing rule? Why? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 13-22 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Document the relevant interface information. _____________________________________________________________ The next steps are to configure your system to permit incoming telnet requests from the local subnet. use another system and attempt to use the telnet utility to determine if your system permits a telnet connection.ap c. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration file by adding a new rule that: q sys12# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.

conf 12. All Rights Reserved. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interfaces for packet filtering on your router system. _____________________________________________________________ 15. Validate that the new configuration is working.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 11. Display the new rule set by using the ipfstat command. Sun Services.1 13-23 . Document the file that you edit and your rules. Terminate the telnet session after you verify successful communication. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the following ipf command: sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. Attempt to establish a telnet session to your system from a host on the local subnet and from a host on another subnet. Verify that the systems can properly communicate across subnets by establishing an appropriate telnet session that passes through your router system. _____________________________________________________________ Working on the Router on Your Subnet The next steps configure your router to block all telnet requests from outside your subnet to any system on your subnet. Inc. 14. (The ifconfig command shows the interfaces.) Which file do you edit? _____________________________________________________________ 16. Edit the relevant file on your router system and add rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your local subnet that do not originate from the local subnet. Do this by removing the comments from the appropriate interfaces. _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. _____________________________________________________________ 13. Revision A.

broadcast address. ________________________________________________________ e.1 . and write the command that you use. d. sys11# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil. ________________________________________________________ b. 13-24 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Verify the status of the svc:/network/ipfilter service. Sun Services. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps.ap b. Enable the packet filter by performing the following steps: a. Inc.) a. Document the relevant interface information. c. and write the command that you use. and routing information. Verify that the rule functions as expected by using the telnet command. ________________________________________________________ c. All Rights Reserved. Start the service. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. Unplumb your system’s interfaces. ________________________________________________________ Verify that the service started. mask. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect. ________________________________________________________ The next steps block your non-router system from sending any outgoing ICMP echo replies. such as IP address. and write the command that you use. ________________________________________________________ Plumb and restore your system’s interface configurations to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack. ________________________________________________________ 18.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 17. Revision A.

verify that you are now able to contact your system from another system on your local subnet by using the ping command.) _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 13-25 . Inc. _____________________________________________________________ 23. sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. Before establishing a blocking rule. Revision A. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ 21. _____________________________________________________________ 24. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. Verify that a local system can successfully perform DNS lookups across routers. _____________________________________________________________ 20.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 19. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration file to include a rule on the last line that blocks outgoing ICMP echo replies from the host. Test that the new rule is functioning correctly by using the ping command from the test system again. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. (Successful completion of this step will aide you in later steps when you write rules to specifically allow DNS through firewalls.conf 22.

Reboot all of the non-router systems. It is not a necessary part of the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration. All Rights Reserved. _____________________________________________________________ The reboot is performed as an easy way to flush cached information on the non-router systems. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Perform the following: 1. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rules by using the ipf command. Remove all existing rules currently in the configuration file. Sun Services. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Remove all of the rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Task 2 – Disabling Services In the second part of the lab you restrict access to your subnet by disabling all services except a defined set. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ 3. and write and document the new rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. 13-26 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.conf file. 5.conf file.1 . _____________________________________________________________ Working on Each Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 4. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to block all traffic on the router.

1 13-27 . Test that the new rules function correctly by checking the configuration of the routing tables on the non-router hosts and by snooping the network to look for routing packets. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the non-router system on which you have been working: 9. Revision A. Sun Services. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to use the new rules by using the ipf command. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 6. Before the existing block out all and block in all rules. _____________________________________________________________ 8. All Rights Reserved.conf file: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 7. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit routing information traffic to be sent and received.

_____________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 11. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. All Rights Reserved. At the beginning of the configuration file.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 10. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. _____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on a non-router system on the same subnet on which you have been working: 13. _____________________________________________________________ 13-28 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.1 . Be sure to query a DNS server on that other network. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit DNS traffic to be sent and received. Sun Services. Revision A.conf file. Inc.

you can proceed with writing rules to allow FTP through the router firewall system. Assume that your system will get more DNS traffic than FTP traffic.Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 14. _____________________________________________________________ 17. appropriately. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit FTP traffic to pass from the local subnet to the instructor system only. verify that your firewalls are functioning properly by insuring that you cannot initiate an FTP session from your non-router system to the instructor machine. Hint: Use the keep state keywords in your rules. Log any traffic that matches one of the rules that you define.conf file. Placing the new FTP rules after the DNS rules would recognize this and. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Once you verify this. Inc. Sun Services. All Rights Reserved. before configuring rules for FTP. _____________________________________________________________ Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. be more responsive to the DNS traffic. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 16.1 13-29 . Even though this group of steps is to be performed on your router system. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command. _____________________________________________________________ 15. Write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.

Exercise: Configuring the Solaris IP Filter Firewall 18. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. _____________________________________________________________ 13-30 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. _____________________________________________________________ Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on any non-router system on your subnet. Use FTP to access the instructor system. _____________________________________________________________ What behavior do you see? _____________________________________________________________ Working on the Router on Your Subnet Complete as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 21. _____________________________________________________________ What behavior do you see? _____________________________________________________________ 20.log file. Use FTP to access a system on another subnet. You will now be using FTP to connect to another system on another subnet across your firewall router. 19.1 . Use the ipmon command as a daemon to log information to the /var/tmp/ipfilter. Sun Services. View the log file created by the ipmon command.

1 13-31 . q q q q ! ? Experiences Interpretations Conclusions Applications Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. All Rights Reserved. Inc. or discoveries you had during the lab exercise. issues. Sun Services.Exercise Summary Exercise Summary Discussion – Take a few minutes to discuss what experiences. Revision A.

These solutions use sys12 as the example non-router system and sys11 as the example router system. Inc.one.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys12 sys12# exit Connection to sys12. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192. Use another system to verify that your network is functioning properly and that your system can be accessed with the telnet utility. sys13# This proves that your system responds to the telnet request as expected. perform the following: 1. 13-32 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.one.2.edu Sun Microsystems Inc.1. Task 1 Solutions In the first part of the lab you will configure the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to show how to enable and disable access to services on a host and a network. Sun Services. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 03:46:26 from sys13.edu Escape character is '^]'. SunOS 5. Now you can proceed with configuring the firewall and have confidence that your working blocking rule will be responsible for blocking telnet requests and not some other networking issue... terminate the telnet session. Revision A. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet To enable the packet filter to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.1 . After you verify that telnet access is permitted. The first set of exercise steps is to configure packet filtering in order to prevent any telnet requests from reaching your system.168.one. Connected to sys12.edu closed by foreign host.Exercise Solutions Exercise Solutions Solutions to this exercise are provided in the following sections. Solution results vary accordingly. All Rights Reserved.

1.0. #qe hme #qfe . Edit the /etc/ipf/ipf. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interface for packet filtering on your system.LOOPBACK. 5.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. Do this by removing the comment from the appropriate interface learned in the previous step.ap . sys12# svcs -a | grep network | egrep "pfil|ipf" disabled 8:31:38 svc:/network/ipfilter:default online 8:31:42 svc:/network/pfil:default 3.168.. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services.2/32 port = 23 # Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.0. Which file do you edit? The /etc/ipf/pfil. Determine the current status of the svc:/network/ipfilter and svc:/network/pfil services by using the svcs command.RUNNING. Your configuration file should look similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/pfil. sys12# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP.conf # # IP Filter rules to be loaded during startup # # See ipf(4) manpage for more information on # IP Filter rules syntax..MULTICAST. Use the ifconfig command to determine to which interface to apply filter rules. block in proto tcp from any to 192.1...168.1.conf file and add the relevant rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your system.BROADCAST.MULTICAST.RUNNING.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.Exercise Solutions 2.1 13-33 . Your file should have contents similar to the following: sys12# cat /etc/ipf/ipf.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.ap file.IPv4.255 4. Inc.conf # # ipf.168.

SunOS 5. the service is configured to run automatically on subsequent system boots.edu closed by foreign host.. Start the service.2. All Rights Reserved.1. a. sys12# svcadm enable svc:/network/ipfilter:default sys12# svcs -a | grep -i ipf online 3:48:09 svc:/network/ipfilter:default 7.1 . Verify that. terminate the telnet session. and write the command that you use. Note that when enabled in this manner.edu Sun Microsystems Inc.edu. although a rule to block telnet access was established and the ipfilter service enabled.conf file. filtering rules do not take effect when the service is enabled. b. Enable the packet filter. Sun Services. Verify that the service started.one. 13-34 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. sys13# Caution – Although you added a blocking rule in the /etc/ipf/ip. it is possible to use the telnet utility to access from another system to your system.Exercise Solutions 6. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 03:46:26 from sys13. Escape character is '^]'.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys12 sys12# exit Connection to sys12. and write the command that you use. Inc.. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192.168. Connected to sys12.one. After you verify that telnet access is permitted. Revision A.one. The system is not secure at this point.

1.168.2 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.MULTICAST.1. Use the ifconfig command to determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces..168. Document the relevant interface information.BROADCAST.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127.RUNNING. Plumb your system’s interface to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack.168. and broadcast address.IPv4. Inc.0.ap c. mask. use another system and attempt to use the telnet utility to determine if your system permits a telnet connection. sys12# ifconfig hme0 down unplumb sys12# ifconfig hme0 plumb 192.LOOPBACK. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168. As done previously.MULTICAST.168. Sun Services.2 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out sys13# You should observe that telnet access is now blocked. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. sys12# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.) a.1 13-35 ..0. Revision A. sys12# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. d.2. All Rights Reserved.255 b. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Unplumb your system’s interface. such as IP address.1. (You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192.1.Exercise Solutions 8.1.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1000843<UP.255 up 9. sys13# telnet sys12 Trying 192.RUNNING.

0/24 to 192.1. sys12# ipfstat -io empty list for ipfilter(out) pass in quick proto tcp from 192.2/32 port = telnet block in proto tcp from any to 192. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration file by adding a new rule that: q Permits incoming telnet access only from other hosts on your local subnet Stops processing of subsequent rules by using the quick keyword.2 Trying 192.1..1.2.conf 12.2/32 port = telnet 13. the old rule attempts to block the telnet requests and then the new rule permits telnet access from the local subnet.1. 10..168. Validate that the new configuration is working.Exercise Solutions The next steps are to configure your system to permit incoming telnet requests from the local subnet. If you place it after the old the rule.1. 13-36 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. it should be placed before the old rule to permit local telnet access only.168.1.168. Attempt to establish a telnet session to your system from a host on the local subnet and from a host on another subnet. You should observe that telnet access succeeds on the local subnet only.. Revision A. Display the new rule set by using the ipfstat command. Connected to sys12. q Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.168.168.0/24 to 192. sys13# telnet 192.168. Inc.168. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the following ipf command: sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. login: sys22# telnet 192.1.1.2.1 . All Rights Reserved.2 Trying 192.1.conf file: pass in quick proto tcp from 192.168. Escape character is ’^]’.2/32 port = 23 Did you put the new rule before or after the existing rule? Why? Because you used the quick keyword in the new rule.168. 11. but block telnet requests from all other networks and not process any other rules..

(The ifconfig command shows the interfaces. #qe hme qfe #eri .1.) Which file do you edit? The /etc/ipf/pfil.1.Exercise Solutions Working on the Router on Your Subnet The next steps configure your router to block all telnet requests from outside your subnet to any system on your subnet.1 13-37 . Terminate the telnet session after you verify successful communication. Escape character is '^]'. Verify that the systems can properly communicate across subnets by establishing an appropriate telnet session that passes through your router system.thirty Sun Microsystems Inc.168.1 Trying 192.. and not some other networking issue.. Do this by removing the comments from the appropriate interfaces..168. Connected to 192.ap file.1. Your configuration file should look similar to the following: sys11# cat /etc/ipf/pfil. 15. SunOS 5.168. 14..ap . Sun Services. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s autopush configuration file to specify the network interfaces for packet filtering on your router system.1.1 closed by foreign host. All Rights Reserved.1. Inc. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..1.168.10 Generic January 2005 Welcome to SA300-S10_A on sys11 sys11# exit Connection to 192. Revision A. sys21# telnet 192. Now that you have established successful communication you can have confidence that subsequent failed sessions will be the result of a firewall configured properly.. login: root Password: Last login: Mon Dec 20 05:54:27 from sys21ext.

(You can also reboot the system to accomplish the same effect.255 qfe2: flags=1100843<UP.BROADCAST. sys11# svcadm enable svc:/network/ipfilter:default sys11# svcs -a | grep ipfilter online 5:56:23 svc:/network/ipfilter:default 18.1 netmask ff000000 hme0: flags=1100843<UP. Edit the relevant file on your router system and add rules to block all incoming telnet requests to your local subnet that do not originate from the local subnet. sys11# ifconfig hme0 down unplumb sys11# ifconfig qfe2 down unplumb 13-38 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.ROUTER. broadcast address. sys11# autopush -f /etc/ipf/pfil.LOOPBACK.1 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192. sys11# cat /etc/ipf/ipf.1 . and write the command that you use. sys11# svcs -a | grep ipfilter disabled 8:31:38 svc:/network/ipfilter:default b.0. Document the file that you edit and your rules.MULTICAST. and write the command that you use. Revision A.168.1.BROADCAST. c.RUNNING. such as IP address. Enable the packet filter by performing the following steps: a. Verify that the service started.31 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 192.RUNNING. mask. Unplumb your system’s interfaces. Start the service. and routing information.168.255 c.Exercise Solutions 16. Document the relevant interface information. All Rights Reserved.VIRTUAL> mtu 8232 index 1 inet 127. and write the command that you use.168.IPv4. Force the autopush configuration file to be read by using the following command: Determine the configuration of your system’s interfaces. Sun Services.RUNNING.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 3 inet 192. Inc.168.IPv4> mtu 1500 index 2 inet 192.1. From the command line force the pfild daemon to read the rule file by performing the following steps. sys11# ifconfig -a inet lo0: flags=2001000849<UP. Verify the status of the svc:/network/ipfilter service.0.MULTICAST.0/24 port = 23 17.conf block in on qfe2 proto tcp from any to 192.ROUTER.30.30.MULTICAST.1.) a.ap b.

Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration file to include a rule on the last line that blocks outgoing ICMP echo replies from the host. sys21# telnet 192. Plumb and restore your system’s interface configurations to load the packet filter into the interface’s IP stack.30. ping traffic will reach this new. The next steps block your non-router system from sending any outgoing ICMP echo replies.1.1 Trying 192.168.1. third rule because the first rule will not match ICMP traffic and therefore the quick keyword will not apply. Sun Services. Write the rule that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. All Rights Reserved. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. verify that you are now able to contact your system from another system on your local subnet by using the ping command.Exercise Solutions d.conf file: block out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 0 Note that even though the first rule uses the quick keyword.168. sys11# ifconfig hme0 plumb 192..1.168.1. telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection timed out sys21# You should observe that local telnet traffic is permitted but traffic initiated from another subnet is not.31 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + up e.168.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast + up sys11# ifconfig qfe2 plumb 192. Inc.1 13-39 . Before establishing a blocking rule. Verify that the rule functions as expected by using the telnet command. Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 19. Revision A. sys13# ping sys12 sys12 is alive sys13# 20.

AUTHORITY SECTION: 2.. <<>> DiG 9.sys22.two. ->>HEADER<<.2 two. Query time: 4 msec .edu -x 192.. flags: qr aa rd ra.. id: 1914 . Revision A. ADDITIONAL: 0 .2#53(192. id: 1194 . SERVER: 192. ANSWER SECTION: 4.two.in-addr... sys13# ping sys12 no answer from sys12 24.1.168.4.2.168..2.opcode: QUERY.. Sun Services.edu.2. Test that the new rule is functioning correctly by using the ping command from the test system again. Verify that a local system can successfully perform DNS lookups across routers. ->>HEADER<<.4 . status: NOERROR. (Successful completion of this step will aid you in later steps when you write rules to specifically allow DNS through firewalls.1..edu..168.168. Got answer: ..0/24 to 192. ADDITIONAL SECTION: 13-40 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu.arpa.4 <<>> @192. QUERY: 1. AUTHORITY: 2. AUTHORITY: 1.two.. ANSWER: 0.168.168. .) sys13# dig @192.2.2 two. QUESTION SECTION: .192. .168. root. 86400 IN SOA sys22. 86400 IN NS sys23.2.arpa..168.192. Got answer: .Exercise Solutions 21. ANSWER: 1.in-addr. AUTHORITY SECTION: two.arpa.edu -x 192..edu.arpa.two.two..168. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. IN A . flags: qr aa rd ra. sys12# ipfstat -io block out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echorep pass in quick proto tcp from 192.2/32 port = telnet # 23.2.1.in-addr. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 . sys12# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. 2.edu. IN PTR . QUERY: 1.2/32 port = telnet block in proto tcp from any to 192.2. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. global options: printcmd .edu.168..two. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command.192. 86400 IN PTR sys24.168.2) .168.1 .edu. status: NOERROR.in-addr.2.4 . WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 .conf 22... Inc. ADDITIONAL: 2 . 86400 IN NS sys22.2. MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 .168. All Rights Reserved.opcode: QUERY.192. QUESTION SECTION: .

conf 3.conf file.2#53(192.conf file. Edit the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s rules to block all traffic on the router.. MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 A A 192. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Perform the following: 1.168. The /etc/ipf/ipf.two.168. sys11# ipfstat -io block out all block in all # Working on Each Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same non-router system on which you have been working: 4.2. Revision A.2 192. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command. Inc. SERVER: 192.Exercise Solutions sys22. Reboot all of the non-router systems.2. Sun Services.conf file should be empty. Remove all existing rules currently in the configuration file.2.168.1 13-41 . sys12# init 6 Remove all of the rules in the /etc/ipf/ipf.edu. 86400 IN . block in all block out all 2.. Query time: 1 msec . 5. and write and document the new rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.edu.2) ..2.two. 86400 IN sys23. WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 . All Rights Reserved. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems..3 Task 2 Solutions In the second part of the lab you restrict access to your subnet by disabling all services except a defined set.168. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rules by using the ipf command.

1 . All Rights Reserved. Sun Services. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit routing information traffic to be sent and received. Inc. Before the existing block out all and block in all rules. It is not a necessary part of the Solaris IP Filter firewall’s configuration. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripngd pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripngd pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all 13-42 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to use the new rules by using the ipf command. Revision A. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.Exercise Solutions The reboot is performed as an easy way to flush cached information on the non-router systems.conf file: pass pass pass pass pass pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = 520 out quick proto udp from any to any port = 520 in quick proto udp from any to any port = 521 out quick proto udp from any to any port = 521 in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 10 out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type 9 7.conf 8. Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 6.

----. for example) or in the snoop trace (router advertisements for example.0. You should see evidence of routing information in the routing table (a default route. At the beginning of the configuration file. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.168.--------192. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.) Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 10.0.2 U 1 0 hme0 default 192.1.168. Sun Services.----. Revision A.0 192.1.168.-----. Test that the new rules function correctly by checking the configuration of the routing tables on the non-router hosts and by snooping the network to look for routing packets. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit DNS traffic to be sent and received..conf 12.0 192.168.0.255 RIP R (3 destinations) . sys12# netstat -rn -f inet Routing Table: IPv4 Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.1.1. write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf..168.1.168.0.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the non-router system on which you have been working: 9. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = 53 keep state pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = 53 keep state 11.2 U 1 0 hme0 224.. Inc.-------------------. sys11 -> 192.1 UG 1 0 hme0 127.0.1 13-43 . All Rights Reserved.0..1 127. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command.1.255 RIP R (3 destinations) sys11 -> 192. but no other non-routing services.1 UH 4 77 lo0 sys12# sys12# snoop .conf file.

MSG SIZE rcvd: 72 . Revision A.168. Got answer: ...192. <<>> DiG 9..edu. IN PTR . status: NOERROR.2 two..168. sys13# dig @192.192.. AUTHORITY SECTION: two. All Rights Reserved.168...in-addr. AUTHORITY SECTION: 2.edu -x 192.2.edu.arpa.2. 2005010101 3600 1800 6048000 86400 .168.2) . QUESTION SECTION: . 86400 IN PTR sys24.168.192. Sun Services.2..two. Use the dig command to find the IP address of a system on another network. id: 1914 .168.4 .edu -x 192.168. id: 1194 . ADDITIONAL SECTION: sys22. global options: printcmd .edu.. ANSWER: 1.168.Exercise Solutions pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on a non-router system on the same subnet on which you have been working: 13. flags: qr aa rd ra. Inc.168..two.192. Got answer: .two. 86400 IN SOA sys22.2.in-addr.1 . 86400 IN NS sys23. QUERY: 1.edu.2. 86400 IN A 192. SERVER: 192..3 13-44 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.edu.168.. ANSWER SECTION: 4. ->>HEADER<<.4 <<>> @192..two. ..in-addr.arpa. ADDITIONAL: 2 . WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 .2 two.two.2.two.2. root.2.two. QUERY: 1. AUTHORITY: 2. Be sure to query a DNS server on that other network.2.edu. QUESTION SECTION: . 2.2#53(192.in-addr. IN A . ADDITIONAL: 0 .edu. ANSWER: 0.edu.4 .arpa.168. .4.opcode: QUERY. Query time: 4 msec .2. AUTHORITY: 1. status: NOERROR.sys22.edu.two. flags: qr aa rd ra. 86400 IN NS sys22...2.2 sys23.. 86400 IN A 192.opcode: QUERY. ->>HEADER<<.168.arpa.

2. sys12# ftp 192.30.. Query time: 1 msec SERVER: 192.30 ftp: connect: Connection timed out ftp> bye sys12# Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.. Even though this group of steps is to be performed on your router system. All Rights Reserved.. Inc.2#53(192. verify that your firewalls are functioning properly by ensuring that you cannot initiate an FTP session from your non-router system to the instructor machine. . Sun Services.Exercise Solutions . . Revision A. . you can proceed with writing rules to allow FTP through the router firewall system.2.1 13-45 . before configuring rules for FTP.168.168.. Once you verify this.2) WHEN: Wed Jan 12 08:19:05 2005 MSG SIZE rcvd: 141 Working on the Router on Your Subnet Continue as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 14.168.

30/32 port = 21 keep state in log quick on qfe2 from 192. # ipmon -D /var/tmp/ipfilter.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass out quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routerad block out all pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass in log quick on hme0 from 192.30. Verify the rules by using the ipfstat command.168. All Rights Reserved.30. Write the rules that you entered in the /etc/ipf/ipf.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass in log quick on qfe2 from 192.1.30.log file.0/24 to 192. be more responsive to the DNS traffic.168.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state 16.Exercise Solutions 15.1.30/32 port = 20 keep state in log quick on qfe2 from 192. sys11# ipf -Fa -f /etc/ipf/ipf.30. Revision A.168.0/24 to 192.0/24 to 192.168.0/24 to 192.0/24 to 192.0/24 to 192.168.30/32 port = 20 keep state out log quick on qfe2 from 192.log 13-46 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.168.168.30.30.1 . Assume that your system will get more DNS traffic than FTP traffic. Log any traffic that matches one of the rules that you define.168. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to include the new rule by using the ipf command.168.30/32 port = 21 keep state out log quick on qfe2 from 192.168.168.30/32 port = 21 keep state in log quick on hme0 from 192.1.168. pass pass pass pass pass pass pass pass in log quick on hme0 from 192.0/24 to 192.168.168.168.168.0/24 to 192. Placing the new FTP rules after the DNS rules would recognize this and.168.0/24 to 192.conf 17.1.30/32 port = 21 keep state out log quick on hme0 from 192. Inc. Use the ipmon command as a daemon to log information to the /var/tmp/ipfilter.30.1.30. appropriately.1.1.0/24 to 192.30.168.168.0/24 to 192.168.1.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass in log quick on hme0 from 192.1.0/24 to 192.168.168.conf file.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass out log quick on qfe2 from 192.0/24 to 192.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = route pass in quick proto udp from any to any port = ripng pass in quick proto icmp from any to any icmp-type routersol block in all 18.1.168. Sun Services.30/32 port = 20 keep state out log quick on hme0 from 192.0/24 to 192.168.168.0/24 to 192. sys11# ipfstat -io pass out quick proto udp from any to any port = domain keep state pass out log quick on hme0 from 192.30.1. Update the Solaris IP Filter firewall configuration to permit FTP traffic to pass from the local subnet to the instructor system only.30.1.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass out log quick on qfe2 from 192.1.168.0/24 to 192.30.30/32 port = 21 keep state pass out log quick on hme0 from 192.1.30.30.168.1.1.30.30/32 port = 20 keep state pass in log quick on qfe2 from 192.168.168.168.30. Hint: Use the keep state keywords in your rules.

1 13-47 . Use FTP to access a system on another subnet.30.30. Use FTP to access the instructor system. Name (192.2.Exercise Solutions Working on a Non-Router System on Your Subnet Continue as follows on any non-router system on your subnet. 19.168. Configuring the Solaris™ IP Filter Firewall Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.3 ftp: connect: Connection timed out ftp> What behavior do you see? The attempt to connect fails. All Rights Reserved.168. Inc. Sun Services. Revision A.30.30 Connected to 192.168. sys13# ftp 192.30:root): What behavior do you see? The attempt to connect succeeds. sys13# ftp 192. You will now be using FTP to connect to another system on another subnet across your firewall router. 20.30. 220 instructor.168.edu FTP server ready.thirty.

168.224930 hme0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.21 PR tcp 13-48 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.3.168.1.168.30.168.30.1.168.274078 hme0 @0:2 len 20 85 -AP K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.168.1.168.32788 PR tcp p 192.3.3.168.32788 PR tcp p 192.30.168.3.1.168. sys11# cat /var/tmp/ipfilter.223769 hme0 @0:2 len 20 52 -S K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.1.168.21 PR tcp p 192.274058 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 85 -AP K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.30.168.168.30.32788 -> 192. Inc.21 -> 192.1 .3.30. Revision A.30.30.30.30.1.30.21 PR tcp p 192.30. Sun Services.30.30.1.30.32788 -> 192.log 03/02/2005 14:13:12.224486 hme0 @0:2 len 20 52 -AS K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.30.32788 -> 192.32788 -> 192.224950 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.3.30.3.168.1.168.168.Exercise Solutions Working on the Router on Your Subnet Complete as follows on the same router system on which you have been working: 21.21 -> 192.223821 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 52 -S K-S OUT 03/02/2005 14:13:12.21 -> 192. All Rights Reserved.274309 hme0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.168.21 PR tcp p 192.1.32788 PR tcp p 192.32788 -> 192.30.224270 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 52 -AS K-S IN 03/02/2005 14:13:12.1.21 -> 192.32788 PR tcp p 192.30.3.3.168. View the log file created by the ipmon command.168.32788 -> 192.30.274326 qfe0 @0:2 len 20 40 -A K-S OUT p 192.21 PR tcp p 192.21 PR tcp p 192.3.168.

part number 806-4078-10. Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-0092-10. Inc. Inc. Sun Microsystems. System Administration Guide: Security Services.1 . Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-2353-10. Sun Microsystems. Inc. Inc. part number 806-4074-10. Sun BluePrints OnLine part number 816-1475-10. Revision A. System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS. Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part I: Introduction to NTP.Bibliography Sun Microsystems Publications The following publications are available from Sun Microsystems: q Sun Microsystems. System Administration Guide: IP Services. Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part III: NTP Monitoring and Troubleshooting. part number 806-4077-10. Sun Microsystems. System Administration Guide: Advanced Administration. Inc. Sun Services. Sun Microsystems. Inc. Sun Microsystems. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Microsystems. and LDAP). Solaris Tunable Parameters Reference Manual. part number 806-4075-11. q q q q q q q Bibliography1-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. NIS. Using NTP to Control and Synchronize System Clocks – Part II: Basic NTP Administration and Architecture. part number 806-7009-10. Inc. Sun Microsystems. Inc.

Vol. Rick. Radia. Perlman. Ethernet: The Definitive Guide. Sun Services. Christian. Upper Saddle River. Loshin. CA: O’Reilly & Associates. Huitema.. Inc. Upper Saddle River.1 . CA: Addison-Wesley. Huitema. Internetworking with TCP/IP. Third Edition. 1999. Second Edition. IPv6 The New Internet Protocol. Sun Certified Net Administration for Solaris 8 Study Guide. Christian. 1. Inc. NJ: Prentice Hall. Internetworking With TCP/IP. and Cricket Liu. NJ: Prentice Hall. 1999. q q q q q q q q The following book can be used when studying for the Solaris 8 Network Certification Exam: Bushnell. 2002. Menlo Park. Inc. 2001. Upper Saddle River. 1995. Douglas. Upper Saddle River. Interconnections. Bibliography-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Inc. Inc. 1995. Routing in the Internet. NJ: Prentice Hall. Second Edition. 1991.Books Books The following books were used to create this course: q Albitz. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs. IPv6 Clearly Explained. Huitema. Pete. Second Edition. Comer.. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. Upper Saddle River.. CA: O’Reilly & Associates. Charles E. Sebastopol. Inc. NJ: Prentice Hall. 1999. Douglas E. DNS & BIND. Spurgeon. Christian. All Rights Reserved. Fourth Edition. Sebastopol. 2000. Routing in the Internet. 1998. Paul. Comer. Second Edition. Inc.. NJ: Prentice Hall. Revision A.

ntp. Inc.udel. The http://docs. last accessed: 2000. Information on Time and Frequency Services.org/ntpfaq/NTP-a-faq. Dalton.eecis. The http://www.htm. Available: www.sun. Available: http://www. What about NTP?: Understanding and Using the Network Time Protocol (A First Try on a Non-Technical Mini-HOWTO and FAQ on NTP). The Solaris OS online manual pages. [Online].com Web site. Sun Services. Last accessed: 03/04/2000.Online References Online References Many online references were used to create this course.edu/~mills/ntp/. q q q q Bibliography Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. U. including: q Mills. [Online]. All Rights Reserved. Revision A.sun.com/solutions/blueprints/ Sun BluePrints Web site. and D. Windl.1 Bibliography-3 . David.

. and S. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2462. and S. RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2463. de Groot. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 1305. Thomson.RFCs RFCs Many RFCs were used to create this course. and W. 1998. B. Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. Conta. T. RFC 2236: Internet Group Management Protocol. 1996.. Karrenberg. A. Sun Services. Revision A. RFC 1305: Network Time Protocol (Version 3) Specification. including: q q RFC 1323: TCP Extensions for High Performance. David. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2373. q q q q q q q Bibliography-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Implementation and Analysis. Mills. 1998. and S.. Deering. and E. E. Lear. Deering. J. 1997. RFC 2463: Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification. G. Hinden. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2460. Narten. S. RFC 1918: Address Allocation for Private Internets. RFC: 2462: IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration. D. Nordmark. Inc. W. R. R. and T. 1992. Y. 1998. RFC 2460: Internet Protocol. Version 2.. Rekhter. Hinden. Narten. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 1918. Deering. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2461.. RFC 2373: IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture. 1998.1 .. Fenner. 1998. Moskowitz. Network Working Group Request for Comments: 2236. All Rights Reserved. Simpson.

A ACL (access control list) ACLs provide a higher level of file security than the standard UNIX file permissions. AH Authentication header.1 . All Rights Reserved. the seventh layer. file and print server operation.Glossary/Acronyms Numerals 10BASE-T An evolution of Ethernet technology that succeeded 10BASE-5 and 10BASE-2 as the most popular method of physical network implementation. Revision A. Inc. A 10BASE-T network has a data transfer rate of 10 megabits per second and uses unshielded twisted-pair wiring. ACLs give a file owner the ability to permit access to that file or directory to one or more specific users or groups and to set the default permissions for specific users or groups. and other basic functions. word processing or inventory tracking). such as login procedures. Glossary-1 Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Application layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards. Sun Services. which handles services. ANSI American National Standards Institute. application A program that combines all the functions necessary for the user to accomplish a particular set of tasks (for example.

boot (bootstrap) To load the system software into memory and start it. A host sends a message to all hosts on the local Ethernet using a broadcast address. the broadcast address represents broadcasts to the network. Inc. All Rights Reserved. Bourne shell The Bourne shell is the default shell for the Solaris Operating Environment. C cache A buffer of high-speed memory filled at medium speed from main memory. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A standard assignment of 7-bit numeric codes to characters. caching-only server A domain name server that is not authoritative for any domain. A cache increases effective memory transfer rates and processor speed. This server queries servers that have authority for the information needed and caches that data. BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain. ARP is limited to networks that support hardware broadcast.1 . Sun Services. AS Autonomous system. Glossary-2 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. The Ethernet broadcast address is all 1s (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff in hexadecimal). often with instructions or the most frequently accessed information.ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) The Internet protocol that dynamically maps Internet addresses to physical (hardware) addresses on local area networks. It does not have aliasing or history capabilities. broadcast address One of three types of Ethernet addresses. Revision A. B BCC Block-check character.

Client – A host or a process that uses services provided by servers. CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) This type of routing was introduced as a stop-gap solution to the Class B IPv4 address exhaustion and routing table explosion. It features two to three twists per foot and is used in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T4 networks. checksum A checksum is a number that is calculated from the binary bytes of the file. Revision A. CDE (Common Desktop Environment) This is a graphical user interface between the user and the operating system. It is used to determine if the file contents have changed.x OE commands. Inc.1 Glossary-3 . or authoritative procedures or principles. All Rights Reserved. Category 3 Category 3 twisted-pair cabling is a voice-grade cable.canonical Characteristic of adhering to standard. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. q CNAME Canonical name. It features two to three twists per inch used in 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX networks. CIDR enables more efficient allocation of IP address space. CCITT Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphie et Telephonie. Sun Services. and it enables routing information to be aggregated to reduce the size of routing tables on backbone routers. It provides built-in menus for users to select and run utilities and programs without using the Solaris 2. accepted. client-server model A client-server environment is a network environment that contains at least one of each of the following: q Server – A host or a process that provides services to other systems on the network. It enables users to control multiple working documents or applications on the screen at the same time. Category 5 Category 5 twisted-pair cable is a data-grade cable.

All Rights Reserved. datagram The Internet Protocol (IP) datagram is the basic unit of information that is passed on a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network. CSMA/CD (carrier sense multiple access/collision detection) The Ethernet access method protocol used to control packet transmission and flow over the Ethernet hardware. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a connection-oriented protocol. Revision A. Data Link layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model. and releasing services between network entities. which enables establishing. D daemon A process that performs a particular system task. connection-oriented A type of data transfer in which a connection with another system must be established before exchanging data. Glossary-4 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Datagrams contain at least data and destination addresses. maintaining. Sun Services. de-encapsulation The process of removing a header from a segment of data when systems are communicating with each other.connectionless A type of data transfer in which self-contained messages are delivered without acknowledgement of receipt. Inc. the second layer. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a protocol in which a connection is not necessary.1 . CRC (cyclical redundancy check) A system of error checking performed at both the sending and receiving station after a block-check character (BCC) has been accumulated. decryption The process of converting coded data to plain text.

In Sun workstations. It is required for the Network Information Service (NIS) database to work properly. an EEPROM holds information about the current system configuration. Sun Services. encryption The process of protecting information from unauthorized use by making the information unintelligible. and so on. domain The name assigned to a group of systems on a local network that share administrative files. Ethernet A type of local area network that enables real-time communication between machines connected directly through cables. EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) A nonvolatile PROM that can be written to as well as read from.1 Glossary-5 . E EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. which is used to decrypt the information. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Encryption is based on a code. Revision A. This eliminates the need to maintain a static list of addresses for each client. This enables Internet communications using only host names. Inc.DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) This automatically assigns Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) client computers when the client joins the network. DHCP selects an IP address from a preconfigured pool. called a key. EGPs Exterior gateway protocols. ESP Encapsulation security payload. DNS (Domain Name System) DNS provides translations of host names into Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. encapsulation The process of adding a header to a segment of data when systems are communicating with each other. All Rights Reserved. alternate boot paths.

It is 48 bits long.Ethernet address The physical address of an individual Ethernet controller board. FQDN (fully qualified domain name) A domain name that ends with a dot followed by a domain label of length zero (the root). Revision A. hierarchy A classification of relationships in which each item except the top one (called the root) is a specialized form of the item above it. EUI End-unit identifier. andy. Glossary-6 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. An Ethernet address is a unique hardware address. Additional Ethernet interfaces are assigned different Ethernet addresses. frame A series of bits with a well-defined beginning and a well-defined end. Sun Services. H hierarchal domains A tree of domains or namespaces. It is called the hardware address or media access control (MAC) address. Inc.1 .sun. Each item can have one or more items below it in the hierarchy. An example of a complete Ethernet address is 8:0:20:le:56:7:d. The Ethernet address of every Sun workstation is unique and coded into a chip on the motherboard. For example. F FCS Frame check sequence. each one of them having their own authority.com. All Rights Reserved. FP Format prefix. Ethernet MAC address The physical address also known as the media access controller (MAC) or Ethernet address. where andy is the name of a host.

hub The central device through which all hosts in a twisted-pair Ethernet installation are connected. token bus. token ring.host name A unique name identifying a host machine connected to a network. The hostname command determines a system’s host. ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) The standards organization that is responsible for developing networking standards relating to Ethernet. Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. how long it will take. Examples of IGPs include Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). and metropolitan area networks. All Rights Reserved. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) A network layer protocol that provides for routing. The IP does not determine whether the packet will be delivered. Sun Services. The name must be unique on the network. reliability. It enables the unreliable delivery of individual packets from one host to another. IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) The protocol that enables the exchange or routing information between collaborating routers on the Internet. Revision A. Protocols built on top of this protocol add the functions of connection and reliability. or if multiple packets will arrive in the order they were sent. IP (Internet Protocol) The basic protocol of the Internet. IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol. flow control. IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.1 Glossary-7 . and sequencing of data. I IAB Internet Architecture Board. Inc.

Sun Services. Inc. IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) One of two versions of IP addressing. does not disrupt current operations. Glossary-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A. all for a provider fee. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) A new version designed to be an evolutionary step from the current version. IP network number The first octet or octets of an Internet Protocol (IP) address that uniquely identify an IP network within an organization. Each 8-bit field. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). This often includes a phone number access code. IPMP Internet Protocol Messaging Protocol.150. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) An international standards body that reviews and approves independently designed products for use within specific industries.IP address In Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). In addition. Deploying IPv6. IPG Internet Gateway Protocol. a unique 32-bit number that identifies each host in a network. IPv6 provides a platform for new Internet functionality.1 . 129. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits divided into four 8-bit fields. IPsec Internet Protocol Security Architecture. An IPv4 address is a unique number assigned to a host on a network. using defined transition mechanisms. and software. separated by periods. ISO also develops standards for information exchange. if that network has been registered with the Internet governing organization. All Rights Reserved. user name. IPv6 is an increment to IPv4. for example.182. and on the Internet. ISP (Internet service provider) A company providing an Internet package. is represented by a decimal number between 0 and 255.31. It is a 32-bit addressing scheme currently used as the dominant scheme. or octet. such as the ISO/OSI model for computer networks.

Glossary/Acronyms Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. L LAN (local area network) A group of computer systems in close proximity that can communicate by way of some connecting hardware and software. The kernel also controls the functions between the system programs and the system hardware. Revision A. and protocols that span all open systems. Inc. mirror Disk mirroring is a feature that guards against component failure by writing the same data to two or more disk drives at the same time. swap. JPG Joint Pictures Group. K kernel The master program (core) of the Solaris Operating Environment. It has a disk and a complete copy of the operating system. master server The server that maintains the master copy of the network information service database. All Rights Reserved. memory.J JPEG Joint Pictures Expert Group. processes. functions. It manages devices. layer One of a set of services. MMF Multimode fiber.1 Glossary-9 . Sun Services. JumpStart process An automatic installation process available in a network environment that enables system administrators to categorize machines and automatically install systems based on the machine’s category. M MAC Media access control. and daemons.

Inc. It is then passed to the Network layer. which enables routing and switching blocks of data between two devices that support Transport layer protocols over a connection. NDP Neighbor Discovery Protocol. when the TCP adds an information header to a packet of data for decoding by the TCP on the remote machine. network segment In Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Sun Services. network Technically. the first three octets must contain a value of 01. All Rights Reserved. the MTU for a physical Ethernet interface is 1500 bytes. enabling them to communicate. The MTU is hardware specific. consisting of up to 20 octets. the third layer. which converts it to a datagram. It then goes to the Data Link layer. which converts it to a frame.MTU (maximum transmission unit) An MTU is the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a given physical network. multicast address One of three types of Ethernet address. and a domain-specific part that is the responsibility of the addressing authority for that domain. N name service A name service provides a means of identifying and locating resources (traditionally host names and Internet Protocol [IP] addresses) available to a network. The default name service product available in the Solaris 2. network address The address. In Ethernet multicast addressing.1 . The last three octets are used to assign host group identity. the systems so connected. used to locate an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) transport entity. Informally. the multicast address is used to send a message to a subset of hosts on a network. the hardware connecting various systems.x Operating Environment is Network Information Service Plus (NIS+). Revision A. The address is formatted into an initial domain part that is standardized for each of several addressing domains. For example.5E. Glossary-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. the expanded packet is referred to as a segment. Network layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards.00.

NFS (Network File System) A file system distributed by Sun that provides transparent access to remote file systems on heterogeneous networks. NIC Network interface card. NIS (Network Information Service) The Sun Operating System 4.0 (minimum) network information service. A distributed network database containing key information about the systems and the users on the network. The NIS database is stored on the master server and all the slave servers. See also NIS+. NIS+ (Network Information Service Plus) The Sun Operating System 5.0 (minimum) network information service. NIS+ replaces NIS, the Sun OS 4.0 (minimum) NIS. NLA Next level aggregator. node A node is an addressable point on a network. Each node in a Sun network has a different name. A node can connect a computing system, a terminal, or various other peripheral devices to the network. NS Name server. NSCD Name service cache daemon. NTP Network Time Protocol. NVRAM Nonvolatile random access memory.

O
OpenBoot PROM OpenBoot programmable read-only memory. OS (operating system) A collection of programs that monitor the use of the system and supervise the other programs executed by it.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-11

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) OSI is an international standardization program that was developed to facilitate communications among computers from different manufacturers. OSPF Open Shortest Path First.

P
PDU Packet data unit. peer-to-peer communication The communications between peer devices. Physical layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards, the first layer, which supplies the mechanical, electrical, and procedural means of establishing, maintaining, and releasing physical connections. PID (process identification number) A unique, system-wide, identification number assigned to a process. Also called process ID, process number. PLM Physical layer medium. PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) A way to connect to the Internet; PPP also provides error-checking features. PROM (programmable read-only memory) A permanent memory chip programmed by the user rather than at the chip manufacturer, as is true with a read-only memory (ROM). You need a PROM programmer or burner to write data onto a PROM. PROM has been mostly replaced by erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), a type of PROM that can be erased by ultraviolet light and reprogrammed. protocol A way to transmit data between devices. A computer or device must have a correct protocol to be able to communicate successfully with other computers or devices. PTR DNS pointer record.

Glossary-12

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

R
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) RARP is an Internet Protocol that maps a physical (hardware) address to an Internet address. Diskless clients use RARP to find its Internet address at startup. RDISC Router discovery. RFC Request for Comment. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP provides for automated distribution of routing information between systems. RPC (remote procedure call) This is an easy and popular paradigm for implementing the client-server model of distributed computing. A request is sent to a remote system to execute a designated procedure, using supplied arguments. The result is returned to the caller. There are many variations of this, resulting in a variety of different RPC protocols. run level One of the eight initialization states in which a system can run. A system can run in only one initialization state at a time. The default run level for each system is specified in the /etc/inittab file. run level 2 A multiuser mode without remote resources available. All daemons are running except for remote file-sharing daemons. run level S A single-user mode in which the operating system is running, but all users are logged out and most system processes, such as print and mail, are not running. Only one user (the superuser) is logged in to the system. Run level S is convenient for doing backups because, because no users are logged in, all data is stable.

S
SLA Site-level aggregator.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-13

slave server A server system that maintains a copy of the Network Information Service (NIS) database. It has a disk and a complete copy of the operating system. SLIP (Serial-Line Internet Protocol) An Internet protocol used to run Internet Protocol (IP) over serial lines such as telephone circuits or RS-232 cables interconnecting two systems. The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is the preferred protocol. SMF Service Management Framework. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) The network management of choice for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol-based (TCP/IP-based) Internets. snoop This command captures network packets and displays their contents. The command can be run only by the superuser. SOA (start of authority) An SOA record marks the beginning of a zone’s authority and defines parameters that affect an entire zone. stateful A type of data transfer where part of the data sent from the client to the server includes the status of the client. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is an example of a stateful protocol. stateless A type of data transfer where the server has no obligation to keep track of the state of the client. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an example of a stateless protocol. subnetwork A collection of International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) end systems and intermediate systems under the control of a single administrative domain and using a single network access protocol; for example, private X.25 networks and a collection of bridged LANs.

Glossary-14

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

T
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) A communications protocol that ensures data is sent between computers on the Internet. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) An Internet protocol that provides for the reliable delivery of data streams from one host to another. SunOS networks run on TCP/IP by default. Also called Internet Protocol suite. See also IP. TLA Top-level aggregator. TP Twisted pair. TP-PLM Twisted-pair physical layer medium. Transport layer In the International Standards Organization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) model of network standards, the fourth layer, which controls the transfer of data between session layer entities. TTL (time-to-live) Complete entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table have a TTL value and a period during which they are considered to be valid entries (normally 30 minutes). TTL is also used in Domain Name System (DNS) zone files.

U
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) This protocol is a transport protocol in the Internet suite of protocols. It uses Internet Protocol (IP) for delivery, and provides for exchange of datagrams without acknowledgements or guaranteed delivery. UTC Coordinated Universal Time. This is the official standard for current time. Several institutions contribute their calculations of the current time, and UTC is a combination of these estimates. UTP Unshielded twisted-pair.

Glossary/Acronyms
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Glossary-15

V
VLAN Virtual local area network. VLSM Variable length subnet mask.

W
WAN (wide area network) WANs are slower-speed networks typically used by organizations to connect their local area networks. WANs are often built from leased telephone lines capable of moving data at speeds of 56 kilobits per second to 1.55 megabits per second. A WAN might be used to bridge a company’s office on two opposite ends of town or on opposite ends of a continent.

Glossary-16

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index
Numerics
1000BASE-CX media system 2-11 1000BASE-LX media system 2-11 1000BASE-SX media system 2-11 1000BASE-T media system 2-11 100BASE-FX media system 2-10 100BASE-T4 media system 2-10 100BASE-TX media system 2-9 10BASE-T media system 2-9 IPv6 anycast 8-6 multicast 8-5 representation 8-6 types 8-5 unicast 8-5 link-local 8-6 loopback type 8-14 multicast 3-7, 5-11, 8-7 network number 5-9 scope bits 8-16 site-local 8-6 test 6-5 unicast 3-7, 5-9 unspecified type 8-14 address-to-name translation 10-24, 10-25 aggregatable global address 8-7, 8-12 anycast address 8-6 Application layer common protocols 1-9 description 1-4, 1-8 formatting data 1-9 functions 1-9 presenting data 1-9 transporting data 1-9 ARP adding entries from a file 4-6 adding permanent table entries 4-6 adding table entries 4-6 cache 4-4

A
access list 10-27 access method, Ethernet 3-2 addif option 5-27 address aggregatable global 8-7 broadcast 3-7, 5-11 Class A 5-9 Class B 5-10 Class C 5-10 classful 5-9 define test 8-61 detecting duplicates 8-10 embedded IPv4 8-13 Ethernet 3-6 host number 5-9 IP 5-9 IPv4 5-9

Index-1
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

cache management 4-5 cache times 4-4 control table entries 4-5 deleting table entries 4-7 description 1-13, 4-2 display table entries 4-5 Ethernet frame 4-2 operation 4-2 process 4-3 removing static entries 4-7 removing table entries 4-6 searching for new cache entries 4-6 table entries 4-5 TCP/IP model 4-2 time to live 4-6 arp utility 4-5 ASCII 1-9 autonomous system 7-8

B
banner command 3-8 BASE 2-8 baseband 2-8 BIND 10-24 bridges 2-12 bridging devices 2-12 broadcast addresses 3-7, 5-11 buffered transfer 9-11 bus configurations 2-2

C
capture network packets 3-14 carrier sense 3-2 carrier sense multiple access/collision detection. See CSMA/CD changing host name 5-23 CIDR block 7-35 operation 7-33 purpose 7-33 Class A address 5-9 Class B address 5-10 Class C address 5-10

classful address 5-9 classless inter-domain routing. See CIDR CNAME record 10-23 coaxial cable 2-8 collision detection 3-2 rates 3-4 collision rates 3-4 commands banner 3-8 eeprom 3-8 ndd 4-4 route 7-24 communication architecture 1-2 computers keeping time 12-2 networking fundamentals 1-2 configuration errors file 10-35 configuring default route 7-19 DHCP address 11-21 to 11-38 initial 11-9, 11-20 server 11-28 DHCP client 11-39 DNS client 10-32 dynamic routing 7-25 interface for IPv6 8-20 IPMP at boot time 8-68 manually 8-58 IPv6 autoconfiguration 8-3, 8-8 interfaces 8-24 multipathing 8-58 name service lookup 8-21, 8-25 on non-router 8-19 router 8-24 logical interfaces 5-26, 8-36 multipathing 6-6, 6-21 ndpd.conf file 8-25 NTP client 12-13 NTP server 12-5 router troubleshooting 7-42 routing

Index-2

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

at boot time 7-38 without rebooting 7-40 secondary DNS server 10-29 static route 7-18 static route manually 7-21 stratum of a NTP server 12-8 troubleshooting routers 8-33 connectionless communication 1-8 connection-oriented communication 1-8 connection-oriented protocol 9-3 connections, full-duplex and virtual circuit 9-11 contiguous netmask 5-15 contiguous subnet masks 5-15 CRC 1-5 creating DHCP tables 11-31 CSMA/CD Ethernet access method 3-2 structure 3-3 cyclical redundancy check (CRC) 1-5

D
daemons /usr/sbin/in.routed 7-28 in.dhcpd 11-4 in.mpathd 6-4, 6-18, 8-66 in.ndpd 8-18, 8-23 in.rarpd 4-9, 4-11 in.ripngd 8-24 in.routed 7-20 xntpd 12-7 data communication 1-2 data encapsulation 1-11, 4-2 data format 1-2 data transfer 1-2 datagram connectionless delivery of 5-3 header fields 5-6 IP 5-6 IP fields 5-6 payload 5-8 default route 7-6, 7-19 define test address 8-61 destination IP address 7-15

network 7-17 network number 7-15 DHCP adding table entries 11-32 address configuration 11-21, 11-38 client functions 11-3 configuration file 11-7 configuring client 11-39 servers 11-7, 11-28 creating tables 11-31 description 1-14 dhcptab table 11-34 functionality 11-2 fundamentals 11-2 graphical manager 11-8 initial configuration 11-9 to 11-20 managing tables 11-31 server 10-26 server functions 11-4 troubleshooting clients 11-45 dhcp_network file 11-30 dhcpconfig utility 11-8, 11-28 dhcpmgr utility 11-8 dhcptab table 11-34 dhtadm utility 11-34 direct route 7-4 directory, /tftpboot 4-11 discover routers 8-18 diskless clients 4-9 displaying ARP data 4-4 ARP table entries 4-6 IPv6 route table 8-36 route table 7-12 state of IPv6 interfaces 8-35 distance-vector algorithms 7-11, 7-25 DNS access list 10-27 allow-query BIND file 10-27 allow-transfer BIND file 10-27 configuring server 10-29 configuring the client 10-32 description 1-14 dynamic updates 10-26

Index
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index-3

restricting queries 10-28 reverse-domain file 10-24 security 10-27 server 10-25 troubleshooting the server 10-33 Domain Name System. See DNS drift file 12-7 duplicate address detection 8-10 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP dynamic route 7-7 dynamic routing, configuring 7-25

Ethernet-II frames 3-10 Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) 7-10

F
failover 6-2 FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME variable 6-5 features of a protocol stack 1-3 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 1-9, 1-14 files /etc/default/dhcp 11-7 /etc/default/mpathd 6-3, 6-5, 6-18, 8-66 /etc/defaultrouter 7-6, 7-19 /etc/ethers 4-11 /etc/gateways 7-20 /etc/hostname.hme0 5-27 /etc/hostname.interface 5-22, 5-23 /etc/inet/dhcpsvc.conf 11-7 /etc/inet/hosts 3-17, 4-11, 5-23 /etc/inet/netmasks 5-18 /etc/inet/networks 7-16 /etc/inet/ntp.conf 12-7, 12-11 /etc/inet/ntp.server 12-5 /etc/named.conf 10-27 /etc/net/hosts 5-22 /etc/netmask 5-18 /etc/nodename 5-23 /etc/nsswitch.conf 4-11 /usr/include/netinet/ip_icmp.h 5-4 /var/adm/messages 10-35 /var/ntp/ntp.drift 12-7 dhcp_network 11-30 interface configuration 5-22 ndpd.conf 8-25 ntp.conf 12-8 one-backup 10-30 one-rbackup 10-30 flow control 9-12 flushing route table 7-23 format prefix 8-6 formatting data, Application layer functions 1-9 fragmentation 5-3

E
EBCDIC 1-9 EEPROM 3-8 eeprom command 3-8 EGP 7-10 electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) 3-8 embedded IPv4 address 8-13 enabling IPv6 8-18 Ethernet access method 3-2 address mapping 4-5 addresses 3-6 ARP 4-2 changing the address 3-9 displaying the address 3-8 displaying the state 3-4 elements 3-2 frame header information 3-14 frames 3-2, 3-6, 3-10 permanent change to address 3-9 statistics 3-4 switches 2-13 topology 3-3 viewing the address 3-8 Ethernet frames bad CRC 3-13 error conditions 3-13 giant 3-13 jabbers 3-13 long 3-13 runts 3-13

Index-4

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

frame check sequence 3-13 frames, Ethernet 3-2 framing packets 1-5 FTP 1-9, 1-14 fudge entry 12-8 full-duplex connection 9-11 transmission 3-4 full-duplex transmission 3-4 function, \? 3-19

G
group membership 8-17

H
half-duplex transmission 3-4 hardware address 4-5 header fields, IP 5-7 hme driver 3-18 hme interfaces 3-19 hme0 interface 3-19, 5-22 hold-down state 7-26 hop count 7-25 hop-count limit 7-26 host alias 10-23 host name, changing 5-23 host nickname 10-23 host-based addressing media 3-6 host-based approach, Ethernet addresses 3-6 HTTP 1-15 http 1-4, 12-9 hubs intelligent 2-3 non-intelligent 2-3 shared 2-12 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 1-15

I
IANA 5-9 ICMP definition 5-3

description 1-13 error detection 1-7 functions 5-3 message types 5-4 message-type file 5-4 purpose 5-3, 5-4 redirect 7-31 routing data 1-7 ICMPv6 group membership 8-17 IEEE 802.3 standard 2-9, 3-2 IEEE identifiers 2-8 if_mpadm utility 6-28 ifconfig utility addif option 5-27 configuring logical interfaces 5-26 unconfiguring logical interfaces 5-28 viewing the MTU of an interface 5-3 IGP 7-9 IMAP4 1-14 in.dhcpd daemon 11-4 in.mpathd daemon failure detection 6-5 multipath group 6-4 repair detection 6-5 starting 6-18, 8-66 in.ndpd daemon 8-18, 8-23 in.rarpd daemon 4-9, 4-11 in.rdisc process 7-30 in.ripngd daemon 8-24 in.routed daemon 7-20 incrementing interface number 5-27 indirect route 7-4 initializing multihomed host 7-40 non-router 7-41 input errors, network system 3-5 instance of hme interface 3-19 instance parameter 3-19 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) identifiers 2-8 intelligent hubs 2-3 interface configuration files 5-22 interface failure definition 6-5 interface identifier 8-8 interface identifier calculation 8-9 interface repair definition 6-6

Index
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

Index-5

interfaces hme 3-19 hme0 3-19 logical 5-24 virtual 5-24 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 5-9 Internet Control Message Protocol. See ICMP Internet Gateway Protocol (IGP) 7-9 Internet layer description 1-4, 1-6 functions 1-6 ICMP 1-7 IP 1-7 Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) 1-14 Internet Protocol. See IP IP address mapping 4-5 address types 5-9 datagram 5-3, 5-6, 7-15 datagram header fields 5-6 datagram payload 5-8 description 1-13 fragmenting data 1-7 header fields 5-7 ICMP 5-3 MTUs 5-3 purpose 5-3 routing 7-3 routing data 1-7 IPMP configuring at boot time 8-68 features 6-3 manual configuration 8-58 requirements 6-4, 6-20 IPv4 address shortage 8-3 addresses 5-9 IPv6 address representation 8-6 address shortage 8-3 address types 8-5 aggregatable global address 8-7, 8-12 anycast address 8-6

authentication 8-4 autoconfiguration 8-3, 8-8 configure on non-router 8-19 configuring interfaces 8-20, 8-24 configuring multipathing 8-58 configuring name service lookup 8-21 displaying interfaces 8-35 displaying route table 8-36 embedded IPv4 address 8-13 enabling 8-18 expanded addressing 8-4 format prefix 8-6 interface troubleshooting 8-36 IPMP configuration 8-58 link-local address 8-6 managing 8-35 multicast address 8-5, 8-7 name service lookup 8-25 privacy header 8-4 RFC 8-3 RIP 8-23 router configuration 8-24 site-local address 8-6 stateful autoconfiguration 8-8 stateless autoconfiguration 8-8 unicast address 8-5

J
JumpStart software clients 4-9

L
LAN media 2-8 network devices 2-12 link speed 3-19 link-local address 8-6, 8-11 link-state protocol 7-10 localhost entry 7-18 local-mac-address? variable 3-8 logical interfaces administering 5-24 configuring 5-26, 8-36

Index-6

Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System
Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sun Services, Revision A.1

description 5-24 incrementing 5-27 removeif option 5-28 unconfiguring 5-28 loopback address type 8-14 loopback interface 3-12 multihomed host 7-40 multipath.conf file 8-25 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (ND) 8-18 netmask contiguous 5-15 definition 5-18 file 5-18 noncontiguous 5-15 netstat utility displaying collisions 3-4 displaying Ethernet interfaces 3-17 field descriptions 3-17 -i option 3-17 input and output errors 3-5 network devices bridges 2-12 LANs 2-12 switches 2-12 Network File System (NFS) 1-9 network interface card (NIC) 3-6. 8-25 name-service database 4-11 names-to-IP addresses 10-21 ND 8-18 ndc utility 10-45 ndd parameters 3-19 ndd utility 3-18. Revision A.TX 2-9 100BASE-FX 2-10 100BASE-T4 2-10 10BASE-T 2-9 messages. Inc. ICMP 5-4 monitoring route table changes 7-22 MTU data size 3-12 description 3-12 fragmentation 5-3 Internet layer 5-3 maximum frame size 3-12 multicast address description 3-7.4 1-6 IEEE 802.1 Index-7 . viewing operation 6-28 multipathing configuring 6-6. 6-2 Network Interface layer description 1-4 protocols IEEE 802. See MTU media access control address. See MAC address media systems 1000BASE-CX 2-11 1000BASE-LX 2-11 1000BASE-SX 2-11 1000BASE-T 2-11 100BASE . 3-20. 8-58 troubleshooting 6-30 multiple access 3-2 M MAC address banner command 3-8 files 4-11 ifconfig utility 3-8 setting 3-8 viewing 3-8 managing DHCP tables 11-31 IPv6 8-35 NTP daemons 12-10 mappings to host names 10-21 maximum transfer unit. 4-4 ndpd. 5-11 format prefixes 8-7 IPv6 8-5 purpose 8-15 scope bits 8-16 N name daemon control program (ndc) 10-45 name server 10-20 name service lookup 8-21. 3-19.5 1-6 PPP 1-12 SLIP 1-12 TCP/IP 3-2 network is unreachable 7-15 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Sun Services. 6-21. All Rights Reserved.

All Rights Reserved.rdisc 7-30 programmable read-only memory (PROM) 4-10 Index-8 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. version 3 (POP3) 1-14 PPP 1-12 prefix notation 8-13 presenting data. Ethernet addresses 3-6 Post Office Protocol. Inc.network model concepts 1-3 functions 1-3 layered model 1-3 layers 1-3 rules 1-3 structure 1-3 network name 7-16.conf file 12-8 ntpq utility 12-12 NVRAM 3-6 O one-backup file 10-30 one-rbackup file 10-30 output errors 3-5 P packet data unit 1-5 parameters instance 3-19 TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_ GROUPS 8-66 path-vector algorithm 7-11 PDU 1-5 peer-to-peer description 1-10 encapsulation 1-11 physical network interface 5-25 piggybacking 9-11 pntadm utility 11-31 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 1-12 POP3 1-14 port-based address 3-8 port-based approach. capturing 3-14 network performance problems 3-4 network protocols 1-2 Network Time Protocol. 10-21 nslookup utility 10-36 NTP basic concepts 12-2 configuration file parts 12-6 configuring a server 12-5 configuring clients 12-13 configuring stratum of a NTP server 12-8 configuring the stratum 12-8 external reference servers 12-9 fudge entry 12-8 functions 12-3 managing daemons 12-10 multicast advertisement 12-8 ntpg utility 12-12 peers 12-12 query program 12-12 snoop utility 12-16 terms 12-3 troubleshooting 12-15 undisciplined local clock 12-7 xntpdc utility 12-10 ntp. Application layer functions 1-9 process. See NTP network topologies and OSPF 7-10 bus configurations 2-2 describing 2-2 ring configurations 2-4 star configurations 2-3 NFS 1-9 NIC 3-6. in. Sun Services.1 . 6-2 no route to host 7-15 noncontiguous netmasks 5-15 noncontiguous subnet masks 5-15 non-intelligent hubs 2-3 nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). Ethernet addresses 3-6 noripin directive 7-20 NS record 10-20. Revision A. 7-44 network number 5-18 network overload 3-5 network packets.

8-18 reducing network traffic 9-11 reference clock 12-3 reliable protocol 9-6 remote procedure call (RPC) 3-14 removeif option 5-28 Request for Comment.1 Index-9 . See RARP reverse loopback 10-25 reverse-domain file 10-24 RFC documents 1-4 listings 1-4 ring configurations 2-4 RIP 7-7. 8-23 root name server 10-20 route command 7-24 route poisoning 7-27 route table description 7-12 display 7-12 fields 7-13 flush 7-23 monitoring changes 7-22 netmask 7-23 protocol 7-10 search order 7-14 updates 7-6. 9-8 UDP 9-2.protocol stack features 1-3 protocol statistics 3-18 protocols connection-oriented 9-3 EGP 7-10 FTP 1-9. 1-14 functions 1-2 ICMP 5-3 IGP 7-9 IP 5-3 link-state 7-10 NFS 1-9 RDISC 7-30 reliable 9-6 SLIP 1-12 SMTP 1-9 SNMP 1-9 SSH 1-9 stack 1-2 stateful 9-5 stateless 9-5 TCP 9-2. 7-31 router advertisement 8-19 configuration 8-24 discover 8-18 troubleshooting 8-22 Router Discovery (RDISC) Protocol 8-18 routing add route 7-24 advertisement 7-7 autonomous system 7-8 broadcast 7-28 configuring at boot time 7-38 configuring without rebooting 7-40 default 7-6. 9-8 unreliable 9-7 R RARP /etc/ethers files 4-11 /etc/inet/hosts files 4-11 description 1-13 in. Inc. 9-8 telnet 1-9 Transport layer 9-2. All Rights Reserved. Revision A. Sun Services.rarp daemon 4-11 operation 4-9 performing a boot 4-10 PROM 4-10 TCP/IP Internet layer protocol description 1-13 RDISC Protocol 7-30. See RFC retransmit message 9-6 REVARP request 4-9 Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. 7-19 direct 7-4 dynamic 7-7 fundamentals 7-3 hold-down state 7-26 hops 7-25 indirect 7-4 initialization 7-38 initializing non-router 7-41 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.

1-14 site-local address 8-6. 6-18 secure shell 1-9 security DNS 10-27 restricting queries 10-28 segment type 2-8 self-contained messages 9-4 semantics in network protocols 1-2 sender side congestion window 9-12 sequencing 1-2 Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) 1-12 servers DHCP configuration 11-7 stratum 12-3 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) 1-9. Inc.route poisoning 7-27 route table 7-6 split horizons 7-26 static 7-6 triggered updates 7-26 troubleshooting 7-42 Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 7-7. All Rights Reserved. 9-8 receiver-side window advertisements 9-12 reliability 1-8 satellite networks 9-13 segment acknowledgement 9-12 segments 1-8 Index-10 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems.sh 5-17. 5-17. 1-14 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) 1-9. 7-39. Revision A. 1-14 snoop utility capture network packets 3-14 NTP 12-16 reading the file 3-16 summary mode 3-14 using 3-14 verbose mode 3-14 SOA record 10-22 speed matching 1-2 split horizons 7-26 SSH 1-9 standby interface 6-3 star configurations 2-3 stateful autoconfiguration 8-8 protocol 9-5 stateless autoconfiguration 8-8 protocol 9-5 static routes configuring 7-18 configuring manual 7-21 definition 7-6 strata 12-3 stratum-1 server 12-3 subnet address 5-21 subnet masks contiguous 5-15 noncontiguous 5-15 subnetting 5-12 switches 2-12 switching devices 2-12 T TCP congestion window 9-12 datagram header 9-10 description 1-13.1 . 8-29 /etc/rc2. 9-10 flow control 9-12 header information 9-11 high-bandwidth network 9-13 large window 9-13 network congestion 9-12 protocol 1-8. 7-7.d/S72inetsvc 5-17 /etc/rcSd/S30network. 6-18. 1-14 SNMP 1-9.d/S69inet 4-11. 9-2. Sun Services. 8-23 RPC 3-14 RUNNING flag 6-5 S scope bits 8-16 scripts /etc/rc2. 8-12 SLIP 1-12 SMTP 1-9.

1-7 error detection 9-8 fundamentals 9-2 protocol 9-2.TCP/IP ARP 4-2 common protocols 1-12 model 1-1 Network Interface layer 3-2 peer-to-peer communication 1-10 PPP 1-12 protocol stack 9-8 protocols 1-12 SLIP protocol 1-12 TCP/IP layer model Application layer 1-4 common hardware platform 1-4 Internet layer 1-4 Network Interface layer 1-4 primary functions 1-5 Transport layer 1-4 telnet protocol 1-9. 9-8 transport server 9-2 transporting data. 3-5 nslookup 10-36 ntpg 12-12 ntpq 12-12 pntadm 11-31 snoop 3-14. Revision A. 8-61 time keeping 12-2 time-to-live 10-20 timing in network protocols 1-2 TRACK_INTERFACES_ONLY_WITH_GROUPS parameter 8-66 transfer. 12-16 xntpdc 12-10 Index Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. 7-44 tools 3-17 twisted-pair 2-8 U UDP datagram header 9-9 datagrams 1-8 description 1-13. 3-19. All Rights Reserved. See TCP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. 3-20 netstat 3-4. Inc. 5-26 ndc 10-45 ndd 3-18. Application layer functions 1-9 triggered updates 7-26 troubleshooting DHCP clients 11-45 DNS server 10-33 IPv6 interface 8-36 multipathing 6-30 network names 7-44 non-router configuration 8-22 NTP 12-15 router configuration 7-42. 8-33 routing 7-42. 1-14 test address 6-5. Sun Services. 5-9. See TCP/IP Transport layer connectionless communication 1-8 connection-oriented communication 1-8 description 1-4. 11-28 dhcpmgr 11-8 dhtadm 11-34 if_mpadm 6-28 ifconfig 5-3. 9-8 reliability 1-8. 8-5 types 8-11 unreliable protocol 9-7 unspecified address type 8-14 unstructured stream orientation 9-11 User Datagram Protocol. buffered 9-11 transmission full-duplex 3-4 half-duplex 3-4 Transmission Control Protocol.1 Index-11 . 9-9 procedure call 3-14 protocol 9-2. See UDP utilities arp 4-5 dhcpconfig 11-8. 9-9 unconfiguring logical interfaces 5-28 undisciplined local clock 12-7 unicast addresses description 3-7.

All Rights Reserved. Inc. Sun Services.V variable length subnet mask (VLSM) 5-20 variables FAILURE_DETECTION_TIME 6-5 local-mac-address? 3-8 virtual circuit connection 9-11 virtual interfaces 5-24 Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) 2-5 VLAN 2-5 VLSM 5-20 W web servers 10-24 window advertisement 9-12 X xntpd daemon 12-7 xntpdc utility 12-10 Index-12 Network Administration for the Solaris™ 10 Operating System Copyright 2005 Sun Microsystems. Revision A.1 .

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