Davio Braio

Classical guitar construction is based on a long tradition handed down by generations of Spanish luthiers, dating back to legends of the 19th century like Antonio de .lorres, and even earlier craftsmen. In more recen t years, advances in available materials, as well as the demands of modern players, have seen the spread of new construction ideas from Northern Europe, the United States, Australia and beyond. As with any musical instrument, basic designs may look alike at first glance, but the difference and the resulting quality of sound and playability is in the detail. This page shows an "exploded" view of a classical guital~ to give an idea of its construction.

The BACK of the guitar is bookmatched (like the soundboard, see above right) though in this case made from a hardwood such as rosewood or mahogany. The two halves are then braced from the inside with either three or (in some modern guitars) four transverse bars. The back is actually the last part to be aUached during construction (despite how this diagram appears). The RIBS, or sides of the guitars are also cut from sheets of hardwood, but are heated and bent to shape. They're then joined at the bottom, where they're glued to an END BLOCK - a piece of light hardwood (willow, lime, poplar). At the top the)' slot into the end of the neck. The narrowest point of the body is called the WAIST and the upper and lower sections called BOUTS.

The modern BRIDGE, with detachable SADDLE (tra ditio naIl)' hone or ivory), is one of the most recent elements of the classical guitar, introduced in the 1850s. Rosewood is the usual bridge material, and here its elegance is enhanced by MARQUETRY to match the design of the ROSETTE - the often complex decorative mosaic around the SOUNDHOLE that's one of a guitar-maker's trademarks.

FISCHER 'TAUT' BRACING SYSTEM

TRADITIONAL BRACING SYSTEM

The SOUNDBOARD is the top surface of a classical guitar, and is the. ."'inglemost important element in determining the sound quality of the instrument. A piece of spruce or cedar is "bookmatched" sliced in half laterally and the halves glued side-by-side so the grain matches then carefully braced internally to stiffen without adding toomucli extra weight. The soundboard on the right of this pair shows the traditional Torres bracing system: seven light "[an-struts" pointing at the 12th fret. 10 its left is UK luthier Pa ul Fischer's TA UT S)lstem: this criss-cross lattice of lightweight spruce allows more design scope, like a thinner so UIldboard and-reconfigured soundhole.

The NECK (traditionally wider and flatter than most other types of guitar neck) is cut to shape from a length of hardwood. To achieve its backwards slope, the HEAD is usually sawn from the top of the neck wood with a diagonal cut, turned over and glued back on. It's then veneered and holes drilled for the machineheads (.~trillg-tuning mechanisms). The HEEL (the visible joint with the body) and the FOOT (the interior part of the joint) are built up from several layers of the same wood. The FINGERBOARD is cut (from ebony or rosewood) before fitting to the neck. Nickel-silver FRETS are then hammered into place. The NUT is traditionally a slotted piece of bone which guides the strings at the top of the neck..

The STRINGS themselves are nowadays nylon , (originally animal gut), with the three .:, bass strings wound in wire, and are available in carious "tensions" - high tension delivers a , brighter, livelier tone, but is harder on the fingers. The strings are traditionally tied at the bridge. The wood strips seen here with the regular cuts across them are flexible KERFED LININGS, which reinforce the joint between sides, [ront and back. The narrower strips are PURFLINGS, which are inlaid into the guitar body at various points for decorative purposes.

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Classical
Guitar
Fingerboard maps
This fold-out page can be used alongside any section of the book as a helpful reference while you're memorising the position of all the notes on the guitar
fin gerboard.

Play

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The main fret positions are also indicated, in Roman numerals (V :;::: ive; IX ::::nine, f XII ::::12 etc). These diagrams also make it clear that all notes have an octave within eas.v reach ~ and you'll notice the strong visual patterns that can help find these octave notes (as discussed in Section Four of the book). On strings three and four the octave can be found two string's and three frets higher; on strings five and six the octave is 1:\\10 strings and avo frets higher. As an example, the octave shape of D has been highlighted on the main fingerboard diagram - from the fifth fret on string five to fret seven on string three.
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At this point (fret XII) the fingerboard begins repeating itself: but. an octave higher. Other than on the top avo

strings, the notes from position XII upwards are rarely used, as the same notes can be found lower down the neck 'with a much better tone quality. Generally speaking, the longer the section of string left to vibrate, t.he dearer the sound.

E III V VII IX .

-1'" IliiJ Cleveland Loudon WIT tiPU.ia) Print by Tien 'V.~h (Singapore) 01 02 03 04 05 5 4 3 2 1 .Outline Press Ltd.()L LI'Ce embodied articles or revi ews where the For more information should be made dear.fames Originrllion by Global ColOLIr (. Paul Editor: Paul Quinn P]'()dlLcr. J OJ Mvw.atlJ k. CA9. .backbt'<ltiJooks.coJJl All imprint oiThc Music Player ~.ri:.iJdckl".Christodoulou details ohn Taylor H ertfordshirc Baker.• \. England..'I>lalay.hal.iotr Phil Richardson Model: Helen Sanderson Photography: <~I. SU'CCI .] Cui I . any manner h"ok covered by the copyrights hereon Illay he reproduced OJ' copied in quotations ". All rights reserved. Oil ecror: Nigel Osborne Tony Bacon GOOpCl' I'.litori. San Francisco.com Copyright 19 2001 BalafclII..17 Reco~ding Sound Enginccr..Play Classical Guitar By David A BACKBEAT Braid BOOK first edition 2001 Published by Backbcat Books 600 Harrison Street.ton.'n. ill excepl in II".orarinn: Holy Trinity Church. 1!H. No part o[tili. (It: . case ofbrief . \\\:. ISBN 0·87930·657·2 All.tw()rk United Media Iuc.soever without written permission.ll Director: fl\:'sit.'1. contact the publishers. Emerrainmcnr Published for Backbcat Books 1)).

~~ _ es .. ~c::~ ~~~~~ ~ ~1~U ~ . ~ Playing position Check points Tuning using the fifth fret Finger and thumb strokes Tirando Apoyando Right-hand chord Arpeggios Notation Note values Time signatures Guitar notation Right hand exercises Introducing the left hand The note C The note D Pieces with A..: ~~ ~~~d ~~~ it:~~e~~ft~~ ~ r-..part two Intervals .....part two Legato Second position (II) Order of sharps and flats Irrational rhythms Arpeggios .~~cnm.part two Melody within arpeggio Damping Half-barre 56 58 58 61 62 64 66 68 70 72 73 75 # Semiquavers (16th-notes) 48 .r. ~~'(i:d • ~"" ~ ~~~~ ~... C and D JTime Open bass strings Rests Two part music Notes F and G Ties Anacrusis 6 7 8 10 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 15 16 18 19 20 22 23 24 26 26 27 28 29 Quavers (eighth-notes) Sharp sign: ~time The note A Dotted rhythm Key signatures E & F on the fourth string Intervals Notes Band C Co unterpoi nt Dynamics F & G on the sixth string ~ time Flat sign: ~ 32 33 34 34 35 36 37 39 40 41 42 45 46 51 Memorisation Tempo Dynamics .

Ligado Chords Chord diagrams Third position (I'll) Octave shapes Tempo .part two 98 92 92 Glossary CD track listing 140 144 Your audio CD can be found inside the back cover.part two Demisem iquavers Extended techniques Pizzicato Tambor Bartok or snap pizz Scodatura Campanella Four study pieces History of repertoire Buying an instrument 117 118 121 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 130 137 Time signatures . .part two The full barre Ligado .part two Fifth position (V) Ornaments Acc iaccat ura Mordent Appoggiatura Turn Trill 78 79 80 83 83 84 86 87 88 90 90 90 91 Scales Seventh position (VII) Glissando Nails Vibrato Harmonics Artificial harmonics General musicianship Sight-reading Ninth position (IX) Tremolo 95 99 100 101 102 104 105 106 108 108 110 Tone colour Scales .

. ranging from the basic arpeggio-based right-hand position to the skill of playing by ear. explanatory diagrams.This book can be used either by a student 'working alone or in conjunction with a guitar teacher. The techniques are those used in the main schools of classical guitar teaching. The accompanying CD will be particularly helpful to those learning on their own. Hl)' fonner teacher at the Royal College oIl'vlusic in London. This book IS dedicated to Charles Ramirez. as this is taught alongside the craft of playing the instrument itself. And throughout the book there are clear. The teaching method revolves around selected pieces of music designed to cover elements of musical theory and practical playing technique. It's not necessary to read music already. The book's flexible approach will suit players of all standards and backgrounds .from school-age students learning their first instrument to experienced but nonreading guitarists from other styles of music who are interested in developing their technique and musicianship.

Playing Tuning using position the fifth [ret strokes Basic finger Right-hand Musical First & thumb chord & guitar & arpeggio notation hand only exercises .right Introducing The notes Simple Two-part the left hand A. C. F & G time signatures bass & treble lines music: Rests. ties & anacrusis . D.

~n.\i1"~ f. ~ Underneath the right forearm Gust below the elbow). it's much more common for naturally left-handed players to persevere with learning righthanded technique... with the left hand just below shoulder height.perhaps from an arpeggio to a chord strum. The left leg should be raised by using a small foot stool..l"'~~ ~'&S~t<i~~ "~. or any suitable object (somewhere between five and nine inches high.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~ ='" (t"~~a"..n ~ ~~~rH:i '" 1:1 ~ -"{j . the guitar should be supported in four places: ~ Resting on the left thigh.~ ~. you should of course reverse all references to "left" and "right" in the book. PLAY 6 CLASSICAL GUITAR .~iJ "". Note: I r YOli are one of the few people who have chosen to play the guitar lett-handed.. fiI! ~~:l! ~iij :. but also Jets YOll make sudden right-hand position changes . . The aim is to raise the guitar neck so all parts of the fingerboard can be reached easily.j. depending on what feels most comfortable)... thus avoiding problems of finding suitable instruments..H ~"."?dil -li!ii<.. Without using the hands at all.. ~ Leaning against the right inner thigh.l.0' The classical guitar-playing posiuon stems directly from the practicalities of keeping the instrument steady 'while having the hands free to play (no supporting strap is used).. In fact.. ~ The guitar back leaning on the left side of your chest. or attempting to adapt often complex classical repertoire to suit. The traditional position not only allows the left hand to move easily around the fingerboard.

the thumb always points left (towards the neck) and the fingers curve In the opposite direction. triangle formed by the right-hand thumb. Note the small. straight posicion. not vice-versa. the vertical line of the lower left leg. To achieve this. (It's vital the eye moves first and the hand follows. and also greatly enhances sound projection. The four photographs across these pages show the ideal playing position from different angles.The photo on the left shows both hand positions from the player's perspective. ~ Try to keep a slight gap between the palm of the left hand and the neck of the guitar. you'll use your eyes TO guide the left hand to its next position on the fretboard. with the join between the guitar's neck and body directly above the left leg (making this a balanced mid-point). just through gravity. il The right hand falls naturally into place. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . towards the bridge. index finger and string. This ensures the guitar goes across the body. ?J The guitar neck should be angled so the left-hand fingers are easily visible. Note the completely relaxed shoulders.this 'lets the player see the fingerboard clearly.) ~ Both thumbs should be in a natural. and can all play freely. Since the aim is to be able to play most music from memory (see Memorisation in Section Three). this position ensures the thumb and lingers keep out 01each other's way. The last photograph shows the slight angle of the guitar body .s. and how the right leg makes room for the Instrument. and fingers (on both hands) should be curved inwards. ~ The shoulders and arms should be completely relaxed.

the fifth fret will give you the same E note as the open first string (as you can see on [he guitar neck opposite).a". Turning the machinehead away from the neck (looking from the playing side. you'll be aware that the notes on the keyboard seem to be an octave lower than those written In guitar music . The rest or the strings are tuned in the same way as the second string was. The traditional 'way to tune a guitar is by taking the note A from a tuning fork. If the B-string isn't in tune.a!i~ "'. as shown below)..F~~. Turning it toicards the neck tcousue» .with the important exception that on the third string. and sounds an octave lower than written.1li~~ s ~~rth Irf~~~ I!'i "')!: ":?~ The picture below shows the notes on the piano that correspond to the open strings on the guitar. clockwise viewed from the front) will take the string down in pitch."~~~~ usme '?1=i!'i~!li!... using the fifth fret to match the previous open string. Notice that the Q and B are only four notes apart. On the second (B) string.th.or just follow the string along to the machinehead if you're not sure which one to turn)..!lk· 1~Z1V' '~til~ . Turn the relevant machinehead (tuning peg) to tune the B-string to the correct pitch (see the diagram on the next page . taking it up in pitch. To tune the other strings you have to find the equivalent notes to the open strings.1 ". @ @® CD PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . do the same thing for the other strings . see diagram on the opposite page). If you read music already..g fork.. this note will be either higher or lower in pitch than the open-string E..~. rather than the fifth. while all the others are five apart . or clockunse viewed from the front) will tighten the string.. and then making sure the guitar'S top Evstring' is in tune (holding the fifth fret.this helps show why the second string (B) Is tuned using the fourth fret of the tntrdstring (G). pitch pipe or piano. the note that matches the open second string is at the [ow'lh fret rather than the fifth (again.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~"H~[l _ ~~..ls Is because the guitar is a "transposing instrument"...j . ®® This picture shows an A note on the guitar neck that corresponds to a "concert pitch" (440Hz) tunin. Once the B-string is in tune.. ·.

v ®®@@®CD PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .turning down towards the neck .to lower Its pitch. The top arrow shows the direction of the machinehead "button" for loosening the string .The guitar neck picture on this page shows the string numbers and their relevant machineheads. and also the notes used for tuning from string to string (at frets IV and V). to raise the string's pitch. The bottom arrow shows the reverserotating the maohinehead up and away from the neok.

:. Tirando is the stroke you'll use most of the time . and lets neighbouring strings ring where required.~ GUITAR ~ ~ . The fingers move primarily From the knuckle joint and have little movement in the first and second joints. also known as free stroke. Photos 1 & 2 on this page show the preparation and execouon of ttranco with the I'ndexfinger: note the finger moves Into the hand. In order for the thumb and lingers to work freely. returning to the string for the next stroke (see photographs below). playing the string then following through afterwards. they must be kept slightly apart from each other. or rest stroke..ing PLAY CLASSICAL ~-~ ~.\"?~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~~~i g.% !Jn~~m~"" r.it makes it easy to play several strings at once. Photos 3 & 4 show the preparation and movement of the thumb when playing tirando: the thumb moves downwardS and then out from the str. following-through upwards and past the string. with the thumb pointing leftwards and the fingers angled to the right (see photo on p7)..~~Mft~ Rr ~~~~~~~ oq: \:.~:. st ~"'~~-$dS ~ rYf\~~" ~h[§ There are two main types of finger stroke in classical guitarplaying: "tirando''. Apoyando is generally used to accentuate certain notes or phrases. The thumb moves slightly away from the guitar after playing and makes a small circle. The thumb and fingers of the right hand should always work in opposite directions to each other. They play into the hand. and "apoyando".

The latter is often used by flamenco players and is good Cor very fast playing of scale-like passages. Photos 3 & 4 on this page show the thumb stroke. The most common is 'when the first joint of the finger "gives way" (bends backwards slightly) as it plays the string. The other type of apoyando is when the first joint doesn't move. The tone produced is characteristically sweet and rich. The series of photographs below will make the difference between apoyando and tirando clear. 'which produces a slightly harder. allowing the fingertip to pass easily over the string to rest on the next one. Photos position 1 & 2 on this page show of the index finger stroke.th the finger rests the thumb on the next string arter the stroke. There arc two 'ways of playing apoyando with the fingers. and is used when a particularly rounded sound is required with a bit of extra weight. As wi. the and 1• up less before In photo higher after an apoyando note that the hand is slightly the strings curved and the finger is much uraneo.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Apovando is when the finger or thumb comes to rest on an adjacent string after playing. than when playing the final Photo 2 shows of the finger rest'ing place on the next string' (in this B). N. than when playing apoyando. percussive attack.?< ~ . case the second-string. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . This may be in single line themes or on notes or phrases that need to be highlighted and brought out over the other parts. Apoyando with the thumb is achieved by slightly adjusting the angle of playing so the thumb moves downwards and comes to rest briefly on the next string. remaining stiff.ote that the apoyando hand is considerably lower In relation to the strings tlrando.

but if the fingers and thumb are "prepared" 011 the strings beforehand. the right-hand fingers are identified by using the letters p. This "prepared" chord can be seen as a kind of home position from which all other right-hand technique is developed.%~~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~~~~ In classical guitar-playing.. gcntly drawing the fingers into the hand while pushing the thumb outwards (see photo 2 below). "10 begin with.ring (third) finger The fourth finger on the right hand is never used . The basic position of the right hand on the guitar can be located and established through the use of what's called the "righthand chord" . - f.ioI'!: .especially not for leaning on the soundboard.index (first) finger m for medio . m on the second (B).thumb i for indice . The letters come from their Spanish names: p lor pulgar . still in the same place. and In Note the angle of the lingers straight shape 01 the thumb._ . i on the third string (G). The hand itself should hardly. but think of your right hand as a balanced mid-point from which the thumb and fingers operate as they move around in opposite directions. Photo 1 here shows preparation for the right-hand the ideal chord. and each string should be clearly heard and balanced in volume. movement but the hand is allowing lor an Immediate repetition. This may seem a bit difficult when you first attempt it. tricky at first. photo 2 the finger & thumb has been completed. and a on the first string (E).see photo 1 below. move at all . PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~ ~ ~~~ . as this can restrict the movement of the third finger. i.middle (second) linger a lor anular .this may also be . the correct movement will be easier. p rests on the fourth string (D). m and a . It's important to keep the thumb away from the fingers..these must be memorised so they can be identified instantly on a musical score. The thumb and fingers must play exactly together.

.. ensuring no time is lost looking for the string. C. G.. the m on B and a on E.. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .<i. returning to the beginning by adding two further strokes on the B and G strings with m and i respectively. For the second and subsequent arpeggios the fingers aren't prepared on the strings. a... ~ ~ .... i. so there's a continuous cycle. i.. j§< ~j~~. The complete arpeggio is: p. j These five photos show the preparation for the arpeggio and subsequent rncvernent of the thumb . making sure the fingers are moved from the knuckle and are directed into the hand. m.r.a~~ ... B..~~ A half-arpeggio is prepared in the same 'way as the chord but the thumb and fingers play one after the other rather than sirnu I eons lv. on strings D..~~.. Note that the fingers that are yet to play stay fi:rmly on the string until they are needed . .:' li . as this would stop the previous notes fmgll1g... ~-i_~~~~.oI'"~. B._."".~ :~ i:!:.~ne-~~§j. E.. It's best to practise the arpeggio several Limes in a row with no break in-between.:.·r<---"o. ~"li:l.. '" ~ -.. m. and three fingers. then back via the A to the D to begin again.~ ~ ~ -'.this Is very important. This can be developed further by moving the thumb to the fifth string (A) the next time round and then on to the 6ch string (E). The full arpeggio is similar to the half but has six notes. tan The thumb begins and is followed by the i finger OIl G. .

When notes are used that go outside the range of the stave (either above or below). F. A. B. D. D. is really the only one you 'will come across as a b'lJ.itarist (other clefs. Alter this the notes start repeating in a higher or lower "octave" . F (it may help you remember this order if you make up a mnemonic using these letters . short lines called "ledger lines" long enough for just one note . The notes themselves can last for different lengths of time. C.:~~ . going up. E. A. show different parts of the musical range). E. are: F.you mustn't pause or stop at each barline. G. Most music is divided into bars.D-F ~~~-----~A---er- The symbol at the beginning of the stave is called a clef There are several types of clef.an octave is so-called because there are eight main steps from one note to its equivalent note. such as the bass clef.'. --~~-------=E~--IF-------=C. The notes in the spaces. from the bottom: E.-~ . C. as shown in the second diagram above. a~ indicated by symbols called note values. B. but this one. a treble clef. The notes on the lines of the treble clef stave are. above or below.a common one is Every Good Boy Deserves Fun). G. At this stage 'we'll only deal with the three main types: The crotchet (quarter note) The minim (half note) PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR (note stems can gu Uf) or down) d 0 The sernibreve (whole note) <\~. Each line and each space on the stave represents a note of a different pitch.--_. Although the bars divide the music evenly according to the time signature they are not to be heard as such . by vertical "barlines' which group the music into equal sections to make it easier to read.are added to extend the stave. A double barline indicates the end of the piece of music. named after the first seven letters of the alphabet.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Musical notation is written on a grid of five horizontal lines called a "stave" (or stall).

The top digit indicates the number of notes (or beats) per bar and the lower number indicates the note value itself. The notes to be held down to make up the chord are usually indicated by black dots at the relevant frets. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .: Guitar chords. the crotchet (quarter note) is indicated by the lower number 4.a grid representing the guitar fingerboard. m and a (as mentioned on p12) on the stave refer to the right-hand fingering. The most frequently used time signature is 4 . there are some additional signs specific to 'written guitar music: A number from 1-4.middle (second) finger a for anular .four crotchets in a bar . The letters p. As well as the standard musical notation. are sometimes notated on a "chord diagram" . which will be dealt with in greater detail in the first two Sections in the book. Other frequently used time signatures are 1 and j. as we'll see in Section Four. for example.rhumb i for indice .SEG1lOtJO~~E PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR The type and amount of note values in each bar (and therefore the pulse of the piece) is indicated at the beginning of the music by the "time signature". (If the number 0 appears. which is represented by its fraction of a sernibreve (\V'hole note).index (first) finger m for medio .often called "common time". Roman numerals (I. written above or under a note on the stave.ring (third) finger ®) f\. II.) A number in a circle (for instance indicates which string is to be played. This consists of two small numbers arranged vertically (for instance 4). So. the open string is to be played. i. V etc) indicate the fret position at which to hold down the notes (we'll go into this in more detail later). and sometimes indicated by just a capital C at the start of the passage. indicates which left-hand linger is to be used to hold down that note on the fingerboard. the minim (half note) by a 2. as if viewing the neck vertically. instead of the two fours. and the sernibreve (whole note) by a 1. with the nut at the top and the low E-string on the left. Just to remind you: p for pulgar . 1If.

so you can practise alternating the fingers. I .. When crossing from one string to another you mustn't hesitate or stop. Always count the beats regularly.repeat an exercise as many times as necessarv until you've understood all its component elements completely This will make the later pieces easier to grasp. In the first three exercises the beats are written below the music as a guide. such as the last three notes.. that you do so at your own pace . Play quite slowly at first. fingering and note changes. G.. Plav these exercises using tirando (see pi 0) and rest the thumb on a bass string to steady the hand. either out loud or in your mind. Try not to look at the right hand ._ I i:X~~C~$~ 1 Using the open first and second strings onl). as this will help you keep a steady pulse.. and mid-bar three. Exercises 1 to 6 use only the right hand.you want it to develop touch-sensitivitv to the strings. ~ ~ -.~% CLASSICAL GUITAR . minimising hand movement b)' arpeggio-type fingeJ·ing. & m 0 0 m iF F 1 2 3 rr 4 0 0 Ij 1 :3 j 2 j 3 4 Ir r a r j IF FF II EXE~C~-SE The third finger (a) joins the second (m) and first (i): a is used for threenote patterns. I I... &iF a a m a m m e F F If f m 9 1 IF m V PLAY __ r - m I ._ I r a rr Ij r m a II j r II . it carries on in the same sequence. is introduced in bars two and three.SEC-~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL a~~~ GUITAR It's crucial. Remember not to look at the right hand.changing strings between each bar. Wti 1 m 0 m FF 2 3 0 r Ir r r r 0 0 0 m m 0 m m 0 m 0 m 0 0 0 IF F 0 4 1 2 3 4 rr j 0 I rttF 0 V II Ej!E~C~$~::g The third string. . when working through the exercises in the book... paying close attention to hand position. Where the right~ hand fingering is only given for one bar. .

a rhythmic pattern of two bars is repeated three limes. . is repeated three times.lflearned carefully it can be sped up and the pattern will be clearly heard. with different pitches each time. ~JfS~C~Se J m J J I r a m m F I J a r rr m a a IV m a o r m I F r a m I II This one has a pattern of three within the beat offonr._ m r J 5 IJ m Again. ~n'5~C~SE 4 'I .Here the rhythmic pattern. Errr a m a I F m rJ m m Ir J r J I r m I m m a m F a II V JFJF Ir r r F I . The fingering is arpeggio-based with a separate finger for each string. i ~XE~CI$E ~ . which lasts for two bars..r a m a iJ r m FJ J a I rrr m m m J m I r I FJ J a m r m I a V a On F II r r Ir J a F r rrJ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .

o. the open-string B. The first note to learn in the left hand is A on the third string..l !. tsf. which is played with finger 2 (as in the diagram above).1a~J.~:J ~~~ ~~~.~ ~~i'*aLe ~~i. When you're " .1~ ~*'~~ l:l~" !!l~ !! ~~e!.?."""'" 1--'P fingertips that hold down the notes.l ~~~§i~"§.~~~~~~!lig~~~~ ~~~-::p'. possible coming down on to the strings. in bar four. LO I. which will develop better if it's not watched.(in a line with the centre of the palm).~~ "a~!Hl ~~~ r f The left-hand fingers should always be as vertical as . so it's the -I"'>'" 1.j .S~ Introducing fJ third note.! ~ 10: . Be careful the thumb doesn't creep over the top of the neck... JJ a m a m I W JJ m I ( J a JJ j I r m () ff ~ m j f J m I ] ] I J m J PLAY 1S% CLASSICAL GUITAR .... second fret.o. as this would restrict finger movement._. J JJ m I .4 This uses only the two notes of A and G on the same string.l~<1!l!llli\l'" ~~~~!$O:. The left-hand thumb must be held straight and should stay on the . learning you should always look at the left hand and the fretboard when not looking at the music .. 41 a .'i':S:i~ .j m (J IW u IW m () J 8 m J J I] o m II 2 ~Xfi!~C.. back of the neck directly opposite the second finger ..in contrast to the right hand.

. nearly opposite the fretting finger. ~n~E~CiSE 9' &1 :J J r r I r & r J :J :J J I m m m J J 61 m r I r :J :J J IJ m etc. Don't worry. .~ more relaxed . rather than the finger itself EX ~ Po C ~ S~ "1 0 &2 V r FF j I ~ I 0 r IV r F FV Ir r F 0 r j .and the fingertips will toughen up with ~:.:: time. .:2.Pay close attention to the right-hand fingering here ..---_ first . And remember to keep the thumb straight on the back of the neck. ~X~~H:!~SE i 1 &1 r &j m r 0 Ir rr j PLAY I 0 r IF Ir r J CLASSICAL II II GUITAR 19 . II .don't grab at the notes. for added support. -:::)£~~~c~~ .i~~~ Remember to look at the fret you're moving to. 0 J r J 0 II This note can be slightly more difficult than A at t. II This exercise brings in the note G in bar three.it'll make stringcrossing easier... It's a good idea if the finger is put down on the string slowly to begin 'with.it's positioned closer to the nut. strength 'will soon build up in the ~ fingers . where the strings are more taut and it can be a bit harder to hold the notes down if you're new to using the left hand. to help keep the hand ~"-.

" ') manoeuvrability. The downside .~. =~~i=====tI11 b ent ... F r GUITAR IV r r e II CLASSICAL .. Even though you've moved up to the third fret.e lstraight.- ~~.. usually much weaker than the first two. having already done A and C . 4t & m IT 3 r 3 If 0 F IT 3 IV IF r 0 F e 3 F PLAY ~.Exercise 12 uses left -hand notes A and C.. for example). This makes you use your eyes to help the lefl hand find the notes on the correct strings. straight and strong on the back of the neck. When crossing strings. Remember to watch the left hanel and never the right.. 1l[~SRC~SE 13 This is all on the second string ~ C and D only. .it's a little further up the neck.is you have to hold it with the third fingel. where the strings feel slightly looser. which is . keep the thumb roughly where it was.. both left and right hand must change together (going to the A in bar one. or1 eveldl =j.lt. dowlllol1ktheh str1ings -hif theY'r. in line with fingers one or two. t ey lave t at muc 1 ess strengtl an J§. Remember ~-'" to keep the fingers curved inwards when they come (=. P j ~ m FFf 0 J 2 I j 0 j IJ J f j I F r () V fl j J r Ir r I I r j Ir r J r You should find this one a bit easier.iac .~~~ . Try to memorise then play this exercise without the music.

the end: this means )._ I rr I rr Da Capo al fine F Ir r ~ PLAY CLASSICAL 2o!\l~ :v. return to the beginning. Ex~~e~se 14 &2 j (I i m r .. I F J I r 0 J 2 ~ F F r JJ I j rj r Ir I JJ J I r F j I I J F 0 (j r r 15 r II &F r J r rr ~~ j j 'Twinkle Twinkle Little Star' . This instruction is often written as DC al fine...ou play to end of the piece once. and repeat from the beginning as far as the word "[ine" (which is Italian for "end").A folk song -it makes use of all six notes learned so far."""" GUITAR .note the instruction "da capo al fine" at EX~~C~Se. tr ft J r j rr 3 IF I 1 I FF rr ~ I IJ J j 2 fine II F .3 etc.

~"""'~t"""'ii!i:'i ""i'! ~~. ""~~ ~ ~Olli 41 F I m J 2 ~ r a m F r r I I· J r Ir 3 0 I fill tj 2 I~ -j m rrr J i IJ J " i a m m F r IF r i .V'>!~O'!~~ ~ .nearly all your playing later on will involve the left hand. This movement must be practised separately and slowly until it feels comfortable.SECTI~Ot~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~e'-@~"'''''''~&~n''' ~ ='''' ~~~ !iii . Again it must be stressed that watching your left hand will assist your movements considerably as well as focusing your concentration. !l !!. The initial difficulty in this 'Folk Dance' is the jump from one left-hand note to another: C to A at the beginning and in bar two of line three.~~". Play this exercise using apoyando.. " ~ tn. which makes use of the first six notes in the scale of G (dealt with in full later in the book). 'with only the occasional open-string..... 'J J i r F I r m F IT I I • r F JJJ oJ o J f F If f F f IF f F f IJ :J II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~~~ ~@ . ~ W~W ~ a"'"..j r 1'1 J I ill' rr m r r I a II ~J{5RCiSE A scale study.ia ~§ i'l'"' §i%~ ~~~ ~ Using these three left-hand notes in the same pieces is an important step .S~". JJJ J IT r II ill' I FJF r I I JJ JJ r I J IJ (j r I « j .

Notice the dot after the last note . '2 J a m a m a m F F J F J IF If F F If f F bar. as in t the unit of the beat is still a crotchet (the 4 at the bottom means we are dealing in quarter notes). which when added on makes a note worth three beats rather than two: in other words.~C'f"~N m~E PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR In 4 time. The difference in 4 is there are now only three crotchets per bar instead of four.this indicates the note has been ~}{E~C~S~ 13 lengthened by half its value. a note which lasts for the entire three-beat bar. -. as with many time signatures. In this case. this must nor be accented. chaconne and much of flamenco. f If f I F' m f 11 f f IF r .2 Watch for the right-handpallern change in the penultimate ~ X?! R c-~S E 1 9 a ~ I r J m ~ I I" F ~ ~ r F ~ I ~ I I I~ I r ~ ~ I r m I V· a 4J J m i r I F' II PLAY CLASSICAL 23 GUITAR .in this case the likes of the waltz. as it can make the music sound rather heavy. The use of ~ time. derives from dance rhythms . Although the natural stress of the bar falls on the first beat. half the value (of the minim) is a crotchet.

five and six) are nearly always played with the right-hand thumb (p). 'I . PLAY CLASSICAL Af!!: @ D @ E o II GUITAR g~~~ ~~ . ! r a I· r m !V r I r' II The three bass strings (four. -. 5' j m J IJ J J IA I i J r r I j. is an exact repeat of the first. I r' I a J IJ Ij m JI 9' I: I j. and the E is directly below the third ledger line. and so damping. note that the A has the second ledger line going right through it. at the start of line two.€. To help you remember the notation of the bass strings. F I r' I j.~~. the open E. II ~}t1~Ht~HH! 21 The Cin the first bar here should be held right up till the D in bar two.' ~~~~ GUITAR EX E ~c ~ ~ 20 s This piece is made up of four phrases of four bars each. The third phrase. enough to avoid making '2 m F F F I r F f I r' m m m I j. This leaves the fingers free to play the treble strings at the same time. I j r Ir r r I j.~~fi~_]~~~~ ~~V ~ PLAY CLASSICAL p@. Make sure the first finger comes onto the string vertically contact with. so it sounds together with the E to create a passing harmony.

GUITAR . ~XlE~C~S~ 22 &t J p J I Q Q I J Q 0 II it. J J I J ~ I~ J J J ? IJ. rest the other fingers on either the first string or the top three strings.When playing the open bass strings in Exercises 22-25 (with p). don't watch the thumb. &24 &J First two bars are the same rhythm . 25 J I~ ? J I J II . JJ !EXEfH!~SE 24- J II Note the different time signature. IJ. ~X~RC~SE: J ~ I Q ~ J ~ I ~ J ~ I Q. II J ~ • I ~ I J J ~ PLAY CLASSICAL I J. Keep beat steady when crossing strings.in bar three the rhsthm is reversed.2 J &J More string-jumping here: keep movements smooth.

. irrespective of time signature.~~~t~ PLAY CLASSICAL fJ~\~~ GUITAR Rests are used to provide a break or silence in one or several parts of the music. on the next page). alternating bass and treble parts. JJJ 0 .I (quarter-note) rest d (half-note) rest 0 ------ The sernibreve (whole-note) rest The semibreve rest is also used to indicate a whole bar rest. JJ PLAY ~(.- zJ rr II 2:7 At the end of this piece you'll see a repeat sign (two dots and a double bar line) .... The small curved lines next to some of the notes mean these are to be left to ring on . J :11 CLASSICAL ~~ . We'll deal with three types of rest at this point in the book. EM~RC~$~ 26 The semibreve rests here are used to keep the upper and lower parts of the music separate in time..this means you repeat the whole piece. then only the section between the two signs is to be repeated (this is shown in Exercise 28..~ I J . We'll start with simple. r r r~ iEx[:~en[. corresponding to the note values learnt so far: The crotchet The minim .. notes from the upper and lower ranges of the stave are combined within a piece to create a fuller listening experience. . J Q II'"'"' I- r I -9-\_.this means you can't keep resting the thumb on a bass string while playing the treble (or vice versa) as it will cut the ringing note abruptly short. If there is another repeat sign. Here's how rests might be used: t ! I• l r F IF - - II In most music. this lime facing forward.~~ GUITAR I* ""U"__.

as there's no open-string in-between to make this easier .'·~o~::f:::f. covered two G notes...• ~~~II . where it's easy to slow down E}n!~C~S~ 29- &1 I.. learnt so far. fr~m the open' third-'I~~I::?~.j . be careful to make a smooth transition from the F on the first string to the D on the second string. J ~ I£ J ~ j I f' I£ ~ I I f' t J. except these are on the first string. which are an octave apart. notes C and 0.~~~) = ~@~gJll 0 This works best at a quick.i G string G up to this top-string G. steady tempo .. .watch out for those changes from F to D (bars two and three of line two).f=. This means we've now 1:1.:.The second line is repeated note the symbols at the start and end of the line EXEf~CiSE 28 f!r J i":~. ~ J ~ 1 f.. In bar six.. f. you'll ~: ~ hear the eight notes in this octave.~::'" I ~§~ .. -F i :11 Not unlike playing the second-string '·':1' t..F r r I r rFrF rr & J IT I r I f F rr 1 IF rr J I F r r r r Ir V II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . If Vall play everv note' ~. .

~.tO:RC~S~,30

Here, some notes of the bass and treble parts are pla)'ed simultaneously (see bars one & three). Start by just practising the high E and bass A in bar one on their own, until )'oU can play them exactly together. Remember that the right-hand thumb and fingers must be kept apart and moved in opposite directions so they have space to operate freely.

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~]{~RC~S~ 32 Beethoven - theme from 6th Symphon)l. a m The tie in bar seven means

the F is held there for a total of five beats.

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The anacrusis, also known as an upbeat, is an extra beat coming just before the start of the first full bar. This note is on the last beat of an imaginary previous bat, and so to balance this the last bar of the piece has one less beat in it. This can be seen in Exercise ;)4.. which has only three beats in its last bar of 4. Notice also that the last note has two stems (up and down): that's because this note is the end of both the upper and lower parts.

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This whole piece is repeated - be sure to go straight to the anacrusis second-time around. Notice the tie in the first line: the G bass note is only played once, then left to ring until the D comes in. The third-string (G) is used as a bass string in bar one and six and pla),ed with p.

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Minor waltz: a waltz, of course, means last bar - the C is held until the final D.

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This one works best if it's played quite quickly with a very steady pulse but it should be learnt slowly at first, taking special care with the righthand fingering.

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Quavers Sharps Dotted rhythms Key signatures Intervals The notes E & B Counterpoint Dynamics Flats Enharmonic --- equivalents .

which should be left to ring for all three beats in this bar rather than stopped dead. E}U~~C~$~ ~'1 F • F l!: F ta as r. The qua\!er rest is ".. etc...er should start at the beginning.*. Ij f· j Iv.~!!:"'il"C.. A third player can enter when player two has reached beat three. r CI ee r r F (1 • =-I II II 3&4& ~X~S:."'. m F IF EAE~C~$E 3S JJ m I IT r m F C± ~ rest L r IF i r f r m I m m I tn r I • r :11 Note the dotted minim the second full bar .~ The quaver.~~~~ $. . four in a minim and eight in a sernibreve._C~Sg 38 'London's Burning' is a "round" and can be played with another guitar or other instrument: when the first player reaches beat three of bar two (the quaver D) the second pla}.l " . J a . Ire r Fr r I r F r r [ 1& 2& 3&4& 7ry to keep a steady crotchet pulse ~don't let the quavers speed it up. lasts half as long as a crotchet....in this case it's functioning like a tie from the previous bass note.'lIi<&..n ~I n p IJ r f· r' J J ID~ r· r rr II .Jk~~~~ ~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR i1l~l'i~~'~li~?~~ ~'iif.a?!il ~ ~~~fJ~~~~03~nfl. Quavers are counted by saying "and" between each beat number.'~"'~~ 1 8.~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~. A quaver looks much like a crotchet except it has a tail at the end of the stem ( )l or ~ ). When two or more quavers appear together they're connected by the tail .as in Exercise 37. B r· I rj. or eighth-note.. So there are two quavers in a crotchet.J r· J r jI r· nRID~ r d I ~.i'a:'j~. bar two.

string one. When sharp. r The natural sign IT r f flU U di f Ir~r r i!£X5. F is raised to F-sharp at fret two. flat or natural symbols are used next to the note like this they are called "accidentals". 1 Don't speed up when playing the quavers in bar three .keep a regular beat. EXE~CU~E 42 r· r' I rt~ r· I f' ~ r· I#~ f' r· I~ - r' = f' J I d. A semi tone is the smallest standard interval in Western music (interval theory is dealt with in more detail later).Re~$S 41 II q is used to cancel out a sharp used in the same bar. and is played 'with finger 2. & i IT 0 ~r I.I fJ J r r 3 J ~2 0 II There are two new sharps here: C-sharp in bar one and D-sharp in bar four of line two. In Exercise 40.. returning the note to its original pitch. 2 . ~jt ~ ~~~ ~~ PLAY s~c~or~ 1V~O CLASSICAL GUITAR When the sharp sign appears before a note on the stave the note is raised by a semitone (one [ret).S~f~~s ~./ -' r CLASSICAL f' GUITAR II PLAY . The sharp sign used this way is effective for a whole bar and is cancelled bv the bar line."l ~~~~~ iJj} !l:. They will present no problem if you follow the exact fingering.'1 q(J I C1 I r 1 F 0.

This piece has the latest. . -." __ towards the string . J PLAY ~~" ~~A CLASSICAL GUITAR . bending the top joint as it comes down t'I_:.'William Tell Overture'. EX~~C~Sil! 43 'Pease Pudding Hot' (nursery rhyme): return to start immediately at end. I~ ! S:.spanning two full octaves in this key. and how this pattern repeats. Note the pattern your fingers make when you play octave notes. higher A at bar six.move A the hand temporarily out of position to hold it ~ fl down. around the fingerboard. As with the other three left-hand fingers. Bring it down gently. 10 reach this note the left hand has to move out of position up to the fifth fret. wear an d tear on t hiIS wea kest d" -~:::::~~~ to nnrurmse ·lglt. line ttoo. r r - r - r :11 ~--I--I--r' - Introducing the use of finger 4. keep the fourth finger curved. and is often used with quavers.otherwise you can lose strength and control. If:' . and where it changes.XE~C~~5 44 Rossini . Don't try to stretch to reach this note either .The time signature of ~ indicates that there are two crotchets (quarter-beats) per bar. This is normally used for faster music than 4.~ '. especially at first. . Now we have played three A notes (including tJ the open fifth string) .__.

the rest in bars four.~~~Ili~~~ PLAY ~~~"~"M"'"~_i CLASSICAL ~~J'* ~~fi:tV GUITAR As explained at Exercise 18. EXERC.I<J· ~ ~ J i GUITAR i II CLASSICAL 335 . .SE 45 & iF' ~ I& 2 & I F' ~ I I& 2 & 1 rr & I If 2 & r I I fu U f' I P I 11 &0 f I r I F' D IF r I r' p Ir Again.. ~ . When a dotted note is used together 'with a note of the same value as the dot" the result is called a dotted rhythm. EXg~C~S~ 46 &i :- ~ I :If· ~ I J. in bar one or Exercise 45 there's a dotted crotchet immediately followed by a quaver. f ~. The open G in bar one. line three is played with p. -)_ I I )J I ~ f ) If r PLAY I J. ~ I ~. f I ) )1 ~ { I I I t )J I I •• J . = r' 1 & 2 & ~ V I It is important to count when learning dotted rhythms so the dotted note is exactly the right length.. adding a dot to a note increases its length by half. (For example. six and eight means you keep the previous bass note ringing.) The desired effect is to create a rhythmic lilt in the music.~ & &J ~.

I p. G. When the symbols are written at the beginning of each line like this it's called a key signature. J IF:2L~: II EXERCiiS~ 43 Here the sharpened Fs are in bar two . This key signature is shared by its relative minor .s. and it affects all the notes of that pitch throughout the whole work. ~%~ ~ ~~~ ~~~~a. In Exercise 47 the kev is . &U ~.r<ff' "*. P JJ ~.. . which is the key used in Exercise 48. ~. this is indicated by sharps at the beginning of each line.. 1 I JJ ~. J A PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR )1 J o II ''."" ~.in this case E minor. I ~. ~ • m i (F~) ~ J (F~) I ~. J. A key is a hierarchy of chords and notes.) EX E ~ C ~$ E 4 g The first couple of Fssharps are marked above the notes as a reminder after that you must remember to sharpen any other Fs in this key. J J JJ . (There's more on key signatures on p67. J J ~p.~~~ ~~~~~~~~ When particular notes are always sharp in a piece of music. ~ JJ J I &ti r· J/ I} I 1 ~ J~~ I. J J J J ~. the main one of which is called a tonic or kev note... ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~\[w~ ~-e. which has a signature of one sharp (F-sharp).:-e''''~ ~~~~ .~.~~~'a:. ~ JJ ~ ~.a ~~~~~I &»2 ~. Watch out for the D-sharp accidental in the second bar of line two.

When playing Exercise 49. :-. Practise going from E to F and back as fluidly and evenly as possible.These two neighbouring notes on the D-string .'-:".~g ..- . They're the first left-band bass notes we've seen so far... and listen for any difference in tone . _" All notes played with the thumb .. but it's the kind of combination that often crops up in a bass part. Practise these changes till the alteration in sound quality is minimal.are plucked with the right-hand thumb (p). be especially aware of the points where you change from a fretted note to an open string..played with fingers 2 and 3 respectively .even the third-string A in line one.this can be particularly marked when moving from a wound to an unwound string. ~. p ~ j{ ~ ~ C~ E 49 $ ~2 IS o J iJ Ij 2 J IS I J J J I If 3 o J i) 2 J Tl II i J J :n J 3 IJ J J :n J 2 3 0 £J IJ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ..

p1!.P7 .- II PL. which means "slowing down ".P1.EX~~C~SE 50 The word "rall" near the end here is short for rallentando. .AY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~} ~~" .P. . This is to be done gradually throughout the section indicated by the dotted line.)l!. .

PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR --&i:.i ~~l§~ SE~~"J~JJO PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR An interval is the "vertical" distance between two notes.:. IF· ~ ~ I p. For example. Here.__I 3rds _________ U I ~ . Remember to keep the fingers back and the thumb forward so there's room to manoeuvre. A. Although there are 12 intervals in all. three notes are played simultaneously..P ~at . This is played in a similar way to using p andm together. Intervals can be played simultaneously (to build chords or harmony) or consecutively (to create melody). the interval between G and B is a third (G..~~t~~g~~I~ ~~~~i}Bi. which is itself counted as 1. but splits the intervals. EXiH~C~SE 52 6#1 a a 6~E m i I E±J .. iSX ~ ~ m I p p. m and i do the top parts and p does the bass. 0 2 0 ~ ~ ~ 3rds--------------J r I~ F ~ I ~ ~ 5ths ____ J 3rd 5ths . B). 4ths and 5ths. making a chord. E X ~ R C ~S ~ 51 m @ i I 2 :. Keep fingers m and i stuck together when you pia)' this one.. at this point we'll only deal with three: 3rds. The size (or number) of an interval is calculated by counting upwards from the lower note. j d I? II J J I p.J ~ a j I a I~ J If fl J p rail. ~ j 3 I JI -r' e~ E S :} 3: ~ j i m ~ I'r J II p The second line here uses the same notes as the first.J ~ 5th j II In the last bar here.

f-+c-.. EX~Re~Sg 54 An alternative version of Exercise 49.) Exercise 54 makes use of all the left-hand bass notes including open-strings . see how consistently c you can move from one note to the ~ B ~ next without any unwanted ringing of :. (Smooth playing' -' technique.. these would appear in a bass part played with the thumb. Again.. i __ i~. this time one string lower on the fifth string.. will be covered in more detail later in the book. ] § -II .+----I- - r-- Similar to the combination of E and F on the D-string (page 37).3 j 2 J 2 J J 10 13 J 2 I 3 JJ J I oJ Z raJ J . .~ .that we've learnt so far on the fourth and fifth strings. or "legato".7J IJ 3 0 IJ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~.-the A. --o 1 j i J IJ 2 3 J JJ 2 . =.~ £"-. on the A-string. In the next exercise.y u_ open strings... but afourth lower.

m 1: J~ I 2~ P 3r.?~ ~~[%~~~ II w~~m~~JJO PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR So far all the two-part music in the book has had one relatively static voice (a simple bass part.p!N. 'I3r. In the second half of Exercise 55.- I ~ i- I - )\ I J.. ritardo is used to give a sense of lingering on the notes before the end.this is known as counterpoint.~~~ ~if. perhaps) and another more animated (either the upper voice melody or moving bass).... ~ I ~ Ii- - 3V ~ j- ~ I I r.. ~ j- V ~ j- I 1~ 31 .~n%~~ff%~~~* ~_i:!~~' ~.~ ::. where the music is simply slowed down.. I r. In contrast to rallentando.j- I .- ~ r. both parts are quite active and have a harmonic function .::~~ ~ ~ "" .! '" . The word "rit" near the end here is short for ritardo.!. 1 II PLAY CLASSICAL 4 GUITAR . to heighten the expectation of the piece's conclusion. i I: rit. meaning "delayed" or "held back". "Music with two or more active voices is called "contrapuntal" ("using counterpoint"). ~%~..

nicknamed "hairpins" (see below). printed words... such as mp (mezzo piano) or mf (mezzo forte). diminuendo (getting quieter).- ..~".-.:a ~#$.!l~"'" PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~"'. except on vocal music where they would interfere ". ~XifiRC:H~... _____ J PLAY . iff ~molto fortissimo (extremely loud)... CLASSICAL GUITAR ~--. which are abbreviations of the Italian words: piano ~ soft or quiet forte ~ strong or loud mezzo ~ medium f The letters are often found in combinations. .~ . Gradual changes of volume are indicated using special line symbols.molto pianissimo (extremely quiet).. and m.~ ~~~~d~.ith crescendo (getting louder). ppp ..E 56 A very simple exercise musically . More extreme volumes are indicated by the doubling.if J f 2 r II rail...the idea is to work on the dynamics.. 'I: JJJ JJJ I I: J ~ JJ J .1f!O:. These affect the entire section of music they're positioned under.~ *. . tripling or more of the letters for example: if ~fortissimo (very loud)..!i. ~~~~~~~S~~~~ ~ Dynamics are the varying levels and changes of volume in a piece of music. This is indicated for all instruments by the letters p.r P pp ff ~ IJ J J r ~ I tj (j -e- f r f • I~ I J f _> r I<J. Dynamics are always written under the stave..nJ .

then gets louder again (and slows down) towards the end. Watch out for the arpeggios changing direction at various points. gets quiet at bar two. il:n(]lp.This starts loud.c~S~ 57 PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . line two.

E:~t. This is all accent that tells the performer particular notes much louder than the others. &-r f i rl [' fir j m a m rl r J 4> IJ m j i IJ m J ami I In > r a I Ij J ami P m I dn ami Wi A 2 3 rl r > i J I jJ I [' 'flf' p ~I IF F F IFF & m ami Fir aim f vi r i Iff ami r If ami r rI rC' p IV· imi P IF F F I FF F I F L v I t· ~~======~~======f ami I'F r m FI i &mim r F r IlJ fir· J m m i Ij i m ff > F IFrir >- a fir P i r JI J IJ 4>- i led i r :l i a m IF W I HJ al P i IJ m >- i J Ij If m 4J ii P r II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~~ k.!.]Z~C§$~ sa Polish folk song: in bars seven and eight the symbol> can be seen above to play these i some notes. #03 .

. is pla). ~~ eJ% '%~ ~~~ ". and G is at fret III.0-:: ~~r:..~ ~ ~~ (t.:. ~ ~ ~&~ r.-. played with linger 3.. ~ r.~ .i ~".... apart from the final chord where.~~~ ~ ~:.>'"" . These are known as first and second time bars. JJ~ ~-- m 11.g~~~ .--. So F is at Fret I..~ e ~ ~ "%~~~-""~ ~ ~ ::=. which leads back to the start. The slight volume loss here is made up for by the extra notes.this means you should hold this chord for longer than its rhythmic value. This starts with an upbeat.~. ==========- p raiL __I This whole piece is repeated once. Exercise 59 is to be played apoyando (rest stroke) with p throughout."'!':': .s :: e ~~"'ag~ ~'?~~~~. 1. ::.~~ M\_(g(J\i"-"'~~ :1:...".. tirando is much easier..i-!. but the accent moves in each bar (check on CD).:: ~ ~ ~~~%? ~@~..-.11 f 3F - 3f PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .-:. :11 ~ ~ 1 0 J ( IJ . just two octaves lower.. ¥~~~~ A~ ~."" ~ ~~_. played with finger 1. on the first play-through. marked 2.. The numbers above the last two bars indicate that. the bar marked 1 is to be played here. because of the upper notes.oJ --- JJ If r f 3rf r IJ- r lfr ~ J ad ~ I 12..r. ?~~ ~:. The symbol 1'7\ over the last beat of the last bar is a "fermata" or pause . When repeating the piece this bar is left out and the final bar. "_ As there are two E-strings on a guitar (first and sixth strings).~--~~ ~~.... obviously all the notes on the sixth string are the same as those \ve looked at on the first.ed in its place.' f~~ ~ -~ ~.~~~ .

found elsewhere only in the rarer time signatures of h and ~. the top number refers to the amount of beats per bar (six in this case) and the lower number indicates the unit (a quaver or eighth-note here). § has a particular feel to it.This time signature is also known as compound-duple time . ~XE~CU~~ Q1 Finger 3 is used for the A in bar five to make it easier for finger 2 to get to the E in bar six. stemming from the two groups of three in each bar. As with all time signatures. m i f. each of which has three beats.this just means the bar has two halves. II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~ ~~ .\ ) 1~. p 4_.b ~ m i i' S )1 J. V mf r ~ I~.

D-sharp in bar sit. C-sharp in bar three. Follow the given fingering exacll)1 and these acculentals will pre.Here we have five previously unused sharps in the bass part: F-sharp in bar one.~ent no problem. F-sharp on the fourth string in bar one of line two. and A-sharp in bar three of line two. ~Jt!iH~CHHi 62 'PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .

m_ r II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~i) =~. The semiquaver rest is :. and has half the rhythmic value (ie it's twice as fast as a quaver).. mi m JJJ. So there are two serniquavers per quaver.."~~ ~ ~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~erruqua~JerS ~~n'"nOieSJ \1 ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~ . ties and dynamics .plenty of semiquavers.i J J J. i IT E lEE F Fir FFF U rc I F cr F btl FE U EEl ~ X 1e: ~ C ~ $~ 6. As with quavers.tjd.. J.r:. This helps show the relationship between crotchets. serniquavers connect when they appear in a group (the tails straighten out and link up). as in bar three in Exercise 63 below.~r~~~~~ ~~d~ ~~~ 5::i . with two tails on the stem. JJJ f! :J :J L? JJ J FJ J J~J J J~J J JI J J J J _.. as in bar four.~&.<% r II 'Mechanical Ballet' . resIs. They can also connect to quavers.. or 16th-note looks like a quaver.-: _t:: ~ . and four in a crotchet. ~ §:i ~~~ ~ _ -~ ~ _\ '1he semiquaver. . quavers and semiquauers.! .

There is a dotted rhythm here made up of a quaver and a semiquaoer: This functions in exactly the same way as the previously covered dotted rhythm of crotchet and quaver. together with the semiquauer.. r II J PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . eXERC2$iE 65 j. When practising this piece it's best to learn the top part first. i •• I . r 2 r rit. r J. The dotted quaver is worth three semiquauers which. then add the bass part. jI ~. completes the crotchet unit.

p.. oj IJ jJ o • lr' 2r· J IS J J II J I~ J ~ I ~ J J I P oj ~. I P oj J1 *~ ~2r=' ====r='==~ ===mj' P r PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~.~XiIH~e~s~66 This exercise uses a typical right-hand pattern for the guitar: the tune is in the bass. i and m). And finally put the two together. this will allow you to watch your lefthand movements. j •I 3f' of' J J I. This way the piece can be learned very accurately and quickly. jJ *.-~ .~ 'dt .-. Then learn the bass tune (all played withpJ without the arpeggio notes. &#2J P jJ i m I p F· j •I I F· jJ I p. i and m. and both the harnwn)' and rhythm are provided by the arpeggio of p. f I jJ Ip. try to play it without the music . First. This piece will sound best when played quite fast. and also build a stronger identification with the piece.as mentioned before. When you feel comfortable. practise the right-hand arpeggio pattern b)1itself (p.

and whether the music is rising or falling. You can see from the diagram on the next page that flat notes co-exist with sharps at certain places on the guitar fingerboard for instance. and the occasional sharp to watch for.E. Flats are used both as accidentals and in key signatures. and F-sharp ::::G-flat...key signatures have either flats or sharps but never both.J Lots of flat accidentals here. m 3(j' ~U~(j' ~i •I r I iJIJJI'w S fa l J J I'f r~ I~~£Q.~"''''''' V . This is known as "enharmony" ._ ~!i.. .. I~i p r PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~"" ~ $"~ . B-flat ::::A-sharp..HB~ ~..these notes are enharmonic equivalents: the particular note name used at anyone time will depend on 'which scale or key is being employed..!J_ rr I/F o II rail..~ ~' F ia ~!'i ~ ! "". but in the latter they're never mixed with sharps . . ... Stick to the given fingering throughout. so it creates a harmony with the E-flat starting the next hal: i ~n{~RC~SgS8 P . At bar six. and let the Gring on in bar three line two.. '18 ~J J m i i J l~fJ J ~ PI 4 P I *4@ E~~qfQ JijJfJ~?Q I I~D m iPi 2302 ~b~ IIJ'[... finger 4 must slide on the string from the A to the A-flat..~~~!i' n ! Flats operate in a similar way to sharps except they lower the note by a semitone rather than raise it.t~." ...

) Flats . 2 II (2)>-------------. ..~) -------.. (Try playing both examples . . 4 @c__ 4 ~o II &0 Sharps 2 II II . .. .~h>-."J'?.they sound exactly the sarne. CD 4 l' ~~ b~ ~ 2 3 4 2 3 II @ 4 1/0 ~o II ~o t.. These are enharmonic equivalents.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR The first two lines below show the same notes as lines three and four.. 4 2 _) #0 2 tio 11 10 #n 3 II #0 10 II 4 4 (3) 4 @ 4 2 #u #0 11#-<>- #-e- II #-u- #-e- II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~~ ". but using flats instead of sharps. .

this time with a more active bass part.J' J r' f'~f· J".at AA the [irst theme returns. r· r· r' J~oJ I'! r'~r' J I:.it's typical of the lute style of Renaissance England. 'Greensleeues' was composed during the reign of Henry VIII (and is even sometimes attributed to him) .r'-------r IJ I~)l J f· IJ . ~ X g?i C ~~ ~ S 9 & ~: .' }l f r lr 3r· J I] oJ 3r'~ I'! JI II IJ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . marked with a boxed A.Time for a familiar piece that uses man)' of the techniques we've looked at so far. Band AA .J I J IJ oJ Il J'd &l ~r' &J. The work is in three sections.

titled 'Little Fantasia'. there are several places where two notes are held simultaneously with the left hand (jor instance in bars four. five and six).EX~ii1iC~~~ 1G In Exercise 70. Following the written fingering is essential here. It's a good idea to practise the left-hand movements alone. especially when there's a jump from one set of two notes to another (as from the E and G-sharp to the F and A in the first bar of line two). but these sections should also be practised separately from the rest of the piece until the)' feel comfortable. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR @~ ~&'§! . There's a new sharp in bar three of line three: G-sharp on string six at the fourth fret.

Memorisation Tempo Crescendo Interval & diminuendo qualities Legato Second Order position (II) & flats of sharps Irrational Arpeggios Melody rhythms .part two within Damping Half-barre arpeggio .

PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . Ideally pieces should always be played from memory. for example the contour of a theme or type of rhythm. but the ideal combination of all three is apportioned naturally.~ each new piece you approach can throw up a lot of things to deal with at once . There are three main types of memory at work in musical performance. which to a large extent is retained in the hands themselves.this applies both to the remembered image of the score and also to the above-mentioned shapes and movement patterns of the left: hand. The way a piece is memorised greatly affects how quickly it is mastered. ~ Tactile . There is a degree of deliberate choice involved in using the different types of memory. They are: ~ Audio . .b When learning a new work it is important to choose a piece that's at an appropriate ability level. hand position and reading the score. .such as fingering. as this allows you to concentrate on these other factors.the memory of shapes and patterns made by the hands. For beginners this is easily done just by following the order of the exercises in this book. Even the simple practicality of not having to look at the printed score makes the enormous difference of letting you watch the left hand closely and so guide its movement more easily.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR When you're still at the stage of learning to play the guita. and in turn directly affects the development of vour playing. This is especially evident in the left hand where the shapes are more static. ~ Visual .how the music sounds.

A ~ but you can only remember the first two and stick at the C. This technique helps you memorise pieces quickly. A is fixed in your mind. for example. the first three notes of a piece are A. which may take a few days. When you've achieved this. If this proves too difficult. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . Just put the guitar down and study the score on its own to find where you went 'wrong. This applies especially to guitarists who play chord-based styles of music such as rock or jazz ~ they may find the pieces TOwards the end of this section most suitable. B. and what notes come next. even if you still have to slow down at the more difficult parts. The thing to do is to keep looking at the score until that following B. and fixes the work in your mind for longer. The next step is to learn LO play the entire work from beginning to end without too many mistakes.Players who may already be accomplished guitarists but not up to speed with written music would be best learning pieces within reasonable technical reach but of sufficient complexity and interest to warrant memorisation. When you go back to the guitar (putting away the score) you must start from the beginning of the piece and p lay right through the problematic section. The first step is to try playing the entire piece through once. then try playing through just the first four bars until they become familial: Do this for the rest 01" the piece until all of it has been played. This next bit is the most important. C and the next are B. or takes so long that no overall view is gained. Say. or hit the occasional wrong note. try playing without the score. even if only in parts. B. At first attempt you might find you have a complete blank after the opening few notes. B. This is not unusual and shouldn't put you off trying to memorise the piece.

An example of this is the notation of dvnamics and the use of "rit" and "rall'' covered earlier. The "MM is an abbreviation of Maelzel's Metronome. with the dotted line indicating where and for how long the dynamic change is to occur.~~ ~~~~~~-a ~~~~~~~ 1l As well as the actual notes and rhythms. This type of tempo indication is called a metronome mark.quick Allegro . tempo is often ShO'. slow. ~~ f£~~ . "getting louder" or "getting quieter").moderate. P LAY C LAS SIC AL G U I TAR In addition to the hairpin dynamic markings discussed in Section Two. " (short for crescendo and diminuendo.lively or merry Vivace . dignified Adagio . "cresc. For example j = 60 (60 crotchets per minute) would be a tempo of a beat per second. walking pace Moderato .. bu t not as slow as largo or more Since the invention of the metronome (by Maelzel..~-=_. . during Beethoven's era).. similar to andante Largo .Vl1 by an exact figure giving the number of beats per minute.very quick pr~tty lively but less so than allegro still slow.. slow (less slow than largo) Lento . verbal instructions (again in Italian) are also often used: for example.. But the general speed at which a piece is to be played (its "tempo") and an indication of its overall character are usually shown on the stave by the use of particular Italian words. full of life Andante .vivacious. I The most regularly used are: Presto .. and is sometimes written [vIM j = 60. such as: Adagissimo Prestissimo Allegretto Larghetto .. " or "dim .slow and solemn Variations of the above work either as superlatives subtle versions..broad.extremely slow ..slow Grave .at ease.. there are many other nuances that composers may want to convey to performers to help put their musical intentions across accurately.moving along.

. . Allegro II EXEf.: 3r rall.iC~Se 11 = 72 mi m m m m 4 r Jr o It cresc.The metronome marking given for this piece is a final goal . __J PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .initially the work must be learned considerably slower so the left hand has ample time to assimilate the movements properly. and perform them very smoothly.

. ·r7~_. and generally the top two move together in parallel.~* . 3 L ~ Ig~~~~ r mp PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~. line two. This also happens in the top voice at bar three. The piece has three paris. The four-note chords at bars one and two of line six are played just like the right-hand chord exercise at the start of Section One .all the notes must sound together..C~S~ T& This exercise has a flat ke)' signature (D minor) which has one flat (B-flat). At bar one in line two..-a ~~~-. the middle voice separates from the top one and has movement of its own. or voices. and again later in the piece.EXil:H~..

has what is known as a "quality": this can be diminished.~~~ ~~~~} ~ ~~~~ii~~ ~3~~ ~ .~"n*~?U~~~ ~~~J r~ ---~ ~~ ~. F. as well as having a number. For example.% ~ ~~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL -r~RE!E GUITAR In Exercise 72 there 'was a new interval . perfect or augmented. the minor 3rd 'G to B-flat' (Example 1) when inverted will become the major 6th 'B-flat to G' (Example 2).a- .or 2nd Minor 3rd Major 3rd Perfect 4th o Augmented 4th &:eo Perfect 5th 0 ::ee) Minor 6th I~ti Major 6th It I :gMinor 7th .a- I~o . E. a major key such as C (Exercise 71) has a major 3rd (four semi tones ) from its tonic note C to its 3rcl. intervals: for instance a major 3rd is a sernitone larger than a minor 3rd. Every interval. the quality of the interval determines how large it is exactly. for example.so.a- I Ill) .2 & ~8 & ~ Below are all 12 intervals (shown ill the key of C to avoid sharps and flats). Ex. 4 & Minor 2nd Maj. minor. a major 10th is simply a major 3rd plus an octave. and how it relates to other . .aMajor 7th 0 I~o .a 6th between B-flat and G at bar four.a- .1 Ex. major. In simple terms. There's also another type of interval known as a "compound interval". .• ~~~~t. minor key such as D minor (as used in Exercise 72) has a minor 3rd (three semitones) from its tonic note D to its 3rd.a- r II -e- II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .aOctave . Intervals can also be inverted (turned upside down): the resulting interval will be the numerical difference between the original interval and the number 9. The intervals are connected to the key in which they're found: a . and the "quality" will also reverse. This is simply the result of a normal interval added to the octave (with the octave note counting as one) .

~ . The D is only released at the last moment. just about to release it and make it sound. Going from one fretted note to another is done in the same way. going from an open string to a fretted note. it's necessary to connect one note to the next so there's no break in the sound. you mustn't touch the top E and stop it sounding. the C must be held until the D is already being played by the right hand. When going from D to C.Notes played on the guitar have a definite attack with a rather rapid decay of the sound.'when reaching over the first string to play the C with finger 1. Although the movements may seem a bit complex at first. as in Example 1.2 F II d. the fretting finger is already holding the note down. When changing from a fretted note to the same open string. they PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR &~~ ~". if you want to make the music flow smoothlv. As a result. as in Example 2.S 3 II r 1) F II V F 3 II When going li0111 a fretted note to a different open string. the first note. Ideally it should arrive on the string at exactly the same time as the righthand finger.3 0 F II rr 3 () Ex. In Example 5. the D must be held on by finger 3 until the C is held down and the right-hand finger is on the string. Practise the examples below. as in Example 4.1 o~ EX. Going from an open string to a fretted note. it's important not to touch the open-string B "lith finger 2. the finger that plays the fretted note (D in this case) should not be placed on the string too early.4 Ex. as in Example 3. but also not to remove the A until after the B is sounding. so by the time the right-hand finger releases the string. D. Ex. When the situation is reversed. must stay on and be sounding until the right-hand finger is already on the string to play the second note. the open B. I / ·r ~ EX. you need to be careful . It's the same in the other direction.

make sure finger 4 sta)'s on till the C plays. ~X~RCi$~ 13 4 Adagio r F Id I) '-' r 0 I IT -' r 0 0 J I Ir IT IV IT " I ~~ '. with the first two notes.it's essential this becomes a standard part of the left-hand technique. in bar three.for example. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITA'R . o EX~RC~~~ 14 mp r F I If F of I rr I 3 I 'F <I ~r J. learn those first. II This brings in fingers 2 and 4.all work on the same basic principle sounding at all times. such as crossing the strings from one fretted note to another . hold the G-sharp right through bar four. Although you may find this distracts you from other new techniques you encounter.C to A. going from bar one to bar two. remember that at this stage you needn't do everything at once. hold the top F over the G. For example if you are faced with a demanding exercise containing some new notes. Play legato throughout . 3 II From here on all pieces should be played legato . of keeping the string ~~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL rn"[~EE GU'ITAR The five examples on the left-hand page should all be practised separately and then played together as Exercise 73. then when things become more familiar the piece can be refined using legato and paying attention to tone quality and tempo. Some new instances of legato pla)'ing arise here.

I . Position is indicated in guitar notation by Roman numerals. The fact that the fifth fret is used for tuning purposes (as we saw in Section One) 'will help when it comes to memorising the notes at this fret . the note that is a 5th away from the tonic is called the "dominant". Playing in second position is particularly useful for the key of D major. linger 3 plays those at fret four. and finger 4 those at fret five.other than the C on the 3rd string. so second position is written as II. With the hand a fret higher up the fingerboard. C-sharp and F-sharp). XII Fingerboard showing notes at second position. about as far as it is possible to move from the tonic before starting to come back "home" to the octave note. this involved a small stretch and a momentarv move out of first position and is advisable onlv for the occasional note. finger two now plays the notes at fret three. as well as for reaching the high A at fret five. which has two sharps (F-sharp and C-sharp). they're the same as the adjacem. and so plays a very important role. This is at the pivotal mid-point of a scale. When playing in second position this A and all the other notes at the fifth fret are easily within reach. Although finger 4 has been used previously to play the high A at fret five on the first string. 1n music using the key system. third as III and so on. higher open string. .II III v VII IX The second position is when the first finger is used to play notes at fret two (such as A. As such it functions crucially as a contrasting but complementary note to the key or tonic. which is an interval of a perfect fith away from the tonic note D.

C.This exercise is in D major (two sharps: F-sharp and C-sharp) and stays in second position throughout. f'~D. al fine !J.. and moves from position II to position I at bar four and then back again to position II at bar five. At bars two and three in line three make sure you hold on the B bass note with finger 1 while playing the moving upper part with fingers 3 and 2.C. mp I F r: rp~ Jr __ 1=' • I' ~ jI II~ f ~ fi~§!. il .::~s~ 76 This piece is also in D major. al fine f &## ! r· r ========~p ~j{e~u. II I f' CLASSICAL GUITAR PLAY . J. Vivace ~~ V f' j}.. ~#. Presto II ~X~RC~S1ii 15 p r· rf OJ D.l. J.

D~. E#. A#. You can use the same mnemonics to help work out the key of a piece from the number of sharps and flats at the start. G~.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR When indicating a key signature with one or more sharps. fl. And E~ (three flats) is shown as Bb. E~. A simple way of remembering the order of sharps is by using the mnemonic: Father Charles Goes Down And Eats Breakfast. F#. F#. (or even: By Eating All Day Greedy Charles Fattens). C#' D#. B#. A#. The key of E (four sharps) is written: C#' G#. The order of flats is simply the reverse of the sharps: Bk Ek "~. In other words: C#' Number of sharps: Key: Number of flats: Key: 234 56 CGDAEBF o o I234~6 C F B~E~4D~Gb So the key with five sharps (B) is shown at the start of the stave as C#' n#. 1~' PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR t~~ ~~ . D#. the order is alwavs the same on the stave: (from lett 'to right) F#. C#. although here the letter cycle starts on C (as that's the key with no sharps or flats). C~. The key of F (one flat) has B~ at the start.

+p: I 1.it's straight back to the start. Lines two and three repeat too.The main theme of 'Spring' from The Four Seasons h}' Vivaldi (1676 1741)._Fj~ I~' (3 I~~.when not otherwise specified a key is always major). and remember not to pause at the end of line one . It's in the key of A (meaning A major .~Fj~ I~ (31 'r r - r r ~ r - a 112. I . r r· :11 I r· - J. II PLAY CLASSICAL 67 GUITAR . The piece takes off nicely if played fast and steady.m IW. This key has three sharps to watch out for: F-sharp. vivace S£X~~C~SE 71 J = 96 11>]1 rr ami m rr r r i m i i r r: ~ a r: :.#n# II:!I:r--. C-sharp and G-sharp.

see Example 3). which has a ratio of 3:2 .a crotchet triplet has three crotchets played in the time it normally takes to play two (as in Example 1 below). . such as a quaver (see Example 2).-----7-----.1).another common one is the sextuplet (6:4 . This can also be done with other note values. = FE--n = II & 1F F F F FE EXiUJiPLE 4 .Exam ple . rhythm (also known as "tuplets") is where more beats are put into a bar than is allowed by the time signature.~~~~ T'"~~~~ ~~·~·a~~~~ ~~ ~::=:~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Although the terminology can be rather daunting.--------3--------.------ rr = = F II & Ir r I• . Less common in older music but often found in Art music of the mid-to-late 20th century are the quintuplet (5:4 .~!le'r. This is possible by speeding the beats up by a certain ratio. Irrational rhythms can be made up of any ratio . F F r F FE F Ir r r H ~IV ==1111 . F F F = IF = F F = II ~ ~ ~---3----~ rrr 6 ------. these rhythms have a simple concept. The most common irrational rhythm is a triplet.5 r I- H rrrr = = V II .Example 4) and septu pler (7:4 . indicated by a number written over (or under) the relevant grollp of notes. An irrational. or "irregular".

r J J II PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . or vice versa.practise it quite slowly until both different kinds of movement. d 9 J am i p m i ~========= ami l. J ) £ J ~ J J ) [J ~ r mj' I 7 ~ -e- 13. and a septuplet can be counted as four and a three.for example a quintuplet can be a three and a two. or vice versa. to avoid cluttering up the score too much). i 3Jl ~ ~ ~----------------I r Molto Rail. as shown.The quintuplet and septuplet are usually counted by dividing them into two parts . This exercise uses triplets throughout (though notice that the triplets are only actually written in for the first bar or so. You should work up to the tempo indication . It's in the he)' of A and moves position a number of times.UHU::::~SE"le 'tift~j J J ~~J J :J ~ J ~ d 3 I. hands feel confident with the $-EC-110~ "'fHPJEE P LAY C LAS SIC AL G U I TAR ~.y 7 lIi7!~ 7 Jj rrrr 3 J J J J I .

three and two. The highest (last) note of this chord.. 0< ""~'" a ~ ~~ In the next exercise there are places where the left hand holds down three notes simultaneously. On beats two and three of bar four.~~ .~~~~. making full chords.:z~ CLASSICAL GUITAR tfY~ .as indicated by the wavy line just before the chord. PLAY ~. [i){ERC~S~ 7~ This is largely a right-hand exercise in full arpeggio.~%. the E. As with the right hand. The arrow at the top of this line shows the movement should be upwards in pitch (which means the thumb going down the strings). to be played with the thumb strumming across the strings . but be sure to make smooth and quick changes between chords. with each finger taking the shortest route from one position to another. and that the tone and volume are consistent across the strings. should land on the beat.i ~ ~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL ~ ~~~~ ~ ~~&~ GUITAR ~ ~~~ £a~ oi *"". [ itf~€~ ~"'~~=~""~~ ~=<~ <i:'? ~ ~~ :. The right-hand pattern should be practised separately. making sure the hand does not move while playing.!~a~"~~~~~ ~ ~~~.?« % ~ §1l~ *"iO" "$'% Mf~). so the note "spread" must begin slightly before. so the tempo of the music doesn't drop. the left-hand chord changes should be practised on their own. By the time you've reached this stage in the book your left hand will have gained enough strength to do this. the right-hand pattern changes strings so the fingers are now playing strings four. The final chord is an E minor..

J J 3d J.~# i: J J J J J .rgJJJJ ~ m~ rJSJJJ~JlJJJ ~f. !#. II 1 J(JJ ::.::=.. l Jy J J j J J : J J l J J Ir 0 I 3r 1F I~ mp ~~ Ir~ p - .:::::]l J ].~ J J i J J ~ J J l J] ~ J Jl J: r~ ~ j~:::::.6 6 6 6 --------.::=:J #~D j] pH ~ i - j3 J rJ y 3r - ill ] fJ J 1 j 3 J J J 1 JJ l J J 2f I -~ J 1 I f or - -. ..11 PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .. ~ ~# ~#:JJJJJ. ! J .::J:::. pp r'~ i J l l J J) J J 'f. .p J J J lJ p J J l J JpJ J 1 J J r__.] P i m ami r--------.. ~# jF===tn]=.. j 1dnDllJ ..fJJJJJ~ r Rit.

PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR J ".="[...~~~~ ~~ ~..~%i?:-.. As in Exercises 66 and 79.~~'ilfi' S!-~ ... ~M:g~~~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ e~~%1s:~~~ ~ ~ ~ or- . ...:. al--$- p----~ Rall.best achieved by keeping the arpeggio part (the semiquauers} in volume...C. rhythm and harmony .:...i!l~.J""..~~~~.. C • I 2 I i b ~ ~r m I r ~ ~ I m m p p m p-$ --======~~=====F f m 01 41 flO!U a - pf p p P - • 1 m ~ i m I i P m i p m i P - ~ L:J T_ m f 4 2[ I .:"~ Irq This technique is very characteristic of the guitar and is a practical and effective way of providing a combination of melody... i. These notes are to be played slightly louder than the rest .. but in this piece the melody is in the top part...three fundamental aspects of music. ...thm...~ . .. .. with the a finger slightly accenting the notes on the top string.. a m i iti! C ppII 6 ma r II' r r & !ti( r 2f If a f [1 f d d m r II' r Dr E r r r 2 r r )1 ~~ F jrjI )l r r 3( I• ! Pi r r c r E r r ¢....'". 2 o~ D.§ 'f-!'ii..~~~~.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~_'_r"~.. indicated by notes with the stems pointing upwards. the right hand here should be practised separately...? ~""' ~~ ~ ~~~ a ~ ~i..:.. at the end of bar three means that when you pp reach this point (afler the repeat) you jump from the first sign to the second one and immediately play the final bar as an ending to the whole piece.. the arpeggio here provides both harmony and rh).o::'".J ~ ~. As in Exercise 79.? _. The s).:i'~~~~~~~ Si ~ ~~~ -~~f1.."':~_9~~ .~~~~ ~Ii!~ ~~-.:I r~tr i r-3---..mbof$.~ ..-~~t'.!S.

r~!J . behind the nail. just before the penultimate bar..~ ~~a. and can give a rather untidy and harmonically confusing impression if left to ring.such as from A to the low E (as in Example 1. When going from a high string to a lower one .) i-.. 2 II This technique could be put to good use in Exercise 79.. should make contact with the E-string exactly when the A is played (but not before). below).a simple apoyando \'\'i11 stop the A ringing..e. PLAY CLASSICAL . (See photographs on next page too. This can be solved by damping the unwanted string with the right-hand thumb.. going from the E in the previous bar to the first of the last three chords.~~~~ f-"J< {. making a smooth transition 1i'0Il) E to A while at the same time preventing the E from covering the sound of the A.Ig Ex. The LOp of the thumb.~~ '" ~ ~ Sometimes the sustain of the bass notes on the guitar is too long for certain moments in a piece. Ex.\1 iH~Slh~1 s "t! . .GUITAR . the E can be stopped by bending the first joint on the right-hand thumb slightly while playing the A. " ~~~-":'.'? ". 1 II When going the opposite way (as in Example 2. below) .

PLAY .PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR These two photographs the subtle show made sha~ change by the thumb in order to "damp" the lower string and to stop It sounding.4 CLASSICAL GUITAR .

The half-barre is normally held with finger 1.with the position number where the halfbarre is to be placed. tell The photograph of the half-barre above shows the position of the thumb (opposite finger 2) and which part of finger 1 Is used to hold down the strings.The half-barre is a way of holding down more than one string at a time with only one finger.2" next to a capital letter C. where the notes of F-sharp. PLAY CLASSICAL 75 GUITAR . but not so close as to damp the sounding strings. In the photo on the left note that the finger making the half-barre Is exactly parallel to the fret. C-sharp and A might be held down on strings one. and we'll see it again later in the book when we look at the higher positions. But it can be llsed anywhere on the neck. two and three (as mentioned before these are important notes in the key of D). It is especially useful when several notes on the same fret are required (as in the example notated below). and covers between two and four strings A common place for the half-barre is at the second position (II). The symbol used in notation for a half-barre is the fraction "1.

. The metronome marking shows the tempo of a dotted crotchet beat (three quavers). Although there are two notes of A at the start of the [irs! bar this is only notational. to show that the initial quaver A has a secondary function. Irr4f m m i tell __ - o 30 I tgc''f rr±~~cp t t -.-~ GUITAR A'? .b' z' ~"".- . f p IT F r ErU· II PLAY -"'~ CLASSICAL -.~.the half-barre is used at the second fret for the first three bars to allow the A and F-sharp to ring over the tune and create background harmony.PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR ~}tEs:1C~~1i:: 3~ 'Morning Chant' . lasting as a dotted minim underneath the quaver movement in the upper parl. J =60 JJ mi.

Ligado ---- Chords Third position shapes (I I I) Octave Full-barre Ligado Fifth .part position two (V) Ornaments .

The G is played with the right hand and the A is played with the left hand. This is slightly later than if you were plucking the note. In Example 1. is denoted by a curved line between two notes of different pitch. so we'll start 'with that. except that's only used between notes of the same pitch. where the left-hand finger 'would come down earlier to be ready for the right hand to play/pluck the string. It's also very important that the finger comes down firmly so a percussive strike is made on the string. as we saw in Section One. It's similar to a tie. Ex. The main points to remember in playing ligado are to bring the left-hand finger down exactly at the moment the note is to sound. You can make a ligado with any of the left-hand fingers .it usually depends which position you're playing in and which note is to he slurred to or from. C.' j ?=tLFLllaaaa11aaaall@@@@1 Examples 2 and 3 work ali the same principle but are played with fingers 1 and 3 respectively. to match a plucked note. Slurring up to a note is easier. sounded by coming down onto the note rapidly with the fingertip. In this case you must use this note as if it were an open string and keep it on when slurring onto the second note. A ligado is used for making particularly smooth or quick lefthand changes between notes (beyond what can be comfortably achieved 'when plucking each note individually with the right hand).a~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . because this finger is actually "playing" the note. there is a slur from G to A.2 Ex.3 0' EX.I The ligado. Example 4 is different in that the first note.ie slurring to a note or ii'om a note. is also a fretted note. There are two types of ligado: going up and going down . producing enough volume. or slur.1 ~~~~~O.4 . ~ ~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~ Ex. the D. ~J. . PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR <r~~ 6. below.

It's important the rhythm is not affected by the use of the slurs= the slurred quavers must still arrive at the right moment. Although we don't have space to go into detail in this book. thanks to the enduring nature of a lot of older classical music.This exercise makes use of ligado with various fingers. The most difficult is at bar two line two. known as the Tonic (abbreviated as the Roman numeral I). and it's important ro become familiar with them whenever you can. Most of the exercises in this book are written using the "Tonal System" of harmony. and a tone lower than the dominant). 'which was the dominant force in Art music from the Renaissance up until the first decades of the 20th century when other forms of harmonic and compositional techniques came into use . Tonality is based on the idea of a particular chord. ~K~!i:[!C~~~ 82 r I rJ laar IEtEtrrlaJ o F If u I r'. The other main chord used in tonalitv is the subdominant (IV) which is a perfect 4th higher than the tonic (or perfect 5th lower.r. P LAY C LAS SI CA L G U ITA R 79 . not too early. 3 J r II The guitar is a harmonic instrument . like a piano or harp. and also its continued use in popular music. though the notes and types of chord obey different rules according to the period and style of the music. The tension and release that gives music its sense of movement is created by the pull between these chords (known as the primary chords) via other secondary chords. Harmony is the movement of chords or implied chords in relation to a theme or line of music played simultaneously.largely because the combinations available within the existing tonal system began to be overused. 'which is a perfect 5th higher (or perfect 4th lower). used as a starting point from which the music travels and to 'which it returns. (There's more about these newer systems in Section Five. The use of harmony of some kind is common to most music. it's capable of harmony as well as melody.) The tonal system is still the most familiar musical language.which means. between fingers 2 and 4. there is a growing repertoire for the guitar using newer systems. In opposition to the tonic there is a chord called the dominant (V).

~ ~ ~~~~~6. which is made up of three nares.. A triad has two intervals: a third (major or minor depending on key) and a perfect 5th (both counted from the root).. ~ . minor.ol ~~_.... The strings with x above them are not to be played. A major triad is a major 3rd with a minor 3rd above it. and usually j nvolves octaves above the constituent notes.'*t~~ Mi>!Vl~h -~"'~.. Another 'way to put it is to say that a triad is made up of two thirds placed above each other.The basis of each chord is a "triad". rather like intervals.this is called "doubling". Triads can be major. This is a very clear system which has the advantage of being understood by non-readers of standard music notation. A minor triad is the reverse .ss . It's basically a small map or picture of the fingerboard showing which string and 'which fret the fingers are to hold down. "~c.". Triads can have more notes added to them and still have the same function.. diminished and augmented.. "'<-<ll =. Major Triad of C 2 J Minor Triad of C minor b1t J 3 C Major o 1 2 3 i. .i.g!~h~~~ . as long as the extra notes are more of those already in the chord . the C major triad has been expanded by doubling the C (the root note) and the E (the third) an octave higher (in this case making the top two notes of the chord).a minor 3rdwith a major 3rd above it.J' .?%~~ '1 "\.. PLAY ~~~O CLASSICAL GUITAR . The main method of notation for guitar chords is the chord diagram. • ~fgi'~ . J n the last example below..H.

G.= "". F and C. a four-chord pattern . the dominant. .::.~ . stays major).==::..::: ::~ "I~.: Eminor . " The final two minor chords :~.." tp. Also included are the two minor chords. ~ . E and C. x C (I) x F (IV) G(V) The second set of three chords are the primary ones for the key of C.in this case Am functions as VI.Below are diagrams for the three primary chords in two keys.F:· f. and fits well in the progression C.~~... The chord of A minor is known as the relative (submediant..... PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .again often used for changing key.. If Em and Am are substituted for E and A. Am can be Inserted -:-:.'_:"": between C and F In the second progression. E minor (Em) and A minor (Am).. Am.... giving the primary chords in the key of E minor (Em and Am become I . The first three chord diagrams show the primary chords for the key of E.\: .£1. and V). An x above a string means the string is not to be played. PLAY CLASSICAL GUitAR E (I) x A(IV) . you will have the primary chords for the key of E minor (11i.:~ '1: :. The dominant chord in the key of E is a dominant 7th (H7) . . x B7 (V7) Y •• .-"-7"_~:'''"":'_ -I". Am. VI) of C. subdomlnant (IV) and dominant i ::. making C.~ .... The chord of F requires two notes (F and 0) to be held down with finger 1. f. M.:: 1::. F.~~p·C. the submedlant or relative minor.1 I~U are generally very useful and can be combined with the progressions above as follows: E minor and A minor can be x A minor substituted for E and A in the first progression. and a familiar chord in guitar music in the key of E.:::i L ~:~ ~iii. using a small half-barre.. 1. The Roman numerals Indicate tonic {Il.

an indication to accent the chord heavily and suddenly (strummed very quickly withp). and is most appropriate 'when playing a chord as part of a classical piece. The two methods sound very different: using p gives a rather warm and full sound. short for sforzando. ~X~~C~$~ ~3 I •• ~ 1 JJJ 1 semprepp -e- -e- : () J j j I. or with the .d"~d:a AL G U ITA R C LA S SIC Chords are best played either using the thumb. less weighty. arpeggiolike motion can be played quite easily. but specifically using the fingers). so the entire piece is played pp until a different dynamic is met. As there's no wavy line next to the chord. This happens at the chord marked sfz.originally put in by the composer to stop audiences talking during the performance. unless you learn flamenco-type techniques.] J u- J 2 1 JJJ -e1 . which are not within the scope of this book.~~~r~ ~~~ P LA Y ~ ~W-:sl~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~. more percussive. it is not to be spread. meaning forced . Theme from The Surprise Symphony by Haydn (1732-1809). which is called "rasguedo" (in fact rasguedo is used to refer to all kinds of strumming. The word "sempre" before the dynamic marking pp means "always". I d 1 ~ r J :J J I IF 1 J J F i j 1 JJ -e1 I • J JJJ -e- 1 J J •I -e- J • I J JJ r PLAY F 92: CLASSICAL GUITAR F . Using the thumb to play chords allows the exact speed of the movement across the strings to be controlled. p. back of the right-hand fingers. The finger rasguedo uses the backs of the nails. so there's not a sudden drop in the strength and type of tone (although pieces from the Baroque guitar repertoire use many types of strums and strumming patterns. and sounds thinner. There is one loud chord at the end . It's also less controllable... so a slow. including use of the back of the fingers).

as well as learn ing the positions "horizontally" up the neck. If you take a few minutes to look for these patterns on the instrument and repeat them up the fingerboard. so when you learn the lower note. So now you're playing two A notes. D on string two is two frets away from C on the same string (frets three and one). A good 'way to help commit the fret board to memory is to learn the order of the notes "vertically" across each fret as a distinct unit.. Try putting finger 1 on any note on the third or fourth string say A at fret GVO. (Use the neck diagram on the fold-out page. IX ---!P>i -XII . finger 2 those at the fourth fret. which brings into play the new note of high A-sharpiB-flat on the first string. fret six is the same note as that found at string four. This position allows finger 4 to reach the sixth fret. string three .~~ Fingerboard showing the notes at third position.in other words an octave interval. This shape can be moved up and down the fingerboard.and at the same time place finger 4 two strings and three frets higher (at fret five on the first string). The other notes at the sixth fret are the same as those on the first fret on the next highest string. The pattern is the same when finger 1 is on strings three or four. It follows that D will also be two frets away from C on the third string -Trets seven and Eve.) It's useful to remember that the relationship of each note to every other note never changes. These patterns using notes G and A-sharpiB-flat are highlighted on the fingerboard (right). So the D-sharpiE-flat on string five. you know the upper one too. . and is played 'with finger 3.here the upper octave note is only two strings and tuio frets away. For example. and so on. the higher positions will lose some oftheir seemingly mysterious quality. an octave apart . but changes on strings five and six . fret one.Third position means finger 1 plays (he notes at the third fret. II III v VII Another way to get to know the notes higher up is to use the leftband octave shape.

The key is B~flat (two flats) though many accidentals are also used. short for "accelerando". an indication to increase tempo. you'll come across many others within the general repertoire. The quaver movement used in the first two notes and.. For example "Iento e tranquillo".this makes interpreting a particular work much clearer. p ~ 4 2 1 Fr 2 I 3 ··1 q -====== tiif' .As well as the terms discussed earlier.. The chords in this ~~\ . more clearly. and the musical material from which it's made . especially towards the end of the piece. the theme in the first bar provides the rhythm of a quaver and two semiquauers (and the reverse) used throughout the first half of the piece. crossing bars three and four. first line: for example. meaning with vigour. intervals. position change and ties. ~iP"1a t1 r r Ir r r -J_ I 3 1 . This last one is usually seen with a dotted line showing the section affected by the instruction. also provides a stead).. :1 Lento e tranquillo III ~~ 111(1) p Ire. ~x~~e!$~ 34 This exercise makes use of the third position. which means slow and tranquil. both for normal playing and also [or holding a half-barre at bar four in line two. or "ace". The piece proceeds by developing different aspects of music used in the. chords. "con brio". It's vital you are aware of the construction of any piece of music you are playing. such as ligado. pulse for the harmonic development in the last two lines of the piece. mp ' p Con brio E~E~C~$E 85 P lAY C lAS SIC A l G U ITAR The exercise on the next page incorporates many of the techniques learnt so far.4 I 4-.

. fVhen using rubato the sense of flow must not be stopped. also implying "soft". with the exception of the three-note chord at the end of line two which is to be arpeggiated with p. 1 ff ===::==:===~r_p rall.1 ~ (I _ 3 .in musical terms it lets you "steal" some extra time at this point to emphasise the phrase (in this case the third beat of the bar). J rubato rqrr &U JW ____________ ~. just held up for a moment. "Dolce" at the start means "sweet". j = 60 Dolce m III mp 3f dim. I r· .work are best played with p only.~l£htiaifj I 2U . J sub pp 3 2 #~ cresc.. in the last bar of line four. "Rubato". l. 3 (I 2 . ".80818f3:fi.o. literally means "robbed" . and a.

but just remember it is usually F combined with other fingers and is p-'-<--""'rarelv. seen at the beginning of the third line. - _1. In the penultimate bar.SEc. The chord in the left-hand diagram above (G) is a typical major chord shape using the full-barre (it's basically an E-chord shape moved up three frets with a barre across the third fret). p plays three consecutive bass strings: the easiest way to do this is to use apoyando on the first two so the thumb is already on the adjacent string ready to play. In bar two. so when going to the higher position._ I 1!x~~e~$~ 8e (See top of next page. The minor version of this chord (to its right) can be made by removing finger 2. The instruction "a tempo". means "return to the original tempo" after the "Tit" in the previous bar. At first the full-barre feels quite tricky. needed to hold down all six ~)Cl ~~ strings by itself. and 3 is kept 011. The chord making up the notes of the last beat of bar four is exactly the same shape as that at the beginning of the bar. -. "barring" finger completely straight and the left thumb well back behind """"" the neck. the full-barre is reduced to covering only five strings. but at a higher position: this should be used to your advantage . 1 .~~ roUfi PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR The full-barre is played the same way as the half-barre except the finger goes across all six strings.when playing beat three (with finger 4) the original chord played with 2. PLAY as CLASSICAL GUITAR . second and first strings are the only ones fully held down by the barre. In this case the sixth. finger 4 is simply removed and the whole shape is moved up. It's important to keep the ~.just like the half-barre but without the 1'2 before it. leaving the finger 1 barre to hold down the B-flat instead of the B-natural held by finger 2. The svmbol on the stave for a fuIlG minor G barre is a C followed by the Roman numeral indicating the position .) The G minor chord above is used in bars one and six of Exercise 86.

especially when playing "ornaments" (which we'll discuss later in this Section).1 &0000 2 0 1100001 I 0 PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Ex. Both types of ligado . which is sometimes necessary if the other fingers are holding an interval or arc part of a chord.2 . even from 4 to 3. When slurring down you must come off the string quite quickly otherwise the string will be damped. as well as sounding the A. In Example 1. Slurs of three notes and more (see bottom diagram) can be made when a smooth passage between a number of notes is needed. move. the first note is played by the fight hand. As with ligado going up. slurring down can be done with any fingers. or lor a very high-speed sequence.tv'!f'1g t~ E CIII ------------------------------------------------------------ I I j' e§E 2 m ~ 4 J F r ~ r m __ ~ ~ G ! r J r 2 I ~ ! J • [ ~ r ]• rit. as with slurring up. is somewhat more difficult than slurring up . 'where the strings are less easv to . which. . Example 2 is a slur from C to B using finger 1. This is slightly harder because it's nearer the nut. below. EX.up and down are often combined. F r j1 ! II Slurring down. as previously mentioned. there is a slur from A to C.the left-hand finger is required to actually pluck the string slightly as it comes orr the note. provides enough energy in the string to help the left hand make it sound.

which considerably expands melodic and harmonic possibilities.[or example the note at fret seven on the fifth string is E.will help considerably in getting to know the notes in this position. where the octave C is found at fret eight . especially in the keys of A and A minor. For example. (Except on the second string. Fingerboard showing the notes at fifth position. One very famous example is the main theme in the slow movement of the Concierto de Aranjue: by Rodrigo. which would sound very cold and dry if played at the first position. Also. especially when played apoyando. learning each fret separately . as it means the note played with finger 1. which you're already familiar with ~ so once again one note helps you learn another. . The octave shape is especially useful. finger 3 00\\/ covers the seventh fret. the D at fret seven on the third string has a far richer sound than the same D at fret III on string t\VO.played with finger 4 in fifth position due to the major third between the G and B strings. which is where the octave above the adjacent (lower) open string is found .especially those a perfect 5th and minor 6th away from the open strings . As with position III.) The fifth position is a common place for the use of both the half and full-barre. The distinct difference in tone colour found at the higher positions on the guitar is one the instrument's unique qualities many pieces in the guitar repertoire use these positions for precisely this reason. At this position there is also a noticeable change in tone from the notes played lower down the fingerboard.Fifth The iifth position is particularly useful: first of all you can reach much higher notes on the first string .and also making use of the left-hand octave shape . is the same as the next open string. such as A at fret five on the sixth string. an octave above the open sixth string.

=====--1np J PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR f~~ . The previously mentioned left-hand octave shape is used at the start of bar one. This happens from bar nine where p is used to play the top part and the fingers play the bass.. The righthand fingering is of special importance in this piece as it facilitates the use of the open treble strings as an accompaniment.~ .~~e.~SE 31 1~ •• d "" I'i ~ ~)l 2 ~v------------~ • m mil :eo m p f r· rall. g}..PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR 'Cross String Jig' is played almost entirely in the fifth position.

depending on style. F From the Italian word "mordere" (meaning "to bite"). = PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR . appoggiatura. Most ornaments originate in the Baroque period. The ornaments most commonly used are: the acciaccatura. making a double or triple acciaccatura (see below'. Sometimes there are t\VO or more notes.as the name suggests decorations added to the music by either composer or performer. mordent (upper and lower). left).PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Ornaments (or "grace notes") are . It's played with a three-note slur. Both types of mordent are indicated by a special jagged symbol (originally a stylised M) written above the note where it's to be played. the lower mordent symbol is differentiated by a small vertical line going through it (as seen below). right). period of music and/or convention. turn. this ornament is an extra note added in either above Cupper mordent") or below ("lower") the main note in order to reinforce it (adding exira bite. it should be slurred onto the main note (as below. These are played as quickly as possible so the main note still arrives exactly at the place shown on the stave. and are also widely used in the music of the Classical and Romantic periods. The Acciaccatura (it literally means "crushed in") is a very fast note played just before the main one (and indicated by a tiny note with a line through its stem). and trill. as it were). If the grace note is on the same string.

this time referring to a "leaning" note. or two thirds if the main note is dotted. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR & ~ F m' a r takes the rhythmic Another Italian term....If the ornament note itself indicated by the key signature written above or under the whether it's an upper or lower is to be a sharp or flat not already of the piece.. ~ .. If attached to a tied note the appoggiatura value of the .. and shown by a miniature note symbol on the stave before the main note.. the appoggiatura takes exactly half the rhythmic value of the main note (the one it "leans" into). vhole of the first of the tied notes. . it affects only the top note of the chord.. II . p . As with all ornaments the appoggiatura is to be slurred.. F P When the appoggiatura comes before a chord. PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR .. then an accidental is mordent symbol (depending on mordent). coming together with the chord itself [hen resolving onto the original cop note by itself..-= -... &r ~. unless it involves crossing the strings. In contrast to the more fleeting acciaccatura.

seamless series of left-hand slurs. the turn occurs on that beat (as above). The order of notes to be played is: the note above the first main note. N F F - rJ7F I • The curly symbol indicating a turn can be in one of two places: if it's written above the first note. often followed by a wavy line (usually indicating the length of trill). F r r fEU F rtFfFFFF CFrfFEd' A trill is an extended alternation between the main (written) note and the note above it. r' tr~ I = I I PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR @I~ . . if it's written after the note. .~~F~~M ~~~~-.. and finally the note itself again.~-"':/S~ . N F F = The "inverted turn" (with a line through the symbol) is similar. then the note itself: then the note below. it's played between the two notes (as below). and is denoted by the symbol "tr". It is played as a long. except it begins on the note below the main one.E:~~~ ~if"~~ ~ ~-~~~ !@~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR A turn is a short pattern of four notes used to make a small flourish from one note to the next.

Haydn and Mozart).~ ~~~ ~ $i~~'~ PLAY CLASSICAL ~~_I!!in ~ ~~n GUITAR tr ".ed with an accidental above the symbol. mp or ami p @Q) II 3 PLAY C.ASSICAL 9~ GUITAR .. I ~~1"~N~'". In much 20th century and later music the trill often has a small note attached (as with an acciaccatura) indicating which note to begin 011.L. In this case it can be played with either m and p or with a. the trill starts on the upper note. i and p -where a and i play the upper string and m andp play the lower.In music up to and including the Classical period (for instance . m.if required. this is indicat. tr~ Another way to playa trill on the guitar is to have the two notes on adjacent strings. In music since then the trill usually starts on the lower note. usually written in to avoid any ambiguity. 3 As with the mordent. if" a sharp or flat note is required as the upper note. r # tr~ I = this is The trill is sometimes ended with a turn .

Scales Time signatures Seventh position Nails Vibrato Harmonics General Ninth musicianship position Tremolo (IX) Sight-reading .part 2 (VII) .

Q) I F 4 r 3 F II CLASSICAL GUITAR . but also 'with i. initially with m. the given lingering and string numbering will make it clear enough. Q) V Q) i Fu m r 3 F r Ir r r 2 4 1 3 f 4 r Ir 3 1 (2) I • 4 r 2 Q) IF r J F II The C minor harmonic scale below goes into sixth position (VI) on the fourth beat of bar one for ease of fingering.~~~~i5Il~~~ ~~~mf"~~ ~~1'F ~ ~~~ PLAY CLASSICAL GUITAR Scales are practised on an instrument for two main reasons. Although this position has not been covered. In minor keys this has to be done with an accidental.one octave. I C minor harmonic scale . and to keep the volume and tone consistent. i. C major scale .one octave. . VI m ~}------4--. It's similar to the use of chords in understanding harmony. like refining the co-ordination between the hands. and i. . increasing playing speed. The only unusual note position is the A-flat at fret nine.1 m r IF rt CD 2 3 2 fit re r 4 PLAY I v CJ)I--------------. The combinations of a. The other purpose of scales is the practical application of theory 'within the tonal system of music. The major and harmonic minor scales of each key contain aU the notes used in the triads of that key These scales should be practised with both tirando and apoyando. a should be practised too. m. In bar two the B-flat is raised a sernitone to B-natural to satisfy the harmonic requirement that the 7th note is a semitone below the Tonic. i as written. because they take their key sig-nature from the major key that they're related to. The first and most obvious is for technical development.

The melodic minor scale is, as the name implies, used mainly for the melodic (or linear) aspect of music. This is mainly because its intervals are easier to sing than those of the harmonic minor scale. In this scale there's a smooth transition up and down, with the major 2nd as the largest interval, whereas the harmonic minor has a minor 3rd leap between the 6th and 7th degrees of the scale, To avoid the leap of a minor 3rd, the melodic minor scale uses different notes ascending than it does 'when descending.
C minor melodic scale - one octave.

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Now we come to scales covering t\VOoctaves. Below are the scales of G, G minor harmonic and G minor melodic. These longer scales will rake a bit more time (0 learn thoroughly but will prove to be very useful as these patterns can be moved up the fingerboard to make scales in different keys. For example moving the G major pattern up to position IV will give you A major.
G major scale - two octaves.

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