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Current Affairs

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2G spectrum scam 1
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 7
Adarsh Housing Society Scam 24
Naxalite 28
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 34
2011 Libyan uprising 40
2011 Egyptian revolution 60
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 85
P. J. Thomas (politician) 117
Lokayukta 119
Unique Identification Authority of India 121

Article Sources and Contributors 126
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 129

Article Licenses
License 131
2G spectrum scam 1

2G spectrum scam
The 2G spectrum scam involved officials and ministers in the Government of India illegally undercharging mobile
telephony companies for frequency allocation licenses, which they would use to create 2G subscriptions for cell
phones. According to a report submitted by the Comptroller and Auditor General based on money collected from 3G
licenses, the loss to the exchequer was 176379 crore (US$39.16 billion). The issuing of the 2G licenses occurred in
2008, but the scam came to public notice when the Indian Income Tax Department investigated political lobbyist
Niira Radia and the Supreme Court of India took Subramaniam Swamy's complaints on record [With Case type:Writ
Petition (Civil),Case No:10, Year:2011].[1] The case details of the main PIL filed with the supreme court is
Type:Writ Petition (Civil),Case No:423, Year:2010.[2]
Former Telecom Minister of the NDA government Arun Shourie was the whistleblower who helped uncover the
scam and also exposed many loopholes in the UPA government's policy towards issuing telecom licences.[3]
In 2008, the Income Tax department, after orders from the ministry of Home and the PMO, began tapping the
phones of Nira Radia. This was done to help with an ongoing investigation into a case where it was alleged that Niira
Radia had acted as a spy.[4]
Some of the many conversations recorded over 300 days were leaked to the media. The intense controversy around
the leaked tapes became known in the media as the Radia tapes controversy. The tapes featured some conversations
between politicians, journalists and corporatation. Politicians like Karunanidhi, journalists like Barkha Dutt and Vir
Sanghvi and industrial groups like the Tata Group were either participants or mentioned in these tapes.

Parties involved
The selling of the licenses brought attention to four groups of entities - politicians who had the authority to sell
licenses, bureaucrats who implemented and influenced policy decisions, corporations who were buying the licenses,
and media professionals who mediated between the politicians and the corporations on behalf of one or the other
interest group.

Politicians involved
• Kanimozhi,Member of Parliament and daughter of DMK chief and Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Karunanidhi.In
November 2010 Outlook published transcripts of six conversations between lobbyist Niira Radia and Kanimozhi
from May 2009. India Today claims that these conversations reveal that Kanimozhi filtered the information
flowing to her father (the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu) and thereby "tipped the scales in favour of" A. Raja, who
was Minister of Communications and Information Technology during controversial 2G wireless spectrum
allocations in 2008. The New York Times's Delhi correspondent Lydia Polgreen said Raja's rise to
telecommunications minister was "emblematic" of how politics in India really work, with the DMK "more closely
resembling a sprawling family business empire than a political party," and highlighted Mr. Raja's "close
relationship" with Kanimozhi.Raja was arrrested on February 2, 2011 for his alleged role in manipulating rules to
allocate favorable spectrum to some telecom companies at throwaway prices.
Following the Central Bureau of Investigation's raid on Tamil Maiyam, an NGO of which she is a
director,Kanimozhi said the DMK party will come out clean in the CBI probe, stating "The law has to take its own
course. It is a process to prove us not guilty."After the February 2nd arrest DMK party members and workers
immediately passed a resolution declaring that the arrest doesn't mean Raja is guilty, and claimed opposition parties
were targeting him for political purposes.
• A. Raja, the Ex-Minister of Communications and Information Technology who was the minister when the
controversial second round of spectrum allocations took place. Mr.Raja, an MP of the Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam from the Nilgiris constituency, was forced to resign following the public outcry. He was appointed the
2G spectrum scam 2

minister of telecommunications again for the second time when the UPA returned to power in the last general
elections despite huge reservations from economists and other political parties. This was due to the pressure
exerted by the DMK, one of the main allies of the Congress. He was arrested for his role in the spectrum scam
and currently is lodged in the Tihar Jail in Outer Delhi. The CBI has raided his various houses, offices and other
NGOs and beneficiaries related to A.Raja.
• M. Karunanidhi, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu and the DMK chief. Kanimozhi is the daughter of
M.Karunanithi and the entire scam is hugely directed toward the top brass of his party. The Radia tapes indicated
his wife and his daughter as beneficiaries in the deals involving huge corporates. Recently, Kalaignar TV, a
television channel owned by Karunanithi and his family members was raided in connection with the spectrum
scam. CBI has unearthed evidence of money trail leading towards the Kalaignar TV.

Bureaucrats involved
• Siddhartha Behura, former telecom secretary who served in the DOT at the time of the 2G allocation.
• P. J. Thomas, Secretary of the Department of Telecommunications at the time of the 2G allocation.
• Pradip Baijal, a bureaucrat who is alleged to have recommended policies that favored certain Telecom companies
when he was heading the TRAI. Post retirement, Baijal joined Noesis, a consulting firm.[5] [6] Raja has made
references to Baijal's decisions in 2003 as the basis for his decisions in 2008; something which has been attacked
by Arun Shourie and several media pundits. The houses and offices of the bureaucrat were recently raided by the
Central Bureau of Investigation as part of their investigations.[7]
• R K Chandolia, private secretary of Raja during UPA-I when the licences were awarded. He was an Indian
Economic Service officer of the 1984 batch cadre.When Raja became the Telecom Minister once again in
UPA-II, Chandolia had been promoted to the Joint Secretary rank. Raja re-designated him Economic Adviser, that
gave him the charge of all important policy-related work. Chandolia interacted with all the licensees. It is said that
it was Chandolia who, from DDG-access services A K Srivastava's room, had handed out letters of intent to
representatives of various companies.[8]
The above mentioned all are involved with the case.

Corporations involved
• Unitech Group a real estate company entering the telecom industry with its 2G bid; sold 60% of its company
stake at huge profit to Telenor after buying licensing (Including land values properties for towers)[9]
• Swan Telecom sold 45% of its company stake at huge profit to Emirates Telecommunications Corporation
(Etisalat) after buying licensing[9]
• Loop Mobile
• Videocon Telecommunications Limited
• S Tel
• Reliance Communications
• Sistema Shyam Mobile (MTS) – Sistema Mobile Russia
• Tata Communications
• Vodafone Essar
• Dishnet Wireless
• Allianz Infra[10]
2G spectrum scam 3

Corporate personalities involved

• Anil Ambani - Reliance Group (ADAG)[11] -
• Shahid Balwa - DB Realty and DB Etisalat (formerly Swan Telecom)
• Vinod Goenka - Dynamix Group
• Venugopal Dhoot - Videocon Group
• Prashant Ruia - Essar Group
All of them have either been question by the CBI or are prospective suspects in the scam.

Media persons and lobbyists involved

• Nira Radia, a former airline entrepreneur turned corporate lobbyist whose conversations with politicians and
corporate entities were recorded by the government authorities .The contents were later leaked by unknown
parties creating the Nira Radia tapes controversy
• Barkha Dutt, an NDTV journalist alleged to have lobbied for A. Raja's appointment as minister.
• Vir Sanghvi, a Hindustan Times editor alleged to have edited articles to reduce blame in the Nira Radia tapes.

• Subramaniam Swamy, activist lawyer and politician, whose letters to the Prime Minister demanding action and
affidavits and cases in the Supreme Court brought the issue into the public limelight.
• Paranjoy Guha Thakurta, a journalist who was one among the very first to write on the irregularities in the
awarding of 2G spectrum allocation by the Telecom Ministry. He is also one of the petitioners in the 2G PIL
currently being heard in the Supreme court.[12]
• Prashant Bhushan, on behalf of the Centre for Public Interest Litigation.
• Anil Kumar, on behalf of the civil society organisationTelecom Watchdog
• Others:Several eminent people like former chief election commissioners J.M. Lyngdoh, T.S. Krishnamurthy and
N. Gopalaswami and former central vigilance commissioner (CVC) P. Shankar are also petitioners in the suits
filed by civil society groups.[10]

Shortfall of money
A. Raja arranged the sale of the 2G spectrum licenses below their market value. Swan Telecom, a new company with
few assets, bought a license for 1537 crore (US$341.21 million).[13] Shortly thereafter, the board sold 45% of the
company to Etisalat for 4200 crore (US$932.4 million). Similarly, a company formerly invested in real estate and
not telecom, the Unitech Group, purchased a license for 1661 crore (US$368.74 million) and the company board
soon after sold a 60% stake in their wireless division for 6200 crore (US$1.38 billion) to Telenor.[13] The nature of
the selling of the licenses was that licenses were to be sold at market value, and the fact that the licenses were
quickly resold at a huge profit indicates that the selling agents issued the licenses below market value.
Nine companies purchased licenses and collectively they paid the Ministry of Communications and Information
Technology's telecommunications division 10772 crore (US$2.39 billion).[13] The amount of money expected for
this licensing by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India was 176700 crore (US$39.23 billion).[14]
2G spectrum scam 4

Relationship between media and government

Media sources such as OPEN and Outlook reported that Barkha Dutt and Vir Sanghvi knew that corporate lobbyist
Nira Radia was influencing the decisions of A. Raja.[15] The critics alleged that Dutt and Sanghvi knew about
corruption between the government and the media industry, supported this corrupt activity, and suppressed news
reporting the discovery of the corruption.[15]

Ratan Tata petitions over leak

The tapes leaked to the public include conversations between Nira Radia and Ratan Tata. Tata petitioned the
government to acknowledge his right to privacy and demanded accountability for the leak, with the Minister for
Home Affairs, CBI, Indian Income Tax Department, the Department of Telecommunication, and the Department of
Information Technology as respondents in the petition.[16]

Response to scam
In early November 2010 Jayalalithaa accused the Tamil Nadu state chief minister M Karunanidhi of protecting A.
Raja from corruption charges and called for A. Raja's resignation.[17] By mid November A. Raja resigned.[18]
In mid November the comptroller Vinod Rai issued show-cause notices to Unitech, S Tel, Loop Mobile, Datacom
(Videocon), and Etisalat to respond to his assertion that all of the 85 licenses granted to these companies did not have
the up-front capital required at the time of the application and were in other ways illegal.[19] Some media sources
have speculated that these companies will receive large fines but not have their licenses revoked, as they are
currently providing some consumer service.[19]
In response to the various allegations , the Govt of India has replaced the then incumbent Telecom minister ,A Raja
with Kapil Sibal who has taken up this charge in addition to being the Union minister for Human Resources
Development.Mr Sibal contends that the "notional" losses quoted are a result of erroneous calculations and insists
that the actual losses are nil.[20] [21]
The CBI conducted raids on Raja and four other telecom officials - former telecom secretary Siddharth Behura,
Raja's personal secretary R K Chandolia, member telecom K Sridhar and DoT deputy director general A K
Srivastava on 8 December 2010.[22]
Raja, Behura and Chandolia were arrested on Feb 2nd 2011.[23]

Impact on stock markets

The first casualty in Stock Markets once Raja was arrested was DB Realty.[24] DB Realty had given 200+ crores to
Kalaignar TV( owned by Karunanidhi's Wife) . The news led to 20% fall in the stock prices of DB Realty. Sun TV
had its shares fall by 10% on the next day following rumours of Kalanidhi Maran having stake in Kalaignar TV.[25]
Sun TV COO refused the allegations. Swan Telecom Chief Balwa was arrested on Feb 8 [26] and this led to rumours
of links with Anil Ambani's Reliance ADAG and it led to 20% fall of his stocks . Its reported that nearly 2 Billion
USD was eroded from his stocks .[27] Spicejet stocks went down after reports of investigation on Maran's recent
takeover of Spicejet .[28]
2G spectrum scam 5

[1] "Case Number" (http:/ / courtnic. nic. in/ supremecourt/ casestatus_new/ caseno_new. asp). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[2] "2G Spectrum Scam: Lok Satta Party Slams Sibal For Statement - Hyderabad News on" (http:/ / www. fullhyderabad. com/
hyderabad-news/ 2g-spectrum-scam-lok-satta-party-slams-sibal-for-statement-3269). 2011-01-12. . Retrieved
[3] "Arun Shourie turns whistleblower on 2G Scam" (http:/ / news. oneindia. in/ 2011/ 02/ 26/
arun-shourie-turns-whistle-blower-on-2g-scam-aid0113. html). .
[4] Santosh Tiwari. "Ex-staffer complaint spurred Radia phone-tap : Investigations: India Today" (http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ site/ Story/
123400/ 2G Scam/ complaint-by-radias-staffer-led-to-her-phone-tapping. html). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[5] http:/ / www. taratv. com/ top_story. php?task=full& newsid=2151
[6] "Taming the retired" (http:/ / www. thehindubusinessline. com/ 2010/ 12/ 17/ stories/ 2010121751660900. htm). The Hindu Business Line.
2010-12-17. . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[7] CBI conducts raids; swoops on DMK associates, Niira Radia & Pradip Baijal http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ news/ politics/ nation/
CBI-conducts-raids-swoops-on-DMK-associates-Niira-Radia--Pradip-Baijal/ articleshow/ 7108883. cms
[8] "Who is R K Chandolia?" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ india/ who-is-r-k-chandolia-82994). 2011-02-02. . Retrieved
[9] Shafi Rahman (6 Nov 2008). "Big scam in 2G spectrum allocation: CPI-M" (http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ site/ Story/ 19591/ LATEST
HEADLINES/ Big+ scam+ in+ 2G+ spectrum+ allocation:+ CPI-M. html). India Today. . Retrieved 3 December 2010.
[10] "Government, 11 telecom firms get court notice on 2G spectrum" (http:/ / www. sify. com/ finance/
government-11-telecom-firms-get-court-notice-on-2g-spectrum-news-default-lbktavcihhd. html). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[11] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ 2G-spectrum-scam-Anil-Ambani-is-now-a-suspect/ Article1-663738. aspx
[12] "2G scam: Why I filed a PIL against the telecom minister - Business" (http:/ / business. rediff. com/ slide-show/ 2010/ sep/ 16/
slide-show-1-why-i-filed-a-pil-against-the-telecom-minister. htm). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[13] "What is 2G spectrum scam?" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ india/ what-is-2g-spectrum-scam-66418). NDTV. 16 Nov 2010.
. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
[14] "2G scam: 'Raja to blame for losing [[Image:Indian Rupee symbol.svg|baseline|7px|link=Indian rupee|alt=Indian Rupee ₹ (http:/ /
timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ business/ india-business/ 2G-scam-Raja-to-blame-for-losing-Rs-176L-cr/ articleshow/ 6902487. cms)]176000
crore (US$39.07 billion)'"]. The Times of India. The Times Group. 10 Nov 2010. . Retrieved 3 December 2010.
[15] Amol Sharma (1 Dec 2010). "Wait a Minute, What Exactly Is Barkha Dutt Accused of?" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ indiarealtime/ 2010/ 12/
01/ wait-a-minute-what-exactly-is-barkha-dutt-accused-of/ ). IndiaRealTime. Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 4 December 2010.
[16] "Government orders probe into leaking of Niira Radia tapes" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ news/ politics/ nation/
Government-orders-probe-into-leaking-of-Niira-Radia-tapes/ articleshow/ 7010403. cms). The Economic Times. 29 Nov 2010. . Retrieved 4
December 2010.
[17] Sathyalaya Ramakrishnan (2 Nov 2010). "2G Spectrum Scam: Karunanidhi protecting union minister Raja for extraneous reasons-
Jayalalithaa charges" (http:/ / www. asiantribune. com/ news/ 2010/ 11/ 02/
2g-spectrum-scam-karunanidhi-protecting-union-minister-raja-extraneous-reasons-jayal). Asian Tribune. . Retrieved 4 December 2010.
[18] "Telecom Minister A Raja resigns" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ telecom-minister-a-raja-resigns/ 710950/ ). The Indian
Express. 14 Nov 2010. . Retrieved 4 December 2010.
[19] Joji Thomas Philip (18 Nov 2010). "2G scam: Govt to pull up five telcos". The Economic Times. The Times Group.
[20] Sharma, Amol (2011-01-07). "India Minister Rebuts Telecom Allegations -" (http:/ / europe. wsj. com/ article/
SB10001424052748704055204576067652193571560. html). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[21] "2G war of words: Kapil Sibal vs Murli Manohar Joshi" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ india/
2g-war-of-words-kapil-sibal-vs-murli-manohar-joshi-77888). 2011-01-08. . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[22] "2G spectrum scam: CBI raids residences of A Raja - The Times of India" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ india/
2G-spectrum-scam-CBI-raids-residences-of-A-Raja/ articleshow/ 7063519. cms). 2010-12-08. . Retrieved
[23] PTI, Feb 2, 2011, 07.41pm IST (2011-02-02). "2G spectrum scam: Former telecom minister A Raja arrested - The Times of India" (http:/ /
timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ india/ 2G-spectrum-scam-Former-telecom-minister-A-Raja-arrested/ articleshow/ 7411212. cms). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[24] "When DB Realty ended up dialling the wrong no - Money - DNA" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ money/
report_when-db-realty-ended-up-dialling-the-wrong-no_1505661). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[25] "2G scam: The DB Realty-DMK puzzle - Business" (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ business/ column/
tech-2g-scam-and-the-db-realty-dmk-puzzle/ 20110209. htm). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[26] 10 Feb, 2011, 03.50AM IST,ET Bureau (2010-07-23). "Arrest of Balwa may trip DB Realty's rapid rise - The Economic Times" (http:/ /
economictimes. indiatimes. com/ markets/ real-estate/ news-/ arrest-of-balwa-may-trip-db-realtys-rapid-rise/ articleshow/ 7464573. cms). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
[27] "Day after DB Realty chief’s arrest, ADAG scrips tank" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/
Day-after-DB-Realty-chief-s-arrest--ADAG-scrips-tank/ 748266). 2010-11-05. . Retrieved 2011-02-11.
2G spectrum scam 6

[28] Chowdhury, Anirban. "SpiceJet Denies Maran Buy Under Investigation -" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/
SB10001424052748704364004576131651857350630. html?mod=googlenews_wsj). . Retrieved 2011-02-11.

External links
• Tehelka's January 2011 infographic explaining the scam (
• CAG Performance Audit report on the issue of Licenses and allocation of spectrum (
reports/civil/2010-11_19PA/Telecommunication Report.pdf)
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 7

Concerns and controversies over the 2010

Commonwealth Games

2010 Commonwealth Games

• Venues
• Theme song
• Concerns and controversies
• Queen's Baton Relay
• Opening ceremony
• Participating nations
• Medal table (medalists)
• Event calendar
• Closing ceremony

A number of concerns and controversies surfaced before the 2010 Commonwealth Games in New Delhi, India,
which received widespread media coverage both in India (the host nation) and internationally.
The Commonwealth Games was severely criticized by several prominent Indian politicians and social activists
because billions of dollars have been spent on the sporting event despite the fact that India has one of the world's
largest concentration of poor people.[1] [2] Additionally, several other problems related to the 2010 Commonwealth
Games have been highlighted by Indian investigative agencies and media outlets; these include — serious corruption
by officials of the Games' Organising Committee, delays in the construction of main Games' venues, infrastructural
compromise, possibility of a terrorist attack and exceptionally poor ticket sales before the event.
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 8

Socio-economic impact

Financial costs
Miloon Kothari, a leading Indian expert on socio-economic development,
remarked that the 2010 Commonwealth Games will create "a negative financial
legacy for the country" and asked "when one in three Indians lives below the
poverty line and 40% of the hungry live in India, when 46% of India's children
and 55% of women are malnourished, does spending billions of dollars on a
12-day sports event build national pride or is it a matter of national shame?"[1]

One of the outspoken critics of the Games is Mani Shankar Aiyar, former Indian
Minister for Youth Affairs and Sports. In April 2007, Aiyar commented that the
Games are "irrelevant to the common man" and criticized the Indian government
for sanctioning billions of dollars for the Games even though India requires
massive investment in social development programs.[2] In July 2010, he
remarked that he would be "unhappy if the Commonwealth Games are
Azim Premji, founder of Wipro
One of India's most cherished businessmen, Azim Premji, called the 2010 Technologies, remarked that India
faced several socio-economic
Commonwealth Games a "drain on public funds" and said that hosting the
challenges and "to instead spend on a
high-expense Games in India is not justified given that the country had more grand sporting spectacle sounds like
important priorities facing it, such as education, infrastructure and public we [India] have got our priorities
health.[3] wrong."

Social and environmental impact

Nearly 400,000 people from three large slum clusters in Delhi have been relocated since 2004. Gautam Bhan, an
Indian urban planner with the University of California-Berkeley, said that the 2010 Commonwealth Games have
resulted in "an unprecedented increase in the degree, frequency and scale of indiscriminate evictions without proper
resettlement. We haven’t seen [these] levels of evictions in the last five years since the Emergency."[5]
In response to a Right to Information (RTI) application filed for study and statements by civil society groups, a
report by the Housing and Land Rights Network (HLRN) - an arm of the Habitat International Coalition - detailed
the social and environmental consequences of the event.[6] It stated that no tolerance zones for beggars are enforced
in Delhi, and the city has arbitrarily arrested homeless citizens under the "Bombay Prevention of Begging Act 1959".

Labour laws violations

Campaigners in India have accused the organisers of enormous and systematic violations of labour laws at
construction sites. Human Rights Law Network reports that independent investigations have discovered more than
70 cases where workers have died in accidents at construction sites since work began.[7] Although official numbers
have not been released, it is estimated that over 415,000 contract daily wage workers are working on Games
projects.[8] Unskilled workers are paid 85 (US$1.9) to 100 (US$2.2) per day while skilled workers are paid 120
(US$2.7) to 130 (US$2.9) INR per day for eight hours of work. Workers also state that they are paid 134 (US$3)
to 150 (US$3.3) for 12 hours of work (eight hours plus four hours of overtime). Both these wages contravene the
stipulated Delhi state minimum wage of 152 (US$3.4) for eight hours of work.[9] Nearly 50 construction workers
have died in the past two years while employed on Games projects.[10]
These represent violations of the Minimum Wages Act, 1948; Interstate Migrant Workmen (Regulation of
Employment and Condition of Services) Act 1979, and the constitutionally enshrined fundamental rights per the
1982 Supreme Court of India judgement on Asiad workers.[11] The public have been banned from the camps where
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 9

workers live and work – a situation which human rights campaigners say prevents the garnering of information
regarding labour conditions and number of workers.[11]
There have been documented instances of the presence of young children at hazardous construction sites, due to a
lack of child care facilities for women workers living and working in the labour camp style work sites.[12]
Furthermore, workers on the site of the main Commonwealth stadium have reportedly been issued with hard hats, yet
most work in open-toed sandals and live in cramped tin tenements in which illnesses are rife.[13] The High Court of
Delhi is presently hearing a public interest petition relating to employers not paying employees for overtime and it
has appointed a four-member committee to submit a report on the alleged violations of workers rights.[12] [14]
During the construction of the Games Village, there was controversy over financial mismanagement,[15] profiteering
by the Delhi Development Authority and private real estate companies,[16] and inhumane working conditions.[17]

Child labour
CNN has broadcast evidence showing children, as young as seven, being used in the construction of the game
venues. According to Siddharth Kara, who provided CNN with the evidence, he documented 14 cases of child labor
within a few days. In reply to a question whether it could have been just a case of kids being present at the
construction site along with their parents, he replied: "It's not just kids playing in the dirt or using a hammer as a
toy." He further stated about the kids: "They're told to do the work and they just do the work. They don't know that
they should be in school or that they should be playing."[18] [19]
Even though the New Delhi chief minister Sheila Dikshit claimed that nobody had approached her, according to
CNN, they had tried to contact her as far back as July 23, 2010. In spite of repeated attempts, according to them, no
official reply was ever made.[18]

Urban change
Mitu Sengupta, a professor of politics at Ryerson University, Canada, points out that there is a “tradition of using
‘urban spectacles’ such as the Olympics and World’s Fairs to enhance a city’s global recognition, image and status,
and to push through controversial policy reforms that might otherwise linger in the pending file for years (it is easier
to undercut local opposition under the pressure of a fixed deadline and the international spotlight).” She writes that
the reforms involved are often “the invention of an affluent, globally connected minority that is relatively detached
from local conditions and the local population.” The 2010 Commonwealth Games, she says, are being used to
invigorate an elite-driven program of urban transformation” that centers on privatization, securitization, and the
construction of “monuments to vanity.” [20] Sengupta expands upon this argument in a subsequent article in Z
Magazine [21] Amita Baviskar, a professor of sociology at the Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi,
makes a similar argument, on how mega-events, like the Olympics and Commonwealth Games, are used to advance
narrow agendas of urban reform that cater to the middle class and rich. She focuses on how, in preparation for the
Commonwealth Games, the city's slums were bulldozed in order to make room for shopping malls and expensive
real estate.[22] Writer and activist Gautam Bhan also draws a connection between the Commonwealth Games and
anti-poor urban development in an article posted on Kafila, an alternative webzine [23]

Sex slavery and prostitution boom

There has been a boom in the number of young girls, mostly from impoverished parts of India, coming to Delhi after
being offered jobs by disguised criminals, only to be taken prisoner and forced into sex slavery. The number of
victims is believed to be in the hundreds. Many brothels have been running English courses for sex workers and
upgrading their facilities in anticipation of a business upturn during the games.[24] Overseas prostitutes are also
expected to come as tourists and ply their trade.[25] One anti-trafficking NGO has claimed that there are reports of
40,000 women being brought in from northeastern India alone. A spokesperson said that recruits from that part of
India were favoured because of their lighter skin.[26] It has been reported that over 3,000 bar girls in Mumbai have
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 10

stopped going to work; this has been blamed on an exodus to Delhi for the Commonwealth Games.[27]

Organisational failure

Vigilance-related irregularities and Over-Invoicing

On 28 July 2010, the Central Vigilance Commission, an Indian government body created to address governmental
corruption, released a report showing irregularities in up to 14 CWG projects.[28] As per official reports, in total 129
works in 71 organisations have been inspected.[29] The detailed preliminary findings included the award of work
contracts at higher prices, poor quality assurance and management, and work contracts awarded to ineligible
There are also allegations of widespread corruption in various aspects of organising the games including
procurement and awarding contracts for constructing the game venues.[31] The Commonwealth Games Organising
Committee on 5th Aug 2010 suspended joint director T S Darbari and deputy director general Sanjay Mahendroo
following the report of the three-member panel which was probing the financial irregularities related to the Queen's
Baton Relay.[32]
Also, Organising Committee treasurer Anil Khanna resigned from the post in the wake of allegations that his son's
firm had secured a contract for laying synthetic courts at a tennis stadium.[33] The GlobalPost news agency reports
that scandals have come to light, such as "shadowy off-shore firms, forged emails, inexplicable payments to bogus
companies and inflated bills — for every purchase from toilet paper to treadmills." [34] Among the alleged corruption
and defrauding of the games budget, toilet paper rolls valued at $2 were costed at $80, $2 soap dispensers at $60,
$98 mirrors at $220, $11,830 altitude training simulators at $250,190.[35]

Preparation delays
In September 2009, CGF chief Mike Fennell reported that the games were at risk of falling behind schedule and that
it was "reasonable to conclude that the current situation poses a serious risk to the Commonwealth Games in 2010".
A report by the Indian Government released several months prior found that construction work on 13 out of the 19
sports venues was behind schedule.[36]
The Chief of the Indian Olympic Association Randhir Singh has also expressed his concerns regarding the current
state of affairs. Singh has called for the revamp of the Organising Committee commenting that India now has to
"retrieve the games".[37] Other Indian officials have also expressed dismay at the ongoing delays but they have stated
that they are confident that India will successfully host the games and do so on time.[38] [39]
As the Times of India reports, all CWG projects were to be completed by May 2009 and the last year should have
been kept for trial runs. The newspaper further reports that the first stadium was handed over for trial runs in July
2010 only.[40] To put the delays in perspective, Beijing National Stadium was completed much ahead of schedule for
the 2008 Summer Olympics,[41] while the venues for 2012 Summer Olympics in London are scheduled to be
delivered one year before the games and the construction of the venues is on track.[42]
In August 2010, the Cabinet Secretariat took a decision to appoint 10 officers of the rank of Joint and Additional
Secretaries to oversee the progress of the construction of stadiums.[43] Each officer is allocated a stadium and given
the responsibility to ensure that the work completes in time for the games.
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 11

Mass volunteer walkout

Around 10,000 of the 22,000 selected volunteers quit, less than a week before the event. This has been blamed on a
lack of training for personnel, or dissatisfaction with assignments. There are reports that some who have quit have
not returned their uniforms.[44]

Poor ticket sales and attendance

The start of the Games saw extremely poor ticket sales, with many venues near empty.[45] In a press conference,
organising chairman Suresh Kalmadi admitted that there were problems, and blamed empty venues on ticket booths
not being set up outside stadiums.[46] Commonwealth Games chief Mike Fennell admitted that many venues had
been nearly empty on the opening day of the Games, saying "A number of venues do not have lots of spectators [...]
one area which causes us concern".[47] On the second day of competition, less than 100 people filled the hockey
venue–the 19,000-seat MDC Stadium. Less than 20 people watched the first tennis match of the tournament in the
5,000-seat tennis stadium, and just 58 fans watched the netball opening match.[48]
One Indian competitor tried to buy tickets for relatives online, only to be informed by the website that tickets were
sold out. When he arrived to compete, he found the venue to be empty.[49]
The streets of Delhi were deserted for the cycling road races and walking event.

Spectators response at opening ceremony

At the opening ceremony, the chairman of the organising committee Suresh Kalmadi faced embarrassment, when he
was booed by spectators at the start of his welcome speech to 60,000 spectators.[50] Kalmadi came under further
strain when he "thanked" the late Princess Diana for attending the opening ceremony of the games. The chairman
made the blunder at a press conference saying ’Yes, Princess Diana was there,’ after which he immediately corrected
himself by saying ‘Prince Charles and (Camilla) the Duchess of Cornwall.[51]

Opening ceremony
The Australian Commonwealth contingent expressed frustration over the opening ceremony, in which there were
claims athletes and delegation support staff were "treated like cattle" and subjected to "disgraceful" and unbearable
conditions.[52] Australia's chef de mission Steve Moneghetti complained about the athletes being trapped in
"absolute cauldron conditions" under the main stadium before marching for the opening ceremony. The Australians
were stuck in a tunnel, where Moneghetti described the temperature as exceeding 40 °C (104 °F) due to a lack of
airconditioning and ventilation. When attempting to move out, the Australian delegation was stopped by staff. When
the contestants were finally able to move out into the arena, they were described as being emotionally affected.

Racism allegations
African countries have complained that they are getting second-class treatment from the Games organisers, in spite
of them offering India a hand in the preparation of the Games.[53] They have alleged that accommodation given to
them was inferior compared to the accommodation provided to the Australian and New Zealand teams. They went
on to state that India was complaining about being victims of racial bias in the reporting of the Games; while
simultaneously perpetrating the same kind of racism against the African countries.[53] [54]
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 12

Infrastructure issues

Transport infrastructure
The Delhi Airport Metro Express built by Reliance Infrastructure and CAF Beasain missed its deadline of 31 July
2010 and the private consortium was fined Rs 11.25 crore.[55]

Less than two weeks before the opening ceremony, Fennell wrote to the Indian cabinet secretary, urging action in
response to the village being "seriously compromised." He said that though team officials were impressed with the
international zone and main dining area, they were "shocked" by the state of the accommodation. "The village is the
cornerstone of any Games and the athletes deserve the best possible environment to prepare for their
competition."[56] The BBC published photographs of the village taken two days before September 23 showing
unfinished living quarters.[57]
New Zealand, Canada, Scotland and Northern Ireland have expressed concern about unliveable conditions.[58] The
Times of India newspaper reports that the Scottish delegation apparently submitted a photograph of a dog defecating
on a bed in the games village.[59] Hooper said that there was "excrement in places it shouldn't be" in the athletes'
quarters and that members of visiting delegations had to help clean up the unsanitary things.[60] The BBC released
images of bathrooms with brown-coloured paan stains on the walls and floor, liquids on the floor, and brown paw
prints on athletes' beds.[61] Lalit Bhanot, the secretary general of the Organising Committee, rejected the complaint
that sanitation was poor by saying that, due to cultural differences, there are different standards about cleanliness in
India and the western world, a statement for which he was widely ridiculed in Indian and international media.[62]
Bhanot went on to say of the athletes' village that, "This is a world-class village, probably one of the best ever."[62]
Meanwhile, Pakistan also made reservations over the condition of the athletes’ village and asked for an alternate
accommodation to be made available to its contingent while preparation was still in progress. The Pakistan Olympic
Association president Arif Hasan remarked: "We want the CGF to ensure that the athletes’ village is in good
condition. Athletes cannot stay at a substandard place." Hasan however added that there were no doubts over
Pakistan’s participation and the contingent would leave as planned.[63]
On the other hand, England's Chef de mission Craig Hunter praised the Games Village, remarking that "the
Commonwealth Games Village here [in New Delhi] is better than the Beijing Olympics". He added that the
arrangements at the Games Village is much better than that at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[64]
Canada's sports minister also supported the Games, saying that big events always face issues, and the media often
exaggerates them, as Canada found during the Vancouver Winter Olympics. He added that "We are coming in full
force." [65]

Problems with functionality of equipment and infrastructure during events

On the first night of swimming, debris landed in the swimming pool, causing delays ahead of a race. It is believed
that part of the ceiling or its paint had fallen off.
Before the last night of swimming finals, the filtration system broke down and the pool was turbid and murky during
the warmup session and the finals, and the pool has been described as the least clear ever seen for a swimming
competition. A disproportionate number of swimmers fell ill with intestinal complaints, leading to concerns over the
cleanliness and sanitation of the pool.[66] Early suspicions rested on the quality of water in the swimming pools of
the SPM Complex, but other competing teams, including South Africa, reported no such illness.[67] Daily water
quality tests were being carried out on the water of the pools, as mandated by the event standards. Additional tests
were ordered after news of the illnesses, but they also did not find anything amiss. The Australian team's chief
doctor, Peter Harcourt, ruled that the "chances of the [Delhi] pool being the cause of the problem is very remote" and
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 13

praised the hygiene and food quality in the Delhi Games Village.[68] He suggested that it could be a common case of
Traveler's diarrhea (locally called Delhi belly), or the Australian swimmers could have contracted the stomach virus
during their training camp in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[68] English Olympic and Commonwealth gold-medalist
swimmer Rebecca Adlington said that the water quality was absolutely fine.[69]
A dog entered the athletics arena.[66]
After the opening ceremony, the ground at the athletics was damaged, and the grass infield and the track was still
being re-laid two hours before competition started.

Vandalism of Games Village by Athletes

Condoms and toilet blockages

An Indian newspaper during the games reported that used condoms flushed down the toilets in the athlete's village
had caused some drains to become blocked, necessitating action by plumbers to clear the pipes.[70]

Athletes under investigation for trashing apartments

Australian athletes have been accused of vandalizing the towers of the athletes' village they were staying in by
breaking furniture and electrical fittings.[71] Delhi Police did not press the case after the Organizing Committee
refused to file a complaint while Indian external affairs minister SM Krishna dismissed it as a one-off incident.[72]
A washing machine was hurled from the eighth floor of the same tower. Nobody on the ground was hit, but it is
unclear who the culprit was. Indian newspapers have reported that the Australian Commonwealth Games Authority
agreed to pay for the damages[73] and have apologised for the incident.[74] [75] The Australian High Commissioner
rejected the claim, stating that the incident was the result of partying and celebrations.[71] [76] Later comments by
Australian officials have contradicted claims by Lalit Bhanot that they had admitted responsibility. Perry Crosswhite
said that it was still unclear if athletes from other nations present in the tower at the time had been responsible.[77]

Safety and security concerns

Small monkeys roam Delhi's streets and prefer heavily urbanized areas with plenty of living space among
buildings.[78] They cannot be killed because many Indians see them as sacred so instead a larger, domesticated
monkey, the langur, is brought in to scare away the smaller monkeys.
On the second day of the games, three Ugandan officials were injured by a malfunctioning security barrier at the
games' village, and a senior official from that country raised allegations of discrimination by Indian officials.
Uganda's sports minister lashed out Indian officials and demanded an apology for the accident. The officials had cuts
and bruises and were hospitalized overnight for observation.[79] The chairman of the Games' Organising Committee,
Suresh Kalmadi, apologized to the Ugandan High Commissioner to India for the freak car accident.[80]

Infrastructural compromise
On 21 September 2010, a footbridge under construction for the Games near the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium collapsed,
injuring at least 23 people,[81] mainly workers, underscoring fears of poor workmanship. Commenting on the
incident, Chief Minister of Delhi Sheila Dikshit controversially remarked that the footbridge was only meant for
spectators and not for athletes.[82] Following the collapse, Fennell expressed concern that conditions at the Games
Village, which had "shocked the majority", would seriously compromise the entire event.[83] The company that was
building the foot bridge, P&R Infraprojects, was subsequently blacklisted by the Delhi Government and was not
allowed to get government contracts.[84]
Reportedly, progress was still slow and four or five accommodation towers built by Emaar at the Games village were
unfinished, lacking facilities such as wireless internet, fitted toilets and plumbing. In addition, rubble, unused
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 14

masonry and discarded bricks littered the unfinished gardens. According to sports historian Boria Majumdar, author
of the Sellotape Legacy: Delhi and the Commonwealth Games, India "may have to pull a miracle."[83] The father of
Australian track cyclist Kaarle McCulloch visited his daughter at the Olympic village. A builder in Australia,
Grahame McCulloch criticised the structural soundness of the village; he said "those buildings are the dodgiest
things I have ever substandard".[49] He told his daughter not to use the balcony, fearing that it was
On 22 September 2010, part of the drop ceiling of the new Commonwealth Games weightlifting venue in New Delhi
Indian bantamweight boxer Akhil Kumar's bed in the Games village collapsed when he sat on it. "I sat down on my
bed to rest but suddenly it gave way. After that I noticed that part of it has no plywood,” he said [86]
On 27 September 2010, a South African athlete reported that a snake was present in his room in the Games Village.
A day earlier, animal authorities had to be called in to evacuate a king cobra from the tennis venue.[87]
On the 7th of October, a large scoreboard crashed to the ground at the rugby venue when a supporting chain
snapped. The games however were due to start a week later so no major repercussions were experienced.[79]

Terror threats
Following the 2008 Mumbai attacks some athletes and their representative bodies expressed security fears during the
games. In April 2010, during the Indian Premier League, two low intensity bombs went off outside the stadium in
Bangalore. Although there were no casualties, this postponed the start of the game by an hour. Following this attack,
foreign cricketers like Kevin Pietersen expressed fears for their safety and questions were raised regarding the safety
of athletes during the Commonwealth Games [88]. The UK and Canada also warned about potential attacks on
commercial targets in Delhi ahead of the games.[89] [90]

Jama Masjid incident

On 19 September 2010, unknown gunmen on a motorbike opened fire with an automatic pistol on a tourist bus
outside the Jama Masjid mosque in Delhi. The attacks, which came a fortnight before the start of the games, injured
two Taiwanese tourists.[91] Two hours later, a Maruti car exploded in the vicinity, reportedly from a deliberate
low-intensity pressure cooker bomb which had been assembled inside. No fatalities or major damages were reported.
The incidents, which were purportedly claimed by the Indian Mujahideen, provoked fears about lack of security in
the city for the upcoming games. However, police in Delhi initially denied the role of any organised terror group and
instead blamed the attacks on "disgruntled youths and local criminal gangs."[92] Officials suggested that a possible
motive of the strike was to instill fear in people ahead of the Commonwealth Games.

Fear of dengue outbreak

The heaviest monsoon rains in 15 years, along with large quantities of standing water on CWG construction sites as
well as in tanks and ponds, raised concerns over increased levels of mosquito-borne disease in Delhi.[93] In the
run-up to the games it was reported that 65-70 cases of dengue fever were being diagnosed each day in the city, with
the number of cases "likely to hit the 3,000 mark" by the opening on October 3.[94]

Many swimmers were reported to have fallen ill. Initially, concerns were raised over the quality of water in the
swimming pools of the SPM Complex. It was said that more than 20 percent of the English team's swimmers —
about eight to 10 competitors — had been struck down with a stomach virus. The Australian team also reported that
at least six of its swimmers had been sick, including Andrew Lauterstein, who had to withdraw from the 50-meter
butterfly. Commonwealth Games Federation president Mike Fennell said officials would conduct tests to make sure
the pools were not the source of the illness. "If there is something unsafe, you cannot swim in that water. It is a
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 15

matter we have to deal with a great deal of urgency," he said.[79]

However, other competing teams, including South Africa, reported no such illness.[95] Daily water quality tests were
being carried out on the water of the pools, as mandated by the event standards. Additional tests were ordered after
news of the illnesses, but they also did not find anything amiss. The Australian team's chief doctor, Peter Harcourt,
ruled that the "chances of the [Delhi] pool being the cause of the problem is very remote" and praised the hygiene
and food quality in the Delhi Games Village.[68] He suggested that it could be a common case of Traveler's diarrhea
(locally called Delhi belly), or the Australian swimmers could have contracted the stomach virus during their training
camp in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[68] English Olympic and Commonwealth gold-medalist swimmer Rebecca
Adlington said that the water quality was absolutely fine.[69]

Following the withdrawal of Dani Samuels, the women's world discus champion,[96] because "my safety is more
important to them than a medal," Australia's Minister for Sport, Mark Arbib, said CWG officials expected more
competitors to follow suit.
The Scottish team's departure of its first 41 boxers, rugby players, wrestlers and support staff was delayed for 48
hours, and the Welsh team set a deadline of 22 September to receive reassurances that the venues would be fit for
purpose. The first batch of English athletes, which includes a lawn bowls team and a men's hockey squad, said the
organisers were not making nearly enough progress just a day before they were to leave. The Guardian suggested a
mass walkout remained an option with the "point of no return" less than a week before the scheduled start; they
claimed the "main competing countries would be likely to act in concert." They also suggested the games were on
the verge of "descending into farce."
Michael Cavanagh, the chairman of Commonwealth Games Scotland, said a decision to stay away would be a joint
one, as he insisted a possible knock on effects for the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow would not be a
factor. He said "In terms of withdrawal we don't see this as simply a Team Scotland decision, any decision to
withdraw we would see as being a collective decision amongst the countries who are already there and already
concerned. We can't allow ourselves to be influenced by thoughts of how it may impact on 2014, not when we have
something as important as the safety of our athletes to consider."[97] Phillips Idowu, the world triple jump champion,
also withdrew from the Games.[98]

Calls for boycott

Amid allegations of blatant corruption, shoddy construction work at venues and security concerns for participating
athletes, the 2010 Commonwealth games has faced numerous boycott calls from individuals in India, England and
Australia.[99] [100]
Within India, there were calls for boycott. Other celebrities who followed Aiyar's comments in expressing a call for
boycott include former Indian cricket captain and spin bowler Bishan Singh Bedi and bestselling Indian author
Chetan Bhagat. Bedi said the "CWG organisers have taken the country for a ride" and urged international athletes to
boycott the "embarrassing" Delhi games.[101] [102] Bhagat, who is considered a youth icon in India with a huge fan
following, called the Commonwealth games the "biggest and most blatant exercise in mass corruption since the
country won independence six decades ago."[99] [103] Bhagat, who has sold more than 4 million books in India, also
urged his readers to boycott the games event and not to watch them on TV, thereby using the "golden chance" to "put
the corrupt and insensitive government to shame."[99]
The Jat community seeking reservation under the OBC quota have also planned to use the Commonwealth games as
a platform and force the Indian government to relent to their needs.[104]
Other countries also threatened to boycott the games. Considering the potential impact of a terror threat and other
security concerns, rumors arose about a boycott of the Delhi Commonwealth Games by major participating nations
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 16

including Scotland, England and New Zealand.[105] [106] However, the rumors were soon put to rest by
Commonwealth games committees in each of these countries who expressed a general level of satisfaction with the
security arrangements.[105] [106]
Australian quadruple Olympic gold medal winning swimmer Dawn Fraser called for Australia to boycott the games
event, citing fears of a tragedy similar to that which unfolded in the Munich Olympics of 1972.[100] Fraser
pronounced that reports of missed construction deadlines and other irregularities in games planning meant Indian
authorities' "word for providing security should not be taken at its face value."[100] However, the Australian
Commonwealth Games Organising Committee was quick to dismiss Fraser's fears with ACGA chief executive, Perry
Crosswhite saying he believed there will be no security issues during the games event.[100] John Coates, Australia's
Olympic chief, came down hard on the organisers, alleging teams were being forced to temporary accommodation at
hotels. "I don't think it is a cultural thing. When you agree to host [the Games], you are required to provide the basics
in terms of health and hygiene for the athletes. The Games shouldn't have been awarded to Delhi in hindsight."[107]

Other withdrawals
A number of athletes withdrew from the Games, for reasons related and non-related to the state of affairs in the days
leading up to the event. Jamaican world record holder Usain Bolt and his precedessor Asafa Powell pulled out of the
event citing the timing of the Games as a major reason for their decisions to stay away.[108] Olympic cyclist
champion Geraint Thomas pulled out for fear of contracting dengue fever.[109] Other notable athletes who have
announced their non-attendance include Paula Radcliffe, Jessica Ennis, Jennifer Meadows, Natasha Danvers, Chris
Hoy, Bradley Wiggins, Victoria Pendleton and Beth Tweddle.[108]

Sporting controversies

Prior to the Games, four wrestlers, a shot-putter and two swimmers who were all part of India's Games squad tested
positive for methylhexaneamine. Four others, who were not picked for the Games in the Indian capital, also failed
drug tests conducted at the various training camps across the country.[110] [111]
Oludamola Osayomi of Nigeria won the women's 100 metre sprint event. On 11 October 2010 it was reported that
Osayomi had tested positive for a "banned substance" which was later revealed to be the stimulant
methylhexaneamine.[112] Another Nigerian athlete, hurdler Samuel Okon who placed sixth in the 110 metres hurdles,
was reported to have tested positive for the same drug.[113]

In the archery event England criticised the crowds behaviour, but Williamson (the silver medallist) praised the
crowd.[114] Though earlier reports said that the team was upset that during the women’s recurve event the crowd
chanted loudly during the final shots. Claiming that the noise distracted the archers. Amy Oliver had complained
about the chanting of "Come on India" as she took her shots. adding "The crowd was not good. They were pretty
loud…".[115] In an action condemned in the Indian media, an English archery official allegedly abused an Indian
coach, telling him to "f*** off." The comment came after the Indian team registered a one-point win over England to
claim the gold medal. The Indian archery head coach, Limba Ram, walked over to shake hands with officials of the
rival team. In response, an English official showed his elbow in a gesture before uttering the remarks. Britain's
archery team leader said she was unaware of the incident, "You must find out whether the person was one among us.
If he was not wearing a red jersey, he would not be part of the side. I will speak to the Indian coach about it." Limba
replied that he failed to identify the person, as he had chosen to ignore the one-off incident.[116] There have also been
accusations that Limba Ram was called a monkey on two different occasions by an English official.[117]
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 17

During the Final of the Women’s 100m sprint final controversy was caused by
the eventual disqualification of Sally Pearson of Australia. She had won the race
on the third attempted start after one start was delayed because of excessive
crowd noise and the second due to a false start by Laura Turner of England.
Pearson was disqualified because she was deemed to have false-started in the
second attempted restart along with Turner. This was as a direct result of a
protest lodged by Team England. The controversy was caused as only Turner
was disqualified from the race during the race because of a false start and not
Pearson. Turner ran the race under protest. Pearson and other athletes were not
informed of the protest until four hours after the race, as they were waiting to
begin the medal presentation for the race. Commonwealth Games Federation
president Mike Fennell called Pearson's treatment "unsatisfactory" and that the
whole situation was caused by an "unacceptable communications blunder".[118] Pearson won the 100m sprint before
being disqualified.

During the weigh-in for the boxing competition the scales were giving inaccurate readings with athletes recording
higher body weights on the official scales. The scales were deemed to be broken and the weigh-in was delayed 24
hours to find and calibrate new scales. The initial wrong measurements led to angry shouting between coaches,
athletes and organisers.[119] During the boxing competition there have been claims made by various teams including
England and Botswana that jabs were not being scored by judges. This was attributed to the removal of a white
scoring zone placed on the boxers gloves which is usually present in amateur boxing events. The BBC commentating
team also claimed there to be a bias in judges scores towards Indian competitors.[120]

During the final of the Men’s Keirin, Malaysian Azizulhasni Awang was disqualified for aggressive interference
when he forced his way past two competitors. Race winner Josiah Ng said he was "mystified" over Awang's
disqualification. In the semi-final round of the keirin, Australia's Shane Perkins was disqualified for dangerous riding
with the official reason not being made clear. Perkins subsequently won the classification race and was described by
Chris Boardman from the BBC to "have aimed an angry V-sign at officials"; he gestured to the judges with his index
and middle finger held together. No subsequent action was taken against Perkins who later said, "the officials need to
go back to school", referencing poor decisions he felt had been made in the sprint and keirin events.[121]

On another occasion, South African swimmer Roland Schoeman came under criticism when he referred to the crowd
at the swimming as "going on like monkeys" in a post-race poolside interview. Schoeman's remarks came after he
narrowly avoided being disqualified as he and England's Simon Burnett fell in at the start of the 50m freestyle when
distracted by crowd noise. The swimming has been persistently affected by Indian spectators ignoring etiquette and
shouting out while the competitors were preparing for the start.[122] His comment was regarded as possibly being a
racial ethnic slur, although he later said that the word was commonly used in South Africa to refer to mischievous
behaviour. At an official press conference, organising committee secretary-general Lalit Bhanot took the complaints
about monkeys literally. Not being aware of the complaints, Bhanot felt Delhi's wildlife was at issue: "We know
especially at the swimming pool there are a lot of monkeys and we have made efforts to keep them away from the
swimming pool."[123]
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 18

Australian wrestler Hassene Fkiri was ejected from the 96 kg Greco-Roman competition and stripped of the silver
medal after making an obscene gesture at the international FILA judges during the final. According to an Australian
official, Fkiri was furious at his Indian rival Anil Kumar, who he accused of breaking the rules a number of times in
the first period by holding Fkiri around the neck and head with two hands. The Australian received his first warning
after he made a comment to the referee as he walked off the mat at the end of the two-minute period; when Kumar
repeated the same move in the next round, Fkiri headbutted him and was issued a second warning. He then
proceeded to swing his arms uncontrollably afterwards, which resulted in his third warning and eventual
disqualification. After losing, Fkiri refused to shake hands with the victor.[124]

Reactions and responses

Responding to media concerns, the organisers said there were 48 hours to save the Games after warnings of a pull
Many Bollywood actors also expressed dismay at the state of the Games.[125]
Four days before the start of the games the opening and closing ceremonies, as well as the 100 m athletics, were still
not sold out.[126]
The Sydney Morning Herald wrote that despite Kalmadi's "blind optimism", the games were not going to be the best
ever. Instead, it wrote that it was "probably the most interesting."[127]
The opening ceremony played a key role in improving the image of the Games. As athletes arrived and competitions
started, many earlier critics changed their view. The Australian Sports Minister said that India could now aim for the
Olympics, and the President of the International Olympic Committee, Jacques Rogge, said that India had made a
good foundation for a future Olympics bid.[128] [129] As the Games concluded, many observers remarked that they
began on an apprehensive note, but were an exceptional experience with a largely positive ending.[130] [131] Some
observers accused sections of the media of bias, unfair expectations, and negative reporting.[132]
Within India, the Games saw criticism due to the Games' origins as a celebration of the British Empire, with
Arindam Chaudhuri arguing for India's disassociation from the "slavish games" which he viewed as a "celebration of
racial discrimination, colonialism [and] imperialism".[133]

Criticism by Mani Shankar Aiyar

Mani Shankar Aiyar, a senior member of the ruling Indian National Congress party and former Minister of Youth
and Sports Affairs was an early whistleblower from the Indian Union Cabinet who expressed concern over extensive
delays in preparation leading to unplanned expenses which he said, could have been utilized for "ensuring a better
sporting future for Indian children by providing them sports training".[134] Aiyar also said that he would be
"unhappy" if the Games were a success and wished for the "Commonwealth Games to be spoiled."[134]
Aiyar's frank media admission proved a public embarrassment for Commonwealth Games Organising Committee
chairman Suresh Kalmadi who labelled him "anti national" for wishing that the Commonwealth Games are
"spoilt."[135] Kalmadi's remark received extensive criticism in Indian media.[136]
Aiyar also told an Australian TV channel that India is "probably the poorest country of the Commonwealth".[137]
Bangladesh among other countries has a lower GDP per capita/purchasing power parity.
Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 19

Formation of special investigation committee

The day after the conclusion of the Games, the Indian Government announced the formation of a special committee
to probe the allegations of corruption and mismanagement against the Organizing Committee. The probe committee
will be led by former Comptroller and Auditor General of India VK Shungloo. This probe will be in addition to the
Central Bureau of Investigation, Enforcement Directorate, and Central Vigilance Commission investigations already
underway. The Prime Minister of India, Dr Manmohan Singh had promised in mid-August, when reports of the
bungling first surfaced, that corrupt officials will be given "severe and exemplary" punishment after the Games. The
committee has been given three months time to submit its report.[138] [139]

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[2] "irrelevant to common man: Mani Shankar Aiyar" (http:/ / www. livemint. com/ 2007/ 04/ 12131220/ Commonwealth-Games-irrelevant.
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[3] INDIAN TYCOON SLAMS COST OF COMMONWEALTH GAMES (http:/ / www. eastasiantimes. com/
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Will-be-happy-if-Commonwealth-Games-are-spoilt-Mani-Shankar-Aiyar/ articleshow/ 6222619. cms). Live Mint. 27 JUL, 2010. . Retrieved
[5] The economics of the Games (http:/ / www. livemint. com/ 2009/ 10/ 26205604/ The-economics-of-the-Games. html)
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[117] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ Racism-slur-now-hits-Commonwealth-Games/ 694899
[118] "'Communication blunder' sees Pearson stripped of gold" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport1/ hi/ commonwealth_games/ delhi_2010/
9073167. stm). BBC News. 8 October 2010. . Retrieved 2010-10-8.
[119] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ pm/ content/ 2010/ s3029100. htm
[120] "Boxing: latest fiasco in troubled Games" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport1/ hi/ commonwealth_games/ delhi_2010/ 9073167. stm).
Reuters. 4 October 2010. . Retrieved 2010-10-8.
[121] Gallagher, Brendan (6 October 2010). "Commonwealth Games 2010: David Daniell wins silver medal following keirin controversy" (http:/
/ www. telegraph. co. uk/ sport/ othersports/ commonwealthgames/ 8045839/
Commonwealth-Games-2010-David-Daniell-wins-silver-medal-following-keirin-controversy. html). London: The Telegraph. . Retrieved
[122] Swimmer Roland Schoeman in deep end for 'monkeys' comment: The Australian (http:/ / www. theaustralian. com. au/ sport/
commonwealth-games/ swimmer-roland-schoeman-in-deep-end-for-monkeys-comment/ story-fn66fst6-1225936234884)
[123] Swimmer Roland Schoeman slammed for 'monkeys' crowd comment : The Australian (http:/ / www. theaustralian. com. au/ sport/
commonwealth-games/ schoeman/ story-fn66fst6-1225936210819)
[124] Robinson, Georgina (6 October 2010). "Bird brain: how 'happy' Fkiri got leaner and meaner ... then stripped of silver" (http:/ / www. smh.
com. au/ commonwealth-games-2010/ comm-games-news/
bird-brain-how-happy-fkiri-got-leaner-and-meaner--then-stripped-of-silver-20101006-167b2. html). Sydney Morning Herald. .
[125] "Now, Bollywood brickbats for Commonwealth Games" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ commonwealth games/
now-bollywood-brickbats-for-commonwealth-games-54047). September 22, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-09-23.
[126] http:/ / www. abc. net. au/ news/ stories/ 2010/ 09/ 29/ 3025464. htm
[127] Mulvey, Paul (2010-10-14). "Most interesting Games ever" (http:/ / news. smh. com. au/ breaking-news-sport/
most-interesting-games-ever-20101014-16lly. html). The Sydney Morning Herald. .
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india-should-aim-for-olympics-australian-sports-minister-57139). NDTV. 2010-10-05. . Retrieved 2010-10-16.
[129] "Games good foundation for Olympic bid by India: Rogge" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ sports/ commonwealth-games-2010/
news/ Games-good-foundation-for-Olympic-bid-by-India-Rogge/ articleshow/ 6680736. cms). Times of India. 2010-10-04. . Retrieved
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[133] Chaudhuri, Arindam (26 September 2010). "Instead of creating such hype around commonwealth games, India should have long ago
stopped participating in these slavish games" (http:/ / thesundayindian. com/ article. php?article_id=9555). The Sunday Indian. . Retrieved 14
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BJP-Mani-Shankar-Aiyar-embarrass-government-on-Commonwealth-Games/ articleshow/ 6223040. cms). .
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Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games 24

[135] "Suresh Kalmadi dubs Mani Shankar Aiyar anti-national" (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/
Suresh-Kalmadi-dubs-Mani-Shankar-Aiyar-anti-national/ Article1-578503. aspx). Hindustan Times. 2010-07-27. . Retrieved 2010-09-07.
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[139] "Centre orders probe into CWG issues" (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ news/ national/ article832511. ece). The Hindu. 2010-10-16. .
Retrieved 2010-10-16.

Adarsh Housing Society Scam

The Adarsh Housing Society is a cooperative society in the city of Mumbai in India. It was reserved for the war
widows and veterans of the Kargil War.[1]

Corruption allegations
In 2010, the Indian media brought to public the violations of rules at various phases of construction in the Adarsh
Society. Questions were raised on the manner in which apartments in the building were allocated to bureaucrats,
politicians and army personnel who had nothing to do with Kargil War and the way in which clearances were
obtained for the construction of the building of the Adarsh Society.[2] [3] The Adarsh society high-rise was
constructed in the posh Colaba locality of Mumbai, which is considered a sensitive coastal area by the Indian
Defence forces and houses various Indian Defense establishments.[4] The society is also alleged to have violated the
Indian environment ministry rules.[5] Many activists like Medha Patkar had been trying to uncover this scam since a
long time.[6] The exposure of the infamous nexus between politicians, bureaucrats and builders in this scam is said to
be only the tip of the iceberg. It had led to resignation of the then Chief Minister, Ashok Chavan.[7]
Several inquiries have been ordered by the army and the Government to probe into the irregularities.[8] Some of the
current occupants of the flats in the Adarsh co-operative society building have offered to vacate their flats at the
earliest, denying allegations that they were alloted flats because they influenced or helped, in some manner, the
construction of the society by violating the rules.[9] The media also exposed that the lower house of the Indian
Parliament was misled by one of the bureaucrats, Pradeep Vyas, involved.
The environment minister Jairam Ramesh formally set the ball rolling for the demolition of the entire 31-story
scam-tainted Adarsh building in Coloba's eco-sensitive zone on Friday November 12, 2010. The environment
minister is said to have sent a show cause notice to the Adarsh housing society. The environment minister is said to
have stated that "all options under the law are open except regularization of the structure".[10] As per the Ministry of
Environment and Forests' order dated 16 Jan 2011, 'the unauthorised structure should be removed in its entirety and
the area restored to its original condition'.[11]
Adarsh Housing Society Scam 25

Flat owners[1]
1. Shri RC Thakur
2. Brigadier MM Wanchu
3. Commander Rajiv Pilo
4. Commander AS Balakrishnan
5. Surg Capt PS Tampi
6. Shri Parmanand K Hinduja
7. Shri Sudhakar Laxman Madke
8. Smt Sushila Shaligram
9. Admiral Madhvendra Singh, PVSM, AVSM, VSM
10. Shri JM Abhyankar
11. Shri PV Deshmukh (Was secretary in Urban Development department)
12. Shri Gajanan S Koli
13. Shri Amol V Kharbhari
14. Shri Kiran Bhadange
15. Shri Kanhaiyalal Gidwani (Congress MLC)
16. Shri Kailash K Gidwani (Son of Congress MLC Gidwani)
17. Shri Amit K Gidwani (Son of Congress MLC Gidwani)
18. Shri Arun P Pawar
19. Major Ashish Tandon
20. Lieutenant Commander A Puran Kumar
21. Major General VS Yadav
22. Lieutenant General PK Rampal
23. Colonel Amarjeet Singh
24. Lieutenant Colonel PH Ram
25. Brigadier AC Chopra
26. Lieutenant Colonel RK Singh
27. Commander John Mathew
28. Major General Tej Kishen Kaul, PVSM, AVSM, VSM
29. Lieutenant General GS Sihota
30. Brigadier MD Singh
31. Commodore Gopal Bharati
32. Brigadier Romeshchander Sharma
33. Lieutenant General Shantanu Choudhry
34. Vice Admiral Madanjit Singh
35. Brigadier Tara Kant Sinha
36. Captain AP Singh
37. Lieutenant Commander Chunnilal
38. Shri Rajesh Shantilal Bora
39. Dr Arun V Dawle
40. Shri Sampat R Khidse
41. Shri Anand S Bharose
42. Smt Seema Vyas (wife of former collector Pradeep Vyas)
43. Shri Kanishka J Phatak (son of former Municipal Commissioner Jairaj Phatak)
44. Miss Supriya V Maske
45. Shri Shriniwas D Patil
46. Shri Shivajirao C Deshmukh
Adarsh Housing Society Scam 26

47. Shri Shah Dhaval Rajesh

48. Ms Kavita S Godbole (related to Cong MLC Gidwani)
49. Commander Harbhajan Singh (Retired)
50. Shri Malav J Shah
51. Shri Rajesh Kumar Das
52. Shri Aditya B Patil
53. Ms Sumeela Sethi
54. Shri Chandrashekar R Gaikwad
55. Shri Shivajirao Shankar Kale
56. Shri Krishnarao D Bhegade
57. Dr Sanjay Radkar
58. Shri Arun S Adate
59. Shri Jitendra S Awhad (NCP MLC)
60. Miss Soniya S Kholapure
61. Shri Vishwas B Chougale
62. Shri Raghunath M Bhosale
63. Shri Suresh Prabhu (Shiv Sena)
64. Shri Uttam Ghakare
65. Major NW Khankhoje
66. Shri Nivruti G Bhosale
67. Shri Amar Singh Waghmare
68. Lieutenant General Tejinder Singh, VSM
69. Shri Krishnajirao Rakhmajirao Desai (alias) Babasaheb Kupekar (Former Speaker of Maharashtra Assembly)
70. Shri Ranjit Chintamani Sangitrao (son of bureaucrat)
71. Devyani Khobragade (daughter of former BEST GM Uttam Khobragade)
72. Lieutenant Commander Gurumukh S Grewal
73. Smt Seema Vinod Sharma (Relative of Ashok Chavan)
74. Shri Jagdish Ambika Prasad Sharma
75. Shri Sajjan Singh Yadav
76. Shri Kedari Vishal Kishore
77. General Nirmal Chander Vij, PVSM, UYSM, AVSM
78. General Deepak Kapoor, PVSM, AVSM, SM, VSM, ADC
79. Smt Idzes Angmo Kundan (former city collector, currently working in Secretariat)
80. Shri Onkar Tiwari (son of Ramanand Tiwari, then secretary of Urban Development Department)
81. Shri Balasahib Yeshwantrao Sawant
82. Shri Sadusing Fulsing Rajput
83. Mr Mukundrao Govindrao Mankar
84. Mr Sanjoy Shankaran (son of former Chief Secretary D K Sankaran)
85. Mr Paramveer Abhey Sancheti
86. Mr Suresh Gulabrao Atram
87. Ms Sheetal Vinod Ganju
88. Mr Anil Kumar Thakur
89. Mr Bhavesh Ambalal Patel
90. Mrs Bhagwati Manoharlal Sharma (Ashok Chavan's late mother-in-law)
91. Mr Madanlal Milkiram Sharma (Ashok Chavan's relative)
92. Mr Satyasandha Vinayak Barve
93. Major General Ram Kanwar Hooda
Adarsh Housing Society Scam 27

94. Mr Dhondiram Ganpati Waghmare

95. Colonel KJS Khurana
96. Ms Raorane Rupali Harishchandra
97. Shri Siddhartha Sonu Gamre
98. Shri Girish Pravinchandra Mehta
99. Shri Manilal K Thakur
100. Petty Officer Sushil Chand Sharma
101. Shri S B Chavan
102. Captain Praveen Kumar
103. Dr (Mrs) Archana Tiwari

[1] "Adarsh Society scam: Where are the Kargil martyrs in the allottees?" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5xDqfgXmW). NDTV. 30 October
2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ article/ cities/
adarsh-society-scam-where-are-the-kargil-martyrs-in-the-allottees-63478) on 16 March 2011. . Retrieved 16 March 2011.
[2] "Gen Vij favours probe into Adarsh housing society scam" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFaiz5Sk). Deccan Herald. PTI. 30 October
2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 109055/ gen-vij-favours-probe-adarsh. html) on 15 November
2010. . Retrieved 15 November 2010.
[3] "Chavan asked Adarsh society to change bye-laws: Deshmukh" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFaxUGu0). The Hindu. PTI. 1 November
2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ news/ national/ article863424. ece) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15
November 2010.
[4] "Criminal conspiracy in Adarsh highrise case: Def Min probe" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFb92ccC). Deccan Herald. PTI. 29 October
2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 108752/ criminal-conspiracy-adarsh-highrise-case. html) on 15
November 2010. . Retrieved 15 November 2010.
[5] Pachouly, Manish (9 November 2010). "‘Didn’t give eco clearance’" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFbOr1Uo). Hindustan Times.
Archived from the original (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Didn-t-give-eco-clearance/ Article1-623706. aspx) on 15 November 2010. .
Retrieved 15 November 2010.
[6] "Parliament was misled on Adarsh issue: Medha" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFbZJlwl). The Hindu. 2 November 2010. Archived from
the original (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ news/ states/ other-states/ article863611. ece) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15 November
[7] Menon, Vinod Kumar (31 October 2010). "'Adarsh housing controversy is just tip of the nexus iceberg'" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/
5uFbq2xKE). MiD DAY. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ news/ 2010/ oct/
311010-adarsh-housing-society-scandal-cm-ashok-chavan-resignation-whistleblowers. htm) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15 November
[8] "Adarsh Society: Army setting up court of inquiry" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFbxHzr3). The Hindu. 1 November 2010. Archived
from the original (http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ news/ national/ article863396. ece) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15 November 2010.
[9] "I have returned the Adarsh flat, says former Navy chief" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFc9gaES). The Times of India. PTI. 31 October
2010. Archived from the original (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 6843467. cms) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15
November 2010.
[10] Sethi, Nitin (13 November 2010). "Adarsh put on notice, all 31 floors may be razed" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uFcb0vrk). The Times
of India. Archived from the original (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 6916774. cms) on 15 November 2010. . Retrieved 15
November 2010.
[11] "Final Orders of the Min. of Environment on Adarsh Society" (http:/ / moef. nic. in/ downloads/ public-information/ Adarsh final-order.
pdf). .
Naxalite 28

The word Naxal, Naxalite or Naksalvadi is a generic term used to
refer to militant Communist groups operating in different parts of India
under different organizational envelopes. In the eastern states of the
mainland India (Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa), they are usually
known as, or refer to themselves as Maoists while in southern states
like Andra Pradesh they are known under other titles. They have been
declared as a terrorist organization under the Unlawful Activities
(Prevention) Act of India (1967).[1] [2] [3]

The term 'Naxal' derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in the
state of West Bengal, India, where the movement had its origin. The
Naxals are considered far-left radical communists, supportive of
Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to
the split in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to Map showing the districts where the Naxalite
the formation of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). movement is active (2007)
Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In later years, it
spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh
through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist).[4]

As of 2009, Naxalites were active across approximately 180 districts in ten states of India[5] accounting for about
40 percent of India's geographical area,[6] They are especially concentrated in an area known as the "Red corridor",
where they control 92,000 square kilometers.[6] According to India's intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis
Wing, 20,000 armed cadre Naxalites were operating in addition to 50,000 regular cadres[7] and their growing
influence prompted Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to declare them to be the most serious internal threat to
India's national security.[8]
In February 2009, the Indian Central government announced its plans for broad, co-ordinated operations in all
affected states (Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West
Bengal), to plug all possible escape routes of Naxalites.[9]

The term Naxalites comes from Naxalbari, a small village in West Bengal, where a section of the Communist Party
of India (Marxist) (CPM) led by Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal and Jangal Santhal initiated a violent uprising in
1967. On May 18, 1967, the Siliguri Kishan Sabha, of which Jangal was the president, declared their readiness to
adopt armed struggle to redistribute land to the landless.[10] The following week, a sharecropper near Naxalbari
village was attacked by the landlord's men over a land dispute. On May 24, when a police team arrived to arrest the
peasant leaders, they were ambushed by a group of tribals led by Jangal Santhal, and a police inspector was killed in
a hail of arrows. This event encouraged many Santhal tribals and other poor people to join the movement and to start
attacking local landlords.[11]
Charu Majumdar, inspired by the doctrines of Mao Zedong, provided ideological leadership for the Naxalbari
movement, advocating that Indian peasants and lower class tribals overthrow the government and upper classes by
force. A large number of urban elites were also attracted to the ideology, which spread through Majumdar's writings,
particularly the 'Historic Eight Documents' which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology.[12] In 1967 Naxalites
organized the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR), and later broke away
from CPM. Violent uprisings were organized in several parts of the country. In 1969 the AICCCR gave birth to the
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (CPI(ML)).
Naxalite 29

Practically all Naxalite groups trace their origin to the CPI(ML). A separate offshoot from the beginning was the
Maoist Communist Centre, which evolved out of the Dakshin Desh-group. The MCC later fused with the People's
War Group to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist). A third offshoot was that of the Andhra revolutionary
communists, mainly represented by the UCCRI(ML), following the mass line legacy of T. Nagi Reddy, which broke
with the AICCCR at an early stage.
During the 1970s the movement was fragmented into disputing factions. By 1980 it was estimated that around 30
Naxalite groups were active, with a combined membership of 30,000.[13] A 2004 Indian home ministry estimate puts
numbers at that time as "9,300 hardcore underground cadre… [holding] around 6,500 regular weapons beside a large
number of unlicensed country-made arms".[14] According to Judith Vidal-Hall (2006), "More recent figures put the
strength of the movement at 15,000, and claim the guerrillas control an estimated one fifth of India's forests, as well
as being active in 160 of the country's 604 administrative districts."[15] India's Research and Analysis Wing, believed
in 2006 that 20,000 Naxals were involved in the growing insurgency.[7]
Today some Naxalite groups have become legal organisations participating in parliamentary elections, such as the
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. Others, such as the Communist Party of India (Maoist) and
the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Janashakti, are engaged in armed guerrilla struggles.
On 6 April, 2010 Naxalites launched the biggest assault in the history of the Naxalite movement by killing 76
security personnel. The attack was launched by up to 1000 Naxalites[16] [17] in a well-planned attack, killing an
estimated 76 CRPF policemen in two separate ambushes and wounding 50 others, in the jungles of Chattisgarh's
Dantewada district. On 17th May Naxals blew up a bus on Dantewda-sukhma road in Chhattisgarh, killing 15
policemen and 20 civilians. In third Major attack by Naxals on 29th June, at least 26 personnels of Indian Centre
Reserve Forces (CRPF) were killed in Narayanpur district of Chhattisgarh.

Violence in Bengal
The Naxalites gained a strong presence amongst the radical sections of the student movement in Calcutta.[18]
Students left school to join the Naxalites. Majumdar, to entice more students into his organisation, declared that
revolutionary warfare was to take place not only in the rural areas as before, but everywhere and spontaneously.
Thus Majumdar declared an "annihilation line", a dictum that Naxalites should assassinate individual "class enemies"
such as landlords, businessmen, university teachers, police officers, politicians* of both Right and Left) and others.
Throughout Calcutta, schools were shut down. Naxalites took over Jadavpur University and used the machine shop
facilities to make pipe guns to attack the police. Their headquarters became Presidency College, Kolkata. The
Naxalites found supporters among some of the educated elite, and Delhi's prestigious St. Stephen's College, alma
mater of many contemporary Indian leaders and thinkers, became a hotbed of Naxalite activities.
The Chief Minister, Siddhartha Shankar Ray of the Congress Party, instituted strong counter-measures against the
Naxalites. The West Bengal police fought back to stop the Naxalites. The house of Somen Mitra, the Congress MLA
of Sealdah, was turned into a torture chamber where Naxal students from Presidency College and CU were
incarcerated illegally by Police and the Congress cadres. CPI-M cadres were also involved in the "State terror". After
suffering losses and facing the public rejection of Majumdar's "annihilation line", the Naxalites alleged human rights
violations by the West Bengal police, who responded that the state was effectively fighting a civil war and that
democratic pleasantries had no place in a war, especially when the opponent did not fight within the norms of
democracy and civility.[11]
Large sections of the Naxal movement began to question Majumdar's leadership. In 1971 the CPI(ML) was split, as
the Satyanarayan Singh revolted against Majumdar's leadership. In 1972 Majumdar was arrested by the police and
died in Alipore Jail. His death accelerated the fragmentation of the movement.
Naxalite 30

Reasons for failure of naxalite movement, 1967-1975.

In a methodical study Dr. Sailen Debnath has surmised the consequences and reasons of failures of the Naxalite
Movement organised by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. He writes "The Naxalite movement, though continued
intensively from 1967 to the middle of 1970s and resurfaced after some years, could not go a long way achieving
anything commendable because of the following reasons:-
1. The Naxalites wanted to surround the towns and cities by the villages, i.e. they wanted to encircle the urban
centres with organized peasant forces of the villages. If the peasant militia could have occupied the cities,
according to Majumdar, the so-called bourgeois government would fall making the passage to the coming of a
socialist government; but the Naxalites could not and did not come up to a stage capable of organizing the
peasants and thereby encircling the towns.
2. Majumdar gave sole importance to secret organization and armed training of its members for the purpose of
eliminating the class enemies. As the Naxalites did not have mass level organization, they lacked mass
support. Only with select few armed elements not properly educated in political line no big thing could be
3. "Khatam" or the action of eliminating the so-called class enemies in villages was a wrong principle of
political mobilization by individual murder of select few people whose political class- character was never
adjudged by their socio-economic conditions, and the properties they possessed, but very often only by their
political affiliation or by the name and colour of the party or parties they directly or indirectly belonged to for
a long or a short period of time. As for example in Jalpaiguri and Alipurduar they killed some petty jotdars
who otherwise could have been comrades in action against the capitalists or could be friends in a revolution
for radical change.
4. Recruitment in the Naxalite party was never done on proper judgment and scrutiny of the political
characters and behaviours of the recruits. It so happened that many people only to feast on their animosities
with their personal enemies got recruited in the Naxalite party only to utilize the help of the Naxalites to have
their personal enemies in the neighbourhood killed on the basis of pseudo-identification of them as class
5. In many cases dreaded criminals too enrolled themselves in the Naxalite party with the objective of getting
fire arms and to train themselves in the manufacture and use of fire arms. Thus very soon the party turned to
be an organization of professional criminal outfits who soon deserted the party after their training period had
been over or the cherished objective of owning armaments had been met or realized. Many of these criminals
with fire arms soon turned to be dacoits and in many cases they informed the police all about the hidden
training centres of the Naxalites and their main purpose in doing so was to have the original Naxalites arrested
or else they themselves might fall victims of the Naxalites’ targets as approvers in favour of the government..
6. The ruling Congress party inserted their supporters inside the unguarded and porous Naxalite organization
for the purpose of knowing and finishing its secret bases and arresting its supporters, and in the same way, the
personnels of the government intelligence branch and police too in disguise of Naxalite sympathizers got into
the party’s inner organization and rounded most of its leaders including Charu Majumdar into the jail. Thus
police had information all about the movements of Majumdar after he had gone underground in 1970, and he
was nabbed in Calcutta in July, 1972. The end of his life came in the jail in some days after his arrest; and how
he had to pass through the gate of death, most probably in the night of 27th or 28th July, 1972, nobody except
the police and the government could know properly, of course, it was told from the side of the government that
he died of heart attack.
7. Ordinary people in villages were terrified at the brutal and gruesome ways they killed the fellow villagers
vilifying them as class enemies. As for example, at Bholardabri in Alipurduar they killed Rajen Pandit who
was a refugee from East Pakistan and arduously was running a family of 12 dependents. By any means he was
no class enemy at all. In another case they killed a person, chopped his head off the torso and hanged the head
Naxalite 31

and the torso down the branches of trees with ropes in two separate places, the horrible sights of which cast a
gloom on the faces of bemoaning villagers. Certainly after that they could count no support from the villagers
at all.

Lalgarh violence
In late May, 2009 in Lalgarh, West Bengal the Naxalites briefly threw out the local police and staged attacks against
the ruling communist government. The region came under assault by Maoist guerrillas. The state government
initiated a successful operation, with central paramilitary forces and state armed police, to retake Lalgarh in early
June. Maoist leader Kishenji claimed in an interview that the mass Naxalite movement in Lalgarh in 2009 was aimed
at creating a "liberated zone" against "oppression of the establishment Left and its police". He stated this had given
the Naxalites a major base in West Bengal for the first time since the Naxalite uprising in the mid-1970s and that
"We will have an armed movement going in Calcutta by 2011".[19]

Cultural references
The British musical group Asian Dub Foundation have a song called "Naxalite", which is featured on the soundtrack
to the 1999 film Brokedown Palace. A 2005 movie called Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi, directed by Sudhir Mishra,
was set against the backdrop of the Naxalite movement. In August 2008, Kabeer Kaushik's Chamku, starring Bobby
Deol and Priyanka Chopra, explored the story of a boy who is brainwashed to take arms against the state.
In the novel English August by Upamanyu Chatterjee, there is reference to Naxal cadres whom the main protagonist,
an IAS officer meets while visiting a tribal village in mid-1980's.
In the novel The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy, there is a reference to a character joining the Naxalites.
In the novel The White Tiger by Aravind Adiga, the Naxals (sic) are mentioned often by the poor and the rich alike.
In the novel A Fine Balance by Rohinton Mistry, the character Omprakash makes and allusion to fighting "like the
Naxalites" (195).
The 1998 film Hazaar Chaurasi Ki Maa (Mother of 1084), based on the novel, Hazar Churashir Maa[20] by
Mahasweta Devi) starring Jaya Bachchan gives a very sympathetic portrayal of a Naxalbari militant killed by the
state. The 2009 Malayalam movie Thalappavu portrays the story of Naxal Varghese, who was shot allegedly dead by
the police during the 70s.
In the Kannada movie Veerappa Nayaka, Vishnuvardhan portrays a Gandhian whose son becomes a Naxalite. The
2007 Kannada movie Maathaad Maathaadu Mallige, again portrays Vishnuvardhan as a Gandhian, who confronts a
Naxalite Sudeep and shows him that the ways adopted by Naxals will only lead to violence and will not achieve their
Eka Nakshalwadya Cha Janma, (Marathi: The birth of a Naxal), a novel written by Vilas Balkrishna Manohar, a
volunteer with the Lok Biradari Prakalp, is a fictional account of a Madia Gond Juru's unwilling journey of life his
metamorphosis from an exploited nameless tribal to a Naxal.[21]
Naxalite 32

[1] http:/ / www. mha. nic. in/ uniquepage. asp?id_pk=292
[2] http:/ / www. satp. org/ satporgtp/ countries/ india/ maoist/ terrorist_outfits/ Janashakti. htm
[3] http:/ / www. satp. org/ satporgtp/ countries/ india/ maoist/ terrorist_outfits/ PWG. htm
[4] Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (2005-09-21). "The Naxalite Challenge" (http:/ / www. flonnet. com/ fl2221/ stories/ 20051021006700400. htm).
Frontline Magazine (The Hindu). . Retrieved 2007-03-15.
[5] Handoo, Ashook. "Naxal Problem needs a holistic approach" (http:/ / www. pib. nic. in/ release/ release. asp?relid=50833). Press Information
Bureau. . Retrieved 2009-08-08.
[6] "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India" (http:/ / globalpolitician. com/ 22790-india). Global Politician. 2007-01-15. . Retrieved 2009-03-17.
[7] Philip Bowring Published: TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2006 (2006-04-18). "Maoists who menace India" (http:/ / www. iht. com/ articles/ 2006/
04/ 17/ opinion/ edbowring. php). International Herald Tribune. . Retrieved 2009-03-17.
[8] "South Asia | Senior Maoist 'arrested' in India" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 7151552. stm). BBC News. 2007-12-19. .
Retrieved 2009-03-17.
[9] Co-ordinated operations to flush out Naxalites soon (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ News/ PoliticsNation/
Co-ordinated_operations_to_flush_out_Naxalites_soon/ articleshow/ 4084039. cms) The Economic Times, February 6, 2009.
[10] {Sunil Kumar Sen} ({1982}). {Peasant movements in India: mid-nineteenth and twentieth centuries}. {K.P. Bagchi}.
[11] Diwanji, A. K. (2003-10-02). "Primer: Who are the Naxalites?" (http:/ / us. rediff. com/ news/ 2003/ oct/ 02spec. htm). .
Retrieved 2007-03-15.
[12] Hindustan Times: History of Naxalism (http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage.
aspx?id=0b41af48-1ca9-49a1-b064-24843790d6e4& ParentID=a5d3fd46-0c94-448a-99c4-c2f774a625ee& & Headline=History+ of+
[13] Singh, Prakash. The Naxalite Movement in India. New Delhi: Rupa & Co., 1999. p. 101.
[14] Quoted in Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). Quoted on p. 74.
[15] Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). p. 74.
[16] "Indian police killed by Maoists" (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ news/ asia/ 2010/ 04/ 2010466515592429. html). Al Jazeera. April 6, 2010.
[17] "74 security men killed by Naxals in Chhattisgarh" (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ news/ india/
20-security-men-killed-by-naxals-in-chhattisgarh-19293. php). 2010-04-06. . Retrieved 2010-04-12.
[18] Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). p. 73.
[19] "Rising ambitions of India's Maoists" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8127869. stm). BBC News. 2009-07-02. . Retrieved
[20] "Mother of 1084" - the number assigned to her son.
[21] Who's who of Indian Writers, 1999 By K. C. Dutt, Sahitya Akademi (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=QA1V7sICaIwC& pg=PA723&
lpg=PA723& dq=vilas+ manohar+ writer& source=web& ots=iZo851RPGh& sig=uEHP-KtmRvUV1iO8KLsoKHx9ccU& hl=en&
ei=e-ucSeCrOo_akAWtjPiiBQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=6& ct=result). . Retrieved 2009-03-17.

Further reading
• Naxalite Politics in India, by J. C. Johari, Institute of Constitutional and Parliamentary Studies, New Delhi, .
Published by Research Publications, 1972.
• The Naxalite Movement, by Biplab Dasgupta. Published by , 1974.
• The Naxalite Movement: A Maoist Experiment, by Sankar Ghosh. Published by Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1975.
ISBN 0883865688.
• The Naxalite Movement in India: Origin and Failure of the Maoist Revolutionary Strategy in West Bengal,
1967-1971, by Sohail Jawaid. Published by Associated Pub. House, 1979.
• In the Wake of Naxalbari: A History of the Naxalite Movement in India, by Sumanta Banerjee. Published by
Subarnarekha, 1980.
• India's Simmering Revolution: The Naxalite Uprising, by Sumanta Banerjee. Published by Zed Books, 1984.
ISBN 0862320372.
• Tribal Guerrillas: The Santals of West Bengal and the Naxalite Movement, by Edward Duyker. Published by
Oxford University Press, 1987.
• The Naxalite Movement in India, by Prakash Singh. Published by Rupa, 1995. ISBN 8171672949.
• Sailen Debnath, West Bengal in Doldrums, ISBN 9788186860342
• Sailen Debnath, The Dooars in Historical Transition, ISBN 9788186860441
Naxalite 33

• Sailen Debnath ed. Social and Political Tensions in North Bengal Since 1947,ISBN 81-86860-23-1

External links
• " Walking With The Comrades (" An
extensive 32 page essay by Arundhati Roy on her interactions with naxalites
• Articles and Research Reports on Naxalite Violence in India and Pakistan (
• Edward Duyker, Tribal Guerrillas: The Santals of West Bengal and the Naxalite Movement (http://books.
• 'History of Naxalism', Hindustan Times (
• Maoist Resistance ( (pro-Naxal Blog - The former blog at Resistance
India ( has been hacked )
• Naxal Terror Watch ( (anti-Naxalite, alleges that Naxalites are supported by
both Pakistan and China)
• India's Naxalite Rage ( (neutral blog that provides analysis of the tactics and
strategy of the Naxals by Shlok Vaidya)
• India's Forgotten War ( (neutral blog analysing Naxalite insurgency)
• Status Paper on the Naxalite problem (
06mar13_naxal problem .htm) - South Asia Terrorism Portal
• West Bengal, districts affected by Naxalite violence (
westbengal_naxal.htm) - South Asia Terrorism Portal
• Economist magazine article (
• Guardian article (,,1770612,00.html)
• Vice article (
• Naxal Issues page of Peoples Website of Chhattisgarh (
• Red Sun: Travels in Naxalite Country (Hardcover) (
• Stop the Battle, Start the War (
start+the+war) by Samar Halarnkar, Hindustan Times, April 19, 2009
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 34

Naxalite-Maoist insurgency
The Naxalite-Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict[1] between Maoist groups, known as Naxalites or Naxals,
and the Indian government.[2] It is presently the longest continuously active conflict worldwide.
In 2006 Prime Minister Manmohan Singh called the Naxalites "The single biggest internal security challenge ever
faced by our country."[2] In 2009, he said the country was "losing the battle against Maoist rebels".[3]
Naxalites claim to be supported by the poorest rural populations, especially Adivasis.[4] They have frequently
targeted tribals, police and government workers in what they say is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for
neglected agricultural labourers and the poor[5] and follow a strategy of rural rebellion similar to that of the
protracted People's War against the government.[6]
The Indian government's Home Secretary G K Pillai has said that he recognises that there are legitimate grievances
regarding local people's access to forest land and produce and the distribution of benefits from mining and hydro
power developments,[7] but claims that the Naxalites' long-term goal is to establish an Indian Marxist state. The
Home Secretary stated that the government had decided to tackle the Naxalites head-on, and take back much of the
lost areas.

Naxalites are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoist political sentiment and ideology. Their
origin can be traced to the splitting in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading to the formation of
the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist). Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In recent
years, it has spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh and Andhra
Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist).[8] As of 2009,
Naxalites are active across approximately 220 districts in twenty states of India[9] accounting for about 40 percent of
India's geographical area,[10] They are especially concentrated in an area known as the "Red Corridor", where they
control 92,000 square kilometers.[10]

Region affected
The Naxalites claim to operate in 182 districts in India, mainly in the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and West Bengal.[3] The area affected by Naxalism stretches from the
border with Nepal to Karnataka in the South (2006).[1] In West Bengal areas west of Howrah are affected by the
insurgency.[11] Chhattisgarh is the epicentre of the conflict (2007).[12]
Areas governed by the elected Communist Party of India (Marxist) in India such as West Bengal, specifically those
of Jangalmahal and Lalgarh, are some off the worst affected by anti-state violence by Maoist groups who cite the
accumulation of unaccounted for wealth in the hands of CPI-M leaders and specific failure to counter problems they
were elected to address such as caste discrimination and poverty.[13]
There is a correlation between areas with extensive coal resources and impact of the insurgency.[14] Naxalites
conduct detailed socio-economic surveys before starting operations in a target area.[1] It is claimed that the
insurgents extort 14 billon Indian rupees (more than $US300 million).[]
In Chhattisgarh, the militia group Salwa Judum (which the BBC alleges is supported by the state government,[15] an
allegation rejected by the state[16] [17] ) was constituted in response to Naxalite activities, and has come under fire
from pro-Maoist activist groups[18] for "atrocities and abuse against women",[19] employing child soldiers,[20] [21]
and looting and destruction of property.[19] These allegations were rejected by a fact finding commission of the
National Human Rights Commission of India (NHRC), appointed by the Supreme Court of India, who determined
that the Salwa Judum was a spontaneous reaction by tribals against Maoist atrocities perpetrated against them.[22] [23]
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 35

In Bihar, the Ranvir Sena, a caste-supremacist paramilitary of the upper-caste landlords and proscribed terrorist
organisation by the Indian government, has been known to kill Dalit civilians in retaliation for Naxalite activity.[24]
Similar paramilitary groups have emerged in Andhra Pradesh during the last decade. Some of these groups are Fear
Vikas, Green Tigers, Nalladandu, Red Tigers, Tirumala Tigers, Palnadu Tigers, Kakatiya Cobras, Narsa Cobras,
Nallamalla Nallatrachu (Cobras) and Kranthi Sena. Civil liberties activists were murdered by the Nayeem gang in
1998 and 2000.[25] On 24 August 2005, members of the Narsi Cobras killed an individual rights activist and
schoolteacher in Mahbubnagar district.[26] [27]


The People's War Group (PWG) intensified its attacks against politicians, police officers, and land and business
owners in response to a July ban imposed on the group by the Andhra Pradesh government. The government
responded by tightening security, allegedly ordering attacks on suspected PWG members by state police and the
"Green Tigers". Police forces continued to enjoy virtual impunity for the torture and killing of PWG rebels during
police encounters. The Maoist Communist Center rebels intensified their armed campaign against Indian security
forces following the killing of their leader by police in December. ..

The conflict in Andhra Pradesh intensified as Naxalite rebel groups, in particular the PWG, continued guerrilla
attacks on police and government targets while the security forces stepped up counter-insurgency efforts. An
October assassination attempt on Chief Minister Naidu was consistent with the PWG’s practice of targeting
government officials to draw attention to their cause.

Sporadic, low-intensity fighting between the PWG and government forces continued for most of the year. Attacks on
police and TDP party officials, believed to be carried out by the PWG, accounted for most major incidents and
deaths. A three-month cease-fire, announced in late June, led to failed negotiations between the government and the
PWG. A few days into the cease-fire, an attack attributed to the PWG placed the cease-fire in jeopardy.

Violent clashes between Maoist rebels and state security forces and paramilitary groups increased following the
breakdown of peace talks between the PWG and the state government of Andhra Pradesh. Rebels continued to
employ a wide-range of low-intensity guerrilla tactics against government institutions, officials, security forces and
paramilitary groups. For the first time in recent years, Maoist rebels launched two large scale attacks against urban
government targets. Fighting was reported in 12 states covering most of south, central and north India with the
exception of India’s northeast and northwest.

Maoist attacks continued, primarily on government and police targets. Civilians were also affected in landmine
attacks affecting railway cars and truck convoys. Clashes between state police and rebels also resulted in deaths of
members of both parties, and civilians that were caught in the crossfire. Fighting differs from state to state,
depending on security and police force responses. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, security forces have been
somewhat successful in maintaining control and combating Maoist rebels. The other state that is most affected,
Chhattisgarh, has seen an increase in violence between Maoist rebels and villagers who are supported by the
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 36

Fighting continued between Naxalite Maoists and government security forces throughout the year. The majority of
hostilities took place in Chhattisgarh, which turned especially deadly when over 400 Naxalites attacked a
Chhattisgarh police station, seizing arms and killing dozens. Civilians are now wedged between joining the Maoist
insurgence or supporting the Salwa Judum and face coercion from both sides.
In November 2007 reports emerged that anti-SEZ (Special Economic Zone) movements such as the Bhoomi
Uchched Pratirodh Committee in Nandigram in West Bengal, which arose after the land appropriation and human
displacement following the SEZ Act of 2005, have joined forces with the Naxalites since February to keep the police
out.[28] Recently, police found weapons belonging to Maoists near Nandigram.

Civilians were most affected in the ongoing fighting between Maoist rebels and government security forces. Of the
16 states touched by this conflict, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were the most affected. One positive note for
Chhattisgarh was that fatalities, although still high, were significantly down from 2007. Similarly, Andhra Pradesh,
the state with the most Maoist activity a few years ago, has improved security with a corresponding drop in fatality
rates. Unfortunately, as conditions have improved in Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh, the Maoist forces seem to
have shifted their operations to the state of Orissa where conditions have worsened.

In September 2009 India's Prime Minister Manmohan Singh admitted that the Maoists had growing appeal among a
large section of Indian society, including tribal communities, the rural poor as well as sections of the intelligentsia
and the youth. He added that "Dealing with left-wing extremism requires a nuanced strategy - a holistic approach. It
cannot be treated simply as a law and order problem." In the first half of 2009, 56 Maoist attacks have been

During February the Silda camp attack killed 24 paramilitary personnel of the Eastern Frontier Rifles in an operation
the guerillas stated was the beginning of "Operation Peace Hunt", the Maoist answer to the government "Operation
Green Hunt" that was recently launched against them.[29]
On 6 April, Naxalite rebels killed 76, consisting of 74 paramilitary personnel of the CPRF and two policemen. Fifty
others were wounded in the series of attacks on security convoys in Dantewada district in the central Indian state of
Chattisgarh.[30] The attack resulted in the biggest loss of life security forces have suffered since launching a
large-scale offensive against the rebels.[30]
On 17 May, a Naxalite landmine destroyed a bus in Dantewada district, killing up to 44 people including several
Special Police Officers (SPOs) and civilians.[31]
On 28 May the derailment of a Kolkata–Mumbai night train killed at least 150 persons. Maoists were responsible for
the sabotage which caused the disaster.[32]
On 29 June, at least 26 policemen are killed in a Maoist attack in the central Indian state of Chhattisgarh.[33]
On 29 August, a joint team of BSF and district police was attacked by the rebels in Bhuski village (Chhattisgarh)
under Durg Kondal police station in the district while they were conducting routine search operations in the wee
hours. Following the attack, the forces retaliated and in the action they lost five security personnel, including three
BSF jawans.[34]
On 29 and 30 August, rebels ambushed a joint paramilitary-police team in Bihar, killing 10, wounding 10 more,
taking 4 prisoners and robbing more than 35 automatic rifles from the state forces.[35] [36] The Naxalites later freed 3
of the policemen after Naxal leader Kishenji met with worried family members.[37]
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 37

On 12 September, Naxalites killed 3 policemen and took 4 more hostage in an ambush in Chhattisgarh. The 4
policemen were later released without conditions after Naxal leaders listened to the appeals of family members. The
freed policemen also promised the Naxals to never take up arms against the insurgency again.[38] [39]
On 5 October, rebels killed 4 Special Forces officers as they were on their way to a market in Maharashtra.[40]
On 7 October, Naxalites attempted derailment of Triveni express ,a train of Singrauli-Bareilly route, by removing 4
fishplates and 42 sleeper clips. [41] [42]
On 8 October, Naxalites triggered a landmine in the border area between Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. The attack
killed 3 special forces officers, wounded 2 more and completely wrecked their military jeep.[43]

Human toll
The first combat deaths of the insurgency were in 1980.[2] Around 1,100 people are known to have died during 2009.
The number includes 600 civilians, 300 security personnel and 200 rebels.[44]
There were more than 40,000 displaced people in 2006.[45]
According to the Institute of Peace and Conflict studies, Naxal groups have recruited children in different capacities
and exposed them to injury and death. However the same accusation has been levelled at the state-sponsored Salwa
Judum anti-Maoist group, and Special Police officers (SPOs) assisting the government security forces.[46]

Deaths related to violence

Period Civilians Security forces Insurgents Total per period

1989-2001 1,610 432 1,007 [47]


2002 382 100 141 [48]


2003 410 105 216 [48]


2004 466 100 87 [48]


2005 524 153 225 [49]


2006 521 157 274 [49]


2007 460 236 141 [49]


2008 399 221 [50] [51]

214 834

2009 586 317 217 [52]


2010 713 285 171 [53]


TOTAL 5,982 2,097 2,796 10,875

Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 38

Period Civilians Security forces Insurgents Total per period

1996 N/A N/A N/A [51]


1997 202 44 102 [51]


1998 118 42 110 [51]


1999 115 36 212 [51]


2000 N/A N/A N/A [51]


2001 N/A N/A N/A [54]


According to the BBC, more than 6,000 people have died during the rebels' 20-year fight between 1980 and 2000.[55]
Based on the above displayed statistics, it can be determined that more than 14,300 people have been killed since the
start of the insurgency in 1980, of which more than half died in the last ten years.

[1] "India's Naxalites: A spectre haunting India" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ world/ asia/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=7799247). The
Economist. 2006-04-12. . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[2] "Armed Conflicts Report - India-Andhra Pradesh" (http:/ / www. ploughshares. ca/ libraries/ ACRText/ ACR-IndiaAP. html). . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[3] "India is 'losing Maoist battle'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8256692. stm). BBC News. 2009-09-15. . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
[4] "Primer: Who are the Naxalites?: news" (http:/ / us. rediff. com/ news/ 2003/ oct/ 02spec. htm). . Retrieved
[5] "CENTRAL/S. ASIA - 'Maoist attacks' kill Indian police" (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ news/ asia/ 2009/ 07/ 200971214640798718. html).
Al Jazeera English. 2007-03-15. . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[6] "Communists Fight in India « Notes & Commentaries" (http:/ / mccaine. org/ 2009/ 06/ 24/ communists-fight-in-india/ ). .
Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[7] (http:/ / timesofindia.
indiatimes. com/ india/ Maoists-looking-at-armed-overthrow-of-state-by-2050/ articleshow/ 5648742. cms)
[8] Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (2005-09-21). "The Naxalite Challenge" (http:/ / www. flonnet. com/ fl2221/ stories/ 20051021006700400. htm).
Frontline Magazine (The Hindu). . Retrieved 2007-03-15.
[9] Handoo, Ashook. "Naxal Problem needs a holistic approach" (http:/ / www. pib. nic. in/ release/ release. asp?relid=50833). Press Information
Bureau. . Retrieved 2009-08-08.
[10] "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India" (http:/ / globalpolitician. com/ 22790-india). Global Politician. 2007-01-15. . Retrieved 2009-03-17.
[11] "West Bengal: Districts Affected by Naxalite Activity" (http:/ / www. satp. org/ satporgtp/ countries/ india/ images/ westbengal_naxal. htm). . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[12] "Asian Centre for Human Rights" (http:/ / www. achrweb. org/ ncm/ ncm. htm). . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[13] http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ naxals-make-life-tough-for-cpm-cadres-in-jangalmahal/ 101412-37. html?from=search
[14] 9 August 2006 (2006-08-09). "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news - Hidden civil war drains India's energy" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/
atimes/ South_Asia/ HH09Df01. html). . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[15] "Indian state 'backing vigilantes'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 7505252. stm). BBC News (BBC). 2008-07-15. . Retrieved
[16] Hearing plea against Salwa Judum, SC says State cannot arm civilians to kill (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/
hearing-plea-against-salwa-judum-sc-says-state-cannot-arm-civilians-to-kill/ 290932/ ) Indian Express, Apr 01, 2008.
[17] SC raps Chattisgarh on Salwa Judum (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ cms/ print. jsp?docpath=/ / news/ 2008/ mar/ 31sc. htm), March
31, 2008.
[18] dnaIndia (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ report. asp?newsid=1196081& pageid=2)
[19] "Report recommends withdrawal of Salwa Judum" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2007/ 01/ 19/ stories/ 2007011905501300. htm). The Hindu
(Chennai, India: The Hindu Group). 2007-01-19. . Retrieved 2010-04-12.
[20] "The Adivasis of Chhattisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite Movement and Salwa Judum Campaign." (http:/ / www. achrweb. org/ reports/ india/
Chattis0106. pdf) (PDF). Asian Centre for Human Rights (New Delhi: Asian Centre for Human Rights): 42. 2006. . Retrieved 2010-04-12.
[21] "Caught between Rebels and Vigilantes" (http:/ / www. alertnet. org/ printable. htm?URL=/ db/ crisisprofiles/ IN_MAO. htm). Reuters
Alertnet (Reuters). 2008-08-27. . Retrieved 2010-01-30.
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency 39

[22] 'Existence of Salwa Judum necessary' (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/ News/ PoliticsNation/
Existence_of_Salwa_Judum_necessary/ articleshow/ 3565263. cms) The Economic Times, Oct 6, 2008.
[23] DNAIndia (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ report. asp?newsid=1196081)
[24] "Carnage in Narayanpur" (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ fline/ fl1605/ 16050280. htm). . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[25] "The Vigilante groups: Of the tigers and cobras" (http:/ / www. achrweb. org/ ncm/ vigilante. htm). Asian Centre for Human Rights. .
Retrieved 2010-04-12.
[26] http:/ / www. flonnet. com/ fl2221/ stories/ 20051021008201200. htm
[27] http:/ / www. achrweb. org/ ncm/ vigilante. htm
[28] " Reports see Maoist Hand in Nandigram (http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ convergence/ ndtv/ story. aspx?id=NEWEN20070032266& ch=11/ 8/
2007 9:10:00 PM)", Monideepa Bannerjie, New Delhi Television, 8 November 2007.
[29] Bhaumik, Subir (2010-02-16). "India Maoists attack troops' camp" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 8517371. stm). BBC
News. . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
[30] "Scores of Indian soldiers killed in Maoist ambushes" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8604256. stm). BBC World. 6 April
2010. .
[31] http:/ / www. ndtv. com/ news/ india/ naxals-blow-up-bus-near-dantewada-33-killed-26123. php
[32] "Sixty five dead after 'sabotage' derails Indian train" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 10178967. stm). British
Broadcasting Corporation. 28 May 2010. .
[33] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Naxals-ambush-kill-26-CRPF-men-in-Chhattisgarh/ Article1-564984. aspx
[34] http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ naxals-kill-5-security-personnel-in-encounter/ 129827-37-64. html?from=tn
[35] http:/ / sify. com/ news/ maoists-kill-10-security-men-in-bihar-news-national-ki4suddbjbj. html
[36] . http:/ / www. thehindu. com/ news/ national/ article605580. ece.
[37] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Kishenji-visits-cop-s-kin-assures-release/ Article1-596475. aspx
[38] http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ afp/ article/ ALeqM5hEgcaxywQ2PAWQMP8ajE_UmEnqwQ
[39] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ After-12-days--Maoists-release-4-abducted-cops/ 690843
[40] http:/ / sify. com/ news/ maoists-kill-four-maharashtra-cops-news-national-kkflufaichf. html
[41] http:/ / news. in. msn. com/ national/ article. aspx?cp-documentid=4445152& pgnew=false
[42] http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ naxalites-hold-lineman-hostage-remove-fish-plates/ 693982/
[43] http:/ / www. hindustantimes. com/ Landmine-blast-leaves-three-ITBP-jawans-dead-in-Chhattisgarh/ Article1-610063. aspx
[44] "India's Maoists offer ceasefire" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8529124. stm). BBC News. 2010-02-22. . Retrieved
[45] "Reuters AlertNet - Indian Maoist violence" (http:/ / www. alertnet. org/ db/ crisisprofiles/ IN_MAO. htm). . Retrieved
[46] "Articles #2738 , Child Soldiers of the Naxal Movement" (http:/ / www. ipcs. org/ article_details. php?articleNo=2738).
2008-11-24. . Retrieved 2009-07-13.
[47] http:/ / www. isidelhi. org. in/ hrnews/ HR_THEMATIC_ISSUES/ Naxals/ Naxals-2001. pdf
[48] http:/ / www. mha. nic. in/ pdfs/ ar0506-Eng. pdf
[49] http:/ / www. satp. org/ satporgtp/ countries/ india/ maoist/ data_sheets/ fatalitiesnaxalmha. htm
[50] http:/ / www. satp. org/ satporgtp/ countries/ india/ maoist/ data_sheets/ fatalitiesnaxal08. htm
[51] "Armed Conflicts Report - India-Andhra Pradesh" (http:/ / www. ploughshares. ca/ libraries/ ACRText/ ACR-IndiaAP. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-17.
[52] Burke, Jason (2010-05-28). "Maoists in India: Long struggle for the landless poor" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2010/ may/ 28/
maoists-india-naxalite-landless). The Guardian (London). .
[53] http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ afp/ article/ ALeqM5hjfxXhNgGjp9JIyCj2ubaSKI6wIA?docId=CNG.
134eae01c393f94f33516bafd808dfc9. 371
[54] http:/ / www. mha. nic. in/ pdfs/ ar0304-Eng. pdf
[55] Bhaumik, Subir (2010-02-10). "India's Maoists 'ready for talks'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 8507525. stm). BBC News. .
Retrieved 2010-05-20.

External links
2011 Libyan uprising 40

2011 Libyan uprising

The 2011 Libyan uprising is an ongoing armed conflict in the North African state of Libya against Muammar
Gaddafi's 42-year rule, with protesters calling for his ousting and democratic elections. The uprising began as a
series of protests and confrontations beginning 15 February 2011. Within a week, the uprising had spread and
Gaddafi was struggling to retain control across the east of Libya[1] . Gaddafi responded with military force and other
such measures as censorship and blocking of communications. With parts of the Libyan military in the east
defecting, Gaddafi has recruited foreign volunteers to supplement his forces. Although Gaddafi has offered talks
with opposition leaders through a chief envoy, the rebels have clarified that they are unwilling to negotiate with him,
they simply demand that he resign. This has been demonstrated by openly admitting attacks against civilians in
support of the government[2] .
By the end of February the uprising escalated into armed conflict with rebels forming a government called the
National Transitional Council based in Benghazi. International human rights organizations have documented severe
human rights abuses. The International Criminal Court warned Gaddafi that he and members of his government may
have committed crimes against humanity[3] . Gaddafi vows to stay in power at all costs. In early March, Gaddafi's
forces rallied, push eastwards and re-took several coastal cities including Brega, Ra's Lanuf and Bin Jawad. Gaddafi
announced a cease-fire on 18 March amid international pressure. He then effected a U-turn and attacked Misurata
and on 19 March, Benghazi. The United Nations then declared and began to enforce no-fly zones against Gaddafi.
Much of the world has strongly condemned Gaddafi's use of violence against civilians.[4] A number of countries
imposed sanctions on Gaddafi, many including travel bans and freezing of the family's multibillion assets. The
United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his
inner circle and restricting their travel. The resolution also referred the regime in Tripoli to the International Criminal
Court for investigation.[5] On 10 March, France became the first country to recognize the National Transitional
Council as the official government of Libya.[6] On 17 March, a further resolution was announced which authorized
member states to enforce a no-fly zone over Libya and "to take all necessary measures... to protect civilians and
civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding
an occupation force".[7] In response to this the Gaddaffi regime anounced a ceasefire, which they failed to uphold.
On 19 March, the United Nations Coalition was officially announced to enforce the resolution: Operation Ellamy by
the UK; Opération Harmattan by France; Operation Mobile by Canada and Operation Odyssey Dawn by the USA. A
dozen other countries joined the coalition. On the same day, a series of strikes disabled Gaddafi's air defenses and
coalitions jets started enforcing the resolution.[8]


Gaddafi has ruled Libya as de facto autocrat since overthrowing the short-lived constitutional monarchy in 1969.[9]
WikiLeaks' disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables has revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafi's
"mastery of tactical maneuvering".[10] While placing relatives and loyal members of his tribe in central military and
government positions, he has skilfully marginalized supporters and rivals, thus maintaining a delicate balance of
powers, stability and economic developments. This extends even to his own children, as he changes affections to
avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival.[10] Petroleum revenues contribute up to 58% of Libya's GDP.[11]
Governments with "resource curse" revenue have a lower need for taxes from other industries and consequently are
less willing to develop their middle class. To calm down opposition, such governments can use the income from
natural resources to offer services to the population, or to specific government supporters.[12] The government of
Libya can utilize these techniques by using the national oil resources.[13] Libya's oil wealth was spread over a
relatively small population of six million,[14] with 21% general unemployment, the highest in the region, according
2011 Libyan uprising 41

to the latest census figures.[15]

Libya's purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP per capita in 2010 was US $14,878; its human development index in
2010 was 0.755; and its literacy rate in 2009 was 87%. These numbers were lower in Egypt and Tunisia.[16] Indeed,
Libyan citizens are considered to be well educated and to have a high standard of living.[17] Its corruption perception
index in 2010 was 2.2, which was worse than that of Egypt and Tunisia, two neighboring countries who faced
uprising before Libya.[18] This specific situation creates a wider contrast between good education, high demand for
democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption, political system, supply of democracy).[16] Much
of the country's income from oil, which soared in the 1970s, was spent on arms purchases and on sponsoring
militancy and terror around the world.[19] [20] Once a breadbasket of the ancient world, the eastern parts of the
country became impoverished under Gaddafi's economic theories.[21] [22] The uprising has been viewed as a part of
the 2010–2011 Middle East and North Africa protests which has already resulted in the ousting of long-term
presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt with the initial protests all using similar slogans.[23] Social media had
played an important role in organizing the opposition.[24]

Human rights
According to the 2009 Freedom of the Press Index, Libya is the most-censored country in the Middle East and North
Africa.[25] Gaddafi's revolutionary committees resemble the systems of historical and current regimes and reportedly
ten to twenty percent of Libyans work in surveillance for these committees, a proportion of informants on par with
Saddam Hussein's Iraq or Kim Jong-il's North Korea.
The surveillance takes place in government, in factories, and in the education sector.[26] Engaging in political
conversations with foreigners is a crime punishable by three years of prison in most cases. Gaddafi removed foreign
languages from school curriculum for a decade.[27] [28] Gaddafi has paid for murders of his critics around the
world.[26] [29] As of 2004, Libya still provided bounties for critics, including US$1 million for Ashur Shamis, a
Libyan-British journalist.[30] The regime has often executed opposition activists publicly and the executions are
rebroadcast on state television channels.[26] [31]

Anti-Gaddafi movement
The protests and confrontations began in earnest on 15 February 2011. Social media had played an important role in
organizing the opposition.[24] On 17 February, a "Day of Revolt" was called by Libyans.[32] [33]
Between 13 and 16 January, upset at delays in the building of housing
units and over political corruption, protesters in Darnah, Benghazi,
Bani Walid and other cities broke into and occupied housing that the
government was building.[36] [37] On 24 January 2010, Libya blocked
access to YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the
Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in
the 1996 Abu Salim prison massacre. The blocking was criticized by The flag of the former Kingdom of Libya. It, or
Human Rights Watch.[38] By 27 January, the government had modified versions, has been used by many
[34] [35]
protesters as an opposition flag.
responded to the housing unrest with a US$24 billion investment fund
to provide housing and development.[39]

In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentator and accountant, "call[ed] on the internet for
demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian uprisings.
He was arrested on 1 February by plain-clothes police officers, and charged on 3 February with injuring someone
with his car. Amnesty International claimed that because al-Hajji had previously been imprisoned for his non-violent
political opinions, the real reason for the present arrest appeared to be his call for demonstrations.[40] In early
February, Gaddafi met with political activists, journalists, and media figures and warned them that they would be
2011 Libyan uprising 42

held responsible if they disturbed the peace or created chaos in Libya.[41]

Human rights
Free speech is reportedly practiced for the first time. An
opposition-controlled newspaper called Libya has appeared in
Benghazi, as well as opposition-controlled radio stations.[42] The
movement opposes tribalism and defected soldiers wear vests bearing
slogans such as "No to tribalism, no to factionalism".[22] Libyans have
said that they have found abandoned torture chambers and devices that
have been used against opposition members in the past.[43]

Libyan Boy Scouts helping in the social services
Many protest movement leaders have called for return to the 1952 in Benghazi during the 2011 Libyan uprising

constitution and transition to multiparty democracy. Military units who

have joined the rebellion and many volunteers have formed an army to defend against Gaddafi's attacks and help
liberate the capital Tripoli from his rule.[44] In Tobruk, volunteers turned a former headquarters of the regime into a
center for helping protesters. Volunteers reportedly guard the port, local banks and oil terminals to keep the oil
flowing. Teachers and engineers have set up a committee to collect weapons.[22]

The National Transitional Council (Arabic: ‫ )يلاقتنالا ينطولا سلجملا‬was a body established by opposition forces
on 27 February in an effort to consolidate the anti-Gaddafi forces.[45] The main objectives of the group do not
include forming an interim government, but instead to coordinate resistance efforts between the different towns held
in rebel control, and to give a political "face" to the opposition to present to the world.[46] The Benghazi-based
opposition government has called for a no-fly zone and airstrikes against the Gaddafi regime.[47] The council refers
to the Libyan state as the Libyan Republic and it now has a website.[48] Gaddafi's former Justice Minister said in
February that the new government will prepare for elections and they could be held in three months.[49]

Gaddafi's response
Gaddafi has attributed the protests against his rule to people who are "rats" and "cockroaches", terms that were cited
by Hutu radicals of the Tutsi population before the 1994 Rwanda genocide began, thus causing unease in the global
community. Gaddafi has accused his opponents as those who have been influenced by hallucinogenic drugs put in
drinks and pills. He has specifically referred to substances in milk, coffee and Nescafé. He has claimed that Bin
Laden and Al-Qaeda are distributing these hallucinogenic drugs. He has also blamed alcohol.[50] [51] [52] [53] He later
also claimed that the revolt against his rule is the result of a "colonialist plot" by foreign countries, particularly
blaming France, the United States, and the United Kingdom, to "control oil" and "enslave" Libyan people. Gaddafi
vowed to "cleanse Libya house by house" until he had crushed the insurrection.[54] [55] [56] [57] [58] Gaddafi declared
that people who don't "love" him "do not deserve to live".[55] [57]
International journalists were banned[59] [60]
by the Libyan authorities[61] from reporting from Libya except by
invitation of the Gaddafi government.

Numerous eyewitnesses and identity documents of captured soldiers show that Gaddafi is employing foreign
nationalities to attack Libyan civilians. French-speaking fighters apparently come from neighbouring African
countries such as Chad and Niger.[62] However, some have urged caution, saying that Libya has a significant black
population who could be mistaken for mercenaries but are actually serving in the regular army.[63] Also, many
Chadian soldiers who fought for Gaddafi in past conflicts with Chad were given Libyan citizenship.[63] There have
2011 Libyan uprising 43

been reports of the Gadaffi regime employing mercenaries from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Sudan,
Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya and possibly even Asia and Eastern Europe.[64] [65] Speculation that members of the
Zimbabwe National Army were covertly fighting in Libya grew as Zimbabwe’s Defence Minister Emmerson
Mnangagwa avoided giving a clear answer to a question on the topic posed in Parliament.[66]
The Serbian Ministry of Defence denied rumors that of any of its active or retired personnel participating in the
events in Libya.[67] The Foreign Ministry of Chad denied allegations that mercenaries were fighting for Gaddafi,
although he admitted it was possible that individuals had joined such groups.[68]

Military conflict
By the end of 23 February, headlines in online news services were
reporting a range of themes underlining the precarious state of the
regime – former justice minister Mustafa Mohamed Abud Al Jeleil
alleged that Gaddafi personally ordered the 1988 Lockerbie
bombing,[69] resignations and defections of close allies,[70] the loss of
Benghazi, the second largest city in Libya, reported to be "alive with
celebration"[71] and other cities including Tobruk and Misurata
reportedly falling[72] with some reports that the government retained
control of just a few pockets,[70] mounting international isolation and
Rebels on the outskirts of Brega.
pressure,[70] [73] and reports that Middle East media consider the end of
his "disintegrating"[74] regime all but inevitable.[74]

After taking over the city of Zawiya on 24 February, Gaddafi's troops attacked the outskirts of the city on 28
February, but were repelled. The town of Nalut, on the Tunisian border, had also fallen to the opposition forces. On 2
March, government forces attempted to recapture the oil port town of Brega, but the attack failed and they retreated
to Ra's Lanuf. Rebel forces advanced following their victory and on 4 March, the opposition captured Ra's Lanuf. On
the same day, government troops started a full-scale assault on Zawiyah with tank, artillery and air strikes. On 6
March, the rebel advance along the coastline had been stopped by government forces at the town of Bin Jawad.
Government troops had ambushed the rebel coloumn and dozens of rebels were killed. At the same time, Gaddafi's
forces attempted an attack on Misurata and mannaged to get as far as the centre of the city before their attack was
stopped and they retreated to the city's outskirts.[75]
On 10 March, Zawiyah and Ra's Lanuf were retaken by Gaddafi's forces.[76] [77] By March 15, the town of Brega had
also been recaptured by Gaddafi's forces and the rebel city of Ajdabiya, the last town before Benghazi, was
surrounded. On 17 March, the United Nations Security Council voted to imposed a no-fly zone in Libyan
airspace,[78] with British, French and Arab aircraft potentially launching airstrikes within hours of its imposition. As
a result of the UN resolution, on 18 March, Gaddafi's government declared an immediate ceasefire,[79] but a few
hours later, Al Jazeera reported that Government forces are still fighting with rebels.[80]

Territory controlled by each side

By the end of February, Gaddafi had lost control of a significant part of the country, including the major cities of
Misurata and Benghazi, and the important harbours at Ra's Lanuf and Mersa Brega.[81] [82] The Libyan opposition
had formed a National Transitional Council and a free press had begun to operate in Cyrenaica.[83]
On 6 March, the Gaddafi regime launched a counter-offensive, retaking Ra's Lanuf and Mersa Brega, pushing
towards Ajdabiya and Benghazi. Gaddafi has remained in continuous control of Tripoli,[84] Sirt,[85] Zliten[86] and
Sabha,[87] as well as several other towns.
Gaddafi controls the well-armed Khamis Brigade, among other loyalist military and police units, and some believe a
small number of foreign mercenaries.[88] Some of Gaddafi's officials, as well as a number of current and retired
2011 Libyan uprising 44

military personnel, have sided with the protesters and requested outside help in bringing an end to massacres of
As of 17 March, out of Libya's twenty-two districts, twelve were under government control, seven were under rebel
control and three were contested territories (see map).

Libyan fighting around Benghazi

On 18 March, the Libyan government declared an "immediate" ceasefire.[89] Even after the government-declared
ceasefire, artillery shelling on Misurata and Ajdabiya continued, and government soldiers continued approaching
Benghazi.[90] [91] BBC News reported that government tanks entered the city on 19 March while hundreds fled the
fighting.[92] Artillery and mortars were also fired into the city.[93]
Also on 19 March, a Mig-23BN was shot down over Benghazi by ground fire. A rebel spokesman later confirmed
that the plane belonged to the Free Libyan Air Force and had been engaged in error by rebels.[] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98]
[99] [100]

The Libyan government said the rebels violated the UN "no fly" resolution by using a helicopter and a fighter jet to
bomb Libyan armed forces.[101]

UN no-fly zone actions

At 1600 GMT, 19 March, BBC News reported that the French Air Force had sent 19 fighter planes over an area
100 km by 150 km (60 by 100 miles) over Benghazi to prevent any attacks on the rebel controlled city.[102] "Our air
force will oppose any aggression by Colonel Gadhafi against the population of Benghazi," said French President
Nicolas Sarkozy. BBC News reported at 16:59 GMT that at 16:45 GMT a French warplane had fired at and
destroyed a Libyan military vehicle – this being confirmed by French defence ministry spokesman Laurent
At 2031 GMT the Pentagon announced that U.S. and British forces had fired 114+ Tomahawk cruise missiles
targeting 20 Libyan integrated air and ground defense systems.[104] 25 coalition ships, including 3 U.S. submarines,
are in the area.[105] [106] [107] [108] CBS New's David Martin reported that 3 B-2 stealth bombers flew non-stop from
the United States to drop 40 bombs on a major Libyan airfield. Martin further reported that US fighter jets are
searching for Libyan ground forces to attack. On Sunday, around 1500 CST, Pentagon officials confirmed this.[109]

Libyan State TV reported that Libyan forces had shot down a French warplane over Tripoli.[105] France's military
denied earlier reports from Libyan state TV that a French aircraft had been shot down and reported that all planes
had returned to their air bases.[111] On 20 March 2011, several Storm Shadow missiles have been launched against
Gaddafi by British jets.[112] Also, sustained anti-aircraft fire erupted in Tripoli at around 2:33 a.m. Libyan time.[113]
Gaddafi's forces claimed they had shot down two planes, which was denied by the United States.[114]

Humanitarian situation
Medical supplies, fuel and food have run dangerously low in the country.[115] On 25 February, the International
Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal for US$6.4 million to meet the emergency needs of
people affected by the violent unrest in the country.[116] On 2 March, the ICRC's director general reminded everyone
taking part in the violence that health workers must be allowed to do their jobs safely.[117]
Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 people were crossing the Libya-Tunisia border daily during
the first days of the uprising. Among those escaping the violence were foreign nationals including Egyptians,
Tunisians and Turks – as well as Libyans.[118] By 1 March, officials from the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees had confirmed allegations of discrimination against sub-Saharan Africans who were held in dangerous
conditions in the no-man's-land between Tunisia and Libya.[119] By 3 March, an estimated 200,000 refugees had fled
2011 Libyan uprising 45

Libya to either Tunisia or Egypt. A provisional refugee camp was set up at Ras Ejder with a capacity for 10,000 was
overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. Many tens of thousands were still trapped on the Libyan
side of the frontier. By 3 March, the situation was described as a logistical nightmare, with the World Health
Organization warning of the risk of epidemics.[120]
With a migrant population of about two million, countries that border Libya, especially Egypt and Tunisia, have
been receiving a flow of migrants and nationals escaping the violence. Migrants workers as well as Libyan nationals
have been finding their way to the border cities of Sallum in Egypt and Ras Ajdir in Tunisia creating a humanitarian
crisis. According to the International Organization for Migration, as of 7 March, 115,399 migrants had arrived in
Tunisia (19,184 of them Tunisians, 47,631 Egyptians and the rest from various nationalities), 101,609 in Egypt (of
which 65,509 were Egyptian), 2,205 in Niger (1,865 Nigeriens) and 5,448 in Algeria.[121]

Independent numbers of dead and injured in the conflict have still not
been made available. Estimates have been widely varied. Conservative
estimates have put the death toll at 1,000,[] Whereas the International
Criminal Court estimated 10,000 killed on 7 March.[] The numbers of
injured were estimated to be around 4,000 by 22 February.[122] On 2
March, The International Federation for Human Rights estimated a
death toll as high as 3,000 and the World Health Organization
estimated approximately 2,000 killed.[] At the same time, the
opposition claimed that 6,500 people had died.[123] The Libyan Human People protesting against Gaddafi's use of
violence against Libyans.
Rights League estimated 6,000 killed on 5 March.[2] [2] Later, Rebel
spokesman Abdel Hafiz Ghoga reported that the death toll reached
8,000. [124]
2011 Libyan uprising 46

Domestic responses
Several officials resigned from their
positions after 20 February in large part due
to protests against the army's "excessive use
of force", including justice minister Mustafa
Mohamed Abud Al Jeleil as well as Interior
Minister and Major General Abdul Fatah
Younis,[125] whereas Oil Minister Shukri
Ghanem was reported to have fled the
country.[126] Citing "grave violations of
human rights", Gaddafi's cousin and close
aide, Ahmad Qadhaf al-Dam, announced his
defection from the government when he
arrived in Egypt on 24 February.[127]

Several members of the diplomatic corps

also resigned. Amongst these were the
ambassadors to the Arab League,[128]
Bangladesh, the People's Republic of
China,[129] the European Union and
Belgium,[130] India,[131] Indonesia,[126] A map showing the ethnic and part of the tribal composition of Libya
Nigeria, Sweden and the United States. The
deputy ambassador to the UN Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi did not resign but distanced himself from the Libyan
government's actions.[132] [133] The ambassador to the United States Ali Aujali together with the embassy staff also
distanced himself from the government, "condemned" the violence and urged the international community “to stop
the killings.” The ambassador to the United Kingdom denied reports that he had resigned.[126]

The Arabian Gulf Oil Company, the second largest state-owned oil company in Libya, announced plans to use oil
funds to support anti-Gaddafi forces.[134] This will prove a major boost for the embattled rebel forces low on funds.
Two Libyan Air Force pilots and a naval vessel fled to Malta, reportedly claiming to have refused orders to bomb
protesters in Benghazi.[135] [136]
Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against
Gaddafi.[126] [137] The Warfalla, Tuareg and Magarha tribes have announced their support of the protesters.[81] [138]
The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, have threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in their part of the
country if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators.[138]
Youssef Sawani, a senior aide to Muammer Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, resigned from his post "to express
dismay against violence".[81]
On 28 February, Gaddafi reportedly appointed the head of Libya's foreign intelligence service to speak to the
leadership of the anti-government protesters in the east of the country.[139]
2011 Libyan uprising 47

Libyan-throne claimant, Muhammad as-Senussi, sent his condolences

"for the heroes who have laid down their lives, killed by the brutal
forces of Gaddafi" and called on the international community "to halt
all support for the dictator with immediate effect."[141] as-Senussi said
that the protesters would be "victorious in the end" and calls for
international support to end the violence.[142] On 24 February,
as-Senussi gave an interview to Al Jazeera English where he called
upon the international community to help remove Gaddafi from power
and stop the ongoing "massacre".[143] He has dismissed talk of a civil
A young Benghazian carrying King Idris' photo.
war saying "The Libyan people and the tribes have proven they are
Support of the royal Senussi dynasty has
united". He later stated that international community needs "less talk traditionally been strong in Cyrenaica.
and more action" to stop the violence. He has asked for a no-fly
zone over Libya but does not support foreign ground troops.[145] On March 17 he returned to Libya after 41 years in

In an interview with Adnkronos, Idris al-Senussi, a pretender to the Libyan throne, announced he was ready to return
to the country once change had been initiated.[147] On 21 February 2011, Idris made an appearance on Piers Morgan
Tonight to discuss the uprising.[148] On 3 March, it was reported that Prince Al Senussi Zouber Al Senussi had fled
Libya with his family and was seeking asylum in Totebo, Sweden.[149]

International reactions

Official responses
A number of states and supranational bodies condemned Gaddafi's use of military and mercenaries against Libyan
civilians. However, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, Cuban political leader Fidel Castro and Venezuelan
President Hugo Chávez all expressed support for Gaddafi.[150] [151] [152] Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi
initially said he did not want to disturb Gaddafi, but two days later he called the attacks on protesters
unacceptable.[153] [154]
The Arab League suspended Libya from taking part in council meetings at an emergency meeting on 22 February
and issued a statement condemning the "crimes against the current peaceful popular protests and demonstrations in
several Libyan cities".[155] [156] Libya was suspended from the United Nations Human Rights Council by a
unanimous vote of the United Nations General Assembly, citing the Gaddafi government's use of violence against
protesters.[157] On 26 February, the United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to impose strict sanctions
against Gaddafi's government and, refer Gaddafi and other members of his regime to the International Criminal
Court for investigation into allegations of brutality against civilians.[158] Interpol issued a security alert concerning
the "possible movement of dangerous individuals and assets" based on the United Nations Security Council
Resolution 1970, listing Gaddafi himself and fifteen members of his clan or his regime.[159] A number of
governments, including Britain, Canada, Switzerland, the United States, Germany and Australia took action to freeze
assets of Gaddafi and his associates.[160] The Gulf Cooperation Council issued a joint statement on 8 March, calling
on the United Nations Security Council to impose an air embargo on Libya to protect civilians.[161] The Arab League
did the same on 12 March, with only Algeria and Syria voting against the measure.[162]
2011 Libyan uprising 48

During the uprising, many countries evacuated their citizens.[163] China set up its largest evacuation operation ever
with over 30,000 Chinese nationals evacuated, as well as 2,100 citizens from twelve other countries.[164] [165] [166]
On 25 February, 500 passengers, mostly Americans, sailed into Malta after a rough eight-hour journey from Tripoli
following a two-day wait for the seas to calm.[167] South Korea evacuated 12,000 people , utilizing airplanes and
ferries, to Malta.[168] [169] Bulgaria also evacuated some of its citizens with planes, along with Romanian and
Chinese citizens.[170] Indian government launched Operation Safe Homecoming and evacuated 15,000 of its
nationals.[171] The Turkish government sent three ships to evacuate a reported 25,000 Turkish workers and return
them to Istanbul.[172] The Irish Department of Foreign Affairs assisted over 115 Irish nationals in leaving Libya.[173]
A number of international oil companies decided to withdraw their employees from Libya to ensure their safety,
including Gazprom, Royal Dutch Shell, Sinopec, Suncor Energy, Pertamina and BP. Other companies that decided
to evacuate their employees included Siemens and Russian Railways.[174] [175]
Several Russians, 21 Tadjiks and some Kazachs were evacuated by Russia at the same time.[176]
The evacuations often involved assistance from various military forces. The United Kingdom deployed aircrafts and
the frigate HMS Cumberland to assist in the evacuations.[177] [178] [179] China's frigate Xuzhou of the People's
Liberation Army Navy was ordered to guard the Chinese evacuation efforts.[165] [180] The South Korean Navy
destroyer ROKS Choi Young arrived off the coast of Tripoli on 1 March to evacuate South Korean citizens.[181] The
UK Royal Navy destroyer HMS York docked in the port of Benghazi on 2 March, evacuated 43 nationals, and
delivered medical supplies and other humanitarian aid donated by the Swedish government.[182] [183] Canada
deployed the frigate HMCS Charlottetown to aid in the evacuation of Canadian citizens and to provide humanitarian
relief operations in conjunction with an US Navy carrier strike group, led by the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier
USS Enterprise.[184] Two Royal Air Force C-130 Hercules aircraft with British Special Forces onboard evacuated
approximately 100 foreign nationals, mainly oil workers, to Malta from the desert south of Benghazi.[185] [186] A
subsequent joint evacuation operation between the United Kingdom and Germany evacuated 22 Germans and about
100 other Europeans, mostly British oil workers, from the airport at Nafurah to Crete.[187] [188] [189] An attempt by
the Royal Netherlands Navy frigate HNLMS Tromp on 27 February to evacuate a Dutch civilian and another
European from the coastal city of Sirt by helicopter failed after its 3-man crew was apprehended by Libyan forces
loyal to Gaddafi for infiltrating Libyan airspace without clearance.[190] [191] The civilians were released soon after
and the crew was released 12 days later, but the helicopter was confiscated.[192] . Also a cruise ship arrived in Libya
to evacuate the filipinos in Libya. Only Filipino Nurses are left behind to care for the rebel forces .

Mediation proposals
There have been several peace mediation prospects during the crisis.The South African government proposed an
African Union-led mediation effort to prevent civil war.[193] Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez also put himself
forward as a mediator. Although Gaddafi accepted in principle a proposal by Chávez to negotiate a settlement
between the opposition and the Libyan government, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi later voiced some skepticism to the
proposal. The proposal has also been under consideration by the Arab League, according to its Secretary-General
Amr Moussa.[194] The Libyan opposition has stated any deal would have to involve Gaddafi stepping down. The
United States and French governments also dismissed any initiative that would allow Gaddafi to remain in
power.[195] Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan, 2010 winner of the al-Gaddafi prize for Human Rights, has
offered to mediate the crisis, and proposed that Gaddafi appoint a president acceptable to all Libyans as means of
overcoming the crisis.[196]
2011 Libyan uprising 49

Coalition intervention

 UN Mandate
(no-fly zone and other measures)

Countries committed to enforcement:







Saudi Arabia


United Kingdom

United States

On 28 February, UK Prime Minister David Cameron proposed the idea of a no-fly zone to prevent Gaddafi from
airlifting mercenaries and using his military aeroplanes and armoured helicopters against civilians.[209] Italy said it
would support a no-fly zone if it was backed by the UN.[210] US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has been
skeptical of this option, warning the US Congress that a no-fly zone would have to begin with an attack on Libya's
air defenses.[211] This proposal was rejected by Russia and China.[212] [213] [214] [215] Romania is utterly against the
initiation of a no-fly zone.[216] "Among the arguments I want to bring in order to support our position is that this
mission of initiating a no fly zone is a mission that only NATO can have and not the EU. We also consider it is not
the moment for a military solution in Libya," said Romanian President Traian Băsescu at the EU summit on 11
On 7 March, United States Permanent Representative to NATO Ivo Daalder announced that NATO decided to step
up surveillance missions to twenty-four hours a day. On the same day, it was reported that one United Nations
diplomat confirmed to Agence France-Presse on condition of anonymity that France and Britain were drawing up a
resolution on the no-fly zone and it go before the United Nations Security Council as early as this week.[217] [218]
On 12 March, the foreign ministers of the Arab League agreed to ask the United Nations to impose a no-fly zone
over Libya. That brought a joint NATO/Arab-enforced fly-zone closer to establishment. The rebels have stated that a
no-fly zone alone would not be enough, because the majority of the bombardment is coming from things other than
aircraft – particularly tanks and rockets.[219]
On 17 March, the United Nations Security Council approved Resolution 1973 (2011), allowing for a no-fly zone,
amongst other measures, by a vote of ten in favor, zero against, and five abstentions. Resolution 1973 bans all flights
in Libyan airspace in order to protect civilians[220] and authorizes member states "to take all necessary measures... to
2011 Libyan uprising 50

protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamhariya, including
Benghazi, while excluding an occupation force".[221] [222] Changing its position, the United States joined the initial
supporters of the UN no-fly resolution, Britain, France and Lebanon, to urge for a stronger resolution that allowed
military action short of ground troups to protect civilians from air, land and sea attacks by Gadhafi's fighters.[220]
British Foreign Secretary William Hague said the three criteria for taking action all have been fulfilled. The criteria
for taking action – a demonstrated need, clear legal basis and broad regional support – have all been met according
to Hague.[220]
Operation Ellamy, Operation Odyssey Dawn, Opération Harmattan, and Operation MOBILE are the codenames for
the British, American, French, and Canadian participations in the no-fly zone respectively.[223]
On 1 March, Russian NATO ambassador Dmitry Rogozin stated that: "A ban on the national air force or civil
aviation to fly over their own territory is ... a serious interference into the domestic affairs of another country".[224]
On 18 March 2011, Chairman of the Russian State Duma International Affairs Committee Konstantin Kosachyov
said that air strikes on Libya might "spark a huge conflict between the so-called West and the so-called Arab
world."[225] China and India have also criticised military intervention, with India's foreign ministry saying "the
measures adopted should mitigate and not exacerbate an already difficult situation for the people of Libya".[226] The
U.S.A. has attacked a stronghold of Ghadafi's with Tomahawk cruise missles.

Protest against foreign intervention in Libya

On 19 March, thousands of people marched on Chicago to demonstrate against U.S. attack to Libya.[227] The protest
also held at Downing Street, London,[228] in Athens [229] and in Belgrade.[230] The Arab League has complained that
the air and missile strikes have exceeded the mandate of the UN resolution.

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Further reading
• Pargeter, Alison (2006). "Libya: Reforming the impossible?". Review of African Political Economy 33 (108):
219–35. doi:10.1080/03056240600842685.
• Sadikia, Larbi (2010). "Wither Arab 'Republicanism'? The Rise of Family Rule and the 'End of Democratization'
in Egypt, Libya and Yemen". Mediterranean Politics 15 (1): 99–107. doi:10.1080/13629391003644827.

External links
Collected news coverage
• "Libya Uprising" ( Al Jazeera English.
• "Live Blog" ( Al Jazeera English.
• "Libya Revolt" ( BBC News.
• "Libya in Crisis" (
The Guardian (UK).
• "Libya –The Protests (2011)" (
libya/). The New York Times.
• "Libya" ( Reuters.
• "Libya 2011" ( RIA Novosti.
• "Libya" ( Der Spiegel.
• "A Call To Defend Libya's Unity, Sovereignty, and Independence from Imperialist Aggression" (http:// Free Arab Voice.
• "Libya 2007–2010 Data, 23 Indicators Related to Peace, Democracy and Other Aspects" (http://www. Vision of Humanity.
• Clark, Campbell; Chase, Steven (1 March 2011). "Canada Girds for Substantial Military Role in North Africa"
with-special-forces-on-ground-ottawa-sends-frigate-to-libyan-coast/article1925022/?utm_medium=Feeds: RSS/
Atom&utm_source=Politics&utm_content=1925022). The Globe and Mail (Canada). Retrieved 3 March 2011.
2011 Egyptian revolution 60

2011 Egyptian revolution

2011 Egyptian revolution

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011

Location Egypt

Date since 25 January 2011; unrest ongoing

Characteristics civil disobedience, civil resistance, demonstrations, riots, strike actions

Death(s) [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

302 to 684 (including at least 135 protesters, 12 policemen, 12 escaped prisoners, and one prison chief

Injured [8]
6,467 people

Result Resignation of President Hosni Mubarak, and the military controlling the Egyptian government. Military promising a civilian
government and the lift of the emergency law. Arrests of former ministers and their trial. Freezing of the Ex-President
Mubarak's assets as well as his family's. Ongoing.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution (Arabic: ‫ ةروث‬٢٥ ‫رياني‬‎ thawret 25 yanāyir, Revolution of 25 January) took place
following a popular uprising that began on 25 January 2011. The uprising, in which the participants placed emphasis
on the peaceful nature of the struggle, mainly comprised a campaign of civil resistance, which featured a series of
demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of
socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between
security forces and protesters. The campaign took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following
the Tunisian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the long time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following
weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office.
Grievances of Egyptian protesters focused on legal and political issues[10] including police brutality,[11] state of
emergency laws,[11] lack of free elections and freedom of speech,[12] uncontrollable corruption,[12] as well as
economic issues including high unemployment,[13] food price inflation,[13] and low minimum wages.[11] [13] The
primary demands from protest organizers are the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, the end of emergency law,
freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government, and a say in the management of Egypt's resources.[14]
Strikes by labor unions added to the pressure on government officials.[15]
There have been at least 384 deaths reported, and over 6,000 have been injured. The capital city of Cairo was
described as "a war zone,"[16] and the port city of Suez has been the scene of frequent violent clashes. The
government imposed a curfew that protesters defied and that the police and military did not enforce. The presence of
Egypt's Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was gradually replaced by largely restrained military
2011 Egyptian revolution 61

troops. In the absence of police, there was looting by gangs that opposition sources said were instigated by
plainclothes police officers. In response, civilians self-organised watch groups to protect neighbourhoods.[17] [18] [19]
[20] [21]

International response to the protests was initially mixed,[22] though most have called for some sort of peaceful
protests on both sides and moves toward reform. Mostly Western governments also expressed concern for the
situation. Many governments issued travel advisories and began making attempts at evacuating their citizens from
the country.[23] The Egyptian Revolution, along with Tunisian events, has influenced demonstrations in other Arab
countries including Yemen, Bahrain, Jordan and Libya.
Mubarak dissolved his government and appointed military figure and former head of the Egyptian General
Intelligence Directorate Omar Suleiman as Vice-President in an attempt to quell dissent. Mubarak asked aviation
minister and former chief of Egypt's Air Force, Ahmed Shafik, to form a new government. Mohamed ElBaradei
became a major figure of the opposition, with all major opposition groups supporting his role as a negotiator for
some form of transitional unity government.[24] In response to mounting pressure Mubarak announced he would not
seek re-election in September.[25]
On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak would be stepping down as president and
turning power over to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[26] The junta, headed by effective head of state
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, announced on 13 February that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of
parliament dissolved, and that the military would rule for six months until elections could be held. The prior cabinet,
including Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, would continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new one is
formed.[27] Shafik resigned on 3 March 2011, a day before major protests to get him to step down were planned; he
was replaced by Essam Sharaf, the former transport minister.[28]

In Egypt and also the wider Arab world, the protests and subsequent changes in the government, are mostly called
the 25 January Revolution (‫ ةروث‬25 ‫ رياني‬Thawrat 25 Yanāyir) and Rage Revolution (‫)بضغلا ةروث‬,and sometimes
called [29] the Revolution of the Youth (‫ بابشلا ةروث‬Thawrat al-Shabāb), Lotus Revolution (‫[ )ستوللا ةروث‬30] or
the White Revolution (‫ ءاضيبلا ةروثلا‬al-Thawrah al-bayḍāʾ).[31] In the Media it has been known as the "18 Day
Revolution [32] ".

Hosni Mubarak became head of Egypt's semi-presidential republic government
following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat, and continued to serve
until his departure in 2011. Mubarak's 30-year reign made him the longest
serving President in Egypt's history.[33] Mubarak and his National Democratic
Party (NDP) government maintained one-party rule under a continuous state of
emergency since 1981.[34] Mubarak's government earned the support of the West
and a continuation of annual aid from the United States by maintaining policies
of suppression towards Islamic militants and peace with Israel.[34] Hosni
Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some
of his harsher critics due to his authoritarian rule.[35]

Hosni Mubarak in 2009

Inheritance of power
2011 Egyptian revolution 62

The grooming of Gamal Mubarak to be his father's successor as the next president of Egypt became increasingly
evident at around the year 2000.[36] With no vice-president, and with no heir-apparent in sight, Gamal started
enjoying considerable attention in the Egyptian media.[37] Bashar al-Assad's rise to power in Syria in June 2000 just
hours after Hafez al-Assad's death, sparked a heated debate in the Egyptian press regarding the prospects for a
similar scenario occurring in Cairo.[38]
Both President Mubarak and his son denied the possibility of any inheritance of power in Egypt, although this was
widely speculated. Most recently, this claim was made in early 2006, when Gamal Mubarak declared repeatedly that
he has no aspiration to succeed his father, but that he will maintain his position in the NDP as deputy secretary
general, a post he holds in addition to heading the party's policy committee, probably the most important organ of the
In September 2004 several political groups (most are unofficial), on both the left and the right, announced their sharp
opposition to the inheritance of power. They demanded political change and asked for a fair election with more than
one candidate.[40]

Emergency law
An emergency law (Law No. 162 of 1958) was enacted after the 1967 Six-Day War, suspended for 18 months in the
early 1980s,[41] and continuously in effect since President Sadat's 1981 assassination.[42] Under the law, police
powers are extended, constitutional rights suspended, censorship is legalized,[43] and the government may imprison
individuals indefinitely and without reason. The law sharply limits any non-governmental political activity, including
street demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, and unregistered financial donations.[41] The Mubarak
government has cited the threat of terrorism in order to extend the emergency law,[42] claiming that opposition
groups like the Muslim Brotherhood could come into power in Egypt if the current government did not forgo
parliamentary elections and suppressed the group through actions allowed under emergency law.[44] This has led to
the imprisonment of activists without trials,[45] illegal undocumented hidden detention facilities,[46] [47] and rejecting
university, mosque, and newspaper staff members based on their political inclination.[48] A parliamentary election in
December 2010 was preceded by a media crackdown, arrests, candidate bans (particularly of the Muslim
Brotherhood), and allegations of fraud involving the near unanimous victory by the ruling party in parliament.[41]
Human rights organizations estimate that in 2010 between 5,000 and 10,000 people were in long-term detention
without charge or trial.[49] [50]

Police brutality
The deployment of plainclothes forces paid by Mubarak's ruling party, Baltageya[51] (Arabic: ‫ةيجطلب‬‎), has been a
hallmark of the Mubarak government.[51] The Egyptian Organisation for Human Rights has documented 567 cases
of torture, including 167 deaths, by police that occurred between 1993 and 2007.[52] On 6 June 2010, Khaled
Mohamed Saeed died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi Gaber area of Alexandria. Multiple witnesses
testified that Saeed was beaten to death by the police.[53] [54] Activists rallying around a Facebook page called "We
are all Khaled Said" succeeded in bringing nationwide attention to the case.[55] Mohamed ElBaradei, former head of
the International Atomic Energy Agency, led a rally in 2010 in Alexandria against alleged abuses by the police and
visited Saeed's family to offer condolences.[56]
Additionally, as reported by D+Z, a development magazine based in Germany, excessive force was often used by
law enforcement agencies. Their police forces constantly squelched democratic uprisings with brutal force and
corrupt tactics, as they did in the latest and only successful demonstration.[57]
2011 Egyptian revolution 63

Economic challenges
The population of Egypt grew from 30,083,419 in 1966[58] to roughly
79,000,000 by 2008.[59] The vast majority of Egyptians live in the
limited spaces near the banks of the Nile River, in an area of about
40000 square kilometers (15000 sq mi), where the only arable land is
found and competing with the need of human habitations. In late 2010,
around 40% of Egypt's population of just under 80 million lived on the
fiscal income equivalent of roughly US$2 per day with a large part of
Population pyramid in 2005. Many of those 30
the population relying on subsidised goods.[11] and younger are educated citizens who are having
difficulties finding work.
According to the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the
basic problem Egypt has is unemployment driven by a demographic
youth bulge: with the number of new people entering the job force at about 4% a year, unemployment in Egypt is
almost 10 times as high for college graduates as it is for people who have gone through elementary school,
particularly educated urban youth, who are precisely the people currently seen out in the streets.[60]
Reform, growth, and poverty
Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former
President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up considerably under
former President Anwar Sadat and Mubarak. The Mubarak-led
government from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic
reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth, but
postponed further economic reforms because of global economic
turmoil. The international economic downturn slowed Egypt's GDP
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo.
growth to 4.5% in 2009. In 2010, analysts assessed the government of
Prime Minister Ahmed Nazif would need to restart economic reforms
to attract foreign investment, boost growth, and improve economic conditions for the broader population. Despite
high levels of national economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained

Political corruption in Mubarak administration's Ministry of Interior has risen dramatically due to the increased
power over the institutional system necessary to prolong the presidency.[62] The rise to power of powerful business
men in the NDP in the government and the People's Assembly led to massive waves of anger during the years of
Prime Ministers Ahmed Nazif's government. An example of that is Ahmed Ezz's monopolizing the steel industry in
Egypt by holding more than 60% of the market share.[63] Aladdin Elaasar, an Egyptian biographer and an American
professor, estimates that the Mubarak family is worth from $50 to $70 billion.[64] [65]
The wealth of Ahmed Ezz, the former NDP Organisation Secretary, is estimated to be 18 billion Egyptian
pounds;[66] The wealth of former Housing Minister Ahmed al-Maghraby is estimated to be more than 11 billion
Egyptian pounds;[66] The wealth of former Minister of Tourism Zuhair Garrana is estimated to be 13 billion
Egyptian pounds;[66] The wealth of former Minister of Trade and Industry, Rashid Mohamed Rashid, is estimated to
be 12 billion Egyptian pounds;[66] and the wealth of former Interior Minister Habib al-Adly is estimated to be 8
billion Egyptian pounds.[66]
The perceptions of corruption and its beneficiaries being limited to businessmen with ties to the National Democratic
Party have created a picture "where wealth fuels political power and political power buys wealth."[67]
2011 Egyptian revolution 64

During the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2010, opposition groups complained of harassment and fraud
perpetrated by the government. As such opposition and civil society activists have called for changes to a number of
legal and constitutional provisions which affect elections.
In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1,
based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts (with 10 being clean and
0 being totally corrupt).[68]

Lead-up to the protests

In background preparation for a possible overthrow of Mubarak, opposition groups had studied the work of Gene
Sharp on non-violent revolution, including working with leaders of Otpor!, the student-led Serbian uprising in 2000.
Copies of Sharp's list of 198 non-violent "weapons", translated into Arabic and not always attributed to him, were
circulating in Tahrir Square during its occupation.[69] [70]

Tunisian Revolution
After the ousting of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali due to mass protests, many analysts, including
former European Commission President Romano Prodi, saw Egypt as the next country where such a revolution
might occur.[71] The Washington Post comments on this saying "The "Jasmine Revolution," [...] should serve as a
stark warning to Arab leaders – beginning with Egypt's 83-year-old Hosni Mubarak – that their refusal to allow
more economic and political opportunity is dangerous and untenable."[72] However, others argued on the contrary
citing little aspiration of the Egyptian people, low educational levels and a strong government with the support of the
military.[73] The BBC said "The simple fact is that most Egyptians do not see any way that they can change their
country or their lives through political action, be it voting, activism, or going out on the streets to demonstrate." [74]

On 17 January due to rising discontent with the country's state and the poor living conditions, and following the
self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, a man set himself ablaze in front of the Egyptian parliament;[75]
about five more attempts of self-immolation followed suit.[73]

National Police Day protests

Opposition groups were planning a day of revolt for 25 January,
coinciding with the National Police Day. The purpose was to protest
against abuses by the police in front of the Ministry of Interior.[76]
These demands expanded to include the resignation of the Minister of
Interior, the restoration of a fair minimum wage, the end of Egyptian
emergency law and term limits for the president.

Twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz was instrumental[77] in having

sparked the protests that began the uprising in Cairo.[78] In a video blog One of the protestors holding the Egyptian flag
posted two weeks before the start of the revolution, she urged the during the protests that started on 25 January
2011 in Egypt that demanded the removal of the
Egyptian people to join her in a protest on 25 January in Tahrir Square
regime and for Mubarak to step down
to bring down Mubarak's regime.[80] She used video blogging and
social media that went viral[81] and urged people not to be afraid.[82]
The April 6 Youth Movement was a major supporter of the protest and distributed 20,000 leaflets saying "I will
protest on 25 January to get my rights."

The protests were illegal, since permission required to proceed with the demonstration had not been acquired, and
the security forces had to respond according to law.[83] Many political movements, opposition parties and public
2011 Egyptian revolution 65

figures chose to support the day of revolt including Youth for Justice and Freedom, Coalition of the Youth of the
Revolution, the Popular Democratic Movement for Change and the National Association for Change. However, its
leader Mohamed El Baradei, did not support the protests saying that he "would like to use the means available from
within the system to effect change."[84] The Ghad, Karama, Wafd and Democratic Front Many others became
involved in support of the protests. Public figures including novelist Alaa Al Aswany, writer Belal Fadl, and actors
Amr Waked and Khaled Aboul Naga announced they would also participate. The Facebook group set up specifically
for the event attracted 80,000 attendees. However, the leftist National Progressive Unionist Party (the Tagammu) and
the Muslim Brotherhood stated they would not participate. The Coptic Church also urged Christians not to
participate in the protests.[85]


25 January 2011: The "Day of Revolt", protests erupted throughout
Egypt, with tens of thousands of protestors gathered in Cairo and
thousands more in cities throughout Egypt. The protests targeted
President Hosni Mubarak's government, and mostly adhered to
non-violence. Nonetheless reports emerged of civilian and police

26 January 2011: ""Shutting down The Internet"": After several

Facebook groups were created and so-called tweets (from Twitter)
facilitated mass demonstrations, the Egyptian government decided to The "Day of Revolt" on 25 January
shut down internet access for most of the Egyptian people.[86] This was
done to impede protestors communicate.
28 January 2011: The "Friday of Anger" protests began. Hundreds
of thousands demonstrated in Cairo (which also saw the arrival of
opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei) and other Egyptian cities after
Friday Prayers. There were reports of looting, and prisons were opened
and burned down on orders from then-Minister of the Interior Habib El
Adly, causing prison inmates to escape en-masse, in what was believed
to an attempt to terrorize protesters. The prison breaks were coupled By 30 January, imams from the Al-Azhar
with the complete withdrawal of police forces from the streets. The University joined the protests. Coptic priests and
Muslim clerics were seen protesting together in
military was ordered to deploy to assist the police. International fears
of violence grew, but no major casualties were reported. President
Hosni Mubarak made his first address to the nation, after 4 days of
ongoing protests and pledged to form a new government.

29 January 2011: The military presence in Cairo increased, and a

curfew was declared, but protests increased and even continued
throughout the night. The military reportedly refused to follow orders
to fire live ammunition, and exercised restraint overall. There were no
reports of major casualties.
1 February 2011: Mubarak made a televised address once again after
Hundreds of thousands of people protesting in
unceasing protests, and offered several concessions. He pledged he
Tahrir Square on February 9, 2011
2011 Egyptian revolution 66

would not run for another term in elections planned for September, and
pledged political reforms. He stated he would stay in office to oversee
a peaceful transition. Small but violent clashes began that night
between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak groups.
2 February 2011: "Battle of the Camel". Violence escalated as
waves of Mubarak supporters met anti-government protesters, and
some Mubarak supporters rode on camels and horses into Tahrir
Square. The clashes were believed to have been orchestrated by Habib Hundreds of thousands of people celebrations in
El Adly, and there were hundreds of casualties. The military tried to Tahrir Square when Hosni Mubarak's resignation
limit the violence, repeatedly separating anti-Mubarak and was announced

pro-Mubarak groups. President Mubarak reiterated his refusal to step

down in interviews with several news agencies. Incidents of violence toward journalists and reporters escalated amid
speculation that the violence was being actively aggravated by Mubarak as a way to end the protests.

6 February 2011: Egyptian Christians held Sunday Mass in Tahrir Square, protected by a ring of Muslims.
Negotiations involving Egyptian Vice President Omar Suleiman and representatives of the opposition commenced
amid continuing protests throughout the nation. The Egyptian army assumed greater security responsibilities,
maintaining order and guarding Egypt’s museums. Suleiman offered reforms, while others of Mubarak's regime
accused foreign nations, including the US, of interfering in Egypt’s affairs.
10 February 2011: Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning
(as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while
continuing as Egypt's head of state. Reactions to Mubarak's statement were marked by anger, frustration and
disappointment, and throughout various cities there was an escalation of the number and intensity of demonstrations.
11 February 2011: The "Friday of Departure": Massive protests continued in many cities as Egyptians refused the
concessions announced by Mubarak. Finally, at 6:00 p.m. local time, Suleiman announced Mubarak's resignation,
entrusting the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces with the leadership of the country.
13 February 2011: The Supreme Council dissolved Egypt’s parliament and suspended the Constitution in response
to demands by demonstrators. The council also declared that it would hold power for six months, or until elections
could be held. Calls were made that the council provide more details and specific timetables and deadlines. Major
protests subsided but did not end. In a gesture to a new beginning, protesters cleaned up and renovated Tahrir
Square, the epicenter of the demonstrations, although many pledged they would continue protests until all demands
had been met.
17 February 2011: The army stated it would not field a candidate in the upcoming presidential elections.[87] Four
important figures of the former regime were detained on that day: former interior minister Habib el-Adly, former
minister of housing Ahmed Maghrabi and former tourism minister Zuheir Garana, as well as steel tycoon Ahmed
2 March 2011: The constitutional referendum has been tentatively scheduled for 19 March 2011, but the date is yet
to be officially confirmed.[89]
3 March 2011: A day before large protests against him were planned, Ahmed Shafik stepped down as PM and was
replaced by Essam Sharaf.[90]
5 March 2011: Several State Security Intelligence (SSI) buildings were raided across Egypt by protesters, including
the headquarters for Alexandria Governorate and the main national headquarters in Nasr City, Cairo. Protesters state
they raided the buildings to secure documents they believed to show various crimes committed by the SSI against the
people of Egypt during Mubarak's rule.[91] [92]
6 March 2011: From the Nasr City headquarters protesters acquired evidence of mass surveillance and vote rigging,
and noted rooms full of videotapes, piles of shredded and burned documents, and cells where activists recounted
2011 Egyptian revolution 67

their experiences of detention and torture.[93]

19 March 2011: The constitutional referendum was held and passed by 77.27%[94]

Cities and regions

Cairo has been at the epicentre of much of the crisis. The largest
protests were held in downtown Tahrir Square, which was considered
the "protest movement’s beating heart and most effective symbol."[95]
On the first three days of the protests, there were clashes between the
central security police and protesters and as of 28 January, police
forces withdrew from all of Cairo. Citizens then formed
neighbourhood watch groups to keep the order as widespread looting
was reported. Traffic police were reintroduced to Cairo on the morning
Protesters removing portraits of Ex-president
of 31 January.[96] An estimated 2 million people protested at Tahrir Mubarak in Sohag City in upper Egypt

Alexandria, the home of Khaled Saeed, had major protests and clashes
against the police. Demonstrations continued and one on 3 February
was reported to include 750,000 people.There were few confrontations
as not many Mubarak supporters were around, except in occasional
Protesters in Alexandria
motorized convoys escorted by police. The breakdown of law and
order, including the general absence of police on the streets, continued
through to at least the evening of 3 February, including the looting and
burning of one the country's largest shopping centres. Alexandria
protests were notable for the presence of Christians and Muslims
jointly taking part in the events following the church bombing on 1
January, which saw street protests denouncing Mubarak's regime
following the attack.

In the northern city of Mansoura there were protests against the
Mubarak regime every day from 25 January onwards. One protest on 1 Two Egyptian divers in Hurgada holding a
February was estimated at one million people, while on 3 February, banner underwater saying "Leave before the
oxygen runs out"
70,000 people were reported on the streets.
The remote city of Siwa has thus far been reported as relatively calm.[98] Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in
control of the community, put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was "torched."[99]
The city of Suez has seen the most violence of the protests thus far. Eyewitness reports have suggested that the death
toll there may be higher, although confirmation has been difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area.[100]
Some online activists have referred to Suez as Egypt's Sidi Bouzid, the Tunisian city where protests started.[101] A
labor strike was held on 8 February.[102] Large protests took place on 11 February.[103]
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets from the first day (Jan. 25th) and most of the days after until Feb.
11th. It exceeded a hundred thousand many times. Some hospitals reported casualties during the clashes of Friday
2011 Egyptian revolution 68

Jan. 28th.
Beni Suef
City of Beni Suef have seen repeated protests in front of the City Hall On el Kourneish, in front of Omar abd el Aziz
Mosque, and in El Zerayeen Square, on most days of the protests and demonstrations. 12 protesters have been killed
when Police Opened fire at Mass groups protesting in front of the Police Station in Beba, South Beni suef. Many
others got injured. Thugs and outlaws have robbed many Governmental garages and burned down several
Governmental buildings.
There were also protests in Luxor.[104]
Sinai Peninsula
Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula fought the security forces for several weeks.[105]
No protests or civil unrest took place in Sharm-El-Sheikh on 31 January.[106] All was still calm as Hosni Mubarak
and his family left on 11 February.[103]
Police opened fire on protesters in the Deirout near the southern suburbs of Cairo and Asyut, on 11 February.[103]
Shebin el-Kom
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets of Shebin el-Kom on 11 February.[103]
Thousands protested in the city of El-Arish, in the Sinai Peninsula on 11 February.[103]
Large protests took place in the southern city of Sohag on 11 February.[103]
Large protests took place in the southern city of Minya on 11 February.[103]
Nearly 100,000 people protested in and about the local government headquarters in Ismaïlia on 11 February.[103]
Kafr El Sheikh
Large protests took place on 28 January and 4 February all over Kafr el-Sheikh.
Over 100,000 protesters took place in the 27 January in front of the city council in Zagazig.
2011 Egyptian revolution 69

Leading up to the protests, at least six cases of self-immolation were
reported, including a man arrested while trying to set himself on fire in
downtown Cairo.[107] These cases were inspired by, and began exactly
one month after, the acts of self-immolation in Tunisia triggering the
2010–2011 Tunisian uprising. Six instances have been reported,
including acts by Abdou Abdel-Moneim Jaafar,[108] Mohammed
Farouk Hassan,[109] Mohammed Ashour Sorour,[110] and Ahmed
Hashim al-Sayyed who later died from his injuries.[111] A memorial in Tahrir Square made by the
demonstrators in honor of those who died during
As of 30 January, Al Jazeera reported as many as 150 deaths in the the protests, regarded as shuhada' ‫– ءادهش‬
protests.[112] The Sun reported that the dead could include at least 10 "martyrs" – in Egyptian parlance. The captions in
policemen, 3 of whom were killed in Rafah by "an enraged mob".[113] the pictures attribute most of the deaths to police
By 29 January, 2,000 people were known to be injured.[114] The same
day, an employee of the Azerbaijani embassy in Egypt was killed
while returning home from work in Cairo;[115] the next day Azerbaijan
sent a plane to evacuate citizens[116] and opened a criminal
investigation into the death.[117]
Funerals for the dead on the "Friday of Anger" were held on 30
January. Hundreds of mourners gathered for the funerals calling for
Mubarak's removal.[118] By 1 February, the protests had left at least
125 people dead,[119] although Human Rights Watch said that UN
High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay claimed that as
many as 300 people may have died in the unrest. This unconfirmed
tally included 80 Human Rights Watch-verified deaths at two Cairo
Sally Zahran, who was killed during the
hospitals, 36 in Alexandria, and 13 in the port city of Suez, amongst
others;[120] [121] [122] over 3,000 people were also reported as
injured.[120] [121] [122]

Death toll of 2011 Egyptian revolution

Location of deaths The mostly confirmed References
death toll
as of 11 February 2011

Alexandria 52 [7] [123] [124] [124] [120] [125]

Suez 18 [7] [120] [125] [123]

Asyut 3 [123]

El-Arish 1 [103]

Beni Suef 17 [126]

Luxor 1 [127]

Atfih 1 [127]

Cairo 232 [7] [127] [128] [120] [129] [125] [123] [130] [7]

Kharga Oasis 1 [127]

2011 Egyptian revolution 70

Sheikh Zoweid, North Sinai 1 [131]

Abu Simbel 1 [127]

Rafah 3 [124]

Mansoura 2 [132]

Deaths in other places hit by protests 45 [131] [7] [7] [133] [129]

Total 384 [134] [135] [136] [129] [7] [137]

International reactions
International reactions have varied with most Western states saying peaceful protests should continue but also
expressing concern for the stability of the country and the region. Many states in the region expressed concern and
supported Mubarak, while others like Tunisia and Iran supported the protests. Israel was most cautious for change,
with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu asking his government ministers to maintain silence and urging
Israel's US and European allies to curb their criticism of President Mubarak;[138] [139] however, an Arab-Israeli
parliamentarian supported the protests. There were also numerous solidarity protests for the anti-government
protesters around the world.
NGOs also expressed concern about the protests and the ensuing heavy-handed state response. Many countries also
issued travel warnings or began evacuating their citizens. Even multinational corporations began evacuating their
expatriate workers.[140]

Amid the growing concerns for the country, on 21 February, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom, became the first world leader to visit Egypt since Mubarak was ousted as the president 10 days previously.
A news blackout was lifted as the prime minister landed in Cairo for a brief five-hour stopover hastily added at the
start of a planned tour of the Middle East.[141]

Domestic responses
On 29 January, Mubarak indicated he would be changing the
government because despite a "point of no return" being crossed,
national stability and law and order must prevail, that he had requested
the government, formed only months ago, to step down, and that a new
government would be formed.[142] [143] He then appointed Omar
Suleiman, head of Egyptian Intelligence, as vice president and Ahmed
Shafik as prime minister.[144] On 1 February, he spoke again saying he
would stay in office until the next election in September 2011 and then
leave without standing as a candidate. He also promised to make
"Nero burned Rome; Mubarak is burning Egypt"
political reforms.

Various opposition groups, including the Muslim Brotherhood (MB), reiterated demands for Mubarak's resignation.
The MB also said, after protests turned violent, that it was time for the military to intervene.[145] Mohammed
ElBaradei, who said he was ready to lead a transitional government,[146] was also the consensus candidate by a
unified opposition including: the April 6 Youth Movement, We Are All Khaled Said Movement, National Association
for Change, 25 January Movement, Kefaya and the Muslim Brotherhood.[147] ElBaradei formed a "steering
committee".[148] On 5 February, a "national dialogue" was started between the government and opposition groups to
2011 Egyptian revolution 71

work out a transitional period before democratic elections.

Many of Al-Azhar Imams joined the protesters on 30 January all over the country.[149] Christian leaders asked their
congregations to stay away from protests, though a number of young Christian activists joined the protests led by
Wafd Party member Raymond Lakah.[150]
The Egyptian state cracked down on the media, and shut down internet access,[151] a primary means of
communication for the opposition. Journalists were also harassed by the regime's supporters, eliciting condemnation
from the Committee to Protect Journalists, European countries and the United States.
Egyptian and foreign equity and commodity markets also reacted negatively to the increasing instability.
On 13 February, an article in the state-controlled newspaper, Al-Ahram, questioned the inclinations of Google Inc.
and its executive and activist, Wael Ghonim, due to certain translation errors when using the Google Translate
engine that were perceived as dubious by some.[152] One reported error was translating any fictitious phrase along
the lines of "... occupies Israel" in Arabic into "Israel occupies..." in English. Google Translate is a statistical
translation engine that uses web search statistics rather than grammatical rules to yield a probable translation.[153]
Since "...occupies Israel" is a low-probability query owing to the fact that Israel has not been occupied and "Israel
occupies..." is a higher-probability query on the other hand, the limitation of statistical translation results in the
inaccurate translation.

Reform process
The protests initiated a process of social and political reform by articulating a series of demands. Reform began with
President Mubarak's announcements that concessions would be made towards reform and was highlighted by his
resignation 18 days after the protests started. The list of demands for broader changes in Egyptian society and
governance, articulated by protesters and activists, includes the following:

A sign with the protesters' omnibus demands

2011 Egyptian revolution 72

Demands of the protestors[154]

Demand Status Date

1. Resignation of president Mohammed Hosni Mubarak met 11 February

2. Canceling the Emergency Law [155] date not set


3. Dismantling State Security Intelligence (the secret police) [156] 15 March


4. Announcement by (Vice-President) Omar Suleiman that he will not run in the next presidential elections met[157] 3 February

5. Dissolving the Parliament of Egypt met 13 February

6. Releasing all prisoners taken since January 25 announced 20 February

7. Ending the curfew relaxed 11 February

8. Removing SSI controlled university police [158] 3 March


9. Investigation of officials responsible for violence against protesters Announced 28 February

10. Firing minister of information Anas el-Fiqqi and stopping government owned media propaganda. met 12 February

11. Reimbursing shop owners for losses during the curfew Announced 7 February

12. Announcing the demands above on government television and radio met 11–18 February

On 17 February, an Egyptian prosecutor ordered the detention of three

ex-ministers, former Interior Minister Habib el-Adli, former Tourism
Minister Zuhair Garana and former Housing Minister Ahmed
el-Maghrabi, and a prominent businessman, steel magnate Ahmed Ezz,
pending trial on suspicion of wasting public funds. The public
prosecutor also froze the accounts of Adli and his family members on
accusations that over 4 million Egyptian pounds ($680,000) were
transferred to his personal account by a head of a contractor company,
while calling on the foreign minister to contact European countries and
ask them to freeze the accounts of the defendants.[159]

Meanwhile, the United States announced on the same day that it was
giving Egypt $150 million in crucial economic assistance to help the
key US ally transition towards democracy following the overthrow of
long time president Mubarak. US secretary of state Hillary Clinton said
that William Burns, the undersecretary of state for political affairs, and
Shredded documents found inside State Security
David Lipton, a senior White House adviser on international Investigations Service
economics, would travel to Egypt the following week.[159]

On 19 February, a moderate Islamic party, named (Arabic: ‫ديدجلا طسولا بزح‬‎) Al-Wasat Al-Jadid, or the New
Center Party, which was outlawed for 15 years was granted official recognition by an Egyptian court. The party
was founded in 1996 by activists who split off from the Muslim Brotherhood and sought to create a tolerant Islamic
movement with liberal tendencies, but its attempts to register as an official party were rejected four times since then.
On the same day, Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq said 222 political prisoners would be released. He said only a few
were detained during the popular uprising and put the number of remaining political prisoners at 487, but did not say
when they would be released.[160]
On 20 February, Dr. Yehia El Gamal(ar) a well known activist and law professor, announced (on TV channels)
accepting a vice prime minister position at a new government that will be announced on 21–22 February. He
announced removing many of the previous government members to palliate the situation.
2011 Egyptian revolution 73

On 21 February, the Muslim Brotherhood announced it would form a political party for the upcoming parliamentary
election, called the Freedom and Justice Party, which was to be led by Dr. Saad Ketatni.[161] [162] [163] Its
spokesperson noted that "when we talk about the slogans of the revolution – freedom, social justice, equality – all of
these are in the Sharia (Islamic law)."[164]
On 3 March, Prime Minister Shafik submitted his resignation to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The
Council appointed Essam Sharaf, a former Minister of Transport who began vocal criticism of the regime following
his resignation, particularly after the Qalyoub rail accident in 2006, to replace Shafik and form a new government.
Sharaf's appointment is seen as a significant concession to protesters, as he had been actively involved during the
action at Tahrir Square.[165] [166] [167] Sharaf appointed former International Court of Justice judge Nabil Elaraby as
foreign minister and General Mansour El Essawi as interior minister.[168] [169]

Court trials of state officials accused of corruption

The ousting of Mubarak was followed by a series of arrests of, and / or imposing travel bans on high profile figures
on charges of causing the death of 300-500 demonstrators, causing the injury of 5000 demonstrators, as well as
charges of embezzlement, profiteering, money laundry and abuse of human rights. Among these figures are Mubarak
himself, his wife Suzanne Mubarak, his son Gamal, his son Alaa, the former interior minister Habib el-Adly, the
former housing minister Ahmed El-Maghrabi, the former tourism minister Zoheir Garana and the former secretary of
the National Democratic Party for Organisational Affairs Ahmed Ezz.[170] Mubarak's ousted was also followed by
widespread allegations of corruption against numerous other government officials and senior politicians [171] [172] On
28 February 2011, Egypt's top prosecutor ordered an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family.[173] This was followed
by arrest warrants, travel bans and Judicial orders to freeze the assets of other known public figures, including the
former speaker of the Egyptian Parliament, Fathi Sorour, and the former speaker of the higher legislative body
(Shura Council), Safwat El Sherif.[174] [175] Arrest warrants were also issued against some public figures who left the
country with the eruption of the revolution. These warrants were issued on allegations of financial misappropriations,
rather than human rights abuses. Among these public figures are Rachid Mohamed Rachid, the former minster of
trade and industry and Hussein Salem, a business Tycoon. Salem is believed to have left for Dubai[176]
Trials of the accused officials started on March 5, 2011 when the former interior minster of Egypt, Habib el-Adli,
appeared before the Giza Criminal Court in Cairo.[177] The trials of el-Adli and other public figures are expected to
run a lengthy course.
2011 Egyptian revolution 74


Regional instability
The Egyptian Revolution, along with the events in Tunisia, have sparked a wave of major uprisings. Demonstrations
and protests have spread across the Middle East and North Africa. To date Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Jordan, Libya,
Morocco and Yemen have all seen major protests, and minor incidents have occurred in Iraq, Kuwait, Mauritania,
Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan and Syria.

Religion and politics

The protests in Egypt were not centered around religion-based politics,
but nationalism and a broad-based social consciousness.[178] Before the
uprising, the most organized and prominent opposition movements
throughout the Arab world usually came from Islamist organizations
that relied on a conviction of their faith, where members were
motivated and ready to sacrifice. However, secular forces emerged
fortified from the revolution – if not with an ideology, then at least
with concepts that had found a deep, new resonance among an entire
population: freedom, social justice, and dignity. Islamist organizations
have also emerged with greater freedom to operate. There is a change
from the intellectual stagnation created by decades of repression,
which simply presented modernity and Islam as conflicting and
incompatible. Islamists and secularists are faced with new
opportunities for dialogue and discourse, on matters such as the role of
Islam and Sharia in society and freedom of speech, or the impact of
A Copt (left) and a Salafi (right) debate in Tahrir
secularism on a predominantly Muslim population. This is driven by Square on politics and the revolution.
the existence of a new generation of Islamists who are more flexible in
their positions, as well as the fact that the protests had brought together and enabled Egyptians of all ideological,
political, and religious backgrounds to interact with each other.[179]

Shlomo Ben-Ami argues Egypt's most formidable task is to refute the old paradigm of the Arab World that sees the
only choices for regimes as between either repressive, secular dictatorships or repressive theocracies. However,
being a central part of society, any emergent regime is bound to be more attuned to religion. In his view a democracy
that excludes all religion from public life, as in France, cannot succeed in Egypt, and that no Arab democracy could
disallow the participation of political Islam if it is to be genuine.[180]

Women's role
2011 Egyptian revolution 75

Egyptian women were highly active throughout the revolution. They

took part in the protests themselves, were present in news clips and on
Facebook forums, and were part of the leadership during the Egyptian
revolution. In Tahrir Square, women volunteers, some with their
children, worked to support the protests. The remarkable overall
peacefulness of the protesters, despite great provocations, was credited
to the participation of a great many women and children. The
demographic inclusiveness of the protesters in Tahrir Square was
visible in the large number of women that participated. Many wore
Female protesters holding up a sign
head scarves and other signs of religious conservatism, while others
revelled in the freedom to kiss a friend or smoke a cigarette in public.
Egyptian women also organized protests, and reported on the events; female bloggers such as Leil Zahra Mortada
took grave risks to keep the world informed daily of the scene in Tahrir Square and elsewhere.[181] Among those
who died was Sally Zahran, who was beaten to death during one of the demonstrations. NASA reportedly plans to
name one of its Mars exploration spacecraft in Zahran's honor.[182]

The wide participation and the significant contributions by Egyptian women to the protests have been attributed to
the fact that many, especially younger women, are better educated than previous generations, representing for
instance more than half of Egyptian university students. This has been an empowering factor for women, who have
become more present and active publicly in recent years. The advent of social media has also helped provide tools
for women to become protest leaders.[181]

The military's role

The Egyptian Armed Forces enjoy a better reputation with the public
than the police does, the former perceived as a professional body
protecting the country, the latter accused of systemic corruption and
illegitimate violence. All four Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have
come from the military into power. Key Egyptian military personnel
include the defense minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and General
Sami Hafez Enan, chief of staff of the armed forces.[183] [184] The
An M1 Abrams tank of the Egyptian Army
Egyptian military totals around 468,500 well-armed active personnel,
deployed in Cairo during the revolution plus a reserve of 479,000.[185]

As head of Egypt's Armed Forces, Tantawi has been described as

"aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. He has used his position as Defense Minister to oppose
reforms, economic and political, which he saw as weakening central government authority. Other key figures, Sami
Enan chief among them, are younger and have closer connections to both the US and groups such as the Muslim
Brotherhood. An important aspect of the relationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is
the 1.3 billion dollars in military aid provided to Egypt annually, which in turn pays for American-made military
equipment, and allows Egyptian officers to receive training in the US. Guaranteed this aid package, the governing
2011 Egyptian revolution 76

military council is for the most reform-resistant.[186] [187] One analyst however, while conceding that the military is
change-resistant, states it has no option but to facilitate the process of democratization. Furthermore, the military will
have to keep its role in politics limited to continue good relations with the West, and must not restrict the
participation of political Islam if there is to be a genuine democracy.[180]

Online activism
We Are All Khaled Saeed is a Facebook group which formed in the aftermath of Saeed's beating and death. The
group attracted hundreds of thousands of members worldwide and played a prominent role in spreading and bringing
attention to the growing discontent. As the protests began, Google executive Wael Ghonim revealed that he was the
person behind the account.[188] Another potent viral online contribution was made by Asmaa Mahfouz, a female
activist who posted a video in which she challenged people to publicly protest.[189] Previously, Facebook had
suspended the group because some of its administrators were using pseudonyms, a violation of the company's 'Terms
of Service.' [190]
The usage of social media has been extensive.[191] [192] As one Egyptian activist succinctly tweeted during the
protests there, "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world."
Internet censorship has also been extensive, and in some cases comprehensive to the extent of taking entire
nation-states practically off-line.[194]

Foreign relations
Foreign governments in the West including the US have regarded Mubarak as an important ally and supporter in the
Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations.[34] After wars with Israel in 1967 and '73, Egypt signed a peace treaty in 1979,
provoking controversy in the Arab world. As provisioned in the 1978 Camp David Accords, which led to the peace
treaty, both Israel and Egypt receive billions of dollars in aid annually from the United States, with Egypt receiving
over US$1.3 billion of military aid each year in addition to economic and development assistance.[195] According to
Juan Cole, many Egyptian youth feel ignored by Mubarak on the grounds that he is not looking out for their best
interests and that he rather serves the interests of the West.[196] The cooperation of the Egyptian regime in enforcing
the blockade of the Gaza Strip was also deeply unpopular amongst the general Egyptian public.[197]

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Further reading
• Bradley, John R. (2008). Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution. New York:
Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403984777.
• Faris, David (2010). Revolutions Without Revolutionaries? Social Media Networks and Regime Response in
Egypt ( Publicly accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 116.
• Rutherford, Bruce K. (2008). Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691136653.
• Radsch, Courtney C. (2008). "Core to Commonplace: The Evolution of Egypt's Blogosphere" (http://www. Arab Media and Society (American University of Cairo) (6, Fall).

External links
• Egypt Resources ( from Google Crisis Response
• 2011 Egyptian revolution (
Protests_2011/) at the Best of the Web Directory
• Media library ( documenting Egypt's Jan 25 revolution with thousands of videos &
Live coverage
• "Egypt's new era" ( BBC News. UK.
• "Egypt protests live" ( The Guardian. UK.
• "Unrest in Egypt" ( Reuters. UK.
• Egypt Real Time Video Stream ( at Frequency
• "Egypt's Revolution" ( Al Jazeera English.
2011 Egyptian revolution 84

• Emergency Law and Police Brutality in Egypt (

emergency-law-and-police-brutality-in-egypt/) at CrowdVoice
• Citizen Media coverage on Egypt Protests (
) by Global Voices Online
• Testimonials From Egyptians (
id=33&Itemid=74&jumival=684) at The Real News
• Interview with Wael Ghonim, Google mideast manager: Guardian via Dream TV, subtitled (http://www.; Full translation (http://
• Egypt: A Nation in Waiting (Al Jazeera documentary focusing on past trends in Egypt's political history and the
events which lead to the revolution.) (
• Revolution in Cairo (PBS Frontline documentary about the role of the April 6 youth movement, cyberactivism
and the Muslim Brotherhood in the revolution) (
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 85

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

An aerial view of tsunami damage in the Tōhoku region


Map showing the epicenter of the earthquake
Date 14:46:23, 11 March 2011 (+09:00)

Duration [1]
6 minutes

Magnitude [2] [3]

9.0 Mw

Depth 32 km (19.9 mi)

Epicenter location 38°19′19″N 142°22′08″E

Type Megathrust earthquake

Countries or regions affected Japan (primary)

Pacific Rim (tsunami)

Total damage Flooding, landslides, fires, building and infrastructure damage, nuclear incidents

Peak ground acceleration 2.99 g (3-component vector)

Tsunami Yes

Landslides Yes

Foreshocks 7+ (4+ above 6.0 MW)

Aftershocks 647+ (44+ above 6.0 MW)

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 86

Casualties [4] [5] [4] [5] [4] [5]

8,649 deaths, 2,644 injured, 13,261 people missing (all figures preliminary)

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami (東北地方太平洋沖地震 Tōhoku Chihō Taiheiyō-oki Jishin[6] ,
literally "Tōhoku region Pacific Ocean offshore earthquake"[7] ) was a 9.0-magnitude megathrust earthquake off the
coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011.[2] [3] [8] The epicenter was
130 kilometers (81 mi) off the east coast of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku near Sendai, with the hypocenter at a
depth of 32 km (19.9 mi).[9] [10]
The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 10 meters (33 ft) that struck Japan minutes
after the quake, in some cases traveling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland,[11] with smaller waves reaching many other
countries after several hours. Tsunami warnings were issued and evacuations ordered along Japan's Pacific coast and
at least 20 other countries, including the entire Pacific coast of North America and South America.[12] [13] [14]
The Japanese National Police Agency has officially confirmed 8,649 deaths,[4] [5] 2,644 injured,[4] [5] and 13,261
people missing[4] [5] across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.[4] [5] The
earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in Japan, including heavy damage to roads
and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse.[11] [15] Around 4.4 million households in
northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water.[16] Many electrical generators were
taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their
outer containment buildings. On 18 March, International Atomic Energy Agency Chief Yukiya Amano described the
crisis as "extremely serious."[17] Residents within a 20 km (12 mi) radius of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant
and a 10 km (6 mi) radius of the Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated.
Estimates of the Tōhoku earthquake's magnitude make it the most powerful known earthquake to hit Japan, and one
of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record-keeping began in 1900.[8] [18] [19]
Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said that "in the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and
the most difficult crisis for Japan."[20] The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m (7.9 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its
axis by almost 10 cm (3.9 in).[21] [22] Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to
$34.6 billion.[23] The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an
effort to normalize market conditions.[24]

The 9.0-magnitude (MW) megathrust earthquake occurred on 11
March 2011 at 14:46 JST in the western Pacific Ocean,
130 kilometers (81 mi) east of Sendai, Honshu, Japan, lasting
approximately six minutes.[1] Its epicenter was 373 km (232 mi)
from Tokyo, according to the United States Geological Survey
(USGS) and Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA). The main
earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, and
multiple aftershocks were reported afterwards. The first major
foreshock was a 7.2 MW event on 9 March, approximately 40 km
(25 mi) from the 11 March quake, with another three on the same
day in excess of 6.0 MW.[2] [25] Following the quake, a 7.0 MW
aftershock was reported at 15:06 JST, followed by a 7.4 at 15:15 Map of the Tōhoku earthquake and aftershocks
JST and a 7.2 at 15:26 JST. Over six hundred aftershocks of
magnitude 4.5 or greater have occurred since the initial quake.[27] USGS director Marcia McNutt explained that
aftershocks follow Omori's Law, might continue for years, and will taper off in time.[28]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 87

One minute prior to the effects of the earthquake being felt in Tokyo, the Earthquake Early Warning system, which
includes more than 1,000 seismometers in Japan, sent out warnings of an impending earthquake to millions. This
was possible because the damaging seismic S-waves, traveling at 4 km (2.5 mi) per second, took about 90 seconds to
travel the 373 km (232 mi) to Tokyo. The early warning is believed by the JMA to have saved many lives.[29] [30]
Initially reported as 7.9 MW by the USGS, the magnitude was quickly
upgraded to 8.8 and then to 8.9,[31] and then again to 9.0.[32] [3] This
earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the
plate beneath northern Honshu; which plate this is is a matter of debate
amongst scientists.[33] [22] The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8
to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) a year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate
releasing large amounts of energy. This motion pulls the upper plate
down until the stress builds up enough to cause a seismic event. The
Soil liquefaction in Koto, Tokyo break 130 kilometers (81 mi) off of the coast of Sendai was estimated
to be several tens of kilometers long and only 32 km (19.9 mi) deep,
and caused the sea floor to spring up several meters, causing the earthquake.[33] [34] A quake of this size usually has a
rupture length of at least 480 km (300 mi) and requires a long, relatively straight fault line. Because the plate
boundary and subduction zone in this region is not very straight, it is unusual for the magnitude of an earthquake to
exceed 8.5; the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists.[35] The hypocentral region of this
earthquake extends from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture.[36] The Japanese Meteorological
Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km
(310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi).[37] [38] Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three
events.[39] The earthquake may have had a mechanism similar to that of another large earthquake in 869 with an
estimated surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 8.6, which also created a large tsunami.[40] Other major earthquakes with
tsunamis struck the Sanriku Coast region in 1896 and in 1933.

The quake registered at the maximum of 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale in Kurihara,
Miyagi Prefecture.[41] Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA
scale. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in
Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) recorded a maximum vector
sum(3 component) peak ground acceleration of 2.99g (29.33 m/s²).[42] [43]

This earthquake released a surface energy (Me) of 1.9±0.5×1017 joules,[44] dissipated as shaking and tsunamic
energy, which is nearly double that of the 9.1-magnitude 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed
230,000 people, and flung the 2,600 ton Apung 1 ship 2 to 3 km (1.2 to 1.9 mi) inland. "If we could only harness the
[surface] energy from this earthquake, it would power [a] city the size of Los Angeles for an entire year," McNutt
said in an interview.[28] The total energy released, also known as the seismic moment (M0), was more than 200,000
times the surface energy and was calculated by the USGS at 3.9×1022 joules,[45] slightly less than the 2004 Indian
Ocean quake. This is equivalent to 9.32 teratons of TNT, or approximately 600 million times the energy of the
Hiroshima bomb.
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 88

Geophysical impact
The quake moved portions of northeast Japan by as much as 2.4 meters (7.9 ft) closer to North America,[21] [22]
making portions of Japan's landmass "wider than before," according to geophysicist Ross Stein.[22] Portions of Japan
closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts.[22] Stein also noted that a 400-kilometer (250 mi) stretch of
coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 m (2.0 ft), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land.[22] The
Pacific plate itself may have moved westwards by up to 20 m (66 ft), though the actual displacement will have
diminished with greater distance from the site of the fault.[46] Other estimates put the amount of slippage at as much
as 40 m (130 ft), covering an area some 300 to 400 km (190 to 250 mi) long by 100 km (62 mi) wide. If confirmed,
this would be one of the largest recorded fault movements to have been associated with an earthquake.[47]
According to Italy's National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology,
the earthquake shifted the Earth's axis by 25 centimeters (9.8 in). This
deviation led to a number of small planetary changes, including the
length of a day and the tilt of the Earth.[48] The speed of the Earth's
rotation increased, shortening the day by 1.8 microseconds due to the
redistribution of Earth's mass.[49] The axial shift was caused by the
redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface, which changed the
planet's moment of inertia. Due to the effects of conservation of
angular momentum, such changes of inertia result in small changes to
Street and manhole damage after the earthquake
the Earth's rate of rotation.[50] These are expected changes[48] for an
earthquake of this magnitude.[21] [49]

Shinmoedake, a volcano in Kyushu, erupted two days after the earthquake. The volcano had erupted in January
2011; it is not known if the later eruption was linked to the earthquake.[51] In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the
earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 m (1.6 ft).[52]

The earthquake caused a massive tsunami which wrought massive
destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands. The
tsunami propagated across the Pacific, and warnings were issued and
evacuations carried out in many countries bordering the Pacific,
including the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from
Alaska to Chile;[12] [13] [14] however, while the tsunami was felt in
many of these places, it caused only relatively minor effects. Chile's
section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan, at about
17000 kilometers (11000 mi) away,[53] but still was struck by tsunami Wave height map of the tsunami from NOAA

waves 2 meters (6.6 ft) high.[54] [55]

The tsunami warning issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency was the most serious on its warning scale; it rated
as a "major tsunami", being at least 3 m (9.8 ft) high.[56] The actual height predicted varied, the greatest being for
Miyagi at 10 m (33 ft) high.[57] The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST around 70 km (43 mi) from the nearest point
on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 89

have taken 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then
areas further north and south based on the geography of the
coastline.[58] [59] Just over an hour after the earthquake at 15:55 JST, a
tsunami was observed flooding Sendai Airport, which is located near
the coast of Miyagi Prefecture,[60] [61] with waves sweeping away cars
and planes and flooding various buildings as they traveled inland.[62]
The impact of the tsunami in and around Sendai Airport was
filmed by an NHK News helicopter, showing a number of vehicles on
local roads trying to escape the approaching wave and being engulfed Water column height on 11 March 2011 at DART
by it.[64] A 4-meter (13 ft)-high tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture.[65] Station, 690 NM Southeast of Tokyo
Wakabayashi Ward in Sendai was also particularly hard hit.[66]

Like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the damage by surging water, though much more localized, was
far more deadly and destructive than the actual quake. There were reports of "whole towns gone" from tsunami-hit
areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in Minamisanriku;[67] one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town
by 14 March 2011.[68]
Kuji and Ōfunato have been "swept away ... leaving no trace that a
town was there."[69] [70] Also destroyed was Rikuzentakata, where the
tsunami was reportedly three stories high.[71] [72] [73] Other cities
reportedly destroyed or heavily damaged by the tsunami include
Kamaishi, Miyako, Ōtsuchi, and Yamada (all in Iwate Prefecture),
Namie, Sōma and Minamisōma (all in Fukushima Prefecture) and
Onagawa, Natori, Ishinomaki, and Kesennuma (all in Miyagi
Tsunami flooding on the Sendai Airport runway Prefecture).[74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] The severest effects of the tsunami
were felt along a 670-kilometer (420 mi)-long stretch of coastline from
Erimo in the north to Ōarai in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the
earthquake.[80] Near Ōarai, people captured images of a huge whirlpool that had been generated by the tsunami.[81]
The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents.[82]

On 13 March 2011, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) published details of tsunami observations recorded
around the coastline of Japan following the earthquake. These observations included tsunami maximum readings of
over 3 meters (9.8 ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46
• 15:12 JST – Iwate Kamaishi-oki – 6.8 m (22 ft)
• 15:15 JST – Ōfunato – 3.2 m (10 ft) or higher
• 15:20 JST – Ishinomaki-shi Ayukawa – 3.3 m (11 ft) or higher
• 15:21 JST – Miyako – 4.0 m (13.1 ft) or higher
• 15:21 JST – Kamaishi – 4.1 m (13 ft) or higher
• 15:44 JST – Erimo-cho Shoya – 3.5 m (11 ft)
• 15:50 JST – Sōma – 7.3 m (24 ft) or higher
• 16:52 JST – Ōarai – 4.2 m (14 ft)
On 18 March, the Daily Yomiuri reported the tsunami at Sanrikuchō-ryōri, Ōfunato was at least 23 m (75 ft) high
according to the study conducted by the Port and Airport Research Institute.[84] [85]
These readings were obtained from recording stations maintained by the JMA around the coastline of Japan. Many
areas were also affected by tsunamis of 1 to 3 meters (3.3 to 9.8 ft) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the
caveat that "At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites." The
timing of the earliest recorded tsunami maximum readings ranged from 15:12 to 15:21, between 26 and 35 minutes
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 90

after the earthquake had struck. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more
detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunamis.[86] [87]

Elsewhere across the Pacific

Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued tsunami watches and warnings for
locations in the Pacific. At 07:30 UTC, PTWC issued a widespread tsunami warning covering the entire Pacific
Ocean.[88] [89] The United States West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the
coastal areas of most of California, all of Oregon, and the western part of Alaska, and a tsunami advisory covering
the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of Washington and British Columbia, Canada.[90] [91] In California
and Oregon, up to 8 ft (2.4 m) high tsunami surges hit some areas, damaging docks and harbors and causing over
US$10 million of damage.[92] [93] Hawaii estimated damage to public infrastructure alone at $3 million, with damage
to private property estimated at tens of millions of dollars.[94] Surges of up to 1 m (3.3 ft) hit Vancouver Island in
Authorities in Wewak, East Sepik, Papua New Guinea evacuated 100
patients from the city's Boram Hospital before it was hit by the waves,
causing an estimated US$4 million in damages.[95] Peru reported a
wave of 1.5 m (4.9 ft) and more than 300 homes damaged.[96] The
surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses,[97]
with waves of up to 3 m (9.8 ft).[98] [99] In the Galapagos Islands, 260
families received assistance following a 3 m (9.8 ft) surge which
arrived 20 hours after the earthquake, after the tsunami warning had
A Bonin Petrel, trapped in the sand on Midway
been lifted.[100] [101]
Atoll by the tsunami
Some other South Pacific countries, including Tonga and New
Zealand, and U.S. territories American Samoa and Guam, experienced larger-than-normal waves, but did not report
any major damage.[102] Some houses along the coast in Jayapura, Indonesia were destroyed.[103] Along the Pacific
Coast of Mexico and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage.[96]
Russia evacuated 11,000 residents from coastal areas of the Kuril Islands.[104] In the Philippines, waves up to 0.5 m
(1.6 ft) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. It was reported that a 5 ft (1.5 m) high wave completely
submerged Midway Atoll's reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting seabirds at the Midway
Atoll National Wildlife Refuge.[105]

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 91

The bottom MODIS satellite image was taken on 26 February, and the top on 13 March, after the tsunami. Sendai is in the upper
third of both (the red circle to its immediate north-east marks a fire). Scale bar is 10 km (6.2 mi).

The National Police Agency has officially confirmed 8,649 deaths,[4] [5] 2,644 injured,[4] [5] and 13,261 people
missing[4] [5] across eighteen prefectures.[4] [5] These numbers are expected to increase, with casualties estimated to
reach tens of thousands.[106]
Prefectural officials and the Kyodo News Agency, quoting local officials, said that 9,500 people from
Minamisanriku in Miyagi Prefecture—about a half of the town's population—were unaccounted for.[107] NHK has
reported that the death toll in Iwate Prefecture alone may reach 10,000.[62]
Save the Children reports that as many as 100,000 children have been uprooted from their homes, some of whom
were separated from their families because the earthquake occurred during the school day.[108]
On 14 March, Kyodo News Agency reported that some 2,000 bodies were found on two shores in Miyagi
It was reported that four passenger trains containing an unknown number of passengers disappeared in a coastal area
during the tsunami.[110] One of the trains, on the Senseki Line, was found derailed in the morning; all passengers
were rescued by a police helicopter.[111] Der Spiegel later reported that five missing trains in Miyagi Prefecture had
been found with all passengers safe, although this information could not be confirmed locally.[112]
By 9:30 UTC on 11 March, Google Person Finder, which was previously used in the Haitian, Chilean, and
Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes, was collecting information about survivors and their locations.[113] [114]
The Next of Kin Registry (NOKR) is assisting the Japanese government in locating next of kin for those missing or
One man was killed in Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia after being swept out to sea.[116] Near Crescent City, California, a
25-year-old man who is said to have been attempting to photograph the oncoming tsunami was swept out to sea and
confirmed dead.[117]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 92

Damage and effects

The degree and extent of damage caused by the earthquake and
resulting tsunami were enormous, with most of the damage being
caused by the tsunami. Video footage of the worst affected towns
shows little more than piles of rubble, with almost no parts of any
structures left standing.[118] Estimates of the cost of the damage range
well into the tens of billions of US dollars; before-and-after satellite
photographs of devastated regions show immense damage to many
regions.[119] [120] Although Japan has invested the equivalent of
billions of dollars on anti-tsunami seawalls which line at least 40
percent of its 34751-kilometer (21593 mi) coastline and stand up to
12 meters (39 ft) high, the tsunami simply washed over the top of some
seawalls, collapsing some in the process.[121]

Nuclear power plants

The Fukushima I, Fukushima II, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant and
Tōkai nuclear power stations, consisting of a total eleven reactors,
were automatically shut down following the earthquake.[122] Search-and-rescue activities are visible amongst
Higashidōri, also on the northeast coast, was already shut down for a the remains left by the tsunami.

periodic inspection. Cooling is needed to remove decay heat for several

days after a plant has been shut down. The cooling process is powered
by emergency diesel generators, as in the case of Rokkasho nuclear
reprocessing plant.[123] At Fukushima I and II tsunami waves
overtopped seawalls and destroyed diesel backup power systems,
leading to severe problems including two large explosions at
Fukushima I and leakage of radiation. Over 200,000 people have been
evacuated.[124] On 16 March, it was reported that favorable winds were
carrying radioactive particles from the incidents out to sea, mitigating
some of the negative effects.[125] Further into the crisis, helicopters
were used to dump water on the Fukushima I plant to further attempt to
cool the reactors.[126]

Europe's energy commissioner Guenther Oettinger, in remarks to the

European Parliament on 15 March, called the nuclear disaster an
"apocalypse", saying that the word was particularly well chosen, and
that Tokyo had almost lost control of events at the Fukushima power

Tsunami damage between Sendai and

Sendai Bay.
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 93

Fukushima I and II Nuclear Power Plants

Japan declared a state of emergency following the failure of the

cooling system at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in
the evacuation of nearby residents.[128] [129] Officials from the
Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency have reported that
radiation levels inside the plant are up to 1,000 times normal
levels,[130] and that radiation levels outside the plant are up to 8 times
normal levels.[131] Later, a state of emergency was also declared at the
Fukushima II nuclear power plant about 11 km (7 mi) south.[132] This
brings the total number of problematic reactors to six.[133]

On 12 March, a large explosion, thought to be caused by the buildup of Destruction at the Fukushima site
hydrogen gas, blew away the roof and outer walls of the Reactor 1
building, releasing a large cloud of dust and vapor, but the reactor itself was not damaged in the explosion.[134] [135]
A BBC journalist reported being stopped 60 kilometers (37 mi) from the blast site by police.[134]
On Sunday, 13 March, Japanese authorities admitted that a partial nuclear meltdown could be occurring in Reactors
1 and 3.[137] On 12 March at 01:17 JST (16:17 GMT), the Japan Atomic Energy Agency announced that it was rating
the Fukushima accident at 4 (accident with local consequences) on the 0–7 International Nuclear Event Scale
(INES),[138] below the Three Mile Island accident in seriousness.[139] This has been questioned by the French ASN
nuclear safety authority. They say the accident can be classed as a 5 or 6, which would be comparable to or worse
than the Three Mile Island accident.[140] On 18 March, Japan's nuclear safety agency raised the severity level of the
crisis from 4 to 5.[141]
Another explosion occurred at Reactor 3 of the Fukushima I plant just
after 11:00 JST on 14 March.[142] An exterior wall of the building
collapsed, but the reactor vessel was not damaged according to a
government spokesperson.[143] At 16:29 UTC on Monday 14 March
(14 March 01:29 UTC), the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety
Agency announced that the explosion had occurred. The local
Visualization of before and after damage to
Fukushima power plant, Unit 1 population was advised by the authorities to stay home until the
radioactive situation of the environment is totally clarified.[144] Unlike
the other five reactor units, reactor 3 runs on mixed uranium and plutonium oxide, or MOX fuel, making it
potentially more dangerous in an incident due to the neutronic effects of plutonium on the reactor and the
carcinogenic effects in the event of release to the environment.[145] [146] [147] Tokyo Electric Power Company
(TEPCO) is trying to reduce the pressure within the plants by venting contaminated steam from the reactor vessels
into the atmosphere. According to Tomoko Murakami, of the nuclear energy group at Japan's Institute of Energy
Economics, this would not result in the release of significant radiation.[148] Residents living within a 20 km (12 mi)
radius of the Fukushima I plant were evacuated, as well as residents within 3 km (1.9 mi) of the Fukushima II
plant.[149] [150] [151]

Additionally, it was reported on 14 March at 07:00 EDT that the fuel rods of Reactor 2 at the Fukushima I plant were
now fully exposed, and a meltdown of the fuel rods, with the risk of damage to the reactor vessel and a possible
radioactive leak, could not be ruled out.[152] As of 14 March 2011, about 160 people have been exposed to dangerous
radiation levels near the power stations. One plant employee was killed while operating a crane, eight others have
been injured.[153] An additional eleven employees were injured when the Reactor 3 building exploded.[154] Several
people received some radiation doses.[155]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 94

On 15 March, at 6:10 am JST an explosion occurred at Reactor 2 of the

Fukushima I plant.[156] After the explosion, the radiation level spiked
to 8.217 millisieverts (mSv) per hour.[157] The government admitted it
was "very probable" that the cores of Reactors 1, 2 and 3 had
experienced (partial) meltdowns due to high temperatures.[158] A
fourth Fukushima I reactor, Reactor 4, was also rocked by an explosion
on 15 March.[159] Radiation levels of up to 400 mSv per hour were
recorded near Reactor 4, while 100 mSv per year is considered a safe
level.[160] USN sailors on humanitarian duty are checked
for radiation exposure
A US Navy relief group moved from the immediate area after its
helicopters detected low-level radiation while returning to their aircraft carrier from a search and rescue mission,
160 km (99 mi) offshore. The flight absorbed the equivalent amount of earthbound background radiation for a
month, in the span of about an hour.[161] [162]
On 15 March, the radiation level in Tokyo reached 20 times the normal level. The highest level in the Kantō region
was 40 times the normal level in Saitama at 11:00 JST but then receded to ten times the normal level. Local officials
have assured the public that this is not a threat to human health.[163] [164]
On 15 March, at 11:51 JST Japan suspended operations at the stricken
Fukushima I nuclear plant after a surge in radiation made it too
dangerous for workers to remain at the facility.[165] However, workers
returned about an hour later after radiation levels decreased.[160] As of
16 March 2011, five plant workers have died and 22 others have been
injured. Two others are reported missing.[166] The government raised
the national safety standard governing radiation exposure from 100 to
250 mSv per year, so plant workers could continue their work.[167]

It was reported that radioactive iodine was detected in the tap water in
Fukushima, Toshigi, Gunma, Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, and Niigata, and
A map showing epicenter of earthquake and radioactive cesium in the tap water in Fukushima, Tochigi and
position of nuclear power plants
Gunma.[168] [169] [170]

Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant

A fire from the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake was reported by
Kyodo News.[123] [171] The blaze was in a building housing the turbine, which is sited separately from the plant's
reactor,[128] and was soon extinguished.[172]
On 13 March the lowest-level state of emergency was declared regarding the Onagawa plant by TEPCO, as
radioactivity readings temporarily[173] exceeded allowed levels in the area of the plant.[174] [175] TEPCO stated this
was due to radiation from the Fukushima I nuclear accidents and not from the Onagawa plant itself.[176]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 95

Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant

The number 2 reactor at Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant was shut down automatically.[122] On 14 March it was reported
that a cooling system pump for this reactor had stopped working;[177] however, the Japan Atomic Power Company
stated that there was a second operational pump sustaining the cooling system, but that two of three diesel generators
used to power the cooling system were out of order.[178]

All of Japan's ports were briefly closed after the earthquake, though the
ones in Tokyo and southwards soon re-opened. The north-eastern ports
of Hachinohe, Sendai, Ishinomaki and Onahama were destroyed, while
Chiba port (which serves the hydrocarbon industry) and Japan's
ninth-largest container port at Kashima were also affected though less
severely. The ports at Hitachinaka, Hitachi, Soma, Shiogama,
Kesennuma, Ofunato, Kamashi and Miyako were also damaged and
were expected to be out of action for weeks.[179] The Port of Tokyo
Fishing boats and building debris washed out to
suffered slight damage; the effects of the quake included visible smoke
rising from a building in the port with parts of the port areas being
flooded, including soil liquefaction in Tokyo Disneyland's carpark.[180]

Dam failure
The Fujinuma irrigation dam in Sukagawa ruptured,[182] causing flooding and washing away homes.[183] Eight
people were missing and four bodies were discovered by the morning.[184] [185] [186] Reportedly, some locals had
attempted to repair leaks in the dam before it completely failed.[187] On 12 March, 252 dams were inspected and it
was discovered that six embankment dams had shallow cracks on their crests. The reservoir at one concrete gravity
dam suffered a small non-serious slope failure. All damaged dams are functioning with no problems. Four dams
within the quake area were unreachable. When the roads clear, experts will be dispatched to conduct further

In the immediate aftermath of the calamity, at least 1.5 million households were reported to have lost access to water
supplies.[16] [189] By 21 March 2011, this number fell to 1.04 million.[190]

According to Tōhoku Electric Power (TEP), around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without
electricity.[191] Several nuclear and conventional power plants went offline after the earthquake. Rolling blackouts
began on 14 March due to power shortages caused by the earthquake.[192] The Tokyo Electric Power Company
(TEPCO), which normally provides approximately 40 GW of electricity, announced that it can currently provide
only about 30 GW. This is because 40 percent of the electricity used in the greater Tokyo area is now supplied by
reactors in the Niigata and Fukushima prefectures.[193] The reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Dai-ni
plants were automatically taken offline when the first earthquake occurred and have sustained major damage related
to the earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Rolling blackouts of three hours are expected to last until the end of April
and will affect the Tokyo, Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Yamanashi, Chiba, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tochigi, and Gunma
prefectures.[194] Voluntary reduced electricity use by consumers in the Kanto area helped reduce the predicted
frequency and duration of the blackouts.[195] By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without
electricity fell to 242,927.[190]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 96

Tōhoku Electric Power cannot currently provide the Kanto region with additional power, because TEP's power
plants were also damaged in the earthquake. Kansai Electric Power Company (Kepco) cannot share electricity,
because its system operates at 60 hertz, whereas TEPCO and TEP operate their systems at 50 hertz; this is due to
early industrial and infrastructure development in the 1880s that left Japan without a unified national power grid.[196]
Two substations, one in Shizuoka Prefecture and one in Nagano Prefecture, can convert between frequencies and
transfer electricity from Kansai to Kanto and Tōhoku, but their capacity to do so is limited to 1 GW. With the
damage to so many power plants, it could be years before electricity productions levels in eastern Japan return to
pre-quake levels.[197]

Oil, gas and coal

A 220,000-barrel-per-day[198] oil refinery of Cosmo Oil Company was set on fire
by the quake at Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, to the east of Tokyo,[199] while others
halted production due to safety checks and power loss.[200] [201] In Sendai, a
145,000-barrel-per-day refinery owned by the largest refiner in Japan, JX Nippon
Oil & Energy, was also set ablaze by the quake.[198] Workers were
evacuated,[202] but tsunami warnings hindered efforts to extinguish the fire until
14 March, when officials planned to do so.[198]

An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as

much as 300,000 barrels per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants
burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear
power capacity.[203] [204]
The city-owned plant for importing liquefied natural gas in Sendai was severely
damaged, and supplies were halted for at least a month.[205] Fire at the Cosmo Oil refinery in
[206] Ichihara
Three coal bulk carrier ships in Japanese ports were damaged by the tsunami.

Japan's transport network suffered severe disruptions. Many sections of Tōhoku Expressway serving northern Japan
were damaged.[207] All railway services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at
major stations across the city.[208] In the hours after the earthquake, some train services were resumed.[209] Most
Tokyo area train lines resumed full service by the next day-12 March.[210] Twenty thousand stranded visitors spent
the night of 11–12 March inside Tokyo Disneyland.[211]
A tsunami wave flooded Sendai Airport at 15:55 JST,[60] about 1 hour
after the initial quake. Narita and Haneda Airport both suspended
operations after the quake, with most flights diverted to other airports
for about 24 hours.[181] Ten airliners bound for Narita were diverted to
nearby Yokota Air Base.[212]
Various train services around Japan were also canceled, with JR East
suspending all services for the rest of the day.[213] Four trains on
coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one,
a four-car train on the Senseki Line, was found to have derailed, and its Shinkansen bullet train, overhead power lines
occupants were rescued shortly after 8 am the next morning.[214] damaged by earthquake
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 97

There had been no derailments of Shinkansen bullet train services in and out of Tokyo, but their services were also
suspended.[181] The Tōkaidō Shinkansen resumed limited service late in the day and was back to its normal schedule
by the next day, while the Jōetsu and Nagano Shinkansen resumed services late on 12 March; however, the Tōhoku
Shinkansen remained suspended, with visible damage to electrical poles and elevated spans, and the state of the line
in harder-hit areas still difficult to ascertain.[215] Services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen partially resumed on 15 March,
with one round-trip service per hour between Tokyo and Nasu-Shiobara.[216]
Minami-Kesennuma Station on the Kesennuma Line was obliterated
save for its platform;[217] anecdotal evidence suggests severe damage
to the line as well as other coastal lines (including the Ishinomaki Line
and Senseki Line).
The rolling blackouts brought on by the crises at the nuclear power
plants in Fukushima had a profound effect on the rail networks around
Tokyo starting on 14 March. Major railways began running trains at
10–20 minute intervals, rather than the usual 3–5 minute intervals,
operating some lines only at rush hour and completely shutting down
Stranded passengers on a Tokyo train are
unloaded using a ladder others; notably, the Tokaido Main Line, Yokosuka Line, Sobu Main
Line and Chūō-Sōbu Line were all stopped for the day.[218] This led to
near-paralysis within the capital, with long lines at train stations and many people unable to come to work or get
home. Railway operators gradually increased capacity over the next few days, until running at approximately 80%
capacity by 17 March and relieving the worst of the passenger congestion.

Cellular and landline phone service suffered major disruptions in the affected area.[219] Internet services were largely
unaffected in areas where basic infrastructure remained, despite the earthquake having damaged portions of several
undersea cable systems landing in the affected regions; these systems were able to reroute around affected segments
onto redundant links.[220] [221] Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable.[222] Several Wi-Fi
hotspot providers have reacted to the quake by providing free access to their networks.[222]

Space center
JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) evacuated the Tsukuba Space Center in Tsukuba, Ibaraki. The
Tsukuba Space Center has been shut down, with some damage reported. The Tsukuba Space Center houses a control
room for part of the International Space Station.[223] [224]

The 2011 World Figure Skating Championships were scheduled to take place from 21–27 March at the Yoyogi
National Gymnasium in Tokyo but the International Skating Union decided on 14 March to postpone the event, after
the German team announced that it would follow recommendations not to travel to Japan.[225] International Skating
Union President Ottavio Cinquanta published a statement on the federation website on 15 March, confirming the
cancellation of the event. However, the possibility of re-scheduling remains, said the ISU chief. "The postponement
of the event or alternatively the final cancellation is under evaluation."[226]
Also on hold is the ISU Figure Skating World Team Trophy, scheduled for Yokohama on 14–17 April. The ISU is
waiting for guidance from Japanese authorities on whether the skating championships can be held. "It is understood
that a postponement of the above-mentioned World Championships as well as the holding of the ISU World Team
Trophy is subject to the confirmation by the competent Japanese authorities that the situation is back to normal
conditions allowing the safe conduct of major ISU sports Events in the Tokyo area," says the ISU.[227]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 98

The 2011 Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix, originally scheduled for 24 April, was moved to 2 October.[228] [229]
The 2011 Asia League Ice Hockey finals between the Tōhoku Free Blades and Anyang Halla were to begin on 11
March but the five games were canceled. As of 14 March 2011, no rescheduled dates were announced.
The Japanese national football team canceled their friendly match with Montenegro scheduled for March 25 in
Shizuoka. They are currently scheduled to play New Zealand in Tokyo on March 29, however the Japan Football
Association is negotiating to have the game moved to Osaka, much further away from the affected area. "We hope to
play New Zealand, which like Japan has also suffered damage from a big earthquake," Japan FA president Junji
Ogura said in a statement.[230]
The ITF tennis tournament, Japan Future 1, was to take place on Nishitama District, Tokyo from 14-20 March and
was cancelled after the qualifying round was completed. The series of four ITF Men’s Circuit Futures tournaments in
and around Tokyo, commencing the week of the 14th March 2011 has been cancelled.

Economic impact
Some analysts are predicting that the total recovery costs could reach
¥10 trillion ($122 billion).[231] The northern Tōhoku region, which was
most affected, accounts for about 8 percent of the country's gross
domestic product, with factories that manufacture products such as cars
and beer, as well as energy infrastructure.[232] It includes the northern
Miyagi prefecture, where Sendai is located, about 300 km (180 miles)
northeast of Tokyo. The Miyagi area includes manufacturing and
industrial zones with chemical and electronics plants. It is estimated
that Miyagi accounts for 1.7% of Japan's gross domestic product.[233] An aerial view of the Sendai port, 12 March

The earthquake and tsunami have had significant immediate impacts on businesses such as Toyota, Nissan and
Honda, which completely suspended auto production until 14 March. Nippon Steel Corporation also suspended
production, Toyo Tire & Rubber Company and Sumitomo Rubber Industries shuttered their tire and rubber
production lines, while GS Yuasa closed its automotive battery production. This was expected to hinder supply
availability for automakers.[234] Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba, East Japan Railway Company and
Shin-Etsu Chemical were suggested as the most vulnerable companies as a result of the earthquake.[235] Sony also
suspended production at all its six plants in the area, while Fuji Heavy Industries discontinued production at most of
its factories in the Gunma and the Tochigi Prefectures.[236] Other factories suspending operations include Kirin
Holdings, GlaxoSmithKline, Nestlé[237] and Toyota amid power cuts.[238] The factory shutdowns, power cuts and the
consequent presumed impact on consumer confidence could hurt the national GDP for several months, although
economist Michael Boskin predicts "only minimal impact on the Japanese economy overall."[232] [239] Following
threats of further nuclear leaks, Blackstone Group LP, Continental AG and Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW)
were said to be moving their staff outside Japan.[240]
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 99

Chief economist for Japan at Credit Suisse, Hiromichi Shirakawa, said

in a note to clients that the estimated economic loss may be around
$171–183 billion just to the region which was hit by the quake and
tsunami. On 14 March, the Bank of Japan, in an attempt to maintain
market stability,[241] [242] injected 15 trillion yen into the money
markets to assure financial stability amid a plunge in stocks and surge
in credit risk. After it set up an emergency task force to ensure liquidity
in the aftermath of the disaster, governor Masaaki Shirakawa and the
bank's board also enlarged a programme to buy government bonds to
Almost bare instant noodle shelves at a
exchange-traded funds to the tune of 10 trillion yen. The BOJ chief
supermarket in Tokyo
told reporters cash injections will continue as needed.[243] However,
following the further nuclear leaks, its actions were read by the market
as insufficient despite 8 trillion yen being pumped into the market.[245] On 15 March, the Topix index fell again
marking a two-day plunge not seen since 1987 as Japan's default risk surged after Prime Minister Naoto Kan warned
of further leaks from the damaged nuclear power plant. Commodities were also significantly lower.[246] Residents of
Tokyo were also reported to have gone on a panic shopping spree as daily necessities were sought after and gasoline
was stocked up with the increasing risk of nuclear radiation leaks.[247]

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano has said that Japan's government will convene on 13 March to gauge the
economic effects of the catastrophe.[248] He also told NHK Television that about 200 billion yen that was remaining
from the budget for the concurrent fiscal year that would end on 31 March would be used to fund the immediate
recovery efforts. Additional measures could also hurt Japan's public debt (which is already the highest in the world).
This additional spending could hurt demand for government bonds.[232]
Some economic analysts consider that, ultimately, the catastrophe will improve Japan's economy, with increased job
availability during restoration efforts. An analyst at JPMorgan Chase, citing the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the
San Francisco Bay Area and the Southern California 1994 Northridge earthquake, noted that natural disasters "do
eventually boost output." An analyst at Société Générale anticipated that Japan's economy will decline in March but
will revive powerfully in subsequent months. After the Kobe earthquake, industrial output dropped 2.6%, but
increased by 2.2% the next month, and 1% the following month. Japan's economy then accelerated substantially
through the next two years, at more than its former rate.[239] Others are of the opinion that the catastrophe will harm
the economy.[249] Some have argued that those who predict that the reconstruction effort could help Japan's economy
have fallen prey to the broken window fallacy.[250]

Global financial impact

In the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, Japan's Nikkei stock

market index saw its futures slide 5% in after-market trading.[251] The
Bank of Japan said that they would do their utmost to ensure financial
market stability.[252] On Tuesday, 15 March, news of rising radiation
levels caused the Nikkei to drop over 1,000 points or 10.6% (16% for
the week).[253]

Other stock markets around the world were also affected; the German
DAX lost 1.2% and fell to 6,978 points within minutes.[254] Hong
An international convenience-store chain benefits
Kong's Hang Seng index fell by 1.8%, while South Korea's Kospi from a rush of post-disaster shoppers
index slumped by 1.3%.[255] By the end of trading on the day of the
earthquake, the MSCI Asia Pacific Index had dropped by 1.8%.[256] Major U.S. stock market indexes rose between
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 100

0.5% and 0.7%.[257] Oil prices also dropped as a result of the closure of Japanese refineries, despite the ongoing
violence in Libya and expected demonstrations in Saudi Arabia. US crude dropped as low as $99.01 from $100.08
by lunchtime, with Brent Crude falling $2.62 to $112.81.[258] In Hong Kong, Financial Secretary John Tsang warned
investors to "take extra care" as the earthquake may have a short term impact on each local stock market.[259]
The share prices of the biggest reinsurance companies Munich Re and Swiss Reinsurance Company fell following
the earthquake on speculation that they may face losses "somewhere in the $10 billion range" even after certain costs
were absorbed by Japan's primary insurers and the government.[260]
The Japanese yen soared against most of major currencies following the earthquake and reached post-World War II
high at 76.25 yen per dollar on speculation Japanese investors would repatriate assets to pay for rebuilding.[261]
Since Japan relies heavily on exports the strong yen could damp its economy further. The financial markets
instability prompted G7 to hold a conference call on March 17 resulted in agreement on joint forex intervention to
sell yen against the dollar.[262] It was the first such a move since 2000.[263]
Peter Bradford, a former member of the United States' Nuclear Regulatory Commission, said that the impact on the
nuclear power plant was "obviously a significant setback for the so-called nuclear renaissance. The image of a
nuclear power plant blowing up before your eyes on a television screen is a first."[264]

Response in Japan

Prime Minister Naoto Kan announced the government has mobilized
the Japanese Self-Defense Forces in various earthquake disaster
zones.[265] He asked the Japanese public to act calmly and tune into
various media for updated information.[265] [266] He also reported
numerous nuclear power plants have automatically shut down to
prevent damage and radiation leaks.[265] He also set up emergency
headquarters in his office to coordinate the government's response.[266]

Evacuation shelters currently are facing a shortage of potable water,

food, blankets and bathroom facilities, as the government arranges
these necessities to be delivered to where they are needed as soon as
possible, from various areas of Japan and abroad.[267] Dropping
temperatures due to the disruption in electrical and gas lines caused
further problems at shelters.[62] As of 17 March 2011, 336,521 people
in Japan had been displaced from their homes and were residing
elsewhere, including in 2,367 shelters.[268]

A Japanese urban search and rescue team sent to New Zealand

following the 2011 Christchurch earthquake was recalled.[269] A convoy of fire engines in the tsunami zone
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 101

"The morality of the Japanese society is amazing. Not one mention or incident of looting or violence. Everyone lines
up. Wait your turn to enter the store. Store employees are extremely courteous and kind," wrote a
Japanese-American friend of Marianne Kushi of NBC.[270] This attitude has been referred to as the Japanese trait of
gaman, loosely meaning "patience and perseverance."[271] [272] [273]
A reporter for the Canadian Globe and Mail wrote, "As one
catastrophe piled on top of another, a very Japanese deference to
authority emerged, as well as a national desire to see civility prevail,
no matter the circumstances."[274] The lack of looting and disorder was
attributed not only to Japanese forbearance but to laws that encourage
honesty, to a strong police presence and to three main clans of Yakuza
(organized criminals who live by extortion and by promoting
prostitution and drug trafficking) who patrol their territories.[275]
A human chain helps speed unloading of a rescue
flight Some people devastated by the quake began, however, to question the
government's effort in providing food, clothing, electricity, heat, and
phone service. One embittered citizen said, "It's been a week, and there's still been no government help... This is the
best they can come up with? What the hell are they doing?" They likened the present condition to that of the 1995
Kobe earthquake, whereupon the government took days to organize relief efforts as opposed to the few hours it took
for organized crime groups to distribute blankets and food. The government had promised to hasten relief efforts in
the event of a disaster. One citizen said, "The Japanese government should have learned from the Kobe earthquake
that they would need help, but they didn't."[276] Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano later said, "In hindsight, we
could have moved a little quicker in assessing the situation and coordinating all that information and provided it

Ten days after the quake, reports began to emerge of incidents of looting and theft in quake and tsunami-hit areas.
By 20 March 2011, ¥4.9 million in merchandise from stores and ¥5.8 million in cash was reported stolen to the
Miyagi Prefectural Police. Witnesses reported thieves stealing cash and bank books from smashed houses, looting
goods from stores, and siphoning gas from abandoned or damaged vehicles.[278] [279]

International response

Request for assistance

Japan specifically requested teams from Australia, New Zealand, South
Korea, and the United States;[280] it also requested, via its space agency
JAXA, the activation of the International Charter on Space and Major
Disasters, allowing diverse satellite imagery of affected regions to be
readily shared with rescue and aid organizations.[281]

World involvement
Japan received messages of condolence and offers of assistance from a US Navy transporting JSDF vehicles to the
range of international leaders. According to Japan's foreign ministry on disaster

19 March 2011, 128 countries and 33 international organizations had

offered assistance to Japan.[190] The EU has also been more than ready to offer its support: "An earthquake powerful
enough to make the world wobble on its axis, a massive tsunami, an emergency in nuclear power stations. Any one
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 102

of these would be a tragedy. Thousands of people have died and this has turned this tragedy into a catastrophe," said
Herman van Rompuy, President of the European Council.[282] Twenty Member States have offered assistance
through the European Civil Protection Mechanism.[283]
The Fukushima incident brought the issue of nuclear power to the fore
internationally, causing an anti-nuclear demonstration of 50,000 people
in Stuttgart and the cancellation of a pro-nuclear press conference in
the United Kingdom.[284]
While stepping-up monitoring of radiation levels on its own shores in
face of the Fukushima nuclear power plant crisis, China, a major
supporter in the relief operations in Japan in spite of its own current
earthquake crisis, had officially begun evacuating its citizens from
Fire engines have been loaned to Fukushima from
US bases in Japan those worst-hit areas in Japan on 15 March 2011.[285] France had also
officially begun evacuation of its nationals from the worst-hit areas,
dispatching airliners to assist in the evacuation on 16 March 2011.[286] [287] Also responding to potential danger of
radiation exposure, the government of Austria had relocated its embassy from Tokyo to Osaka some 250 mi
(400 km) away.[288]

In many countries, both government and private aid campaigns have been organized to offer money and support to
the victims and general populace of Japan. Social buying sites have launched on-line campaigns in which several
million dollars were raised for relief organizations working in Japan.[289]
Operation Tomodachi, which means friend in Japanese, was a United States military operation to provide assistance
and humanitarian aid to Japan.[290]

Information and support

Among several resources offered to help find earthquake survivors and
obtain information about people in Japan are: Disaster Message Board
Web171 operated by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone,[291] [292] the
International Committee of the Red Cross,[293] American Red
Cross,[294] Google Person Finder,[295] websites of the Australian
Embassy,[296] US Department of State,[297] UK Foreign and
Commonwealth Office,[298] and the Honshu Quake wiki operated by
the CrisisCommons volunteer community.[299]
Russian people take flowers to the embassy of
Japan in Moscow

Media coverage
Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programming to
provide ongoing coverage of the situation.[300] Various other nationwide Japanese TV networks also broadcast
uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. Ustream Asia broadcast live feeds of NHK, Tokyo Broadcasting System, Fuji
TV, TV Asahi, TV Kanagawa, and CNN on the Internet starting on 12 March 2011.[301] YokosoNews, an Internet
webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations by translating them
in real time to English.[302] The Yomiuri Shimbun reported that the "coordinated relief activities at the disaster sites
are expected to deepen the Japan-U.S. alliance."[303]
Non-Japanese media, such as CNN, was noted for being more alarmist, exaggerated, and sometimes inaccurate in its
coverage of the earthquake's aftermath than the Japanese media. Fox News Channel at one point displayed "Shibuya
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 103

Eggman" on a graphic of nuclear plants in Japan. Shibuya Eggman is a concert hall in Tokyo. The alarmist and
inaccurate reports in foreign media were speculated to have caused greater anxiety and stress in foreign residents of
Japan.[304] [305]

Scientific and research response

According to the chief scientist for the Multi-Hazards project at the U.S. Geological Survey, the fact that the Tōhoku
earthquake took place in Japan—a country with "the best seismic information in the world"—meant that for the first
time, data could be collected that would allow modeling of an earthquake of this type and severity in great detail.
Andreas Reitbrock, a professor of seismology at the University of Liverpool, agreed, stating, "It gives us, for the first
time, the possibility to model in great detail what happened during the rupture of an earthquake."[21]
The effect of this data is expected to be
felt across other disciplines as well.
Tom Heaton, a seismological engineer,
commented that "the tragedy would
provide unprecedented information
about how buildings hold up under
long periods of shaking – and thus
how to build them better. We had very
little information about that before
now". James Cave, Associate Professor
Fukushima radiation comparison to other incidents and standards, with graph of recorded
of Earth and Planetary Sciences at
radiation levels and specific accident events.(Note: Does not include all radiation
readings from Fukushima I site) Harvard University, said that data
retrieved from the earthquake could
provide new details in "quake-proofing" large urban areas in the future.[306]

Seismologists had anticipated that the "big one" would strike the same place as the 1923 Kanto earthquake—in the
Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo.[307] [308] Since 1976, when Katsuhiko Ishibashi said a large earthquake in the
Suruga Trough was forthcoming, the government tracked plate movements, in preparation for the so-called Tokai
earthquake.[309] Occurring 373 km (232 mi) northeast of Tokyo, the Tōhoku earthquake came as a surprise to
seismologists, since the Japan Trench was known for creating large quakes, but was not expected to generate quakes
above an 8.0 magnitude.[308] [309]

[1] "震災の揺れは6分間 キラーパルス少なく 東大地震研" (http:/ / www. asahi. com/ science/ update/ 0317/ TKY201103170129. html) (in
Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. Japan. 2011-03-17. . Retrieved 2011-03-18.
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[3] Reilly, Michael (2011-03-11). "Japan's quake updated to magnitude 9.0" (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ blogs/ shortsharpscience/ 2011/
03/ powerful-japan-quake-sparks-ts. html). New Scientist. . Retrieved 2011-03-11.
[4] "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures associated with 2011Tohoku district – off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake" (http:/ / www. npa.
go. jp/ archive/ keibi/ biki/ higaijokyo_e. pdf). Japanese National Police Agency. 21 March 2011, 18:00 JST. . Retrieved 21 March 2011.
[5] "平成23年(2011年)東北地方太平洋沖地震の被害状況と警察措置" (http:/ / www. npa. go. jp/ archive/ keibi/ biki/ higaijokyo. pdf).
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[6] 気象庁 Japan Meteorological Agency. "平成23年3月11日14時46分頃の三陸沖の地震について(第2報) 気象庁 |
平成23年報道発表資料" (http:/ / www. jma. go. jp/ jma/ press/ 1103/ 11c/ 201103111620. html) (in Japanese). JMA. . Retrieved
[7] While the Japan Meteorological Agency officially announced the English name as The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku
Earthquake,Michael Winter (2011-03-14). "Quake shifted Japan coast about 13 feet, knocked Earth 6.5 inches off axis" (http:/ / content.
usatoday. com/ communities/ ondeadline/ post/ 2011/ 03/ quake-shifted-japan-coast-about-13-feet-knocked-earth-65-inches-off-axis/ 1). USA
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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 104

News/ 2011_Earthquake_01. html). Japan Meteorological Agency. March 2011. . Retrieved 2011-03-15. the Japanese nomenclature of the
earthquake varies between media sources NHK "NHKニュース 東北関東大震災(動画)" (http:/ / www3. nhk. or. jp/ news/ jishin0311/ )
(in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-15. "仙台放送局 東北関東大震災" (http:/ / www3. nhk. or. jp/ saigai/ jishin/ sendai/ 4133_1.
html) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-15. uses Tōhoku Kantō Great Earthquake disaster (東北関東大震災 Tōhoku Kantō
Daishinsai); Sankei Shimbun, n1.htm "【記事一覧】東日本大震災の安否情報・被害状況+(1/3ページ)- MSN産経ニュース" (http:/ /
sankei. jp. msn. com/ etc/ news/ 110312/ etc11031216540000-) (in Japanese). n1.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-15. Asahi
Shimbun, "朝日新聞社):東日本大震災 – ニュース特集" (http:/ / www. asahi. com/ special/ 10005/ ) (in Japanese). Asahi
Shimbun. Japan. . Retrieved 2011-03-15. Mainichi Shimbun, "東日本大震災の安否確認・緊急募金・ライフラインなどの情報 –
毎日jp(毎日新聞)" (http:/ / mainichi. jp/ select/ jiken/ graph/ 20110311lifeline/ ) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-15. Jiji
Press, "時事ドットコム:静岡県東部で震度6強=東海地震と関係なし−電柱多数倒れ、国道に溝" (http:/ / www. jiji. com/ jc/
q?g=eqa& j4). . Retrieved 2011-03-15. Fuji Television, "週間番組表" (http:/ / www. fujitv. co. jp/ bangumi/ this_week. html#Nows)
(in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-15. Kyodo News,
"【ニュース速報・東日本大震災…共同通信のニュース】死亡・不明、1万人を超す 関東大震災以来の惨禍に : 47トピックス –
47NEWS(よんななニュース)" (http:/ / www. 47news. jp/ 47topics/ e/ 199911. php) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-15.
Tokyo Shimbun,【特集・連載】. "東京新聞:東日本大震災:特集・連載(TOKYO Web)" (http:/ / www. tokyo-np. co. jp/ article/ feature/
tohokujisin/ ) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-17. Chunichi Shimbun 東日本大震災で亡くなった方々 (http:/ / www.
chunichi. co. jp/ s/ article/ 2011031201000167. html) and Tokyo Broadcasting System 大震災、海外でも連日トップニュース (http:/ /
news. tbs. co. jp/ newseye/ tbs_newseye4673011. html) use East Japan Great Earthquake disaster (東日本大震災 Higashi Nihon
Daishinsai); Tōhoku-Kantō Great Earthquake (東北・関東大地震 Tōhoku-Kantō Daijishin) has been used by Kyodo News,
"東日本大震災 – 一般社団法人 共同通信社 ニュース特集" (http:/ / www. kyodonews. jp/ feature/ news04/ ) (in Japanese).
. Retrieved 2011-03-17. Tokyo Shimbun【東京】. "東京新聞:収まらぬ余震 …不安 東北・関東大地震:東京(TOKYO Web)" (http:/ /
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Chunichi Shimbun;【中日新聞からのお知らせ】. "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け
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(in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-17. East Japan Giant Earthquake (東日本巨大地震 Higashi Nihon Kyodaijishin) has
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co. jp/ ann/ news/ web/ html/ 210313015. html) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-17. and East Japan Great
Earthquake (東日本大地震 Higashi Nihon Daijishin) is used by Nippon Television, "東日本大地震 緊急募金受け付け中" (https:/ / cr.
ntv. co. jp/ 24htv/ charity/ ) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2011-03-17. Tokyo FM "番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0 MHz – 80.Love FM
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[96] Minor damage in Latin America by Japan's tsunami (http:/ / www. channelnewsasia. com/ stories/ afp_asiapacific/ view/ 1116127/ 1/ .
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[97] (Spanish) Más de 200 casas dañadas dejó seguidilla de olas (http:/ / www. ansa. it/ ansalatina/ notizie/ notiziari/ chile/
20110313183235232122. html). ANSA Latina. 03/13/2011.
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Archived from the original (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ nationworld/ world/ la-sci-japan-quake-science-20110313,0,5782113. story) on
2011-03-13. . Retrieved 2011-03-13.
[307] Lovett, Richard A. (2011-03-14). "Japan Earthquake Not the "Big One"?" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5xG1LYwp9). National
Geographic News. Archived from the original (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2011/ 03/
110315-japan-earthquake-tsunami-big-one-science/ ) on 2011-03-17. . Retrieved 2011-03-17.
[308] Achenbach, Joel (2011-03-11). "Japan: The 'Big One' hit, but not where they thought it would" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/
5xG1EVm2z). The Washington Post. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2011/ 03/ 11/
AR2011031102415_pf. html) on 2011-03-17. . Retrieved 2011-03-17.
[309] Powell, Devin (2011-03-17). "Japan Quake Epicenter Was in Unexpected Location" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5xG14OpFb). Wired
News. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. wired. com/ wiredscience/ 2011/ 03/ japan-earthquake-surpise/ ) on 2011-03-17. . Retrieved


External links
• javascript animation of earthquakes (
• Earthquake Swarm Google Earth Animation ( on YouTube
• Earthquake Report ( from
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
• Pacific Tsunami Warning Center ( at National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
• Japan Earthquake 2011 ( All Partners
Access Network (APAN)
• West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Information ( at National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
• Seismic Monitor ( at Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS)
• Integrated Tsunami Watcher Service (
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 116

• Japan Incident Map (

index.html) at Esri
• Japan Disaster: Most Shocking Pics (
japan-disaster-most-shocking-pics#index/0) – slideshow by Life
• Massive earthquake hits Japan (
html) Photos from The Boston Globe
• Japan Earthquake: before and after (
aerial and satellite images from ABC News, credited to Post-earthquake images of Japan (http://google-latlong.
• Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami (
2011/03/13/world/asia/satellite-photos-japan-before-and-after-tsunami.html) The New York Times
• Diverse satellite imagery (
activation_details?p_r_p_1415474252_assetId=ACT-359) taken under the aegis of the International Charter on
Space and Major Disasters
• 110311 JapanEarthquake ( at the Federation of
Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP Federation)
• 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami ( at
Google Crisis Response
• Red Earthquake and Tsunami Alert in Japan ( at the Global Disaster Alert
and Coordination System (GDACS)
• Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Datafeeds gathering ( and
Japan Data Profile inputs for Common Operational Datasets (
Japan_Data_Profile) at CrisisCommons
• Japan earthquake: disaster by numbers (
Japan-earthquake-disaster-by-numbers.html) The Daily Telegraph
• Japan: Earthquake and Tsunami - Mar 2011 (
emid=EQ-2011-000028-JPN) ReliefWeb
• Fukushima I radiation plume projections at various altitudes (
Live media coverage
• Japan earthquake live coverage ( at BBC News
• Japan tsunami and earthquake (
japan-tsunami-earthquake-live-coverage) live coverage at The Guardian
• Quake and tsunami (
video-of-the-earthquake-and-tsunami-in-japan/) live coverage at The New York Times
• Japan Earthquake ( live coverage at Reuters
• NHK WORLD English ( live coverage at NHK (Japan
Broadcasting Corporation)
• Map of the Damage From the Japanese Earthquake (
2011/0311-japan-earthquake-map/index.html) The New York Times
• The Evacuation Zones Around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (
2011/03/16/world/asia/japan-nuclear-evaculation-zone.html) The New York Times
P. J. Thomas (politician) 117

P. J. Thomas (politician)
Polayil Joseph Thomas

14th Central Vigilance
In office
September 7, 2010 – March 4, 2011

Preceded by Pratyush Sinha

Born January 13, 1951

Nationality Indian

Polayil Joseph Thomas is a 1973 batch Indian Administrative Service officer from Kerala cadre.

Civil Service career

Thomas has held important assignments in Kerala as Secretary in Finance, Industry, Agriculture, Law and Justice
and Human Resource Development Departments. He was the founder director of the Indian Institute of Management,
He became the Kerala Chief Secretary in 2007 and moved to the Central government as Secretary in the Ministry of
Parliamentary Affairs in January, 2009. Later he went on to become the Telecom Secretary.
Mr. Thomas succeeded Pratyush Sinha, a 1969-batch IAS officer of Bihar cadre, who demitted office on Monday
after a four-year tenure as the CVC.

Scams, Allegations, Corruption and Criticisms

Palmolein Oil Import Scam

The scam took place in Kerala during K. Karunakaran's fourth term as Chief Minister while the UDF was in power
in the state. P J Thomas was the Food Secretary and a member of the Board of the Kerala State Civil Supplies
The Kerala government had decided to import palm oil from a Malaysian company in Singapore - Power and Energy
Ltd. The decision was to import 15,000 tonnes of palm oil and the price fixed for the import was higher than the
international price approved by the secretary. While the international price of palm oil was $392.25 per ton, Kerala
government fixed the price of import at $405 per ton.
According to reports, almost 30,000 tonnes of Palmolein had been imported despite there being no request from
either Supplyco or the Food Department for the import of the edible oil. Significantly, the import order was signed
by P J Thomas. The deal cost a loss of more than 2 cores to the exchequer.[1]
The opposition raised a stink about the deal and a vigilance case was filed against Karunakaran and seven other
including Thomas. PJ Thomas, figures as the eighth accused in the chargesheet, filed by the Vigilance and
Anti-corruption Bureau.[1]
P. J. Thomas (politician) 118

2G Spectrum Scam
P. J. Thomas was the Secretary of the Department of Telecommunications during the period when A Raja was the
minister for the department.

Appointment as Chief Vigilance Commissioner

In a report named "Who doctored P J Thomas's bio-data?" by Rediff News it says that between the years 2000 and
2004 there were six recommendations to start proceedings against P J Thomas. However after 2004 not only was
there no such recommendation, but all mention of the Palmolein Case was wiped off Thomas's bio-data. There seems
to have been a deliberate attempt to clear P. J. Thomas's record starting in 2004. It is to note that the UPA
government under Manmohan Singh took office first time in 2004.[2]
The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj raised the issue in Parliament that there is an
outstanding investigation against P. J. Thomas in Palmolein Oil Import Scam. Hence deeming that appointment of P.
J. Thomas as Chief Vigilance Commissioner was illegal.[3]
On March 3 2011, the Supreme Court quashed the appointment of P J Thomas as the Chief Vigilance Commissioner.
The apex court stated that the Prime Minister Singh's panels appointment of Thomas was against the institutional
integrity that the CVC stands for. The court said the panel's choice amounted to official arbitrariness. The Bench
severely criticised the committee for not considering the relevant material, including the pending criminal case
against Thomas. In addition, he also could not be appointed CVC on account of conflict of interest as till recently he
was serving as Telecom secretary and that there was the allegation that he was involved in an alleged cover-up of 2G
spectrum scam.[4]

[1] "Palmolein oil import scam: The case against PJ Thomas" (http:/ / daily. bhaskar. com/ article/
NAT-IDP-palmolein-oil-import-scam-the-case-against-pj-thomas-1902746. html). Daily Bhaskar.. . Retrieved 19 March 2011.
[2] Rediff News: Who doctored P J Thomas's bio-data? (http:/ / www. rediff. com/ news/ column/ controversy-over-indias-cvc-continues/
20110307. htm)
[3] PM says he was not aware of case against PJ Thomas, Opposition targets him (http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ site/ Story/ 131857/
latest-headlines/ manmohan-singh-denies-knowing-of-palmolein-case-against-cvc-pj-thomas. html)
[4] Supreme Court strikes down P J Thomas as vigilance chief (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/
supreme-court-strikes-down-p-j-thomas-as-vigilance-chief/ 757204/ )
Lokayukta 119

The LokAyukta (also Lok Ayukta) is an anti-corruption ombudsman organization in the Indian states[1] [2] . These
institutions were to set up on the pattern of the institution of Ombudsman in Scandinavian countries and
Parliamentary Commissioner for Investigation in New Zealand.
The Administrative Reforms Commission(ARC) headed by Morarji Desai submitted a special interim report on
"Problems of Redressal of Citizen's Grievances' in 1966. In this report, the ARC recommended the setting up of two
special authorities designated as 'Lokpal' and 'Lokayukta' for the redressal of citizens' grievances.
The LokAyukta helps people bring corruption to the fore mainly amongst the politicians and officers in the
government service. It is to be noted that the LokAyukta conducts raids. But surprisingly, it does not have binding
powers to punish anyone[3] . Owing to this, many acts of the LokAyukta have borne not enough fruit since the raided
officers manage to free themselves from the clutches of the Indian Law[4] .

Constitutional Amendment for Effectiveness

An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian States.
The proposed changes will make the institution of Lokayukta uniform across the country as a three-member body,
headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice and comprise the state vigilance commissioner
and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members [5] .

Lokayukta/Lokpal/Lokaayog Acts in Indian States

• Lokayukta, Andhra Pradesh [6]
• Lokayukta, Assam [7]
• Lokayukta, Bihar [8]
• Lok Aayog Adhyadesh(ordinance), Chattisgarh [9]
• Lokayukta, Delhi [10]
• Lokayukta, Gujarat [11]
• [Lokayukta, Jharkhand - untraced/unavailable online]
• Lokayukta, Haryana [12]
• Lokayukta, Himachal Pradesh [13]
• Lokayukta, Karnataka [14]
• Lokayukta, Kerala [15]
• Lokayukta, Madhya Pradesh [16]
• Lokayukta, Maharashtra [17]
• Lokpal, Orissa [18]
• Lokpal, Punjab [19]
• Lokayukta, Rajasthan [20]
• Lokayukta, Uttarakhand - adopted from Uttar Pradesh [21]
• Lokayukta, Uttar Pradesh [22]
Lokayukta 120

Prominent Lok Ayuktas

N. Santosh Hegde, 2006-2010, Karnataka
N. Venkatachala, ,Karnataka

[1] "Karnataka Lokayukta" (http:/ / lokayukta. kar. nic. in). National Informatics Center. . Retrieved 2010-06-24.
[2] "Karnataka Anti-Corruption Laws (Acts)" (http:/ / lokayukta. kar. nic. in/ acts. htm). National Informatics Center. . Retrieved 2010-06-24.
[3] "A watchdog without teeth" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ a-watchdog-without-teeth/ 639851/ 0). Indian Express. . Retrieved
[4] "Fed up with corruption, Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde resigns" (http:/ / www. dnaindia. com/ india/
report_fed-up-with-corruption-karnataka-lokayukta-santosh-hegde-resigns_1400381). Daily News and Analysis. . Retrieved 2010-06-24.
[5] "Lokayukta may get constitutional status" (http:/ / www. deccanherald. com/ content/ 78301/ lokayukta-may-get-constitutional-status. html).
Deccan Herald. . Retrieved 2010-06-30.
[6] http:/ / knowledge. cgg. gov. in/ Acts%20%20Policies/ Lokayukta%20and%20Upa-Lokayukta%20Act%201983. pdf#page=268
[7] http:/ / aasc. nic. in/ Acts%20and%20Rules%20(GOA)/ Judicial%20Department/
The%20Assam%20Lokayukta%20and%20Upa-Lokayuktas%20Act,%201985. pdf
[8] http:/ / lokayukta. bih. nic. in/ Act. htm
[9] http:/ / cg. gov. in/ govtpolicy/ lok. htm
[10] http:/ / lokayukta. delhigovt. nic. in/ uplok. asp
[11] http:/ / www. lawsofindia. org/ statelaw/ 2196/ TheGujaratLokayuktaAct1986. html
[12] http:/ / hrlokayukta. gov. in/ Lokayukta%20acts-english. htm
[13] http:/ / hp. gov. in/ lokayukta/ Microsoft_Word_LokayuktaAct. pdf
[14] http:/ / lokayukta. kar. nic. in/ karnataka_lokayukta_act. htm
[15] http:/ / lokayuktakerala. gov. in/ staticinfo/ act1999. php
[16] http:/ / mplokayukt. nic. in/ Adhiniyam1981. pdf
[17] http:/ / maharashtra. gov. in/ pdf/ UplokayuktaInfobookletE. pdf
[18] http:/ / www. lawsofindia. org/ statelaw/ 2626/ TheLokpalandLokayuktasAct1995. html
[19] http:/ / www. punjabgovt. nic. in/ punjabrti/ Departments/ Legal_and_Legislative_Affair/ Department%20of%20Legal%20&
%20Legislative%20Affair/ THE%20PUNJAB%20LOKPAL%20ACT. pdf
[20] http:/ / lokayukt. rajasthan. gov. in/ Acts. asp
[21] http:/ / gov. ua. nic. in/ lokayukta/ Documents/ lokayuktactsection. html
[22] http:/ / lokayukta. up. nic. in/ text/ english%20act/ act%20subbuttan%20english. htm
Unique Identification Authority of India 121

Unique Identification Authority of India

Unique Identification Authority of India
भारतीय विशिष्ट पहचान प्राधिकरण

UIDAI (Aadhaar UIDAI new logo)

Agency overview

Formed February 2009

Jurisdiction Government of India (Union Government)

Headquarters New Delhi

Annual budget 3000 crore (US$666 million) (2010)

Agency executives Nandan Nilekani, Chairman

Ram Sewak Sharma, Director General and Mission Director



The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) (Hindi: भारतीय विशिष्ट पहचान प्राधिकरण), is an agency of the
Government of India responsible for implementing the envisioned Multipurpose National Identity Card or Unique
Identification card (UID Card) project in India. It was established in February 2009, and will own and operate the
Unique Identification Number database.[1] The authority will aim at providing a unique number to all Indians, but
not smart cards.[2] The authority would provide a database of residents containing very simple data in biometrics.[3]
The agency is headed by a chairman, who holds a cabinet rank. The UIDAI is part of the Planning Commission of
India.[1] [4] Nandan Nilekani, a former co-chairman of Infosys Technologies, was appointed as the first Chairman of
the authority in June 2009.[5] Ram Sewak Sharma, an IAS Officer of Jharkhand Government cadre has been
appointed as the Director General and Mission Director of the Authority. He is known for his best effort in
e-Governance project for Jharkhand State and working as an IT secretary he received a number of awards for best
Information Technology Trends State in India.
Unique Identification Authority of India 122

UIDAI launched AADHAAR program in the tribal village, Tembhli, in Nandurbar, Maharashtra on 29th September,
2010. The program was inaugurated by Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh along with UPA chairperson Sonia
Gandhi.[6] The first resident to receive an AADHAAR was Rajana Sonawane of Tembhli village.[7]

Coverage, goals and logistics

It is believed that Unique National IDs will help address the rigged state elections, widespread embezzlement that
affects subsidies and poverty alleviation programs such as NREGA.[8] Addressing illegal immigration into India and
terrorist threats is another goal of the program.[9]
Most reports suggest that the plan is for each Indian citizen to have a unique identification number with associated
identifying biometric data and photographs by 2011.[10] However, other reports claim that obtaining a unique
number would be voluntary, but those that opt to stay out of the system "will find it very inconvenient: they will not
have access to facilities that require you to cite your ID number."[2]
Government issued IDs are fragmented by purpose and region in India, which results in widespread bribery, denial
of public services and loss of income, especially afflicting poor citizens.[11] As the unique identity database comes
into existence, the various identity databases (voter ID, passports, ration cards, licenses, fishing permits, border area
id cards) that already exist in India are planned to be linked to it.[2] The Authority is liaising with various national,
state and local government entities to begin this process. The Union Labor Ministry has offered its verified
Employment Provident Fund (EPFO) database of 42 million citizens as the first database to be integrated into the
unique ID system.[12]
Other UID projects implemented on a smaller scale in India can also facilitate in the development of the national
project. An example is a project developed by Wolf Frameworks Cloud Computing vendor and Social Education and
Development Society (SEDS) for profiling and generating Unique Identification for more than 40,000 members in
the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. [13]
The UID will link a person's Passport Number, Driving License, PAN card, Bank Accounts, Address, Voter ID, etc
and all this information will be checked through a database. So, for example, if someone has different addresses on
PAN and driving license, is liable to get caught. Those who will opt out of this program will have much
inconvenience in doing business, operating bank accounts and other offices which will require a UID.
UIDAI has headquarters in Delhi and a technology centre in Bangalore. It also has 6 regional offices in Chandigarh,
Delhi, Lucknow, Ranchi, Guwahati, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Bangalore.[14]

Name and logo

UID project is known as AADHAAR meaning 'support' or 'foundation', and its logo is a yellow sun with a fingerprint
embedded in its centre.The logo was designed by Atul Sudhakar Rao Pande. [15]

Projected costs and business opportunities

One estimate of the cost to completely roll-out National IDs to all Indian residents above the age of 18 has been
placed at 150000 crore (US$33.3 billion).[16] A different estimate puts it at US$ 6 billion.[17] A sum of 100 crore
(US$22.2 million) was approved in the 2009-2010 union budget to fund the agency for its first year of existence.[1]
UID has received a huge boost with Dr Pranab Mukherjee, Minister of Finance, allocating Rs 1900 crore to the
Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) for 2010-11.
Initial estimates project that the initiative will create 1000 new jobs in the country, and business opportunities worth
6500 crore (US$1.44 billion) in the first phase [10] of implementation.
Unique Identification Authority of India 123

According to the UIDAI Model [18], Aadhaar is dependent on biometrics being reliable enough to guarantee that
there is a one-for-one correspondence between real people and electronic identities on the CIDR (central ID
repository). UIDAI face a risk. Suppose the biometrics let them down?
In December 2010, UIDAI published the report on their proof of concept trial [19] designed to test, among other
things, whether biometrics are reliable enough to guarantee that every entry on the CIDR is unique. UIDAI's figures
published in the report suggest that no, the biometrics are not reliable enough, Aadhaar will drown in a sea of false
positives [20].

There are many potential privacy fallouts of this project, not the least of which is triggered by the Government's
official plan to link the databases together.
Although there is sometimes a tension between individual privacy rights and national security, international law and
India’s domestic law expressly set a standard in tort law and through constitutional law to protect an individual’s
privacy from unlawful invasion. Under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), ratified by
India, an individual’s right to privacy is protected from arbitrary or unlawful interference by the state.
The Supreme Court also held the right to privacy to be implicit under article 21 of the Indian Constitution in
Rajgopal v. State of Tamil Nadu. Moreover, India has enacted a number of laws that provide some protection for
privacy. For example the Hindu Marriage Act, the Copyright Act, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children)
Act, 2000 and the Code of Criminal Procedure all place restrictions on the release of personal information. Privacy is
a key concern with respect to the Multipurpose National Identity Card (MNIC) scheme as all of an individual’s
personal information will be stored in one database where the possibility of corruption and exploitation of data is far
greater than when having the information disbursed.
Risks that arise from this centralization include possible errors in the collection of information, recording of
inaccurate data, corruption of data from anonymous sources, and unauthorized access to or disclosure of personal
information.Other countries with national identification systems have confronted numerous problems with similar
risks such as trading and selling of information, and India, which has no generally established data protection laws
such as the U.S. Federal Privacy Statute or the European Directive on Data Protection, is ill-equipped to deal with
such problems. The centralized nature of data collection inherent in the MNIC proposal only heightens the risk of
misuse of personal information and therefore potentially violates privacy rights. In consideration of the risks
involved in the creation of a centralized database of personal information, it is imperative that such a programme not
be established without the proper mechanisms to ensure the security of each individual privacy rights. Unfortunately,
India’s proposed MNIC programme lacks any provision for judicial review at the present time. Without credible and
independent oversight, there is a risk of ‘mission creep’ for MNICs; the government may add features and additional
data to the MNIC database bureaucratically and reflexively, without reevaluating the effects on privacy in each
Unique Identification Authority of India 124

[1] "Rs.100 crore for Unique Identification Project" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2009/ 02/ 17/ stories/ 2009021756751000. htm), The Hindu
(Chennai, India), 17 February 2009, , retrieved 2009-06-26, "... The Unique Identification Authority of India is being established under the
aegis of the Planning Commission for which a notification has been issued in January 2009. A provision of Rs.100 crore has been made in the
annual Plan 2009-10 for this ..."
[2] "Nilekani to give numbers, ministries to issue cards" (http:/ / economictimes. indiatimes. com/
Nilekani-to-give-numbers-ministries-to-issue-cards/ articleshow/ 4782505. cms), The Economic Times, 16 July 2009, , retrieved 2009-07-18
[3] "Nilekani takes charge, says first set of IDs in 12-18 months" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/ 4812763. cms). The Times
Of India. 2009-07-24. .
[4] "India gets Info czar in Nilekani" (http:/ / www. thestatesman. net/ page. news. php?clid=1& theme=& usrsess=1& id=258987), The
Statesman, 25 June 2009, , retrieved 2009-06-25, "... Nandan M Nilekani ... will be the chairman of the Unique Identification Database
Authority of India under the aegis of the Planning Commission ... Mr Nilekani will have the rank and status of a Cabinet minister ..."
[5] "PIB Press Release" (http:/ / pib. nic. in/ release/ release. asp?relid=49370). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
[6] "Aadhar takes off: PM, Sonia launch UID in tribal village" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/
aadhar-takes-off-pm-sonia-launch-uid-in-tribal-village/ 689953/ ). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
[7] "Sonia is my ''Aadhaar'', says first UID recipient - NDTV Profit" (http:/ / profit. ndtv. com/ news/ show/
sonia-is-my-aadhaar-says-first-uid-recipient-102664). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
[8] Bajaj, Vikas (25 June 2009), "India Undertakes Ambitious ID Card Plan" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 06/ 26/ world/ asia/ 26india.
html?ref=global-home), The New York Times, , retrieved 2009-06-26, "... Policy makers see a national ID card as critical to improving the
delivery of social services, subsidies and other government programs while also strengthening national security ... the majority of aid
earmarked for the poor does not reach them, and it is hard for the government to detect embezzlement and misuse of funds ..."
[9] "Nilekani first chief of Unique ‘ID’ project" (http:/ / www. assamtribune. com/ scripts/ details. asp?id=jun2609/ at08), The Assam Tribune, 25
June 2009, , retrieved 2009-06-26, "... For long, national identity cards have been advocated to enhance national security, prevent potential
terrorist attacks and stop illegal immigration, said officials ..."
[10] "National ID card project" (http:/ / infotech. indiatimes. com/ quickiearticleshow/ 4716195. cms), Indiatimes Infotech, 1 July 2009, ,
retrieved 2009-07-01, "... Some estimates suggest that the project will create at least an 100,000 additional jobs in the country in the next
three years ... According to the plan, govt proposes to issue a unique identification number to all citizens by 2011 ..."
[11] "ID'ing the masses may solve Indian identity crisis" (http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ ap/ article/
ALeqM5in-4HjGNPD33PqF5WGPvx4m_jewQD99G25900), Associated Press, 17 July 2009, , retrieved 2009-07-18, "... For long, national
identity cards have been advocated to enhance national security, prevent potential terrorist attacks and stop illegal immigration, said officials
[12] "Nilekani may get EPFO database for UID project" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/
Nilekani-may-get-EPFO-database-for-UID-project/ 491049), Indian Express, 18 July 2009, , retrieved 2009-07-18, "... “This is an opportunity
for us to get ID cards for the subscribers of EPFO and ESI. We would like the EPFO subscribers to be first beneficiaries of the Unique
Identity Card (UID) project,” a senior Labour Ministry official told The Indian Express ..."
[13] By N Vasudevan. "A miniature UID project in AP" (http:/ / www. mydigitalfc. com/ opportunities/ miniature-uid-project-ap-002). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
[14] (http:/ / uidai. gov. in/ documents/ Organisational-Structure. pdf)
[15] K. Balchand (2010-04-26). "The Hindu : News / National : UID number gets brand name, logo" (http:/ / beta. thehindu. com/ news/ national/
article410397. ece?homepage=true). . Retrieved 2010-10-01.
[16] {{Citation | title=Citizen IDs to cost Rs 10,000 crore
[17] "इंफोिसस से िवदा लेंगे नंदन नीलेकिण Nilekani will bid adieu to Infosys" (http:/ / thatshindi. oneindia. in/ news/ 2009/ 06/ 25/ nilekani-quits-infy-board.
html), OneIndia Hindi, 25 June 2009, , retrieved 2009-06-26, "... इस महत्वाकांक्षी प्रोजेक्ट पर करीब छह अरब डालर का ख़र्च होगा (this ambitious project will
cost about $2.5 billion) ... नीलेकिण को कैिबनेट मंत्री का दर्ज़ा िमलेगा (Nilekani will receive the rank of a cabinet minister) ..."
[18] http:/ / uidai. gov. in/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=153& Itemid=13
[19] http:/ / uidai. gov. in/ images/ FrontPageUpdates/ uid_enrolment_poc_report. pdf
[20] http:/ / dematerialisedid. com/ BCSL/ Drown. html
Unique Identification Authority of India 125

External links
• Official Website of UIDAI (
• View & vote on UID (
• How UID can be more useful, Share your thoughts (
• Ask, answer and Discuss Aadhaar (
• View & vote on UID (
• Civil Liberty Issues Of Aadhar Project Of India/UID Project Of India (
• UID Aadhaar Blog Forum (
Article Sources and Contributors 126

Article Sources and Contributors

2G spectrum scam  Source:  Contributors: AgarwalSumeet, Akhilsingla, Amitchandra123, Arjunagra, Ashlonerider, Bluerasberry,
Bugnot, CarTick, Chimesmonster, Chindia (China-India), Chris the speller, CyberSach, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Dash9141, Gacharya27, GoingBatty, HotWinters, Jayaraman.arunprasath, Jeff G.,
Johnuniq, Kayau, KuwarOnline, Magioladitis, Mahalaxmanan, Maheshkumaryadav, Materialscientist, Maverick.Mohit, MikeLynch, Narayannat, Niraradia, Noblewikicause, P chandramouli,
Padmanan, Pisean282311, Pointillist, Rajkumarth, Rallyeye, Rkadwe, Shashank Reddy.P, Shyamsunder, Siva7891, SpacemanSpiff, Spectrumraja, Timesrchanging, Utcursch, Winston786,
Zachlipton, अभय नातू, 80 anonymous edits

Concerns and controversies over the 2010 Commonwealth Games  Source:  Contributors: A man alone, Aisha karim, AngChenrui,
Australian fighter, Bilby, Bluerasberry, BritishWatcher, C628, CarTick, Cynicalbong, DisillusionedBitterAndKnackered, E1tiger, Extra999, Gargaj, Get mahim, Gobade.abhay1, HiLo48,
Igodspeed, Ionescuac, Ivorycoast3, Jsaw101, Jwoodger, KGasso, Keladino, King Zebu, Ktr101, Lightmouse, Lihaas, Logicwiki, Lucy-marie, Mar4d, Miller17CU94, Millionsandbillions, NickCT,
Nograpes, Nshuks7, RadicalPacifism, Radiofreewill, Rahuloof, Rameshpathak75, Rindo, Rjwilmsi, SMasters, Saqib Qayyum, Sherenk, Shyamsunder, Slatersteven, Soiutakkl, TFOWR,
Taffenzee, Tatom2k, The Rambling Man, Topcardi, Tri400, Utcursch, Vamsisv, VishalB, Vykischandra, WikiDao, Xarqi, YellowMonkey, Yogesh Khandke, Zhanzhao, Zorbane, 170 anonymous

Adarsh Housing Society Scam  Source:  Contributors: Bhupendershrm, Bilby, Bugnot, Chanvis18, Gobade.abhay1, Hameed20, Kamal83,
Logicwiki, Rkadwe, Shyamsunder, Top Jim, Vivekvc, Vivvt, WikHead, 15 anonymous edits

Naxalite  Source:  Contributors: Academic Challenger, Adam keller, Agarbatti, Ahoerstemeier, Amorymeltzer, Andreas Kaganov, Andy
Marchbanks, Ankit jn, Anthonzi, Anupam luv, Aremisasling, Arivoli.r, Austria156, Babajobu, Badkhan, Barakabless, Bhadani, BorgQueen, BradNeuberg, Brenont, Brisvegas, Bssasidhar,
Caiaffa, Canistabbats, Charles Matthews, Chbarts, Chunktri, Cousin Ned, Cremepuff222, Crepuscular Dawn, Dahn, De Administrando Imperio, Deepaksuri1, Deerlike, Descendall, Diegoami,
Diptiprakash, Docu, Doorvery far, DragonflySixtyseven, ERcheck, ESkog, Edward Duyker, Ekabhishek, Ekoontz, Ermanon, Esperant, Eugene-elgato, Exitr, Falcon8765, Fastily, Fram,
FrancisTyers, Fratrep, Gadfium, Gagan11111, Gaius Cornelius, Gameboy1947, Gamesmasterg9, Gaycharu, Ghettobrown, Giraffedata, Gjlraj, Gobonobo, GoingBatty, Goingoveredge,
Goldenhawk 0, Gopaalan, Ground Zero, Gugganij, Gurubrahma, HELLZX, HPN, Hazir, Hibernian, Hingyake, Hunnjazal, Hégésippe Cornier, Iamaneeb, In the Stacks, Indu, JIvanovic, JaGa,
Jagged 85, Jeroen, Jersay, Jmabel, Joklolk, Jonkerz, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jrtayloriv, Kaihsu, Keysvolume, Khazadum, Khirad, Killerman2, Kinu, Kjramesh, Kumarans10, Kurtavish, Lairor,
Lal Salaam, Leandros, LedgendGamer, Legaleagle86, Lihaas, LilHelpa, Little Professor, LordGulliverofGalben, Lostintherush, LoveIndia, Luisldq, MER-C, Madhava 1947, Mandangi, Maobad,
Markewilliams, Maximus Rex, Mayank619, Meco, Mehrrunissa, MemoZoe, Merovingian, Midway, Mild Bill Hiccup, Misarxist, Modulispace, Moinansari, Mottisigel, Mr. Crow, Mukerjee,
Munci, N-k, Nataraja, Nichalp, OhioCincinnati, Onebravemonkey, Otolemur crassicaudatus, Patty wack, Pavel Vozenilek, Pectore, Petercorless, Ph.eyes, Planemad, Polylepsis, Prasoon.ampm365
network, Pratheesh prakash, Prezbo, Profitoftruth85, Punjabinet, R'n'B, RED DAVE, RJ1970, Ragib, RajaNeela1993, Raoulduke47, Ravishankar Shetty, Redthoreau, Reginald Perrin, Relata
refero, Resistanceindia, Rhodesh, Riddley, Rjwilmsi, Robert1947, Roland zh, Ron2, Ronz, Rumpelstiltskin223, SS90839, Saiva suj, Sarcelles, Satheanuja, Seaphoto, Sekwanele 2, Shabs9180,
Shahab, Shonedeep, Shorne, Shovon76, Shu36garh, Smqazi85, Snori, Soman, Splitpeasoup, Stickee, Sujoyrc, Supercool1251, Suprah, Swift&silent, Tabletop, Tallandslow, Tarushikha,
Tchoutoye, Tedder, The Thing That Should Not Be, The wub, TheGame647, Thorsen, Tide rolls, Toddst1, Tpbradbury, Trakesht, Traxs7, Trusilver, Twas Now, Udaykr86, Ulric1313, Utcursch,
Vij4yd, Vikram boo!, VilleAine, Vinter-light, Viveka g, Viyyer, W guice, WereSpielChequers, WikHead, WikiLaurent, Xpclient, YellowMonkey, Yogesh Khandke, सत्यशनि, 348 anonymous edits

Naxalite-Maoist insurgency  Source:  Contributors: Aditya Gune, Againme, AlbertHerring, Aliwalla, Anarchangel23, Art LaPella,
Barakabless, Canistabbats, Conti, Daviessimo, De Administrando Imperio, Dmertl, Droneriot, EME44, EkoGraf, Elockid, Farolif, Gagan11111, Galvatronspeaks, Gjlraj, HeadlessMaster,
Hégésippe Cornier, I Wintersun I, Iamhere786, JIvanovic, Jason041, Jay942942, Joklolk, Jovianeye, Kermanshahi, Kintetsubuffalo, Kkm010, Kormin, Kotra, Lilac Soul, Little Professor,
Lovelylayla, Mark K. Jensen, Markewilliams, Matthiasb, Meco, Mehrrunissa, MkativerataCCI, Mr. Crow, Ms2ger, Naxalitewarrior, Nwe, PBP, R'n'B, Rdavi404, Reenem, RegentsPark, Rickyrab,
Ronz, Sarcelles, Shepherd12398, Shyamsunder, Snori, Soman, SpacemanSpiff, Sumanch, Swift&silent, Tallandslow, Toddst1, Utcursch, Who ever I am2, Winston365, YellowPops, Yellowdesk,
YeshuaDavid, Yotna, Zanetu, 118 anonymous edits

2011 Libyan uprising  Source:  Contributors: 1exec1, 1j1z2, 23funnel23, 43?9enter, 8digits, 96T, A. Parrot, A.h. king, ACSE,
Aaronwinborn, Abiyoyo, Acather96, Aetheling1125, Afranelli, Againme, Agamemnon2, Agiseb, Agnosticraccoon, Ahmetyal, AircraftZurf, Al Ameer son, Alexmilt, Alfons Åberg, Alison, All Is
One, Alpha7248, Alphasinus, Altaripensis, Amit6, Anam Gumnam, Andmrns, Andres rojas22, Andrew massyn, AndySimpson, Aniten21, AnonMoos, Anonymous Dissident, Another Believer,
Ansh666, Anthony Appleyard, Antixt, Apfaq, Apple1013, Arab Hafez, Armona, ArnoldPlaton, Artichoker, Asarlaí, Asdfjkl1234, AstroHurricane001, Atomicarrow, Aude, Avala, Avanu,
AznBurger, Azure777, BabbaQ, Bacus15, Bajsejohannes, BalanceFish, Banaticus, Barsby94, Baseball Watcher, Basheersubei, Bcperson89, Beao, Bejnar, Ben Webber, Bender235, Besty, Big
Axe, Bigturtle, Biosketch, Blacktiger226, Blelbach, Blue387, Blueteamguy, Bobbyb373, Bobrayner, Bobthefish2, Boneyard90, BoogaLouie, BorgQueen, Bossivecwall, Boud, Brandmeister,
BrandonsLe, Brutaldeluxe, Buckshot06, Burntpsilocybin, C.Fred, C628, CWenger, Calimo, Camilo Sanchez, Canadian Bobby, Canley, CapitalR, Caranorn, CatholicW, Cenarium,
Chaosandwalls, Charles Matthews, Chaser, Chaser (away), Chaumot, Cheezburgerboy, Cheng-temp, Cherantilymer, Chesdovi, Chrizzy89, Chronulator, CircleAdrian, Cjs2111, Coach.nyta,
Coasterlover1994, Coinmanj, Colonies Chris, Connormah, CopperKettle, Coquimbano, Counteraction, Cowik, Crazymonkey1123, Crtltablo, Cybercobra, Cybergoth, Czolgolz, DWC LR,
Dabomb87, Dangoodman, Daniel.nouri, Danieliness, Danlaycock, Dans, DarthBinky, DavisGL, Dbachmann, Deb, Degen Earthfast, Delta1989, Dentren, DerBorg, Derim Hunt, Derjanosch,
Dertius, DevilInPgh, Dezidor, Dinkytown, Dmarquard, Dn9ahx, Dogru144, DownWithHosniMubarak!, Dpaajones, Dr. Blofeld, Dr.K., Dreammaker182, Dylan Thurston, Eatcacti, Edison,
Edrigu, Eduardo Sellan III, Eeven, Ehistory, EkoGraf, El Libro, Elfalem, Elium2, Ericl, Ericoides, Estudyante, Evenfiel, Evercat, Everyking, Evlekis, Eyesbomb, FT2, Fanatix,
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Article Sources and Contributors 127

2011 Egyptian revolution  Source:  Contributors: !!2011WorldProtests!!, !!2011WorldProtests!!Appletart!!, 1exec1, 2qewl4u, 89funtime,
A atawy, A2Editor, ACSE, AZAZET, Aalzuhair, AbbaIkea2010, Aberdonian99, Abrazame, Acheong87, AdamDavid, Adambro, AddZack, Aeth909, Againme, Ahmad123987,
Ahmadpontymageed, Ahmed Fouad(the lord of programming), Ahmedelhamahmy, Ahmednh, Airplaneman, Ajaxas, Ajcheema, Al Ameer son, Al-Andalusi, Alborzagros, Alensha,
AlexanderKaras, All Is One, Am08h, Amr.eladawy, AnOddName, Anam Gumnam, Andydoc, AniMate, Anonymous Dissident, Arbeh, Archiver of Records, ArnoldPlaton, Artichoker, Arto
Alanenpää, Artoasis, Asf137, Ashershow1, Asserghozlan, AstroHurricane001, Atmoz, Atriant, Aude, Aviados, Axeman89, AxterJG, Ayman Qasrawi, Az88, AznBurger, B-Machine, BabbaQ,
BagusBagus, Banaticus, BanyanTree, Baronofcheese, Baseball Watcher, Beach drifter, Beao, Beatbox Man, Beautiful43, Behun, Belinrahs, Bellatores, Ben Skála, Bender235, Bender2k14, Berek,
Bielle, Big Axe, Biggest Great Wall Street, Bkissin, Bluez bekztra, BnaiBrithChai, Bodnotbod, Boing! said Zebedee, BomBom, BorgQueen, Borkificator, Boud, Bped1985, Brandmeister,
BrandonsLe, Brianski, Brightgalrs, Bruce.a.fryer, Bsadowski1, BullRangifer, C628, CMBJ, CWenger, Calliopejen1, Camilo Sanchez, CapitalR, Cast, Cerebellum, Chechtal, Cherkash, Chesdovi,
Chrisahn, Cjs2111, Cntras, Coasterlover1994, Coemgenus, CommonsDelinker, Cosmic Latte, Courcelles, Cptnono, Crnorizec, Cs32en, Cybercobra, Cyclonebiskit, Cymru.lass, D39,
DRosenbach, DVdm, Dan.krammer, Dancinglama, Daniel R Sweet, David Levy, Dbachmann, Dbpjmuf, De728631, DeeYay, Degen Earthfast, Delldot, Delta 51, Dheppens, Diaa abdelmoneim,
Didybird, Dinkytown, Dinster, Discospinster, DisillusionedBitterAndKnackered, Dmarquard, Dmd, Doktorbuk, Dorsal Axe, DownWithHosniMubarak!, Dr B2, Dr.K., DrLaserfalcon, DrRomello,
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Dunkelberg, Henohenomoheji, Henrik, Henry Flower, Heroeswithmetaphors, Hibernian, Highfields, Hkn156347, HonorTheKing, HordeFTL, Hugo999, I like blanking articles, Iksnyrk, Incnis
Mrsi, Innotata, Intelligentsium, Interchange88, Invest in knowledge, Ivanlul, J1.grammar natz, JCDenton2052, JWhitt433, Jack Merridew, Jacobhamza, Janegca, Jaro7788, Javawizard, Jeaniac,
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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami  Source:  Contributors: 1779Days, 7, 777sms, 84user, 89119e, A Saku, ACSE, Abductive,
Abhichartt, Achurch, Acroterion, Adamandcharlie1995, Adenosine Triphosphate, Adhithya97, AerobicFox, Afkatk, AfroBrazilian, Aion, AircraftZurf, Ajcadoo, Akira Kouchiyama, Akuindo,
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Benbest, Bender235, Benjwong, Benlisquare, Beyond My Ken, Bob drobbs, Bobamnertiopsis, Boddefan2009, Bped1985, Brad78, Bradley0110, Braincricket, Brainmachine, Brandmeister, Brec,
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Article Sources and Contributors 128

UnitedStatesian, V Debs, Vchimpanzee, Vegas Bleeds Neon, Viola v, Violetbonmua, Voidxor, Voodoom, WWGB, Wakuran, Wallie, Warfieldian, Wasell, Watercolor merger, Wavelength,
Web2linc, WereSpielChequers, Wertuose, WhiteWriter, Whywhenwhohow, Wikiborg4711, Wikid77, Wikiuser100, Wildcursive, Willrocks10, Willyv1, Wipsenade, Wobinson, Wolbo,
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Τασουλα, Тиверополник, ‫ד ןדיע‬, 桜浴衣王, 素手, 353 anonymous edits

P. J. Thomas (politician)  Source:  Contributors: Chindia (China-India), Dinoy, SPat, Selket, Suri 100, 1 anonymous edits

Lokayukta  Source:  Contributors: AbhisheksinghWIKI, Devgowri, DragonflySixtyseven, EhJJ, Funkhauser, Jainendra,
Luckyevent356677, Oxymoron83, Pmbhat, Randhirreddy, Rsrikanth05, Shyamsunder, Woohookitty, Xwas, 12 anonymous edits

Unique Identification Authority of India  Source:  Contributors: Antenna1, Aruninfotec, Arvindn, Bmkamath2000, CommonsDelinker,
Dabraju, David Moss, Doberek, Ekabhishek, Hunnjazal, Jovianeye, Kooolabhi4u, Kryptik sunny, KuwarOnline, Maheshkumaryadav, Natrajdr, Niri.M, Pantjee, Petiatil, Rahuagra502, Rameshng,
Randhirreddy, Rknoid, Rsrikanth05, Shyamsunder, Sooryah, SummerPhD, Thyag.js, Umar420e, Vejvančický, Whywhenwhohow, Wiki-uk, Woohookitty, 94 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 129

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image:Indian Rupee symbol.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Orionist
File:Commonwealth games Delhi 2010 opening ceremony fireworks jawaharlal nehru stadium.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons
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van Leeuwen
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File:Flag of Libya (1951).svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Himasaram
File:2011 Libyan uprising Voice of America.ogv  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors:
Phil Ittner, VOA News
File:Libya Brega rebel fighters 10 March 2011 - VOA Ittner.jpg  Source:
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File:A Benghazi citizen holding King Idris's photo.JPG  Source:'s_photo.JPG  License: Public Domain
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File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bean49, David Descamps,
Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Fry1989, Howcome, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Rocket000, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, Zscout370, 4 anonymous edits
File:Flag of Canada.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:Mzajac
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File:Flag of Spain.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pedro A. Gracia Fajardo, escudo de Manual de Imagen
Institucional de la Administración General del Estado
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Pmsyyz, RamzyAbueita, 4 anonymous edits
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File:Tahrir Square on February 8 2011.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
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File:Hosni Mubarak ritratto.jpg  Source:  License: Attribution  Contributors: Presidenza della Repubblica
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File:Flickr - Daveness 98 - Cityscape in Cairo.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons
Attribution 2.0  Contributors: David Evers from Amsterdam, Netherlands
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File:Day of Anger marchers in street.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
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File:2nd February 2011, Cairo. Al-Azhar Imams.jpg  Source:,_Cairo._Al-Azhar_Imams.jpg  License: Creative Commons
Attribution 2.0  Contributors: yamaha_gangsta
File:Tahrir Square - February 9, 2011.png  Source:,_2011.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
 Contributors: Jonathan Rashad
File:Tahrir Square on February11.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors:
Jonathan Rashad
File:Egy sag.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ahmadpontymageed (talk) 23:55, 14 February
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 Contributors: Mohamed Adel from Alexandria, Egypt
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File:Sally Zahran.png  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Sherif9282, The Egyptian Liberal
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File:A sign with with the protests demand.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
 Contributors: Mona
File:Shreaded paper in Egypt's SS HQ.jpg  Source:'s_SS_HQ.jpg  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors:
File:Debating in Tahrir.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors:
Image:Flickr - Floris Van Cauwelaert - The messages on Tahrir Square (8).jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 130

 Contributors: Floris Van Cauwelaert from Brussels, Belgium

Image:A female protester with her camera and a flower.jpg  Source:  License:
Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Mona Seif
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 Contributors: Mona
File:Abrams in Tahrir.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Sherif9282
File:Tsunami damage north of Sendai 1x1 resized.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: User:Olli
File:Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg  Source:
 License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa)
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File:Green pog.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andux, Antonsusi, Juiced lemon, Rocket000, STyx,
TwoWings, Wouterhagens, 2 anonymous edits
File:Map of Sendai Earthquake 2011.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors:
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File:Soil-liquefaction at Shinkiba after after 2011 Tohoku Pacific Ocean offshore earthquake.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons
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File:東北地方太平洋沖地震仙台ロフト.JPG  Source:東北地方太平洋沖地震仙台ロフト.JPG  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: 鷺沼鷹子
File:2011 tsunami wave height.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: w:NOAANOAA
File:2011-Sendai-Tsunami-DART-21413-AB.png  Source:  License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Chepry, Olli, Yasu
File:SendaiAirportMarch16.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Samuel Morse
File:Midway bonin petrel 2011 tsunami.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Sevice (photo by Pete Leary/USFWS)
File:Flooding from Tsunami near Sendai, Japan2.jpg  Source:,_Japan2.jpg  License: Public Domain
 Contributors: NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center
File:Cercle rouge 50%.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Finnrind, PoM, Rimshot, Rocket000, STyx,
Wikid77, ZooFari
File:Arrows 12x12 w.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:STyx
File:US Navy 110315-N-5503T-756 A Japanese search and rescue team searches the rubble near a high-rise building in Wakuya, Japan.jpg  Source:,_Japan.jpg
 License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ingolfson, Rmhermen, 1 anonymous edits
Image:2011 Earthquake and Tsunami near Sendai, Japan.jpg  Source:,_Japan.jpg  License:
Public Domain  Contributors: Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon
File:Fukushima I by Digital Globe 2.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
 Contributors: Digital Globe
File:Hydrogen explosion Fukushima Unit 1 cg visualization.png  Source:
 License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Nesnad
File:USNradiationJapan.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Josh Cassatt
File:JAPAN EARTHQUAKE 20110311.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:Connormah, User:W.Rebel
File:Aerial@sendai.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alexander Tidd
File:Cosmo Oil explosion 2 20110311.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: Cranky5
File:Tohoku Shinkansen Damaged by 2011 Sendai Earthquake.jpg  Source:
 License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Ingolfson, LERK, Morio
File:2011 Sendai earthquake Tokyo.JPG  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License
 Contributors: User:多摩に暇人
File:SH-60B helicopter flies over Sendai.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: U.S.
Navy photo
File:Japan earthquake store shelves.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors:
File:Queue to Seven-eleven at 2011 Sendai earthquake.jpg  Source:  License:
Trademarked  Contributors: Ingolfson, Juan de Vojníkov, LERK, Morio
File:2011TsunamiFireVehicles.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dylan McCord
File:US Navy 110315-N-5503T-474 Naval Aircrewman 2nd Class Chris Carringer, assigned to the Black Knights of Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron (HS) 4, .jpg  Source:,_assigned_to_the_Black_Knights_of_Helicopter_Anti-Submarine_Squadron_(HS)_4,_.jpg
 License: Public Domain  Contributors: Geo Swan, Ingolfson, Juan de Vojníkov
File:LoadingLSD46japan.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Scott Bourque
File:YokotaABFD2011.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Andrea Salazar
File:Russians bear flowers to embassy of Japan in Moscow after 2011 earthquake.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors:
Elmor, Ingolfson, Juan de Vojníkov, Morio, Oberono
File:Fukushima map.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Benlisquare, Rchoetzlein
file:Aadhaar Logo.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: Jovianeye
License 131

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/