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determine the hydrostatic thrust on a plane surface partly immersed in water. determine the position of the line of action of the thrust. compare the position determined by experiment with the theoretical position . verify the formula for calculating hydrostatic thrust.

When the quadrant is immersed in water it is possible to analyze the forces acting on the surfaces of the quadrant as follows: The hydrostatic force at any point on the curved surface is normal to the surface and therefore resolves through the pivot point because this is located at the origin of the radii. Hydrostatic forces on the upper and lower curved surfaces therefore have no net effect – no torque to affect the equilibrium of the assembly because all of these forces pass through the pivot. The forces on the sides of the quadrant are horizontal and cancel out (equal and opposite).

Figure 1 Diagram of F1-12 Apparatus

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L = distance between fulcrum and balancing weight in meters. By calculating the Thrust and the centre of pressure on the end face of the quadrant we can compare the experimental results with those obtained from theoretical ideal calculations Partially submerged quadrant (fig.81m/s2). h’’ = distance of the line of trust below the fulcrum in meters. H = distance from fulcrum to bottom of quadrant in meters.Once the moment caused by the weight of the quadrant is nullified by adjusting the counterweight so that balancing arm is perfectly collinear with the level indicator a balancing weight of known mass is added and water meticulously added until the balancing arm has once again returned to its previous precisely noted position aided by the hydrostatic force of water creating a moment which counter acts the torque of the weight on the balancing arm and thus holds the system in equilibrium The magnitude of the hydrostatic force can be calculated from the value of the balance weight and the depth of the water as follows: mgL = Fh’’ Where: m = mass of weight in kilograms.Theoretical 2 . D = height of quadrant in meters. g = gravitational acceleration (9. h’’ is the distance between the fulcrum and the centre of pressure in meters. h’ = depth of the centre of pressure in meters. The forces present are F (the hydrostatic thrust) and mg (the balancing weight) Hydrostatic Force . B) Where: L = distance between fulcrum and balancing weight in meters. d = depth of immersion in meters. F = Hydrostatic Thrust in Newton.

therefore the moments are equal i.Hydrostatic force can be defined as: F = ρgAh Where: F = The Hydrostatic force in Newton ρ = density of water in kg/m3 A = Area defined as: B*d in m2 h = depth of the centroid defined as: d/2. B = width of the end face of the quadrant in meters d = depth of immersion in meters. L = distance between fulcrum and balancing weight in meters. the moment created is proportional to the length of the arm defined as: L The moment is thus defined as M = WL = mgL The two forces have put the system back into its previous state of equilibrium. ρ = density of water in kg/m3. m = mass of weight in kilograms. Fh’’ = mgL Thus: h’’= mgl/F But: F = (1/2) (ρgBd2) Therefore. by substitution: h’’ = 2mL/ ρBd2 (Formula 2) Where: h’’ = distance of the line of trust below the fulcrum in meters. 3 . in metres Thus: F = (1/2) (ρgBd2) Newton (Formula 1) Experimental position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) The moment described previously in the section that causes the system to reach equilibrium again along the levelling indicator can be described as: M = Fh’’ A weight is placed on the balancing arm.e.

in metres. Ic = the moment of inertia of the object about an axis passing through its centre of mass in this case: Bh’’ A = Area defined as: B*d in m2. by substitution: Ix = Bh’’ + Ah² But: h = d/2 Therefore h’ = d2/4 h’’= d3/12 Substitute values: Ix = Bd3/12 + Bd(d/2)2 = Bd3/12 + Bd3/4 4 . Thus: Ah = Bd2/2 By substitution: h’ = 2Ix/Bd2 Utilizing the parallel axis theorem yields the following formula: Ix = Ic + Ah² Where: Ix = the area moment of inertia of the immersed plane relative to its centroid. in metres. Therefore. h = depth of the centroid defined as: d/2. A = Area defined as: B*d in m2.Theoretical position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) The theoretical formula for the depth of pressure (h’) is: h’ = Ix/Ah Where: h’ = depth of the centre of pressure in meters. h = depth of the centroid defined as: d/2. Ix = the area moment of inertia of the immersed plane relative to its centroid.

= 4Bd3/12 = Bd3/3 But: h’ = 2Ix/Bd2 Therefore. by substitution: h’’ = H + (2d/3 – d) = H + (2d/3 – 3d/3) = H + (-d/3) Therefore: h’’ = H – d/3 (Formula 3) Hydrostatic Force – Actual By utilizing Formula 3 we can postulate a new formula by substituting another variable for h’’ into the sum of moments equation i. by substitution: F (H – d/3) = mgL Thus: F = (mgL)/(H – d/3) (Formula 4) 5 . B we can derive from it the following: h’’ = H + h’ – d But: h’ = 2d/3 Therefore.e. by substitution: h’ = (2Bd3/3) ÷ Bd2 . Fh’’ = mgL But: h’’ = H – d/3 Therefore. = 2d/3 By examining fig.

Equipment used in the fluid mechanics lab • • • • • Hydraulic test bench Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus 50 gram weight disks Water Measuring cylinder or jug Hydraulic Test Bench Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus L – 275 mm H – 200mm D – 100 mm Pressure 7 F – Hydrostatic Force h – Depth of Centroid h’ – Depth of Centre of .

075)(0.066/3) = 0.2) – (0.5)(1000)(9.200m D – . Theoretical position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 3) h’’ = H – d/3 = (0.075)(0.1 kg 0.1684 meters 3.81)(0. Hydrostatic Force – Theoretical (Formula 1) F = (1/2) (ρgBd2) Newton = (0.1780 meters 8 .066)2 = 0.6025 Newton 2.075 m force below pivot d – depth of immersion Mass (m) 0.275)/(1000)(0.275 m H – . Experimental position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 2) h’’ = 2mL/ ρBd2 = (2)(0.066)2 = 1.100 m B – .2 kg F – Hydrostatic Force h – Depth of Centroid h’ – Depth of Centre of Pressure h’’ Distance of the line of action of Data Set 1 1.1)(.15 kg 0.095 m Assume density of water ρ = 1000 kg/m3 L – .081 m 3 0.B – 75 mm of force below pivot d – depth of immersion h’’ - Distance of the line of action Data Set Water Level (d) 1 0.066 m 2 0.

5)(1000)(9. Hydrostatic Force – Theoretical (Formula 1) F = (1/2) (ρgBd2) Newton = (0.2 – 0.81)(.275) ÷ (.066/3) = 1.095/3) = 0. Hydrostatic Force – Actual (Formula 4) F = (mgL)/(H – d/3) = (0.275) ÷ (. Hydrostatic Force – Theoretical (Formula 1) F = (1/2) (ρgBd2) Newton = (0.15)(9. Experimental position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 2) h’’ = 2mL/ ρBd2 = (2)(0.075)(0. Theoretical position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 3) h’’ = H – d/3 = (0.81)(.275) ÷ (.081)2 = 2.081/3) = 0.5)(1000)(9.075)(0.4.081/3) = 2.1730 meters 4.081)2 = 0.075)(0.2) – (0.1677 meters 3.1)(9.2 – 0.15)(.095)2 = 3.3391 Newton Data Set 3 1.075)(0.81)(0.5156 Newton Data Set 2 1. Hydrostatic Force – Actual (Formula 4) F = (mgL)/(H – d/3) = (0.275)/(1000)(0.81)(0. Experimental position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 2) h’’ = 2mL/ ρBd2 = (2)(0.1625 meters 3. Hydrostatic Force – Actual (Formula 4) F = (mgL)/(H – d/3) = (0.81)(.2) – (0.3201 Newton 2.095)2 = 0.2 – 0. Theoretical position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) (Formula 3) h’’ = H – d/3 = (0.275)/(1000)(0.2)(9.4136 Newton 2.2)(.1683 meters 4.095/3) 9 .

2052 Newton Theoretical vs.1625 Hydrostatic Force Actual Hydrostatic Force (N) 0.173 0. Practical Data Position of the line of force action below the pivot (h’’) Experimental Distance h''e (m) Theoretical Distance h''t (m) Practical vs. theoretical accuracy (%) 94.1684 0.3201 Actual vs.5772 96.5538 Margin of error (%) 5.6067 96.3391 3.1683 Theoretical Hydrostatic Force (N) 1.= 3. they are very rarely within a error margin of more that 5 % and when one considers the 10 .4607 Interpretation of data It is obvious from the start that the theoretical data and the experimental data have a definitive correlation.4136 3.9133 96.178 0. theoretical accuracy (%) 94.3933 3.4228 3.0867 3.0636 3.1677 0.9364 96.5156 2.5393 Margin of error (%) 5.4462 0.2052 1.6025 2.