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- Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs
- Spatial Data Mining (SDM)
- Location As Attribute
- Example Spatial Pattern: Spatial Cluster
- Example Spatial Pattern: Spatial Outliers
- Example Spatial Pattern: Predictive Models
- Example Spatial Pattern: Co-locations (backup)
- What’s NOT Spatial Data Mining
- Application Domains
- Example of Application Domains
- Business Applications
- Map Construction
- Colocation in Example Data
- Colocation Example
- SQL Example for Colocation Query
- Colocation: Road-River
- More Complex Colocation Examples
- Outliers in Example Data
- Outliers in Example
- Overview of Input
- Data in Spatial Data Mining
- Relationships on Data in Spatial Data Mining
- OGC Model
- Mining Implicit Spatial Relationships
- Research Needs for Data
- Overview
- Statistics in Spatial Data Mining
- Overview of Statistical Foundation
- Spatial Autocorrelation(SA)
- Spatial Autocorrelation: Distance-based Measure
- Spatial Autocorrelation: Topological Measure
- Cross-Correlation
- Spatial Slicing
- Edge Eﬀect
- Research Challenges of Spatial Statistics
- General Approaches in SDM
- Overview of Data Mining Output
- Illustrative Application to Location Prediction (Backup)
- Prediction and Trend
- Spatial Contextual Model: SAR
- Spatial Contextual Model: MRF
- Research Needs for Spatial Classiﬁcation
- Semi-Supervised Bayesian Classiﬁcation
- An Example of Spatial Outlier Detection (Backup)
- Research Needs in Spatial Outlier Detection
- Association Rules - An Analogy
- Spatial Colocation
- Spatial Colocation Approaches
- Computational Process
- Example of Computational Process
- Example: Teleconnection (Cont’)
- Parallel Spatial Auto-Regression Model
- Summary
- Book

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Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs

**Shashi Shekhar Pusheng Zhang Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Minnesota
**

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in March, 1982

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Spatial Data Mining (SDM)

**⋆ The process of discovering
**

• •

interesting,useful, non-trivial patterns from large spatial datasets

⋆ Spatial patterns

•

**Spatial outlier, discontinuities
**

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bad traﬃc sensors on highways (DOT) model to identify habitat of endangered species crime hot-spots (NIJ), cancer clusters (CDC) predator-prey species, symbiosis Dental health and ﬂuoride

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**Location prediction models
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Spatial clusters

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**Co-location patterns
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GIScience 2004 - Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs

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Location As Attribute

**⋆ Location as attribute in spatial data mining ⋆ What value is location as an explanatory variable?
**

• • •

most events are associated with space and time surrogate variable critical to data analyses for many application domains

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physical science social science

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GIScience 2004 - Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs

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' $ Example Spatial Pattern: Spatial Cluster ⋆ The 1854 Asiatic Cholera in London & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 3 .

s.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 4 . Station) 180 160 10 I35W Station ID(South Bound) 140 20 120 100 30 80 40 60 40 50 20 60 50 100 150 200 250 0 Time & GIScience 2004 .' $ Example Spatial Pattern: Spatial Outliers ⋆ Spatial Outliers • • • Traﬃc Data in Twin Cities Abnormal Sensor Detections Spatial and Temporal Outliers Average Traffic Volume(Time v.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 5 .' $ Example Spatial Pattern: Predictive Models ⋆ Location Prediction: Bird Habitat Prediction • • • Given training data Predictive model building Predict new data Nest sites for 1995 Darr location 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 85 100 120 140 160 Marsh land Nest sites & GIScience 2004 .

' $ Example Spatial Pattern: Co-locations (backup) ⋆ Given: • A collection of diﬀerent types of spatial events ⋆ Illustration ⋆ Find: Co-located subsets of event types & % GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 6 .

Common knowledge: Nearby places have similar rainfall • ⋆ Mining of non-spatial data & • Diaper sales and beer sales are correlated in evening GIScience 2004 . Given that the two cities are 10 miles apart.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 7 .' $ What’s NOT Spatial Data Mining ⋆ Simple Querying of Spatial Data • Find neighbors of Canada given names and boundaries of all countries Find shortest path from Boston to Houston in a freeway map Search space is not large (not exponential) • • ⋆ Testing a hypothesis via a primary data analysis • Ex. Paul. Female chimpanzee territories are smaller than male territories Search space is not large ! SDM: secondary data analysis to generate multiple plausible hypotheses • • ⋆ Uninteresting or obvious patterns in spatial data • Heavy rainfall in Minneapolis is correlated with heavy rainfall in St.

of Health(NIH): cancer clusters Commerce.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 8 . Retail Analysis ⋆ Sample Global Questions from Earth Science • • • How is the global Earth system changing? What are the primary forcings of the Earth system? How does the Earth system respond to natural and humanincluded changes? What are the consequences of changes in the Earth system for human civilization? How well can we predict future changes in the Earth system • • & GIScience 2004 . of Commerce: census data Dept. Dept. of Transportation (DOT): traﬃc data National Inst.g. of Justice: crime mapping Census Bureau.' $ Application Domains ⋆ Spatial data mining is used in • • • • • • NASA Earth Observing System (EOS): Earth science data National Inst. e.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 9 .' $ Example of Application Domains ⋆ Sample Local Questions from Epidemiology[TerraSeer] • • What’s overall pattern of colorectal cancer? Is there clustering of high colorectal cancer incidence anywhere in the study area? Where is colorectal cancer risk signiﬁcantly elevated? Where are zones of rapid change in colorectal cancer incidence? • • Figure 1: Geographic distribution of male colorectal cancer in Long Island. New York(in courtesy of TerraSeer) & GIScience 2004 .

p). person p) = f (square-footage(c). and transportation network changes in retail space of a store changes in choices and communication with customers ⋆ Retail analysis: Huﬀ model [Huﬀ. 1963] • A spatial interaction model – – – Given a person p and a set S of choices Pr[person p selects choice c] ∝ perceived utility(∀c ∈ S .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 10 .g. p) perceived utility(store c. parameters) • Connection to SDM – Parameter estimation.' $ Business Applications ⋆ Sample Questions: • • What happens if a new store is added? How much business a new store will divert from existing stores Other “what if” questions: – – – • changes in population. ethic-mix.. distance (c. e. via regression • For example: – – – & – Predicting consumer spatial behaviors Delineating trade areas Locating retail and service facilities Analyzing market performance GIScience 2004 .

disturbed soil) Vegetation (Land subject to inundation.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 11 . ford. cropland. embankment. river/stream. rice ﬁeld. common open water. cart tracks. organic silt. evergreen trees.' $ Map Construction ⋆ Sample Questions • • • Which features are anomalous? Which layers are related? How can the gaps be ﬁlled? ⋆ Korea Data • • Latitude 37deg15min to 37deg30min Longitude 128deg23min51sec to 128deg23min52sec ⋆ Layers • • Obstacles (Cut. railways) % • • • • & GIScience 2004 . dam) Slope Soils (Poorly graded gravel. island. clayey sand. mixed trees) Transport (Roads. depression) Surface drainage (Canal.

evergreen trees and deciduous trees :river/stream ⋆ Rice: clayey soil.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 12 . wet soil and terraced ﬁelds ⋆ Crooked roads: steep slope & GIScience 2004 . cropland. dams and islands: river/streams ⋆ Embankment obstacles and river/stream: clayey soils ⋆ Rice.' $ Colocation in Example Data ⋆ Road: river/stream ⋆ Crop land/rice ﬁelds: ends of roads/cart roads ⋆ Obstacles.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 13 .' $ Colocation Example ⋆ Road-River/Stream Colocation Figure 2: Road-River Colocation Example(Korea dataset) & % GIScience 2004 .

001.001.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 14 .geom.geom ) < 0. R. & GIScience 2004 . CREATE TABLE Cartroad-River-Colocation AS SELECT DISTINCT R.geom.' $ SQL Example for Colocation Query ⋆ SQL3/OGC (Postgres/Postgis) ⋆ Detecting Road River Colocation Pattern: • Spatial Query Fragment SELECT DISTINCT R.geom. R.* FROM Stream-Line-Table T.001.* FROM River-Area-Table T. Road-Line-Table R WHERE distance ( T.geom ) < 0.001.* FROM River-Area-Table T.geom ) < 0. Cartroad-Line-Table R WHERE distance ( T. R.* FROM Stream-Line-Table T. CREATE TABLE Road-River-Colocation AS CREATE TABLE Road-Stream-Colocation AS SELECT DISTINCT R. Road-Line-Table R WHERE distance ( T. CREATE TABLE Cartroad-Stream-Colocation AS SELECT DISTINCT R. R.geom.geom ) < 0. Cartroad-Line-Table R WHERE distance ( T.

' $ Colocation: Road-River ⋆ 375 road features ⋆ Center-line to center-line distance threshold = 0.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 15 .001 units (about 100 meters) ⋆ 77 % of all roads colocated with river Figure 3: Road-River Colocation Example(Korea dataset) & GIScience 2004 .

' $ More Complex Colocation Examples ⋆ Complex Colocation/Outlier Example: • Cropland colocated with river. stream or road Figure 4: Complex Colocation Example & % GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 16 .

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 17 .' $ Outliers in Example Data ⋆ Outlier detection • • • Extra/erroneous features Positional accuracy of features Predict mislabeled/misclassiﬁed features ⋆ Overlapping road and river ⋆ Road crossing river and disconnected road Stream mis- labeled as river ⋆ Cropland close to river and road ⋆ Cropland outliers on edges & GIScience 2004 .

(road. river)) violations illustrated below: Figure 5: Finding errors in maps having road.. river and bridges (Korea dataset) & % GIScience 2004 .g.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 18 .' $ Outliers in Example ⋆ Map production • Identifying errors – – e. expected colocation : (bridge.

' $ Overview ⋆ Spatial Data Mining • Find interesting.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 19 . domain(column) Statistical Foundation Output: patterns and interest measures – e. outliers. non-trivial patterns from spatial data ⋆ Components of Data Mining: • • • Input: table with many columns.g. clusters. potentially useful. predictive models. associations • Computational process: algorithms & GIScience 2004 ..

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 20 .' $ Overview ⇒ Input ⋆ Statistical Foundation ⋆ Output ⋆ Computational process & GIScience 2004 .

fi : attributes Spatial attribute: geographically referenced Non-spatial attribute: traditional ⋆ Relationships among Data • • Non-spatial Spatial & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 21 .' $ Overview of Input ⋆ Data • Table with many columns(attributes) tid f1 f2 ...g. fn Table 1: Example of Input Table – • • e.. tid: tuple id.

city name. line. categorical.' $ Data in Spatial Data Mining ⋆ Non-spatial Information • • • Same as data in traditional data mining Numerical. latitude. MapQuest) & % GIScience 2004 . boolean.. e. etc e. longitude. path Figure 6: Raster and Vector Data for UMN Campus (in courtesy of UMN. ordinal. edge.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 22 .g. elevation • Spatial data representations – – – Raster: gridded space Vector: point. polygon Graph: node.. city population ⋆ Spatial Information • Spatial attribute: geographically referenced – – Neighborhood and extent Location.g.

etc Topological: meet.g. create. Object is instance of a class. class is a subclass of another class. object is part of another object. behind. intersection.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 23 . left. area. above. within. object is a membership of a set ⋆ Relationships on Spatial Data • • Many are implicit Relationship Categories – – – – – – Set-oriented: union. and membership. etc Shape-based and visibility • Granularity Granularity local focal zonal Elevation Example elevation slope Road Example on road? adjacent to road? highest elevation in a zone distance to nearest road Table 2: Examples of Granularity & GIScience 2004 . perimeter Dynamic: update. overlap. destroy. etc Metric: e. Euclidean: distance.' $ Relationships on Data in Spatial Data Mining ⋆ Relationships on non-spatial data • • • Explicit Arithmetic. NE. ranking(ordering). etc.. etc Directional: North.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 24 . line.' $ OGC Model ⋆ Open GIS Consortium Model • • Support spatial data types: e.g. polygons Support spatial operations as follows: Operator Type Basic Function Operator Name SpatialReference() Envelope() Export() IsEmpty() IsSimple() Boundary() Topological/Set Operators Equal Disjoint Intersect Touch Cross Within Contains Overlap Spatial Analysis Distance Buﬀer ConvexHull Intersection Union Diﬀerence SymmDiﬀ Table 3: Examples of Operations in OGC Model & GIScience 2004 . point.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 25 . visibility Table 4: Mining Implicit Spatial Relationships ⋆ What spatial info is to be materialized? • Distance measure: – – – Point: Euclidean Extended objects: buﬀer-based Graph: shortest path • Transactions: i. Left. NEM. Outside Distance..' $ Mining Implicit Spatial Relationships ⋆ Choices: • • Materialize spatial info + classical data mining Customized spatial data mining techniques Materialization Neighbor. Inside. density Classical Data Mining can be used Customized SDM Tech. space partitions – – – – Circles centered at reference features Gridded cells Min-cut partitions Voronoi diagram % & GIScience 2004 . co-location K-means DBSCAN Clustering on sphere Relationships Topological Euclidean Directional Others North.e. Above Shape.

g.e. absolute.' $ Research Needs for Data ⋆ Limitations of OGC Model • • • • • Aggregate functions . mapcube Direction predicates . ego-centric 3D and visibility Network analysis Raster operations ⋆ Needs for New Research • • • Modeling semantically rich spatial properties Moving objects Spatial time series data & GIScience 2004 .e.g.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 26 .

' $ Overview √ Input Statistical Foundation ⇒ ⋆ Output ⋆ Computational process & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 27 .

χ2 .. K-function) neighbor-based(e.g. e. Moran’s I) • Spatial Cross-Correlation – Measures: distance-based. Pearson ⋆ Spatial Data Mining • • Learning sample are not independent Spatial Autocorrelation – Measures: ∗ ∗ distance-based(e. cross K-function • Spatial Heterogeneity & GIScience 2004 ..' $ Statistics in Spatial Data Mining ⋆ Classical Data Mining • • Learning samples are independently distributed Cross-correlation measures.g. e..g.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 28 .g..

2003] • Geostatistics – – – Continuous Variogram: measure how similarity decreases with distance Spatial prediction: spatial autocorrelation • Lattice-based statistics – – Discrete location. 1991][Hanning. neighbor relationship graph Spatial Gaussian models ∗ ∗ Conditionally speciﬁed spatial Gaussian model Simultaneously speciﬁed spatial Gaussian model – • Markov Random Fields.' $ Overview of Statistical Foundation ⋆ Spatial Statistics[Cressie. Spatial Autoregressive Model Point process – – – Discrete Complete spatial randomness (CSR): Poisson process in space K-function: test of CSR & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 29 .

assumption is not valid Measures: K-function.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 30 .4 0. but nearby things are more related than distant things. [Tobler.7 0.1 0.d. Variogram. Moran’s I.6 0. 1970]” White Noise −No spatial autocorrelation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 5372 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 5372 100 120 140 160 Vegetation distribution across the marshland 0 0.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (a) Pixel property with independent identical distribution (b) Vegetation Durability with SA Figure 7: Spatial Randomness vs.5 0. ··· & GIScience 2004 .i.2 0.3 0. Autocorrelation ⋆ Spatial autocorrelation • • • Nearby things are more similar than distant things Traditional i.8 0.' $ Spatial Autocorrelation(SA) ⋆ First Law of Geography • ”All things are related.

compare to Poisson csr cluster <: decluster/regularity 1400 Poisson CSR Cluster Process Decluster Process Envelope 1200 1000 800 K−function 600 400 200 0 −200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 & Distance h GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 31 .' $ Spatial Autocorrelation: Distance-based Measure ⋆ K-function Deﬁnition: • • Test against randomness for point pattern K(h) = λ−1E [number of events within distance h of an arbitrary event] – λ is intensity of event • Model departure from randomness in a wide range of scales ⋆ Inference • • For Poisson complete spatial randomness(csr): – >: – K(h) = πh2 Plot Khat(h) against h.

.g. distribution of vegetation durability ⇒ MI = 0.. de-clustered..g. xn − x} ¯ ¯ – – – xi : data values x: mean of x ¯ n: number of data • W : the contiguity matrix ⋆ Ranges between -1 and +1 • • • • • higher positive value lower negative value ⇒ ⇒ high SA. Attract interspersed.g. Cluster.. .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 32 . . . spatial randomness e. repel ⇒ e. checker board MI = 0 ⇒ e.' $ Spatial Autocorrelation: Topological Measure ⋆ Moran’s I Measure Deﬁnition: zW z t MI = zz t • z = {x1 − x.7 MI = -1 & GIScience 2004 .

' $ Cross-Correlation ⋆ Cross K-Function Deﬁnition • Kij (h) = λ−1E [number of type j event within distance h j of a randomly chosen type i event] • • Cross K-function of some pair of spatial feature types Example – – Which pairs are frequently co-located? Statistical signiﬁcance Co−location Patterns − Sample Data 80 70 60 50 40 Y 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 X 50 60 70 80 Figure 8: Example Data (o and * .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 33 . x and +) & % GIScience 2004 .

' $ Illustration of Cross-Correlation ⋆ Illustration of Cross K-Function for Example Data Cross−K function of pairs of spatial features 1000 800 Cross−K function 600 400 200 0 0 y=pi*h o and * x and + * and x * and + 2 2 4 6 Distance h 8 10 Figure 9: Cross K-function for Example Data & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 34 .

g.. Goodchild. UCGIS 2003] Global model might be inconsistent with regional models – spatial Simpson’s Paradox (or Ecological Inference) (a) Global Model (b) Regional Models ⋆ Spatial Slicing • • Slicing inputs can improve the eﬀectiveness of SDM Slicing output can illustrate support regions of a pattern – e.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 35 . association rule with support map & GIScience 2004 .' $ Spatial Slicing ⋆ Spatial heterogeneity • • “Second law of geography”[M.

' $ Edge Eﬀect ⋆ Cropland on edges may not be classiﬁed as outliers ⋆ No concept of spatial edges in classical data mining & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 36 .

g. SVM with spatial basis function vs.g.' $ Research Challenges of Spatial Statistics ⋆ State-of-the-art of Spatial Statistics Point Process raster vector point line polygon graph Table 5: Data Types and Statistical Models Lattice √ √ √ √ Geostatistics √ √ √ √ ⋆ Research Needs • Correlating extended features: – – – Example data: Korea data e. road. SAR & GIScience 2004 . river (line strings) e. cropland (polygon).Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 37 . river • • Edge eﬀect Relationship to classical statistics – Ex. road.

' $ Overview √ Input Statistical Foundation Output √ ⇒ ⋆ Computational process & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 38 .

.' $ General Approaches in SDM ⋆ Materializing spatial features. use classical DM • • • Ex.Matlab. R. 1995] commercial tools: e. Splus ⋆ Customized spatial techniques • • • & Ex. association rule with support map[P. use classical DM • Ex..Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 39 . SAS. Tan et al] 90 15 14 70 13 50 12 30 11 10 10 −10 9 8 −30 7 −50 6 −70 5 −90 −180 −140 −100 −60 −20 20 60 100 140 180 4 Support Figure 10: Association rule with support map(FPAR-high → NPP-high) • commercial tools: e. MRF-based Bayesian Classiﬁer (MRF-BC) commercial tools – e. store) Ex. SAS-ESRI bridge ⋆ Spatial slicing.g.g.g..distance(customer.Splus spatial/R spatial/terraseer + customized codes GIScience 2004 .. Han. spatial association rule mining[Koperski.g. geographically weighted regression: parameter = f(loc) e. Huﬀ’s model .

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 40 . Statistical Models & GIScience 2004 . Output Patterns Patterns Prediction Trend Clustering Outliers Associations Point Process √ √ √ √ Lattice Geostatistics √ √ √ √ √ √ Table 6: Output Patterns vs.' $ Overview of Data Mining Output ⋆ Supervised Learning: Prediction • • Classiﬁcation Trend ⋆ Unsupervised Learning: • • • Clustering Outlier Detection Association ⋆ Input Data Types vs.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 41 .' $ Illustrative Application to Location Prediction (Backup) Nest sites for 1995 Darr location 0 10 Vegetation distribution across the marshland 0 10 20 20 30 40 50 30 40 Marsh land Nest sites 50 60 70 60 70 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 85 100 120 140 160 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 5372 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (a) Nest Locations (b) Vegetation Water depth variation across marshland 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 20 40 60 80 nz = 5372 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 20 40 Distance to open water 60 80 nz = 5372 100 120 140 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (c) Water Depth (d) Distance to Open Water & GIScience 2004 .

g..9 0.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 42 .7 0.1 0 0 0.9 1 Truth Positive Rate 0. e.5 0.1 0.8 ROC Curve for testing data(Stubble marshland 1995) 1 0.6 0.2 0.1 0 0 0..6 0.g.' $ Prediction and Trend ⋆ Prediction • Continuous: trend. regression – Location aware: spatial autoregressive model(SAR) • Discrete: classiﬁcation.5 0.4 0.2 Truth Positive Rate 0.8 0.6 0.8 0. ROC curve for SAR and regression ROC Curve for learning data(Darr 95) 1 0.1 0.7 0.9 0.g. (b) Comparison of the models on the Stubble testing data. e.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 Classical Regression Spatial Regression 0.7 Classical Regression Spatial Regression 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.C )N |ci) P r(X) N Table 7: Prediction Models • e.9 1 False Positive Rate False Positive Rate (e) ROC curves for learning (f) ROC curves for testing Figure 11: (a) Comparison of the classical regression model with the spatial autoregression model on the Darr learning data.2 0.7 0. Bayesian classiﬁer – Location aware: Markov random ﬁelds(MRF) Classical Spatial y = Xβ + ǫ y = ρW y + Xβ + ǫ )∗P r(X.4 0.6 0.8 0..4 0.3 0. CN ) = P r(ciP r(X.C P r(Ci|X) = P r(X|Ci)P r(Ci) P r(ci|X. & GIScience 2004 .

logistic or Poisson forms can be ﬁtted Example: y = Xβ ′ + ǫ′. • • where β ′ and ǫ′ are location dependent & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 43 . • Directly model spatial autocorrelation using W ⋆ Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) • A method of analyzing spatially varying relationships – parameter estimates vary locally • Models with Gaussian. • Assume that dependent values yi′ are related to each other yi = f (yj ) i = j.' $ Spatial Contextual Model: SAR ⋆ Spatial Autoregressive Model (SAR) y = ρW y + Xβ + ǫ.

CN |ci ). CN |ci) P r(X. P r(X. if W (si. andP r(X.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 44 . sj ) = 0 • • • • Predict fC (si). given feature value X and neighborhood class label CN P r(ci|X. & GIScience 2004 . CN ) Assume: P r(ci ). CN ) = – P r(ci) ∗ P r(X. CN ) are mixture of Gaussian distributions.' $ Spatial Contextual Model: MRF ⋆ Markov Random Fields Gaussian Mixture Model (MRF- GMM) • Undirected graph to represent the interdependency relationship of random variables A variable depends only on neighbors Independent of all other variables fC (Si) independent of fC (Sj ).

' $ Research Needs for Spatial Classiﬁcation ⋆ Open Problems • • Estimate W for SAR and MRF-BC Scaling issue in SAR – scale diﬀerence: ρWy vs. predicted) A A (a) (b) A P P P A (c) Legend A A P A P P A A (d) = nest location A = actual nest in pixel P = predicted nest in pixel Figure 12: An example showing diﬀerent predictions: (a)The actual sites. (b)Pixels with actual sites. avg dist(actual.. (c)Prediction 1. (d)Prediction 2.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 45 . Prediction 2 is spatially more accurate than 1. & GIScience 2004 .g. Xβ • Spatial interest measure: e.

Cluster. and Decluster Figure 14: Classical Clustering 2 1 3 3 2 Data is of Complete 4 3 2 1 2 2 3 Spatial Randomness 3 1: Unusually Dense 3: Mean Dense 2: Desnse 4: Sparse Data is of Decluster Pattern 3 Figure 15: Spatial Clustering & GIScience 2004 . and decluster Figure 13: Inputs: Complete Spatial Random (CSR). cluster.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 46 .' $ Clustering ⋆ Clustering: Find groups of tuples ⋆ Statistical Signiﬁcance • Complete spatial randomness.

rivers.. soundex Classical clustering: Euclidean.g.' $ Clustering ⋆ Similarity Measures • • • Non-spatial: e. metric. mountain ranges. graph-based Topological: neighborhood EM(NEM) – seeks a partition that is both well clustered in feature space and spatially regular Implicitly based on locations – • Interest measure: – – – – spatial continuity cartographic generalization unusual density keep nearest neighbors in common cluster ⋆ Challenges • Spatial constraints in algorithmic design – – Clusters should obey obstacles Ex.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 47 . etc & GIScience 2004 .

' $ Semi-Supervised Bayesian Classiﬁcation ⋆ Motivation: high cost of collecting labeled samples ⋆ Semi-supervised MRF • Idea: use unlabeled samples to improve classiﬁcation – Ex. reduce salt-N-pepper noise • Eﬀects on land-use data .BC-MRF (Bottom Left).smoothing Supervised Semi−Supervised BC Pixel−Based MRF−BC Context−Based Figure 16: Bayesian Classiﬁer (Top Left).Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 48 . BC-EM-MRF (Bottom Right) & % GIScience 2004 . Semi-Supervised BC (Top Right).

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Spatial Outlier Detection

**⋆ Spatial Outlier Detection
**

• • •

**Finding anomalous tuples Global vs. Spatial outlier Detection Approaches
**

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Graph-based outlier detection: Variogram, Moran Scatter Plot Quantitative outlier detection: Scatter Plot, Z-score

⋆ Location-awareness

Original Data Points

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**Average Traffic Volume(Time v.s. Station)
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Data Point Fitting Curve

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I35W Station ID(North Bound)

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Attribute Values

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2 4 6 8 1012 14 16 18 20 22 24

Location

Time

(b) Outliers in Traﬃc Data

(a) Outliers in Example Data

&

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An Example of Spatial Outlier Detection (Backup)

**⋆ Consider Scatter Plot ⋆ Model Building
**

• •

**Neighborhood aggregate function Distributive aggregate functions
**

–

N faggr : E(x) =

1 k

y∈N (x)

f (y)

f (x),

E(x),

f (x)E(x),

f 2 (x),

E 2 (x)

•

**Algebraic aggregate functions
**

– m= – b= – σǫ = – –

N f (x)E(x)− f (x) E(x) N f 2 (x)−( f (x)2 N E 2 (x)− f (x) f (x)E(x) f 2 (x)−( f (x))2

f (x)

Syy −(m2 Sxx ) , (n−2)

where and

Sxx =

f 2 (x) − [ ( E 2 (x) − [ (

f (x))2 ] n

Syy =

E(x))2 ] n

⋆ Testing

•

Diﬀerence function

–

Fdif f

– ǫ = E(x) − (m ∗ f (x) + b)

where

E(x) =

1 k

y∈N (x)

f (y) ST

•

**Statistic test function
**

– | ǫ−µǫ | > θ σǫ

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Spatial Outlier Detection

**⋆ Separate two phases
**

• •

Model Building Testing: test a node (or a set of nodes)

**⋆ Computation Structure of Model Building
**

•

Key insights:

– –

Spatial self join using

N (x)

relationship

Algebraic aggregate function can be computed in one disk scan of spatial join

**⋆ Computation Structure of Testing
**

•

**Single node: spatial range query
**

–

Get All Neighbors(x) operation

•

**A given set of nodes
**

–

Sequence of Get All Neighbor(x)

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GIScience 2004 - Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs

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Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 52 .' $ Research Needs in Spatial Outlier Detection ⋆ Multiple spatial outlier detection • • Eliminating the inﬂuence of neighboring outliers Incremental ⋆ Multi-attribute spatial outlier detection • Use multiple attributes as features ⋆ Design of spatial statistical tests ⋆ Scale up for large data & GIScience 2004 .

An Analogy ⋆ Association rule e.' $ Association Rules .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs 53 . (Diaper in T ⇒ Beer in T) • • Support: probability(Diaper and Beer in T) = 2/5 Conﬁdence: probability(Beer in T|Diaper in T)= 2/2 ⋆ Algorithm Apriori [Agrawal. VLDB94] • Support based pruning using monotonicity ⋆ Note: Transaction is a core concept! & % GIScience 2004 .g. Srikant.

Shapes represent diﬀerent spatial feature types.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 54 .' $ Spatial Colocation ⋆ Association • • • Domain(fi) = union Co-location – – { any. (b) Transactionazing continuous space splits circled instances of colocation patterns into separated transactions & GIScience 2004 . domain(fi )} fi Finding frequent itemsets from Eﬀect of transactionizing: loss of info Alternative: use spatial join. statistics Co−location Patterns − Sample Data Co−location Patterns − Sample Data 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 80 70 60 50 Y 40 30 20 10 0 0 Y 10 20 30 40 X 50 60 70 80 10 20 30 40 X 50 60 70 80 (d) Figure 17: a) A spatial dataset.

[Shekhar and Huang. 1995] and [Morimoto. 2001] • Transaction-based Approaches – e.' $ Spatial Colocation Approaches ⋆ Approaches • Spatial Join-based Approaches – – Join based on map overlay. e..g.g. e.g. [Koperski and Han. 1001] Join using K-function.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 55 .2001] ⋆ Challenges • • • • Neighborhood deﬁnition “Right” transactionazation Statistical interpretation Computational complexity – – large number of joins join predicate is a conjunction of: ∗ ∗ neighbor distinct item types & GIScience 2004 . [Estivill-Castro and Lee.

Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 56 .' $ Overview √ Input Statistical Foundation Output Computational process √ √ ⇒ & GIScience 2004 .

Space Filling Curves possible loss Hierarchical Structures Parameter Estimation Spatial Index. estimation of anisotropic W is non-trivial Spatial outlier detection: spatial join Co-location: bunch of joins GIScience 2004 . Predicate Approximation Ordering Plane Sweeping. however. Tree Matching Parameter estimation with spatial autocorrelation Table 8: Algorithmic Strategies in Spatial Data Mining info info ⋆ Challenges • Does spatial domain provide computational eﬃciency? – – – Low dimensionality: 2-3 Spatial autocorrelation Spatial indexing methods Linear regression vs SAR ∗ Continuity matrix W is assumed known for SAR.' $ Computational Process ⋆ Most algorithmic strategies are applicable ⋆ Algorithmic Strategies in Spatial Data Mining: Classical Algorithms Divide-and-Conquer Algorithmic Strategies in SDM Space Partitioning Comments possible loss Filter-and-Reﬁne Minimum-Bounding-Rectangle(MBR).Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs • Generalize to solve spatial problems – – & – % 57 .

W:Warm. El Nino aﬀects global climate Figure 18: Global Inﬂuence of El Nino during the Northern Hemisphere Winter(D: Dry.' $ Example of Computational Process ⋆ Teleconnection • Find locations with climate correlation over – θ e.g. R:Rainfall) & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 58 ..

g.9 & GIScience 2004 .3 to 0.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 59 . 600) feature space 67k land locations and 100k ocean locations 50-year monthly data ⋆ Computational Eﬃciency • Spatial autocorrelation: – Reduce Computational Complexity • Spatial indexing to organize locations – – Top-down tree traversal is a strong ﬁlter Spatial join query: ﬁlter-and-reﬁne ∗ save 40% to 98% computational cost at θ = 0..' $ Example: Teleconnection (Cont’) ⋆ Challenge: • • • high dim(e.

Computing all eigenvalues of a large matrix Memory requirement GIScience 2004 . L.MCMC) will be used next for comparison purposes • ML theory maximizes the log-likelihood function using non-linear optimization (Golden section search) The logarithm of determinant of large matrix is the bottleneck and computed exactly • y ρ W y + X β + ε = nx1 nxn nx1 nxmmx1 nx1 ⋆ Computational Challenges • • • & Eigenvalue + Least square + M.' $ Parallel Spatial Auto-Regression Model ⋆ Spatial Auto-Regression Model • • Estimate ρ and β for y = ρW y + Xβ + ǫ The estimation uses maximum-likelihood (ML) theory implemented in serial – Bayesian statistics (Markov Chain Monte Carlo.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 60 .

plane-sweeping Numerical alg. scale & GIScience 2004 . simple types and transactions Stat Foundation Output Independence of samples Interest measures: set-based Combinatorial optimization spatial autocorrelation Location-awareness Computational eﬃciency opportunity Spatial autocorrelation. New complexity: SAR. Predicted) Constraints Discrete space Support threshold Conﬁdence threshold Keep NN together Honor geo-boundaries Other Issues Table 9: Summary of Spatial Data Mining Edge eﬀect. complex types Computational Process Objective Function Max likelihood Min sum of squared errors Map Similarity(Actual. co-location mining Estimation of anisotropic W is nontrivial Spatial DM often Implicit relationships.' $ Summary ⋆ What’s Special About Spatial Data Mining? • • • • Input Data Statistical Foundation Output Patterns Computational Process Classical DM Input All explicit.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 61 .

' $ Book Figure 19: Spatial Databases: A Tour (a) English Version (b) Russian Version (c) Chinese Version & GIScience 2004 .Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 62 .

Kopperski. 2001].' $ References ⋆ References • [Cressie. Spatial Analysis and GIS. 2001]. B. S. Parallel Formulation of Spatial Auto-Regression. Hanning. 1963]. Han. SSTD. 2001 Data • Geographic Data Mining and & GIScience 2004 . Han(eds). Lan Economics. The Elements of Statistical Learning. Degroot and M. 2003]. Han. • • [Hastie et al. 2001 [Huﬀ. Statistics (Third Ed. Knowledge Discovery. M. M. 2001 ESRI User Conference Pre-Conference Seminar [Hanning. J. August 2003 [Koperski. Huﬀ. Hastie. K. Discovery of ciation Rules in Geographic Information Database. Tibshirani. Springer-Verlag. R. 1996]. 2002]. Schervish. 2003]. H. K. Taylor and Francis. 1991]. 1995]. and J. R. Army High-Performance Computing Research Center (AHPCRC) Technical Report no. 1963 [Kazar at al.. Spatial Cambridge University Press. Miller and J. A Probabilistic Analysis of Shopping Center Trade Areas. Lilja. T. 2002 Probability and • • [Goodchild. Addison Wesley. 2003-125. Han. John Wiley and Sons. Statistics for Spatial Data.). 2003 Data Analysis : Theory and Practice. 2002]. Shekhar. Cressie. Schervish. 1995 Spatial Asso- • • • • [Koperski et al.Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 63 . and D. 1996 [Miller. DMKD. Kopperski and J. and J. Spatial Mining: Progress and Challenges. Han. D. N. Friedman. Adhikary. Goodchild. Kazar. 1991 [Degroot.

2003 GIScience 2004 . Shekhar and S. and P. Tan and M. Shekhar. Potter and S. S. Zhang. and V. Yet Workshop. 2001]. Huang. Charlton. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2003 Spatial Databases: A • • [Shekhar et al. Torregrosa. Zhang. Kumar. and M. Shekhar and Y. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia (special issue on Multimedia Databases). R. S. 2002.' $ References ⋆ References • [Roddick. Prentice Hall. 7(2). Roddick. 2003]. Spiliopoulou. 2003].Spatial Data Mining: Accomplishments and Research Needs % 64 . Fotheringham. Hornsby and M. J. Tour. S.SSTD. 2003]. Huang. 2003 [Shekhar. P. Chawla. & SSTD. S. 2001 Another Bibliography of Temporal. 2001 • • [Zhang at al. 2001]. 2002 [Shekhar et al. Discovering location Patterns: A Summary of Results . Shekhar. Spatial Spatio-temporal Data Mining Research. Wu. Brunsdon. Y. W. C. Shekhar. 2002]. Klooster and A. A Uniﬁed Approach to Detecting Spatial Outliers. Kumar and C. and S. 2001 Spatial Co- • • [Fotheringham et al. Lu. Spatial Contextual Classiﬁcation and Prediction Models for Mining Geospatial Data. T. 2002]. Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Earth Science Data. KDD • [Shekhar et al. Chawla. S. Exploiting Spatial Autocorrelation to Eﬃciently Process Correlation-Based Similarity Queries. 2001]. John Wiley & Sons. GeoInformatica. Chawla. C. Steinbach and V. Vatsavai. [Tan et al. A. KDD Workshop on Temporal Data Mining. Schrater. K. P. Geographically Weighted Regression : The Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships. P.

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