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What is a database? A dbms is a complex software system that is used to manage, store and manipulate data and metadata used to describe the data. What is a key? what are different keys in database? a key is nothing but a attribute or group of attributes. They are used to perform some specific operation depending on their operation. The keys are classified into primary key, secondary key, alternative key, super key, candidate key. What is a primary key? primary key: an attribute to identify a record uniquely is considered to be primary key.for eg in the student table student_no is the primary key because it can be used to identify unique record or unique student. What is a secondary key? an attribute used to identify a group of records satisfying a given condition is said to be a secondary key.in the employee table designation is a secondary key because more than one employee can have the same designation. what is a candidate key? register no usually alloted in the exams is also unique for each student in that case for identifying a student uniquely either student_no or register_no can be used.here two different candidates are contesting for primary key post.any of them can be selected as primary key. what is an alternate key? if any one of the candidate keys among the different candidate keys available is selected as primary key then remaining keys are called alternate key. what is a super key? with primary key if any other attribute is added then that combination is called super key in other words,primary key is the minimum possible super key.in the student table student_no+student_name is one the super key. what is a relation? a relation consists of a homogeneous set of tuples.
what is a table? it is the representation of a relation having records as rows and attributes as columns. what is an attribute? an object or entity is characterised by its properties or attributes.in relational database systems attributes corresponds to fields. what is a domain? the set of allowable value for the attribute is the domain of the attribute. what is a tuple? tuples are the members of a relation. An entity type having attributes can be represented by set of these attributes called tuple.
DBMS means Database Management System which is the management and storing and retrieval of
data in a secured way. what are the advantages of DBMS? Reduction of redundancies ,integrity, security, conflict resolution, data independence, shared data, data quality enhanced. Data Base Language:DDL: The SQL sentences that are used to create objects are called DDL or Data Definition Language. Ex:-Create, Alter, Drop DML : The SQL sentences used to manipulate data within these objects are called DML Data Manipulation Language. Ex: Insert, Update, Delete
Data Models :- A data model in software engineering is an abstract model that describes how data is represented and accessed. Data models formally define data objects and relationships among data objects for a domain of interest.
Relational Model o o o o The relational Data Model was first introduced by Ted Codd in 1970 The relational model represents the Database as a collection of Relations. Informally each relation resembles a table of values. In the formal Relational model a row is called a Tuple , a column header is called an Attribute , and the table is called a Relation .
Hierarchical Model The principles behind the hierarchical model, are derived from Information Management System, which is the dominant hierarchical system in use today by a large number of banks, insurance companies, and as well as several government agencies. o o o o The hierarchical model employs two main data structuring concepts: records and Parent-Child relationships. A Record is a collection of Field Values that provide information on an entity or relationship instance A Parent-Child Relationship Type is a 1:N relationship between two record types. The record type on the 1-side is called the Parent Record Type , and the one on the NSide is called the Child Record Type of PCR Type.
Network model o o o o The Data structuring capability of the Network Model is more There are Two basic Data structures in the Network Model: Records and Sets. Data is stored in Records ; each record consists of group of related Data values. Records are classified into Record Types, where each record type describes the structure of a group of records that stores the same type of Information.
A Set type is a description of a 1:N relationship between two record types. Each Set type definition consists of 3 basic elements 1. A name for the Set type 2. An owner Record Type 3. A member Record Type Data Dictionary It is the quite useful tool in large organizations The Data Dictionary stores other information, such as design decisions, usage standards, application program descriptions, and user information. This system is also called an Information Repository .
Many organizations now using Data dictionary Systems. Which are mini DBMSs that manage Metadata -that is, data that describes the Database structure. Database Administration:o o o o o o In any organization where many persons use the same resources, there is a need for a chief administrator to oversee and manage these resources. In a Database environment, the primary resource is the Database itself and the secondary resource is the DBMS and related Software. Administering these resources is the responsibility of the Database Administrator(DBA) The DBA is responsible for authorizing access to the Database, for coordinating and monitoring its use. The DBA is accountable for problems such as Security or poor system response system time. In large organizations, the DBA is assisted by a staff that helps carryout these functions
What is Data Mining? Data mining is the semi-automatic discovery of patterns, associations, changes,anomalies, rules, and statistically significant structures and events in data. That is, data mining attempts to extract knowledge from data. What is Data Warehouse? The term Data Warehouse is a subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant and nonvolatile Collection of data in support of management s decision making process Subject Oriented: Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company s ongoing operations. Integrated: Data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety of sources and merged into a coherent whole. Time-variant: All data in the data warehouse is identified with a particular time period. Non-volatile: Data is stable in a data warehouse. More data is added but data is never removed. The primary concept of data warehousing is that the data stored for business analysis can most effectively be accessed by separating it from the data in the operational systems.
Creating a Company
Creating a Company involves providing basic information about the company whose books of accounts are to be maintained in Tally. Go to Gateway of Tally > (Alt+F3) Company Info. > Create Company Above is displayed an International Company Creation Screen. Note that the State and PIN Code fields are not available. The screen for India/SAARC would be: A detailed explanation on each field is given: Directory The data path where you want the company to be created is specified in the Directory field. For example, the default Tally data directory could be C:\TALLY\DATA. Name Mailing Name and Address In addition to the Company Name, Tally provides the facility to enter the Mailing Name field. It displays the Company Name by default. Statutory Select the Country from the List of Countries. The Statutory Features and Base Currency Symbol are enabled in accordance with the country selected. For example, if the accounts belong to a company in India, the base currency would be Indian Rupees. State You can select the appropriate state from the predefined list. PIN Code Specify the PIN Code (Postal Index Number) of the specified address. Telephone Enter the Telephone number. E-mail Address Enter the E-mail address that will be used to e-mail documents, reports and data from Tally.
Currency Currency symbol is the symbol of the base currency, that is, the currency that will be used to maintain the books of account. The symbol Rs. appears by default for India/SAARC Companies and the field is left blank for International Companies. Maintain Tally displays a drop down for the Type of Company with two options Accounts only and Accounts with Inventory Select Accounts only if you do not have any inventory transactions (suitable for professionals and corporate offices). Financial Year From In most countries, the books of accounts of a company are maintained for a stipulated period like, 12 months, 15 months, and so on. This stipulated period is referred to as the Financial Year. Tally allows you to maintain data for multiple years by changing the period (Alt+F2) at the Gateway of Tally. In addition, you can also specify the date of actual establishment of the company (date of incorporation) Books Beginning From Tally presumes that you wish to maintain books from the beginning of the financial year. Hence, Tally displays the date given in Financial Year From field automatically.
Gateway of Tally
Gateway of Tally is the screen that appears on selecting a company. The Gateway of Tally menu differs based on the type of company selected. An Accounts Only Company has a different Gateway of Tally menu from that of an Accounts-with-Inventory Company. Gateway of Tally of an Account Only & Accounts-with-Inventory Company The Gateway of Tally menu of an Accounts Only company appears as shown below: The Gateway of Tally screen is separated into four sections Area (Ctrl+N) and the Button Bar. Main Area The left side of the Main Area gives information on: Title Area, Main Area (Ctrl+M), Calculator
Current Period which is the currently loaded company's accounting period. Current Date This is the date of the last Voucher Entry for the selected company. List of Selected Companies This displays the name of the loaded company. The Main Area gives information on: Creation of Accounting Masters and Importing Master information Creation of Accounting Vouchers and Importing transaction information Viewing and printing financial reports using the information given in Masters and Transactions. Button Bar The Button Bar displays the following buttons (keys): Help (Alt + H) To access Tally's online context-sensitive help F1: Select Cmp To select a company F1: Shut Cmp To shut or close the company F2: Date To change the current date F2: Period To change the period F3: Company To select a different company. F3: Cmp Info To access the Company Info. Menu F11: Features To access the Company features for a company F12: Configure To access the configuration settings The Gateway of Tally menu of an Accounts-with-Inventory company appears as shown below: The Company Info.(Information) menu appears as shown below:: The menu options in the Company Info. are as follows Select Company Allows you to Select or load a company. Shut Company Allows you to shut a company.
Create Company Allows you to create a Company. Alter Allows you to alter a company. Change TallyVault Allows you to secure the data by providing a TallyVault password. Backup Allows you to take a backup of the company data. Restore Allows you to restore a data backup. Shut a Company
Shut a Company is to unload it. You can shut a company in two ways either using the button F1: Shut Cmp (Alt + F1) or pressing Enter on Shut Company menu option on the Company Info. Menu. The screen appears as shown below: Select the company to be shut from the List of Primary Companies. Alter a Company You can modify any information at any time that is set while creating a company. Go to Gateway of Tally Select F3: Cmp Info. (ALT+F3) from the button bar Select Alter and press Enter and the screen appears as shown below: Make the necessary changes in the required fields. To change the password if Use Security Control is set to Yes: Enter the Name of Administrator. Enter the new password.
Re-enter the password in the Repeat field to confirm. Enter the Old Password and Accept the screen to alter the company. Delete a Company To delete a company, you have to load the company first. Select F3: Cmp Info. (ALT+F3) from the Gateway of Tally to proceed to the Company Information menu. Select Alter and press Enter. Select the company to be deleted. The Company Alteration screen is displayed. Use Alt + D to delete. Tally will prompt for a confirmation on deleting the company. Press enter to delete the company.
Classification of Account Ledger Groups:In Tally, you can also re-group the ledgers (with some minimal restrictions) if re-classification is necessary. Re-grouping becomes necessary whenever there is a change in the nature of information. However, re-grouping can be done only by users who have authorised rights. At the highest level of grouping, accounts are classified into capital or revenue specifically into assets, liabilities, income and expenditure. Based on mercantile accounting principles, Tally provides a set of reserved groups and allows you to modify their names or create sub-groups. Sub-Groups A Sub-Group behaves exactly like a group and is created under a group. Concept of Sub-Groups Groups have a hierarchical structure. The main group of accounts that determine the entire accounting and their presentation are the asset, liability, income or the expenditure. These main groups ascertain whether a ledger affects Profit & Loss Account as a revenue item or if it affects the Balance Sheet. The Reserved Primary Groups and subgroups are: Primary Groups of Capital Nature 1. Capital Account a) Reserves and Surplus [Retained Earnings] 2. Current Assets a) Bank Accounts
b) Cash-in hand c) Deposits (Asset) d) Loans & Advances (Asset) e) Stock-in-hand f) Sundry Debtors 3. Current Liabilities a) Duties and Taxes b) Provisions c) Sundry Creditors d) Fixed Assets 4. Investments 5. Loans (Liability) Bank OD Accounts [Bank OCC Accounts] a) Secured Loans b) Unsecured Loans 6. Suspense Account 7. Miscellaneous Expenses (Asset) 8. Branch/Divisions 9. Sales Account 10. Purchase Account 11. Direct Income [Income Direct] 12. Indirect Income [Income Indirect] 13. Direct Expenses [Expenses Direct] 14. Indirect Expenses [Expenses Indirect] A Ledger is the actual account head to which you identify a transaction. In Tally, you pass all accounting vouchers using Ledgers. However, all Ledgers have to be classified into Groups. Hence a thorough
understanding of account classification is important for working with Ledgers. The creation and usage of Groups in Tally has been explained earlier. Now you will learn how Tally works with Ledgers. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounts Info. > Ledgers Creating a Ledger Ledgers can be created in single and multiple modes. In multiple mode you can create multiple ledgers at a time. Creating a Single Ledger The creation of Ledger depends on the features you opt for in the F11: Features of your company and F12: Configure. It is advisable to set F11: Features and configure the F12: Configure screen before creating any Ledgers. You may configure or set your Ledgers to enable or disable advanced mode. Click here for details on Creating Ledgers in Advanced Mode. Tally automatically creates two Ledger accounts namely, Cash (Under Cash-in- Hand) and Profit and Loss Account (direct Primary Account). You need to create all other accounts heads. There are no restrictions in Ledger creation except that you cannot create another Profit & Loss A/c. Any number of Cash Accounts may be created in any other name like Petty Cash. Creating a Ledger Account with minimal information: Go to Gateway of Tally> Accounts Info. > Ledgers> Create (under Single Ledger) Name Enter the Name of the account. You can provide the full name of the account. Tally fits it all in. Press Enter to move to the next field. Tally does not allow entry of duplicate names. The uniqueness check is made here itself. Note that punctuation and other non-relevant information are ignored by Tally in its recognition of a name. Thus, CST, C.S.T. and C. S. T. are all considered as same. Tally converts the first letter of all relevant words to upper case, which helps you; speed up data entry. You need not bother about changing the case every time it is a different word. Alias Enter an alias name if required. You can access the Ledgers using the original name or the alias name. Under All accounts must be classified under their appropriate Groups. Select the Group under which the Ledger is created from the List of Groups. To create a new Group from this field press [ATL + C]
Buttons in a Typical Voucher Entry screen
F2: Date - You can use this button to change the date of the voucher. F3: Company - This would allow you to switch to another loaded company and enter a voucher in it. Therefore, you can, almost simultaneously enter vouchers for more than one company.
F4: Contra F5: Payment F6: Receipt F7: Journal F8: Sales F9: Purchase F10: Memos F7: Stock Journal F10: Phys Stock - This allows recording of physical stock in hand as distinct from computed stock figures.
As Voucher/As Invoice: This button is available only for Sales/Purchase Vouchers and invoices. Post Dated -To mark the current voucher post dated. Toggles with Current Optional - To mark the current voucher optional. Toggles with Regular F11: Features - The different features of a company can be selected or modified by using the F11: Features button. This button is available in almost all screens of Tally. You can modify it as and when based on the requirements. F12: Configure - The F12: Configure button allows you define and enable the report-specific options which are required.
For example, depending on the report that you are viewing, you can specify whether it should be in horizontal or vertical format, show percentages, show gross profit, show opening and/or closing balances, change the periodicity, change the sorting method. Note: To check the accuracy of the vouchers entered, select Day Book from the Display Menu. Then Select F2: Period from the Button Bar and enter the period of display (it defaults to the current date only, but you may display all the transactions for a particular period). Select F1: Detailed. Check the vouchers against what you were asked to do. If you find a mistake, position the highlight bar over the incorrect item and press Enter for Tally to display the voucher details for alteration. Note: The alteration facility is subject to security and access rights. All alterations are available for audit.
Vouchers:A voucher is the primary online document for recording transactions. Transaction recording and analysis are greatly facilitated by having specific formats for different types of transactions. Tally provides 16 different predefined voucher formats or what it calls predefined types of vouchers.
The predefined voucher types can be displayed as follows: Gateway of Tally > Display > List of Accounts > <Ctrl>+<V> [Voucher Types]
Contra Entry (F4) Payment Entry (F5) Receipt Entry (F6) Journal Entry (F7) Sales Entry (F8)
Contra Entry - Double Entry Mode
To select multiple Debit and Credit ledgers in the Double entry mode, set Use Single Entry Mode for Payment/Receipt/Contra to No in F12: Configure. Entering in Double Entry Mode 1. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers 2. Select F4: Contra from the Button Bar or press F4. The entry displayed in Single Mode appears as follows in Double entry mode: Here cash is transferred from Cash account to Bank account.
Use F2: Date to change the date of the voucher. If you require Dr/Cr instead of To/By ±> as explained in the Configuration section, activate the required feature in F12: Configure.
1. In the above example, we have changed the date to 2nd April 2001 and we have Dr/Cr instead of To/By. 2. As the Contra voucher is active, the Buttons of the other voucher types of Payment, Receipt, Journal, Sales and Purchase are visible.
Payment Entry (F5)
To view the Payment Voucher entry screen: 1. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers 2. Select F5: Payment from the Button Bar or press F5 By Default, the Payment Entry screen appears in Single Entry Mode (The option Use Single Entry mode for Pymt/Rcpt/Contra is set to Yes in F12: Configure). For example, the company settles expenses of conveyance, staff welfare.
Receipt Entry (F6)
Transactions accounting for money received are entered into Tally through the receipt voucher. To view the Receipt Entry screen: 1. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers 2. Select F6: Receipt from the button bar or press F6 Similar to Payment and Contra vouchers, the Single Entry Mode appears for Receipt Entry as well. For example, if your company receives money from a customer for an earlier transaction:
Credit the customer account and debit the Cash account, if you receive cash or Debit the Bank account where you need to deposit the money, if you receive cheque.
Journal Entry (F7)
Journal entries are used to adjust the debit and credit amounts without involving the cash or bank accounts. Hence, they are referred to as adjustment entries. To go to the Journal Entry Screen: 1. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers 2. Click on F7: Journal on the Button Bar or press F7 key For example, there may be entries made for interest accrued or interest to be paid. If a party is involved in such a transaction the entry will be: 1. Debit the Party 2. Credit the Interest Account
Sales Entry (F8)
Sales vouchers are used when the company sells some goods to customers. To view the Sales Voucher Creation Screen: Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers > Select F8: Sales.
For example, the company sells some software on credit. In this case, the company has to account for Sales and Sales Tax separately, if tax has been collected on the transaction. When a sales transaction is made, a document detailing the transaction (item name, tax, etc) has to be given to the buyer or debtor as proof of purchase by him. This document is called "Invoice" or "Bill" or "Cash Memo". Tally provides the option of creating Invoices.
1. Set Allow Invoicing to Yes in F11: Features 2. The Sales Voucher Creation Screen appears as Invoice by default. 3. Go to Gateway of Tally > Accounting Vouchers > select F8: Sales Sales entries can be made in the Voucher as well as Invoice Formats.
This is a non-accounting voucher and the entries made using memo voucher will not affect your accounts. In other words, Tally does not post these entries to ledgers but stores them in a separate Memorandum Register.
This is also a non-accounting voucher. Unlike a Memo voucher, this is not a separate voucher type. You can mark an existing voucher (for example, a payment voucher or a receipt voucher) as Optional. Press CTRL + L or click on Optional from the Button Bar. This button toggles with Regular
Stock Groups in Inventory are similar to Groups in Accounting Masters. They are helpful in the classification of Stock Items. Classification is based on some common behaviour. Stock Groups enable easy identification and reporting of Stock Items in statements.
Creating a Stock Group
Go to Gateway of Tally > Inventory Info. > Stock Groups > Create (under Single Stock Group) The Stock Group Creation screen displays.
A brief description on each of the fields in the Stock Group Creation screen follows.
Enter the name of the Stock Group to be created. For example, Building Materials.
Specify whether it is a primary group or a sub-group of another group, by selecting from the list. For example, Primary. Press Alt + C to create a parent group, if you do not have it in the list.
Can quantities of items be ADDED?
This field pertains to information on measuring the units of the Stock Items that you would categorise under the Stock Group. The Stock Items categorised under the group should have similar units for them to be added up. You cannot add quantities in Kgs to quantities in Pcs. Note: You can always go back and reset this option after assessing the units of the items in the group.
Buttons in single mode stock group creation
From the Stock Group Creation screen, you can create any of the Masters listed below with a single click.
o o o o o
Category Items Units Godown Vch Types
Creating a Stock Category
You can create Stock Categories and sub categories of Stock Categories to organise your information.
Gateway of Tally > Inventory Info. > Stock Categories > Create (under Single Stock Category) A brief description on each of the fields in the Stock Category Creation screen follows.
Enter the name of the Stock Category. Eg: Tablets.
Specify whether it is a primary category or a sub-category of another category. Select Primary from the list, if you do not have a parent group. Use ALT + C to create a parent if you do not have the required category in the list.
Buttons in single mode stock category creation
o o o o o o o
Groups Items Godown Budget Vch Types Units Currency
Creating a Stock Item
If you are creating Stock Items for the first time, it is advisable to configure the F12: Configure screen before creating any items. You may configure your groups to enable/disable advanced mode. Click here for details on Creating Stock Items in Advanced Mode. Go to Gateway of Tally > Inventory Info > Stock Item > Single Create (under Single Stock Item)
A brief description on each of the fields in the Stock Category Creation screen follows
Specify the name of the Stock Item.
Select the group from the List of Groups. If you do not want to categorise it under any particular group that you created, choose Primary. Press Alt + C to create a parent Group from this field.
Give the unit of measurement of the item in this field. You would normally use this unit for trading this item. Use Alt + C to create a new unit, if you do not have one in the list. Refer the section on Units for an explanation on how to create and alter units of measurement.
You can create Locations/Godowns in Single mode and Multiple mode
Creating a Single Location/Godown
Go to Gateway of Tally > Inventory Info. > Locations/Godowns > Create (under Single Godown) The Location/Godown Creation screen displays:
A brief explanation on each of the fields in Location/Godown Creation screen follows.
Specify the name of the Location/Godown.
Enter an alias name for the Location/Godown name, if required.
Specify the Location/Godown under which the Location/Godown is to be categorised. Use Alt + C to create the parent Location/Godown if it is not in the list. Select Primary, if it is not a sub Location/Godown of any Location/Godown.
Allow Storage of Materials
Tally permits you to create a Location/Godown, where you may not store materials but treat it as a virtual Location/Godown. Virtual Location/Godown is useful in cases like Head Office, which may have many different stock points under it that store materials. Hence, Head Office acts like a primary Godown. For instance, designate London as a virtual Godown with Wimbledon Warehouse, Harrow Warehouse and Brixton Warehouse as sub-Godowns. These sub-Godowns will allow storage of materials.
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