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**First Grade: Teaching-Learning Math Unit Plan
**

Nicole Dostaler

Quinnipiac University March 2011

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**Section 1: Planning a Unit of Instruction
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Overview of the Unit

For the Teaching-Learning Activity, I will be developing, teaching, and reflecting on a mini-unit in geometry for my first grade classroom. Within this unit, students will largely be exploring 3-D geometric shapes and their attributes. They will first review their background knowledge of 2-D shapes, which will reinforce their understanding and exploration of 3-D shapes. This will be the students‘ introductory experience to geometry for this grade level.

Classroom Context

Overview This first grade classroom consists of 17 students, which includes 10 males and 7 females. The majority of the students in the class are Caucasian. One student is AfricanAmerican and is bussed into the Southington School District from Hartford as part of the Project Choice Program. In general, the demographics of this classroom are representative of the entire school body. The learning abilities of the students vary greatly within this classroom. There are 2 students on IEPs (Individualized Educational Plans) or 504 Plans for learning disabilities or behavior disorders. Approximately half of the students receive LLI (Leveled Literacy Intervention) support for reading skills several times a week. Overall, the students‘ current reading abilities range from a DRA score of 4 to 28—where 12 is desired at this point in the school year. At least one student receives pull-out Special Education support for mathematics throughout the week. Student Background In regards to mathematics, the students within this classroom are generally interested and intrigued by mathematical concepts, especially those that provide more hands-on learning opportunities. They benefit when somewhat abstract concepts are represented through manipulatives to assist their understanding. Throughout the year, they have worked on number concepts, addition and subtraction, time, money (coins), non-standard linear measurement, number patterns, and place value to 100. The students have not had any prior experience during this school year with geometry. Any prior experience provided to the students in this area would have occurred during

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Kindergarten. The district‘s curriculum does begin 2-D and 3-D geometric shape exploration during Kindergarten. During the prior grade level, students were introduced to a wide variety of 2-D shapes, including circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, kites, rhombuses, trapezoids, pentagons and hexagons. The students will get a review of these shapes in my first lesson in order to leeway into the exploration of the 3-D shapes. In Kindergarten, the students were introduced to cubes, cones, cylinders, spheres, and rectangular prisms. During my unit, the students will review these shapes and be introduced to new 3-D shapes, including triangular prisms and pyramids. This unit will expand upon their previous background on this topic area by having the students explore and describe these 3-D shapes by particular attributes, such as the number of faces, edges, or corners (vertices). Mini-Unit Planning The planning for this mini-unit was based on the provided curriculum that the Southington School District must adhere to. The district uses the ―Growing with Mathematics‖ Program from the McGraw Hill-Wright Group. I have chosen to supplement and change several of the lessons in order to better fit the needs of the students within my classroom. By utilizing a constructivist approach to learning, the students will be exploring these geometric concepts in a hands-on way, while using real-world and classroom objects to support their understanding. Students will build on their previous background of 2-D and 3-D shapes by learning new shapes and putting greater emphasis on formal mathematical terms for the shapes and their attributes. The students will explore these shapes by using literature and manipulatives, such as 3-D wooden blocks and geoboards. The students will get experiences to connect these 3-D shapes to objects in their daily lives by getting experiences to classify real-world objects into these categories. The variety of learning tasks will benefit students with auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles. The students will also explore an essential question throughout each investigation that supports the objectives for that lesson. To begin the mini-unit, students will explore and review 2-D shapes by visually identifying them and creating shapes on geoboards. There will be an emphasis on the number of sides of each shape to help sort and classify them. Students will explore the question: What shapes can be used when making a quilt? In the second lesson, students will be introduced to the 3-D shapes with literature and identify everyday objects that represent these shapes. Students

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will explore the question: What 3-D shapes are in the world around us? In the third lesson, students will explore the faces of 3-D objects by identifying the 2-D shapes that make them up. They will do this by printing the shapes of each 3-D face. Students will explore the question: What 2-D shapes are “hidden” in 3-D shapes? For the final lesson, students will explore the attributes of 3-D shapes by classifying everyday objects according to various criteria. Students will sort these objects into categories, such as ―I have corners‖, ―I can roll‖, or ―I am a cube.‖ Students will explore the question: How are 3-D shapes alike and different? Student Examples I will be collecting samples of student work throughout the teaching of this mini-unit and will be reflecting of the work of two students in my classroom: Student A (referred to as M. L.) – This student usually quickly grasps most mathematical concepts and is performing above grade level. Student B (referred to as K. O.) – This student typically performs below-grade level and struggles with a majority of mathematical concepts presented. Central Goals of the Unit The central goals of the mini-unit revolve around the students being exposed to 2-D and 3-D shapes and becoming used to utilizing formal terminology for identifying and describing these shapes. The students have had minimal background experiences with these geometric concepts previously and will gain the opportunities to explore them during this unit. The students will connect their recognition of 2-D and 3-D shapes to objects in their daily lives. They will also investigate the various attributes of these shapes during their explorations. Expected Outcomes By the end of the mini-unit, students are expected to be able to: Recognize and name 2-D and 3-D shapes Describe attributes and parts of 2-D and 3-D shapes o E.g. number of sides, number of faces, flat faces vs. curved surfaces, etc. Recognize and name 2-D faces of 3-D shapes These expectations are aligned with the Connecticut State Standards, as follows: 3.1 Use properties and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes and geometric theorems to describe relationships, communicate ideas and solve problems.

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o a. Classify shapes and solids by common characteristics. 3.2 Use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. o a. Describe, name and interpret direction and position of objects. (Connecticut State Department of Education, 2005, p. 4) For M. L., I would like this student to be able to achieve all of these expected outcomes, as well as extend his understanding of these concepts in more advanced ways. I would expect them to be able to classify 2-D and 3-D shapes by their attributes, such as using a T-Chart or Venn Diagram. This student can then compare and contrast shapes by a variety of attributes, including size, number of sides, flat or curved edges. I would expect them to be able to identify objects at home as specific 3-D shapes, as a means of extending and connecting learning into everyday life. I would also expect them to be able to draw all of the 2-D shapes found within a particular 3-D shape. For K. O., I would expect this student to be able to achieve the expected outcomes at the basic level. I expect them to be able to recognize and name the 2-D shapes when presented with them, including rectangle, square, triangle, circle, and hexagon. I would believe they will have difficulty identifying the differences between trapezoids and rhombuses, or grasping the concept of parallelograms and quadrilaterals. Therefore, identification of the basic four-sided shapes (square and rectangle), while identifying these other shapes (trapezoid, etc.) as simply having four-sides will be suitable. I expect them to be able to be able to name the 3-D shapes and should be able to classify everyday objects if they are provided with an example first. Their confidence will grow as they get used to using formal terminology. With assistance of hands-on manipulatives, this student should be able to match 3-D shapes to specific attributes. I suspect they will have difficulty doing so without the opportunity for concrete experiences. References:

Connecticut State Department of Education. (2005). Connecticut Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Grades Pre-K through 12 Matrix. Hartford, CT: Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction. <http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/word_docs/curriculum/math/mathprek-12matrixv2.doc>.

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Master of Arts in Teaching Program Division of Education Quinnipiac University REVIEWING 2-D SHAPES Student Teacher Nicole Dostaler Grade/Subject 1 Grade/Mathematics – Geometry Date of Lesson January 2011

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Content Standards: 3.1 Use properties and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes and geometric theorems to describe relationships, communicate ideas and solve problems. o a. Classify shapes and solids by common characteristics. o CMT - 17A. Identify and recognize two-dimensional geometric shapes and figures, including number of sides of polygons. o CMT - 17B. Draw two-dimensional geometric shapes and figures. 3.2 Use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. o a. Describe, name and interpret direction and position of objects.

(CT State Department of Education, 2005, p. 4; CT State Department of Education, 2010, p. 14)

Learner Background:

The first grade students have previous experience with 2-D shapes from the Kindergarten curriculum using the ―Growing with Mathematics‖ program that this lesson is adopted from. This lesson will review the 2D shape names that the students will need to use as they describe the flat faces of triangular prisms, cylinders, and so on in future mini-unit lessons. Squares, circles, rectangles, and triangles in various forms are presented in a colorful quilt that also includes other shapes with four, five, and six sides. The students will recognize these shapes from their Kindergarten experiences and should be able to identify them by name. As children talk about the shapes, they will be expected to use formal terminology to identify squares, circles, rectangles, and triangles. It is not expected that they will recognize and name rhombuses, quadrilaterals, trapezoids, or parallelograms. Mastery of these other mathematical names will not be expected because that is not part of their prior experiences. The students descriptions of these shapes as ―kites‖, ―pushed over rectangles‖, or ―diamonds‖ will be adequate and expected. The formal terminology will be reinforced as they are used throughout this and future lessons; therefore, they will slowly become a natural part of the child‘s vocabulary.

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Student Learning Objectives(s): The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 2-D shapes, including circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon, and hexagon, when presented with a visual representation. Describe attributes and parts of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and length of the sides, when prompted. Accurately create 2-D shapes using geoboards when given the name of the shape. Assessment:

Students will be assessed by the ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on this lesson. Students will all have their name on this checklist and they will have to meet the learning expectations for a variety of tasks throughout the activities during this lesson. A student will receive a checkmark for meeting the expectation. Students can also receive a check minus if they have major difficulties or check plus for creative or insightful responses. For this lesson, the assessment checklist will look for the students‘ ability to identify 2-D shapes by name*, identify 2-D shape by number of sides*, create 2-D shapes on a geoboard*, work cooperatively with a partner, answer questions about 2-D shape attributes, accurately color in 2-D shapes on quilt*, and accurately answer the Closure activity question. There is an area for notes on this sheet so that any commentary can be place to get more specific about the challenges faced or achievements made by the student. Children will demonstrate mastery of the lesson‘s objectives if they are able to receive checkmarks in the categories marked with an asterisk (*), as these demonstrate achievement of the lesson‘s main objectives. If children do not receive a check in these four categories, additional support and review of the concepts will be necessary. (See

the assessment section at the end of the lesson plan.) Materials/Resources: ―Growing with Math‖ Discussion Book (pg. 49) Geoboards (One for each student/pairs.) Geobands (Several for each student.) Student Book Performance Task (pg. 157) Computers Whiteboard Easel Whiteboard Marker Whiteboard Eraser SmartBoard www.Rainforestmaths.com website (for lesson closing)

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**Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 157) ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes‖ Assessment Checklist Learning Activities: Initiation:
**

o Ask the students: ―Who can tell me what a quilt is? (―A blanket!‖) How does someone make a quilt? (―They sew together different pieces of fabric.‖) In a minute, we‘re going to take a look at a quilt in our Discussion Book and answer the question: What shapes can be used when making a quilt?‖ o ―We‘ve been working really hard with numbers by counting and grouping tens in math. Now, we are going to be doing some math that is very different. For this unit, we‘re going to start working with shapes, as you can tell by today‘s question.‖ o ―We are going to look at a picture of a quilt and find all of the different shapes that the fabric is cut in to. Once we find different shapes, we are going to name these shapes and look at the number and position of sides they have. This is important because some shapes have special names because of the number of sides they have! We will learn these special names today. After looking at the quilt, we will create our own shapes using a very special tool called a geoboard. At the end of the lesson, we will find shapes and color in our own quilts to show that we learned the names of our shapes!‖ Lesson Development: Whole Class Activity: Finding 2-D Shapes o o o Students will be in their listening spots that are used for reading a book. Display the Discussion Book (pg. 49) and ask the children to name the objects picture in the four sections of the quilt. (Hot-air balloon, kite, boat, house) Read question 1 (What shapes can you find in the quilt?) and use the discussion to review shapes familiar to the children. Student responses should include square, rectangle, triangle, and circle. Some may recall hexagon and trapezoid. o As students notices the shapes, write the shape name on the white board along with a drawing of each shape. At appropriate times, ask questions, such as: o How many sides does that shape have? Are any of those sides the same length? Can you find another triangle in the same shape? Why is a square also a rectangle?

―Boys and girls, all of these shapes you have found are special shapes and have a certain name. All of the shapes that you see on this page are called two-dimensional shapes. The short name for them is 2D. 2-D means that they are flat and you can only see that one side of them. Let‘s say twodimensional together.‖

Dostaler 9 o Read question 2 (Find shapes that have: 3 sides, 4 sides, 5 sides, 6 sides) and ask students what the special name is for shapes with three sides. Invite children, one at a time, to point to triangles within the quilt. Continue this approach with the rest of the labels. o Introduce the name quadrilateral for 4-sided shapes. Let students know that sometimes shapes have more than one name, such as a rectangle also being called a quadrilateral. Introduce the name pentagon, if children do not know it, for a 5-sided shape. o Throughout this activity, students will be assessed on the ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while they identify and name shapes for both questions. The assessment checklist has a variety of categories that students will receive a checkmark if they reach the desired learning expectation. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the shapes and/or the number of sides when it is their turn to answer. Paired Activity: Making 2-D Shapes o o Students will now transition to their other seating arrangement of a horseshoe shape. I will demonstrate and review how to properly use a geoboard with the students. I will go over safety rules with the students when using the geobands with it. Students that use the manipulative improperly during the activity will be given grid dot paper and a pencil to draw the shapes that the rest are building. o o I will model how to stretch a geoband and hook it onto their geoboard. I will create a triangle on my geoboard and ask the students ―What 2-D shape did I create?‖ Students will be paired off with the person next to them. Each pair will receive a geoboard and several geobands. The students will work together and alternate turns when working with the geoboard. o To begin and practice, I will have each pair create a triangle that matches the one that I had created on my own geoboard. Once they have done so, students will hold up their boards so that I can see them. I will ask them to turn their geoboards and ask, ―Is your shape still a triangle? Why?‖ o I will then create a square on the diagonal and ask, ―What shape is this? How do you know?‖ It is desired they respond as square and not diamond. Turn the shape 45O if necessary. Have the students create a similar shape on their geoboards. o I will then continue prompting students and asking them to create each of the shapes on their geoboard while working with their partners. Shapes will include rectangles, pentagons, and hexagons. Through questioning, there will focus on the number of sides each shape has and establish that the sides (edges) need not be equal. o Once students have completed creating examples of the various 2-D shapes on the geoboards, I will collect the geoboards and geobands.

Dostaler 10 o Throughout this activity, students will continue to be assessed on the ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working with the geoboards. I will check the students‘ ability to identify and create the desired shape. I will also make note of their ability to cooperatively work with a partner. Independent Activity: Identifying 2-D Shapes o o On the SmartBoard, I will have a copy of the students‘ Performance Task in order to model and demonstrate the performance task. ―For your class work today, you all will be working on coloring your very own quilts, like the one that we saw in our Discussion book! These quilts are made up of a variety of the 2-D shapes that we found in the other quilt, as well as the ones that we created on our geoboards. Who can name some of the shapes that we have discussed today?‖ o o Students will respond with the various shapes, including triangle, hexagons, rectangles, etc. ―Great! While we have all of these shapes in our quilts, there is something very special about the shapes… Each shape gets colored in its own certain color. If we look at the SmartBoard, we can see our quilt, as well as a box on the top with our directions. We can read that all of the rectangles, including the squares, get colored in yellow. Can someone come up to the board and show me where there is a square or a rectangle?‖ A student will come up to point and they will color in the shape yellow. This will be repeated for each of the colors by calling up a student to demonstrate one shape of each color. o ―When we are coloring in our shapes today, we will all use our neatest coloring and be very careful that we color in the shapes that we find with the right color that it says at the top of the paper. We want to make our quilts beautiful!‖ o o o Students will be provided with the Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 157) to take back to work at their desk. I will walk around the students‘ desks and assist any students that need help while they are working on their Task Sheets. When students are finished, our classroom routine has the teacher check the students‘ work for accuracy according the Student Book Correction Sheet and address any confusion or misconceptions. Usually, the teacher asks a ―challenge‖ question before giving the student their stamp as a means to assess their full understanding of the concept. For this lesson, I would ask: ―What lets you know that the orange shapes are hexagons?‖ (―They always have six sides no matter what the shape.‖) o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖ when their work is checked. I will see if the student accurately colored in all of the shapes on their sheets and note if there was any assistance given or mistakes made on their behalf.

Dostaler 11 o Students put the Task Sheet in their cubbies because the back side of the sheet is always for homework. They get their snacks and eat them, while waiting for the rest of the class to finish. Some students will work on the www.RainbowMaths.com website on the classroom computers to reinforce mathematical skills related to the lesson while waiting. Closure: o In order to incorporate technology into each lesson and reinforce the lesson concepts, our classroom typically closes math lessons using some of the great interactive resources available on the Internet. For this unit, I will mostly be using www.RainforestMaths.com. o o Once the entire class has finished the Task Sheet, I will reconvene the students on the rug and direct attention to the SmartBoard. ―Now that you all have finished identifying the 2-D shapes in your quilts and coloring them in, I want to review what we have accomplished today by using Rainforest Math. In this lesson today, we were all able to identify and name all different kinds of two dimensional shapes. We are going to practice again by this activity on the SmartBoard.‖ o I will have the website already displayed on the SmartBoard and explain to the students that first they will each get a turn to come up to the SmartBoard. The students will have to match the name of the shape to the one pictured. o ―Great job identifying all of the names of our 2-D shapes! When we worked on the geoboards, we knew that some shapes had special names according to the number of sides that the shape had. We are now going to look at the sides and corners of different 2-D shapes. I will call each of you up to the SmartBoard for a turn to count and type in the number of corners or sides to the pictured shape.‖ o The students will have to count the number of sides or corners they are asked to identify on the shape and type it into the SmartBoard. I will ask the students if they noticed anything about the number of sides and corners each shape had. (―Each shape had the same number of sides as it did the same number of corners.‖) o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on the SmartBoard. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the shapes and/or the number of sides or corners when it is their turn to come up to the SmartBoard. o ―Boys and girls, it is very important that you all have been able to recognize and name different 2-D shapes. Two dimensional shapes are flat and we can only see the top of them. Tomorrow, we will be learning about shapes that are a little bit different then the shapes that we learned today. They have their own special name to describe them, which we will soon find out. When you go home today, see if you notice any of these 2-D shapes in the world around you.‖

Dostaler 12 Differentiated Instruction: N. J. Identified Instructional Need: N. J. is identified with ADHD that is not medicated. This causes a lack of focus throughout lessons and class work, which affects the ability to successfully complete work accurately within a timely manner. N. J. has average mathematics ability and low reading ability for this point of the school year. Differentiation Strategy: During the lesson, I will utilize the personalized behavioral plan for this student. In order to help curb talking out and overly fidgety movements, I will tell N. J. to take away one of his cubes. There are three red Unifix cubes that are brought to where the lesson is being taught. Whenever the behavior begins to rise, there is one cube removed. This makes N. J. conscious of the behavior and seems to help reduce it. If there is a cube left at the end of the lesson, N. J. is able to receive a hole punch in a card. Once a specific number of hole punches received, a prize is rewarded. The cubes are ―refilled‖ to three at the beginning of each lesson period. If necessary, N. J. will be able to use one of the classroom‘s privacy walls to help remove distractions while working on the independent practice activity. I will continually check-in with him as I move about the room in order to use proximity to keep him on-task and to assist him with questions or confusion that he may have with the activity. Throughout the lesson, there are other examples of differentiated instruction for all students within the classroom that have varied learning styles. The Discussion Book‘s pictures, geoboards, and the Task Sheet activity provide opportunities for the visual learners. Auditory learners are able to listen to my descriptions of the shapes and student responses. Kinesthetic learners get opportunities to create 2-D shapes and work hands-on with the geoboards. References: Connecticut State Department of Education. (2005). Connecticut Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Grades Pre-K through 12 Matrix. Hartford, CT: Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction. <http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/word_docs/curriculum/math/mathprek-12matrixv2.doc>. McGraw-Hill Education, Co. (2004). Reviewing 2-D Shapes. Growing with Mathematics. New York City, NY: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist

Date: _____________

Objective: The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 2-D shapes, including circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon, and hexagon, when presented with a visual representation. Describe attributes and parts of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and length of the sides, when prompted. Accurately create 2-D shapes using geoboards when given the name of the shape.

Can answer questions about 2-D shape attributes

*Can identify 2-D shape by number of sides

*Can create 2-D shapes on geoboard

*Accurately colors in 2-D shapes on quilt

*Can identify 2-D shapes by name

Name Abigail Ben David Gavin Gianmarco Jaisen Jenna Kathryn Kayleigh Luca Marc Madelyn Matt Nathan Nyasia Taylor Vinny

Can accurately answer Closure activity question

Can work cooperatively with a partner

Notes

*Main lesson objectives

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Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 157)

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Student Book Corrected Sheet (pg. 157)

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www.RainbowMaths.com Closure Activity Screenshots

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Master of Arts in Teaching Program Division of Education Quinnipiac University NAMING AND DESCRIBING 3-D SHAPES Student Teacher Nicole Dostaler Grade/Subject 1 Grade/Mathematics – Geometry Date of Lesson January 2011

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Content Standards: 3.1 Use properties and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes and geometric theorems to describe relationships, communicate ideas and solve problems. o a. Classify shapes and solids by common characteristics. 3.2 Use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. o a. Describe, name and interpret direction and position of objects. (Connecticut State Department of Education, 2005, p. 4) Learner Background:

The first grade students have previous experience with 3-D shapes from the Kindergarten curriculum using the ―Growing with Mathematics‖ program that this lesson is adopted from. This lesson uses an outerspace theme to review the names of these familiar 3-D shapes and to introduce new names. Like in the previous lesson, students should be expected to use formal terminology to identify the shapes they have already learned in Kindergarten, which include cylinders, cubes, cones, spheres, and rectangular prisms. It will be expected that they will use informal names, especially for new shapes. However, this will be corrected as the students integrate the new vocabulary into their natural language. Terms, such as ―can‖ and ―box‖, are examples of this informal naming. Vocabulary terms will be written on our Math Words Wall, so that students can reference it throughout the unit and assist them in correctly spelling the names when writing about these 3-D shapes. Mastery of these vocabulary terms will increase as students get more experiences working with these shapes in various contexts and will be necessary to use in future lessons of this mini-unit.

Student Learning Objectives(s): The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, and cube, when presented with a visual representation. Accurately sort everyday objects by their appropriate similar 3-D shape.

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Assessment:

Students will be assessed by the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on this lesson. Students will all have their name on this checklist and they will have to meet the learning expectations for a variety of tasks throughout the activities during this lesson. A student will receive a checkmark for meeting the expectation. Students can also receive a check minus if they have major difficulties or check plus for creative or insightful responses. For this lesson, the assessment checklist will look for the students‘ ability to identify 3-D shapes by name*, sort and match an everyday object to its 3-D shape*, accurately answer questions about a 3-D shape, participate in group work appropriately, accurately color in 3-D shapes on the Student Task Sheet*, and accurately answer Closure activity question. There is an area for notes on this sheet so that any commentary can be place to get more specific about the challenges faced or achievements made by the student. Children will demonstrate mastery of the lesson‘s objectives if they are able to receive checkmarks in the categories marked with an asterisk (*), as these demonstrate achievement of the lesson‘s main objectives. If children do not receive a check in these three categories, additional support and review of the concepts will be necessary. (See

the assessment section at the end of the lesson plan.) Materials/Resources: The Shape Race in Outer Space – A ―Growing with Math‖ Big Book 3-D wooden shapes Various collected everyday objects in paper bags o E.g. toilet paper rolls, die, baseball, party hat, box, balloon, soup can Student Book Performance Task (pg. 159) Plastic trays (for sorting objects) Masking tape Marker Computers Whiteboard Easel Whiteboard Marker Whiteboard Eraser SmartBoard www.Rainforestmaths.com website (for lesson closing) Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 159) ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes‖ Assessment Checklist

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**Learning Activities: Initiation:
**

o ―Yesterday, we worked really hard to identify different shapes that had a special name. Can anyone tell me what all of these flat shapes are called? (―Two-dimensional!‖) We saw that quilts were made up of fabric that get cut into different 2-D shapes and then are sewed together to make a blanket. Can I have a few volunteers raise a quiet hand and share some names of 2-D shapes that we found in our quilts?‖ (―Triangles, rectangles, circles, hexagons, pentagons, squares, and rectangles.‖) o ―Great job naming the 2-D shapes! Today, we‘re going to learn all about new types of shapes that make up the real life objects. Everything in the world around us has a shape. During our lesson today, we will explore the question: What shapes are in the world around us?‖ o ―First, we‘re going to read a story about spaceships that are going to have a race through outer space. This outer shape has lots of different shapes and we will learn the names of these shapes. Once we learn the names of these shapes, we are going to get bags of mystery objects. Inside of these bags, there are everyday objects and we will sort these shapes into different categories according to their shape. It is important for us to recognize that all of the objects around us are shaped differently and have special names! Some are similar and some are different. At the end of the lesson, we will look at the shapes that the spaceships found in outer space and color them in.‖ Lesson Development: Whole Class Activity: Naming 3-D Shapes o o Students will be in their listening spots that are used for reading a book. Display the Big Book, The Shape Race in Outer Space, and read the title. Ask the children to name the shapes they can see on the cover. At this point, it will be acceptable for them to use informal language, such as ―can‖, ―box‖, and ―ball‖. Ideally, they should be able to recall some mathematical terminology for the 3-D shapes from their previous experience in Kindergarten. o Read the story to the students once. Go back to the beginning and read it again while emphasizing examples of the spheres, cones, and cubes as they are named and pictured. As the names are introduced, write them on the whiteboard. o o Review or introduce the names cylinders for the ―monsters‖ on page 7, rectangular prisms for the ―other box shapes‖ on pages 8-9, and pyramids for the shapes on pages 10-11. Once I am done identifying and discussing all of the 3-D shapes, I will pull out various 3-D wooden shapes and have children match it to the correct name. There will be labeled trays that the students can place them upon. o o Ask children if they can think of any objects that they know that may look like these shapes. Provide an example for each, if necessary. (Soup can = cylinder, Baseball = sphere, etc.) Write a list of examples under each shape as the children provide some responses.

Dostaler 20 o I will ask questions for each shape, such as: o How do you know this is a cube? How are all the cubes the same? How are they different?

―Boys and girls, all of these shapes you have found are special shapes and have a certain name, just like the two-dimensional shapes we reviewed yesterday. All of the shapes that you were able to list and saw in our story are called three-dimensional. That‘s very similar, isn‘t it? The short name for them is…can you guess? 3-D! 3-D means that they are not flat at all. We can see all of the different sides of them. We can hold and feel them in our hands. It‘s just like when you may go to a 3-D movie and it seems like you can reach out and touch them! Let‘s say three-dimensional together.‖

o

Throughout this activity, students will be assessed on the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while they identify and name 3-D shapes from our book. The assessment checklist has a variety of categories that students will receive a checkmark if they reach the desired learning expectation. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the shapes when it is their turn to answer.

Small Group Activity: Mystery 3-D Shapes o o o Students will now transition to their other seating arrangement of a horseshoe shape. From the previous activity, there will be six trays on the floor in front of the students. Each of the trays will be labeled with a different type of 3-D shape and matching wooden block. ―For our activity, I‘m going to separate you into small groups. Each group is going to get a mystery bag of objects from our everyday lives. When you get your bags, I would like each student to reach in and take out one object from the bag.‖ I will demonstrate this with my own bag and pull out an object. o ―When I take out my object, I‘m going to look at it. I pulled out a battery. I can see that either end of the shape is pretty flat and the middle part of it is curved. I can roll it in my hands because it is curved. Now I have to think about what 3-D shape that it matches. Because it can roll, I know it is not a cube or rectangular prism. I think that it is a cylinder.‖ o ―My next group member will now do the same thing and pull out an object from the mystery bag.‖ Demonstrate this with a student and prompt them with questions that cause them to think about their shape. Ask the student what 3-D shape they believe they have. o o Make mention of the positive and patient dynamics between this model group. ―When all of your members are done doing this, I will call each group up to put their object on the tray that they think their everyday object matches. When we are done sorting, we will get back together in these seats and take a look at all of the objects we have.‖

Dostaler 21 o Separate the students in to groups according to achievement level and give each their own mystery bag. Have students go through their objects and discuss them with group members. After several minutes, call up groups one-at-a-time to sort their objects onto the correct trays. o Reconvene as a whole group in the horseshoe shaped seating arrangement and go through each tray. Pick up objects to show the group. Discuss the similarities between the objects and question the students who chose that category to explain their thinking. o o Once the group discussion has finished, I will have student helpers carefully assist in moving all of the trays from the horseshoe. Throughout this activity, students will continue to be assessed on the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working in their groups. I will check the students‘ ability to identify and sort their everyday object. They should be able to provide reasoning as to why they sorted in that manner. I will also make note of their ability to cooperatively work with their group. Independent Activity: Identifying 2-D Shapes o o On the SmartBoard, I will have a copy of the students‘ Performance Task Sheet in order to model and demonstrate the performance task. ―For your class work today, you all will be working on coloring in 3-D shapes, just like when you colored in the 2-D shapes for your quilts yesterday. The shapes are the same ones that we found our everyday objects to match and read about in our Shape Race story. Who can name some of the shapes that we have discussed today?‖ o o Students will respond with the various shapes, including cube, sphere, pyramid, etc. ―Great! While we have all of these shapes in our quilts, there is something very special about the shapes… Each shape gets colored in its own certain color. If we look at the SmartBoard, we can see the 3-D shapes, as well as a box on the top with our directions. The shapes look like the ones that were floating around in outer space in our book! We can read that all of the cones get colored in red. Can someone come up to the board and show me where there is a cone?‖ A student will come up to point and they will color in the shape red. This will be repeated for each of the shapes by calling up a student to demonstrate one shape of each color. o ―When we are coloring in our shapes today, we will all use our neatest coloring and be very careful that we color in the shapes that we find with the right color that it says at the top of the paper. We want to make sure that each shape has its own special color.‖ o o Students will be provided with the Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 159) to take back to work at their desk. I will walk around the students‘ desks and assist any students that need help while they are working on their Task Sheets.

Dostaler 22 o When students are finished, our classroom routine has the teacher check the students‘ work for accuracy according the Student Book Correction Sheet and address any confusion or misconceptions. Usually, the teacher asks a ―challenge‖ question before giving the student their stamp as a means to assess their full understanding of the concept. For this lesson, I would ask: ―What item at your desk is shaped like a rectangular prism/cylinder?‖ (―A book… my big eraser.../crayons… water bottle...‖) o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖ when their work is checked. I will see if the student accurately colored in all of the shapes on their sheets and note if there was any assistance given or mistakes made on their behalf. o Students put the Task Sheet in their cubbies because the back side of the sheet is always for homework. They get their snacks and eat them, while waiting for the rest of the class to finish. Some students will work on the www.RainbowMaths.com website on the classroom computers to reinforce mathematical skills related to the lesson while waiting. Closure: o In order to incorporate technology into each lesson and reinforce the lesson concepts, our classroom typically closes math lessons using some of the great interactive resources available on the Internet. For this unit, I will mostly be using www.RainforestMaths.com. o o Once the entire class has finished the Task Sheet, I will reconvene the students on the rug and direct attention to the SmartBoard. ―Now that you all have finished identifying the 3-D shapes on your sheets and coloring them in, I want to review what we have accomplished today by using Rainforest Math. In this lesson today, we were all able to identify and name all different kinds of three dimensional shapes. We are going to practice again by this activity on the SmartBoard.‖ o I will have the website already displayed on the SmartBoard and explain to the students that first several of them will get a turn to come up to the SmartBoard. The students will have to match the name of the shape to the one pictured. o ―Great job identifying all of the names of our 3-D shapes! When we read our story, we knew that some shapes had special names according to the number and type of sides that the shape had. We are now going to look a variety of different shapes. Some will look like our wooden blocks and some will look like the everyday objects that we sorted. I will call each of you up to the SmartBoard for a turn to sort one of the objects on the bottom into its correct 3-D shape category.‖ o The students will have to look at the shape and characteristics of it to determine what 3-D shape it represents and move it into the correct box. I will ask the students if they noticed anything similar about the shapes in each box after they all are sorted.

Dostaler 23 o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on the SmartBoard. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the shapes and/or sort the 3-D shapes when it is their turn to come up to the SmartBoard. o ―Boys and girls, it is very important that you all have been able to recognize and name different 3-D shapes. Yesterday, we learned that two dimensional shapes are flat and we can only see the top of them. Today, we learned that 3-D shapes are like objects all around us. We can see all of the sides of them. Some sides are flat or some may be curved, like several of you noticed. Tomorrow, we will be looking closer at the sides of these shapes and learn ways to describe them. When you go home today, see if you notice any of these 3-D shapes in the world around you.‖ Differentiated Instruction: N. J. Identified Instructional Need: N. J. is identified with ADHD that is not medicated. This causes a lack of focus throughout lessons and class work, which affects the ability to successfully complete work accurately within a timely manner. N. J. has average mathematics ability and low reading ability for this point of the school year. Differentiation Strategy: During the lesson, I will utilize the personalized behavioral plan for this student. In order to help curb talking out and overly fidgety movements, I will tell N. J. to take away one of his cubes. There are three red Unifix cubes that are brought to where the lesson is being taught. Whenever the behavior begins to rise, there is one cube removed. This makes N. J. conscious of the behavior and seems to help reduce it. If there is a cube left at the end of the lesson, N. J. is able to receive a hole punch in a card. Once a specific number of hole punches received, a prize is rewarded. The cubes are ―refilled‖ to three at the beginning of each lesson period. If necessary, N. J. will be able to use one of the classroom‘s privacy walls to help remove distractions while working on the independent practice activity. I will continually check-in with him as I move about the room in order to use proximity to keep him on-task and to assist him with questions or confusion that he may have with the activity. Throughout the lesson, there are other examples of differentiated instruction for all students within the classroom that have varied learning styles. The literature‘s pictures, 3-D wooden blocks, and listing on the whiteboard provide opportunities for the visual learners. Auditory learners are able to listen to the story, my descriptions of the shapes, and student responses. Kinesthetic learners get opportunities to handle the 3-D wooden shapes and the everyday objects during the sorting activity. The mystery bags are differentiated for groups. They have objects that are organized so that more obvious shapes are apparent to the lower groups as they sort (E.g. Can of soup = cylinder) and more unique shapes for the higher level groups (E.g. Badminton birdie = cone or sphere). This will have the

Dostaler 24 higher students needing to explain and support why they sorted their shape in either manner. Lower level students will be able to grasp the basis for this lesson‘s objective and feel success in completing the task. References: Connecticut State Department of Education. (2005). Connecticut Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Grades Pre-K through 12 Matrix. Hartford, CT: Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction. <http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/word_docs/curriculum/math/mathprek-12matrixv2.doc>. McGraw-Hill Education, Co. (2004). Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes. Growing with Mathematics. New York City, NY: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Naming & Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist

Date: _____________

Objective: The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, and cube, when presented with a visual representation. Accurately sort everyday objects by their appropriate similar 3-D shape.

Can accurately answer question about 3-D shape

*Accurately colors in 3-D shapes on Student Sheet

*Can identify 3-D shapes by name

Name Abigail Ben David Gavin Gianmarco Jaisen Jenna Kathryn Kayleigh Luca Marc Madelyn Matt Nathan Nyasia Taylor Vinny

Can accurately answer Closure activity question

Can participate in group work appropriately

*Can sort an everyday object to its 3-D shape

Notes

*Main lesson objectives

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Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 159)

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Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 159)

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www.RainbowMaths.com Closure Activity Screenshots

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Master of Arts in Teaching Program Division of Education Quinnipiac University IDENTIFYING FACES OF 3-D SHAPES Student Teacher Nicole Dostaler Grade/Subject 1 Grade/Mathematics – Geometry Date of Lesson February 2011

st

Content Standards: 3.1 Use properties and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes and geometric theorems to describe relationships, communicate ideas and solve problems. o a. Classify shapes and solids by common characteristics. 3.2 Use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. o a. Describe, name and interpret direction and position of objects. (Connecticut State Department of Education, 2005, p. 4) Learner Background:

The first grade students have previous experience with 3-D shapes from the Kindergarten curriculum using the ―Growing with Mathematics‖ program that this lesson is adopted from. This lesson will build upon their experiences looking at the attributes of these 3-D shapes—particularly the faces. In Kindergarten, children were responsible for sorting and classifying the shapes according to whether their sides were flat or curved. This distinction was made by whether it was possible for a shape to roll when it had curved surfaces or slide and stack when it had flat faces. The students will still be responsible for classifying the objects by these attributes. However, students will build upon this classification of objects by shifting the focus to new attributes, including the shape and number of the faces. Children will use what they have learned in Kindergarten, as well as build upon the review of 2-D shape names in a previous lesson, to identify the shape of the faces of an object. The students will be look at the prints created by the faces of a 3-D object and determine the 2-D shape that was made. Children will be responsible for using proper vocabulary to describe the 2-D and 3-D shapes being used, as well as use their visualization skills to grasp this lesson.

Student Learning Objectives(s): The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, cube, and triangular prism, when presented with a visual representation. Recognize and name 2-D faces of 3-D shapes. Accurately draw the 2-D faces of 3-D shapes.

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Assessment:

Students will be assessed by the ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on this lesson. Students will all have their name on this checklist and they will have to meet the learning expectations for a variety of tasks throughout the activities during this lesson. A student will receive a checkmark for meeting the expectation. Students can also receive a check minus if they have major difficulties or check plus for creative or insightful responses. For this lesson, the assessment checklist will look for the students‘ ability to identify 3-D shapes using math language, identify what is a face of a 3-D object*, name the 2-D face shape of 3-D shapes, accurately draw the 2-D face of 3-D shapes*, accurately identifies what 2-D shape can be printed from a 3-D shape on the Student Task Sheet*, and accurately answer Closure activity question. There is an area for notes on this sheet so that any commentary can be place to get more specific about the challenges faced or achievements made by the student. Children will demonstrate mastery of the lesson‘s objectives if they are able to receive checkmarks in the categories marked with an asterisk (*), as these demonstrate achievement of the lesson‘s main objectives. If children do not receive a check in these three categories, additional support and review of the concepts will be necessary. (See the assessment section at the end of the lesson plan.)

Materials/Resources: ―Growing with Math‖ Discussion Book (pg. 50) 3-D wooden shapes Small stickers or stick-on notes Clay/Play-Doh Plastic tray Student Book Performance Task (pg. 161) Computers Whiteboard Easel Whiteboard Marker Whiteboard Eraser SmartBoard www.Rainforestmaths.com website (for lesson closing) Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 161) ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes‖ Assessment Checklist

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**Learning Activities: Initiation:
**

o o o Before the lesson, prepare the clay or play-doh so that it is flattened on a plastic tray and can be utilized to press the 3-D wooden blocks into. Students will be in their listening spots that are used for reading a book. ―Yesterday, we learned all about different shapes that we could hold in our hands and see all the sides of. Who can raise a quiet hand and tell me what all of those shapes are called? (―Threedimensional!‖) We saw that a lot of everyday objects are the same shape as these 3-D shapes. I‘m going to hold up different 3-D wooden block shapes and I would like a few volunteers to raise their hands and name an everyday object like it, as well as tell me the math name for it. o o Hold up different wooden shapes and invite children to share their ideas and names of the shapes. Write the name on the whiteboard along with an illustration of the shape. ―Great job naming the 3-D shapes! Today, we‘re going to be looking very closely at these shapes and describe them. During our lesson today, we will explore the question: What 2-D shapes are

„hidden‟ in 3-D shapes?‖

o ―First, we‘re going to discover what 2-D shapes can be found in the 3-D shapes we have been discussing. Then, we are going to take a look at our Discussion Book where a little girl is painting pictures with the block shapes. I will then print with the block prints and this will help us find the hidden 2-D shapes. It is important for us to recognize that all of the 3-D objects have 2-D shapes because it helps us describe the 3-D shapes better!‖ Lesson Development: Whole Class Activity: Describing the Faces of 3-D Shapes o o o o Students will be in their listening spots that are used for reading a book. Take the first 3-D shape you drew on the white board. Explain to the students that shapes have different flat parts. Identify which shapes on the chart have flat sides. ―Boys and girls, these flat sides have a name and they are called faces. Faces are always flat. Which shape does not have faces, if faces are flat?‖ (―Spheres!‖) ―Some shapes have only a bunch of faces, like the cube. Every single side of it is flat. These shapes can only slide around and do not roll. Some shapes don‘t have any faces, like the sphere. These shapes can roll and roll because they are curved. Some shapes have both! A cylinder has two faces on the top and bottom, but around the middle it is curved. This shape can stay in place or roll depending on how I put it down.‖ As you are describing the shapes, demonstrate what you are saying by pushing and moving the cubes.

Dostaler 32 o Display the Discussion Book (pg. 50). Show the children the girl is painting with the wooden blocks and that it is called ―printing‖. Explain that it is like when the teacher uses the ink pad and a stamp to print on a paper. o o Point to the girl‘s finished work and ask the children to identify what the pictures are. (―A clown, a truck and a castle!‖) Ask, ―How many colors did the girl use?‖ (―Six!‖)‖ and ―How many 3-D shapes are there at the top of the page?‖ (―Six!‖) Explain that she printed each shape using one color. So the cube, for example, would only use one color on every side. Emphasis that each flat face was only used once and not curved parts. o Select the cube from the set of 3-D wooden shapes. Point to one of its faces and ask, ―What shape could I print with this face? How do you know?‖ After students respond, demonstrate this printing by pressing it into the clay and showing the shape to the students. ―What 2-D shape was created?‖ Repeat with several other faces of the shape. o o o Model how to count the number of faces and put a sticker or sticky note on them as you count them. Model how to draw the 2-D faces of the 3-D shape that is found on the white board. Use the think aloud strategy to demonstrate how to answer this question: ―What color do you think was used to print with the cube, given the information that we found and have on our chart? Why?‖ (―Red! A cube has 6 square faces that are the same size and there are six red squares that are the same size!‖) o Continue this approach with the other five shapes at the top of the Discussion book page, but call the students up to draw the 2-D shapes after you discuss each face of a shape and print it. Question the class about finding the matching color for each shape. o Throughout this activity, students will be assessed on the ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while they participate in the activity. The assessment checklist has a variety of categories that students will receive a checkmark in if they reach the desired learning expectation. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the 3-D and 2-D shapes when it is their turn to answer, as well as come up to the white board and draw the appropriate 2.D shape. Independent Activity: Identifying Flat Faces o o On the SmartBoard, I will have a copy of the students‘ Performance Task Sheet in order to model and demonstrate the performance task. ―For your class work today, you all will be working on identifying all of the 3-D shapes you have been learning about. We can see that there is a picture of each shape on the side. Let‘s go through them together and match them to our 3-D wooden blocks.‖ Go through each shape pictured and match them.

Dostaler 33 o ―Now that we reviewed what they are, you will write the name of each shape on the line next to it. Some parts of the words are written to give you a hint, since they‘re tricky big words. You can trace them on the lines. Notice that triangular prism only has written down ‗triangular‘ so we need to write down ‗prism‘. Where can we look if we need help spelling the words?‖ (―There is a word box on the top of the paper! …There is a shape chart on our wall! …On the whiteboard!‖) o ―In the last column, there are some 2-D shapes. We have to put on our thinking caps and figure out which one would be found on that shape. Take a look at our chart. On a cube, are there squares or are there triangles?‖ (―Only squares!‖) ―Smart thinking! We need to color in the 2-D face that will be found on that 3-D shape. Just one!‖ o o o Students will be provided with the Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 161) to take back to work at their desk. I will walk around the students‘ desks and assist any students that need help while they are working on their Task Sheets. When students are finished, our classroom routine has the teacher check the students‘ work for accuracy according the Student Book Correction Sheet and address any confusion or misconceptions. Usually, the teacher asks a ―challenge‖ question before giving the student their stamp as a means to assess their full understanding of the concept. For this lesson, I would ask: ―What two 3-D shapes have faces that are the same 2-D shape? What 2-D shapes are they?‖ (Answers will vary.) o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖ when their work is checked. I will see if the student accurately named the 3-D shape using mathematical language and that they colored in the correct 2-D flat face found on the shape. I will note if there was any assistance given or mistakes made on their behalf. o Lower level students will have the ability to take 3-D wooden blocks to their desks to help them take a look at the faces of the shapes, count sides, and see 2-D faces. The chart the class created will remain on the white board and be turned to face the students‘ seats for reference. o Students put the Task Sheet in their cubbies because the back side of the sheet is always for homework. They get their snacks and eat them, while waiting for the rest of the class to finish. Some students will work on the www.RainbowMaths.com website on the classroom computers to reinforce mathematical skills related to the lesson while waiting. Closure: o In order to incorporate technology into each lesson and reinforce the lesson concepts, our classroom typically closes math lessons using some of the great interactive resources available on the Internet. For this unit, I will mostly be using www.RainforestMaths.com. o Once the entire class has finished the Task Sheet, I will reconvene the students on the rug and direct attention to the SmartBoard.

Dostaler 34 o ―Now that you all have finished identifying the 3-D shapes on your sheets and finding the 2-D flat face of them, I want to review what we have accomplished today by using Rainforest Math. In this lesson today, we were all able to identify and name the 3-D shapes and find the type of 2-D shapes that make up the faces. We are going to practice again by this activity on the SmartBoard.‖ o I will have the website already displayed on the SmartBoard and explain to the students that first several of them will get a turn to come up to the SmartBoard. The students will have to match the 2-D shape to the desired face of the 3-D shape. o ―Great job matching the 2-D face to the 3-D shapes! When we looked at the prints in the Discussion Book, we were able to see that some 3-D shapes have faces that are all different 2-D shapes. According to the chart that we made, cubes are made up of only six squares, but triangular prisms are made up of four rectangles and two triangles. If I drew just a circle on the board, what 3-D shape may that face belong to?‖ (―Cone or cylinder!‖) o Students will continue to be assessed on the ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖, while working on the SmartBoard. I will check the students‘ ability to identify the 2-D shape and match it to the face of the 3-D shape when it is their turn to come up to the SmartBoard. o ―Boys and girls, it is very important that you all have been able to recognize the different 2-D faces of 3-D shapes. This helps you see how 3-D shapes may be different or similar to other shapes. Each shape is really unique and has their own special qualities to them, just like each and every one of you! Yesterday, we learned that 3-D shapes are like objects all around us that we see every day. Tomorrow, we will be detectives and have to use clues we are given to figure out 3-D shapes. We will need to use everything we have learned about them to put these clue together.‖ Differentiated Instruction: N. J. Identified Instructional Need: N. J. is identified with ADHD that is not medicated. This causes a lack of focus throughout lessons and class work, which affects the ability to successfully complete work accurately within a timely manner. N. J. has average mathematics ability and low reading ability for this point of the school year. Differentiation Strategy: During the lesson, I will utilize the personalized behavioral plan for this student. In order to help curb talking out and overly fidgety movements, I will tell N. J. to take away one of his cubes. There are three red Unifix cubes that are brought to where the lesson is being taught. Whenever the behavior begins to rise, there is one cube removed. This makes N. J. conscious of the behavior and seems to help reduce it. If there is a cube left at the end of the lesson, N. J. is able to receive a hole punch in a card. Once a specific number of hole punches received, a prize is rewarded. The cubes are ―refilled‖ to three at the beginning of each lesson period.

Dostaler 35 If necessary, N. J. will be able to use one of the classroom‘s privacy walls to help remove distractions while working on the independent practice activity. I will continually check-in with him as I move about the room in order to use proximity to keep him on-task and to assist him with questions or confusion that he may have with the activity. Throughout the lesson, there are other examples of differentiated instruction for all students within the classroom that have varied learning styles. The literature‘s pictures, 3-D wooden blocks, clay printing, and drawings on the whiteboard provide opportunities for the visual learners. Auditory learners are able to my descriptions of the shapes, and student responses. Kinesthetic learners get opportunities to handle the 3-D wooden shapes during the independent practice task. For lower level students, I will leave out a box of 3-D wooden shapes for the students to take back to their desks if they would like. This will allow them to handle the shapes and look at the faces, which will assist them in completely the last column on the Student Book Performance Task Sheet. I will leave the chart that our class created on the white board, so that students can reference this sheet while completing the task. This chart has the names of the 3-D shape, a drawing of it, 2-D shapes of the faces, and the number of faces. References: Connecticut State Department of Education. (2005). Connecticut Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Grades Pre-K through 12 Matrix. Hartford, CT: Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction. <http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/word_docs/curriculum/math/mathprek-12matrixv2.doc>. McGraw-Hill Education, Co. (2004). Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes. Growing with Mathematics. New York City, NY: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Dostaler 36

Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist

Date: _____________

Objective: The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, cube, and triangular prism, when presented with a visual representation. Recognize and name 2-D faces of 3-D shapes. Accurately draw the 2-D faces of 3-D shapes.

Can accurately draw the 2D face of 3-D shapes

Can identify what is a face of a 3-D object

*Accurately identifies what 2-D shape can be printed from a 3-D shape

*Can identify 3-D shapes using math language

Name Abigail Ben David Gavin Gianmarco Jaisen Jenna Kathryn Kayleigh Luca Marc Madelyn Matt Nathan Nyasia Taylor Vinny

Can accurately answer Closure activity question

*Can name the 2-D face shape of 3-D shapes

Notes

*Main lesson objectives

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Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 161)

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Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 161)

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www.RainbowMaths.com Closure Activity Screenshot

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Master of Arts in Teaching Program Division of Education Quinnipiac University DESCRIBING ATTRIBUTES OF 3-D SHAPES Student Teacher Nicole Dostaler Grade/Subject 1 Grade/Mathematics – Geometry Date of Lesson February 2011

st

Content Standards: 3.1 Use properties and characteristics of two- and three-dimensional shapes and geometric theorems to describe relationships, communicate ideas and solve problems. o a. Classify shapes and solids by common characteristics. 3.2 Use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. o a. Describe, name and interpret direction and position of objects. (Connecticut State Department of Education, 2005, p. 4) Learner Background:

The first grade students have previous experience with the attributes of 3-D shapes from their experiences in the previous lessons and their prior knowledge brought from Kindergarten. This lesson incorporates aspects of all of the prior lessons as students act as detectives to follow clues to sort various 3-D shapes by specific attributes. Children begin by reviewing the number of flat faces that 3-D objects have by playing a game. This helps to reinforce the concept that the number of faces influences the shape of the object, as well as provides the students with one way to classify the objects. Students will participate in an activity where they act as detectives to match certain shaped objects to given clues about their attributes. Matching clues to real-world objects in the shape of 3-D solids helps foster visual thinking and the development of geometry language. Children will also describe how shapes are alike and different, which helps them focus and reflect on the attributes of various 3-D shapes. The students will have to draw upon all of their prior experiences in previous lessons in order to complete this portion of the activity.

Student Learning Objectives(s): The first grade students will be able to: Describe attributes and parts of 3-D shapes, including the number of faces or edges, ability to roll or slide, etc., when prompted. Accurately sort 3-D wooden shapes by their attributes using provided clues.

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Assessment:

Students will be assessed by the ―Describing Attributes of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist‖ after the conclusion of the lesson. Students will all have their name on this checklist and they will have to meet the learning expectations for a variety of tasks throughout the activities during this lesson. A student will receive a checkmark for meeting the expectation. Students can also receive a check minus if they have major difficulties or check plus for creative or insightful responses. For this lesson, the assessment checklist will look for the students‘ ability to identify 3-D shapes using math language, identify what is a face of a 3-D object, name the 2-D face shape of 3-D shapes, accurately sort a 3-D shape by one attribute*, accurately sorts a shape by more than one attribute*, and accurately answer Closure activity question. There is an area for notes on this sheet so that any commentary can be place to get more specific about the challenges faced or achievements made by the student. Children will demonstrate mastery of the lesson‘s objectives if they are able to receive checkmarks in the categories marked with an asterisk (*), as these demonstrate achievement of the lesson‘s main objectives. If children do not receive a check in these two categories, additional support and review of the concepts will be necessary. Students will also be assessed by the ―2-D and 3-D Shapes Summative Assessment‖. This assessment is broken into three parts. Students must identify 2-D shapes with specific attributes or by name. They must also identify 3-D shapes with specific attributes or by name. Lastly, these students must complete a performance task where they take a 3-D wooden object and must count up the number of 2-D faces that could be found on that 3-D shape. Students should receive a score of 85 to achieve mastery. (See the assessment section at the

end of the lesson plan.) Materials/Resources: ―Growing with Math‖ Discussion Book (pg. 51) 3-D wooden shapes Jumbo Cube Blank Cards o Labeled 0 flat faces, 1 flat face, 2 flat faces, 5 flat faces, 6 flat faces, and more than 6 flat faces (for Jumbo Cube) o Labeled I have corners, I can rolled, I have 6 flat faces, I can slide, I am a cube, I have 5 flat faces, I am a sphere, I have one or more square faces (for clues) Plastic trays Student Book Performance Task (pg. 163) Computers Whiteboard Easel

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Whiteboard Marker Whiteboard Eraser SmartBoard (for use of www.Rainforestmaths.com website during the Closing) Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 163) 2-D and 3-D Shapes Summative Assessment Learning Activities: Initiation:

o o o Place the cards in the Jumbo cube prior to the lesson. Students will be in their seating arrangement of a horseshoe shape. ―Yesterday, we learned that 3-D shapes have faces that are shaped like different 2-D faces. Can anyone remind me what the face of a 3-D shape is? (―A face is one of the sides of a shape.‖) Are they flat or curved? (―Only flat!‖) Right now, we‘re going to play a little game that looks at the number of faces that different 3-D shapes have. You will roll our Jumbo Cube and match what you roll to one of the 3-D wooden shapes on your turn.‖ o Have children take turns rolling the Jumbo Cube and, if possible, taking a 3-D wooden shape with the number of faces rolled. For example, a player who rolled 6 flat faces could take the cube or a rectangular prism. o o o Play continues until no 3-D shapes are left or until every child has rolled the Jumbo Cube. Students should be able to name their 3-D wooden shape that they choose. ―Great job naming the 3-D shapes and matching them to their faces! Today, we‘re going to be looking at different attributes of these shapes, such as the faces. During our lesson today, we will explore the question: How are 3-D shapes alike and different? o ―Today, we have a special job and need to be like detectives. Our Discussion Book has a list of clues about 3-D shapes and we need to look at these clues to match different 3-D shapes to them. We will sort the shapes by these clues. You‘ll then have your own clues to solve about 3-D shapes. It is important for us to be able to match these shapes to clues because it shows that we know a lot about the 3-D shapes we‘ve been learning about!‖ Lesson Development: Whole Group Activity: Identifying Attributes o o o Display all of the 3-D wooden block shapes and the Discussion Book (pg. 51). Point at each of the everyday objects on that page and name them along with the students. Ask, ―What shape is the present?‖ Invite a volunteer to come to the front and select the 3-D wooden shape that most closely resembles the present. (A cube) Repeat for the baseball (sphere), chocolate

Dostaler 43 (triangular prism), box of tissues (rectangular prism), paperweight (pyramid), and the frosting (cylinder). o Next, read all of the clues on the left hand side of the page with the children. With a tray placed in front of the students, place the 3-D wooden objects around the outside of the tray. Take one of the paper clues that match the first clue in the Discussion Book, which is I have corners. o ―We now have to be detectives and take a look at our clue. We need to figure out which shapes match that clue. I am going to take a look at each object and see if it has corners. Can anyone come up and show me what a corner is?‖ o Model how to go through each 3-D shape and think aloud as you reason whether each shape does or doesn‘t have corners. Place the shapes that do onto the tray. Remove them before starting the next clue. o Take the next clue (I can roll.) and solve it along with the students. Focus on the attributes of each shape, test the shapes that match this clue and place them on the tray. Have the students explain and justify their answers. o o Eventually, allow individual students to solve the clues and match wooden shapes on their own. Have them explain and justify their answers as they reason through. Allow them to test the shapes. If time allows, challenge children, especially higher-level students, to match shapes according to two or more clues. Make sure that the clues will actually have at least one shape match them. (E.g. I can roll. and I have at least two flat faces. would be a cylinder.) Independent Activity: What Shape Am I? o o On the SmartBoard, I will have a copy of the students‘ Performance Task Sheet in order to model and demonstrate the performance task. ―For your class work today, you all will be working on identifying the 3-D shapes you have been learning about in this unit and match them to clues on the paper, just like we did in the lesson. You won‘t be using all of the shapes. There are seven pictured and only four clues. How many shapes will be left over then?‖ (―Three!‖) Go through each shape pictured and name them. o o o o ―Remember that the one you chose must meet ALL of the clues.‖ Read through all of the clues with the class. ―The names of the 3-D shapes are written underneath the shape in case you need help spelling them. If you need more help, you can come up and take a 3-D wooden block shape to test with the clues.‖ Students will be provided with the Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 163) to take back to work at their desk. I will walk around the students‘ desks and assist any students that need help while they are working on their Task Sheets.

Dostaler 44 o o If necessary, I will pull a small group of students that need assistance to work on the rug together. We will use the 3-D wooden blocks and sort them, like we did during the lesson, to solve the clues. When students are finished, our classroom routine has the teacher check the students‘ work for accuracy according the Student Book Correction Sheet and address any confusion or misconceptions. I will see if the student accurately named the 3-D shape matches the clues written above it on the paper. Usually, the teacher asks a ―challenge‖ question before giving the student their stamp as a means to assess their full understanding of the concept. For this lesson, I would ask: ―What shape has no flat faces?‖ I will note if there was any assistance given or mistakes made on their behalf. o Students put the Task Sheet in their cubbies because the back side of the sheet is always for homework. They get their snacks and eat them, while waiting for the rest of the class to finish. Some students will work on the www.RainbowMaths.com website on the classroom computers to reinforce mathematical skills related to the lesson while waiting. Closure: o In order to incorporate technology into each lesson and reinforce the lesson concepts, our classroom typically closes math lessons using some of the great interactive resources available on the Internet. For this unit, I will mostly be using www.RainforestMaths.com. o o Once the entire class has finished the Task Sheet, I will reconvene the students on the rug and direct attention to the SmartBoard. ―Now that you all have finished using clues to identify the 3-D shapes on your sheets, I want to review what we have accomplished today by using Rainforest Math. In this lesson today, we were all able to use the clues provided and the characteristics of 3-D shapes to sort them into clue categories. We are going to practice again by this activity on the SmartBoard.‖ o I will have the website already displayed on the SmartBoard and explain to the students that first several of them will get a turn to come up to the SmartBoard. The students will have to match the 3-D shape to the clues provided about its attributes. o ―Great job matching the 3-D shapes to all of the clues! You had to use all of the skills that you learned in order to answer those questions. When we looked at the clues in the discussion book, you had to match the shapes of the everyday objects to the clues provided. Some of the shapes fit more than one of the clues, due to all of the unique characteristics of them. Some can roll. Some can slide. Some have different shaped faces. Some have corners. Some can do some of any of those!‖ o ―Boys and girls, it is very important that you all have been able to recognize the different characteristics of 3-D shapes. Each shape is really unique and has their own special qualities to them, just like each and every one of you!‖ o ―Before we finish, we have a final activity to show everything that you have learned. There are two task sheets for you to complete. One has a series of shapes and you need to follow the directions on

Dostaler 45 the paper carefully. For the second part, I will allow each of you to come up to choose your own 3-D block shape. On your paper, you will have to color in the shape that you chose, write its name, and draw the 2-D shapes that make up its faces.‖ o o Pass each student the Summative Assessment sheets and allow them to choose from the cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, and cylinder. Allow the students to have some time to work on their sheets and collect them for later review and reflection. Differentiated Instruction: N. J. Identified Instructional Need: N. J. is identified with ADHD that is not medicated. This causes a lack of focus throughout lessons and class work, which affects the ability to successfully complete work accurately within a timely manner. N. J. has average mathematics ability and low reading ability for this point of the school year. Differentiation Strategy: During the lesson, I will utilize the personalized behavioral plan for this student. In order to help curb talking out and overly fidgety movements, I will tell N. J. to take away one of his cubes. There are three red Unifix cubes that are brought to where the lesson is being taught. Whenever the behavior begins to rise, there is one cube removed. This makes N. J. conscious of the behavior and seems to help reduce it. If there is a cube left at the end of the lesson, N. J. is able to receive a hole punch in a card. Once a specific number of hole punches received, a prize is rewarded. The cubes are ―refilled‖ to three at the beginning of each lesson period. If necessary, N. J. will be able to use one of the classroom‘s privacy walls to help remove distractions while working on the independent practice activity. I will continually check-in with him as I move about the room in order to use proximity to keep him on-task and to assist him with questions or confusion that he may have with the activity. Throughout the lesson, there are other examples of differentiated instruction for all students within the classroom that have varied learning styles. The Discussion Book pictures and 3-D wooden blocks provide opportunities for the visual learners to picture the 3-D shapes. Auditory learners are able to my descriptions of the shapes, the clues, and student responses. Kinesthetic learners get opportunities to handle the 3-D wooden shapes during lesson activities and the independent practice task. They will also get opportunities to roll the Jumbo Cube during the ―Classifying 3-D Shapes‖ activity. Throughout the lesson, I will be differentiating the questions that I ask particular students according to their learning level. Students that require a challenge will be able to have an opportunity to sort 3-D objects to match multiple clues. For lower level students, I will leave out a box of 3-D wooden shapes for the students to take back to their desks if they would like. This will allow them to handle the shapes and

Dostaler 46 look at all attributes of the 3-D shapes, which will assist them in completing the Student Book Performance Task Sheet. I will also pull a group of students to the rug that requires extra assistance. We will work with the 3-D pattern blocks and sort them by their attribute, according to the clues, like the class did during the lesson. References: Connecticut State Department of Education. (2005). Connecticut Mathematics Curriculum Framework, Grades Pre-K through 12 Matrix. Hartford, CT: Bureau of Curriculum & Instruction. <http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/word_docs/curriculum/math/mathprek-12matrixv2.doc>. McGraw-Hill Education, Co. (2004). Describing Attributes of 3-D Shapes. Growing with Mathematics. New York City, NY: Wright Group/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Describing Attributes of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist

Date: _____________

Objective: The first grade students will be able to: Describe attributes and parts of 3-D shapes, including the number of faces or edges, ability to roll or slide, etc., when prompted. Accurately sort 3-D wooden shapes by their attributes using provided clues.

Can identify what is a face of a 3-D object

*Can accurately sort shapes by more than one attribute

*Can identify 3-D shapes using math language

Can accurately answer Closure activity question

*Can accurately sort shapes by one attribute

Can name the 2-D face shape of 3-D shapes

Notes

*Main lesson objectives

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2-D and 3-D Shapes Summative Assessment (Part 1)

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2-D and 3-D Shapes Summative Assessment (Part 2)

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2-D and 3-D Shapes Corrected Summative Assessment (Part 1)

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2-D and 3-D Shapes Corrected Summative Assessment (Part 2)

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Student Book Performance Task Sheet (pg. 163)

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Student Book Correction Sheet (pg. 163)

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www.RainbowMaths.com Closure Activity Screenshot

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**Section 2: Teaching and Lesson Logs
**

Day One – Reviewing 2-D Shapes

Reaching Objectives

The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 2-D shapes, including circle, triangle, square, rectangle, pentagon, and hexagon, when presented with a visual representation. Describe attributes and parts of 2-D shapes, including the number of sides and length of the sides, when prompted. Accurately create 2-D shapes using geoboards when given the name of the shape.

Throughout this lesson, I followed fairly strictly to my lesson plan. Using the Discussion Book, I had students notice the various shapes in the quilt picture and questioned them about these shapes. Together, we noticed different shapes, sides of shapes, and relationships between the shapes. We categorized shapes by how many sides they had, which allowed students to recognize that shapes have different attributes. For example, students noticed that squares and rectangles both had four sides, but that the sides of squares had to be all the same length or else it would be a rectangle. The names of these shapes and the number of sides were reviewed during the closure activity, as well. When questioning students, throughout the lesson, I differentiated the shapes I had students find and the types of questions that I asked according to what I knew about student achievement levels. This helped students reach the objectives, as well as feel success for doing so and not building frustration at all. The students were also able to review the shapes and get the ability to work with them hands-on as they used geoboards to build the shapes. After a review of proper usage, students successfully built shapes and were enthusiastic about making unique shapes that fit certain criteria (number of sides, etc.). I believe that nearly all students were able to meet all of the objectives for the lesson. A few did struggle a little bit more to identify every single 2-D shape, but they were able to identify a large number of them. The students that had difficulties need to mainly review the differences between the various quadrilaterals and understand the criteria that makes each unique. Monitoring Learning Throughout the lesson, I monitored learning by utilizing my ―Reviewing 2-D Shapes Assessment Checklist.‖ This observational checklist allowed me to track progress of the students as they answered questions and participated in the learning tasks. As students found and named 2-D shapes, I was able to write down of any difficulties they may have faced or any students that had vast background in this concept area. I was able to make note of how the

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students performed during the geoboard task and notice if any students had misunderstandings as they created shapes on their geoboards. This checklist and use of a check-minus, check, and check-plus system allowed me to see trends in the students‘ abilities. Students that had consistent check-minuses are ones that I will need to work with individually to ensure that they are able to grasp this lesson‘s concept and will be able to utilize what they learned in future lessons that build upon this knowledge. Students with consistent check-pluses are students that already have a strong hold of this content and will need to be challenged in future lessons. There were several students that did show both of these trends, as evidenced by the attached copy of the observational checklist. Overall, it seems as though most students were able to identify the shapes, especially those they are used to seeing – such as pattern block shapes. However, when working with the students, I noticed that they had difficulties differentiating the various 4-sided shapes and understanding that any shape with a certain number of sides was a specific shape. For example, any 6-sided shape is a hexagon. Many students would get confused because they are used to seeing a hexagon as the pattern block version, not in any other various way. I will have to put emphasis on this during the review in the initiation of the next lesson. Modifications During the lesson, I had to modify only slightly. I was notified beforehand that there was going to be a practice fire drill, so I had to section off my lesson and time it so that the geoboard activity would begin after the fire drill. During the geoboard activity, I did not go through every single shape that I desired due to time. I was noticing how long that the lesson was taking so I cut out having the students build two shapes because I believed they grasped this concept and knew the shapes well enough already. Future Adjustments Since this was a foundation lesson for the unit and one of my earliest taught math lessons during the course of student teaching, I realize that this lesson exceeded my desired length of time to teach the lesson. I wanted to ensure that the students really grasped this concept, so I allowed nearly all to participate during every learning task in order for me to assess their understanding. For example, I gave every single student a chance to come up and identify shapes, whereas this made that portion of the lesson much too long. While it is important for me to find out what the students are understanding by seeing their achievement, I realize that I need to shorten this lesson in the future and can observe the students in other tasks for assessment

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information. If a student did not get an opportunity to find and name a shape during the Discussion Book portion of the lesson, I could be able to assess their knowledge during the second activity as I observe them make shapes according to those I specified. If a child is able to create a pentagon when prompted, they would have most likely been able to identify it in the Discussion Book. Once again, my main adjustment to this lesson in the future would be to shorten the length of the lesson by observing students throughout the entirety of the lesson and not make it required to hear a response for every single student during each activity. Student Work Examples of student work and assessments are on the following pages.

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Student Work – M. L.

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Student Work – K. O.

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Assessment Sheet

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**Day Two – Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes
**

Reaching Objectives

The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, and cube, when presented with a visual representation. Accurately sort everyday objects by their appropriate similar 3-D shape.

During this lesson, the students reviewed the 2-D shapes by identifying them by name and classifying them by the number of sides on the white board. Using the Big Book, the students were introduced to our new 3-D shapes, which many were able to identify by name from their previous Kindergarten experiences. In the illustrations, students began to recognize that there were 2-D shapes apparent on the faces of the 3-D shapes, which pleased me to see because it will be helpful for identifying 2-D faces in the next lesson. The students really enjoyed the large 3-D demonstration shapes, which proved very helpful to assist visual and lower-level students during the lesson task and the independent practice. The students were excited to match everyday objects to the 3-D shapes and used wonderful math language to support their decisions. (E.g. ―The box is a cube because all of their sides are the same size. Some of them would have to be longer to be a rectangular prism.‖) During the closure, the students were very successful naming the 3-D shapes and sorting them by categories using the Rainforest Maths website. I noticed that their seemed to be a higher comprehension across all levels for this lesson compared to the 2-D shapes lesson. This may be due to the previous Kindergarten experiences and the smaller number of shapes to work with. I believe that nearly all students were able to meet all of the objectives for the lesson. Mainly, the students seemed to struggle slightly with differentiating the rectangular prism from the cube in the drawings on their task sheets during independent practice. I will make sure to review the criteria and attributes for each of those shapes in a future lesson to clarify. All students could sort the shapes successfully. Monitoring Learning Throughout the lesson, I monitored learning by using the ―Naming and Describing 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist.‖ This observational checklist allowed me to track progress of the students as they answered questions and participated in the learning tasks. As students found and named 3-D shapes, I was able to write down of any difficulties they may have faced or any students that had vast background in this concept area. I was able to make note of how the students performed during the story and sorting activity, as well as any misunderstandings.

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Like the previous lesson, this checklist allowed me to see trends in the students‘ abilities. Similar students from the last lesson received check-minuses, but did perform better. I met with them during the independent practice when necessary and provided them with hands-on 3-D shapes to work with to help. Those that struggled seemed to be the students that were pulled out for support services and missed the beginning of the lesson where the concepts were first presented. Students with consistent check-pluses were challenged during this lesson by being questioned at higher levels of Bloom‘s Taxonomy to challenge their thinking. Examples of students showing these trends are evidenced by the attached copy of the observational checklist. Modifications During the lesson, I had to modify the small group portion and made it a whole group activity. I wanted to manage the materials better, so I told the students that I had a bag of mystery objects and I would pull one out for each of them. Instead of having bags premade and small groups working on sorting, I thought it would be too hectic and wanted to lead the sorting. In this way, I was better able to keep group engagement by having all students interested to see what the other students would get pulled out. I was able to differentiate the items by choosing them for each student as they came up for their turn. I was also better able to monitor the students‘ knowledge by questioning their choices as they sorted their object onto the trays. I also was able to borrow foam 3-D shapes from the Kindergarten classroom to act as demonstration models for the students. This allowed the students to have larger visuals and shapes that they recognized from their previous experiences with the 3-D concepts. Future Adjustments There is not much that I would adjust for this lesson. I was much more successful managing my time compared to my previous lesson. The learning tasks were able to be fully completed and within the allotted time. The students‘ did a wonderful job identifying the shapes through all aspects of the lesson and were very enthusiastic for the sorting activity. The ―mystery‖ made it a new and exciting learning experience for them. In the future, I would teach the modified lesson, instead of from the original. While I would have liked to have small groups, I believe that it was important for me to be able to assess the students during this introductory lesson for 3-D shapes, especially for the shy and lower level students. I am not sure I would have been as successful without being able to question them as they had their own chance to sort. Student Work Examples of student work and assessments are on the following pages.

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Student Work – M. L.

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Student Work – K. O.

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Assessment Sheet

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**Day Three – Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes
**

Reaching Objectives

The first grade students will be able to: Recognize and name 3-D shapes, including cone, cylinder, rectangular prism, sphere, pyramid, cube, and triangular prism, when presented with a visual representation. Recognize and name 2-D faces of 3-D shapes. Accurately draw the 2-D faces of 3-D shapes.

During this lesson, the students reviewed the 3-D shapes by identifying them by name and a similar everyday object. The students looked at 3-D shapes, the printed faces, and identified the 2-D shape of the print. These prints were listed on the whiteboard. The students then matched these prints to those created by the girl in our Discussion Book. Independently, the students worked with the 3-D wooden blocks as they named them and matched them to faces on their performance task sheet. During the closure, the students were successful identifying the 2-D faces of the 3-D shapes using the Rainforest Maths website. This was a trickier concept for the students to grasp because it was a new experience for them. It was interesting to see students, who usually quickly grasp mathematical concepts, required the use of the manipulative 3-D wooden blocks to assist their understanding and completion of the task sheet. Overall, nearly all students were able to meet all of the objectives for the lesson. During this task, I did notice that students who struggled in previous lessons also struggled in this lesson. While some of them could visually identify the shapes and the correct face, these students were not able to identify the shapes by name when prompted working oneon-one. I will make sure to review these shapes in a future lesson. Monitoring Learning Throughout the lesson, I monitored learning by using the ―Identifying Faces of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist.‖ This observational checklist allowed me to track progress of the students as they answered questions and participated in the learning tasks. As students identified 3-D shapes and named 2-D faces, I was able to write down of any difficulties they may have had or students that showed great achievement. I was able to make note of how the students performed during the discussion and independent practice, as well as any misunderstandings. As in the previous lessons, this checklist allowed me to see trends in the students‘ abilities. I met with struggling students during the independent practice and provided them with hands-on 3-D shapes to work with to help. The students‘ individual strengths also shined during this lesson. One student that missed the lesson due to being pulled out for support services did

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poorly when working independently and required extensive one-on-one teacher support. However, another student that was pulled out during the lesson was able to fully complete the task sheet independently without assistance. Both of these students have difficulties with mathematics. I believe the latter student had less difficulty because she has a stronger visual sense and grasp of the shapes, which allowed her to more successfully complete the task. Students with consistent check-pluses were challenged during this lesson by questioning them at higher levels of Bloom‘s Taxonomy. As previously stated, these students also desired the use of the 3-D shapes to assist their completion of the task, which was interesting to note. The abstract concepts required concrete experiences for students of all levels to succeed. Examples of these student trends are evidenced by the attached copy of the observational checklist. Modifications During the lesson, I did not modify that much. Due to time constraints, I decided to cut short the portion of the task that had students come up to the board to draw the 2-D faces found after printing in the clay. The triangular prism and the pyramid were simply discussed and matched to the Discussion Book images. I do not think that this negatively affected the lesson because the students were getting antsy and the lesson needed to move on. It was more important to focus on how to complete the task sheet, which was tricky for some students. Future Adjustments I was not happy with this lesson when I read it within the required curriculum and struggled as how to approach it. I decided to stick to the curriculum to the degree but added in a hands-on component by having the students come up to the board to draw the shapes, as well as the visual component of printing the blocks in the clay. However, I would not perform the lesson in the same manner. I would not use the Discussion Book because I do not think it supported the goals of the lesson that well after teaching it. The shapes were difficult to tell apart on the page, especially the prints from the rectangular prism and the cube. In the future, I think that I would create centers for each shape and have the students in groups. At each shapes‘ center, the students would trace the sides of the 3-D wooden blocks. In this way, the students could see the 2-D faces that the 3-D shapes have, get more hands-on opportunities, cooperative learning chances, and be more appropriate to completing the task sheet. The students would have already explored the shapes themselves and have experience with the shapes in this way. Student Work Examples of student work and assessments are on the following pages.

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Student Work – M. L.

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Student Work – K. O.

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Assessment Sheet

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**Day Four – Describing Attributes of 3-D Shapes
**

Reaching Objectives

The first grade students will be able to: Describe attributes and parts of 3-D shapes, including the number of faces or edges, ability to roll or slide, etc., when prompted. Accurately sort 3-D wooden shapes by their attributes using provided clues.

During this lesson, the students reviewed the 3-D shapes and number of faces using the Jumbo Cube in an activity. They had to roll the cube and select the shape that matched the number of sides rolled. The students then looked at the 3-D shapes and sorted them according to different clues that I provided. At times, the students sorted them by one clue or by more than one clue. The shapes had to meet all of the criteria. The clues would have them sort by the number of faces, ability to roll, having corners, etc. Independently, the students worked with the 3-D wooden blocks as they matched 3-D shapes to clues given on their performance task sheet. During the closure, the students were successful identifying the 3-D shapes that correlated with the clues provided using the Rainforest Maths website. I noticed that their seemed to be a higher comprehension across all levels for this lesson compared to the previous lessons. This may be due to the lesson being the summation of everything that they have learned during this mini-unit. It reviewed and incorporated all aspects of the previous lesson in a concrete hands-on manner. I believe that nearly all students were able to meet all of the objectives for the lesson. Most students desired assistance during the Summative Assessment with the reading of the directions, but the majority quickly and successfully completed the task. Monitoring Learning Throughout the lesson, I monitored learning by using the ―Describing Attributes of 3-D Shapes Assessment Checklist.‖ This observational checklist allowed me to track progress of the students as they answered questions and participated in the learning tasks. I monitored students as they identified 3-D shapes, made use of mathematical terminology to describe the shapes, and sorted the shapes. I was able to write down of any difficulties they may have had or areas of great insight. I was able to make note of how the students performed during the discussion and independent practice, as well as any misunderstandings. Like the previous lessons, this checklist allowed me to see trends in the students‘ abilities. The majority of the students did well with sorting the shapes by attributes. The main attribute that any students struggled with related to identifying the 2-D faces of the 3-D shapes,

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which would review the previous lesson. I think that some of the problems relating to this during the lesson revolve around the way that I would formulate the question, therefore causing a misunderstanding on the students‘ part. I met with students that had difficulties with pervious lessons to provide any necessary support, but it was not very necessary for this lesson as most completed the task sheet independently. Students with consistent check-pluses were challenged during this lesson by being questioned at higher levels of Bloom‘s Taxonomy to challenge their thinking. Examples of students showing these trends are evidenced by the attached copy of the observational checklist. For the Summative Assessment tasks, I could not assist the students because this was the measure of their learning for the unit. Instead, I simply wove my way around their desks and observed the students as they worked. Occasionally, I would read the directions for them because of difficulties. I could not assist the students if they appealed for help or clarification, however, as this would skew the results of the assessment. I did allow the students to use manipulative 3-D wooden shapes if they desired. Modifications During the lesson, I made minor modifications. I did not end up using the Discussion Book. Instead, I had the clues printed out. I placed all different 3-D wooden objects in front of me, next to the tray. I then told the students the different clues and they had to come up to choose one that matched the clue(s) and put it on the tray. Throughout the lesson, I made sure to include the clues that were going to be on their independent task sheet, which were intermixed between other clues. When it came time for the students to complete the sheet, I‘m sure they were more successful because they were familiar with how to solve some of them. Future Adjustments In the future, I would not change much for this lesson. The students enjoyed participating in the learning activities. It had a variety of tasks for all to get involved, including the kinesthetic, visual, and auditory aspects. The learning tasks were also directly related to the performance task sheets and the students were highly successful in completing them. Many students did not need assistance nor required using the 3-D wooden blocks to look at to help them solve the clues. Several students appealed for the 3-D wooden shapes during the summative assessment task. Student Work Examples of student work and assessments are on the following pages.

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Student Work – M. L.

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Student Work – K. O.

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Assessment Sheet

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Summative Assessment (Part 1) – M.L.

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Summative Assessment (Part 2) – M.L.

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Summative Assessment (Part 1) – K.O.

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Summative Assessment (Part 2) – K.O.

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Class Summative Assessment Scores

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**Section 3: Student Learning/Reflection
**

Achieving Goals I believe that I successfully achieved the central goals of my mini-unit. The students were expected to recognize and identify 2-D and 3-D shapes, describe attributes and parts of 2-D and 3-D shapes (faces, curved surfaces, number of faces, etc.), and classify shapes according to these attributes. The vast majority of the students‘ summative assessments were successful in identifying the desired shapes and attributes, as well as determining the 2-D faces of 2-D shapes. There were only 3 students that show small difficulties with the concepts in the lesson, mainly relating to the 2-D shapes and identifying the squares. In the future, I believe that more work will be particularly needed with identifying 2-D shapes, which affected some student achievement on the third lesson about 3-D shape faces. As seen on K.O.‘s task sheet (pg. 157) and the assessment checklist for the first lesson, students had difficulties with differentiating the quadrilaterals and identifying pentagons and hexagons. The students were not exposed enough to 2-D shapes in a variety of experiences, as well as had limited hands-on opportunities to work with the shapes. It was also difficult for them to understand that particular 2-D shapes have names as determined by the number of sides, such as any shape with five sides is always called a pentagon. They are used to a particular visual shape ( ) being identified as a pentagon, for example. As evidenced on the assessment checklists, the students largely were able to identify and classify the 3-D shapes successfully throughout the unit, especially compared to the confusion with 2-D shapes. As their experiences with the 3-D shapes grew, the students‘ abilities to complete the performance tasks successfully increased, as seen with trends on the assessment checklists and with K.O.‘s task sheets (pg. 159, 161). Many grew more confident and independent in the tasks, despite initial difficulties some faced early in the mini-unit. By the end, nearly all students reached the central goals and objectives of the unit. Student Understanding When analyzing M.L.‘s performance, I noticed that she thoroughly demonstrated an understanding of this unit‘s concepts. Throughout every performance task and her summative assessment, M.L. accurately and independently completed each objective of the mini-unit. Her work demonstrates a thorough understanding of the concepts and an ability to be challenged in future work with these concepts. For the first lesson, her performance task (pg. 157) is neatly

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and accurately colored in, which shows her ability to identify 2-D shapes. In the second lesson, her accurate performance task (pg. 159) demonstrates her knowledge of 3-D shapes. In the third lesson, M.L. was able to accurately identify the 3-D shapes by name, as well as determine the 2D face of these shapes. I would like to work with M.L. in utilizing the word bank on the paper, since she did misspell ―pyrimyd‖. I note this because, in other class work, she is typically an accurate speller, especially when it is provided. On the fourth lesson‘s performance task (pg. 163) and the summative assessment, her accuracy is 100-percent once again for both, which demonstrates M.L.‘s ability to classify and identify the 3-D shapes by their attributes in a variety of ways. Her performance is above average from the performance of the average of the class, but there were also approximately nine other students out of seventeen that performed similarly at this higher level. All of these students showed a strong initial foundation in geometric knowledge from the start of the unit, which benefited their mastery of this mini-unit with perfect scores. These students are ready to be challenged by more abstract geometric concepts in future lessons or units. When analyzing K.O.‘s performance, I noticed that she had some initial difficulties with identifying both 2-D shapes (pg. 157) and 3-D shapes (pg. 159). She had problems differentiating the various quadrilaterals on the first lesson‘s performance sheet (pg. 157). She was not sure whether to color some shapes yellow (squares or rectangles) or to color them blue (any other 4-sided shape). She required assistance and prompting to determine what made these shapes different from one another to help her decide which color they should be. Her performance with this task was not unlike others in the room. As seen on the assessment sheet for that lesson, many students had difficulties determining the correct quadrilaterals to color in. K.O. also had confusion when exploring cubes and rectangular prisms in the next lesson‘s performance sheet (pg. 159). This may have been due to the poor illustrations provided on the drawing, which made it slightly difficult to identify the difference between the two shapes. They were drawn somewhat similarly in size, especially for this grade level. This led to other students having difficulties on the worksheet, as well. However, as K.O.‘s opportunities with the 3-D shapes grew, so did her achievement. She grew more independent when working on her task sheets and grew more accurate in her completion of them. She was able to properly identify the 3-D shapes, as well as the 2-D faces of these shapes on her task sheet (pg. 161). Her class work is reflective of the majority of the

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class. Their success with the shapes grew as they gained more hands-on experience working with the shapes. Many grew more confident and independent in the tasks, despite initial difficulties early in the mini-unit. By the end of the unit, only three students seemed to demonstrate slightly greater difficulty than the rest of the seventeen students with these concepts. All student achieved mastery for the unit with scores above 85, with 10 receiving perfect scores. Future Adjustments While I am pleased with the outcome of the students‘ achievement of all levels for this unit, I would change several portions of the unit. During the first lesson, I would like to provide the students with more opportunities to classify and create the 2-D shapes. There was not enough foundation with these shapes. Throughout all of the lessons, the students had difficulties differentiating some of the 2-D shapes, like squares and rectangles. This was a trend that I noticed for students like K.O. throughout the assessment checklists. These students need more opportunities to identify shapes by the number and lengths of sides, as well as more time creating them on the geoboards. If possible, I would have students practice creating these shapes during other parts of the school day, such as a short review during Morning Meeting time or identifying the 2-D shapes within the classroom throughout the day. I would also like to do more work with the third lesson, like previously stated. The students were required to find and identify the 2-D faces of 3-D shapes. Difficulties with this lesson largely stemmed from the short foundation and review lesson just mentioned, as well as a lack of hands-on opportunities. As discussed before, I would prefer to have the students explore the 2-D faces using centers. This would allow the students to work cooperatively with their classmates and gain concrete experiences with the shapes. At each shapes‘ center, the students may trace or print the sides of the 3-D wooden blocks, for example. Other than these changes, I would continue to teach the rest of the mini-unit in a similar manner, due to high student interest and achievement for the other lessons at all levels of understanding. Student Goals Based on M.L.‘s performance, I would have liked to provide her with more challenging opportunities throughout the mini-unit. An immediate goal for M.L. would include being able to compare and contrast 2-D and 3-D shapes by multiple attributes, such as size, number of sides, flat or curved edges, etc. This more difficult task would cause her to problem-solve and consider several attributes at one time as she sorts them into particular categories. This will allow her to more deeply explore the characteristics of these shapes and how they compare to others.

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Based on K.O.‘s performance, I would set an immediate goal of accurately identifying quadrilaterals with formal mathematical language. Throughout the unit, difficulties with this aspect affected her achievement in other areas, such as identifying the 2-D faces of 3-D shapes, because she was slightly weak this foundation area. I expected K.O. to be able to identify basic 2-D shapes before beginning this unit, but there is still some confusion. While she can identify the most shapes, her weakness is evidenced in her misinterpretation of the ―squares‖ on the summative assessment sheet. She does not identify one of the squares (turned on its side) and, instead, inaccurately identifies another quadrilateral as a square. This is also evidenced on the first task sheet (pg. 157), for example. More work with these shapes in various opportunities can provide her with deeper understanding and strength in identifying these particular 2-D shapes. She will be able to determine the differences between each quadrilateral by certain attributes. For the long-term, I would set the goal for K.O. to accurately identify 3-D shapes without visual representations. Her strong performance on the summative assessment demonstrated that she has a growing grasp of the characteristics of 3-D shapes. At the start of the mini-unit, I expected K.O. to be able to sort and classify 3-D shapes using the assistance of manipulatives, which she did. In the future geometry unit, I would like her to work towards not needing those concrete visual aids and build strong foundation knowledge of the attributes of 3-D shapes beyond what she has learned in this mini-unit. This foundation will assist her in being able to understand more abstract geometric concepts for her grade level.

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