Mystical Concepts in Chassidism

An Introduction to Kabbalistic Concepts and Doctrines

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No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission from the copyright-holder, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. THIRD-REVISED-EDITION SECOND PRINTING 1988

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1979 b y


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Schochet, Jacob Immanuel. Mystical Concepts in Chassidism.
Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Hasidism. 2. Cabala. 3. Habad. I. Title. BM 198.S367 1986 296.8'33 86-2997 ISBN 0-8266-0412-9 Printed in the United States of America

Table of Contents

On the Propagation of Chsidism: Foreword to Third Edition ............................................................ 7 Foreword to First Edition .................................................................... 25 Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition .............................................. 27 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Introduction ..........................................................................................31 CHAPTER ANTHROPOMORPHISM AND METAPHORS ............ 35 I: 1 Anthropomorphism 35 / 2 Man-Metaphor 39 / . 3 Light-Metaphor 41 CHAPTER TZIMTZUM .................................................................... 47 11: CHAPTER SEFIROT ......................................................................59 111: 1. Meaning of Sefirot 59 / 2 . Order of the Sefirot 66 / 3. Keter 68 / 4 Chochmah-Binah-Da'at 71 / 5 . Chessed-Gevurah-Tiferet 80 / 6. Netzach-Hod-Yessod 87 7. Malchut 92 / 8 lggulim and Yosher 96 / 9 . The Sefirot as Compounds 101 CHAPTER IV: WORLDS .................................................................... 105 1 The Concept of 'Worlds' 105 / 2 The Division of the Worlds 108 CHAPTER OROT AND KELIM .................................................... V: 117 1. The Concepts of Orot and Kelim 117 / 2. Or PnimGOr Makif 122 CHAPTER PNIMIYUT AND CHITZONIYUT ............................127 VI: CHAPTER VII: SHEVIRAT HAKELIM ............................................ 129 CHAPTER VIII: PARTZUFIM ............................................................139 CHAPTER TOHU AND TIKUN ....................................................143 IX: CHAPTER KELIPOT; CHITZONIM; SITRA ACHRA ................ 147 X: CHAPTER BIRUR AND TIKUN .................................................... XI: 151





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Bibliography .......................................................................................... 161 Index ...................................................................................................... 164


Dov Ber to visit numerous towns and villages where he would collect funds to redeem coreligionists who had been incarcerated and for other charitable purposes. The famed Chassidic sage Rabbi Hillel of Poritz was delegated by R. Rabbi Joseph Leib Bloch-rabbi and rosh yeshivah of my father's native Telz. At the same time . His first master. It harbours a profound thought discussed in Chassidism and articulated a century earlier by R. When the rabbi was challenged that these are ideas foreign to his listeners. 17731827). and often difficult to understand. he would recall an interesting incident. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (the Mitteler Rebbe-55345588. he would reply: "The neshamah (soul) understands!" This reply was not a cavalier retort.Foreword to Third Edition On the Propagation of Chassidut On several occasions when discussing mystical concepts of the Kabbrljh and Chassidism with my father and teacher ir"il'77t. often referred to Kabbalistic concepts in his ethical discourses. as seen in the following episode.

R. the letter equivalent to the number 50 and alluding to the '50 Gates o Binah' (Rosh Hmhanah 21b. Scripture states 'And flowing streams from Leuanon (Lebanon)':' Leuanon stands for Lamed-Bet [and] Nun. R. each forming a symbolic number: the first two letters (Lamed-Bet) form the number 32. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. The Rebbe answered in the affirmative and said: "The teachings of Chassidism are heard by the wshamah (soul).e. He asked R. Cf. the Chochmah (wisdom) and Binah (understanding) in the n e s h ~ m a h . incidentally. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. vol.. Cf. 1:p.2 i. The people he met on his travels ranged from the scholarly and perceptive to the quite simple. 2. . Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Likutei Leui Yitzchuk-Zohur. Song IV: 15. 3. 373.8 Foreword to Third Edition Rabbi Hillel was to encourage and strengthen the religious life of the communities he visited. Dov Ber whether to continue reviewing Chassidic discourses for those unable to understand them. Moshe Cordovero. alluding to the '32 Wondrous Paths of Chochmah' (Sefer Yetzirah I: 1. cf. ~ When the neshamuh hears. and he reviewed for them Chassidic discourses he had learned in Lubavitch. there is a b w and stream in the illumination of the soul which vivifies the body. See R. R. Or haTorah-Neui'irn. The word Leuanon is divisible into two components. and this results in a strengthening of the asey tou (do good)' relating to the 248 com1. that the gimatriya-numerical equivalent-of the word baLeoanon is the same as that of Chochmah-Binah) 4. and this fact raised some doubts in Rabbi Hillel's mind.). 1I:p. Likutei Tmah IV:7ld and V:5d. Zohur I:4a and f 261b). vol. the remaining three letters spell Nun. Psalms XXXIV: 15: sur mera ue'osey tou (turn away from evil and . 183. on Zohur III:16a (also noting. Pardes Rimonim XII: 18.

R. 7. though. Menachem M. edifying and invigorating effect. Cf. and ch. 1:p. do good).. just as the kindling of light dispels darkness. p.. 460f. Menachem M. Eliyahu Rabba. Eliyahu Zutta. There is a unique merit. and also ibid. 31) man's essential and foremost concentration and involvement should be with the positive aspect of asey tou. an objectively purifying. ch. p. vol.6 even if they are difficult to understand and sometimes not comprehended. XXI (on Numbers XXIV:5). 1I:p 473f. 138. ch. ch. et passim. 5. as with Torah in general. vol. vol. VI (on Menachot V:8).Cf. 6. Note. end of ch. this will then of itself effect the negative sur mera.. R. and of the sur mera (turn away from evil)' relating to the 365 prohibitions [of the Torah] The difficult and complex concepts and doctines of Jewish Mysticism are all-pervasive in Chassidism. in Degel Machane Ephrayim. Tikunei Zohur XXI:49a. Hayom Yom. ibid. 31. Moshe Cordovero. Or Ne'erau V:2. XII). and notes ad loc. in the very perusal of these sacred texts. See Likutei Torah V:48b-c. sect. and R. V:p. 124f. Cf. Tzauacrt Hariuash. 29 and 51. XVIII (on Lamentations II:19). ch. Nitzauim (see my The Great Maggid. See R. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Mahurash) quoted in Sefer Hasichot 5700. also the Baal Shem Tov's comment that the light of Torah (goodness) causes darkness (evil) to disappear. end of ch. that Chassidism emphasizes that after an initial cognizance to avoid wrong-doing (see Tanya. the comment by R. IX. 41. Schneerson. Likutei Sichot. Chaim David ..Foreword to Third Edition 9 mandments [which the Torah enjoins man] to do.. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Kidurhin 30b. but this fact must not deter either the teaching or the learning of it.

p. 10. The significance thereof is far-reaching. Schneerson of Lubavitch. 8. (supra. Remez (allu:~ sion). Chaim Vital. which are the four levels of meaning and interpretation of the Torah. Hilchot Talmud Torah. Moreh beEtzba II:44. and Mekor Chessed ad loc. and infra. ad loc. sect. lgeret Hakodesh. and Sod. i&m. 3. mysticism) . demanding that each and everyone study Torah to the best of his abilities and the utmost of his capacities-on all four levels of the T ~ r a h Peshut ( simple meaning). implies of itself obligation of involvement. in view of the fact that the precept of Talmud Torah (Torah-study) is allcomprehensive. 1164. 22b. and R. Tikunim 107c. cit. Baal Shem Tov's comment quoted in Likutim Yekarim. ibid. and Tosaphot. Sha'ar haGilgulim XVI-XVII. Cf. ed. 102b.. For an example of the application of these four levels of interpretation. In the context of the Talmudic passage of the "Four who entered the Pardes (Garden. R.10 Foreword to Third Edition This objective and independent potency makes it possible for all to become involved with Pnimiyut haTorah (the "inner" aspects of the Torah). Remez (or Re'iyah). Hilchot Talmud Torah II:13. Cf.v. 1:4 and 11:10. notes 6 and 8). Avoduh Zara 19a. Sefer Chassidim sect. see R. Chaim Vital. note 29. See Shulchan Aruch of R. therefore. Orchard) "-Chagigah 14b-the Zohar reads the word Pardes as an acronym for Peshat." The possibility of involvement with Pnimiyut haTorah. and their relationship to Chassidism. also ibid. XXVI. Sha'ar Ruuch Hakodesh. 108b. see Zohar Chadash. s. Zohar I:185a and III:85b. s. and Sod ( esoterics. 111:llOa and 202a. Menachern M. sect. . 9. Tel Aviv 5723. Avodat Hakodesh. Introduction. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat h a C h s i d u t [presently available in English translation: O n the Essence of C h s i d u s ] ch.1° Azulay (Chidu). R.. and Zohar I:26b. Sha'ar haMitzvot. and also II:2. See Hilchot Talmud Torah. D e m h ( hermeneutics). Tanya. Keriah bechochmat haKabbalah.. 9-17.v. Derush. Isaac Luria.

Subsequently it has been reprinted. . 12. Moses and David. Cf. The Great Maggid. 115. in Keter Shem TOUand other works. what I saw and learned when I ascended there. Abraham Gershon) as an appendix to his Ben Porat Yosseph. Abraham. p. . It is impossible to relate and tell. lent special impetus to the aforementioned. where the Messiah studies Torah with all the Tannaim (teachers of the Mishnah) and the Tzadikim (righteous people). I asked the Messiah: 'When will the master come [to redeem Israel]? And he answered: "By this you shall know it: when your teachings will be- ll. Seth. . Adam. Israel Bml Shem Tov. Methuselah.Foreword t o Third Edition 11 The advent of R. In the famous epistle addressed to his brotherin-law. even face to face. R. . ". in whole or in part. I ascended level after level until I reached the palace of the Messiah. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy (to whom it had been entrusted by the Baal Shem Tov for delivery to R. . I saw wondrous things in a vision as I had not seen heretofore since the day I reached maturity. who revealed and disseminated Pnimiyut haTorah in the form and modes of Darkey haChmsidut (the ways and practices of Chassidism) and Torat haChmsidut ( the teachings of Chassidism ) . see . and also the Seven Shepherds12. Jacob. This letter was published first by R. Abraham Gershon of K ~ t o v . . ~ ' Baal Shem Tov recalls the a wondrous experience: "On Rosh Hashanah 5507 (1746) I performed the evocation of aliyat haneshamah (ascent of the soul to celestial spheres) .

"I4 R. vol. XVI-XVIII (esp. Beshulach. the gloss by T z m h Tzedek in Likutei Torah III:33b.j. that is when [Israel] shall come out of exile. 872f. then the kelipot13 will perish and it will be a time of propitiousness and deliverance. Kelipot (shells) is the Kabbalistic term for the aspects of evil. . . 1:p. and Shfr Hashirim Rabba VII1:end of 9. f voi. 572 and 6186f. Moshe Chaim Ephraim of Sudylkov. the Baal Shem Tov's grandson and disciple. For a Chassidic interpretation o this encounter. See Likutei Sichot. 14. Bereish is an acronym for R. see Mystical Concepts in Chassidism. ch. 476 ff. Cf. 1 (p. as stated in the Zohar: Sukah 52b. Likutei Diburim. refers to this letter in his writings and adds: "This [reply of the Messiah] seems alluded in the verse 'And the children of Israel went out [of Egypt] beyad ramah (with uplifted hand. 13. 2a-b) . sect. 10. . Keter Shem Tou.Foreword to Third Edition come renowned and will be revealed throughout the world. Israel Baal Shem. externally)' . sect. vol."16 The Baal Shem Tov's vision in essence reflects an ancient premise of the mystics. [ Targum Onkebs renders the translation of beyad r a m h as] bereish gaby (openly). and 'your springs will be dispersed chutzah (abroad. 15. 11. and his Or haTorah-Neui'im. pp.' . see R. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. . and the word gaky alludes to the time when his teachings shall be revealed and his springs will be dispersed. . 1II:p. Degel Machune Ephrayim. Exodus XIV:8).

Tikunei Zohar VI:23b-24a. and in the merit thereof 'You shall proclaim liberty throughout the land. cf. and 1. XXVI. . And . 18. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch. and what is forbidden. Tikunim 96c. Appendix 1 1 17. 6d: 'One must not reveal the mys- ". 19. the 'Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil' (Genesis II:9) symbolizes the exoteric Talmud and Halachah (which deal with the clarification of what is permitted. unfit and impure. and R.. See also ibid. a chosen few whose saintliness matched their scholarship and who had mastered the strict prerequisites1@to 16.. Zohar III:153b). they will leave the exile with it. ch. XXI:53b (and the commentary Kisse Melech ad loc. the Book of the Zohar (Book of Splendor) . sect. 3. . sect. See Zohar Chadash. . Tikunim 106c-d. explained at length in Zgeret Hakodesh. See the sequel of our passage in the Zohar (and its exposition in Igeret Hakodesh. and the 'Tree of Life' symbolizes the esoteric aspects of the Torah. in other words. Zohar III:124b.16 the Sefer haZohar. fit and pure. i. in mercy.. cf. the Kabbalah. at the end of days. 5 and 11-13. Shimon bar Yochai] when it will be revealed in the last generation. Kuntres Etz hachayim. Bereishit. and Zohar Chadnsh. Shimon bar Yochai]. XXVI). In Kabbalistic terminology.' (Leviticus XXV:lO)"ls The teachings of the Kabbalah originally were restricted to yechidei segulah. the clarification or 'knowledge' of 'good' and 'evil').e."17 so many people here below (on earth) shall be sustained (yitpamssun) by this work of [R. . also Zohar III:153a. And because in the future Israel will taste from the Tree of Life. and Zohar Chadash.Foreword to Third Edition 13 '"And they that are wise shall shine as the splendor of the firmament' ( Daniel XI1 :3) with this work of [R.

as mentioned in the G e r n a r ~. otherwise he would be like one who 'gazes at the stars. infra. also ibid. 31-32. and Zohar III:105b and 244a (with Nitzutzei Orot and Nitzutzei Zohar. Introduction to Etz Chayim. and R. Tehillim.. ~ Shimon bar Yochai. ad loc. Moses Nachmanides' Introduction to his Commentary on the Torah. See also R. the laws relevant to the daily life c/f the Jew. Maimonides. See Pessachim 119a. Man must study the wisdom of the Kabbalah. lacking efficacy and accountability . . Mishnah and Talmud is at best 'like a soul without a body. 114-116. publicly. Kidushin 71a.The soul of man is a lamp of the Eternal (Proverbs XX:27) . Kehot. To study the mysteries of the Torah before Scripture. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. II:149a and III:79a. I: ch.'. whose studies endure and he is G-d-fearing and erudite in everything.). Cf. beginning of Introduction. part I: ch. 20. "The whole science of the Kabbalah had been concealed from all the scholars except for a select few-and even that was in a mode of 'walking secretly' and not ~ R. ch. . p. . 33-34. pp. Moreh Neuuchim. sect.' Cf. Chagigah l l b and 13a. 21. Or Ne'erau. also The Great Maggid. Maimonides. Genesis Rabba XLIV:I] and are essential. Or Torah. only observing the things above him. Chagigah l l b and 13a. R.14 Foreword to Third Edition entering the orchard of mysticism. too. See Zohar III:159a. . 258 ( e d . and also ibid. but first his body must be purified. R.radiate in this body like a lamp placed in a glass reflector: shining and invigorating him to understand the mysteries of the Torah and revealing its depths . . and note 20.. Only thereafter can the neshamah (soul) . Cf. 6. and thus failing to see holes right under his feet: ultimately he will fall into a deep pit'. This is effected by practising the mitzuot which serve this purpose [ c f . . 77a). . Chairn Vital. stated in the sacred Zohar21 that permission to reveal was teries of the Torah except to a person that is wise and studied Scripture and Talmud. and Tikunei Zohar. Hilchot Yessodei Hatorah IV: 13. Moshe Cordovero notes that he who wishes to pursue the esoteric teachings of the Torah must first possess some basic knowledge of nigbh (the exoteric Torah).

for both the great and the small. and not another. Abraham Azulay. Rashi's commentary on Song I:2. 36). Zohar 1:118a.. Cf.e. Shimon bar Yochai foresaw an ever-increasing revelation of mysticism in the period preceding the Messianic redemption to the point that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom. vol.e.' and the decree was nullified and it is permissible to occupy oneself with the Zohar. 588f. From then onwards it is called the 'last generation. quoting earlier sages. I1:p. As it is by virtue of this merit. Since the year 5300 it is a most meritorious precept to be occupied therewith in public. it is improper to be slothful [with this study] . in his Introduction to Or haChumuh.."22 T i concealment and hs restriction."24 22. however. "The decree against open involvement with Chochmath haEmeth (the Wisdom of the Truth.' i."23 Indeed. in his lgeret T e y m n (see also his Moreh Neuuchim 1I:end of ch. in this context R. to the period immediately preceding the Messianic era. R. Likutei Sichot. 24. that the King Messiah will come in the future. the Kabbalah) was but for a set period of time. and Maimonides' reference to the restoration of prophecy prior to the Messianic redemption. lgeret Hakodesh. sect. i. namely up until the end of the year 5250 (1490). .Foreword to Third Edition 15 given to him and his associates only. XXVI. 23. was to last only to 'the end of days. Cf.

ed. and p. Isaac Luria see R. Shomes Emunim I:17. the esoteric part of T ~ r a h . lgeret Hakodesh. Isaac Luria. Moshe Cordovero and R. VI (ed. For the basic difference between the systems of R. Moshe Cordovero.26 It was an age that ushered in an altogether new era: R.)] 28. Isaac Luria. Moshe Cordovero and R. Immediately after him followed R. [See also Sefer Toldot haAri. Menachem Azarya de Fano. whose all-encompassing teachings soon were recognized universally as final and authoritative and had an impact on the totality of Jewish life.16 Foreword to Third Edition The century following the year 5250-referred to above-witnessed a phenomenal flourishing and revolutionary expansion in the study of. the Kabbalah. p. and of their disciples. and cf. See R. 178f. whose expository works-of remarkably lucid style-have become primary sources. All these works. special tracts propagating the principles and premises of the Kabbalah and introducing the novice to them. the Ari ( "Lion"). note 2 (Mevo She'arim. and preoccupation with. R. commentaries on the Zohar. Tel Aviv 5721. Jerusalem 1967. 100 note 1.. also ibid. mystical expositions of the Bible and Rabbinic texts. Joseph Ergas. p. R. sect. 335a). See R. mostly written by scholars whose authoritative 25. Sefer haChizyonoth II:17. XXVI. end of Introduction to Peloch haRimon. Chaim Vital. Sefer HagiG . 158f. Chaim Vital. Isaac Luria declared that as of then it is not only permissible but a duty to reveal Pnimiyut haTorah. sect. It was the age of R. p. ~ ~ Ever since then there has been a continuous flow of mystic works appearing in print: the writings and teachings of the aforementioned R. Moses Zacuto's glosses on Etz Chayim and Meuo She'arim.

. V1I:p. Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 156b). (also in Or haChassidut. Kuntres Znyanah she1 Torat haChassidut. ) 27.). and precisely because of the spiritual decline of our own times (see the incisive parable by R." Cf. Abraham Amlay's Introduction to Or haChamah. On the obligatory aspect in the study of Pnimyut haTorah see also Tanya. 91f. Moshe Cordovero. and Appendix 111. See especially R. Joseph Ergas. Likutei f Sichot. R. 32: "In this our present era. 206ff. Chain Vital's resolution of the seeming contradiction between this claim and the restrictive prerequisites referred to above (notes 19-21). 10. 81. R. 13 and 21. vol. as stated in Tikunei [Zohar] that by merit of the Zohar the King Messiah will be revealed. sect. and the analogy offered in Likutei Sichot. an intensive study of Pnintiyut h ~ T r n a h ~ ~ very gulim. Shimon bar Yochai to resolve all prob- . 117-119. Note also R. quoted in The Great Moggid. Appendix (p. Shmuel of Lubavitch quoted in Sefer Hatoldot-MaHarash.. in spite. 25%. On the Essence o Chassidus. pp. Isaac de Lattes' Approbation to the first printing of the Zohar (prefacing most editions since). and his letter published in Hatamim 1:p. Zohur II:26). I. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. ch. 19ff. comment by R. Kuntres Acharon. 169%. p. Or Ne'erau (parts I-V). Kuntres Etz haChayim. R. by stating: "If we were to apply the prerequisites as strictly as they appear to be. stressed the signilicance of. IV (p. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar huHakdamot. etc.the need for. They state emphatically the admissibility and necessity thereof nowadays. R. ch. Kuntres Limud h C h s i d u t . also Introduction to Sha'ar haHakdamot. and . 150f. Shomer Emunim. R. p.Foreword to Third Edition 17 expertise in the Talmudic-Halachic branches of the Torah equalled their mastery of the Kabbalah. no one would be able to pursue this study unless he had an instructor as great as R. which is the last era. . They and many others went to great lengths to refute in detail the various objections raised to an extensive study of mysticism. ch. p. it is necessary to reveal Chochmat haEmet (the mystical teachings of the Torah) in order that the Messiah will come. p.

Cf. comparing them to silver and gold Tespectively. which began gradually in mediaeval times and expanded drastically from lems encountered. ed. and the anthology Or ha- C hassidut. On the illuminating aspect of Pnimiyut haTorah in relation to the other parts of Torah see Or Ne'erau. 26 and 50. The exoteric and esoteric layers of the Torah are usually compared and referred to as the body and the soul of the Torah. this open dissemination of the Kabbalah. 31-34. s. . passkn. Kuntres Etz haChayim. Maimonides' distinction between the nigleh (revealed. passim. a d . the frequent discussion of this theme in Likutei Sichot (see index. see Zohar III:152a. Tel Aviv. 21ff. The study [of mysticism] is prohibited only to him who is unable to stand in the Palace of the King and may come to heresy.v. Heaven forbid. Cf. Moreh Neuuchim. . ch. Kuntres Limud huchassidut. Maimonides.2@ However. 15.. and not. 29. Kuntres Etz haChayim. because he thinks himself very wise and without deficiency on his part". Heaven forbid. esoteric) parts of the Torah. Moreh Neuuchim. I don't understand it because of the deficiency of my intellect. p. Thus it seems to me that the mitzvah to pursue this wisdom remains in effect. Introduction (in comment on Proverbs XXV: 1 ) . . Introductions. and 111: ch. I: ch. Introduction. 23b f . Kol Ramah on Zohur III:14la (quoted in Nitzutzei Zohar. See further the sources cited in the preceding note. Sha'ar haHakdamot. Hafotzat haMayanot. Pe'ah 1:1 on Deuteronomy XXXII:47]. one must think 'If this matter appears to be vain-it is on my account [see Yerushalmi. 28. and also Etz Chayim. that is. parts IV-V. because the subject matter is questionable .18 Foreword to Third Edition ou12%f the Torah which animates and illuminates the body of the exoteric tradition. ch. provided one has adopted the following approach: When seeing bewildering passages which may arouse doubts. exoteric) and nistar (concealed. Kuntres Inyanuh she1 Torat haChassidut ( O n the Essence of Chassidus) . Kuntres Torat Mhassidut. Pnimiyut haTorah). Chassidut. ) .

by each relative to his own level. In this new stage mysticism was popularized on a much wider scale. Isaac Luria before there was a further development bringing the Zohar's vision of the 'end of days' a major step closer to realization. His scholarly disciples thus. profound premises and insights of the mystical depths of Torah. Israel Baal Shem Tov who revealed and propagated the teachings of Chassidism. invariably were based on. vol. sect. His words. Two centuries passed since R. and beg. Chassidism made it possible that not only the discerning scholar but every one may 'taste from the Tree of Life' and be inspired by it. 1II:pp. See Degel Machane Ephrayim.Foreword to Third Edition 19 the sixteenth century onward. During his numerous travels he would address differing audiences with short and seemingly simple comments or parables relating to Torah and the Divine service. Likutei Sichot. of section Tstzaceh (Likutim). His pithy words were easily understood by simple folks at whom they were often directed and set their souls on fire to worship the Omnipresent with renewed vigor and enthusiasm. 874 and 875. . Vayeshev. however. remained restricted basically to the scholarly world. and contained and alluded to. could and would probe these teachings and meditate on them to extricate their inexhaustible lessons relating to themselves at their own level of scholarship and understandingS3O 30. The Baal Shem Tov propagated and disseminated ideas and ideals of Pnimiyut haTorah in such ways and manners as could be absorbed by all. A new era began with the rise of R. too.

Schneur Zalman of Liadi interprets the Zohar's precondition to the Messiainic redemption. of an extensive study of Pnimiyuth haTorah. Every attempt was made to realize fully the 'dissemination of the fountains of Chassidism chutxclh'-outside. 33. Hafotzat huMayanot.e. When R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch in his Introduction to Biurei huZohar. as quoted above. Quoted by R. Pnimiyut haTorah).and ~~ those following thereafter. and comprehenrive deliberation on Pnimyut haTomh. Dov Ber of M e ~ h i r e c h .u. i. even in such places and to such people which at first glance might seem far removed from any relationship with the subjectmatters of C h a ~ s i d i s m . ch. but of an immanent and all-pervasive understanding and comprehension. or in a transcendent mode of 'the neshmah hears and understands..If ~at first this dissemination had been ~ indirectly.' this. led by R. See The Great Maggid. continued in one form or another through the second generation of Chassidism. too. to mean limud be'iyun gad01 dauka-an intensive study of. VII. 32. . The Zohar's vision of the overall study of Pnimiyut haTorah is not one of merely a formal acceptance in principle or of a transcendental acquaintance. C b s i d u t . See Likutei Sichot. was to change in the course of time.a3 he follows clearly in the footsteps of the classic commentators preceding him: "'And became in the future Israel lemit'am (will taste) 31.20 Foreword to Third Edition This new approach. passim (s.

Foreword to Third Edition


from the Tree of Life-': Note the expression kmit'am. It implies that the meanings of the Zohar's teachings ultimately will become manifest in a mode of tuu ta'am (goodness of taste; good discernment; Psalms CXIX:66); to the point that
every palate tasting it will desire it, as opposed to he who studies [the Zohar] superficially only. The latter will not sense its sweetness, while Scripture states 'Taste and see that the Eternal is good' ( Psalmr XXX1V:Q).

'"-they will leave the exile with [the Zohar]': This is meant to be when they will taste (i.e.,discern; comprehend)
the meanings of its delightful teachings, as in these our own times which are the 'end of days' and the era of the redemption, as we wrote in section Vayera (Zohar I: folio) 117, see there."a'

R. Sholom Buzaglo writes in his commentary on Tikunei Zohar:
"Note the expression 'when it will become manifest below.' This clearly indicates that . . . here below it will not be manifest until the 'last generation,' i.e., the 'end of days,' meaning quite specifically close to the era of the Messiah who will come on this account.35 "Verily, it is now hundreds of years already since the [Zohur] was revealed below, yet the descendant of David still has not come. But pay close attentioin to the text: it
34. R. Sholom Buzaglo, Hadrat Melech on Zohar 111:124b. 35. See also R. Sholom Buzaglo's introductions prefacing Tikunei


Foreword to Third Edition

states ' y i t p m s s u n (they will be sustained; provided for) by this work.' The implication is that the profound teachings [of the Zohar] will be explicated-according to the premises ~ revealed by R. Isaac L ~ r i a .. . .~ This is what is meant by [the term] parnassah (sustenance; provision), i.e., that they will understand and benefit from its light which is 'sweet to the soul and health to the bones' ( Prooerbs XVI:24). He who studies [the Zohar and Pnimiyut haTorah] superficially (girsa be'alma) will reap a good reward for his effort and sanctifies his soul in purity, but the special remedy by virtue of which 'you shall proclaim liberty' is when yitparnessun (they will be sustained by) and study the meanings of the teachings [of the Z ~ h a r ] . " ~ ~ VII The progressive evolution in the manifestation and exposition of Pnimiyut haTorah reached a new milestone in our own age. For now, some two hundred years after the advent of the Baal Shem Tov and the Chassidic Movement, these teachings have been, and continue to be made available not only in systematized form and and in intelligible terminology and simplified exposition, but also translated into modern languages. This new development was ini36. Cf. R. Chaim Vital, Etz Chayim 1:s; Sha'ar haHakdamot, 11; Shomer Emunm I : 17. 37. Kisse Melech on the passage from Tikunei Zohar VI:23b quoted above.

Foreword to Third Edition


tiated by R. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn of L u b a ~ i t c h and inten,~~ sified in every conceivable way by HnR'137 his successor, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch N''D''1W. This latest expansion has in effect removed the last barriers to the fullest and widest possible dissemination of Pnimiyut huTorah-"the fountains of Chassidus which were unlocked by R. Israel Baal Shem Tov, who envisaged Chassidus as a stream of 'living waters,' growing deeper and wider, until it should reach every segment of the Jewish People and bring new inspiration and vitality into their daily lives."3v In our own days, thus, the path has been cleared and paved for the realization of R. Shimon bar Yochai's vision that "when the days of the Messiah will be near at hand even young children will happen to find the secrets of wisdom,"-culminating in the era of "The earth shall be full of the knowledge of G-d as the waters cover the sea" (Isaiah XI :9) "And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour and every man his brother saying 'Know the Eternal,' for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of theml" (Jeremiah XXX1:33I4O



This book was written in the context and for the purpose of the aforesaid. Its justification is measured by the extent of achieving that end.
38. See Likutei Sichot, vol. 1II:pp. 874-6, and vol. X1II:p. 180; Kovetz Yud Shuat, pp. 69-71. 39. Foreword by Lubavitcher Rebbe to the English translation of Tanya. See also Likutei Sichot, vol. X1II:p. 177ff. (in conjunction with the publication of the bi-lingual edition of Tanya, London 1975). 40. See Zohar III:23a and Mairnonides, Hilchot Melachim XII:5.

24 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM If the need for a new printing indicates some success. and supplementary references to works published since then. there is hardly a more gratifying reward for the author. The present edition differs from the previous one by minor revisions and additions in both the text and the notes. 28 Menuchem Au 5739 . IMMANUEL SCLIOCHET Toronto. J.

involving very delicate premises and principles of the teachings of the Kabbalah and Chassidism. some basic concepts and doctrines which appear throughout that work. appear here on their own. This separate publication was necessitated by technical difficulties but also serves to emphasize the following point. and acquaint him with. by way of a brief and general Introduction. The explanatory notes. though numerous references have been made to them in the footnotes of the translation. An attempt has been made to offer simplified outlines and explanations to the English-reading novice in this field. and to introduce the reader to. there are different schools of learning and interpretation. but the subject-matter is not as simple as may appear here. . In Jewish Mysticism. the fourth part of R. forming the bulk of this volume.Foreword to First Edition This volume is a companion to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. The Explanatory Notes deal with profoundly intricate subjects. as in other branches of knowledge. Schneur Zalman of Liadi's celebrated Likutei Amarim-Tanya. The paragraphs dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh appear also alongside the translation. It is an introduction sewing two purposes: to acquaint the reader with the general nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh.

differing interpretations of even so basic a doctrine of that great master as tzimtzum. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. but sometimes subdivide into further branches within themselves.S. the basic sources of the Explanatory Notes are the writings of R. Nonetheless. with abundant references to the original writings of the Zohar and of R. in the school of R. we find. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. since shortly after its inception (sixteenth century). The involved terminology and subtle phraseology in all the works mentioned often threaten to entrap anyone who cannot claim to belong to the exclusive circle of t"n 'y?l' (adepts in the esoteric science). it is hoped that this Introduction will prove successful in its aims.26 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM These schools differ not only one from another. dominates the world of Jewish Mysticism. Though he strove to grasp and offer the views and interpretations of R. the reader is reminded that ambition is not necessarily identical with achievement.I. As the footnotes show. But it should be noted that the explanations offered in this volume" represent their author's understanding of the subjects. The obvious purpose is to present them in a way that will help clarify the contents of Zgeret Hakodesh. and there remains but to paraphrase the Psalmist with the apology and prayer: "Who can understand (and prevent) errors? Clear Thou me from hidden faultsl" (Psalms 19:13) Toronto. For example. Isaac Luria which. Isaac Luria. 1 Nissan 5728 1 J. . ' The same applies to the explanations given in the footnotes of the translation. in +e very first generation after the passing of its founder.

growing out of the original intent and purpose. But as it has come to be used for general reference. On the other hand. " Where the numbering of these footnotes differs between the original editions of the translation (New York 1968 and 1972) and the bi-lingual edition (London 1973).with the numbers in the bi-lingual edition noted in parentheses. appear in the abbreviated Introductiurl prefacing the translation. reference is made to both . The need for a second edition is not only gratifying but also provides an auspicious opportunity to revise and to take into consideration comments and suggestions received since the first printing. are retained.Foreword to Second (Revised) Edition The first edition of this introductory tract has been out of print for a long time.' (ii) The first three chapters have been entirely rewritten. and to the footnotes of its translation. . 11-17 in the first edition of this work) which. the numerous references to Igeret Hakodesh. I have followed the suggestion to give it a separate title whilst retaining the original one as a sub-title. in any case. This has led to some major changes: ( i ) This volume was written and intended as an Introduction to my translation of Igeret Hakodesh. For this reason I have omitted from the revised edition the technical parts dealing with the nature and contents of Igeret Hakodesh (pp.

Toronto. 26 Nissan 5731 . to give due acknowledgment to my wife H"D"7nw for compiling the helpful indices of both this work and the translation of Zgeret Hakodesh. and otherwise underwent only minor revisions. Technical difficulties prevent me. from adding a few additional chapters on related concepts and doctrines. namely. But this new edition does afford an opportunity to rectify an omission in the first one. at this time.28 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The other chapters were expanded.



Mevoh She'arlm. which forms the theoretical basis of Chassidic thought. Known by the acrostic ARI. The intricate system of the Lurianic Kabbalah. Or Ne'erav. and many other works. Isaac L ~ r i a Thus any attempt to . Shiur Komuh. etc. 2. Elimu Rabba:y. 1534-1572. Moses Cordoverol and R. Chayim Vital f (1543-1620). Likutei Torah. and exerted a profound influence on the whole Jewish world.~ explain these concepts and doctrines as they appear in the writ- 1. . Leader of a prominent Kabbalistic school in Safed.Introduction This book deals with fundamental concepts and doctrines which appear throughout the writings of Chassidism and are essential for a proper understanding of them. Founder and leader of a Kabbalistic school in Safed that soon became the dominant school in Jewish Mysticism. They are concepts and doctrines that have their origins in the basic works of the Kabbalah such as Sefer Yetzirah and the Zohar-writings. 1522-1570. Known by the acrostic REMAK. Peri Etz Chayim. REMAK is regarded as one o the most important and lucid expositors and systematists f of Jewish Mysticism. such as Etz Chuyim. Shu'ar hatlakdamot. author of ParAs Rimonim. They assume their accepted authoritative fonns only in the comprehensive expositions of R. But in these works they appear mostly seminal and rudimentary. is authoritatively recorded in the multi-voluminous writings o ARl's principal disciple R.

and can be raised about. are cited in the footnotes. nor claim to be. and nothing more. etc. as an attempt at simplified outlines and explanations. and cross-references enlightening to the serious student seeking to delve further into the subject-matter. themselves. Founder and leader of Chubad. Verily. Those interested in pursuing the subjects further are referred to readily available works devoted to that 3. Schneur Zalman of Liadi. Torah Or. Where other works prove helpful. an authoritative revision of Shulchun Aruch.3 can be done only in the context of the works of his predecessors. ( A detailed biography in English is presently available. For this reason the reader will find many references to them throughout this book.Chassidism. There are many philosophical questions and problems that are related to. It is to be remembered that the concepts and doctrines discussed deal with profoundly intricate subjects. Likutei Torah. often involving difficult and delicate premises and principles which touch upon many basic theological problems. 1745-1813.32 Introduction ings of R. published by Kehot: New York 1969. and amongst Chassidim as the Alter Rebbe (Elder Rabbi). complete in. these various concepts and doctrines which are beyond the scope of this book to deal with. These outlines and explanations neither are. these. and by. Known as the Rau (Rabbij. They are discussed here because the marginal notes accompanying the translation of Igeret Hakodesh (where these concepts and doctrines appear) could not do justice to them. too. such an objective would require a much larger volume if not several volumes.) . author of Likutei Amarim (Tanya). But even the chapters following should be regarded as merely explanatory notes.

One of the first and foremost systematists of the Kabbalah. ~ 4. 5. Shomer Emunim. Joseph E r g a ~ . etc. dealing with its most important problems and containing profound critical discussions of various philosophical expositions. Derech Emunah. . residing in Livorno and Pisa. Renowned Talmudist and Kabbalist of the Lurianic school. and is a relatively easy philosophical introduction to the main issues and principles of Jewish Mysticism. 1685-1730. Shomer Emunim is written in the form of a dialogue between a mystic (adherent and defender of the Kabbalah) and his rationalist critic. Meir ibn Gabbai4 and R. though. Avodat Hakodesh is an elaborate introduction to the Kabbalah. that Ibn Gabbai's works are preLurianic (Auodut Hakohsh was completed in 1531. such as the writings of R. Teshuvot Divrei Yosef. Author of Avodut Hakodesh. often cited in the footnotes. It should be noted. and Derech Emunuh in 1539). originally from Spain and later in Egypt. and ToEa'at Yabkov.Introduction 33 purpose.Author of Minchat Yosef.


The reason is because these are the only type of words that man can use in any meaningful way. and thus in the expositions following. Berachot ONE Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 1. and our Sages use anthropomorphic language. . Anthropomorphism The terminology of Kabbalah and Chassidism. the Prophets. The forms of spatial-temporal concepts are imposed upon the mind of man who lives in a spatial-temporarl. Sifm on Levit. It is for this very reason that the Torah."' For "Had they limited themselves to abstract terns and con1. is highly anthropomorphic. and Tanchuma. on Exodus 15:7 and 19:18. Mechilta. The terms are borrowed from human concepts and the empirical world. 20:2. as it is stated "The Torah speaks in the language of man.

10. 35f. 9 2 ) . and 46. To who will you liken Me that I should be equal. R. Tanya 1I:lO. Berachot." (Isaiah 40:18. "The wise thinker will endeavor to strip the husk of the terms (i. R. no. 33. spatial and coporeal connotations. strictly speaking. Cf. Responsa no.. Kuzay IV:5. ."" Thus it is to be kept in mind at all times that the terms and concepts need to be stripped of all and any temporal. are non-ascribable to the Divinity. as Scripture states explicitly: "To whom then will you liken G-d? Or what likeness will you compare to Him? .36 MYSTICAL CON(=EPTSIN CHASSIDISM cepts appropriate to G-d. 131). and Comment. Bachya ibn Pakuda. 271 (1I:p. and that the reality is too subtle. Chouot Haleuouot. . their materialistic meaning) from the kernel. too exalted and remote for us to comprehend its subtlety. The words and ideas used have accordingly to be such as are adapted to the hearer's mental capacity so that the subject would first sink into his mind in the corporeal sense in which the concrete terms are understood. and will raise his conception step by step until he will at last attain to as much knowledge of the truth as his intellect is capable of apprehending. Maimonides. Otzar Hageonim. Hikhot Yesodei Hatorah I:7-12. Sha'ar Hayichud: ch. and Moreh Neuuchim I:28. 25). . This cardinal premise was adopted by Maimonides as the 2. All and any anthropomorphic notions and concepts. 357 (1:p. Judah Halevi. Then we can proceed to an understanding that the presentation is only approximate and metaphorical. we would have understood neither the terms nor the concepts. says the Holy One.e.

Rather. Commentary on Mishnah.a At the same time. 205b. it should also be noted that the anthropomorphic terminology used in Scripture. 31. are created in the "image" of the "world above". III:65b. 3 and 5. Di Yiddishe Heim. supra. 48b. Eccles. certain supernal concepts and notions to which the9 correspond. II:20a. 75bf. Rabba I:4. 10. and man in particular. Zohar I:38a. note 2). walking. 140a. Sanhedrin. by the mystics and by others. 10. 117a. "The Psychological System of R. 2. nos. Nathan. there is no likeness whatever between G-d and the creation. and on the supernal levels of the strictly spiritual realm there are no such things as eyes. Hilchot Teshuvah III:7. ears. and 11: ch. To be sure. Aud de R. The Rabbinic-Midrashic and mystical writings abound with references to the idea that the world below in general. Cf.I. vol. Moreh Nevuchim I:36 (and the references to Maimonides.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 37 third in his compilation of the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles of Faith". 1:ch. talking and so on. seeing." parts I and 11. to ch. ibid. Midrash Tanchuma. hands. XI f (New York 1970). et passim. however. nor such activities and affections as hearing. Pekudei: 3. Intr. However. Schochet. 3-4. and allusions to. all these spatial-temporal activities and concepts do 3. See also Chouot Habuouot. ch. Schneur ZaEman o Liadi.) . these terms are carefully chosen and possess a profound meaning.. ibid. and so on.' All the categories to be found in the world below and in man are homonymous representations of. 4. is not arbitrary just because it is under the protection of the above qualification. (Most of these sources are quoted in the discussion of the "correspondence-theory" in J.

" but . link or relationship between the written letters or words on paper and the physio-mental entity of the person whose name has been recorded.38 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM symbolise. calling to mind and denoting the full concrete entity of that person. SoIomon ibn Aderet. and denoting. ch. strictly and purely spiritual. they are corresponding signs and symbols relating to. Sha'ar I (ed. (all of which quote R. Moses Cordovero's Shi'ur Komah is devoted to this topic. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. 2b). Shenei Luchot Habrit. Isaiah Horowitz (ad loc. For a fuller discussion of the mystics' view of anthropomorphisms see R. Warsaw 1883. and. sect. See also R. 268. ch. Joseph Ergas. 2. there is surely no likeness. on Baua Batra 74b (Jerusalem 1966. p. Avodat Hakodesh. specific categories. Toldot Adam: Bayit accordance with the aforesaid . part 111. R. R. Sha'arei Orah. In a widely-quoted passage. cit.exactly the other . Even so. R. esp. but nonetheless. Cf. p. In addition. non-spatial and non-temporal5 5. categories. Isaiah Horowitz. the whole of R. that writing is a symbol or sign relating to. and ch.. Joseph Gikatilla). When writing the name of a person on a piece of paper. 10d) makes the interesting point that strictly speaking it is not that "the Torah speaks in the language of man. Shomer Emunim I:24f. notions and concepts that are of a strictly spiritual nature. for that reason come into being in correspondence to the original supernal. Joseph Cikatilla aptly explains this correspondence-relationship by means of the following analogy. R. esp. XXII (Shu'ar Hakinuyim). Thus it is with the anthropomorphic and anthropopathic concepts and terms: There is no concrete or direct link or likeness between them and the meanings they seek to express. p. 65. Pardes Rimonim. 90). indeed. Moses Cordovero. Meir ibn Cabbai. R.

ch. . Yishmael. This should be remembered with particular regard to the so-called "erotic" concepts and symbolisms. . so the Holy One. is unique in the body . Likutei Sichot. Chayim Vital. sect. The Man-M etaphor In discussing Divinity relative to the Universe. does not eat and does not drink . then. .U. influencer or . . . . p. "The whole universe functions according to the principium of masculine and feminine" (R. 11. . because all terrestrial concepts are allusions to supernal ones! Cf. . . upper and lower. 6. no man knows where its place is . their faculties. Theological concepts and the G-d-world relationship. vol. Peri Etz Chayim. the mode or form of emanation-reception and so forth (see lgeret Hakodesh. and in particular in terms of the various soul-powers. S. Berayta de R. Sha'ar Hakorbanot. XV. are often explained in terms of the soul-body relationship. . the favourite metaphor of the mystics (as of many philosophers) is the analogy to man. Judgment ( D i n ) and compassion (Rachamim). In general these denote the aspects of the active. . The "proof-texts" for this usage are the verse "From my flesh I envisage G-d" (Job 19:26) and the Rabbinic analogy "Just as the soul permeates the whole body . . Blessed is way around. note 9). Etz Chayim 11:6). abides in the innermost precincts. . sees but is not seen . . ~ 2. receiving qualities and categories.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 39 This. "There are four principles: masculine and feminine (1"lr). . . emanating (influencing) category and the passive. functions and manifestations. 6. sustains the whole body . is the way the anthropomorphic terminology is to be u n d e r s t o ~ d . 363f. like the frequent occurrence of terms as "masculine" and "feminine". and "conjunctio" and so on. is pure .

91ff. follows on the above-mentioned principle of a "terrestrial-supernal c~rrespondence. of Sha'ar Hatefillah (ed.). Actually. I: ch. Shi'ur Komah. and Biurei Hamhar. 2a). and is completely inadequate: emanator (Mashpia') and influenced ( Mushpa'.40 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM He. op. p. (p. and ibid. . see Pardess Rimonim XX1I:l. and sect. 8 and 121. R. XV. ed. It may be found in the Talmudic writings . and 111: ch.. Igeret Hakodesh.. Jacob ibn Chabib in his Hakoteu on Ayin Yabkouf as well as in the philosophical literature [e. created in His world. 13a). Noach: pp.. Schneur Zalman explains at length why the mystics purposely chose such delicate and seemingly peculiar terminology. p. Hakdamah 1I:end of Derush 2 (ed. blessed is He. 6 and 17. and the feminine corresponds to judgment. see Likutei Torah V:9a. such terminology is not uniquely Kabbalistic. upper and emanator. quoted at length by R. Berachot 10a. The earlier mystics. this is but an anthropomorphic approximation which cannot be carried too far and needs to be qualified. cit. and esp. cit. Tel Aviv 1963. beg. Peri Etz Chayim. pp. also called Mekabel recipient). ad loc. 5 (see notes ad loc. see the commentaries ad loc. It must be remembered. .[Baua Batra 74b: "All that the Holy One.. See Shomer Emunim II:9. in a sense. 8df. lower and recipient.. note 4. Shenei Luchot Habrit. Tikuwi Zohar 13:28a."' This."~ But even while an understanding of the soul is helpful in understanding matters relating to the Divinity. 8. Dov Ber of Lubavitch (New York 1955). XXV and XXIX. beg. that in some respects the analogy breaks down." idem. as R. . Schneur Zalman points out. R. As a rule.. Moreh Nevuchim. too.g. . and 'Olat Tamid. Introduction. ch. Midrash Tehilltm (ed. Tel Aviv 1966. of sect. See references supra. too.). Shomer Emunim I:26f. 7. the masculine corresponds to compassion. He created male and female". elaborate on the usage of these particular concepts. Buber) 103:4. 18. 6aff. Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass.

they are nevertheless two distinct entities.ll 3. . Cf. however. infra. Heaven forbid. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. II:6. Joseph Albo sees in it the following advantages that may analogously be related to E d : 9. For the human soul . Zbid. note 18. end of section 4. e. 2. 11. 12. In truth. . The Light-Metaphor Just as the soul provides a favourite metaphor. R. 7b-8b and 26a-b). I. See at length R. . everything is absolutely nullified. Berachot . who brings everything into existence ex nihilo. is not. they do not effect any change in Him. Sefer Hachakirah 1:8 (New York 1955. see.s " Also. the analogy has no similarity whatever to the object of comparison. 42. This metaphor. while the Holy One. nor by the word itself. 10. "The soul and the body are actually distinct. "in relation to The Holy One. .ch. . .12 This term is carefully chosen for a number of reasons. In contrast. Zbid. for the source of the body and its essence does not come into being from the soul . pp.. and ch. blessed is He. ch. . Tanya. is affected by the accidents of the body and its pain . one from the other. . abounds in the Talmudic-Midrashic and mediaeval-philosophic writings. just as the light of the sun is nullified in the sun itself". too.g. affected by the accidents of the world and its changes."lo Thus while the body may be fully subordinate to the soul. .. like the previous one. blessed is He.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 41 "This parallel is only to appease the ear. in their very sources. 3. so we find that the term "light" is favoured by the mystics to describe the various emanations and manifestations of the Divinity.

. Emunot Vede'ot 1II:lO. 5. 6). and especially IV:3. ( v ) One who has never seen a luminous body in his life cannot conceive colours nor the agreeableness and delightfulness of light. ends of ch. (ii) Light is not a corporeal thing. Moreh Nevuchim I . 31 (esp. Haumunat Elokut: ch. Derech Mitzuotecha. light bears a greater sirnilarity to the things which are free from matter than anything else 17a. By possessing all these qualities. and Midrashim.. and if he insists upon gazing beyond his power of endurance his eyes become dim so that he cannot see thereafter even that which is normally visible. also. and so on. the philosophical works use mostly the term shefa' (effluence. 1:3)-i. the radiation of the Shechinah). 3. In general. 76. (iv) Light delights the soul. (iii) Light causes the faculty of sight and the visible colours to pass from potentiality to actuality. Sifre. Eliezer. on Numbers 6:25. ) . Numbers Rabba 15:5. Concealment). see more on that in R. and ibid. let there be Raz (Mystery. ch. Lecit.42 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM ( i ) The existence of light cannot be denied. ch. Kuzuy II:7-8 and III:17. Sa'adiah Gaon. Rabba ch. Moses Narboni. See further R. 64a and so forth (the concept of Ziu Hashechinah. The mystics have a special affinity for the term Or because its numerical value (gimatriya) is equivalent to that of raz (mystery): " 'Let there be light' (Gen. 5 (New York 1956. though. (vi) And even he who has seen luminous objects cannot endure to gaze upon an intense light. Pirkei de R. etc. p. par.e. R. emanation) rather than or. 50b f . 19 and 25. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. . Commentary on Moreh Nevuchim I:35.

and hence they are compared to light so as to make the matter intelligible. Moses Cordovero. ( v ) Light per se never changes. (ii) Light spreads itself instantaneously. (iii) Light irradiates all physical objects and is able to penetrate unhindered all transparent objects.13 Likewise.15 ( b ) Light has numerous qualities characteristic of the Divine emanations. 111: ch. 14. 13. or of differently coloured lights. (iv) Light does not mix and mingle with another substance.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 43 to which such things may be compared. for Raz and Or are one thing". Or Ne'erau (Fuerth. Cf.. 4.. is not due to any change in the light per se but is due to external factors. see Tikunei Zohur 21:53b. Joseph Ergas lists the following advantages:" ( a ) Light is the most subtle and tenuous of all sense-perceptions. Zohur I:140a and Zohur Chadash. K u z q IV:3: "The noblest and finest of all material things. The perception of more or less intense light. Shomer Emunim 11:11. B e reishit:8d. 1701). for example : (i) Light is emitted from the luminary without ever becoming separated from it. and cf." . R. zkkarim II:29. Even when its source is concealed or removed. thus no longer emitting perceptible light. 15.. the previous rays do not remain entities separate from the luminary but are withdrawn with it. This is a unique quality of light which is not shared with any other substance. R. as.

and so on. and ibid. they are the empirical perceptions that make the use of this analogy so attractive and helpful in our context. Moses Cordovero. Moses Cordovero is still more emphatic in warning that this metaphor must not be carried too far "For there is no image whatever that can be imagined that is not ~orporeal. Torah Or. ad bc. Vayakhel: 87a-b. R. See also Emunot Vedebt I:3 and II:2 with regard to light being an accident (as opposed to substance) and having a limit and boundary. R. Ikkarim. while an exact "scientific analysis" is not really relevant to our purposes. literal sense. 18. 48a ff. . the ernittance of perceptible light from its source is automatic and intrinsically necessary: the luminary cannot 16. Joseph Albo already cautions that "No error should be made to the effect that intellectual light is something emanating from a corporeal object like sensible light. used by way of metaphor and analogy. too. See also R. R. this term is only an homonymous approximation. this analogy. 11:10. and Siddur 'im Perush Hamilot. 17."" R.44 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS EN CHASSIDISM (vi) Light is essential to life in general. Obviously this "descriptive analysis" of light is based on the general human perception-the sense-perception4 it.16 But here again. Apart from the fact that this metaphor is qualified in any case (as we shall see). Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch shows how. 52. Schnew Zalman. (vii) Light is received and absorbed relative to the capacities of the recipient. Tanya I ."'~ Indeed. Elima Rabbaty. cit.. 1:i:9 (p. and l a c ff. pp. evidently breaks down and is inadequate. ch.. 4b). see there at length. Cf. For example. in some respects. It is not to be taken in its full.

Needless to say that this restrictive quality cannot be ascribed to the emanations of the Omnipotent.Anthropomorphism and Metaphors 45 withhold the light. ch. See also ShXur Komuh. (supra. cit. Derech Mitzootecha. In conclusion. 19. 3-4. as the mystics never tire to say. note 12). spatial and corporeal connotations and must be understood in a strictly spiritual sense. ad loc. it cannot be mentioned too often or stressed too much that all terms and concepts related to the Divinity must be stripped of all and any temporal. .


how do we reconcile the Divine creation or bringing about of the universe and its multifarious parts with the eternal and inviolable absolute perfection of G-d. the concepts and doctrines discussed here. of whom Scripture affirms "I the Eternal. Creation is often explained in terms of a theory of emanationism: by means of a chain of successive emanations from "higher" to "lower" the finite evolved from the Infinite. and in the chapters following. and matter evolved from spirit. To speak of a casual evolutionary process of successive emanations merely begs the question and does not answer it. qualitative as well as quantitative. from absolute Unity or Oneness to multifariousness? Moreover. between the effect .CHAPTER TWO Tzimtzum One of the basic theological problems is concerned with the seeming enigma of reconciling G-d with the universe: How can there be a transition from the Infinite to the finite. I have not changed (Malachi 3:6)? In essence. For regardless of how long this chain of causal evolutions may be. all relate to these issues. there always remains some relationship. But this suggestion as it stands is insufficient. from pure Intelligence to matter.

so.48 MYSTICAL ~ ~ V C E P T IN C H A S ~ I S M S and its cause. XX. connected and interrelated . 48. in relation to which it is essentially non-existent ."^ Again: T h e creation of the worlds is not by way of a development from cause to effect . have ever been created in its present form -in a finite and limited order . sect. Just as in a material chain the links are interlocked. since the beginning of the chain of emanations is G-d. for even myriads upon myriads of occulations and evolutions from grade to grade in a causal process will not avail the development and coming into being of physical matter . nor even (that most subtle and diaphanous type of "matter") of the angel^. . (See there note 33 in my EngLsh translation on the concept of the "angelic matter". the supernal Garden of Eden.not even the matter of the firmament5 . would it be in a gradual process of causal evolution. .out of an evohtion from spirit. Thus. even numerous contractions will not avail to there being matter as dense as earth by way of an evolution from the spirituality of the abstract intelligences. this world would not. 1 Tanya I: ch. . even the (spiritual) Ohm Haba ( World-to-Come).nor. too. .) . Thus. the aspect of infinity is never really cast off: Had the world descended from the light of the Infinite according to a gradual descent from grade to grade by means of cause and effect. Rather. the Infinite. it is the power of the blessed En Sof (Infinite). for that matter. in such a case. or the souls themselves. Zgeret Hukodesh. .' In a gradual evolution and causal process "The effect is encompassed by the cause.retaining a basic relationship between the first link and the last one . 2.

Vaetchanan:Sla. condensation. and this is not by way of a developmental order but by way of a lea^'. OYr)Y (and the additional references in Aruch HashcJsm. Isaac L ~ r i a The basic works of his system all begin with an exposition . Aruch. s. necessitates there being in the process of emanation a "radical step". 5. For the doctrine of tzimtzum refers to a refraction and concealment of the radiating emanation from the Gdhead. perhaps.g. e. kefitzah) which breaks the gradualism and establishes a radical distinction between cause and effect: a radical act of creation. more than the first. Its roots. And this principle is at the root of the doctrines of tzimtzum and the Sefirot introduced by the Kabbalah (and elaborated upon in Chassidism) to solve the problem of creation. . . ex nihilo. ad bc. 6. oc~ultation.. until finite and physical substances become possible. 4. that something non-divine and finite should come about. See Torah Or. . Likutei Torah IV:&. and Zohar Chadash. I:15a.~ 3. IV:20d.). Likutei Torah V:40b f..* Only after that has occurred can we speak of an evolutionary process culminating in finite and material entities. a "leap" or "jump" (dilug. are to be found in the Zohar. 41d and 42b f.u. though. Nathan ben Yechiel.~ Though both these meanings apply in our context. Esther:SOa and 11f3c. in a number of stages and in a progressive development of degrees. and (2) concealment. the second one does so.. This intricate theory is &st treated in detail by R. to create ."^ Hence. See R. The word tzimtzum has two meanings: (1) contraction. also ibid.the Omnipotent.

[The discourse in Likutei Torah 1I:Slb 8. 166 ff. Pelach Harimon.. or (b) to the Divine Will. Etz Chayim.. Menachem Azaryah de Fano for the choice in terminology of En Sof (That Is Without End) rather than the seemingly more compre- .. . Especially Torah Or. 11. Sholom Dov-Ber Schneersohn. Isaac Luria takes a mediating view. Tanya. a major exposition of tzimtzum.). 8. ad Eoc. . and R. no thought can grasp You a t all . part 11. You have no known Name 7. Menachem Azaryah de Fano. and V:40b ff.lo Prior to creation there is but G-d alone. in turn. He that Is Without Limit (End). esp.ll Of G-d as En Sof nothing can be postulated except that He is En Sof: "High above all heights and hidden beyond all concealments. where R. sect. there is no term applicable to the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself (according to the second opinion) . In fact there is a dispute among the Kabbalists whether the term En Sof applies to (a) the very Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. and infra. etc. Mevoh She'arim. pp. R. vol. i. 698fl. 21-22 and 48-49. but to a level of Divinity which exceedingly excels this latter plane. p. G-d as He is in Himself js called En Sof: the Infinite. E. Schneur Zalman partly deals with it in T ~ n y a .50 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of t z i r n t ~ u m .g. Vayera: 13c 8. nor to the Divine Will. chapter 111.. See also Likutei Torah I:7b.9 and above all in Torah Or and Likutei Torah. See at length R. Especially ch. to G-d qua First Cause of all beings-while.R. XX (New York 1970. Or Hatorah-Vayikra. Shu'ar Hahakdamot.l 11. see Pardess Rimonim 1II:l seq.. 10. ch. Schneur Zalman quotes the works of R. 3-4.. 6-7 and 9-10. 9.e. Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. note 38. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. that the term En Sof does not apply to the very Essence and Being of G d as He is in Himself. ~ ~ more extensively in Sha'ar Hayichud Vehaemunah. appears also-with variants and additions-in R. Likutei Torah II:5lb fi.

for You fill all Names and You are the perfection of them a11."12 In a mystical way, rather difficult to explain, there is a manifestation or Self-revelation of G-d qua En Sof even before the act of creation.l3 This manifestation is called Or En Sof (the Light of the En Sof), and we speak of this Light as equally omnipresent and infinite. This distinction between En Sof and Or En Sof is extremely important and must be kept in mind. For when speaking of tzimtzum and the Sefrot we relate these to the Or En Sof, the Light and Radiation, rather than to the Luminary and Radiator ( Ma-or ), the En Sof. hensive term En Lo Techihh (That Is Without Beginning). Cf. Yom Tou . . . 5666, p. 165. 12. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.:17a-b (cf. Tanya I, ch. 48 and 51; Zgeret Hakodesh sect. XI1 and XX). The term En Sof "indicates that there is no grasping Him, neither by apprehension nor by any thought whatever; He is abstracted and separate from all thoughts. He is prior to all those that were emanated, created, formed and fashioned, and no time of start and beginning applies to Him, for He is continually present and exists for everlasting without any beginning or end whatsoever"; Etz Chayim I: 1; see also R. Chayim Vital, Sha'ar Hahakdunwt, end of Hakdamah 111. En Sof therefore, is an indication of absolute perfection: "En Sof means perfection without any deficiency"; Likutei Torah IV:16a (quoting Aoodat Hakohsh I:8, who in turn is quoting R. Azriel of Ceronah, Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsum 3). 13. The difficulty in this concept is that revelation or manifestation generally presupposes another existent in, or to whom, this manifestation is directed, while the En Sof is the sole omnipresent existent. R. Schneur Zalman offers what he calls a "possible answer" by drawing an analogy to a person speaking to himself: speech is a medium of communicationthus self-revelation - to another outside the self. For man to communicate with himself he need not speak but thinks to himself, uses his faculty



Now, "when it arose in the Divine Will"14 to bring about the world and the creatures, the first act in the creative process was to bring about space in which the Divine emanations and ultimately the evolving, finite world could have a place to exist. This "primordial space" was brought about by a contraction or "withdrawal" and concentration of Divinity into Itself: the omnipresent, infinite Light of the En Sof was "withdrawn" into Himself; that is, it was screened, dimmed, hidden and concealed, and where it was dimmed - where this occultation and concealment of the Light occurred - an "empty" place, a "void (makorn panuy; chalal) evolved into primordial space. This is the act of the first tzimtwm, the radical act of d3ug and kefitzah, as it were: an act of Divine Self-limitation, so to speak, as opposed to revelation. However, this does not mean that the chakl is literally empty and void of all Divine radiation, that the Divine Presence is literally of thought; in fact, thought is more comprehensive than speech, for some thoughts are difficult to articulate altogether, or would involve a lengthy process before they can be uttered and so on. Speech is merely a form of self-expression and self-revelation, and the lowest form of it at that. Nevertheless, one may still, at times, vest one's thoughts and intellections in distinct and limited letters and words to express them to oneself. In some metaphorical sense, analogous thereto, there is a mode of selfrevelation of the En Sof even prior to creation. See Likutet TOY& II:52d f.; cf. Torah Or, Vayakhel: 87a-b, and Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, pp. 48a ff. 164a ff. and 14. This phrase is not to be taken in a temporal sense implying a change in the C-dhead, a supposition incompatible with the very idea and concept of the G-dhead and the explicit statement of Scripture that "I, the Eternal, I have not changed" (Malachi3:6).Change depends on time; it is a relative, temporal-spatial concept. But time and space are

and totally withdrawn therefrom. Such interpretationl"ould suggest an illegitimate ascription of spatiality, and hence corporeality, to the Infinite, and violate the principle of omnipresence affirmed in the most literal sense by Scripture1" and traditional7 The chalol is metaphorically spoken of as a void in relation to that which is "beyond or "outside" the chalal: "outside" the chulal there is a full manifestation of the Or En Sof while inside the chulul the Light is concealed. The En Sof, the Luminary (Ma-or)

themselves creations. From our present, temporal-spatial perspective there is a "before" and "after", but not from the eternal, supra-temporal and supra-spatial perspective. See more on this concept of time (and its relation to creation) in Etz Chuyim I: 1; Sha'ar Hahakdamot, Hakd. 111; Shenei Luchot Habrit, Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (Glossary Note, p. 4b); Shomer Emunim 1 :14 f.; 1 Tanya II:7; Torah Or, Miketz: 37a; etc. Cf. Moreh Neouchim II:13 and 30 (and also ibid., I:52), and Responsa of R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Bitaon Chubad (Kfar Chabad 1971), no. 33:p. 51 f.; Likutei Sichot, vol. X, p. 176 f. [For a detailed comprehensive discussion of the problem of time in historio-philosophical context, see Sefer Hachakirah, part 1 1 (p. 1 28a seg.) and Addenda (p. 108a seq.) .] Cf. also Keter Shem Too, ed. Kehot, beg. of sect. 348; and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech, Or Torah, ed. Kehot, Addenda, sect. 23a and 52. 15. There have been some interpretations of this kind. Their inherent difficulties are dealt with critically in Shomer Emunim II:34ff., and Tanya II:7. 16. "The whole earth is full of His glory" (Isaiah 6:3); "Do I not fill the heavens and the earth, says the Eternal" (Jeremiah 23:24)-"1, indeed, i.e., His very Being and Essence, as it were, and not His glory only!" (Zgeret Hakodesh, sect. XX and XXV). Cf. Chouot Haleuouot I: 10. 17. "There is no place on earth void of the Divine Indwelling Presence (Shechinah)"; Mechilta de Rashby (ed. D. Hoffman, p. 2) and

Jerusalem 1956. 33-34. ch. without . cit. 18. will now no longer consume and nullify the contents of Midrash Hagadol-Shemot (ed. and in Torah Shelemh. Moreover. no. Kehot: New York 1974. p. I and XX). this outline o tzimtzum follows the interpretation of f R. p. vol. note 39. as it were. 56 (Jerusalem 1952. see also the other Midrashim on this verse.~8 Despite all these qualifications and the metaphorical interpretation of the withdrawal of the Light. The infinite radiation of the Divine Light having been dimmed and concealed. See also the references cited in Midrash Hagadol. and the references cited there. To be sure. and is the most stringent in the preservation of the . pp. this first act of tzimtzum is a radical "leap" (dilug)that creates the possibility for a gradual process and evolution of emanations to take place and to culminate in the creation of finite and corporeal entities. See my The Great Maggid. cit. Cf. 248-251. op. Itself is totally unaffected by tzimtzttm. 70f. The principal purpose of tzimtzum is to create a chulal in which the Divine creatures would be able to exist and subsist as opposed to becoming dissolved in the Divine Omneity. Tikunez Zohar 5739113 ar~d 70:122b (cf. 9 5 8 ) .54 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM whence the Light issues. ad Zoc. 119.. Shi'ur Komah. Tzimtzum relates only to the Light of the En Sof.. 45). Igarot Ba'al Hatanya. even in the Light per se there is no real change whatever: it is neither reduced nor removed but merely concealed. Moreover. Even this concealment and occulation is strictly relative: relative to the void and its subsequent contents.strictly speaking affecting the Light itself in any way. in relation to the void there is not an absolute and total withdrawal: some residue or vestige (reshimu) of the Light remains in the ~halal. p. VIII. and ibid. pp. lgeret Hakodesh. on Exodus 3:2. Schneur Zalman. sect. "There is no place devoid of Him"..

the liturgical phrase "You were prior to the creation of the world. it is the immaunaffectedness of G d . 30a). Cf. in interpreting Deuteronomy 4:39 "the Eternal is G d . see Responsa of R. This thin ray or "line" (kau) irradiates the chulal and is the source of the subsequent emanations: it is both the creative and the vivifying force of the creation. lgeret Hakodesh. In the second phase of the creative process an overt ray or radiation of the Divine Light is made to beam into the primeval space of the c h k l . 31. Jerusalem 1968. Judah Loewe. and R. He constantly quotes. throughout all his works. Menachem M. 1. For the four types of interpretations that have been suggested at various times. Schneerson of Lubavitch. and not to the En Sof. 111. VI. quoted infra. . This follows on the general "acosmic" view of R. You are after the creation of the world in the sense that G-d was.the chulal in the way. the Mahural of Prague (Derashot Maharal. or the way the light of a candle would be totally absorbed and nullified in the very intense light of the sun. . there have been other interpretations of tzimtzum that take a more. . (See Tanya I: 20. p. for example. 43. end of section 1. and creation does not affect Him in any way implying whatever change. there is no other" in the sense that strictly speaking there is no other existent outside G d . 1I:p. Schneur Zalman and his predecessors that oh-d-uis G-d there is no change whatever. as already mentioned. Derushirn Naim: Shabbat Hagadol 5349. ch.) And thus he follows his ancestor R. Targum Onkebs on Exodus 15:ll. Isaiah Horowitz (Shenei Luchot Habdt. (See Tanya II:6. no. is and remains the sole true reality. or altogether literal view of this doctrine (see supra. et passim. that a spark is totally consumed and nullified in the flame itself. note 15). ed. Its key-concepts are that tzimtzum relates to the Or En Sof. sect. Beassarah Maamurot: ch. ) . p. Bitaon Chabad (Kfar Chabad 1970). 34 f . and that even in the Or En Sof it is but relative to the creation rather than to the Divine Light per se.) But.

the particular aspects of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and are of many diverse kinds. However. Each of these contractions and concealments makes it possible for a suecessively lower stage or creation to take place. " ~ ~ "There is. Tanya I . IV. the kav itself also undergoes a series of numerous. In general. successive contractions and concealments. tzimtzurn is "Something in the nature of an occultation and concealment of the flow of the light and life-force so that only an extremely minute portion of the light and lifeforce should irradite and flow forth to the lower beings in a manifest way. material and pluralistic world. That is. as it were. no change whatever in His blessed Self but 19. thus. there are three levels of powerful and comprehensive contractions and condensations which give rise to the lower three Worlds in which there is the appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity.this development and evolution can be spoken of as gradual and causal. to be vested in them and influence and animate them so that they may receive existence ex nihilo and be in a state of finitude and l i m i t a t i ~ n . It is by way of this kau that the process of successive emanations and causal development takes place. see Tanya I:49. and infra. More specifically. in a very general sense. 20. Unlike the first tzimtzum . ch. 48. . Specifically speaking we still make some radical distinctions in the process of tzimtzum even after the dilug. ch. ultimately culminating in the lowest stage and creation represented by this finite.56 MYSTICAL (X)NCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM nence of G-d in creation while the concealed Light is the allencompassing transcendence of G-d taking in all creation.which was by way of dilug ("leap") . however.*9 To sumn. though. ize.

is much-quoted in mystical works). blessed is He . see commentaries on this Midrmh (which. concealment and occulation that would conceal and hide before Him and "the darkness is even as the light" (Psalms 139:12) as it is written "Even the darkness does not obscure from You . . . . Hence it seems to them as if the light and life-force of the Omnipresent. Heaven forbid. garments are entities separate and distinct from their bearer. so that it shall not manifest itself in a greater radiance than the lower worIds are capable of receiving. These tzimtzumim are all in the nature of a "veiling of the Countenance" (Hester Panim).. but "like the snail whose garment is part of its very self'21 (Genesis Rabba 21:s). .). In general. but in our context they are not. were something apart from His blessed Self . there is no tzimtzum. see also ibid."22 21. . ." (ibid. to obscure and conceal the light and life-force . .only for the created entities which receive their life-force . blessed is He. . incidentally. II:6. . ch. Yet in regard to the Holy One. 21. For the tzimtzumim and "garments" are not things distinct from His blessed Self. 22. . Tanya I. . through a process of gradual descent from cause to effect and a downward gradation by means of numerous and various contractions (tzimtzumim) so that the created entities can receive their life and existence from it without losing their entity.


referred to as the Five Worlds or Realms. (2)Or En Softhe Self-manifestation of G-d. as mentioned before. There are four principal aspects: ( 1) En Sof. . (3) the finite world. Meaning of Sefirot Tzimtzum on its various levels brings about a series of numerous intermediary stages between the infinite Light of the En Sof and the finite universe. nothing can be postulated. notes 11-12. Of the En Sof. making possible the creation of the finite and pluralistic world.l Names or attributes apply only to mani1. becoming ever more intensely screened and obscured from one level to the next. These intermediary stages are generally divided into five classes or grades. See supra. chapter 11. are referred to as the Sejirot. except that He is En S0f.CHAPTER THREE Sefirot 1. The varying radiations of the Divine Light in these Worlds. and (4) the intermediary levels in the successive development of the creative process brought about by means of tzimtzumim.

Truly so. sapir (sapphire. the Or En Sof with the The ultimately evolving world. and aid. His WilI and His Wisdom. 57-58.. .". R. Shtur Komah. V:7d. See Zohur II:136bf. The doctrine of the Sefirot is first mentioned in Sefer Yetzirah. Intr. Bo:BOa. See also the discussion of attributes in Torah Or. brilliance or luminary.. Shomer Emunim II:54 8. vol. VIII. Sometimes I am called . whoever would hear such a statement will laugh. Sefirot-plural form. Tanya II:9. to those aspects of Divinity which are revealed in. Torah Shebmuh. "All the attributes of the Holy One. and Likutei Torah I:&. and is briefly referred to in the Midrash. note 179. blessed be He. 3. and cf. sefer (book). ~ Sefirot bridge. p. is considered as an actual physical action . That is. Numbers Rabba 14:12. . Parsless Rimonim 4:lO. Yitro. 151.60 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM festations. . f. because that would be like saying "of a lofty and profound wisdom that it cannot be touched with the hands because of the profundity of the concept. Moreh Nevuchim I:61. Ezekiel 1:26). Moses Hagoleh and R.". The word Sefirah is variably interpreted as derived from. Zohur ChudaPh. . siper (to tell: relate).These Divine manifestations or attributes are ~ dimmed radiations from the Light of the En Sof and they are called S e f i r ~ t . in order for finite creations to 2. with respect to the En Sof. separ (boundary). see Exodus 24:10. Schneur Zalrnan goes even beyond Maimonides' definition of the attributes as negations (Moreh Nevuchim 158-80) : It is even inappropriate to say that "it is impossible to apprehend Gd". In a sense. or related to. are designated and called by (their) terms relative only to the upper and lower beings alone". Cf Zohar 111: 2571. ch. .. mispar (number) or sapar (to number). commentaries of R. Cf. as it were. the aspect of intellect and apprehension in relation to the Holy One. Surely. 33b. and to His c r e a t i ~ n . Sefirah-singular form. because the sense of touch relates and applies only to a physical object that can be grasped with the hand. and safra (scribe). and see also Kumy 112. Tikunei Zohar. blessed be He. Exodus Rabba 3:6: "You wish to know My Name? I am called according to My workings.: 12b.. Tanya 1I:lO.

colours. cf. ~ Only by Its prior investment in the Sefirot in all the intermediary stages brought about by tzinztzurn could I t be vested in a finite and physical world.) 5 . These interpretations do not conflict with one another.lights. ibid. sect. and Shi'ur Komah. Pardess Aimunim. 2.). 26. Maimonides.come about. Natan. ch. kings. and the notes ad loc. 111. Sha'ar X X . 3d). and so on). Shomer Emunim II:64ff. sect. ch. 4. Sht"ur Komah. Thus the Sefrot are to be conceived as "vessels" in which the Divine Light is vested and effects Its workings through them. they are "seven that are ten" as some may appear in different forms. cit. Israel Baal Shem Tov's caveat quoted in Keter Shem Too. cf. see Zohar 1II:lla f .1-are usually identified with the ten Sejirot: "the Sejirot are the Names. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah VI: 1 f. and III:288a. The ten sacred Divine Names that one is prohibited to destroy or erase -[see Sheuuot 35a.-The doctrine of the Sefirot is .5 Moses Botaril on Sefer Yetzirah I:2. 50d f. XX. Shenei Luchot Habrit. Etz Chuyim 5:5... ch. see Elima Rabbaty. Though there are basically only seven such Names. However. 3-12. 34. ad loc. See Igeret Hakodesh. Shomer Emunim II:67. See also R. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. Shenei Luchot Habrit. the aspect of the Light of the En Sof vested in the Kelim of the Sefirot. (As mentioned in the preceding note. wreaths. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p. thus not with the Kelim or with the Sefrot as compounds of Orot and Kelim. and the Names are the Sefirot". For the Sefirot (as will be explained infra. V) are "divisible" into two aspects: Orot (Lights) and Kelim (Vessels). there are two aspects to the Sefirot: Orot and Kelim.g. The Sefirot and the Names are not fully identical in the plain sense. 3-12. Auot de R. pillars.Addenda sect. garments. The Divine Names are to be identified only with the Orot. this identification must be qualified. See Igeret Hakodesh. crowns. see Zohur II:42b. As varying manifestations and principles the Sefrot are also referred to (in Zohar and other works) by other terms suited to the context (e. see in detail Likutei Torah II:5lc. levels. firmaments. but relate to the various aspects of the Sefirot on different levels. ch. E l i m Rabbaty VI:2 (p. faces. . the Light of the En Sof vested Itself in the S e j i r ~ t . ch. and cf.

and prior to One what can you ~ o u n t l " ~ This simile is re-stated in the Zohar with even greater emphasis: "The Holy One. (The word beli-muh. and there is no second to Him. their beginning is wedged in their end . extreme care must be taken to avoid any fatal misconception of dualism or a plurality in the G-dhead. Auodut Hakodesh I:8. and 2: 6.. arguments the mystics prove from both traditional and philosophical points of view that the doctrine of Sefirot is essential to explain the possibility of the creation of the universe as well as the possibility of a subsequent Divine Providence. Perush Eser Sefirot. and 11: 13 ff. beginning of sect. Tzimtzum and the Sefirot explain how it is possible for finite and multifarious creations to come about from an Infinite.. Simple (as opposed to compound) One. cf. e. See Zgeret Hakodesh. denotes that they are not anything substantial and apprehensible. Azriel of Geronah. or that the transcendent G-dhead also be a "personal" G d . and notes 18-20 of this chapter. and at times lengthy. especially the one attributed to Nachmanides. Pardess Rimonim 1:8 f. As we speak of them in terms of numerous gradations. In numerous. emits ten crowns. Pardess Rimonirn 1:1. ) 7. Shomer Emunim I:41 f. there is a basic and intrinsic unity between the En Sof and the Sejirot. . various phases in the manifestation of Divinity. supernal thus essential to an understanding of the principle of a flame bound up in the coal. For the Eternal is One. On the contrary. (See also further on. see the commentaries a. Responsa 3-5. see. blessed is He. This absolute and intrinsic unity has already been stressed in the ancient Sefer Yetxirah: "The ten Sefirot are without anything ( beli-mah). R..e Their end is wedged in their beginning..l. Shomer Emunim 1:61. taken from lob 26:7.g.62 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM The Sefirot are thus Divine emanations. Sefer Yetzirah I:7.) 6. There is no suggestion whatever that the Sefirot are to be taken as entities distinct and separate from the En Sof. XX.



holy crowns. With these He crowns Himself and in these He vests Himself. He is they and they are He, just as the flame is bound up in the coal, and there is no division there."Vll differentiation is but from our perspective and relative to our knowledge, while above all is One; all is set in one balance, unvarying and eternal, as it is written "I, the Eternal, I have not changed." (Malachi 3:6).@ Maimonides' statement that with G-d His Essence, His Being and His Knowledge are absolutely one,1° a simple unity and not a compound one,ll applies equally to all the Divine attributes and to all the holy Names ascribed to Him.l"t is all an absolute, simple unity which is His very Essence and Being. However, as Mai-

8. Zohar III:70a; see also ibid., I:50b f . 9. Zohar II:176a; cf. Tikunei Zohar, Intr.: 17a. See also Avodat Hakodesh 1:ll-12; Pardess Rimonim 5:4; Shomer Emunim I:56 8. and 67, and ibid., II:11 and 57. The Sefirot are not some kind of actual intermediaries of intermediating powers. They are beli-mh, abstract concepts of Divine manifestations and nothing more. Hence the mystics emphasize and caution to bear this in mind, in particular at the time of prayer. Man addresses the very G-dhead and not any Sefirot or Attributes. Thus it is written "whensoever we call upon Him" (Deut. 4:7)-upon Him, i.e., to exclude His attributes! See R. Bachya ben R. Asher, Commentary on Deut. 4:7 and on Deut. 11:13; Pardess Rimonim 32:2 (where this exclusion is attributed to the Midrash Sifre). Cf. R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Teshuoot Haribash, responsum 157; and Likutei Torah II:51c and 111: 30d. See also R. Menachem M. Schneerson, Hayom Yom, p. 95 (quoted in Keter Shem Tou, Addenda, p. 22 note 24). 10. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1I:lO; Shemonuh Perakim, end of ch. VIII. 11. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah I:7; cf. Moreh Nevuchim I:57. 12. See Moreh Nevuchim I:57.



monides stated,13 "This matter is beyond the power of speech to express and beyond the power of the ear to hear and the human heart to understand clearly."14 It is beyond apprehension to apprehend how He unites with them. That is why the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, which are the Sefirot, are referred to in the sacred Zoharl%s the "Mystery of the Faith-which is faith that transcends the The Torah uses human phraseology only to enable the ear to hear what it can understand, and therefore permission was granted to the mystics to speak allegorically of Sefirot. It is, by way of illustration, like the unity of the light of the sun in its orb with the solar globe - (the solar globe being the luminary, while the radiation and beam that spreads forth and shines from it is called light). When the light is in its source, in the orb of the sun, it is united with it in absolute unity; for there is but one entity: the body of the luminary which emits light. All the attributes of the Holy One, blessed is He, His Will, and His Wisdom, are designated by these names only in relation to the This concept of the Sefirot or attributes also explains the very reason for creation. For even while the Sefirot or attributes are in absolute unity with the G-dhead, they have actual application
13. Hilchot Yesodei Hatomh 11:10. 14. Tanya II:8. 15. See Zohar I:38a, 39a, 152b, 230b, 231a; ibid., II:253a, and 111:143a. 16. Tanya 11: end of ch. 9; see Likutei Torah III:68d. 17. Tanya II:10. Cf. ibid., ch. 3, and Igeret Hakodesh, sect. XX.



in relation to creation only. Thus to actualise, as it were, these Divine potencies, powers or attributes (e.g., wisdom, kindness, compassion, sovereignty and so on) G-d created the universe in which to manifest them (to have subjects upon whom to express or manifest His kindness and compassion, with whom to manifest His majesty, and so on).18 In a similar vein, creation also is a means through which G-d is able to manifest His power or potency in finite enicies no less than in the infinite - thereby preserving the principle of absolute omnipotence.lg This does not mean that creation implies a change in the G-dhead, that creation lends the G-dhead a perfection It did not possess before. For all the attributes are eternally of the very Essence and Being of G-d, absolutely one with Him; it is only that they are manifested through creation.20 For the En Sof, as stated earlier, is "absolute perfection without any deficiency", and " 'You were before the world was created, You are since the world was


18. Z o h r 111:69b; ibid., 257b f .; Pardess Rimonim 2 :6; Shi'ur Komuh, Torah, sect. XIII: Introd. and ch. 3; Etz C h y i m 1:1, and Shdar Hakelalim, ch. 1; Shomer Emutrim II:12 ST. See, though, note 21 infra. 19. Perush Eser Sefirot, Responsa 3 and 7; Par&ss Rimonim 2:6. Cf. supra note 5 and the sources cited there, and Likutei Torah III:68d. 20. See Shomer Emunim 11:12 ff., where the author also deals with a number of problems related to this concept. See also R. Meir ibn Gabbai, Derech Emunuh (an exposition and elaboration of R. Azriel's P e m h Eser Sefirot, dealing with most aspects relating to the doctrine of the Sefirot), passim. 21. Tanya I: ch. 20; see supra, ch. 2, note 18. In effect, thus, we

Netzach (Endurance. Malchut ( Sovereignty. see in detail R.l.66 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM created'-exactly the same without any change. Majesty) . Chochmah (Wisdom). I n some schemes Keter is omitted from the order of the ten S e f i ~ o t ~ ~ ." etc. "Ten and not nine. 22. p. . O r d e ~ the Sefirot of The Sefirot are ten spheres or c l a s s e s 2 ~ n following order: Keter the ( Crown) . Above there is absolute perfection and there is no deficiency whatsoever . Victory) . . transcending altogether reason and delight. Ceuurah ( Might. Benevolence ) . The root for the source of the creation is the aspect of an essential and simple Will ( Ratzon) . Pelach Harimon. Sefer Yetzimh I:4. Strictly speaking no reason whatsoever is required . . The total order of the Sefirot is generally divided into two must conclude that in final analysis the 'reasons' suggested for the Divine creation must ultimately break down. the Eternal. Yesod ( Foundation) . . Kingship).. these schemes take Chochmah as the first of the ten and insert Da'at (Knowledge) as a Sefirah after Binah. I have not ~hanged'. . . Tiferet ( Beauty ) .f o r reasons to be explained further on. and the references cited supra. Power. see commentaries a. Binah ( Understanding). Shir Hashirim. note 3. . Chesed ( Kindness. 37). Dov Ber of Mezhirech stated incisively: "The reasons offered by the rnekubbalim (mystics) for the [Divine] intent in the creation are unsatisfactory in terms of the true intent of creation . See note 38 infru. Addenda. as it is written 'For I.38b (also quoted in the Maggid's Or Torah. Hod ( Splendour. Hillel of Paritz. Prevalence) .. ten and not eleven".. and as R."~] 2. sect. 23. Grace.

Emotive Facultie~). 24. and the singular last one of M a l c h ~ t While there are a number of .Sefirot 67 groups referred to as the "three mothers and the seven multiple^.g. 9 (p. Tanya I: ch. sections 4-7. 27. Derech Emunuh. 3. Sefer Yetzirah I:10. See. 28. all the Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes). see infra. 36 f. 3. and the other seven are called the "seven Tachtonot" (seven Lower Ones). and ch. ch. or at times the three Upper Ones). .. at times referred to as the three Mochin (Brains). the above are the principal or most common ones. When beginning with Chochmah. Sometimes also called the "three fathers. e. The "seven Lower Ones" are subdivided into the two triads of Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet and Netzach-Hod-Yesod (all these six together are called the "six Ketzaootn-the "six Extremeties"). VIII. The faculties of the intellect. Pardess Rimonim I: 1-2 and VIII:25. the immot (mothers)25from and through which the other seven Sefirot issue forth. though.~? Another distinction is made by calling the first three the "three Rishomt" (the three First Ones. 25.). 26. the triad of the first three Sejirot is also called Sechel ( I n t e l l e ~ t ) ~ ~ the other seven while Sefirot are called Midot (Attributes. 29. In an extended sense." in the same sense. this chapter. See Tanya I: ch.~~ other such groupings and distinctions that abound in the mystical writings20 (and some of these we shall meet up with in the chapters following). par. the first three are the principal Sefirot."^^ That is. See infra. note 149.

and see infra. Chagigah 14a). 13 and 22 (cf.33The~e terms signify the total concealment of the rank of Keter due to its supreme ~ublimity. or the Most Ancient Being. 32. see Zgeret Hakodesh. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4 and Zgeret Hako&sl~. sect. The origin of this term i Daniel 7:9. of the E m a n a t ~ r . particularly in the context of s the Partzufim (see infra.1. ~ ~ That is why Keter is called Temira dechol Temirin (the most hidden of all hidden) . VIII). so Keter is on top of all the Sefirot and encompasses them all. so Keter is essentially distinct from the other Sefir~t.. e.e. sect. 36). or Atik Yominthe Ancient of Days. 34. and as such the "lowest level". Zgeret Hakodesh. but distinct therefrom. Zohar III:288a ff. XVII and note 31 (37) a. In the same sense it is also called Atik or Atika Kadisha (the Ancient One.).it is sometimes applied to the highest aspect of Keter. XIII. see. and it abounds in Sifra Detzeniyuta and the Zdrot. i. note 38. ch. XX. The analogy is carried further: just as the crown is not a part of the head nor of the body. sect.32 and is referred to as Ayin (naught) . or the Holy Ancient One). also called Atika dechol Atikin-the Most Ancient of all Ancients. 33.. as it were. and XXIX. XVII. 9 (p.. ch. Keter Keter is the highest level or sphere of the Sefirot. Etz Chayim 25:5 and 42:l.~O is the first emanIt ation. 31. because it is the most "ancient" or original emanation from the .3~ Keter is so sublime and concealed that nothing 30.-For another interpretation of the term Keter see Derech Emunah. Zohar 1:147a. Zbid.g. to the very core and essence of this Sefirah. The tenn itself denotes its significance: As a crown is on top of the head and encompasses it. Zohar III:256b.68 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM 3. Though At& is essentially a term applied to the En Sof (in the sense of being the First Cause.

Vau-Tiferet. V . 2. That is why Keter is sometimes excluded from the scheme of the Sefirot.l. 5 and 8. Igeret Hakodesh. I t is a category and class all in itself. applies to it Ben Sira's dictum:35 "Seek not the things that are beyond you and search not out things that are hidden from While the other Sefirot are sometimes represented by various letters of the alphabet. a. on the meaning of At&. 2:3 fl.38 In fact. Chaim Vital. Zohar III:17a. The Zohar.. See Chugigah 13a. While all are agreed that Keter exceedingly excels the Sefiot (Chochmah to Malchut). Meuoh She'arim 111:1:1. 98c.. followed by Chassidism..37 no letter can describe or represent Keter. see Tanya III:4. 5). et passim. Esther..) interprets otherwise. see also Zohar 111: end of 269a and 289b) where the peshat appears to support the opinion of R. Nitzutzei Orot. R. Moses Cordovero always counts Keter as part of the ten Sefirot and excludes Da'at as a separate Sefirah (see Pardess Rimonim 3:l ff. 36. Keter is represented by the "thorn" of the Yud (thus not by any letter but a mere dot). 258a. 35. Moses Cordovero (a.Sefirot 69 can be said or postulated of it. See Auodat Hakodesh I:3. 38. some say that Keter is identical with . and R. ibid..l. 2 5 6 and 42:l). 37. and see also ibid. and Or Ne'erau 6:1. Isaac Luria. and ibid. This controversy evolves around the interpretation of Zohur I: beginning of 31b (see Derech Emet and other comment.. Chaim David Azulay. (the latter) Hei-Malchut. (the first) Hei-Binuh. In the system of R. par. and R. Zohar II:42b and 158a. on Zohur I:31a.. Da'at is usually counted as one of the Sefirot while Keter is excluded (see Etz Chayim 23:1. though R.c. it is called the "intermediary" between En Sof. I t is too sublime to be included. or the unit of the six Midot from Chesed to Yesod. In fact this has long been a matter of dispute among the earliest Kabbalists. The four letters of the Tetragrammaton represent the ten Sefirot: Yud-Chochmh. Isaac Luria. sect. See also Torah Or. therefore.

part of both. Others. bridging the gap. Torah Or. sect.~~ of Divine manifestations and as such is called Ratzon Ha'elyon the En Sof (rather with the Or En Sof) and therefore to be excluded from the scheme of Sefirot. a. and Likutei Torah II:46c and V:8a. state that Keter. XVII. Avodat Hakodesh I:2-3).l. and on the other.g. e. what appears to be a similar view is that expounded by R.. issue forth the successive Divine emanations (thus being the very root or soul of the S e f i r ~ t ) Keter represents the "lever" . for a wider discussion of all this see Torah Or.70 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM the En Sof and the Sefirot. and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666. and also ibid. Cf. it is part of the ten Sefirot (see Etz Chayim a. hence. Isaac Luria adds that when speaking of the essential Sefirot-Keter is included. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 39. and Etz Chayim 42: 1 . Likutei Torah V:8a f . .. sect.. too. R. and through it. (See the discussion of these issues in Parcless Rimonim 3: 1ff. though with the mistaken reference to IV:l-and by R.1.. note 11). how can one speak of "higher" and "lower" in relation to the En Sof. Meir ibn Gabbai. 10-discussed in Pardess Rimonim 3:3.c. II:53b. cf. Isaac Luria is a third opinion to the effect that Keter is somewhere in between Or En Sof and the Sefirot. 11. Sefer Haemunot IV: end of ch. In the context of the aforesaid. and so on) relates to the disputed issue whether the term En Sof itself has reference to the actual Essence and Being of G-d as He is in Himself. and bridging or linking them: the "lowest" level of the En Sof as well as the very root or source of the Sefirot following. Vayechi: 105a. ch. note 76 infra. and Likutei Torah III:49c. is to be counted among them. XX. however. is an emanation and effect having a cause just like the other Sefirot and. XX and XXIX. but when speaking of their general aspects (Chitzoniyut of the Sefirot) Keter is omitted and Da'at is inserted instead. 166ff. . pp. or how can one relate the actual essence of the En Sof to Keter.c. Thus on the one hand it is an aspect of the Or En Sof and excluded. as i t were: it is the "lowest level" of the Light of the En Sof and from it. See lgeret Hakodesh. or to C d qua First Cause (see supra. This issue (and the related problems as. ) The view of R. see Etz Chayim 23:5 and 8.

g. e. I. XXIX. XXIX. wisdom. Thus when we speak. innermost desire or will. understanding and knowledge. Keter would be the Supreme Will underlying this blueprint. Chochmah is called Reishit regard- . V and the asm references cited in note 76 (82) a. But the very purpose of achieving that goal transcends the rational faculty and underlies it. in abbreviation called ChuBaD..) "the Torah derives from Chochmuh but its source and root surpasses exceedingly the rank of Chochmah and is called the Supreme Will. Zohar I:3b. See lgeret Hakodesh.g. This is the meaning of the frequent phrase (e. That is why it is called Reishit (Beginning). Zohar 1:5a). Chochmah is the root of the succeeding attributes. et p s i ." That is. it is the "Will of a U the "essence-will" or the "will to will.e. When reason achieves its goal it fulfils a higher aim: the realisation of some deepseated. sect. Torah is an expression of Reason or the Divine Wisdom (Chochmah). 42. sect..1. of the Torah as the blueprint for the world (Gene& Rabba I: 1. the very source of origin of the Torah. ~ ~ 4.42 Chochmah 40.. note 22 (24)).the S e f i ~ o t ) . sect.e.1. This innermost desire or will is the Abyssmal or Supreme Will (see Igeret Hakodesh. sect. Chochmah-Binah-Da'at These three Sefirot form a triad.. and notes 37-8 a.Sefirot 71 (the Supreme or Abysmal Will) of G-d: not a particular will focused on some specific goal but the original Divine Willingness (Ratzon) underlying the creative will. Analogous to them are the three faculties in man's intellect of the same names. Igeret Hakodesh. 41. Zohar 111:129a and 288b. See Igeret Hakodesh. Reason is focused towards achieving a certain goal. i." as it were. which precedes all powers or attributes (i.

Psalms 10424. The same applies to the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit (Reishit referring to Chochmuh. 176.. B e . is "vested in C h o c h n d . see Igeret Hakodesh. 94a-b. p. 35. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. as said). through the mediation of Keter. Arba Meot Shekel Kessef (ed. When Keter is included we speak of two spheres that are called Reishit: Keter and Chochmah (as alluded in the first word of the Torah: Be-Reishit. See Nachmanides on Genesis I:l. Tanya I. as it is less of whether Keter is counted or not. p. Chaim Vital. Chochmah is immanent in everything (albeit in ever-increasing concealment) and animates everything. see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. sect. or by. Moreh Nevuchim II:30.the root of all four elements". see Zohur I:31b. Kedoshim.72 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM represents the first creative activity of Gd. 2 and II:9. 82a. notes 22 and 76 (82) f . Etz Chayim 42:l. ed. 47. ch.43 it is the initial Divine instrument of actual creation. 44. and "the Eternal has founded the earth be-Chochmah". see also R. and cf. 43. Two (categories of) Reishit) . Strictly speaking the term hyle relates to Keter. though not in actu .C h o c h W 6 may be translated in two interrelated ways. Maggid Deuarau Leyahkou. for "Keter is like unto the prime matter that is called hyle which contains within it . See Tanya I: ch. The first sense is with. -The term hyk is applied here to Chochmah in the extended sense of Chochmuh being the basic "substance" of creation that can be referred to as yesh ( potency. Tel Aviv 1964).e. Chochmah is called Yesh (a substance). 45. V . Kehot. and his Or Torah. . and thence begins creation. both of which are significant in our context. See also R. Chochmuh. thus Chochmah is the instrument and hyle of rea at ion.44 Thus it is written:45 "You have made them all be-Chochmah". Igeret Hakodesh. note 20" (25). IV. 46. Thus in relation to Keter which is Ayin. sect. i. note 43 supra). The En Sof. sect.^' Everything derives from Chochmah. Proverbs 3: 19.

and Tanya I: ch. See note 37. Tanya I: ch. Igeret Hakodesh. non-descriptive point. supra.^^ Thus the word Chochmah is interpreted to mean n"D R"3.: 12a. sect. II:9Oa. sect. note 63.: 4a and 69:112b. and the possibilities of all further beings exist there in pot en ti^.a. Zgeret Hakodesh. Cf. Intr. . Tanya I: ch. 55. 19. which is the mystical principle of 'you have made them all in Chochmah' " Etz Chayim 25: 1. sect. However. Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton which symbolise all the Sefirot. and it is referred to as Edens2 of which it is saids3 "no eye has seen it". This means that in Chochmah is founded the creation.Sefirot 73 written "Chochmah gives life to them that have it" (Ecclesiastes 7:12) The second sense is in Chochmah.1.I"D n"3. for which reason C h o c h d .54 Thus there is little that can be said of Chochmah. lgeret Hakodesh. see also ibid. See Tanya 1:ch. 53. 19. V. 51. 3. Tikunei Zohar. 49. Chochmah is so concentrated and compact that it is not apprehensible in itself. the Yud51-a small. Zohar III:290a. Igeret Hakodesh.. The letters of the word na3R make up . 54. Zbid. note 22. See Bemchot 34b. Chochmah is represented by the first letter. Zohar Chadash. See also Tikunei Zohar. simple. 50. and notes 16 ff. 34b-c and lOOa 8. Intr. . 18. the beginning and first revelation of creation. sect. XIV and XVII. (note 48 supra). "All the lower ones are rooted and compounded in Chochmah. XI. is referred 48. too.. Zohar III:235b.50 Chochmah is the seed of creation. In itself Chochmah is a state of obscurity (mocha setima-the concealed brain). 52. V . the "potentiality" of "what is". See infra.

the next Sefir~h. V . The process of induction-deduction. 56. Zohar 1:lSb. its details and implications will become revealed. Zohar Chadash 4a. lgeret Hakodesh. Tikunei Zohar 22:63b. 3. 58. Chagigah 14a. lgeret Hakodesh. 57. sect. I: ch."59 Among the letters of the Tetragrammaton Binuh is represented by the Hei. Chochmah is still called ayin. the "inner thought". in itself. the details of which are not yet differentiated and externalised. cf. note 37. the That is.~" will be understood by drawing on the analogy to the faculties of the human intellect: Chochmuh corresponds to an intuitive flash of intellectual illumination: the original idea per se. . essentially. The individuations concealed in the original flash are then externalised and become manifest in the mind.1. See supra. This is the faculty and state of Binah ( understanding) Binoh is really the expansion and elucidation of Chochmah. the idea will be understood.74 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM The potentia of Chochmah is brought out from total obscurity This and externalised in Binah. and "becomes known solely through Binah.60 Unlike the simple non-dimensional point of Yud. Chochmuh is informed in Binah. they are not yet processed but intensely concentrated in the intuitive flash. It is the seminal idea. 1:13. Sifre on Deut."58 The standard definition of the faculty of Binah is "To understand or derive one matter out of another matter. Cf. Tanya I: ch. 60. The hidden intellect is apprehended by the intellectually cognising subject. 3. When cogitating on the idea. though in relation to Keter it is yesh (note 43 supra). XV and note 70 (87) a. Tanya. sect. 59.

Hence it is Da'at.""* symbolising the meaning of these categories and their relationship.~' Therefore the Zohar refers to the Sefirot of Chochmah and Binah as "The dot (Chochmah) in the palace (Binah)."~ On its own. Cf.Sefirot 75 Hei is a more concrete letter: it has dimensions of length and width signifying the dimensions of explanation. 2. 177). a c t ~ a l i s e d . while externally it is inaudible and in~isible. sect. as essence of the Midot. Chochmah and Binah by themselves are abstract. Cf. Thus all three. note 15. Kehot. sect. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. internally. to the effect that every action or acting upon. V. but has not yet been. Zohur II:158a.: 17a. I. it is not fully realised. Igeret Hakodesh. N-Binah. 62. See Moreh Nevuchim II:4 to the effect that wisdom or reason does not produce motion. strictly speaking. p. see Tikunei Zohur. V. sect. Cf. and see my notes on the Maggid's Or Torah. The concept is there and it is clear in the mind. Tanya III:4. will not produce motion without the existence of a desire (emotive disposition) for the object of which an idea has been formed. Vayera (ed. note 11. Tikuwi Zohar 42:81b. 63. Igeret Hakodesh. are a potential power that needs to be. ch. it does not lead to any conclusion. Chochmh and Binah ~~ are two separate faculties: the intuitive flash of intellectual cog61. also Shemom Perakim. Intr. 29:30 ("the hidden things are unto the Eternal") is applied to the Sefirot Chochmah and Binah. That is why Deut. The concept. originates in the appetitive faculty of the soul. See also Zohar I:lb. Keter-Chochmah-Binah. notes 43 and 55 supra. Hakd. Zohur I:6a. But it is only in the mind. are on a plane of AYiN: A-Keter. and the ability to move to act upon this idea. 64. The intellect which forms and develops an idea. that is the volitive power . Igeret Hakodesh. Y-Chochmah. Addenda. thus in the emotive dispositions (Midot) of man. However. XI.Moreover. wisdom and understanding. understanding and manife~tation. when in the mind.

67. 25. Likutei Torah III:87c f . Sha'ar 24 f . 273bff. XV.are effected by the faculty of Da'at. and become externalised and informed in. 66.that is. Etz Chayim. Cf. (besides the sources mentioned in the notes following.76 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM nition (Chochmah) may be there. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. so we must speak of two categories of Da'at . end of sect. and the practical implementation of the informed concept . especially note 72). Tikunei Zohar 69:99a.).and hence is able to effect . just as we are speaking of two states. 65." the Supernal Will that wishes and seeks .O5 The etymological meaning of Da'at is attachment or union.1. et passim. 17. This unifying principle is called Da'at Elyon. See Zohar III:291a.(Binah). Shenei Luchot Habrit.. notes 70 and 73 infra. the power of understanding this flash.66 Thus Da'at is the unifying principle that brings together and joins the faculties of Chochmah and Binah. Etz Chayirn 48:2. Cf.. and so is the power of inductiondeduction . ~ ~ moving to action. 5a fl). for it transcends Chochmah and Binah. . the "palace"? These two states . Genesis 4:1. However. effects or "activities" at two different levels. or acting upon that which is proposed by Chochmah and Binah. and the references in note 79 (97) a.the union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . Derush Be'inyan Hada'at (pp. 68.the union of Chuchmh with Binuh. But how are they joined? How does the "dot" come to. it is a direct derivative or aspect of Keter. See lgeret Hakodesh. Daht on two planes: Da'at Elyon (Upper or Superior Da'at ) and Daht Tachton (Lower or Infgrior Da'at ) . See the detailed discussion of Da'at in P a r h s Rimonim 3:8 and 9:5-6. Toldot Adam: Bet Hashem (p.

For example. of the Midot. 69. S. "Study is greater because it leads to action" (Kiddwhin 40b) -"for there is no action without Chochmah" (Zohar 1:266a). and note 73 infra. and devotion to. . To possess wisdom or even understanding does not yet mean that it will actually be implemented and applied in practise. Znyan Hada'at and Veaz Meuuar. and to avoid that which wisdom dictates should be avoided. of Ayin Ya'akou). but he does not cany this knowledge and understanding to its logical conclusion to apply it consistently with its inherent implications.l. Derech Mitzootecha. Haamanot Elokut: ch. a thief may be found to pray for Divine assistance in the very midst of his nefarious activities (Berachot 63a. us. he has the knowledge of G-d's existence and believes in the Divine ability to help him. 2 See note 64 supra. The profound inner concentration on. this personal sensing (Hargashuh). 70. is the faculty of Da'at Tachton. that is.70 The principle of wisdom need not only be understood but also felt and sensed..U.But to bring about this union is itself but a means towards a further end:"O to implement or apply and bring to fruition the concept of Chochmah that has been informed in Binah. Thus this faculty of Da'at Tachton is the very root and essence. or soul and controlling guide. It is the full preoccupation in the apprehended and understood concept until an intense union is effected between the intellect and the emotions (Sechel and Midot) 71 and the idea is brought to its logical conclusion in practical especially the glossary notes a. See Berachot 17a: "The goal of Chochmah is repentance and good deeds". the Chochmah informed in Binuh. It must be channelled to the emotive attributes so that they will act upon it in terms of appropriate dispositions: to seek or pursue that which wisdom dictates should be sought. Cf. 71.

and Tanya I . alternatively. et pmsim. ix. 3 and 42. 8. sect.-Cf. Zohar III:290a ff. Zgeret Hakodesh. of the emotive powers or attributes of the lower S e f i ~ o tFor~the Midot express and reveal . 76. a. expanded.Zohar II:123a and III:289b f . See also Derech Mitzvotecha. See note 65 supra.c. Chochnmh and Binah. Da'at is called Ben (Son). ~ " n Da'at the original idea and concept has matured into corresponding dispositions.'2 It is this faculty of Da'at that is usually referred to when the term Da'at appears ~ n q u a l i f i e d . chs. Tiferet (or the first six Midot in unison) is called the "son" and Malchut is called the "daughter". Mishpatim:74cff. the seed of Abba is implanted in the womb of lmma and there the rudimentary plant of the seed is developed. Pardess Rimonim 8 :17. the offspring of this union of Chochmah and B i ~ h . note 9. 74. This faculty of Da'd Tachton is below. and infra. ~ ~ In the metaphorical terminology of the Kabbalah and Chassidism C h o c h m h is called Abba (Father) and Biracrh is called I m m (Mother).74Metaphorically speaking. Thus the Midot are called the children of Chochmah and Binah. See references in note 74 supra.78 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CI~ASSDDISM application. and of it is said "If there is no Binalt there can be no Da'at" j Auot 3 :17).. or. XV. for Chochmah and Binuh are concealed and become manifest only by means of Da'at. Meuoh She'arim V:1:12 and 14 ("the principal f illumination and manifestation of the brains in man is by means o Da'at") . externalised and informed. See Etz Chayim 22:l: "Chochmah and Binah (alone) are to no avail.~ 72.. and follows upon. Likutei Torah 111:2d and 87cf." Cf. 75. Therefore Da'at is the all-inclusive essence of the Midot.l. Torah Or... 73. . ch. Ibid.

~' One final comment in relation to the aforesaid. As R. Sefer Hamaamrim 5700 (New York 1955). For as a mere soul without its own independent vessel or body it cannot be included as one of the ten principles of the Sefi7ot. dependent yet separate. XV.. Gvurah. In man there is. sect. Yesod and Malch~t.these dispositions originating in Sechel in terms of Chesed. from his will and It is in this context as "soul (essence) of the Midot" that Da'at is not counted as a separate Sefirah to replace Keter (see supra note 38). with G-d there is no temporal sequence. 3. Secondly. p. sense. Hod. In explaining these Sefirot and their interrelationship as we have done so far (and shall be doing in the chapters following). N e t m h . . Obviously this cannot be said of the Divine process. a gradual. therefore. Isaiah Horowitz has stressed. the analogy is inadequate and breaks down for two basic reasons : Firstly. Joseph Isaac Schneersohn. 38. developing process in temporally distinct stages. a temporal sequence. Etz Chayim 23:s and 8. qualitatiue. 40:6. see also ibid. we did so by analogical reference to the soul-faculties of man: Keter (the allencompassing will) leading to Chochmnh (the intuitive or seminal intellectual flash) which is joined by Da'at Elyon to Bimh (the faculty of understanding and elucidation) thence to be realised in Da'at Tachton and to become enacted in the dispositions of the Midot. and lgeret Hakodesh. See Tanya I: ch. See also R. All these "stages" are simultaneous to the extent that as soon as "it arises in G-d's Will" His Will is performed instantaneously and there is no "before" and "after" except in some extremely subtle. Tiferet. 77. with man the execution of his will and wisdom is a category distinct.

Zohar III:69b and 257b f .. Psalm 89:3. see Tanya II:4. regardless of the merits of the r e ~ i p i e n t . 2. See Zohar I1:168b. V and X. therefore. supra. issues forth."8l That is. I. The implication of Chesed (creation and its continuous sustenance) is a manifestation of the infinite benevolence (Chesed) that is of the essence of G-d. Etz Chayim 18:5 (see infra. and Pardess Rimonim 11:3. sect. 80. See Tanya II:4. See supra. cf. see Moreh Nevuchim III:53. 84.ex nihilo . as it is intrinsic to the nature of the benevolent to be benevolent in actu. s.84 78. Pardess Rimonim 23:8. Pardess Rimonim 2:6. this chapter.1.the world and a 1 the creat u r e ~ Creation. is an act of Chesed.l. and Zgeret Hakodesh." and it is from . ~ ~ Chesed is the attribute or disposition that underlies the creation. XI11 and XV.~~ this attribute that the Divine life-force. 82. ch. 81. see also Avodat Hakodesh I:3.U. cf. Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. Igeret Hakodesh. G-d brought into being .~@ the very crystallisation of the disposiIt is tion to bestow good and kindness for the very sake of kindness. et passim. section 1 and note 18 ad loc.7s Chesed means kindness in a sense of absolute. 7Dn. Shenei Luchot Habrit. 83. S.0. sect. Cf. infra. V. while with G-d they are one absolute and inseparable unity. and notes 77-82 (83-88) a. Cf. and Igeret Hakodesh. Cf. gratuitous and unlimited benev~lence. 79. sect. Etz Chayim I:l. sect. a. to bring about recipients for the Divine benevolence. animating all creation.c. XI. Inyan Hada'at. and thus it is written "The world was built by Chesed. note 86).-Though . note 103.80 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wisdom. and Pardess Rimonim 8:l.

Sefirot 81 However. See Meooh Shehrim I: 1 : 1: "Every limitation of emanation is from . Meooh She'arim I:l:l. Chesed this principle and implication is mostly related to Chesed and Malchut. but sets to it a limitation and measure to the point of (actual) need-for the light to extend that far but no further". note 6.contracting. restrained. chapter V. For Chesed indicates an extension in all matters beyond the limit.-Etz Chayim 18:5: "All fixed measures and limitations are but from the side of Gevurah. In themselves. does not allow the Supernal Light to extend. note 100.. limit and restrain. and infra. in fact it is relevant to all the Sefirot (as mentioned earlier. and not in boundless. limited. Cevurah means Might or Power in a sense of severity. Chesed needs to be controlled. 87. and infra. Thus it is the principle that seeks to control. 85. The finite creatures cannot possibly absorb and endure so abundant and powerful an effulgence as the Divine Chesed. Cf. i. as Divine attributes. concealed. See infra. however. ~ ~ demands that Din Chesed be distributed justly. the effulgence of the Divine Chesed is as boundless as its Source while the creatures to which it emanates are limited and finite. withdrawing. 86. assume actualised manifestation through the process and presence of creation.e. note 89. It is the attribute of Din (Law and J ~ d g m e n t ) . and its full force screened. in proportion to the prospective recipient's merit. con~~ cealing and limiting the Divine emanations. see supra end of section 1. See Pardess Rimonim 8:2. gratuitous fashion. If exposed to it they would become nullified in it and cease to exist. This is effected through Geourah.86 Geourah implies t ~ i m t z u r n . and the references cited there in note 18) : all the Sefirot. Gevurah.

See Tanya II:6. 92. and cf. the Divine benevolence as channelled through Gevurah may have an exclusively distinct ad~antage. lgeret Hakodesh. . . and Igeret Hakodesh. 93. See infra. and cf. that Gevurah is a strictly negative concept." for Geuurah seeks to prevent. sect. chapter XI. an . Gevurah . See Etz Chayim 18:5 (supra. and XV.@" This is not to say. the positive effects of Gevurah emerge only by prior stimulus or effort. sect. Noach: p.~Vor we have seeqB3tzimtzum makes it possible for G-d's creatures to exist and subsist. this is not the case if Gevurah were to be singularly dominant. sect." See also is Tanya II:4 and 6. preceding note. XV. note 8 6 ) . However. ~ ' Thus from the severity of Gevurah derive also the stern Divine Judgments.verily. in whole or in part. for positive aspects of Geuurah.82 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDDISM and Gevurah pose an antimony as principles diametrically opposed to one another. XII. XII. But as both Chesed and Gevurah are Divine attributes [Gevurah and Din] . Yc. cf. In fact. though. sect. also Igeret Hakodesh. 88. as expressed by tzimtzum . 90. XIII. 89. XV. .is.~' Particularly in the context of the act of creation. Cf. On the contrary. 91. chapter 11. infra. as expression of the Divine Love and Benev~lence. As a general rule. See supra. in effect. note 100. however. Just as Chesed by itself would make it impossible for creation to subsist so Gevural~ itself would preclude the existence by of creation. note 9. Igeret Hakodesh. being one of the Divine attributes it must be seen as positive and contributory. See Torah Or. the outflow of C h e ~ e d . Every tzi~ntzum [an aspect of] Din. VIII.

It blends them in such a way so that Chesed will still issue forth. Pardess Rimonim 8:2. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson.g4 They are able to "operate" successfully by a mediating faculty. Tiferet harmonises and blends the free outpouring from Chesed with the severe tzimtzum of Geuurah. and infra. together. p. Tiferet. XII. . on Zohar I:168a. they form a triad referred to by the acrostic ChaGaT. sect. beauty: it blends the differing colours of Chesed and Geuurah. sect. is not an equal mixture but tends towards Chesed. and the harmonious colourfulness of this attribute makes it beautiful ( Tiferet ) . Igeret Hakodesh.e. That is why.06 The relationship between these three Sefirot is clearly absolute unity with the Divine essence they are neither separate principles nor do they counter one another. Igeret Hakodesh. For all the Midot are either an aspect of Chesed (of outpouring and effluence) or of Gevurah (of withdrawal and restraint) or an aspect of Tiferet (of harmonious blending of the 94. XI1 and XV.05 This quality accounts for this Sefirah being called Tiferet. these three are the basic or essential Midot in relation to which the others are but derivatives as will be seen in the following section. though limited by Gevurah so as to make the Chesed endurable. 95. Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. that the creatures may continue to exist even while benefitting from Chesed. See R. i. 132. 96. Also.. and 9:3. the Divine attribute of Tiferet. Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar (New York 1971). See Tanya II:4-6. therefore. note 103.

ch. Sh'muel Schneersohn. note 95). Zohar Chodash. 46 ff. In this context. 179 ff. Vayera: p. sect. and sect. Likutei Torah IV:17c%. 101.. there is a distinct difference between these two terms with Gedulah denoting a superior level of Divine Benevolence than Chesed. Sifre on Numbers 27:12 (sect. note 61).. Zgeret Hakodesh. or "Rachamim within Rachamirn" ( Z o h 111:145b). 134. Tanya II:4. Mostly in the context of the Partzufim. see infra. 3:24). so Tiferet is the "body" of the Midot. Tikunei Zohnr 22:67b. However. the term Gedulah appears. 31b. and also ibid. Mercy). Likutei Torah-Torat Sh'muel (New York 1946). vol. XI1 and XV. Moreover.9BCkuurO is synonymous with Din ( Judgment). 98. 99. In the Scriptural reference to the Midot in I Chronicles 29:11. et passim. and not Chesed. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. just like Ra'at is the "soul" of the Midot (supra. 51b.. strictly speaking. 100. quite frequently Tiferet alone@? is spoken of as the principle of the Midot because it compounds within itself the basic dispositions of the Midot. vol. VI and note 6 a. is the harmonising princi97. Zohar II:175b. Tikunei Zohar. see Zohar I:31a and passim. the Divine Compassion. chapter VIII. I.lo0 and Tiferet with Rachamim (Compassion. Yitro. Chesed per se would thus be the very core of Rachamim. Or HatorahBereishit (New York 1966). Magnificence) because it expresses the infinite Greatness (Benwolence) of G-d.l. 111. and R.: 17b. Obviously it is called Rachamim because of the predominance of Chesed (see supra. . sect. Zohar III:302a. in comment on Reut. For an extensive discussion of these two terms and their relationship. lgeret Rachamim. XI1 and XIII.84 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS M CHASSIDLSM former two aspects). Intr.Q8 There are a number of terms that often appear as synonyms for these three Midot. cf. Thus Chesed is called Gedulah (Greatness. see R.

in proportion to the recipient's merits. truth demands the withholding of the Divine Grace.ple that restrains excessive Chesed and mitigates severe Ceuurah.On the other hand. is absolute truth in the sense that it reconciles and harmonises Chesed and Geuurah. note 22 (26). that it is not contradicted or opposed by either Chesed or Geuurah or any other attribute. there is frequent reference to various other factors 102. 28c.).. It need be understood that all the Midot. as Divine attributes. 31b. because the motive is strictly . Toldot. For.. from the aspect of Gewrah.l. is an aspect of truth. Igeret Hakodesh. i. sect. sect. The quality of C k s e d to dispense benevolence in unlimited fashion. Tiferet. 103.lo3 Similarly. strictly speaking. 11. ibid. For Tiferet recognises the validity of Gevurah-that strictly speaking the recipient is undeserving-but out of a sense of Rachamim (Compassion) permits a restrained flow of C k s e d . But these aspects of truth are relatiue to these conffitcing perspectives: the perspective of Chesed on its own and the perspective of Geuurah on its own. Psalms 139: 12). sect. but they are so only when they stand on their own.e.lo2 and thus the Divine plan of creation is made possible and the "disposition of the benevolent to be benevolent" is actualised. of law and justice. Yiho. sect. VI. and Zgeret Hakodesh. Igeret Hakodesh. gratuitous and infinite benevolence without regard to the merits of the recipient. see Moreh Nevuchirn III:13. are E m d (truth). See Etz Chuyim 35:3. the quality of Geuurah to withhold and restrict the Divine effusion is again truthful for the very reason that truth and justice demand distribution in justness and equity. XX and note 32 (35) a. out of absolute. Thus. 4: 18.. on the other hand. In this context Tiferet is also called Emet (Truth). Zohar Chodarh. XV. and therefore "in the light of the King's Countenance there is life" (Proverbs 16:15). ibid. Thus. nothing is truly fit to receive the Divine benevolence except that from the Divine perspective it is all one ("even the darkness does not darken from You and the night shines as the day-the darkness is even as the light". inasmuch as even "the heavens are not pure in His eyes" (Job 15:15) and "His angels He charges with deficiency" (ibid. and cf.

sect. absolute truth. Sefer Habahir 48 (131). sect. 52. see Igeret Hakodesh. Supra. As the Sefirot are the Divine instruments through which everything comes into being. 104. 11. note 7 (Q). 106. 376-7 (variant version).im. and the only one that concerns us in Igeret Hakodesh. note 22 (26).. everything relates directly to one or more of the Sefirot in its own individual way.loWach of these. vol. by his individual position. even Gevurah will agree to this flow. Moses.2. corresponds to one of the Midot. XIII.1. sect.c.. See Etx Chayim. Zbid. a . Isaac.l .lo6 Isaac symbolises Gevurah as this attribute was most dominant in him. The most frequent reference. Zohar I:41a. 434 f. 107.c. Zohar Chadash. XIII. (note 95 supra). p . Supra. and Igeret Hakodesh.and Yom Tov she1 Rosh Hashanuh 5666. Aaron and David.lo7 Jacob represents Tiferet because he compounded the Chesed of his grandfather and the Geuzlrah of his father. 105. therefore. references cited in Igeret Hakodesh.. and ibid. Tiferet is a truth rccognised from every aspect. and. (note 103).86 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN (SHASSIDISM which correspond to these Midot as well as to the other Sefirot. sect. 108. note 105. also Zohar II:276b. p. or by way of metaphor and analogy. 11. without any opposition: Emet Le-amito. . a. III:302a. Igeret Hakodesh. and note 27 (28) a. a.lo8 one of compassion. and ibid. Likutei Leui Yitzchak. disposition and mode of service and worship. I . VI. note 105. et passim. et pasJ..Io4 Thus the seven Midot have corresponding entities in the seven dominating figures of Scripture that are referred to as the "fathers of the universe": Abraham. sect.c. See also Zohar I:74a and 146a. Thus Abraham represents Chesed because his inclinations and activities expressed kindness and benevolence to the highest degree. Joseph. sect.l. Maamarei Admur Hazaken-5565. Jamb. is made to the three Patriarchs as they correspond to the first three Midot.

These dispositions are Netzach. See Tanya II:5. as well as the characteristic of their relationship.llS Tikunei Zohar 70:133b. vessels.llo In other words. Pardess Rimonim 7:2. notes 105-108. Netxach-Hod-Yesod These three Sefirot. for Chesed. supra-rational dispositions which seek to carry the attributes of ChuGaT to their logical conclusion. Likutei Torah. . 112. XV and note 41 (48) a. 22:68b. XIX See Tikunei Zohar 19:45a.lll This does not mean that NeHY are identical with ChaGaT: Netzach is merely a branch and channel of Chesed. Gevurah and Tiferet. they form dispositions to actualise themselves. and Zgeret Hakodesh. is that Netzach. Hod and Yesod. sect." rather than on the stimulus of reason (Sechel) the way ChaGaT do.'09 i. Binah and Da'at. Hod of Gevurah and Yesod of Tiferet. as it were.l12 - Chesed-Gevurah-Tiferet are the very essence of the attributes they signify and are directly influenced and directed by Chochmah. Zohar III:236a.l. these three "lower" Midot serve as tools. 110. on simple faith.. 113.1. I. and 30:74a.e. Zgeret Hakodesh. These dispositions are no longer directly influenced or controlled by ChaBaD but are the simple. See further. and cf. which act. form a triad known by the acrostic NeHY. Hod and Yesod are the receptacles for the three Patriarchs. Their basic significance. Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d.. or "mechanically. 8:17 and 24.6. See supra. Once the attributes of ChaGaT are established by ChaBaD.c. lgeret Hakodesh. (the latter two 109. 111. sect. sect. too. a. works being the principal sources for the explanation following). or channels through which the aforementioned "upper" Midot effect their purpose and factual application.

which includes within it both Chesed and Geuurah. 116. Netzach is not even proportionally identical with Chesed.g. Likewise with Yesod. Netzach is also able to receive and apply the positive aspects of Gevurah while Hod is able to receive the flow of Chesed .tends towards Chesed. nor Yesod with Tiferet.: 17a) ..2 and 8:24.l17 In this context. Unlike the other Midot.thus mitigating its aspect of the severity of G e ~ u r a h . Netzach does not possess the simple intensity of Chesed nor Hod that of we have seen . nor Gevurah with Hod. "two thighs" (Zohur I:26b. and 11:276b. . 114 On the other hand. Just as ChaGaT are the three Patriarchs. 117. "two kidneys" (Zohar III:296a) .88 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Also. through Tiferet. for the above-mentioned reason it differs from Tiferet not only in intensity. Intr. For since they evolve through the comprehensive attribute of Tiferet. though it mediates between Netzach and Hod as Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Geuurah. Zohr III:236a."l16 And similarly the terms relating to these two attributes are usually such as are intimately related to one another. 115. Netzach and Hod usually go paired together. so Netzach and Hod are the two brothers Moses and Aaron (Zohar I:256b. See Pardess Rimonim 7. Tikunei Zohar. l ~ ~ Another substantive distinction is the following. E. but more significantly because it tends towards Hod (the side of Gevurcfh) while Tiferet . like unto twins. The Zohm refers to them as "two halves of one body. and 114. and so forth. Ibid. the "two hips" (Tikunei Zohar 13:29a). I:4. despite their identification as branches or derivatives of their predecessors..

cited supra. V and note 100 (109) a. he understands them fully. I. sect. For example. Netzach and Hod are the "kidneys that advise. on the level of activity." That is.c.1. outside the body of ChuBaD and ChuGaT. sect. they are clear in his own mind.e. Zohar Chadosh. Also. the latter will be unable to understand and absorb the information. .1. But when he now confronts his son with that information (i.leading it to its destination in general and channeling Chesed and Cevurah in particular. 119. the father and ref. and ibid. 26d. at the time of the actual emanations from the upper Midot it is necessary to deliberate how they are to issue forth in such a way that would be most just and beneficial.. In the metaphor of the man-analogy. i. he cannot teach him the simple facts by themselves as they are in his own mind. thighs or legs in the body of man which support and uphold the whole body (including the head). the Divine Names and other terms relating to these two attributes are usually a plural form of one concept.e. the facts as they are in themselves and in their totality) without bringing the reasoning down to the child's level. when a father seeks to convey some intellectual information to his son. I. sect. as said. and Likutei Torah III:9Oc-d. Netzach and Hod are called the "supports of the upper Sefirot" analogous to the loins. Zgeret Hakodesh.ll9 Thus they are.ll8 Hence they are seen to be outside the body itself. See Zgeret Hakodesh. Vayera. The father has already contemplated the facts.. If the information is to be conveyed effectively. 118. note 105). though they support the body .. see Pardess Rimonim a.Sefirot 89 in light of the aforesaid. directly concerned with the ultimate issuance of Chesed and Geuurah.

Geuurah would be the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the confrontation or presence of majesty. of prevailing and standing up against. one requires not only an 120. are the functions of Netzach and Hod. thus much more intense and severe than Hod. the aspects of Geuurah) with the flow of the Divine Benevolence (Chesed).. 121. and conquering all that would withhold or interfere (i. There are two considerations: on the one hand to teach the child as much as possible ( notion of Chesed).zaclz thus represents the attribute of Endurance.!30 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM needs to consider the limited faculties of his son's mind and teach him accordingly.. unable to absorb (notion of Geuurah). If the conveyance of the information is to be fully effective.e. notes 64 ( 7 9 ) and 68 (83). While Hod is the awe and restraint implicit in the awareness of the concept o f majesty. to preserve the Divine Majesty and Splendour from being dissipated in the abundant Benevolence ( Chesed ) . sect. to carry the above metaphor further: If the father's mind is not set on teaching his son. the deliberation of the father and the arrangement of the facts and reasoning in such a way that the child will be able to grasp them effectively. Ibid..' 2 2 Now. see Likutei Torah 1II:QOc-d. See ibid. XV. These considerations. and on the other to withhold that which the child is. lgeret Hakodesh. as yet. cited there. note 41 (48) and the references cited there. then the son cannot be an efficacious recipient for the father's knowledge. 122.I2" Net. and the ref.I2*Hod seeks to restrain (Geuurah) the excess of absorbability. .

He must want to teach him. Now this bond uniting Emanator and recipient is the attribute of Yesod.Sefirot 01 illuminating clarification and presentation of the facts proportionate to the student's capacities. He must unite himself with the son. of these active Sefirot which 123.especially when he hears his father utte-ing them clearly and in detail. It is not sufficient for the father to place himself momentarily on the son's level.l23 As Tiferet mediates between Chesed and Gevurah. he would surely grasp some points of information . See Pardess Rimonim 8:24 and 9:4. an inner bond between the teacher and the student-recipient. If the son were to hear his father pronouncing the facts to himself. as the third. and Etz Chayim 46:3. 124.the more intense is the bond uniting the two. so Yesod mediates. XV. as it were (the deliberation of N e t m h and Hod). the very degree of illuminating clarification depends on that bond. The father's mind needs to be set on teaching his son. Cf. blends and compounds Netzach and Hodiz4 Moreover. but he must create a channel of communication. supra. But this type ~f newly acquired knowledge is by no means comparable to the more pmfound knowledge he would have acquired had the father taught him directly. notes 112 and 114. but also. create a bond between them. the harmonising principle. . and the greater and more intense is the efficacy of the father's efforts. In fact. with love and willingness. And the greater the father's desire and willingness to teach . sect. Zgeret Hakodesh. and of no lesser importance.stemming from the father's love for his child .

X X . See also next note. "When by His Will was fashioned every thing. 128. and cf. the all-comprehensive Sefrah of Yesod) joins the heaven and the earth". 331H 7DN.) et passim.e. Yesod is the blending channel of all the preceding Sefirot: all the Sefirot "pour" their light into Yesod. Tikunei Zohr 21:55b. Liturgy. S.92 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM compound within them the preceding essential Sefirot. and note 44 (47) a. symbol of the Sefirah Yesod) is the Foundation (Yesod) of the world". which alludes to the seven Midot (see supra.c. See lgeret Hakodesh. See Tikunei Zohar 21:55b. Zohar III:271b.lZ6making it possible for the emanations of the Sefirot to issue forth effectively unto the creatures.. II:116a. III:257a (and Nitzutzei Orot. 129. sect. note 99). Kingship or Sovereignty is a state of being rather than an activity: when there are subjects subservient to the king one can speak of Kingship and Sovereignty. Zohar. Zohar I:31a. a.'" Thus Malchut. His appellation then was that of King". Adon Olam. 127. Pirkei de R. 6:145b. ch. sect.1. the last and '~ "lowest level" of the S e f i ~ o t . l ~ ~ 7. Berachot 40b.lZ5and Yesod serves as the all-inclusive principle joining heaven to earth. Thus Yesod is the Foundatioin of the ~ r e a t i 0 n . Malchut Malchut is unique among the Sefirot. Eliezer. cf. Tanya II:7. (note 126). the principle of Yesod is expressed by the words Y7N11 C9DV3 73 9 3 which the Zohar (based on a Targum) interprets "for all (kol. 3 .V. ~does not exert any influence of its 125. "The Tzaddik (Righteous.2. a. In I Chronicles 29:11. Proverbs 1025. See also Tossafot. Hence the lowest level in spiritual categories is usually referred . 126. and fgeret Hakodesh. et passim. not so when there are no subjects. ibid. i. note 44 (51). Addenda.. XV.1.

III:290a fl. and 251b. et passim. Tikunei Zohar 44:82b. 132.. Avodat Hakodesh I:7. see also Tanya II:7. See Zohar I:50a. 36:l." (like unto "the moon that has no light of its own save that which i s given unto it by the sun". 134. VIII. as it were. and cf. Pardess Rimonim 11:2. Nidah 31b. II:145b. sect.. e.. and Zohar Chadash. XX (and note 59 (62) a. Joseph Albo suggest (in the context of identifying the Intelligences with the Sefirot) that Makhut is identical with the sphere of the Active Intellect (see Zkkarim II:11). note 25 (26). The potentia of the world '~~ ( t h e seed of Chochmuh) is externalised and individuated in the womb of Binuh but remains concealed like a foetus."130 93 On the other hand. Therefore to as the Makhut (or more emphatically yet. Shabhat 156a). l ~ ~ As Binuh is the Supernal Mother (Immu Ilaah) so Malchut is the Nether Mother (Imma T ~ t a u h ) . I t is the very instrument. Igeret Hakodesh. Malchut plays an important role. sect. but this has been severely criticised by the Kabbalists. 8:5. It is through Malchut that the latent and potential creation emerges into manifest reality and substantiaIity.1. note 9. as Malchut of Makhut) of that category. . XXI. sect.Sefirot own except that "which the other Sefirot pour into it. and sect. Tikunei Zohar 19:40b. Makhut is called "a dim speculum because it has no (light) of its own. 133.g. II:22a.131 Thus Malchut is referred to as the "Architect wherewith the whole creation was made"132 and "Nothing occurs among the lower beings unless it be through M a 1 ~ h u t . 131. Zohar 1:249b. through which the original creative plan is actualised.) . Cf. 130.. note 21 (24). XV.-Probably for this reason did R. 1la. See also ibid. See further Zgeret Hakodesh. Igeret Hakodesh. XX. Etz Chayim 6:5. see. iiild ibid. et passim. sect.

. 139.'~~way By and means of the succeeding Sefirot (the Midot). sect. Zohar 1:lb and 11: 127a. 138. ibid. and notes 50 (53) and 59 (62) a. and notes 43-45 (45-47) and 64 (67).. For 135. XXV. note 50.141 Through Malchut everything comes into manifest being.139 so Malchut is called ?"n. Cf.: 17a. 3: 140a. Binah-the "concealed world-is implanted in the womb of Malchut and thence egresses into manifest being. See supra. [Also Alma Tataah (Lower World). that what is. 142. 136. Tikunei Zohar 70: 121a. 52.140 In Malchut the potentiality is finally actualised. By analogy to human speech. S. V . Thus Malchut is called the "manifest world (Alma &-ZtgaEya) Malchut is the "Mouth of G d : 1 3 7the Word of the Eternal and the Breath of His Mouth by which the world came into actual. 93a. X X .'38 As Chuchmah is n"t) n"2. as it were.94 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDZSM Binah is called the concealed world (Alma de-ztka~sya).V. See Zohar 11:127a. 137. Zohar Chadash. X X X . lnw nt3. Tikunei Zohar. manifest being. Pardess Rimonim 23: 13. see Zgeret Hakodesh.l. of Tikunirn.142 The attribute of Malchut actually explains its own term.1. and notes 46-50 (49-53) a. the potentiality of what is. -Tanya I: ch. Avot V: 1. the Divine speech (the ten fiats of Genesis I by which the world was created and came into being.1. 1:lb).. Malchut is. and notes 23-24 (25-26) a. a. Zgeret Hakodesh. and sect. sect.. Addenda. . and ibid. sect. ibid.. Tanya 11:11-12). Zohar 1:l b and II:127a]. See Zohar II:127a (cf. sect. Psalms 33:6. beg. Also Alma llaah (the Upper World) . Intr. cf. XX.. 141. 140.1. Yitro 34c. f which is but the expression and manifestation or revelation o the speaker's inner thoughts and dispositions. Zohur Chadash.

and supra. thus. and ibid. 8: end of ch. From this source there extends to each individual entity the particular light and vitality suitable for it: informing. note 22 (23). the Divine Indwelling Presence or Immanen~e. XX and XXV.Id3When finite creatures come into being through the Sefirah of Malchut the Divine attribute of is through MaIchut that the disposition of the Benevolent to be benevolent can be actualised: a world and creatures come into being. sect. Cf. Bimh and Malchut). sect. any unqualified mention of Shechinah usually refers to the lower level of Malchut.notes 18 and 22 supra. and ibid. 145. XXV. note 128.. Binah and Malchut) so we speak of Shechitmh on two levels ("higher" and "lower". cf. is the origin of the revelation of the light of the En Sof which extends to. becomes meaningful and In Malchut. 24 and ch.. VIII. Just as we speak of Imma on two levels ("higher" and "lower". Zgeret Hakodesh. lgeret Hakodesh. The world and the creatures provide prospective recipients for G-d's benevolence. Igeret Hakodesh. note 25 (26) a.l. 52. For a further discussion of Malchut see Pardess Rimonim 7:3-4 and 8. See Tanya II:7. Tanya. the world and creatures in a "revealed manner. Tanya II:7. animating and sustaining it. . and esp. 26. sect. VIII. sect. However. That is why Malchut is identical with Shechinah. 144. They make it possible to speak of a Divine Kingdom as "There cannot be a King without a nation" and people distinct from Himself over which to rule. I: ch. and illuminates.. Sovereignty.'~~ 143.-Zmma and Shechinah thus are identical terms.

The "Body of the Sefirot" There are two basic schemes in the emanation of the Sejirot or Divine Lights after the concealment of t~irntzum. and so forth: the periphery of the chalal being the highest level. (ii) the concentric sphere in the upper realm (right adjacent to. Pardess Rimonim 6:7. Likutei Torah III:37c f . and (iii) the void (below said concentric sphere) of the remainder of the chalal.. thus establishing a concentric sphere within it. 148. This first concentric sphere is as close to the all-encompassing Or En Sof as possible. That is. This is how we obtain the relative terms of "above" and "below". and also ibid. note 29 ( 3 2 ) . but below or inside the perimeter) of the chalal. the Divine Light was manifested in the sphere of the primordial space (chalal) by means of the kao. lggulim and Yosher. IV and V. note 159. the "line" or ray of light that descended from the Or En Sof encompassing the chalal to the very core or midst of This the ~ h a l a 1 . For if the Luminary (Or En Sof) and the sphere inside the chalal would be truly attached to each other. 147. sect. and 2:1. but not really attached to it except by means of the kau from which it evolved. X X . and the centre of the chalal being the lowest level.'~" As mentioned above. At this stage we thus have (i) the all-encompassing sphere of the Or En Sof (manifest outside the chalal and concealed within the chalal). Sha'ar Hahakdamot. The principal sources for this section are Etz Chayim 1:2-5.96 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM 8. in the chapter on Tzimtzum. Hakd. and infra. See also Zgeret Hakodesh.l48 This concentric sphere of dimmed Or En Sof is called Keter. "higher" and "lower". l ~ ~ kav did not extend from the circumference to the central point in one immediate and complete manifestation. 146. 2:7. that part of the chalal (the sphere) and its aspect of tzimtzum would have been nullified: the inner . immediately upon "entering" the chalal it revolved parallel to the perimeter of the chalal. but gradually. round about the inside of the chalal.

Hence also the term Midot for the Sefirot. namely that of Malchut. in the very centre of the chulal. Etz Chuyim 1:2. again only partly. gradually descending to the very centre of the chaIal. Hakd.1. IV. . to repeat the same process: a new revolution around the c h h l to form another concentric sphere immediately below that of Keter. however.Thereupon the kao was extended somewhat further. For every Sefirah has a determined measure and dimension (in a qualitative sense).149 This is the scheme of Iggulim ( circles. In fact. (1. circles within circles. and the Sefirot as a whole are also determined in number ("ten and not nine. And in this way the kau was extended ever further. in an extended sense. See Zohar I: 19b f . until the tenth concentric sphere was formed. with a successive dimming of the light so that each one is distinct from all others. Sefer Yetzirah I:4-5. This new sphere is Chochmh. (and Nitzutzei Orot. they are fully distinct one from another.or like a brain encompassed by many membranes one over the other. ten and not eleven").) and III:9b f . or concentric spheres). It is by their individually determined measures that the Sefirot are distinguished and differentiated one from another (as we shall see infra. garments). In this initial scheme of Iggulim the Sefirot are like the skins of an onion . Midot means fixed measures and dimensions (and.150 The significant point of this scheme is that essentially all the Sefirot are related to one sphere would have been absorbed by the outer one to revert to the state of one simple light of the En Sof. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. Thus each of these ten spheres follows out of and succeeds the preceding one. expanding and revolving. see Zohur within the other . 149. 150. chapter V ) .

Thus in the scheme of Yoshr the Sefirot are not simple faculties or principles independent of each other. Etz Chayim 1:l. Straightness) is derived from the verse "Gd made man yashar (upright)" (Eccles. self-contained sphere or point. subsequent scheme of emanating Sefirot is that of "Yosher-like unto the appearance of a man standing upright. "Analogous to man who divides into organs all of whieh exist level upon level and perfect one another. Shdar Hahakdamot.2. rather than to f that o Iggulim. 1:27)-Etz Chayim l:2-for the inherent faculties and powers of man's soul and their interactions are analogous (albeit in a strictly homonymous sense) to the Sefrot (see Igeret Hakodesh. In relation to this scheme of the Sefirot it is said "and G d created man in His image" (Gen. but they form an essentially unified body.-In general. The term Yosher (Uprightness. most references to the Sefirot in the Zohar relate to the scheme o Yosher. 7:29). Zohar 1:134b. See Pardess Rimonim 6:3.98 MYSTICAL CONCXPTS IN CHASSIDISM another only in terms of a successive process: the one emanating after the other but each one really a separate. yet all of them (together) form one body. see Etz Chayim. IV. sect. XV) . and Sha'ar Hahakdamot."'" This analogy serves to point out the full inter-relationship between the Sefirot of Yoslaer (just as man's organs are interrelated to one another to form a single body). The analogy is carried further to the point 151.c."15* that is. Hakd. The second. Etz Chayim 1:2. see Etz Chayim 8:l. f . 152. even while underscoring and retaining the unique characteristics of each one. a.

Chochmah corresponds to the brain in general i. yet inde- 153. and compounding. More specifically. note 117.See Etz Chayim.c. Tiferet is the body.. . thus related to. and cf. N e t m h is the right leg or thigh while Hod is the left leg or thigh.of relating the particular Sefirot to particular limbs or organs in the Body or Form (Partzuf) of Man: 1 5 ~ Chochmah. "The sign of the Holy Covenant. in the explanatory notes for the individual Sejirot. are the three brains in man's head.: 17a. Chesed is the right arm while Gevurah is the left arm. supra. masculine and feminine).. it is said to correspond to the mouth. As Malchut is the manifesting aspect. the seat of understanding. Tikunei Zohar. the organ of speech by means of which the speaker's inner thoughts and emotive dispositions are expressed and revealed. to the source of thought and intellect.l. Intr. intervening and mediating between. Binah corresponds to the heart.. with regards to the two aspects of Yesod relative to the two types of Partzufim (i. in an extended sense." referring to circumcision (the sign or seal of the covenant or bond between G d and Israel) . Keter is the crown encompassing.16' together supporting the whole body and leading it to its ~~ destination.e. the sides of Chesed and Gevurah. 155. Also called the "kidneys that counsel".e. and Shahr Hahukdamot. Binah and Da'at. a.. 154. see supra. Yesod is the organ of p r o ~ r e a t i o n lthrough which the emanations of the higher Sefirot issue forth to Malchut to bring about a manifest creation.

left. the scheme of Yosher underscores not only the functions of the Sefirot but also their inter-relationship as a unit or Body." because there is an innate relationship between these three (Gevurah is a branch of Binah. and in the Zdrot. the Sefirot of Yosher are often illustrated by way of three lines-right. in line with but above Gevurah and Hod. in the context of the manmetaphor. it is often referred to as the skull encompassing (thus transcending) the brain. Hakd.-See Etz Chayim 32:l and 25:5 on the superiority of the "skull" [Keter] over the "brains" [Chochmah-Binah-Da'at]. and by placing Binah on the left side. This faculty. Shdar Hahakdarnot. Etz Chayim 1:2.lS7 It is also in this scheme of Yosher that we speak of the faculty of Da'at Elyon. and Hod is a branch of Gevurah). Keter is frequently referred to as "skull".100 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CELASSIDLSM pendent of. the body. lb6 As mentioned. See Zohar 111: 153b ( d passim)." because there is an innate relationship between these three ( C b s e d is a branch of Chochmah and Netzach is a branch of Chesed). . and centre. the Supernal Da'at. in line with but above Chesed and Netzach. In Sifra Detzeniyuta. ( 2 ) Binah-Gewrah-Hod on the left side. the "side of Chesed. the "side of Gewrah. more specifically. Thus we have three new triads: (1)Chochmah-Chesed-Netzach. symbolic of the central. IV.on the right side.and (3) Keter-Tiferet-Yesod-Makhut in the middle. This is done by placing Chuchmah on the right side. Therefore in spite of the locations of the "physical counterparts" in the body of man. 157. a branch or 156. mediating or all-inclusive harmonising principles they are.

The Sefirot as Compounds So far we have discussed the Sejirot mainly in terms of particular attributes.derivative of Keter. and between Netzach and Hod)? For even when the Sefirot do not contradict each other. Pmtzufim. sect. they still are essentially unique powers which. or some are spoken of as mediating principles. l ~ ~ 9.g. Da'at. But this raises a question: How. can the Sefirot interrelate and interact when they appear to be separate. would require some "common denominator. the antinomy between Chesed and Geuurah. Schneerson a.1. obviously does not have a separate organ in this scheme.-Dabt Tachton. as specific principles and potencies.~~~ The full significance of these two schemes of Zggulim and Yosher will emerge later on in the context of Shedrat Hakelim. every 158. See Sefer Hamaamarim 5700. At the same time we have also seen the inter-relationship and interaction of the Sefirot in a developmental sequence from Keter to MaIchut. 4. 159.. and notes by R. Menachem M. p. . Infra." The mystics solve this problem by stating that. S. in fact. see supra. as essence of the Midot. and Tohu and T i k ~ n . the unifying principle of Chochmah and Binah. 38. in effect.V. and in some cases seemingly contradictory principles (e. in order to interact. chapters VII-IX. would thus be placed in the middle line as the apex of the triangle Chochmah-Bin~h-Da'at.

and 89d 8. Chesed and Geuurah). for. these ten levels subdivide each into ten sub-levels. the Sefirot. Binah of Binah in Binah. Thus.. and differentiation among. as the attribute of Chesed 160..g.. so that every Sefirah can still be referred to by a specific name and differs radically from all other^. cf. references cited infra. chapter IX. The differentiation between the Sefirot is retained in full so that in every Sefirah its own aspect is predominant and determinative: Chochmah of Chochmah in Chochmah. Binuh of Chochmah and so on. and 69:lleb. See Tanya 1I:lO. as explained in the sources mentioned. 161. See Tikunei Zohar 47:84a. in effect. XI1 and XIII. the word "general" is an intentional qualification. ( b ) It allows the necessary interaction of all Sefirot in everything even though their distinguishing aspects or determinative characteristics may appear to be opposed to each other (e. and so forth. for example. the S4rah of Chesed is divisible into Chochmh of Chesed. two-fold sigrdcance: ( a ) It indicates the integral bond between. and essential unity of. B i d of Chesed. the Sefirot (as opposed to regarding each Sefimh as Independent and non-related.-In referring to every Sefirah as a compound of "ten general levels". and Tikunei Zohar 70:125b and 135a. Likutei Torah ZII:87a fl. . sect. lgeret Hakodesh. and so on. and so forth.102 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Sefirah is a compound of ten general levels: every Sefirah contains within itself aspects of all the ten Sefirot.'^' This mutual inclusiveness has an important. also Zohar II:l85b.lBOThus the Sefirah of Chochmah divides into Chochmh of Chchmah. thereby leading to a wrong conception of division in the Sefirotic scheme) even while retaining the specific identity of.

162. ch. The issues mentioned here are dealt with in detail by R. including Geuurah. esp. see also the glossary note in Zohar II:24a (and Nitzutzei Z o h r a. Sha'ar 5.. especially ch. See also R. Or Torah. 11 ) . (quoted at length by Cordovero. Hilchot Yesohi Hatorah 1V:l-2 (quoted by Cordovero. ibid. Cf. its full significance will emerge in the later chapters on Shevirat Hakelim. 153b and 189a-b. Dov Ber of Mezhirech.. Partzufim. it will involve all other Sefirot. Moses Cordovero in Pardess Rimonim.lB2 This concept of the Sefirot as Compounds is intimately related to the concept of the scheme of Yosher and. ibid. and Tohu and Tikun. and Sha'ar 8. 8:2) which reflects strikingly the argument in Z o h II:23b f. by way of the aspect of Chesed included in every other Sefirah. ch. 10 and 11.1. 2. as with the latter. .).Sefirot 103 will express and manifest itself. pp. also Maimonides. 5. 1.


Tanya I: ch. from the creature's perspective (looking "from below upwards") but are non-real in essence. Essentially these Worlds are Divine "Garments" in which the Or En Sof conceals and clothes Itself. i. relative 1. 43. thereby animating and lendBut ing them e~istence.~ just as tzimtzum and the S 4 r o t are allegorical concepts that assume substantive reality only in relation to man and creation. The numerous other levels are the myriads of gradations into which these five worlds subdivide.e. one lower than the other.e. These numerous levels are divided into five comprehensive categories. brought about numerous levels. the process of a progressive dimming.CHAPTER FOUR Worlds 1. occultation and condensation of the light of the En Sof.. each of which is a microcosm on its own. The Concept of " W w W Tzimtzum. referred to as the Five Realms or Worlds. i. ..

" For the higher worlds receive in a more revealed form than do the lower ones. but only corporeal and physical things that appear lifeles~. and secondly.4 The core and essence of the blessed En Sof is identical in the higher and lower worlds. 5. 1 3."No light or vitality whatever i s visibly revealed. chapter 11. Ibid.on the lowest level. 40. Cf. too. 111. in the physical world . XXV. even the spiritual ones. in that the "higher" ones receive this radiance without as many garments and screens as the lower ones. The difference between them is with regard to the stream of vitality from the En Sof in terms of "revelation out of concealment. and note 18 a. Tanya I: ch. notes 1817. Cf.106 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to G-d (looking "from above downward^"). "Even in completely inanimate matter. sect. and ch. such as stones or earth . and all creatures therein receive each according to its capacity and nature. the light of the En Sof fills all worlds alike and there is no pIace void of Him. any difference is due to the recipients."~ they.^ so it is with these Worlds. and as He is to be found in the higher worlds so He is to be found in the very lowest. because the "higher" worlds are those which receive a radiance infinitely greater than the "lower" ones. and that in two respects: firstly.. ch. section 1. 4. 1 . When we speak of different Worlds or Realms. supra. The lower worlds. See supra. Yet 2. Zgeret Hakodesh. do not receive the light in such a revealed form but only by means of numerous concealing "garments" which hide and screen the Divine Light so that ultimately .3 To be sure.l.

without any dimensions of space or size.contain light and vitality from the En Sof which lends them existence ex nihib. But from the different kinds of potencies or powers and vitalities contained in the soul's intrinsic essence. based on Etz Chayim 39:3.: 17a. but it is due to their own unique or water. In that sense the Holy One. 6. Zgeret Hakodesh. . is the "Most Hidden of All Hidden"B and is called the "hidden G . 40 and 51.d (Isaiah 45:12). which give life and existence to inanimate matter that it might arise out of the naught and nothingness that preceded the Six Days of Creation". being inherent in them. sect. See also Tanya I: ch. Thus as the different bodily organs express and manifest different powers this is not due to a different soul. Thus one cannot say that it divides into a number of parts corresponding to the number of organs in the body. 38. for example. blessed is He. in the feet no less than in the brain. and its core and essence is. Intr. or part of the soul. Tanya I: chs. corporeal shape or physical limitation. Tanya II:l. XXV. Tikunei Zohar. so that they will not revert to their state of naught and nothingness as they were prior to their creation. from head to foot. The entire soul is a single and simple (as opposed to compound) spiritual entity. each of the body's organs receives the power and vitality appropriate to itself according to its own capacity and character -the eye for seeing. the mouth for speaking and so on. the whole soul pervades the entire body equally. . there is a "soul" and spiritual life-force . Rather. 7. . and Etz Chayim 50: passim. the ear for hearing.' This is analogous to the presence of the soul in the body.

The Division of the Wor2ds The five comprehensive worlds are : ( 1) Adam Kadmn. a. and Rashi.. p. There is thus no change in the light itself. Chaim .@ Thus when we speak of "higher" and "lower. In fact this concept of relative concealments and occultations may be read in the very term of world in Hebrew. The term Ohmot (Worlds) thus denotes the concealment and dimming of the Divine Light.. 11.1.g. see also Siddur im P e m h Hamilot. see. For the word D'1lY is etymologically related to. 48a ff.. e. See Tikunei Zohar 42:82a.. as is evident from the fact that a blind. and the comment in Pesachh 50b. but only in the condition or capacity of the place to be illuminated. Exodus 3: 15.8 A similar analogy is to the light of the sun which penetrates the rooms of a house. All powers of the soul are intrinsic to the whole soul and independent of the body. 10. or otherwise defective.1. 3:11. a. (sources cited in preceding note). and Midrash Rabba. DSy (to be concealed. Ibid. pp. the En Sof and so on. 164c-d. 51. also Eccles. hidden) . The light does so in accordance with the presence or absence of obstructions. as well as ibfd. Maimonides.1° 2. these terms do not refer to any spatial dimensions but to qualitative differences in degree and level. Etz Chayim 1:2. person is able to give birth to a physically normal child. or distant from. and Sefer Habahir 8 (10)." in proximity to. Hilchot Yesodei Hatorah 1153. Cf. and even into rooms within rooms.108 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM composition and capacity. This anthropomorphic term means Prim- 8. The general sources for the following paragraphs are R. 9 . and itself spelled sometimes as. ch. and Rashi. Ibid.

See the responsa by R. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1. Cf. Hai Gaon and R. Kadmon denotes "being primary of all primaries. and 12:5. as in Numbers 11:17 and Ecclesiastes 2:10. 14. and 43: Intr. Etz Chayim 1:4. and 70: 135b. (3) Berinh-the World of Creation. note 34..the World of Action or Making. and cf. Commntay on Exodus 34:6. 15. 13. This World reVital. XXIX. note 38. See also R. Etz Chayim 1:4. 98b.ordial Man. These latter three names are derived from the creative terms in Isaiah 43:7. See Pardess Rimonim 11:2 ff.. chapter 11."12 This World is also called the Realm of Keter Elyon (the Supreme Keter). Asher. ( 4 ) Yetzirah-the World of Formation. Chamai Gaon in Pardess Rimonim 11:l and 3. 12. Zohar III:193b. Torah Or. The term is derived from the root YYN. supra. Esther. Shomer Emunim I:46 f . Pardess Rimonim 5:4."14 ( 2 ) Atzilut. . It is the first and highest stage after tzimtzum took place and yet so sublime that in a sense it may be spoken of as completely attached to. cf. the World of Emanation.15 Atzilut is the stage following Adam Kadmon. See also Shomer Ernunim I:62 f.. Adam Kadmon is the most pristine emanation. Shu'arei Kedushah 1II:l f. the "lucid and luminous light" ( R Y n l Y D l RY T I N ) and frequently referred to as Tzachtzachot13-implying the "pure. Bachya ben R. sect. thus further removed from the En Sof. and 70: 120a. and (5) Asiyah. supra. lucid Sefirot which are concealed and hidden. Tikunei Zohar 19:42a. and united with. the En Sof. lgeret Hakodesh. chapter 11.. See Tikunei Zohar 69:115b.

and Iess intense. than that of Atzilut. see Etz Chayim 1:4. note 2. infra.1° But AtxiEdit is still in such close proximity to the En Sof that it. Although the particular aspects and rungs of tzimtzum are too numerous to count and generally are of many diverse kinds. and draws its vivification through Atzilut. note 17. thus in smaller measure and less intense than Adam Kcrdmon. of Klalut ABYA-I). for the emanation of Adam Kadmon extends f from the highest level to the very central point of the chalal (the world of Asiyah).. 17. In that sense Adam Kadmon is the "soul" o Atzilut.20 This denotes the immense separation and distinction between these levels. though. infra. in effect. Igeret Hakodesh. ch. . Adam Kadmon) is G-dliness itelf. See Etz Chuyim 42:4 (ibid. 44: 1.110 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSLDISM ceives its vivification (the Divine Emanation and Life-force) uia. however. also. Thus we speak of a Massach. and Zgeret Hakodesh. and draws its vivification 16. In an exf tended sense. The World of Atzilut (and a fortiori. chapter VII.18 thus in smaIler measure. sect. the full intensity and effect of tzimtzum is first noticeable in this Realm. See Tanya I : chs. 19. Zgeret Hakodesh. it is also the "soul" or spiritual substratum and life-force o all worlds. is "One with It. XX. or Prussa ( curtain. chapter VIII. DiVinity. 13 f. which give rise to the three lower Worlds. X X . 20. 39 and 49. too. covering) separating between Atziht and Beriah (and between the subsequent worlds) . In fact." being. or from Adam Kadmon.. of sect. note 20. beg. ibid. there are. three levels of powerful and comprehensive contraction and condensation. In that sense Atzilut is the "soul" of Beriah. albeit in ever-increasing concealment.l7 B* e is further removed. XX. Supra. Yetzirah is still further removed. cf. sect.

chapter 111.through Beriah. Beriah of Atzilut. Chochmah of Atzilut. That is why. for its state of immense sublimity. Asiyah of Atzilut. However. Thus even this &st grade can be subdivided 21.ves. There always are some drosses that cannot be removed. Every Realm always being the "soul" of the succeeding one. generally. and Asiyah is the furthest removed having its vivification from Yetzirah.21 Like the ten S e f i r ~ these Five Worlds correspond to the t~~ letters of the Tetragrammaton: Atzilut corresponds to the Yud. Sha'arei Kedushah 111: 1-2. Meuoh She'arim VI:2: 1.23 In fact. the Worlds also divide into the general classes o the Sefirot as f represented by the concept of the Worlds: thus we speak of Atzilut of Atzilut. note 37. even the first grade silver cannot be wholly and totally pure. free of base metals. and so on until Adyah of Asiyah. See supra. Moses Cordovero explains this division by means of an analogy to a silversmith who grades his silver according to the purity of the metal: The first grade is the most pure silver. the third is about half pure and half impure. Yetzirah of Atzilut. Atzilut of Beriah. 24. and Asyah to the latter Hei. As Keter is elevated above all Sefirot. R. cannot be represented by any specific letter but by the "thorn" of the Yud. . only four Worlds are spoken of and referred to. Moreover. Though all ten Sefirot emanate and "function" in every World in particular (Keter of Atzilut. Adam Kadmon. and the fourth contains more base metals than silver. the Worlds correspond to the Sefirot themselves. 23. Yetzirah to the Vau. Beriah of Bedah. Be* to the first Hei. Binah of Atzilut and so specific Sefirot predominate in each of the Worlds. just as the Sefirot are compounds dividing into themsel. so Adam Kadmon is elevated above all worlds. 22. the second one is less pure than the first.

and asiyah (an enactment ) : A reshinacah is non-substantial. See supra. because these are respectively the predominant Sefirot in these particular Realms. 26. Atzilut as the Body containing this soul. it is a mere sign marked down. note 23. often compared to four modes of perception referred to as reshimah ( a mark). 39 and 52. with each sub-division differing from the others in the degree of purity. because Keter is the predominant Sefirah in Adam Kadmon. the World of Adam Kadmon is referred to as the Atzmut (the Essence. because Chochmah is the predominant Sefirah in Atzilut. Atzilut corresponds to Chochmah. into the four general categories of silver as such. also Tanya I: chs. and is. Yetzirah to the Midot (Chesed-GeuurahTiferet-Hod-Yesod). chakikah (an engraving). or soul). V. .25 In terms of the "Man-Image" of the Sefirot (the Partzuf of Adurn Kadmm. Etz Chayim 3:3. it is the Realm of Chochmah. and Asiyah to Malchut.' indeed. barely denoting a distinction between non-marked and marked. it is the realm of Keter. Igeret Hakodesh.tzirah and Asyah as the outer Garments in which this Body is The difference hetween these worlds is one of degree in concealment of the Atzmut. and Beriah. The same would apply also to the other three grades.112 MYSTICAL OONCEPTS IN CHASSlDlSM Thus Adan Kadmon corresponds to Keter. sect. Ye. therefore. chdziuah ( a carving). Cf. into more and less 'wholly pure. Beriah corresponds to Bimh. (Pardess Rimonim 24:10) 25. note 51 (53). the original emanation of the Divine Light).

rather. E d .28 Therefore Beriah is radically different and removed f o Atdlut.Shomer Emunim I:51. XX. 28. and Zgeret Hakodesh. A chatziuah is more perceptible yet. . Full perception. Its type of reality is so close to naught that there is practically no difference between them. the beginning of reality). thus denoting the close proximity -to the point of unity -of theSej4rot to their Source. Zohar Chadrrsh. Yetzirah he relates rm to the verse "1YT-and the Eternal. though still very subtle. sect. is the finished product of an asiyah. See commentary of Nachmanides on Numbers 16:30. is already sensed and perceived in greater measure than the reshimah. on the other hand. note 24 supra. and corresponding to it is the World which is called by this na~ne-Asiyah. Betiah he relates to the verse "But if the Eternal H339 ? I N 9 1 3 (creates a creation)" (Numbers 16:30). Precisely so. ex nihib.~~ R. A chakikah. note 21 (23).thus. (Genesis 2:17) Yetzimh then is related to the "dust 27. formed man of the dust of the ground. Moses Cordovero reads these differences between the Worlds in their very names. Comparable to that is Yetzirah. Parhss Rimonirn 16:9. Beriah is the stage of a more perceptible and finite being than Atzilut. He suggests that the term Atzilut is also related to the preposition SYH (near-by). just as an object hewn and carved is sensed in much greater degree than some engraving. Bereishit 17b. with the connotation of the coming into being of something new. Atzilut is the first egression towards substantiality: between absolute naught and infinity and the category of substantiality and finitude. correspondingly. between absolute naught and reality (or.Cf. completely in the realm of distinct substantiality and corporeality.

32 Therefore. 31. See supra. re-emerges as Keter of Beriah. Asiyah is self-explicit as the most material and perceptible of these terms. in Beriah. and in Asiyah.~OThrough "function" of Makhut) the Sefirot of Atzilut (latently immanent in Makhut of Atzilut) are projected further to manifest themselves in Beriah. the lowest level of Atzilut. Therefore Malchut of Atzilut. section 3) serves as intermediary between a higher stage and the subsequent lower one. the World of 29. as well as in Beriah.114 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN MASSIDISM of the ground. .~l While the Sefirot of Beriah are the actual Sefirot of AtziEzrt.29 Now. all the Sefirot emanate throughout all the Worlds. Malchut of Atzilut thus serves as the mediary between Atzilut and Beriah. 30. in general and in particular. the highest level of Beri~h. level than Beriah. they are in Beriuh in a state of great concealment and condensation. See supra.1.and notes 27* (30) and 43 (46) a. Pardqss Rimonirn 16:1. and this is also suggested by its appearance as the third and last term in the above-mentioned verse of Isaiah 43:7. See lgeret Hakodesh. All the Sefirot manifest themselves in Atzilut." a lower. note 20. As the Sefirot are in Atzilut they are still in explicit unity Makhut of Atzilut (as is the with their Emanat~r. 32. note 17. sect. XX. For the "downward transition" from Atzilut to Beriah involves "passage" through the immense tzimtzum of the prassa that separates these worlds. in Yetzirah. as has been said. In that capacity Malchut of Atzilut assumes a characteristic of Keter which (as stated earlier in chapter 111. much less spiritual.

Igeret Hakodesh. there is the first appearance of finite and limited creatures distinct from Divinity. This allows for the appearance of creatures less sublime and more numerous than those of Beriah. in the lowest level of A ~ i y a h .86 33.Creation. and 51 (quoted at the beginning of this chapter). supra. ~ ~ The implications of this creative process are two-fold.they appear distinct and separate from Divinity. See Tanya I: chs. physical world with finite. note 9.94 For the En Sof alone is able to create and sustain all beings ex nihib. chapter 111. albeit so strongly obscured and condensed that it is not manifest per se. Through Malchut of Betiah the Sefirot (all latently present in Malchut) are projected further downwards to manifest themselves in Yetzirah. 40. physical creatures to the point that . As this process continues. though still strictly spiritual: the souls of the righteous ( Tzadikim). For it is no less than the actual light of the En Sof that issues forth from Malchut of Atzilut. emerging there in still greater concealment and condensation. Tanya I: ch. 34. and sublime angels. On the other hand it implies the Divine Immanence or Indwelling Presence (Shechinah) even in the finite and physical. . XX. sect. 38. 39. sect. and Zgeret Hakodesh. See Shdarei Kedushah III:2.because of the immense tzimtzum involved . VI and XXV. the Sefirot are not to be regarded as "creative agents" separate and distinct from Divinity. The same process repeats itself in the next stage of the creative development. On the one hand it allows for the possibility of a finite. and cf. it culminates in the physical creatures and entities of our physical world. 35.


Essence). strictly speakI. the En Sof. Etz Chayim 1:3.. Moses Cordovero and R. the paragraphs following. united with their Emanator. Derush Keitzad Na'asim Hakelim . an interpretation generally following the views of R. see Pardess Rimonim 4:l-4.1. Pardess Rimonim. the subject is discussed as it appears In in Chassidism. The numerous grades of condensation presented five comprehensive classes of obscured and concealed Sefirot. sometimes Atzmut . Isaac Luria. and 47:l. But by definition these Orot. the actual emanations. see Zohar II:42b f . in addition to the sources cited in the subsequent notes. 40:8.CHAPTER FIVE Orot and Kelim 1. For further perusal of this involved theme. Thus. Now the actual emanations from the En Sof are called Orot (Lights. called the Five Worlds. Sha'ar Hahakdamot. and commentaries a. are absolutely bound up with their Source. The subject of Orot and Kelim is another controversial topic much discussed since the times of the early mystics. The Concepts of OROT KELIM' AND It has already been explained how the emanations from the En Sof are condensed and obscured by means of tzimtzum. Sha'ar IV. .

R. Vessels. Only then.E. no name. 19c). But as everything was a simple light. . by way of analogy (pp. Maggid Devarao Leya'akov. Dov Ber of Lubavitch. of the ten Sefirot. we cannot really refer to Orot (Lights in the plural).and Derushei ABYA:l (pp. as different kinds of emanations or different kinds of Sejirot. applies to it . These general types of concealment are called Kelim. of different attributes. but only to Or En Sof. to recognize a distinction between one Sefimh and another.2 For all practical purposes the Orot themselves remain unchanged from their origin and Divine S o ~ r c eA~ . distinction between them is made possible by the Kelim (Vessels) : Tzimtzum screened the light of the En Sof to such an extent that it produced ten different classes of concealment through each of which the Or En Sof manifests itself in a different way. nor any image or form whatever. the Light of the En Sof (singular). They are the Vessels which contain the Lights. 50b ff. we can speak of Orot. 376 ff. Cf. . 27 ff. letter or point. This conception is at the core of the controversy mentioned supra. . just as.118 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS LN CHASSIDISM ing. sect. For a name indicates something specific and limited.). A distinction between Orot ( a scheme of Sefirot that differ from one another) can be made only after tzimtzum takes place relative to tzimtzum.". sect. Meuoh Shebrim 1:l: l (see aIso the sequel a. 93 (p. . term. note 1. . 3.). depending on the variations in the degrees of manifestation of the Or En Sof. Pardess Rimonin 6:6. ch. 390. "Prior to tzimtzum all the light was equal in absolute unity and likeness . Sha'ar Haykhud (Kuntres Hahitbonenut). of ranks and levels.). 2. thus there does not apply to it any name or term. also Keter Shem See Tov.

' The purpose of tzimtzum is for the production of Kelim. . 5 . ch. limitation. Tanya II:4. 111. Hakd. 1:4).Orot and Kelim 119 and metaphor. Etz Chayim 1:3. See Tanya II:4. For by means of the condensation and dimming of the light it is possible for the Kelim to come into being and to be manifest". and He separated" (Gen. this separation refers to the formation of the Kelim which "set and fashion a separation. IV.-The Kelim are themselves mixtures of the lowest levels of lights "brought about by a condensation (hithbut) of the light" (Etz Chuyim 47: 11. Thus the Lights and the Kelim together make up the Sefirot. and Shu'ar Hahakdamot. Etz Chayfm 4:3. . Just as trimtzum is synonymous with Gevurah and Din (supra. a. and measure. the Light) vests Itself".so Kelim becomes synonymous with Geuurah and Din: "The attribute of Din always restricts Chesed so that it will not exceed.6 It is in this context of Orot and Kelim that R. And this is the principal meaning of the term Kelim. Moses Cordovero introduces a famous simile to explain the differentiation 4. within them the Atzmut (the Divine Essence. 'The purpose of trimtzum is . note 1. Mevoh She'arim VI:2:1. Shalom Buzaglo. just like a vessel restricts the waters so that they will not flow out.. Hadrat MeZech on Zohar I:15a. and just as there are various grades of tzimtzum so there are various types of ZbZim. 6. .1. 59).6 In fact. Derush 11-Be'olam Hanekudirn (p. see at length R. note 87). and they originate in the reshimu (the faint residue) of the original light that had remained in the chaM after the initial tzimtzum.c. among the Orot". thus have for their purpose to limit and restrain the Divine effulgence from excessive radiation. Din and Kelim. in the verse "and G-d saw the light that it was good. See also Shu'ar H a h a k h t . In interpretation of the Creation-account. supra. bodies contain souls. to fashion the aspect of the Kelim. and ibfd. tzimtzum may be taken as synonymous with Kelim. Tzimtzum. Gevurah.

the Kelim is the "colourless" essence like the colourless w a ~ e r that appears coloured only when.will appear coloured according to the hue of the vessels which contain them. On the concept of various rolours symbolizing and representing the different Sefirot see Zohar III:248b. Tikunim 117c). the Essence (the Orot) is analogous to a ray of light radiating through several crystals and thus assuming different colours. 8. these waters . A third simile is that of the soul in the body of man. (This simile appears already in Chovot Haleuouot.120 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM wrought by the Kelim: When pouring water into a number of differently coloured glasses. and the gloss which appears also in Zohar Chadash. 1. and acts through. too. Yet the soul is simple and unitary. Shdar Habechinah. and as. through the intervening crystals. it is with the Sefrot. and 7. and Zohar I:18b. Introduction l a (text. The soul acts through the limbs and organs of the body and manifests itself differently through various activities. Light in itself is simple and colourless but can be divided and coloured. Tikunei Zohar. vested in the Kelim.: The Divine Light (the Orot) that is contained in. red for Gevurah and so on). it is the same soul acting throughout the body. Sha'ar X. Pardess Rimonim.8 Similarly.though in themselves colourless . Sefe~. intensified or dimmed and so forth. ch. Habahir 49 (137). XII. See also Zohar Chadash 34a-b. and XIX:39b. sect. and Zgeret Hakodesh. Cf. The Kelim are the Divine tools that bear different colours corresponding to their individual character or activity (white for Chesed. So.) . Pardess Rimonim 4:4.

Zbid.12 On the level of Atzilut the Kelim are still very subtle. Heaven forbid .). hearing. 10. supra. But the Kelim themselves are a very pure light. 12. 99c fl. Pardcss Rimonim a. speaking and so on) are due to the differences in the organ^. Cf. the Orot ) themselves! These Kelim differ not only from one plane to another (relative to the Sefirot). Cf. this relates only to the measure and limitation in the activity geared towards the recipients in a set and limited fashion.l. When we refer [there] to Kelim it is only relative to the Light and Atzmut in them. 55 (pp. On the level of Adam Kadmon the Kelim (like the state of tzimtzum in that Realm) are extremely subtle and diaphanous.^ At the same time it must be kept in mind that when speaking of changes in the manifestations. see also E l i m Rabbaty.1° and not to the Kelim (and. the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut and so on. chapter IV (notes 8 and 9 . supra. cf. ." 11. "Do not err. in thinking that in Adam Kadmon there are Kelim in the literal sense. Etz Chyim 6:3: "The Kelim are to garb the light for the sake of the recipients. chapter 111. to the very extremity of purity and tenuity. hardly distinguishable from the Orot. less so than in Adam Kadmon but still totally spiritual.. Heaven forbid.Orot and Kelim 121 all differences in manifestations (seeing. . May'an 1II:VI: ch. or of limitations or fixed measures with regard to the Kelim of the Sefirot.where these similes are cited in the context of distinguishing between the Worlds). And so. 9. . section 1.. successively the Kelim become ever more obstructive until the Orot are practically hidden completely in Asiyah. a fortiori. Beware and do not err in this matter!" Etz Chayim 1:4. but more so from one World to another: there are the Orot and Kelim of Adam Kadmon.

unqualified.Lights). There are. .122 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Thus when we speak of the different classes of Sefirot. for the Atzrnut to be ve5. however. note 1.e.Lights) . and succeed each other).ed in the Kelim it must be condensed and its intensity must be diminished Only a minute "part" of the light is thus condensed and confined within the Kelim. Generally speaking. concealment and condensation effected by the numerous. of more or less intense radiations from the Sefi+ot (as the Worlds proceed from.. It is the Or Pnimi. the term Orot. mostly refers to this "inner soul"-aspect. Or P i i .13 2. two aspects: Orot Pnimiyirn (Inner Lights) and Orot Makifim (Encompassing . usually referred to in singular form as Or Pnimi and Or Makif. However. i.or Transcending . See sources mentioned supra. this difference is not due to any change in the original Orot but because of the increasing intensity.radiating and illuminating within the Kelim analogous to the soul vested and radiating within the body of man. irradiates and vitalizes them from within. successive grades of Kelim.or Immanent . The basic difference between these two aspects is as follows:14 Just as the soul of man is vested in all the limbs of the body. 13. See Etz Chayim 2:3. 14. so the 070t Pnimiyim are vested within the Kelim of the Sefirot.Or Makif nm The Atzmut (Orot) as vested in the Kelim is also referred to as Orot Pnimiyim (Inner .

of the ultimate life-force.Filling or Pervading all Worlds). See Tanya. and note 11 (12) ad loc.Orot and Kelim 123 To take the analogy further: The soul of man is neither a selfsufficient nor original power of life.16 15. of the Divine Light sustaining all being. in a state of occultation (tzimtzum) commensurate to the body's capacity. Thus there remains a more intense aspect of the Divine Light which cannot be vested in the Kelim and remains beyond them . 111. cannot be absorbed by the body or Kelim. a "part". in its full intensity. We can compare this to the concept of tzimtzum discussed in Chapter Two: The light manifest within the chalal is contracted. form. however.27) must be a strongly concealed and contracted illumination. albeit pervasive. It is only a ray. It would be impossible for the finite body to contain and absorb the original light. .encompassing them from without. The light per se. while the Or Makif is analogous to the Transcendence of G-d (Soueu Kol Almin Encompassing or Encircling all Worlds). Thus the "Light of the Eternal which is the soul of man" (Prouerbs 20. and the Or Makif compares to the light beyond or outside the chalal. Zgeret Hakodesh. sect. chapter 48. its original intensity is concealed. The Or Pnimi compares to the light within. Outside the chalal the light is in its pristine manifestation. This is the Or Makif which irradiates the Kelim in a transcending. The Or Pnimi is analogous to the Immanence of E d ( Memale Kol Almin .

or body). but remains in occultation and concealment relative to the worlds (Kelim or body). which is not apprehended by the worlds. it manifests its vitality and powers in each limb or organ according to its composition and character: the brain for 16. 'filling7-'encompassing'). Thus even while the Or Makif is altogether concealed within the worlds or Kelim. from head to foot. being clothed within the worlds (or Kelim. These concepts relate strictly to the degree of revealed influence or emanation: The influence which is in a state of revelation or manifestation in the worlds (or Kelim. is not described as being "invested but as "encircling and encompassing" ( Makif. supra. In the analogy from the soul. . just sufficient to animate them in a limited state. the Or Pnimi compares to the various soul-powers which manifest themselves in specific limbs and organs according to their innate capacities. end of section 1 and note 10 ad loc. its influence is nonetheless pervasive and active there in a hidden manner. The influence which is not manifest. See Tanya. below-above.124 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM But just as in the case of Menude Kol Almin and Soueu Kol Almin. or body) is referred to in terms of investiture. Sovev ) . being diffused throughout all the organs. or body). Though the soul pervades the whole body. chapter 48. we must beware of any spatial connotations in the literal sense ( inside-outside.lo The Or Makif (or Or Sovev) is the principal light from which only an extremely minute and contracted reflection clothes and reveals itself in the worlds (or Kelim. and the examples given there to illustrate and elucidate these concepts. Cf. chapter IV.

Achdut Hashem. the ear for hearing. Tanya. analogous to the concept of ratzon .the essence-will which both pervades and transcends (see supra. S . It extends vitality and illumination equally throughout the body. Thus the Or Makif constitutes the principal light and radiates in both pervasive and transcendent form without being manifest. V . chapter 111. In this context the Or Makif is the aspect of Keter. the mouth for speaking. chapter 51. though it remains concealed and the individual capacities are not manifested by it in the limbs and organs. .0701. This is the aspect of Or Pnimi which manifests itself in different ways and gradations.17 17. and Kelim 125 reasoning. remaining equally concealed throughout. cf. See Derech Mitzootecha. the feet for walking and so on. The Or Makif is analoguos to the essence of the soul. section 3). 120 f. . the eye for seeing. and S. Binyan Mikdash.V. without distinction between various parts. p. 169 f . p..


and Back.. Face. the essence or essential-being of the subject to which it is applied. See lgeret Hakodesh. the lowest level. sect. Outwardness. Pnimiyut means Inwardness. 3. sect. and synonymous with the concept of Chit~oniyut.. the core. 2.l Opposed to Pnimyut is Chitzoniyut. of the subject to which it is applied. XXIIa (see notes . Achorayim).). Ibid. IV. VII (see note 27 a. The terms themselves suggest their meanings. Panim is an expression of Pnimiyut. Achor is both literally and conceptually the antonym of Panim. X I X . IV and XU(. Ibid.CHAPTER SIX Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut Pnimiyut and Chitzoniyut are terms which occur frequently in Kabbalistic and Chassidic literature. Externality. and Achor (pl. Chitzoniyut is the furthest point from the Pnimiyut. It refers to the innermost point.* Synonymous terms are Panim. respectively. It is the most external. XIX.l. sect.~ 1.

the critique by R. See Maimonides. . ch. Abraham ibn Daud. sect. Igeret Hakodesh. and cf.128 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM When we speak of the Pnimiyut of a Sefirah. when we come across a term4 such as the "aspect of the Chitzoniyut of the Kelim of Makhut of Atzilut. E. 4. V.l..l.e. elaborated in Moreh Nevuchim I:21 and 37. we refer to the very essence of that Sefirah. cited in Kessef Mishneh a. the Divine Light.). S h e m nah Perakim." 29(31) and 36(38) a. VII. and HiZchot Yesodei Hatorah I:10 (cf. Tanya I:22. i.g. For example. refers to the very lowest and most external rank and level of that Sefirah. or Chitzoniyut of a Sefirah." this refers then to the lowest level of the Kelim of the Sefirah "Makhut of Aztilut. The Achorayim..).

110d. II:37c ff.. In the writings of R. Moses Cordovero's interpretation on these passages see Pardess Rimonim 5:4. Hechul . 142a-b. 81-109). ibid. Isaac Luria in particular. Va'eira.). 53c 8.CHAPTER SEVEN Shevirat Hakelim Sheoird Hakelim. Cf. Eyn Habedo1ach:I:ch.] . 60. Schneur Zalrnan this concept is explained in Torah Or. Shi'ur Komah. Likutei Torah.) Meuoh She'arim II:2: 1-11. 27c f. Vayesheu. (p. also R. ~ Shevirat Hakelim (the Breaking of the Vessels) is the keyconcept in the explanation of the basic problem of multifariousness 1. and in the teachings of R. and Zdra Z ~ t t a .. Elima Rabbaty.. and the adjunct concepts to be explained in the chapters following. [For R. though see especially Etz Chuyim. 6 fl. and III:82c.' Their source is in the Zoharic books Sifra Detzeniyuta. Derush B e ' o h Hanekudim (pp. Tzvi Hirsh Horowitz. Idra Rabba. ch. III:128a. Shdar Hahakdamot. 2. The concept of Sheuirat Hakelim appears throughout the various works of the Lurianic system. are central doctrines in the Kabbalah in general. AspakZuya Hameirah on Zohr 111: 135a %. and Yitro. 56d f. Zohar II:176b. ibid. 135a-b.. Hanekudim (Sha'ar 8 f.

From the most sublime aspect of Keter issued forth the Sefirah of Chochmah. It is based on the Midrashic account of the building and destruction of the primordial world^. . see also I Chronicles 1:43 ff. from which the ten Sejrot proceeded in gradual order. Thus the Vessel of Chochmah is smaller than the Vessel of Keter. At first there issued forth a highly concentrated. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot. compounded of ten gradations. containing also the lights of the successive Sefirot.130 MYSTICAL CONCEF'TS IN CHASSIDXSM and the origin of evil. Genesis 36:31 f. Binah to Makhut. their Kelim are also successively smaller. When the light of the En Sof radiated to the Vessel of Keter (including the lights destined for the suc- 3."~ The original emission of the Sefirot was that of the scheme of Zggulim. and so forth.^ and the mystical account of the eight kings who "reigned in the land of Edom.. It contained within it the successive radiations of Chochmah to Makhut. and from Binah issued forth the Midot in unison. The most sublime aspect of the original point became Keter. and 9:2. As the Sejirot axe on successively lower levels. the Vessel of Binah is smaller than the Vessel of Chochmah. and from the latter issued forth Malchut. When we speak of successive issuances. 4. From Chochmah emanated the Sefirah Binah. seminal point of light. Genesis Rabba 3:7. Now each Keli is commensurate with its respective Sejrah. it must be remembered that the first issue is that of a Keli (Vessel) into which an Or (Light) can then emanate and be contained. before there reigned any king over the children of I~rael.

the relatively minor excess of light encompassed this Vessel by way of an Or Makif ( Encompassing. as with the other Sefirot.cessive Sejirot). the Vessel of Chochmuh was able to absorb practically all of it. being both "large" and "strong" enough. i. including the lights destined for the lower Sefirot. or Transcending Light. section 2. .e. for this term. to which was projected at first only the light destined for the remaining stage. and it. This process continued and repeated itself with the next Sefirot. chapter V. too. The unequal proportion of extremely intense Orot and extremely subtle Kelim precipitated this eventful occurrence.. Malchut. The total light was then projected to the Vessel of the next Sefirah. when the total light emanated from the upper Sefirot to 5. from Binuh to Da'at. though this emanation was already much less intense. Likewise. but also the lights meant for the lower Sefirot were projected into that Vessel. ) The same occurred with the flow from Chochmah to Binah. broke for the same reason. The only change occurred on the level of Yesod. The Vessel of Yesod was able to contain this light and project it further. which were more than it could endure. The Kelirn of Chochmh and Binah could contain these lights because of their close proximity to Keter. thus all the Vessels broke. But as the Divine Light proceeded further. See supra. This was so because not only the light meant for Da'at. But then. the Vessel of Da'at could not contain the light and was shattered by the intensity of the radiation. the point of Keter was able to contain and endure it. Chesed. when the light from Keter flowed to Chochmh.

e. That is why their Kelirn were unable to endure the Orot and they "died. However. and cf. Ephraim's unity saved him despite his sinfulness. is the fact that these Sefirot were ~ separate. infra. Sha'ar Hakelalim. and Etz Chayim. note 1. In opposition to this pluralism "it is written: "Ephraim is united in idolatry. I. bond or unity.These Sefirot of Iggulim were a Reshut Harabim ( a domain of pluralism) because there was no unison. was already absorbed in the Vessel of Malchut. see Genesis Rabba 38:6. A common saying has it that when 6. ch. Therefore. I X . however. when the total light of the Midot was projected to Malchut. See supra. each going his own way without any love or affection between them. thereby strengthening the lower and less subtle aspects of that Vessel. Hence in Malchut the breakage was only partial6 The above account of the disproportion between the Orot and Kelim is a "descriptive account" of the "mechanical event" of Sheoirat Hakelim. At its root. ch. only the higher and more subtle aspects broke. Id f..132 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Yesod . Limudei Atzilut (Lemberg 1850). they were rather like individuals. p. 8. independent points (the scheme of I g g ~ l i r n ) . . 7. by then the light of Malchut. section 8. let him alone" (Hosea 4:17). 111. while the lower ones remained relatively intact. ch. On all the aforementioned see sources mentioned supra.8 for unity effects preservation and maintenance. the principal "flaw" which precipitated the "breaking of the vessels" and the dissolution of the original scheme of the Sejirot. I.its Vessel also broke.

it is only of the first seven Kings that Scripture states that they died.. These Kings who died allude to the Vessels which broke. 11. However. made of the dust of the earth. Because the breakage was complete in the first seven. . this refers to the breaking of the Vessels. (supra note 2). Etz Chclyim 11:s. Ibid.. Zohar a. Analogous to this is that which occurred to the Kings: the "soul" [the Orot of the Sefirot] ascended to be re-absorbed in its source. The soul per se. 10. in Genesis. therefore.l0 Now.. only seven broke completely. 9:2 and 19:l. in the second account. but if you take just three together they will endure and will not break. while the body. the eight Kings who reigned in the Land of Edom are the Eight Sefirot issuing from B i d : Da'at to Malchut. In the first account of the Kings. but not the eighth. it is stated of all eight Kings that they died. while the remains 9.12 Death means the separation of soul from body: the soul ascends to return to its source. in Chronicles. they will break. for they were not separate points but inter-re1ated. Of these Kings it is stated that they reigned and then died. and III:87a 8. they are the primordial worlds which were destroyed.1.c." f 12. whereas for the body it is a lowering and degradation to be reduced from its erstwhile level of being part of man to the present level of a lifeless corpse.see also ibid.ll that is. the sources speak mostly o the "seven Kings of Edom. and see Likutei Torah II:37c g. is not affected by take ten reeds separately. is returned to earth."@For this very reason the first three Sefirot were preserved. but not of the eighth.

Etz Chayim 11:4. referring to the death o the Kings and the division of the residue of the Divine Light f into 288 sparks (the sparks encumbered in the midst of the word n n . thereby causing the "death of the Kings. from a sublime level to lower levels." and the number 288)." "And the spirit of G-d n 3 R l D (hovered) . to Beriah and so on. we speak of 288 general sparks (Nitzotzin). . Torah Or. fell to their "grave". Death is used here in the figurative sense of applying to any degradation:13 as the broken Kelim fell.. A residue of the Orot remained attached to the fragments.15but as they fell further. Therefore. l4 As the parts of the vessels were projected downwards they broke further into an ever increasing number of fragments. Vayeshev. Genesis Rabba 96:3. Hence.). Etz ChayZm 18:l. . as they were not yet ordered and inter-related. i.134 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of the "body". This is adduced in Genesis 1:2: "And the earth was tohu and vohu (unformed and unordered)". Zohar 111:13%." (ibid. 14. the word n B R l D divides into two parts: n'b and R"DY ("died. but separate principles. within the "dead or broken vessels). they are regarded as having died. . the fragmented Kelim of the Sefirot. as the parts fell to the realm of Atzilut. 27d. 15. and 18:l. a real and final separation in totality of the Orot from the Kelim. Likutei Tomh III:82c. the analogy does not hold true altogether. these 288 sparks were subdivided 13. Cf. this refers to the unformed Sefirot of the Zggulirn. However. the residue of the Divine Light attached to them was also "fragmented. For in the case of the "Kings" there was not a real and final death." as it were.e.

Pardess Rimonim 25:1. Chaim Vital. the broken Vessels. there is no waste or useless matter whatever. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Beriah.16 R.into an ever greater number of smaller sparks. R. they are the substance of evil. ch. as they are projected down the various levels and assimilated among them. Sefer Hagilgulim (Vilna 1886). not so much because the original fragments became cruder themselves. are called their 16. Even so. the next grade of aspects is absorbed and assimilated in Yetzirah. and the lowest grades are in Asiyah. Moses Cordovero. each one attached to a fragment. though essentially pure mixtures of light. metaphorically speaking. chemically speaking. 1. it is totally and absolutely pure. The most subtle aspects of the broken K l m are totally absorbed and assirniei lated in Atzilut. . 17. the great expositor of the Kabbalah. Meuoh She'arim II:3:8. as these fragments fell continuously deeper. when he consumes this food and it is digested and assimilated in his body. even the purest food will show some refuse that is expelled from the body for being unassimilable. but because the more subtle aspects were gradually assimilated and absorbed among the successive grades and levels. Also. they became not only more numerous but also less tenuous. they have some unassimilable parts which. illustrates this process with an analogy to food:17 Man may select the best of foods in which. Precisely so. metaphorically speaking. The lowest grades which could not be assimilated in the realm of holiness become the realm of impurity.

Edom. Cf. where some of it was assimilable and became the creatures of Yetziwh.. just as Ishmael is the aspect of impure Chesed (see Igeret Hakodesh. the root-elements of all creations. material and cruder the elements become until they assume the characteristics of matter as we know it. Hence. the substance of evil is always referred to as the "waste" and "refuse" of the aspects of Geuurala (see Zohar I:74b. note 12). On the higher levels they are the tenuous root-elements of the elements [which are practically spiritual.'* As they fell to Beriah. . just sufficient to sustain their existence. They become more distinct entities and are. where some of it was assimilable 18. ibid. those aspects that could be assimilated in that World became the creatures of Beriah. XXV. just as the waste of Abraham's Chesed extended to Ishmael. The attribute of Isaac is that of Gevumh (see supra. also infra. and sect. they form the four elements. thus. The unassimilable waste of Beriah was projected to Yetzirah. and note 14(17) a. X X . and K l m may be taken as synei onymous). 111. The unassimilable waste of Yetzirah was projected to Asiyah. 148a). the fragments are the origin and substance of matter. 19. note 30 (33) 1. This waste and refuse is the essence of evil and impurity. note 107). The "waste" of Isaac's Gevurah extended to Esau. as such. The substance of evil thus consists of the waste and remains of the Kings of Edom. Din. ibid. because the fragments are deprived of the Orot and retain but a spark of holiness. That is. note 13 (16). supra. is essentially a place to which Gevurah and Din are bound to and derive from (see sources cited supra.136 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM waste and refuse. chapter V. son of Isaac.) so Esau is the aspect of impure Gevurah (cf. ' Now.1. 11. note 57 (63) ). and Edom in its source is the aspect of the original Kelim (cf. that tzimtzum. ch. sect. and the lower they fall the more tangible. Gewrah. end of chapter IX. Edom is the realm of Esau.. Hence. they lead ever more "independent" existences. see Igeret Hakodesh. sect.

indeed.. See infra. Note. chapter 111. and for the existence of evil. and ibid. see Etz Chuyim. chapters X and XI. beginning of sect. and note 3 a. See supra.22 20. even on the lowest. 2. infm. Vayeshev. 19:3. Cf.. that on all levels..l. XX. Etz Chayim 43: Introduction. Igeret Hakodesh.1. And this. there remain sparks of holiness attached to the fragments which sustain their existence. 21. 27d.21 and provides then1 with a choice between good and evil so that the King may manifest His attributes of Chesed. ch.Sheuirat Hakelim 137 and became the creatures of Asiyah. See Torah Or. Because of the multiplicity in them. while the unassimilable waste of Asiyah remained on the lower levels of this Realm as the elements of evil. Rachamim and so on. however. and notes 143-144 a. Sha'ar Hakelalim. section 7. Yetzirah and Asiyah are called the Realm of Pimd (Division). and III:159a f. 22. while Atzilut is called the Realm of Yichud (Unity) because the Orot and Kelim of Atzilut are fully absorbed in Divinity and not separated from It. is the very intent and purpose of Shevirat Hakelim: it brought about the subjects over which the King can rule in a meaningful way.20 The fragments thus are responsible for the multifariousness in G-d's creation. see Zohar II:234a f. Cf. Din. . thus acting as their "animating principles" or "souls". the lower Worlds of Beriuh. chapter XI.


ch. In the new order the Sefirot had to be repaired in such a way that a breakage would not ensue. Stddur h Perush Hamilot. Cf. 179b. 2. sect. Hakd. thus allowing the 1. The reason for the breakage was that the original Sefirot were independent principles and had not been brought into harmony with each other. 1-11. p.CHAPTER EIGHT Partzufim The original scheme of the Sefirot was unable to exist. and therefore could not absorb any additional light meant for others. The Sefirot. and V:19d. therefore. . Shahr Hahakdamot. and Shu'ar Hakelalim. were re-established in a new order in which the Kelim would be able to absorb and contain the Orot and the emanations could proceed in a gradual manner. Igeret Hakodesh. The Kelim of the Midot were for their own Orot only. as seen in the preceding chapter. This chapter is based essentially on Etz Chayim 11:7. Likutei Tomh II:37d. Mevoh She'arim II:3:4. XIX.

Arich Anpin. as it were. or Supernal Mother). the other two Sefirot that remained intact were also transmuted. This Partzuf is called Arich Anpin (the long. the Sefirot. The principle of Chochrnah is converted to the Partzuf of Abba (Father).. Configurations). Chochmuh of Arich Anpin. See lgeret Hakodesh.1. or Extended Face. cf. Thus it extends from the highest to the lowest level. note 16. and able to absorb the Orot. This is effected by extending. In this new order the Sefirot appear as Partzufirn (Forms. is the substratum of everything. and the principle of Binah is converted to the Partzuf of Immu (Mother. also called the Yosher of Adam Kadmon (i. section 8) in which every Sefirah functions. 2. X X .e. and note 86(95) a. . but it is converted into a configuration analogous to the Man-Image (referred to above. chapter IV.. each compounding all ten Sefirot. supra. the basic Sefirot-scheme of Yosher as it is in the Realm of Adam Kadmon). Visages. according to the scheme of Yosher. causing them to function within one another. Macroprosopus). and so forth. by harmonising the Sefirot. sect. Thus the Kelim would be larger and stronger. from Keter of Adam Kadmon to Malchut of Asiyah (though in an ever more concealed mode). Keter is no longer a simple point in which the other Sefirot are included as latent points.2 Subsequently. Both Abba and Imma are complete Partzufirn. In this Configuration we speak of Keter of Arich Anpin. chapter 111. Binah of Arich Anpin. though Keter is the dominant aspect.140 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSDISM Divine emanations to proceed in such a way as would make it possible for a world to come into being.

. known as Nukuah (the Female). Binah of Abba. or simply Malchut. known as Z'eyr Anpin (the Small. as it were. on its own. Through Z'eyr Anpin issues forth Malchut. whose Kelim had been shattered completely. as the Partzuf of Bat (the Daughter). so to speak. or unit. and so forth. Hence Malchut yearns to be reunited with Z'eyr Anpin. are parallel to each other (as Chochmah and Binah are in the scheme of Yosher. as the Partzuf of Ben (the Son). again compounding the ten aspects of the Sefirot. 4. one on the right and the other on the left). Microprosopus).~ The six Midot. and Keter of lmma. but because its Vessel did not break altogether it is a Partzuf. to become one with it. Chochmah of Abba. Chochmah of lmma. a dual Configuration and are referred to as the "firm friends who never ~eparate". Thus they are. and III:4a. and it is called Nukvah in terms of the Z'egr Anpin: the Midot are the masculine aspect of the Z'eyr Anpin. Chesed to Yesod. Zohar III:4a. and so on. issue forth from lmma as a unit. by means of his worship and service to G-d. . Nevertheless the relationship remains.4 To effect this union is the task of man. These two Partzujim are related by Keter (the faculty of Da'at Elyon) : their Configurations issue both from Arich Anpin and. Malchut is essentially related to the Midot. again compounding all ten aspects of the Sefirot.Thus we speak of Keter of Abba. or Lesser Countenance. This is the concept of the 3. See Zohar I:30b f.

In that day shall the Eternal be One and His Name One."~ "The sum of all this is: the Ancient of the Ancient and the Z'eyr Anpin are absolutely One. 6. the essence of Arich Anpin. blessed be He and blessed be His Name foreverla~ting. do not imply any pluralism in the G-dhead. Kissei Melech on Tikunei Zohar. Said Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai: "Whatever I said of the Holy Ancient-One. Tanya 1:ch. all was. Manifestations of the G-dhead. R. s. 111. 7. There is no division in Him. See Keter Shem Tou. . .. everything is absolutely One. and His She~hinah". Atika Kadirha (see supra. 41. 111. See Zohar III:83a.7 and whatever I said of the Z'eyr Anpin. i. blessed is He. chapter XI. and all shall be.142 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM "Unification (Yichud) of the Holy One. 85. He is unchanging. He will not change. Cf.o. It is from our perspective that they differ one from another. Keter Shem Tov. and the concept of the Partzufim. note 34).~ re-establish total unity in the u n i ~ e r s e . sect. 9." (Zechariah 14:Q). and from [below] judgment is found. All is. 19. and He has not changed .: 3a. ch. sect. ~ to At this point we must remind ourselves once more that all these terms. Zohur III:290a f. sect. Zohar III:14la f . W . what then is the difference between the one and the other? It is all One. various aspects under which G-d manifests Himself. See infra. Intr. Zgeret Hakodesh. Of this final goal it is said: "And the Eternal shall be King over all the earth. but from [above] His paths divide. The Partzufim are Faces.e. 8. is all One. Shalom Buzaglo."O 5. Should you ask. .

mended and reformed as Pa. Tohu refers to the state of the original Sefirot. see supra. .' Tikun (Correction. Etz Chayim 8: 1. Restitution.CHAPTER NINE Tohu and Tikun We now have two schemes of Sefirot: the original scheme of Zggulim which precipitated Sheoirat Hakelirn. Isaac Luria reads Genesis 1:2 as referring to the World of Tohu.~ Thus among the Sefirot of Tohu there is no interrelationship. 2.rtz~fim. and the subsequent scheme of Yosher in which the Sefirot were rearranged and the fragments had been assimilated as much as possible. The Midot of Tohu are one below the other without any mutual inclusion whatever .each on its own. Reformation) refers to the state of the Sefirot rearranged. as unformed and unordered points. In this context R. The term Tohu is taken from Genesis 1:2. and Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light. and there was light") as referring to the World of Tikun. note 15. chapter VII. without relating 1. These two orders are called the worlds of Tohu and Tikun.

g. are able to interrelate. note 151). Though Tohu. love and anger. and Geuurah is simple and absolute Gevurah. Hence man is able to control or mitigate his soul-powers of Chesed and Geuurah (e. .144 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM to its opposite. on the other hand. unable to control or mitigate them. Binah. Da'at ) . and these are in the full inter-relationship of the Sefirot as compounds. In this context man is said to be rooted in the realm of Tikun as his soul compounds all ten aspects of the Sefirot (see supra. and 9:2. compound one another. therefore. and behold it was very g o o d (Genesis 1:31) and G-d said "These please Me". Tikun has an advantage and superiority over Tohu: the perfection of the mutual inclusiveness and unity of Tikun is the condition drawing forth a manifest indwelling of the Or En Sof that is not to be found in Tohu. on the other hand. they oppose one another. and. Chesed is simple and absolute Chesed. Likutei Torah II:37e fl. as simple and absolute Midot." The realm of Tikun refers to the new worlds of which it is said: "And G-d saw everything that H e had made.. The Midot of Tikun permit the mitigating influence of Sechel and. without permitting the guidance of Sechel ( Chochmah. of which G-d said "These do not please Me. is said to be rooted higher than Tikun. chapter VII (notes 7-10). for being the original emission c. That is why the Midot assert themselves as Midot per se.-This is not to be understood in a sense of there being some accidental flaw in the original World of T o ~ u . 4 . they are fully separated and nonrelated. and precipitate Sllcvirat Hakelim.* 3.. and III:87a 8. Genesis Rabha 3:7. Animals." The realm of Toltu refers to the primordial worlds that were destroyed. chapter 111. are rooted in Tohu: they express their natural emotive powers in a simple and extreme manner.f Sefirot. See Likutci Torah II:37c ff. The Sefirot of Tikun. thus. supra. and so on)..

1. Tiferet. Isaac Luria interprets the Mishnah of Aoot V:l ("By ten sayings the world was created. note 3. ~ as this world could not subsist. bringing into being the world of Tikun. Avot a.O Beside this descriptive connotation. Cf. providing man with an opportunity to choose between good and evil which. Zohar Chadash. infra. . . Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby Ve-Razal. a n active sense. 27a. and the discourse on this Mishnah in Sha'ar Hahakdamot (p.). 73a fl. And why does Scripture teach this? Could it not have been created by a single saying? But this was in order to exact penalty from the wicked . Genesis Rabba 12:15. makes it possible for G-d to manifest His attributes of Chesed. chapter V. the flaw and defect of Tohu were intentionally and purposely formed to allow for the possibility of the effects of Shevimt Hakelim. and chapter VII. .Tohu and Tikun 145 I n the same context. See Zohar I:180b and 280b. 228 f. chapter XI. note 18. Toldot. and so forth (the principles of reward and punishment spoken of in the Mishnah). Cf. 6. 5. See Etz Chayim l l : 6 . the term Tikun has another. see also R.). the Creator mitigated the severity of Din by blending it with the attributes of Chesed and Rachamim. (I1:pp. which will b e explained further on. Zohar 111: 38a. Gevurah. and to give good reward to the righteous") to the effect that the 'Ten Sayings' in the opening statement allude to the ten separate Sefirot of Tohu. in turn. in chapter XI on Birur and Tikun. Thus R. Cf. supra. On the contrary. The actual order of creations through the stages of Tohu and Tikun allows for the possibility of evil. Tolzu is the original world created by the and attribute of Din ( G e u ~ r a h ) . Mevoh She'arim I1:3:8. and the 'single saying' in the question refers to the unified compound of the Sefirot of Tikun. Chairn Vital.


See supra." i. Chitzonim. as already mentioned earlier.. the most exterior forces.e. or the Kelipot.." i. the side distinguished from and opposed to holiness and purity. chapter XI.CHAPTER TEN Kel ipot. the "waste" of holiness that constitutes evil.' is encumbered and enclosed by the shells just as the edible fruit is encumbered and 1. or barks. The substance of evil. Sitra Achra means the "other side. thus their waste and refuse. They are the names for evil and impurity. Sitra Achra The terms in this chapter-heading are synonymous. . and infra. This holy spark. consists of the unassimilable parts of the broken Vessels. note 20. Chitzonim means the ''external ones. chapter VII. Kelipot means shells. the outer shells that contain the edible fruit but are themselves inedible.e. Each of these subsists by virtue of a spark of holiness attached to them. their vital force without which they would cease to exist.

and Kelipat Nogah. The other three Kelipot are further removed. 4 and 6. ch. Their nurture and vitality from holiness comes to them through the medium of Kelipat Nogak3 The four Kelipot. one over the other. Eliezer. 37.. There are four basic Kelipot. chs." and "a fire taking hold of itself. 5 . Cf. It is an intermediary between holy and profane. 4." these denote the three totally impure Kelipot. Tanya I: ch. See Zohar II:203a-b.. Zohar III:227a. and "a Brightness (Nogah) round about it" denotes the fourth Kelipah. divided into two classes:' the three altogether impure and evil Kelipot. and the term Nogall. . are adduced in Ezekiel I: 14:4 "Stormy wind. Kelipat Nogah (the Nogalz being a radiation from holiness). On its own. and not altogether evil.148 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM enclosed by its shell. Hence we arrive at the analogous term of Kelipot. therefore. 3. between absolute good and absolute evil. Kelipat Nogah is the "skin" immediately covering the spark of holiness. Igeret Hakodesh." "great cloud. 6 f.Shemonah Perakim. they are not in direct contact with the spark but cover the Kelipat Nogah. Mishnat R. idem. Tanya I: ch. it is unable to make itself felt and to dominate over the shell.j Whatever man is enjoined to do 2. the revealed Word of G-d. Maimonides. 6 . Hilchot Melachim VII1:ll. Cf.. Thus it is in direct contact with holiness. On all this see Etz Chayim 49:2 8. The significance of these two classes will be understood by the following: The Torah. sect. is the criterion of absolute good and absolute evi1. XXV and XXVI.

sect. commentaries by Nachmanides and R. between pure holiness and absolute impurity. Tzavaat Harioash. for distinction from what is commanded. and to the exclusion of what is prohibited . to have the strength and energy to serve G-d). whatever man is prohibited from doing is absolute evil. 3-4. Therefore all matters pertaining to the prohibitions of the Torah (the forbidden objects. being an intermediary category. Chitzonim. Hilchot De'ot ch. the eating and drinking were for purely sensual pleasure. sect. When the permitted action (as. Cf. without any more sublime intention. thoughts. and Shemonah Perakim. 2 8 2 ) . and so on) flow and derive from the three altogether impure Kelipot. This means that all derivations of Kelipat Nogah can fall to. then this vitality is degraded and temporarily absorbed in the three unclean Kelipot. and be absorbed in.Kelipot. on the other hand. ch. utterances. its vitality can 5' See Maimonides. temporarily. Sitm Achra 149 is absolute good. for the sake of Heaven (i.. then the vitality of this action (and the permitted objects it involves) is distilled and absorbed in the realm of holine~s.e. because whereas the food is essentially fit and permitted for consumption (thus not forbidden). the realm of holiness. Asher on Leviticus ' 9:2. and be absorbed in.essentially flow and derive from Kelipat Nogah. the three evil Kelipot. All matters pertaining to the realm of what is essentially permissible (according to the Torah) . . actions. they can be elevated to. alternatively. and on Keter Shem Tov. has some relationship to both. 94-95 (and my notes ad loc.~' If. simple eating and drinking) is intentionally performed for a higher purpose. Kelipat Nogah. 5. Bachya ben R. or.

. that is. sect. Tanya I: ch. see also ibid. 8 . The Chitzonim prevent it from ever ascending and becoming absorbed in holiness.s The meaning and intent of the Kelipot will be discussed in the next chapter. ch.1 s MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM revert and ascend to holiness along with the consumer when he returns (Teshuuah) to the service of C-da8 The etymology of the Hebrew terms for permitted and forbidden. the permitted matter is not tied and bound by the power of the Chitzonim so that it would be prevented from returning and ascending to holiness. elucidates this point. until the day when death (another synonym for evil) will be devoured forever. Muttar and Aswr respectively. Assur literally rneans "chained. Rosh Hashanah 29a. 6. necessitating the purgatory of the grave. Tanya I: ch. 8. XXVI. Though even then a trace of the evil remains in the body. 7. and Igeret Hakodesh.. and from a soul passionately desiring to cleave to the blessed G d and thirsting for G-d like a parched desert soil." For the forbidden matter is bound and held captive in the power of the Chitzonim.. 7. 8. Muttar literally means "released.e." "bound." i." "free". a Teshuuah coming from the depths of the heart. or until the sinner who intentionally partook of the forbidden repents to such an extent that his premeditated sins become transmuted into veritable meritsY7 which is achieved through "repentance (Teshuuah) out of love. with great love and fervour. as it is written (Zechariah 13:2):"And I will cause the unclean spirit to pass from the earth".

gave to Israel the Torah . . For it is man's task and mission to subdue the Kelipot and prevail over them by means of Torah and the M i t z w t in order to realise the Divine Will . . apd Nasso: 18). "Clearly the purpose of the evolution of the worlds and their gradual descent is not for the sake of the higher worlds . note 2.' has his abode in this physical world which is also the abode of the Kelipot.the making of this world an abode for Divinitya2 1. 'The purpose of all the contractions (tzimtzumim) is the creation of . 36.". sect. And for this purpose the Holy One.CHAPTER ELEVEN Birur and Tikun Man created last but first in intent. Cf. blessed be He. VII. . throughout the world . infra. note 14. . For such was Hs blessed i Will that He delights in the sitra achra being subdued and in darkness being turned to light so that the Divine Light of the blessed En Sof shall shine forth in the place of darkness and sitra achra. Bechukotai: 3. but the ultimate purpose [of creation] is the lowest world. Tanya I: ch. . in comment on the Midrashic statement that the purpose of the creation is the Divine wish to have an abode in the nether realms just as in the supernal ones (Tanchuma. Intr. See Tikunei Zohar. . and Zgeret Hakodesh.: 6a. 2.

Maimonides. all your heart" means with both your inclinations. 1. sect. as has been f explained earlier [Tanya I. Introduction to Commentary on the Mishnah. On the contrary. it was a lawful and purposive development in order to bring about evil. and equity. . 49. Cf. 3. 39: 1. In fact. and receive his requirements from a perspective of law. . to bring about the preeminence o light supplanting darkness . and Sha'ar Hakelalim. and ch. . And only where man uses this free choice to perform his tasks and duties can he be rewarded accordingly. 4. Etz Chayim 11:6. . ibid. note 4. For when man thus subdues evil the material human body and the subjugation of the sitra achra.. VII. 2. . Pardess Rimonim 253. This significant occurrence was not a catastrophic accident due to some flaw in the cosmogonic process. Zgeret Hakodesh. Mishnah. ch. 37:2. and state that there can be no greater service done to G-d than to bring the evil inclination into subjection by the power of love for G-d. and this is the essence of man's devotion in his Divine service: to elicit the Light of the blessed En Sof down below". Accordingly it is written: "And you shall love the "with Eternal.3 Evil therefore serves a Divine purpose. with all your heart" (Deuteronomy 6:s). ch. ch. and see Emunot Vede'ot IV: Introd. For only where there is an alternative between good and evil can man have freedom of choice.152 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM It has already been explained that the Kelipot are derived from the "Breaking of the Vessels". your G d . cf.* The Kabbalah and Chassidism are very emphatic on this. 35-37] at length. the evil inclination in man is an instrument for the love of G-d. for this is the purpose for the descent of the world . supra. the evil inclination as well as the good inclination. Berachot IX:5. righteousness. chapter IX.

and illustrates this by the famous "parable of the harlot": A king instructed and cautioned his son to lead an exemplary moral life and not to fall prey to temptation. rejected her allurements and thrust her from himself. above and below. continually. Obediently the woman used every blandishment to seduce the prince. can an evil servant come and counteract the will of his master and tempt man to walk in an evil way. blessed is He. p." "All that the Holy One. then. . is for the purpose of manifesting His glory and for His service. because he has learnt how to make the very evil inclination serve G-d. sect. the Baal Shem Tov and the Maggid's comments on Avot IV:1. how. repulsing him from the good way and causing him to disobey the will of the Lord?' To solve this apparent paradox the Zohar states that in fact the intended purpose of evil is merely to execute the Will of G-d. in fidelity to his father's instructions. he becomes a true lover of G-d. and Or Torah. so that man may be rewarded with benefits. blessed is He. 171 and Addenda sect.' Cf. but he.Birur and Tikun 153 and harnesses its power. As this is the will of the Holy One. blessed is He. secretly. that men should worship Him and walk in the way of truth. 91. Now who has seen a servant working against his master and laying plans to counteract everything that is of his master's will? It is the will of the Holy One. Then. At this the royal father 4. 203. in Keter Shem Tou. has made. the king brought before him a beautiful and clever woman and commanded her to seduce his son in order to test his obedience and devotion to his father.

29.154 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM rejoiced exceedingly. To be sure. In fact. and secondly. note 9. see Etz Chayim 31:2. she caused the son to receive all that good and led to that intense love of the king for his Thus it is man's purpose to subdue the Sitra Achra and to harness its power for good. Etz Chayim 48:2.. who caused all that glory to the prince? None other but the temptress! And the Zohar concludes: "Surely she is to be praised on all counts. Evil. Now. its source in the supernal Gevurot is subdued above. But as man. Shabr Hamitzuot on Exodus 22:6 (p. 267). also ibid. . she fulfilled the king's command. the Holy One. . and no good except when it proceeds from evil. Zohar II:163a. Cf.... and he bestowed upon his son the greatest gifts and highest honours. as well as on Keter Shem Tov. the Kelipot exist only by virtue of the Divine Will and receive their vitality from the sources of holiness (the "sparks of holiness"). See also the discussion of "evil" in Tzavaat Hariuash. thus. infra. 24. 5. See the commentaries on this passage. albeit in limited measure. for. as the sitra achra is subdued below. In our sense it can be quite real. blessed is He. they do not s d c e with the seduction of man but seek "to conquer and prevail with full force. 36) . thus causing a sublime unification (Yichud) and an immense manifestation which then radiates downwards." thus necessitating a severe battle against them. That is. is exalted above6 and is aggrandized in His glory. cf. lends additional vitality and strength to the Kelipot. 9. ch. Chaim Vital. and Likutei Torah III:37c 8. and end of ch. foraWhen that Sitra is subdued. and idem. sect. there is no worship of G-d except when it issues forth from darkness. through his sinful actions. is not a mere negation. Tanya I: ch. Sha'ar Hapessukirn on Proverbs 9 :17 (p. firstly. 130 (and my notes ad loc. 6. just sufficient for their intended purpose. sect. 26 and 253). see R.

that precisely this "sweetening of the judgments. The faculty in man's soul which corresponds to the Sefilah Gevurah. elicits the most abundant good. 94b: "From the side of Geuurah they are called 'The valiant ones (Giborim) that stand in the breach. chapter VII. supra. that repel the decrees [judgments]' (Liturgy. ) . p. chapter I. see supra.Birur and Tikun 155 The perfection of all things is attained when the intermingled good and evil become totally good. See further Siddur im Perush Hamibt. 27. Zohar II:184a. the Kelipot are deprived of their vitality and cease to exist. Tik. When this spark is extricated from the Kelipot and restored to the realm of Holiness to be absorbed there. The KeEipot deriving from the original Kelim which. XV. 10. see supra. 9."~ As man arouses his own attribute of geuurah8 to subdue the waste of the Supernal Cevurah below9 and to prevail over it.1° The Kelipot thus serve a distinct purpose. And this is the task of man: to extricate that spark 7. There is a spark (Nitzotz) of Divinity attached to them which allows them to subsist as a servant to serve the Master's purpose." Cf. he causes a reciprocal effect that the Divine attribute of Gevumh will subdue and prevail over the Supernal Judgments (Hmntakat Hadinim: the "mitigation of the Judgments") and the Divine Chesed and Rachamim will manifest themselves below unhindered." the mitigation of Gevurah. Zohur Chadash. section 2 (p. This is essentially also the concept of "the righteous turn the attrib- . sect. See also ibid. and Igeret Hakodesh. note 18. also note 8. and that is the perfect wor~hip. See Derech Emunah. Selichot). 87b and 128b.. 8. Cf. originate in the supernal Gevurah. 9a f . By that good His glory rises. and sources cited there.. in turn.. for there is no good except if it issues out of evil. 247a f. Tanya I: ch.

also Zohar II:63a. See Etz Chayim 39:l. the "fruit" is extracted. this concept of Birur is the theme of l"t) nH7yil (the "elevation of Mayin Nukvin (feminine waters)"). 31:17. and supra. end of sect. mentioned in Deut. XI1 and XIII. 11. sect. 6. The "shell" is broken. cf. XXVII and XXVIII. That is. and this is the concept of Tikun. Cf. and practically identical with. Genesis Rabba 33:3. For as Kelipat Nogah ute of Din and Gevurah into the attribute of Rachamim. and the sources cited there. The implication is that there is no change in G-d but only in. the potentially holy objects (Kelipat Nogah) are sublimated and absorbed in the realm of holiness by the properly performed actions and by safeguarding them from the Chitzonim.1. 9. by withstanding the temptations of evil. and supra. while the limitations of Gevurah and the severity of Din emerge as the concealment implied by Gevurah is increased and strengthened by sin (the notion of Hesster Panim.e. as opposed to Heorat Panim. Disencumbrance. i. See Zohar III:137b. he extricates the spark of Divinity (Birur) and restores it to its source. end of ch. in their Divinely intended context. sect.ll Bimr means Extrication. IV and note 34(46) a. as in Numbers 6:25. Tanya I : chs. man. actively or passively. while the wicked turn the attribute of Rachamim into the attribute of Gevurah and Din". and the proper cosmic order is restored. When man relates consciously to the derivatives of the Kelipot.156 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM of holiness. see Etz Chayim. Chesed is free to emanate as the concealment and restraint of Gevurah and Din are removed. Igeret Hakodesh. Pardess Rimonim 25:3.V. also Igeret Hakodesh. sect. thus causing the Restitution and Reintegration (Tikun) of the whole Being. . the Concealment or "Hiding" of the Divine Countenance. 39:l. Panim). S. 11. Most intimately related to. the Shining Illumination or Manifestation of the Divine Countenance. 10 and 53. Igeret Hakodesh. lgeret Hakodesh. ch.. and relative to. This is called Birur.

or until the day when G-d will cause the spirit of impurity to pass from the earth. C f . See Tanya I: chs.lO The many sparks that fell because of his cata- 12. 13. and causing the spark of holiness to be further and increasingly imprisoned and encumbered among the Kelipot. on Gen. 37. See Shahr Hapessukim. and III:79a.lE Every one has his share of sparks that he has to extricate and disencumber. See Etz Chayim 47:6.13 Kelipat Nogah is absorbed among the impure Kelipot. sect. Chayim 39:l. Tanya I : ch. Zohar III:74a ff. 37. 15.12 On the other hand. Igeret Hakodesh. 2:17 (pp. by his sin. 16. the Divine Indwelling Presence. XXIII and XXXI.6r. Bereishit. II:189a. and 45. XXV. X. Sinful acts retain and sustain the Sitra Achra. sect. end of ch.. and XXVI. Cf. IV. .) for a detailed discussion of the sin of Adam and its implication. 1II:B. note 10 supra.Tohu and Tikun 157 is fully absorbed in the realm of holiness. This is known as the concept of the Shechinah-inexile: l 4 the Shechinah. every improper act (sin) causes just the opposite. and cf. Tanya I: ch.. 14. 17. the impure Kelipot (who receive their vitality through the medium of Kelipat Nogah) are deprived of their vitality and are annihilated. quoted supra. the spark of Holiness. thus strengthening them and increasing their power. cf. See Zohar II:184a. also ibid. ibid. also lgeret Hakodesh. For Adam.. 7. strengthened and increased the power of evil. Etz. is exiled among the Kelipot to remain there bound up and without escape until the sinner repents intensely. 4a.

158 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASS~ISM strophic a d x 7 remain for his descendantsla to extricate. Ki Tissa: 12. l l l b fl. then the Shechinah is altogether freed from Its exile and Israel is redeemed: the Messianic Era is ushered in.. The souls of all the descendants of Adam are "sparks" of the original soul of Adam. 20. for a detailed discussion of the concept of G l u t and its various forms.. 9b f . See Zgeret Hakodesh. Cf. and D i a s p ~ r a ) And . also M ~ o h She'azim II:3:8. VII. et passim.). sect. 27d. 111. Ekev. . ) . XXVI. et passim. and in the periods of the First and Second Temples). See Zgeret Hakoaksh. Tzavaat Harivash. Etz Chayim 50:3: "When man is born his soul needs to extricate those sparks that are of his share which had fallen unto Kelipat Nogah because of the sin of Adam. Vayeshev. thereby prolonging the process of Birur. Sha'ar Hapessukim and Likutei Torah of R.'@ This is the cause and purpose of the Galut (Exile. and Tanchuma. see Exodus Rabba 40:2 f. See Etz Chuyim 3:3. 49. le5b f." See also ibid. Isaac Luria. and Torah Or.c. sources cited in the preceding notes of this chapter (especially note 14). Sha'ar Maamarei Rashby on Zohar II:254b (p. as interpreted in Sha'ar Hapessukim a. sect. 26: 1. 21. . XI1 and XXVI. and see also Etz Chayim 36:2. sect. 26:l.). (sect. p. see the sources cited in notes 16-20. Chaim Vital's Introduction to Sha'ar H a h a k h o t and Etz Chayim. 19. See Sha'ar Hamitzuot. 39: 1. 18. also Tanya I : ch.. Re'ey (pp.~~ when all the sparks shall have been released. Cf.1. and in R. 109 and my notes ad loc. 19:3. sect. and lgeret Hakohsh. Zbid.Relative rectifications in the course of time were reversed and vacated by subsequent national sins of Israel (as in the Desert after the Exodus.21 17.

Bibliography and Index .

etc.The Bibliography is limited to post-Talmudic texts. are not included. Midrashim. Bible. and their standard-commentaries. Talmud. f The texts listed follow in alphabetical order o their titles.. .

Brooklyn 1945 Avodat Hakodesh. Brooklyn 1953 Elina Rabbaty. Brooklyn 1971 Kuntres Limud Hachussidut. Dov Ber of Lubavitch.d. Vilna n. Jerusalem 1963 Derashot Maharal. ed. R. see Tanya lgeret Teyman. R. R. R. New York 1955 Avodat Hakodesh. R. Israel Baal Shem Tov]. R. Menachem M . Diessen 1946 Degel Machuneh Ephrayim. R. Jerusalem 1967 Derech Mitzvotechu. Moses Maimonides. Josefow 1885 Etz Chuyim. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. R. Solomon ibn Ade~et. Judah Loewe of Prague. Menachem M . Meir ibn Gabbai. Joseph Albo. R. R. New York 1954 Biurei Hazohur. R. Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. Meir ibn Gabbai. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Nathan ben Yechiel. Chaim David Azulay.Bibliography Arba Meot Shekel Kessej. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Saadiah Gaon. ed. Tcl Aviv 1960 Hayom Y o n . R. Bachya ibn Pakuda. Keter Shem Too. Moses Cordovero. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R. Chaim Vital. [R. Jerusalem 1966 Chovot Hakvovot. Jerusalem 1966 Emunot Vede'ot. Jerusalem 1960 Ikkatim. Kohut. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1965' Igeret Hakodesh. Brooklyn 1956 . Jerusalem 1968 Derech Emunuh. Joseph I. Chaim Vital. R. R. R. R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of Lubavitch. R. Moshe Chaim Ephrayim of Sudylkov. Jerusalem 1954 Ben Porat Yoseph. R. Brooklyn 1956 Kuntres Inyanah she1 Torat Hachassidut. R. R. Brooklyn 1955 Chidushei Harashba a1 Agadot Hashass. R. Brooklyn 1961 Hilchot Talmud Torah. Tel Aviv 1964 Aruch. Brooklyn 1974 Kuntres Etz Hachuyim.

Tel Aviv 1966 and [Jerusalem] 1970 Perush Eser Sefirot.1. Chaim Vital. R. Vienna 1828 and Jerusalem 1960 Olat Tamid. Fuerth 1701 Or Torah. R. Moses Cordovero. R. Tel Aviv 1964 Or Hachamah.a. Brooklyn 1957 Likutei Levi Yitzchak-Zohar. Jerusalem 1963-1969 Sefer Chassidim. R. Moses Maimonides New York 1956 Moreh Neuuchim. R. Judah Halevi. Jerusalem 1962 Pelach Harimon. see Tanya Likutei Diburim. R. R. R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Dov Ber of Mezhirech. Chaim Vital. Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Tel Aviv 1963 Likutei Torah-Torat Shmuel. Moses Cordovero. R. Brooklyn 1969 Or Hatorah-Vayikra:II. Menachem Azaryah d e Fano. Chaim Vital. to A. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Azriel of Geronah. Brooklyn. R. Brooklyn 1970-1971 Likutei Sichot. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1945 Kuzay. R. Schneerson of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Hachizyonot. attr. Chaim Vital. Jerusalem 1957 [Sefer Habahir. Menachem Mendei of Lubavitch. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1974 Mevoh She'arim. Przemysl 1896 Or Hatorah-Bereishit:& R. R. R. Moses Maimonides. Abraham Azulay. 1962-1978 Likutei Torah. Jerusalem 1962 Pen' Etz Chayim. Jerusalem (Margolius) 19511 Sefer Hachakirah. Brooklyn 1965 Likutei Torah-Arizal. ed. Vilna 1883 and ed. Jerusalem 1954 . R. Brooklyn 1969 Or Ne'erav. Brooklyn 1946 Likutim Yekarim. Judah Hachassid. Haifa 1928 Pardess Rimonim. Tel Aviv 1961 Mishneh Torah. R. R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. Menachem M. Brooklyn 1966 Or Hatorah-Neviim Uketuvim:I. Joseph I. R. Moses Maimonides. Jerusalem 1967 Perush Hamishnah. Chaim Vital. Tel Aviv 1959 Likutei Amurim. R. Lemberg 1850 Maggid Devarav Leya'akou. Levi Yitzchak Schneerson. Joseph I . R. Jerusalem 1974 Limudei Atzilut. Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch.162 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Kuntres Torat Hachussidut. R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech e. R. R. [R. R. Chaim Vital. R. R. Schneersohn of Lubavitch. Brooklyn 1974 Otzar Hageonfm-Chagigah. R.



Sefer Ha'emunot, R. Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov, Jerusalem 1969 Sefer Hagilgdim, R. Chaim Vital, Vilna 1886 Sefer Hamaamarim 5700, R.Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1955 Sefer Ha-sichot 5700, R. Joseph I. Schneersohn of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1956 Sefer Hatoldot-Maharash, R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1947 Sha'ar Hagilgulim, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Shahr Hahakdamot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Shahs Hamitzvot, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hapessukim, R.Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1962 Sha'ar Hayichud [Ner Mitzvah Vetorah Or], R. Dov Ber of Lubavitch, Brooklyn 1974 Shabr Maamarei Rashby Verazal, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1961 Sha'ar Ruach Hakodesh, R. Chaim Vital, Tel Aviv 1963 Sha'arei Kedushah, R. Chaim Vital, Horodna 1794 Sha'arei Orah, R. Joseph Gikatilla, Jerusalem 1960 Shenei Luchot Haberit, R. Isaiah Horowitz, Jerusalem 1963 Shemomah Perakim, see Perush Hamishnah Shi'ur Komah, R. Moses Cordovero, Jerusalem 1966 Shomer Emunim, R. Joseph Ergas, Jerusalem 1965 Shdchan Aruch-Arizal, Jerusalem 1961 Siddur im Perwh Hamilot, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 Tanya, R. Shneur Zahnan of Liadi, Brooklyn 1965 [English translation, London 19731 Teshuvot Haribash, R. Isaac bar Sheshet, Jerusalem 1968 'Teshuvot Ubiurkn' (Responsa by R. Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch) , Bitaon Chabad, Kfar Chabad 1970-1971 Torah Or, R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Brooklyn 1954 Tzauaat Harivash, [R. Israel Baal Shem Tov and R. Dov Ber of Mezhirech], ed. J. I. Schochet, Brooklyn 1975 Yom Tou she1 Rosh Hashanah 5666, R. Sholom Dov Ber Schneersohn of I ubavitch, Brooklyn 1971


Aaron, 86, 88 Abba, 78, 140 Binuh of -, 141 Chochmah of -, 141 Keter of -, 141 Abraham, 11, 86, 136 Abraham ibn Daud, R. (Rabad), 128 Abraham Gershon of Kotov, R., 1 1 Achor, 127 Achorayim, 127-128 Adam, 11, 157, 158 Adam Kadmon, 108-112, 121, 140 Kelim of -, 121 Keter of -, 140 Orot of -, 121 Yosher of -, 140 Albo, R. Joseph, 41, 44, 93 Aliyat Haneshamah, 11 Alma deItgalya, 94 Alma deltkassya, 94 Alma Ilaah, 94 Alma Tataah, 94 Anthropomorphism, 35-39 Arich Anpin, 140, 141, 142 Binah of -, 140 Chochmuh of -, 140 Keter of -, 140 Asey too, 8f. Asiyah, World of, 109-115, 121, 135, 136, 137

Asiyah of -, 111 Makhut of -, 140 Asiyah, 112f. Assur, 150 Atik, 68,69 - &chl Atikin, 68 - Yomin, 68 Atika Kadisha, 68, 142 Atzdut, World of, 109-115, 121, 134, 135, 137 Asiyah of -, 111 Atzilut of -, 111 Beriah of -, 111 Binuh of -, 111 Chochmah of -, 111 Kelim of -, 121, 137 Keter of -, 111 Malchut of -, 114, 115, 128 Orot of -, 121, 137 Yetzirah of -, 111 Atzmut, 112, 117, 119, 121, 122 Ayin, 68, 72, 73 AYiN, 75 Azriel of Geronah, R., 51, 62, 65 Azulay, R. Abraham, 15, 17 AzuIay, R. Chaim David (Chida), 9, 69 Baal Shem Tov, see Israel Baal Shem Tov, R. Bachya ben Asher, R., 63, 109, 149 Bachya ibn Pakuda, R., 36

Chesed-Geuurah-Tiferet, 67,80. Bat, 141 See Chugat Bechochmuh, see Chochmuh Chitzonim, 147-150, 156 Beli-mah, 62,63 Chitzoniyut, 70,127-128 Ben, 78,141 Chochmah, 8,66,67,69,71-79, Ben Sira, 69 87,93,94,97,99, 100, 101, Bereish galey, 12 112,130,140,141.See Chabad Bereishit, 72 Bechochmah, 72 see also Reishit Binah of -, 102 Beriah, World of -, 109-115, 134, Chochmuh of -, 102 135,136,137 Kelim of -, 130f. Atzilut of -, 111 '32Wondrous Paths of -,' 8 Beriah of -, 111 Chochmuh-Binuh-Da'at, 71, 100, Keter of -, 114 101,144.See also Chabad Malchut of -, 115 Chochmuh-Chesed-Netzach, 100 Binah, 8,66,69,71,74-79, 87, 92ff., 100,101,112,130, 99, Chochmat Haemet, 15%. 131,133,140,141.See Chabad Chutzah, 12,20 Binuh of -, 102 Colours, 120 Kelim of -, 130f. Cordovero, R. Moses, 8,9,14, 16, '50Gates of -,' 8 17,31,38,43,44,69, 111, 103, Binah-Geuurah-Hod, 100 113,117,119,129,135 Birur, 145,151,156 Creation, 47f.,52,54ff., 5w., Bloch, R.Joseph Leib, 7 64ff., 93,115,151f. 72, Botarel, R. Moses, 61 Da'at, 66,69-70, 75, 71, 76-79, 84, Brains, see Mochin 87,99,131. See Chubad Buzaglo, R. Sholom, 21,119,142 - Elyon, 76,79,100, 141 Chabad, 71, 89. 87, - Tachton, 76,77,78,79, 101 See Chochmuh-Binah-Da'at. Kelim of -, 131 Chagat, 83,87,88,89 David, 11,86 Chakikah, 112f. Death, 133f., 150 Chalal, 52-55, 96f., 119,123 D e m h , 10 110, De Fano, R. Menachem Azaryah, Chamai Gaon, R., 109 16,50 Chassidut, 7%. De Lattes, R. Isaac, 1 7 Chatziuah, 112f. Chesed, 66,79,80-86, 87ff., 99ff., Dilug, 49,52,54, 56 119,120,131, 136,137, 144, Din, 39,81,82,84,119,136,137,

Binah of -, 102 Chochmuh of -, 102

Dov Ber of Lubavitch, R., 7,8,


75. 145. 48. 70. 10. 33. 47.. 50-55. 86. 155 Hargasha. 16. R. 95. 136. 100 Hai Gaon. See Or En Sof E~hraim. 91. 69. 72 Imma. 59ff. R.166 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS I N CHASSIDISM Dov Ber of Mezhirech. 115. R. See Chagat Geuurot.. 53. 60f. 111 Latter -. 82. 133. 66. 95. 130. 156 Hester Panim. R. 130. 87f. 14. 155 Gikatilla. 141 . 17.65. 92. 99. 62fl. 139 Hei. l o l f . 119 Hod. 42 G-d. 156 Hillel Halevi of Paritz. 134. 8. 93 . R. 99. 152 Galut. 141 of Keter of -. 94 See also En Sof Gulgalta. 85 . 158 Geduhh. 86 Jacob ibn Chabib. 51 En Sof. 132. 8... 87-92. R. 142 Word of -. 137 Transcendence of -. 71. 81-86. 85. 97. 100. 136 Evil. 136 Kings of -. 77 Harmony. 12. 66. 149.Tatwh. See Nehy Horowitz. 101. 141 Immot. 119f. 61. 79. 80f. 67 Intellect. 55.. 132 k Joseph.Ilaah. Isaiah (Shelah). 53 Sovereignty of -. 123f.. 63 Ishmael. 84 Geuurah. 55f. 137. 79. 66 Hit'abut. as. Attributes of -. 115. See Midot Benevolence of -. 93 Isaac. 154 Giborim. 135f. 83..38. 157 Freedom of Choice.LeAmito.. 78. See Chesed Immanence of -. Judgments of -. 136 Isaac ben Sheshet. 86 En Lo Techilah. R. 117. 155f.. 57. 145. 109 HaUat Mayin Nukuin. Omnipresence of -. 105-110. 7 3 Edom... 56. 23. 152-155. 19. 88. 43 Esau. 103. 11. 148. 153 Eden.. 95. 40 . 38 Gimatriya. 140. Joseph. 838. 129 Hyle. 144f. 68. ('Maggid'). . 22. 153 Jacob. (Ribarh). 95. 130. 82 Names of -. 59-62.. 48. 93 Chochm~h -. 133. Active. 74-75 First -. Tzvi Hirsh. loot.. 11. R. 136 Israel Baal Shem Tov. 136 Emet. 20. 150. 95. 7 . 38. R. 66. 69. 111 Heorat Panim. Unity of -. 123f. 85. 156 Hamtakat Hadinim. 79 Horowitz. 9.

17. 97. 109 Kelim of -. 23. 141. 156. R. 148-149. 50. 74. 83f. 79. 143. 50. 38. 129. 40 Memale kol Almin. 70 Mekabel.. 112. 8. 154. R. 11. R.. 73. 9. 114. 128. See Koach-Muh Maimonides. llff..11 Joseph..94 Kol. 41. 131. 134 Messiah. 40 Muttar. Kelipot. R. 145. 14.Elyon. 31. 12 Multifariousness. Isaac (An'ml). 94. Mah. 97. 42. 100 Ketmvot.69. 157 158 Keter. 66. 147-150. 69. 69. 63f. 53 Mashpb. 130f. 93 Kadmon. 151152. 19. 62. 16. 67. 86 Judah Halevi. 130. 61. 69. 148. 72. 92.. 86. 10. R. 67 Koach-Mah. 149. 64 Nachmanides. Moses. 67. 152 Makif. 62. 61. (Tzemach Tzedek). 50. 112. R. 158 Maggid. (Maharal). 92 Leuanon. 101. 60.. 130-131 Keter-Chochmah-Binoh. 12. 60 Moshe Chaim Ephrairn of Sudylkov. 94.Jacob Joseph of Polnoy. 47. 139. 44. 49. R. 37. 113. 15. 141. 11 Midot. 96-97 Kefitzah. . 110 Matter. 96. see Dov Ber of Mezhirech.. Kabbalists. 123f. 136 Mayin Nukvin. 11. 38 Judah Loewe of Prague. R. Moses. 22. 72. 150 Mystery of the Faith. 8 Light. 41-45. 7f7. 9295. Kelim. See Or Luria. 42 . 137 Mushpa. 48. 117. 65. 99.67. 129137. 141 Malchut of -. 15. 155 Kelipah. 75. 99ff. 33. 112. 124 Makom Panuy. 100 Moses. 49. 140. 109 Kav. 114. 19f. 14. Messianic Age. 79.. R. see H&at Mayin Nukoin Meir ibn Gabbai. 88 Moses Hagoleh. 132. 40 Masscrch. 18. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch. 84 Merachefet. 117-125. 77ff. 108. 81. 140f. 36.. 111.. 73 Mochin.97.. 129. Moses. 52 Malchut. 93 Ma'or. 76. R. 143. 103.78. 55 Kabbalah. 70. 51. 132. 144 Mispar.157 Kelipat Nogah. 158 Methuselah. 68-71. 151 Mocha Setitnu. 156.99. 75 Keter-Tqeret-Yesod-Makhut. R. 155. 66. 128. 52 Keli. 139. 125. 55-56. 149 Narboni.. R. 60 Mitzvot.

. 10 Pirud. 139. 32. 17. 114 Rachamim.Tzach Umetzuchtulch. 105f. 60 Sapir. 44. 55.. 66. 125. 10 Reshimah. 9. 8 Olam. 101. 68. 42. 63ff. 156 . 12. Rachamim. Prassa. 147. Partzufim. 84 Rashi. see Zachar Neshamah. R. 49 Nehy. 117-125.. 79. 127-128 Pnimiyut Hatorah. 51. 67. 10.. Sholom Dov Ber of Lubavitch (Reshab). Joseph Isaac of Lubavitch. 42 Safra.. 42. 84 Schneersohn. 121f. 79. Menachern Mendel of Lubavitch ~ " ~ ~ S t 9.43 Reishit. 83 Schneerson. 124f. See Worlds Or. Levi Yitzchak. 72 Relativity. 99. 39.. See Light . 158 Nogah. 53. 153-154 Pardes. 122 . See Will .Makif. 10 Partzuf. 148. 122-125. 50. 131 . 61. 59-62. 118. 112f. 115. 87. 103. 124 . 122-125 . 154. 79 Schneersohn. 60 Sefirah. 54. 140 . 43. 131ff. 97. 70 Raz. 136. lOf. 87 Nekeuah. 145. 108 . 20. 137. 157. 139-142. 101 Netzach-Hod-Yesod. R. 130. 23. 141 Nun. 112.Makifin.Ha'elyon. Realm of. See Kelipat Nogah Nukuah. 101 Schneur Zalman of Liadi. 100. 108.. R. 54. (Aruch). 15. 48 Olamot. 17. 143 Patriarchs. 155. 71. 8. R. 16ff. See Nehy Nigleh. R. 71. Shmuel of Lubavitch (Maharash). R. Dov Yehudah. 63. 84. 70. 88 Peshat. 56f. 152 Orot. 87. R. 105-110. 87. 60 . 132 Rishonot.Pnimiyim. 86. 87-92. 108. 8.168 MYSTICAL CONCEPTS IN CHASSIDISM Nathan ben Yechiel. 20. 119 Reshut HarabZm. 99. 8. 17.Soveu. 127 Parable of the harlot. 129 Schochet. t .. R. 96. 18 Nitzotz.. Reshimu.r 10. 66. 67 Saadiah Caon. 110. 155. See Soul Netzach. 137 Pnimiyut. 108 Ratzon.Pnimi. 84.Habah.80. 55. R. 40. 51-55. 67. 13. 7 Sechel. 60 Sapar. 109 Or En Sof. 142. 23. 50 Schneerson. 122 Panim. 144 Sefer. 77. Nitzotzin. 60 Schneersohn. 55. 18 Nistar. 7 . 156 Remez.

R. 59. 59. 96-101. 134 Separ. Unification). Supreme. 68 154 Tannaim. 154. 143 Sefirot of -. 87. 142. 103. Temira dechol Temirin. 143-145. 66. 105-115. 155 115. 1 1 1 Tiferet. 61. 76. 119. 95. 123. 109. 108. 109-115. 69. see Gulgdta Will. 143. 69. 144f. 10. 71. 78. 10 Yichud (Unity. 107-108. 10. R. 73. 1 1 Shevirat Hakelim. 1 . Chairn. Solomon ben Isaac. 140. 1. 101. 149. 109 Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov. 17. 51. World of. 130-133. 117-122. 91-92. 73. (Rashby). 122. 142. Yetzirah. 42 Sefirot of -. 101. 16 Z'eyr Anpin. 23. 150 Yichud. 145 Tikun. Vital.. Realm of. 49. 72. 157f. 79 Sefirot. 136. 123f. 17. 109. 67 136. 74. 158 Skull. (Rashba). 31. 99. 151 Seth. See Asiyah. 142 Midot of -. 154. 1 1 Teshuuah. 148. 135. Sitra Achara. 117. 143 Tetragrammaton. Yetzirah Soul. 96. 139. 110. 151. Sod. 60 Torah. 105. 56. 82. 147-150. 13 . 144 Sovev. 143 Tohu and Vohu. 115. Midot of -. 130. 101. 39. 157 Shefa. R.Tohu. 120. 129Tzimtzum. Primordial. 69. 14. 151. 38 Exile. R. 156. 105. 137. 91. 81. 117. 135. Atzilut. 70 Tzadik. 145. Seven. 157. 143. 69. 79f. see Nitzotz 132 Sur mera [ve'asey tow]. see RQshi Solomon ibn Aderet. 142 Vav. 69. 39 88. 83. 143-145 1 1 114. 74. Zohur. 66. 13-15 Time. 158 Tree of Knowledge. Worlds. 62. 92 Tzadikim. 52.. Sparks. 79. 15. 151.. 1 1 Shechinah. 39-41. Tachtonot. . 124 Soueu kol Almin. 103. 52-53. 121. Yud.151 13. 131. 47-57. 157 145. 141. 87. Yesh. 137 Talmud Torah. 118. 99. 114. 70f. 8f. 79. 42 Tzachtzachot. 13 Tree of Life. 141. 137 Yosher. 141. 103. 72. 14. R. 115 1 Shepherds. 22. 74 Yesod. R. 144 Ziu Hashechinah. 121. Shimon bar Yochai. 140. 16. 144. 152. 51. 1 1 1 Zachur-Nekeuah. 83-86. 156 Zacuto. Moses. 122-125 Worlds. 145 134. 103. 9. 59-103. 10 See Ratzon. 1 1 1 Sin.

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