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Mobile computing is a generic term describing one's ability to use technology while moving, as opposed to portable computers, which are only practical for use while deployed in a stationary configuration. Many types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including the: • • Smart Phone • • Carputer UMPC Wearable computer
• Personal digital assistant/Enterprise digital assistant
SERVICES OF MOBILE COMPUTING
Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) is a specification published for the use of Java on embedded devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. MIDP is part of the Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME) framework and sits on top of Connected Limited Device Configuration, a set of lower level programming inter MIDP 2.0). As of 2007, MIDP 3.0 is being developed under JSR 271. The first MIDP devices were models i80s and i50sx from Motorola, launched in April 2001.faces. MIDP was developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 37 (MIDP 1.0) and JSR 118 ( A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a handheld computer also known as small or palmtop computers. Newer PDAs also have both color screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones, (smartphones), web browsers, or portable media players. Many PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi, or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs).
Newer PDAs. having only a few buttons usually reserved for shortcuts to often used programs. a memory card slot for data storage and at least one of the following for connectivity: IrDA. such as the Apple Newton and Palm Pilot. a directional pad and either the numeric keypad or a thumb keyboard for input. using softkeys. including Windows Pocket PC devices. for example. The iPhone and iPod touch uses a technology called Multi-touch. Bluetooth and/or WiFi. However. Interaction is then done by tapping the screen to activate buttons or menu choices. an address book for contacts and some sort of note program. . and dragging the stylus to. usually have a detachable stylus that can be used on the touch screen. PDAs for business use. Text input is usually done in one of four ways: Using a virtual keyboard. Touch screen Many original PDAs. Touch screen PDAs. where a keyboard is shown on the touch screen. many PDAs (typically those used primarily as telephones) may not have a touch screen. or use wireless technology to interface with the PDA and allow for normal typing.SPECIFICATION OF MOBILE COMPUTING Typical features Currently. Input is done by tapping letters on the screen. in addition to supporting touch-screen input. a typical PDA has a touch screen for entering data. such as the Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. Software typically required to be a PDA includes an appointment calendar. Connected PDAs also typically include E-mail and Web support. highlight. including the BlackBerry and Treo. have full keyboards and scroll wheels or thumb wheels to facilitate data entry and navigation. There are also full-size foldable keyboards available that plug directly. featured touch screens for user interaction. BlackBerry has additional functionality. a to-do list. such as push-based email and applications.
It can be used to connect keyboards. or by using an extension card with an ethernet port/RJ-45 adaptor. Older PDAs predominantly have an IrDA (infrared) port.Memory cards Although many early PDAs did not have memory card slots now most have either an SD (Secure Digital) and/or a Compact Flash slot. as USB requires one machine to act as a host . as well as sending files between PDAs. however fewer current models have the technology. mainly for USB flash drives. SDIO and Compact Flash cards are available for such things as Wi-Fi and Webcams. Some PDAs were able to connect to the internet. Although originally designed for memory. Wireless connectivity Most modern PDAs have Bluetooth wireless connectivity. headsets. an increasingly popular tool for mobile devices. IrDA allows communication between two PDAs: a PDA and any device with an IrDA port or adapter. Some PDAs also have a USB port. This served primarily to connect to a computer. . used for connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. and infrared technology is low-cost and has the advantage of being permitted aboard aircraft. Many mid-range and superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/WLAN/802. either by means of one of these cables. Wired connectivity While many earlier PDAs connected via serial ports or other proprietary format.11-connectivity. Most universal PDA keyboards use infrared technology because many older PDAs have it. many today connect via USB cable.functionality which was not often planned. GPS and many other accessories. as it is slowly being phased out due to support for Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. if any PDAs were able to connect to each other out of the box using cables. and few.
The throughput rate of Wi-Fi is less than most cable-modem circuits and digital subscriber lines (DSLs). Although the throughput is OK for most uses. but an alternate method of Internet access. Wi-Fi wireless Internet access available today is only possible when situated near a “hot spot” — a wireless router. WiMAX Hundreds of local governments are planning to build and operate hot spots that use a new protocol called Wi-Max. it might even stifle the growth of free access. which operates over a 30-mile range at speeds six to seven times faster than Wi-Fi. jitter-free reality. There are no official Wi-Fi standards. casual restaurants. Consumers will be allowed to access the Net free of charge. Wi-Max. Hot spots tend to be in coffee shops (think Starbucks). in exchange for tolerating advertising like pop-ups. is evolving. Wi-Max will make wireless real-time video an in-focus. and eliminate errors in data transmission and interference with other devices.000 feet. making Wi-Max relatively affordable.FREQUENCIES OF MOBILE COMPUTING Universal wireless connectivity: Wi-Fi vs Wi-Max Wi-Fi The Wi-Fi wireless Internet access sites that exist now are growing in number and being upgraded to handle much more throughput. Look for Wi-Max hot spots and computing devices in 2007. . airport waiting areas and hotel lobbies. Wi-Fi uses an unlicensed portion of the broadcast spectrum and sometimes results in interference between Wi-Fi devices and other wireless devices using those frequencies (like portable telephones). Wi-Max definitely will not be free. it can be limiting when transmitting large files. bookstores. Wi-Fi usually has a range of about 300 feet. The longer range means that only a few routers would be needed to handle an entire city. although some routers provide a range of up to 1. copy shops.
Some carriers have already started to do so. and seamlessly “hand off” a data signal from one cell tower to another. Although this will cost more than wireless phone calls. so universal access to broadband cell networks is a few years away. but a complete upgrade is a big task in terms of technology. time and investment. businesses will benefit from broadband cell networks because employees who work outside an office will be able to use lap tops and other devices to instantly access data.Cell networks to compete with Wi-Max Nonetheless. Carriers are planning to upgrade their entire networks to reliably and securely work at real broadband speeds.. . do calculations and print documents that now require a visit to the office. cell carriers would like to ramp up a wireless money-making alternate to Wi-Max.
all weighing only 14 ounces. the traditional laptop is the device most frequently used today. No. .9-inches long by 3. It contains a 1GHz processor. a 20GB hard drive. Unfortunately. but true wireless PCs with keyboards that can be used with all ten fingers. digital pen and thumbwheel.4-inches wide).Wireless PDA-sized PCs Although some PDAs can currently be used to wirelessly access the Internet. stick and mouse buttons. Another style looks like a small LCD screen (4. 256MB of RAM. it cannot be stored in a coat pocket. not cell phones with TVlike screens and keyboards that can only be used with pinkies. until the screen is slid open like a double patio door to reveal a 1-inch-thick base containing a keyboard. and the bottom half of the clamshell contains half the keyboard. One current style looks like a sizeable clamshell cell phone. Truly mobile computing requires truly portable devices. with the other half on the body of the device. Open it up. and FireWire and USB ports. Both styles come equipped with Microsoft Office and are true business-oriented PCs.
typically reduced in data rate using speech data compression techniques. Although it requires those using VoIP to have a well configured network it is a new use of IP that is extremely cost efficient. VoIP can be a great benefit to major corporations trying to cut costs by simply running network cables. broadband telephony. . VoIP providers may be viewed as commercial realizations of the experimental Network Voice Protocol (1973) invented for the ARPANET providers. and avoids issues on long distance charges that are normally subject to callers. and broadband phone.EXPLAINING INTERNET TECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES VOIP VoIP is transmission of voice through the Internet or other packet-switched networks. voice over broadband. This latter concept is also referred to as IP telephony. encapsulated in a data-packet stream over IP. Voice-over-IP systems carry telephony signals as digital audio. Internet telephony. Skype and Vonage are great examples of how VoIP is being greatly utilized world wide. VoIP allows users to use regular telephone networks anywhere through any internet service provider. often used abstractly to refer to the actual transmission of voice (rather than the protocolimplementing it).
descriptions of events. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication). The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters.BLOG A blog (a contraction of the term "Web log") is a Web site. others function as more personal online diaries. . "Blog" can also be used as a verb. Bluetooth. A typical blog combines text. As of December 2007. Most blogs are primarily textual. Z-Wave and ZigBee. the word blog has taken on an even looser meaning — that of any bit of media wherein the subject expresses his opinion or simply talks about something. photographs (photoblog). Web pages. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with network technologies such as IrDA. sketches (sketchblog). usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. Entries are commonly displayed in reversechronological order. although some focus on art (artlog). images. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. blog search engine Technorati was tracking more than 112 million blogs. which are part of a wider network of social media. videos (vlog). or other material such as graphics or video. and other media related to its topic. Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. and links to other blogs. The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs.With the advent of video blogging. audio (podcasting). The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. UWB. or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink). one which consists of blogs with very short posts. music (MP3 blog). EXPLAINING TYPES OF NETWORK Personal Area Network A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices (including telephones and personal digital assistants) close to one person. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject. Micro-blogging is another type of blogging.
a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network. can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features. wireless has become popular due to ease of installation. and location freedom with the gaining popularity of laptops. or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. but a VPN need not have explicit security features. also known as the basic service set..VPN A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g. Wireless LAN A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network. Generally. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers. VPNs. some are even provided as a free service. . the Internet) instead of by physical wires. for example. A VPN may have best-effort performance. For the home user. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet. WLAN uses spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based on radio waves to enable communication between devices in a limited area. which is the linking of two or more computers or devices without using wires. The link-layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. such as authentication or content encryption.
com/mobile_computing_services.ic. Mobile computers are becoming smaller and more powerful everyday. It is changing the way we work. Providing on-line services to the home user has become a multi-million dollar business.ac. However.doc. from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular-type access.htm www.wikipedia.html . the way we think.org/wiki/Mobile_computing www.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol4/vk5/report. and the future promise of bringing it about. Everyday new members join the network community. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called WirelessMAN). is a telecommunications technology that provides for the wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes. REFERENCES • • • http://en. Major computer companies have built entire advertising campaigns around this very idea. The technology provides upto 70 Mb/sec symmetric broadband speed without the need for cables. The world of computing is becoming more mobile. which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard.WiMAX WiMAX. The advent of the World Wide Web has caused an explosive growth in the population of Internet users. Everyday one reads another story about the ``global network'' and the way it is changing the world. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum.zslinc.[ CONCLUSION The world of personal computing is becoming more connected. an approximate acronym of Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. people do not want to give up connectivity for mobility. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL" (and also to High Speed Packet Access).