G

The winding process therefore has the basic function of obtaining a larger package from several small ring bobbins. This conversion process provides one with the possibility of cutting out unwanted and problematic objectionable faults. The process of removing such objectionable faults is called as yarn ‘ clearing’ . Practical experience has proven that winding alters the yarn structure.This phenomenon does not affect yarn evenness, but affect the following yarn properties

• • • • •

thick places thin places neps hairiness standard deviation of hairiness

If winding tension is selected properly, the following tensile properties are not affected

• • •

tenacity elongation work- to- break

But excessive tension in winding will deteriarate the above said tensile properties. Changes in the yarn surface structure due to winding cannot be avoided. Since the yarn is accelerated from zero speed to 1200 or 1350 meters per min in a few milli seconds while being pulled off the bobbin, dragged across several deflection bars and eyelets, forced into a traverse motion at speed that make it invisible, and finally rolled up into a firm construction called package or cone. The factors that affect the yarn structure during winding include the frictional properties of the yarn itself, the bobbin geometry and the bobbin unwinding behaviour, winding speed, winding geometry as well as the number and design of the yarn / machine contact points. However, the bobbin unwinding behaviour is the major limiting factor for winding speed which also is the main reason for the above said changes in yarn structure. Most of the damage occurs at the moment when the end is detached and removed from the tight assembly of yarn layers on the bobbin and dragged along the tube at very high speeds. High speed automatic winders have frequently been blamed for causing higher nep counts but this is not a correct statement. typical nep-type imperfections, i.e shor mass defects, can be identified as tight fibre entanglements, clumps of immature or dead cotton fibres, or seed coat fragments. Naturally, such defects are not produced by the winding machine. The increase in nep counts after winding is related to the formation of loose fiber accumulations. These fibre accumulations represent a true mass defect, yet their

they become apparent in all subsequent processing stages. Stickiness of cotton can contribute to the formation of thick and thin places. foregin fibres and diry places in the yarn. The difference between frequent yarn faults and seldom occuring yarn faults are mainly given by the mass or diameter deviation and size. irectional influences are omnipresent. . there are about 20 to 100 faults over a length of 100 km yarn which do not correspond to the deisred appearance of the yarn. production and process parameters. Both principles have their advantages in specific applications. Fly liberation in Ringframe department is one of the major reasons for short faults in the yarn because of the fly gets spun into the yarn. In earlier days. Some very fine and delicate yarns will result in marginal structural changes after winding. But now . splicing of the yarn ends has become quite popular and has gradually replaced knotting by way of its better appearance while at the same time retaining sufficient strength. it is necessary to have yarn monitoring system in the last production process of the spinning mill. YARN FAULTS AND CLEARING: WINDING Top 1. knotters were used in winding machine to join two ends after cutting the fault and after chaning the ringframe bobbin . Clearing Efficiency= 100 * (Total unwanted Faults Removed by Clearer) / ( Total Number of such faults Present in the yarn) Knot Factor = ( Total number of Clearer cuts) / (Number of unwanted yarn faults 4. removed It is still not possible to produce a yarn without faults for various reasons. Yarn quality Factor = Clearing Efficiency / Knot factor 2. The yarn faults which go into the woven or knitted fabric can be removed at very high costs or can not be removed at all. These faults are thick and thin faults.0 * yarn diameter Pre clearer Gauge at winding (combed yarn) 5 * yarn diameter 3. Hence it is not possible to have fault free yarn from ringspinning. Pre clearer Gauge at winding (carded yarn) 4. the machiery set up.apperance in the yarn and in the final fabric is clearly different from that of typical fibre entanglements or seed coat fragments. This means that the yarn exhibits a yarn fault every 1 to 5 km. But this is not the result of mechancial stress like in winding but a natural reaction caused by the reversal of the yarn running direction. These faults are monitored by classimat or clearer installation on winding. Depending upon the rawmaterial. Therefore the yarn processing industry demands a fault free yarn. As physical principle for electronic yarn clearing the capacitive and the optical principle have established.

In some cases. etc). for a selection of the various types of faults. can be extremely serious. to quite a large extent. Long thin faults are difficult to determine in the yarn by means of the naked eye. long thick places or even spinners doubles. Faults like spinners doubles are difficult to determine in the yarn. Long thick places are much more seldom-occuring than the short thick places and usually have a length longer than 40cms. here and there. but have a crosssectional size approx. long thin places . These faults are relatively frequent in all spun yarns. Long thin places have lengths of approx. Thin places occur in two length groups. Short thick places are those faults which are not longer than approximately 8 cms. three times the mean staple length of the fibre. . then a classification system will result which is suitable primarily for satisfying the requirements of yarn clearing and yet allows. these faults are produced in the spinning section of the mill and are the result of spun in fly. their length can even reach many meters. Long thick places will affect the fabric apperance. Their cross sectional size approx. They are too frequent in the yarn to be extracted by means of the electronic yarn clearing. Their frequency is dependent on the rawmaterial and the setting of the drafting element.Each yarn contains. with the naked eye. twice that of the yarn. To an extent they are the result of the rawmaterial ( vegetable matter. To a much larger extent. These can be short thick places. On the other hand. Once they reach a certain size( cross-section and length) . places which deviate to quite a considerable extent from the normal yarn corss-section. They are relatively seldom-occuring in short staple yarns. the characteristic dimensions of the various fault types can be taken into consideration. In many cases. or knitted fabric. + 40% to +100% and more with respect of the mean cross-section of the yarn. Short thin places are known as imperfections. Their effect in the finished product however. The most important aspect is certainly the determination of the fault dimensions of cross-sectional size and length. Eventhough such events seldom occur. The quite extensive application of electronic yarn clearing has set new quality standards with respect to the number of faults in spun yarns.30 to 70%. and this in 23 classes. short thick place fults can considerably affect the appearance of the finished product. With such a cross-section and length classification and by means of the correct choice of the class limits. non-seprated fibres. they can produce quite fatal results in the finished product. but much more frequently-occuring in long staple yarns. they represent a potential disturbance in the appearance of the fabric or can negatively influnece subsequent processing of the yarn. A spinners double in the warp or in yarn for circular knitting can downgrade hundreds of meters of woven . they cause disturbances in subsequent processing. Short thick places are easily determinable in the yarn. 40cms and longer and a cross-sectional decrease with respect to the mean yarn cross-section of approx. and have a length approx. The yarn faults are classified according to their length and cross-sectional size. It is therefore necessary to evolve a method of yarn fault classification before clearing the faults in winding. and in each case accoridng to the type of yarn and its application.

respetively.D4.1 cm. and -30% . The classes are designated H1. -45% and -75% and whose lengths are longer than 32 cms. FIG: YARN CLEARING CONCEPT OF USTER QUANTUM CLEARER N . lower limit with respect to the mean yarn fault cross-section is measure in %. 4cm. Both have their merits and demerits and are equally . -45% and -75% for the cross-sectional sizes.e theupper limit. The fault length is measured in cms.. +150%. Clearers working on the capacitive principle have ‘ mass’as the reference for performing its functions while optical clearers function with ‘ diameter’ as the reference. and 8cm for the lengths and +100%..COARSE COUNTS CCM-FINE COUNTS The classes and their limits are set out according to the following: • Short thick place faults: 16 classes with the limits. The classes are indicated A1.. The classes I1 and I2 are open to the right. respectively . i.I2. according to their length.FIG: CLASSIMAT FAULTS: • The cross-sectional deviations are given +% or -% values. B4. The classification of the shorter thin places is of no advantage in the analysis of the seldom-occuring faults.. FIG: A DIAGRAM FROM LOEPFE YARN CLEARER MANUAL Types of Electronic Yarn Clearers Electronic Yarn Clearers available in the market are principally of two types –capacitive and optical. and +400% for the cross-sectional sizes are provided. • spinners doubles: This refers to a class (with the indication E) for faults whose length oversteps 8cms and whose cross-sectional size oversteps +100 ( open to the right and upwards) • Long thick place faults and thick ends: The long thin place faults are contained in 4 classes with the limits 8 cms and 32 cms for the lengths.+250%.SHORT FAULTS L-LONG FAULTS CCP . whose cross-sectional size oversteps +400%. The classes A4.C4.. 2cm.e they contain all those thin places having a size between -30 and -45%.NEPS S. 0. i.D4 contain all those faults..

it is worth mentioning that the ‘ reference length’ may be lower or higher than the actual ‘ fault length’. beyond which the cutter is activated to remove the yarn fault. thick and thin places etc. c. Both the above parameters can be set within a wide range of limits depending on specific yarn clearing requirements. Clearing Limit: The clearing limit defines the threshold level for the yarn faults. This signal is amplified and fed to the evaluation channels of the yarn clearing installation. Here. For a yarn fault to be cut. Each of the channels reacts to the signals for the corresponding type of yarn fault. The clearing limit consists of two setting parameters . U% / CV%. the functioning of the capacitive clearer is explained in some detail in the following sections. Sensitivity . When the mass per unit length of the yarn exceeds the threshold limit set for the channel. the basis of functioning of both the types of clearers are similar if not exactly same. Material Number: . b. Yarn Count : The setting of the yarn count provides a clearer with the basic information on the mean value of the material being processed to which the clearer compares the instantaneous yarn signals for identifying the seriousness of a fault.Sensitivity and Reference Length. the cutting device of the yarn clearer cuts the yarn Yarn Clearer Settings The yarn clearer has to be provided with certain basic information in order to obtain the expected results in terms of clearing objectionable faults. The number and type of evaluation channels available are dependent on the sophistication and features of the model of the clearer in use. The following are some of them a. ii. Since most of the other textile measurements like.popular in the textile industry. an electrical signal is produced which is proportional to the change in mass per unit length of the yarn. i. Functioning Principle The yarn is measured in a measuring field constituted by a set of parallely placed capacitor plates. When the yarn passes through this measuring field (between the capacitor plates). Besides the above basic difference in measuring principle. Reference Length – This defines the length of the yarn over which the fault cross – section is to be measured.This determines the activating limit for the fault cross sectional size. the mean value of the yarn fault cross-section has to overstep the set sensitivity for the set reference length.. in various departments take into account mass as the reference parameter.

33 * 7. Table :material number 8. the material number is formed from the sum of the percentage components of the blend.5) + (0. The material number values for different materials are provided in Table.5 very damp material (80%Rh) 7.5 3. For instance. For blended yarns.) and environmental conditions like relative humidity.Besides the yarn count there are certain other factors which influence the capacitance signal from the measuring field like type of fibre (Polyester / Cotton / Viscose etc. the count.5 cotton. In most of the modern day clearers. the Material umber should be set at (0. Winding Speed: The setting of the winding speed is also very critical for accurate removal of faults.5 2. acrylonitrile 5. It is recommended that.5 very dry material(50% RH) 7 very damp material 6 natural silk acetate. wool. the delivery speed be set by actual calculation after running the yarn for 2-3 minutes and checking the length of yarn delivered. A reduction in material number results in a more sensitive setting causing higher fault removal. when a 67/33 Polyester / Cotton blend is run at an RH of 65%. Short Thick places 2. d. poly ethylene polyester polyvinyl chloride 50 to 80% RH 50 to 80% RH 50 to 80%RH 50 to 80% RH 5 very dry material 50 to 80% RH 4.5) = 4. These factors are taken into consideration in the ‘ Material Number’ .5 polyamide polypropylene.67 * 3. the Material Number is changed by 1 for a 15% change in Relative Humidity. Long Thick Places . Similarly a lower speed setting relative to the actual causes less cuts with some faults escaping without being cut.5 From the values given in the table it could be seen that. material number and speeds are monitored and automatically corrected during actual running of the yarn. instead of the machine speed. for water absorbent fibres like cotton. Setting a higher speed than the actual is likely to result in higher number of cuts.8. viscost 6. Fault Channels: The various fault channels available in a latest generation yarn clearer are as follows: 1.

Therefore. The various facilities available in the yarn clearers nowadays enable precise setting and removal of all objectionable faults while at the same time ensure a reasonably high level of productivity. Count 6. This is mostly used while clearing cotton yarn. no mechanical obstruction. as the knot itself is objectionable due to its physical dimension. some of the optical yarn clearers have an additional channel to detect the contamination in yarn. Splicing satisfies the demand for knot free yarn joining: no thickening of the thread or only slight increase in its normal diameter. This is in spite of the fact that the tensile strength of the yarn with knot is superior to that of yarn with splice. Splice The availability of one or more of the above channels is dependent on the type of the yarn clearer. The knots are responsible for 30 to 60% of stoppages in weaving. Besides detection of the various types of faults. high breaking strength close to that of the basic yarn under both static and dynamic loading. . no great mass variation. Splicing is the ultimate method to eliminate yarn faults and problems of knots and piecing. The effectiveness of splicing is primarily dependent on the tensile strength and physical appearance. appearance and problems during downstream processes. Neps 5. almost equal elasticity in the joint and basic yarn. Long Thin Places 4. No extraneous material is used and hence the dye affinity is unchanged at the joint. Contamination Clearing: Detection of contamination in normal yarn has become a requirement in recent times due to the demands by yarn buyers abroad. visibly unobjectionable. Splicing is a technique of joining two yarn ends by intermingling the constituent fibres so that the joint is not significantly different in appearance and mechanical properties with respect to the parent yarn. with latest clearers. In addition. It is universally acceptable and functionally reliable. Most of the modern clearers have the above channels. it is also possible to detect concentration of faults in a specific length of yarn by means of alarms(cluster faults). SPLICING: A high degree of yarn quality is impossible through knot.3. splicing enables a higher degree of yarn clearing to be obtained on the electronic yarn clearer.

Mechanical splicing and Pneumatic splicing. high cost of manufacturing. Among them. The tail end makes a good wrapping of several turns and thus prevents fraying of the splice.. Twisting The two yarn ends comprising the splice are twisted around the body of the yarn. improper structure and properties of yarn produced. Splicing proceeds in two stages with two different air blasts of different intensity. The first air blast untwists and causes opening of the free ends.Splicing technology has grown so rapidly in the recent past that automatic knotters on modern high speed winding machine are a thing of the past. The fibres from each yarn end intermingle in this splice zone just by tucking. Principle of Pneumatic Splicing The splicing consists of untwisting and later re-twisting two yarn ends using air blast. followed by twisting . the fibres intermingled and later twisted in the same direction as that of the parent yarn. Pneumatic Splicing The first generation of splicing systems operated with just one stage without proceeding to trimming. pneumatic splicing is the most popular. The cross-section of this region distinctly shows the fibres of the two yarn strands separately without any intermingling of the fibres.e. i. The untwisted fibres are then intermingled and twisted in the same direction as that of parent yarn by another air blast Structure of Splice Analysis of the longitudinal and transverse studies revealed that the structure of the splice comprises of three distinct regions/elements brought by wrapping. Other methods have inherent drawbacks like limited fields of application. In a second operation the prepared ends are laid and twisted together. The fibres of the twisting yarn embrace the body of the yarn and thus acts as a belt. highly twisted and fine yarns could not be joined satisfactorily with such method. The studies on quantitative contribution of splice elements showed that intermingling/tucking contributes the most to the strength of splice (52%). the ends are untwisted. Short fibres. twisting and tucking / intermingling. The yarn ends were fed into the splicing chamber and pieced together in one operation. Latest methods of splicing process consist of two operations. During the first stage. Tucking / Intermingling The middle portion of the splice is a region (2-5 mm) with no distinct order. to achieve a near parallel arrangement of fibres. first the yarn is opened. Many techniques for splicing have been developed such as Electrostatic splicing. Wrapping : The tail end of each yarn strand is tapered and terminates with few fibres. This in turn gives appearance to the splice. each yarn strand twists on the body of the yarn on either side of the middle of the splice. maintenance and operations.

P/C both for ring and rotor spun yarn increases splice strength. This could be due to better opening of the strands at higher pneumatic pressure. these yarns show significant differences in splice quality. Wrapping and twisting provides mainly transverse forces. the breaking strength and extension of splice vary with fibre and yarn properties. make it difficult to untwist and the disordered structure is less ideal for splicing. Twisted yarns also require a relatively longer time for complete opening of the yarn ends. In case of friction spun yarns. The breaking strength percentage of ring spliced yarns to a parent yarn is 70% to 85% for cotton yarn. polyester and wool report that coarser yarns have higher breaking strength but a moderate extension. but a number of splicing failures .(33%) and wrapping (about 15%). Spliced yarn has a lower breaking elongation than normal yarn. The lower strength of the splice is attributed to the lower packing coefficient of the splice zone. In blended yarn. breaking twist angle and coefficient of friction affect splice strength and appearance. Splicing of twisted ply yarn is more complicated than single yarn due to the yarn structure having opposing twists in the single and doubled yarns. due to the presence of wrapper fibres. The ring spun yarn lent best splicing but the potential of splicing is affected by the spinning conditions. Higher coefficient of friction of fibres generates more inter-fibre friction to give a more cohesive yarn. hence the splice is stronger than that of finer yarns. Effect of Yarn Twist An increase in the twist significantly increases the breaking load and elongation. Breaking elongation is mainly affected by intermingling. The breaking strength retention varies from 54% to 71% and is much lower compared to the splice of ring spun yarns. these properties of fibre contribute to better retention of splice strength. Effect of Different Spinning Methods Yarn produced with different spinning methods exhibit different structure and properties. the highest relative tensile strength obtained at the spliced joints can be above 80%. The absence of fibre migration gives lower breaking elongation to splice. Effect of Fibre Properties and Blend Fibre properties such as torsional rigidity. even at higher pneumatic pressure. Thus. Rotor spun yarns. The coarse yarn cross section contains more fibres and provides better fibre intermingling during pre-opening. usually the addition of polyester to other fibre blend like P/W. The lower torsional rigidity and higher breaking twist angle permit better fibre intermingling. Therefore. Effect of Yarn Fineness Several studies on cotton. However. Effect of Variables on the Properties of the Spliced yarn Several studies have been conducted on the effect of various variables on the properties of the spliced yarn.

The coefficient of variation of these properties is also generally high. Effect of Splicing Chamber . when the splicing is extended for a long period of time. long opening time deteriorates the strength.5 to 1. It is desirable however. It can be therefore be stated that the splices made on longer lengths and for longer period of time have more uniform strength. An increase in pressure up to 5 bar caused release of fibre tufts and fibre loss from the yarn ends in P/C blend which is due to intensive opening. The air-jet-spun (MJS) yarn and the cover spun yarn are virtually impossible to splice. Effect of Splicing Duration With a given splicing length. Effect of Opening Pressure A study on 50/50 polyester cotton. These are between 0. Comparison of Dry and Wet Splicing The comparative studies on dry and wet splicing with water showed that the breaking load retention for wet spliced yarns are significantly greater than dry spliced yarns. wet splicing is more effective for yarn made from long staple fibres and for coarse yarn. the splicing length has more pronounced effect on the load-elongation properties of the spliced yarn. showed that regardless of the splicing material. However. Effect of Splicing Length Studies on splicing of flyer and wrap spun yarns spun with different materials.8 seconds. It has also been observed that. that splicing duration be as short as possible.occurs due to unfavourable yarn structure. The effects are more pronounced at higher splicing lengths. but beyond this pressure. 25 tex ring spun yarn shows a rise in tensile strength up to a certain opening pressure. for maximum splice strength. the breaking strength and strength retention of both yarn types increase with the splicing length because of the increased binding length of the two yarn ends. Elongation at break and retention of elongation of both flyer and wrap spun spliced yarns increase with the splice length. drafting and twisting in the opposite direction may also occur. In fact. Compared to the splicing duration. the breaking strength of the spliced yarn and also their strength retention over the normal value of the basic yarn increases because of increased cohesive force resulting from an increased number of wrapping coils in a given length. Only very low tensile strengths and elongation values can be attained due to the inadequate opening of the yarn ends during preparation of the splicing. This may be due to higher packing coefficient resulting from wet splicing. different materials require different durations of blast. The splicing duration alone has no conclusive effect on elongation properties of splice yarn.

work of rupture.(abrasion and breaks due to excessive tension) WINDING PRODUCTION: It depends upon the following factors • • • winding speed time required by the machine to carry out one splicing operation bobbin length per bobbin( both bobbin weight and tpi to be considered. It should be shorter for coarser yarns and longer for fine yarns. filament yarns. % increase in diameter and evaluation of its performance in down stream process etc. Although quality of splice can be assessed by methods like load-elongation. the appearance can be assessed either by simple visual assessment or by comparing with photograph of standard splice. (type of fibre. • Winding ratio:It is the ratio of the length of yarn wound during the upward movement of the ring rail and the length wound during the downward movement of the ringrail.. The length should be around 3. • Bobbin taper: The ratio of the length of the upper taper of the cop (bobbin with yarn) to the diameter of the bobbin must be 1:2 or greater. which varies with different staple fibres. This decides the number of bobbin changes .The factors like method and mode of air supply and pressure along with type of prism affect the splicing quality.5 to 5 meters. It was observed that irregular air pressure has advantages over constant pressure for better intermingling in the splicing chamber. Assessment of Yarn Splice Quality The two important characteristics of a splice are appearance and strength. It is not possible to make a general comment regarding potential of the splicing chamber due to the multiplicity of factors influencing splicing. and yarns with S and Z twists. because TPI will affect the bobbin length). CHARACTERISTICS OF BOBBIN FORMATION: • Strectch length: It is the length of the yarn deposited on the bobbin tube during each chase (one up and down movement of ringrail ) of ring rail. and with no damage whatsoever to the yarn. average strength and minimum strength) type and charactersitics of bobbin package taper final use of package The best winding speed is the speed which allows the highest level of production possible for a given type of yarn and type of package. WINDING SPEED: It depends upon the following factors • • • • • count type of yarn.

According to winding package: a) Pirn Winding Machine b) Cop Winding Machine c) Spool Winding Machine d) Cone Winding Machine e) Cheese Winding Machine f) Warp Winding Machine g) Flange Bobbin Winding Machine 2. number of repeaters setting for red lights. drop over. this decides the clearer cuts count the number of doffs. clearer settings like off count channel. Ring formation: The yarn runs in belt formation on to the package. around the tube. it depends on weak yarn. It depends upon the doff weight. wrong gaiting. web: Yarn is visible on the small or on the big side of the cone either across the side . WINDING PACKAGE DEFECTS: Following are some of the package defects which will result in complaints • • • • • • • • • • • Yarn waste in the cones. This is due to loose yarn ends that are wound on to the cone Stitch. Higher the doff weight. because it is misguided Without transfer tail: The desired transfer tail is missing or too short Ribbon formation: Pattern or ring formation are made by the drum when rpm are stying the same Displaced yarn layers: yarn layers are disturbed and are sliding towards the small diameter of the cone Misguided yarn : The yarn is not equally guided over the hole package Cauliflower: On the smaller side of the package. According to Winding: . the yarn shows a wrinkle effect Soft and Hard yarn layer: Some layer of yarn are pushed out on the small side of the cone Soft and Hard cones: Great difference in package density from one winder head to anoth Winding Machines in Weaving Manufacturing: 1. number of red lights.• • • • • the number of faults in the yarn and the clearer settings. or going back in the cone Damaged edges or broken ends on the cone: The yarn is broken on the edges or in the middle of the cone. It depends upon. cluster setting which will result in red lights and others • • bobbin rejections. lower the number of doffs the time taken for each doff either by the doffer or by an operator Down time due to red light. double gaiting. bobbin characteritics etc.

Pirn. Advantages of Parallel Winding Packages: a) Many threads can be wind at a time. Near Parallel Winding Packages: This winding package comprises one or more threads which are laid very nearly parallel to the layers already existing on the package.Cone. c) Over with-drawl is not possible. Parallel Winding Package of Weaving: This winding package comprises many threads laid parallel to one another as in a warp beam . For example. Advantages of Near Parallel Winding Packages: . Precison Winding of Weaving: In this type of winding successive coils of yarn are laid parallel or near parallel to each other. Disadvantages of Parallel Winding Packages: a) Need flanged packages. e) During winding no need to traversing. According to Drive: a) Direct Drive. b) Indirect Drive. For instance. Cop. Bobbin) Non-Precison Winding of Weaving: This type of winding is the package which consists of a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layer s cross one another and give stability.it is necessary to have a flanged package. Warper Beam. b) More yarn density in the winding package. d) During winding no charge of twist. Flange bobbin. For instance. Cheese 1. 2. c) Side with-drawl is possible. Hence a very dense package is formed which contains maximum yarn in a given volume (Warp Beam. b) Need separate mechanism during unwinding.a) Precison Winding Machine b) Non-Precison Winding Machine 3. Weavers Beam. Cop.

Cam and Mangle Wheel mechanism.A. Disadvantages of Cross Winding Packages: a) The amount of yarn in the package is less due to low density.a) Normally no need to flange bobbin. Marsh Singh Shree Nivasan Murthy 22 . 02 Winding 02. Winding 5. Cone. For example.R. 02.T. Cross Wound Package: This type usually consists of a single thread which is laid on the package at an appreciable helix angle. Sen Gupta P. So that the layers cross one another and give stability. J.I 7. Cheese. d) The package is comparatively stable. Modern Weaving Calculations. c) During unwinding no need to separate mechanism. Recommended Books SL Title/Publisher 1. Volume I & II 6. Author R. Weaving Calculation 3. Yarn Preparation. b) During winding need traversing mechanism. Disadvantages of Near Parallel Winding packages: a) Side with-drawl is not possible. b) Over with-drawl can be possible. 3.01 Objects and types of winding. traverse motion. c) During winding no change of twist. Merits and demerits of upright spindle winding machine. Spool etc. Banerjee B. b) Twist may be charged during unwinding.Technology and Techniques. Advantages of Cross Winding Package: a) Package stable due to cross wound.02 Slow Speed Winding: Upright spindle winding machine and its drive. b) Over with-drawl is possible. Vol. Yarn Preparation. Sen Gupta R. Yarn Winding 4.T. . TFO . Volume-I 2.K.

1 02. 4 02.07. 0 02. 02.1 Full bobbin stop motion. Spinning disc type.07.07.0 Cone or cheese holders.04 High Speed Winding. 2 02. 02.0 Traverse motion.0 Automatic thread stop motion.0 Creel. 02.10 Winding faults and remedies.07.07.07.05 Super Speed Winding 02. 02. 02. 7 02. 1 02. Advantages and disadvantages of Barber coloman spooler winder.0 Tensioners: Washer type. Merits and demerits of high speed and super winding. 6 02. TFO. 02. 02.03 Modern upright spindle winding machine.07. Mach-coner cone winding machine. Precision cone and cheese winding.06 Automatic Cone and Cheese winding. 02.07.0 Balloon Breaker.07.07. 02.09 Automatic cone and cheese winding: Barber coloman automatic spooler winder. 03 Pirn Winding 09 .Drum winding machine and its mechanism.07 Mechanism and motions used in cone and cheese winding.07. 5 02.0 Ribbon breaker. 8 02. 9 02.1 Drive.0 Cone winding shaft or drum. Roto-coner cone winding machine. Auto-coner cone winding machine.08 High Speed Winding Machines: Schafhorst cheese winding machine.0 Clearers and slub catchers. Uni-coner cone winding machine.11 Control of package faults. Schweiter winding machine. 3 Gate type. and Compensating type tensioners.

01 Objects of pirn winding. 03.02 Ordinary pirn winding. 03.04 Super speed pirn winding. 03. 03.05 Automatic pirn winding.03.09 Schweiter Automatic pirn winding machine.07 Schweiter high speed pirn winding machine.03 High speed pirn winding. 03. 03.08 Hocoba high speed pirn winding machine. Merits and demerits of ordinary pirn winding. . 03. 03.06 Fully automatic pirn winding.