17155106 Introduction to Gas Processing | Hydraulic Fracturing | Petroleum

Introduction to Production Technology

Presenter: Ta Quoc Dung

Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction Chapter 2. Process Overview Chapter 3. Performance of Flowing Well Chapter 4. Artificial Lifts Chapter 5. Enhanced Oil Recovery
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Learning Objectives
Having go through this course, students will be able to: Describe the overview of Petroleum Production Technology Describe the role of Production Engineer in a Petroleum Operating Company. Describe a production system and its facilities both onshore and offshore. Understand the concept of inflow performance, lift performance and their integrated nature. Understand the enhanced oil recovery process.

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Introduction to Production Technology

Learning Objectives

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Chapter 1

Introduction

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Content
1.1. Historical Background 1.2. Origin of Petroleum 1.3. Petroleum Production 1.4. Production Engineer

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Historical Background
Oil has been used for many thousand years. Initially, oil was collected from seepage or tar ponds. 6000 BC, thick gummy asphalt was used to waterproof boats and heat home. 3000 BC, Egyptians used asphalt in the construction of the pyramids, to grease the axles of the Pharaoh’s chariots, as an embalming agent for mummies and in medicine. 500 BC, Chinese were using natural gas to boil water.

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Historical Background
1885, internal combustion engine was invented by Karl Benz. Later, Gotlied Daimler improved on this invention. 1894, Rudolph Diesel created the engine bearing his name. Since then, oil started to play a dominant role in the world. Initially, gas was burned off or left in the ground. After World War II, natural gas industry boom due to:
Welding techniques Pipe rolling Metallurgical advances => Construction of reliable long distance pipelines
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The First Oil Wells

“Colonel” Edwin Drake’s well at Titusville, Pennsylvania, marked the start of the oil industry in 1859
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The First Oil Wells
First wells were shallow, less than 50 meters in depth. However, they could give quite large production, e.g. 4000 barrels per day for a single well. Oil was collected in wooden tank, called “barrel”. Many different sized barrels in the background. Current standard, one barrel is 159 liters.

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The First Oil Wells
Woodford well 1500 bbl/d, July 1862 Philips well 4000 bbl/d, Oct 1861

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The First Oil Wells

Well “jungle” at Spindletop, 1903
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What is Petroleum?
Petra = Rock Oleum = Oil

Petroleum is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons which may exist in the solid, liquid, or gaseous states, depending upon the composition and conditions of pressure and temperature to which it is subjected.

Gaseous = natural gas Liquid = condensate, crude oil Solid = asphalt, tar, bitumen
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Petroleum Components

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Origin of Petroleum
Origin of petroleum
Organic Inorganic

Primary Requirements for Petroleum Reservoir formation:
Organic life Water for transportation Tectonic activities

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Type of Hydrocarbon Produced
Oil produced is classified by shrinkage, density or GOR. Normally, high value oil has high API density.

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Other Uses of Oil
Crude Oil Refinery
Bottled Gas Gasoline Jet Fuel Fuel Oil (home heating Fuel Oil (factories) Diesel Oil And others Solvent for paint Insecticides Medicines Synthetic Fibers Enamel Detergents Weed Killers & Fertilizers Plastics Synthetic Rubber Photographic Film Candles Waxed paper Polish Ointments & Creams Roofing Protective Paints Asphalt
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Petrochemical Plant

Petroleum Products
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1.2. Origin of Petroleum

Petroleum from Beginning to the End
Exploration Evaluation Drilling

Completion

Production

Separation

Treatment

Transport

Refining

Treatment

Transport

End Users
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Introduction to Production Technology

Key Areas in Production Technology
Production technology is both a diverse and complex area. It is, possible to identify several key subject areas:
Well Productivity Well Completion Well Stimulation Associated Production Problems Remedial and Workover Techniques Artificial Lift / Productivity Enhancement Surface Processing

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1.3. Production Technology

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Production Technology Topics
WELL WELL PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE WELL WELL COMPLETION COMPLETION

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT/ ENHANCEMENT/ ARTIFICIAL LIFT ARTIFICIAL LIFT

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY

SURFACE SURFACE PROCESSING PROCESSING

PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PROBLEMS PROBLEMS
WELL MONITORING, WELL MONITORING, DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSIS AND AND WORKOVER WORKOVER

STIMULATION STIMULATION AND REMEDIAL AND REMEDIAL PROCESSES PROCESSES

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Scope of Production Engineer
Production Engineer is responsible for the production system. The production system describes the entire production process and includes the following principal components:
The Reservoir The Wellbore Production Conduit Wellhead, Xmas Tree and Flow Lines Treatment Facilities

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Elements of A Production Technology System

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Role of Production Engineer
Production Engineer performs tasks to achieve optimum performance from the production system. To achieve this the technologist must understand:
Chemical and physical characteristics of the fluids. System which will be utilised to control the efficient and safe production/injection of fluids

The importance of the Production Chemistry and Flow Assurance input has only recently been widely acknowledged.

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Contribution to Oil Company Operations
Contributes substantially, in particular to economic performance and cash flow. The overall incentive will be to maximise profitability. The objectives of an oil company operation could be classified as:
Maximising magnitude and accelerating cash flow. Minimising cost/bbl, i.e. total cost minimisation may not be recommended.

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Contribution to Oil Company Operations
Cash flow The overall objectives would ideally be to maximise both cash flow and recoverable reserves. This would normally require maintaining the well in an operational state to achieve:
Maximum production rates Maximum economic longevity Minimum down time

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Contribution to Oil Company Operations
Costs In this category there would be both fixed and direct costs. On this basis the production technologist would seek to:
Minimise capital costs Minimise production costs Minimise treatment costs Minimise workover cost

Ensuring that the company’s operation are safe, efficient and profitable.
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Time Scale of Involvement
Specialist task teams to fields or groups of wells i.e. field groups or asset teams. Specialist groups or individual who provide specific technical expertise. This ensure that there is a forward looking and continuous development perspective to field and well developments. The production engineer is involved in the initial well design and will have interest in the drilling operation from the time that the reservoir is penetrated.

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Time Scale of Involvement
The inputs of production engineer will last throughout the production life of the well, to its ultimate abandonment. The production engineer will contribute to company operations on a well from initial planning to abandonment. The inputs in chronological order to the development and the operation of the well are listed below.

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Time Scale of Involvement
Drilling
Casing string design. Drilling fluid selection.

Completion
Design/installation of completion string.

Production
Monitoring well and completion performance.

Workover/re-completion
Diagnosis/recommendation/installation of new or improved production systems.

Abandonment
Identify candidates and procedures.
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Questions
1.

Which company is producing oil the most in Vietnam? What is its average day-rate?

2. 3.

Locate main oil and gas production fields in Vietnam? Name some oil refinery projects in Vietnam?

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Chapter 2

Process Overview

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Content
2.1. Production Systems
Onshore Offshore

2.2. Production Facilities
Wellhead Manifold/Gathering Separator Gas Compressor Pipeline Metering, Storage and Export Facilities

2.3. Utility Systems
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Basic Process Scheme

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Process Overview
Production Wellheads Production and Test Manifolds Gas Compressor
LP HP

Metering and Storage
Gas Meter

Export
Pig Launcher Gas Pipeline

Production Separators
1-Stage 2-Stage Crude Pump

Pig Launcher

Oil Pipeline Tanker Loading

Oil Meter

Water Treatment

Test Separator
Oil Storage

Drilling Injection Wells Injection Manifolds

Utility Systems (selected)
Power Generation

Water injection pump

Mud and Cementing

Instrument Air Potable Water

Gas injection compressor Firefighting Systems

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HVAC

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Oil and Gas Production
Oil and gas is produced in almost every part of the world. Production from 100 bbl/day to 4000 bbl/day per well. Depth of production from 20 m to 3000 m, and more. Current trend of petroleum production:
Explore reservoirs at ultra high water depth. Develop subsea production system.

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Production System

1. 2. 3. 4.

Onshore well Fixed, multi platform Fixed, self-contained platform Self-contained, concrete gravity platform
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Floating, single point mooring Storage/shuttle tanker Floating, tension leg platform Subsea manifolds
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2.1. Production System

Onshore
Production from a few tens barrels a day upward. Worldwide, there are several millions oil and gas production wells. Production system: sucker rod pump (donkey pump).

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Onshore
Heavy crude, tar sands and oil shales have become economically extractible.
Heavy crude may need heating and diluent. Tar sands have lost their volatile compounds and are strip mined or could be extracted with steam.

These unconventional of reserves may contain more than double the hydrocarbons found in conventional reservoirs.
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Offshore
Facilities selected depending on:
Type of fluid: oil, gas or condensate. Production rate. Location of field and water depth.

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Offshore Production System

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Type of Offshore Platform

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Type of Offshore Platform (cont.)

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Type of Offshore Platform (cont.)
1353 ft (1991) 1754 ft (1998) 4674 ft (2004) 5610 ft (2004) 6300 ft (2003) 4429 ft (2005) 7570 ft (2004)

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Shallow Water Complex
Water depth up to 100 m. Several independent platforms with different parts of the process and utilities linked with gangway bridges. Individual platforms will be described as:
Wellhead Platform Riser Platform Processing Platform Accommodations Platform and Power Generation Platform

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Integrated Steel Jacket Platform

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Gravity Base
Water depth: 100 – 500 m. Concrete fixed structures placed on the bottom, typically with oil storage cells. Large desk receive all parts of the process and utilities.

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Compliant Tower
Water depth 500 – 1000m. Much like fixed platforms, consist of narrow tower attached to a foundation on the seafloor and extending up to the platform. Compliant tower is quite flexible.

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Compliant Tower

Moving a compliant tower to a field.
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Rig-up
Fixed platforms are built in onshore bases. Then they are towed to the field by tugboats. Platforms positioned and connected to seafloor.

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Floating Production
All topside system are located on a floating structure. Floaters:
FPSO - Floating Production, Storage and Offloading, 200-2000 m. TLP – Tension Leg Platform, up to 2000 m. SPAR – single tall floating cylinder hull, 300 – 3000 m.

Turrets are positioned by:
POSMOR (position mooring): chain connections to anchors. DYNPOS (dynamic positioning): thrusters and propellers.

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FPSO

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FPSO with Tanker

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TLP

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TLP with subsea wells

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SPAR

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SPAR anatomy
1. Monocolumn Hull 2. Tendon Porches 3. Tendons 4. Foundation 5. Deck 6. Hull to Deck Transition 7. Riser Porch 8. Riser/Umbilical Pull Tubes 9. Moonpool 10.Production Risers
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Subsea Production System
Typically used at 7000 ft depth or more. Drilling and completion are performed from a surface rig. Wells located on the sea floor. Petroleum is extracted at the seafloor, then “tied-back” to an existing production system by subsea pipeline and riser.

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Subsea FPSO Development

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Host Platform connected to several Subsea Fields

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Main Process Section
An oil and gas production system consist of the main following sections:
Wellhead Manifold/Gathering Separator Gas compressor Pipeline

Some optional facilities may be required
Heat exchanger Scrubber and Reboiler

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Wellhead
Located on top of the well, also called “The X-mas tree”. Allow a number of operations relating to production and workover. Workover refers to various technologies for maintaining the well and improving production. Control the flow of the well with a choke. Two main type of wellheads:
Dry completion: conventional wellheads. Subsea completion: subsea wellheads.

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Wellhead
X-MAS TREE CASING HEAD TUBING HEAD

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Wellhead (cont.)
A wellhead consists of three component: Casing head: where casing are bolted or welded to casing hanger. Tubing head: used to position the tubing correctly in the well. X-mas tree
Master gate valve: high quality valve, not used to control flow. Pressure gauge: may also fitted together with temperature gauge. Wing valve: when shut in, tubing pressure can be read. Swab valve: access to the well for wireline operations, etc… Choke: made of high quality steel, used to control the flow.
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Subsea Wellhead
Placed in subsea structure. World deepest subsea production tree is 9000 ft of water. Compact system, function similar to conventional wellhead. Operated by ROV (remote operated vehicle).

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Subsea Wellhead (cont.)

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History of Subsea Technology

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ROV

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Types of Choke
Principal surface system pressure loss occurred at choke. Choke is designed to control the well flow rate and pressure before fluid exposed to surface equipment.

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Manifold/Gathering
Every individual well is brought in to the main production facilities over a network of gathering pipelines and manifold systems. Manifolds allow to set up and control production of a “well set” and utilize reservoir. Manifolds can be placed on surface, on platform or on seafloor, depending on the production system.

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Manifolds
Manifolds Subsea manifolds

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Separator
Production fluid of a well may consist of gas, oil, water,… and must be separated and processed. Separator form the heart of the production process. When fluid fed into a separators:
Pressure is controlled and reduced in several stages After a retention time, gas bubble out, water settle at the bottom and oil stay in the middle.

There are 2 types of separator:
Gravity separators, Centrifugal separators: in which the effect of gravity is enhanced by spinning the fluids at a high velocity.
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Gravity Separators
Working on the density difference between the phases be separated. Cylindrical vessel up to 5m in diameter and 20m long. Either 2-phase or 3-phase. Normally mounted in a series of 2, 3, or even 4 separators.

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3-phase Horizontal Gravity Separator

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3-phase Vertical Gravity Separator
Tend to be larger than a horizontal separator for the same separation capacity due to smaller interface areas.

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Gas Compressor
Gas from a pure natural gas wellhead might have sufficient pressure to feed directly into a pipeline transport system. Gas from separators has generally lost so much pressure that it must be recompressed to be transported. Typical gas compressor is turbine compressor, which contains a type of fan that compresses and pumps the natural gas through the pipeline.

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Gas Compressor (cont.)
Compressor power is often delivered by gas turbines, diesel engines or electric motor, depending on location and power required. Types of compressor:
Centrifugal compressor Positive displacement reciprocating compressor.

Both compressor types are susceptible to damage by liquid droplets, hence the presence of the liquid knockout vessels prior to each compressor.

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Simplified Processing Oil Facilities Scheme

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Pipeline
Pipeline exists everywhere in a production system. Many types of pipe and flowline are used in transportation of oil and gas, diameters vary from 6” to 48” and more. Due to oil and gas properties and harsh environment, production pipeline has special construction and design.

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Layers of a Production Line

1. Carcass 2. Inner liner 3. Pressure armour
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Tensile armour Outer sheath

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Heat Exchanger
For a compressor operates in an efficient way, the temperature of the gas should be low. Heat should be conserved, e.g. by using cooling flood from the gas train to reheat oil in the oil train.

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Scrubber and Reboiler
Used to remove small fraction of liquid from the gas before it reaches the compressor. Liquid droplets can erode the rotating blades if they enter the compressor.

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Metering
Several metering devices are used in every petroleum production system to measure gas or oil properties as it flows through the pipeline. Metering stations allow operators to monitor and manage the natural gas and oil flow without impeding its movement. Typically, a metering installation consists of a number of meter runs and associated prover loops so that the meter accuracy can be tested and calibrated at regular intervals.
Oil metering Gas metering

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Storage
Gas is usually not allowed to storage on platform. Oil is often stored before loading on a vessel. Offshore production facilities without a direct pipeline connection rely on crude storage in the base or hull and allow a shuttle tanker to offload periodically.

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A Base at Night

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Export of Oil
The volume of oil being exported has to be measured to the highest accuracy. Pipeline requires regular cleaning to ensure its efficient operation. A “pig” is usually used to remove settled sand, wax deposit, stagnant water,… Offshore, loading on tankers involve loading systems, ranging from tanker jetties to sophisticated single point mooring and loading systems that allow the tanker to dock and load product even in bad weather.

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Export - FPSO Offloading to a Tanker

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Export of Gas
Gas has to pass several process and treatment before exporting to customers, including:
Separation Compression NGL stabilization Dehydration Acid gas treating

These processes may repeat to improve the purity of gas and control gas properties.

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Gas Field Facilities

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Export - Gas Transportation

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Export - Gas Transportation (cont.)

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Produced Water Treatment
Produced water, after separation and treatment, is normally disposed of by injection into disposal wells, reinjection into the reservoir or pumping to open pits where it is allowed to evaporate or drain. In offshore operations, there are other sources of water that require treatment before disposal:
Water used for washing / cleaning of equipment, Sea spray and rain water, Utility water previously used for heating and cooling duty, Displacement water from crude oil storage systems and shuttle tankers.

At some offshore locations if the environmental regulations permit it, oilfree water may simply be pumped into the ocean.

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Produced Water Treatment (cont.)
Primary separation may be enhanced by:
1. Heating of the crude oil: to reduce viscosity. 2. Addition of demulsification chemicals: to alter the interfacial tension between the oil droplets and the water. 3. Electrostatic separation: to further reduce the water content of relatively dry oil. The water droplets suspended in the oil carry a small electrical charge and by imposing the appropriate electrical field across (part) of the settling region inside the separator, the settling rate of water will increase. This method is not widely used but is occasionally employed in conjunction with the more difficult to separate, typically denser, crude oils. After above methods, oil content in water is still about 500 – 2000 ppm.
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Produced Water Treatment (cont.)
Further treatments are applied to reduce oil content down to 40 ppm average, which is required by legistration in many countries. Many schemes have been developed to reduce this oil content:
1. (Corrugated) Plate Interceptors 2. Flocculation / Coagulation 3. Flotation 4. Hydrocyclones 5. Coalescer Units 6. Centrifuges
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(Corrugated) Plate Interceptors
Reducing the distance required for a droplet to migrate before it comes into contact with other oil droplets and coalesces.

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Flocculation / Coagulation
Uses a chemical (such as Ferrous Sulphate) which forms a voluminous precipitate in contact with water, artificially increasing suspended liquid size and their ability to coalesce.

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Dispered Gas Flotation
Gas injected into the water and dispersed by a rapidly rotating impeller, rising gas bubbles attaching themselves to the oil droplets.

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Dissolved Gas Flotation
Gas dissolved in the water under high pressure. When pressure is rapidly reduced - by passage of the water through a throttling valve - gas comes out of solution in the form of many small bubbles (champagne bottle effect).

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Hydrocyclones
Standard device for cleaning oily water, developed in the early 1990s. Using centrifugal force to increase the effect of gravity separation.

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Coalescer Units
Provide a (usually oleophilic) surface on which the small droplets of oil can collect, grow and eventually break free and be removed for subsequent separation. Can produce the lowest oil concentrations (5 ppm oil in water has been achieved in ideal circumstances).

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Centrifuges
The principle of enhanced gravitational force employed by Hydrocyclones can be further extended by use of centrifuges where an external electric motor is used to spin the fluid at high velocity together with a suitably designed internals to promote oil/water separation.

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Modern Scheme for Clean Produced Water

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Utility Systems
Utility systems are systems that does not handle the hydrocarbon process flow, but provides some utility to the main process safety or residents. 1. Control and Safety Systems
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Process Control Systems Emergency Shutdown and Process Shutdown Control and Safety Configuration Fire and Gas Detector System Telemetry Condition Monitoring and Maintenance Support Production Information Management System (PIMS) Training Simulator
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Example of Process Control System

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Utility Systems
2. Power Generation and Distribution 3. Flare and Atmospheric Ventilation 4. Instrument Air 5. HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning system) 6. Water System
1. 2. 3.

Portable water Sea water Ballast water

7. Chemical and Additives 8. Telecom

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Questions
1.

Which is more expensive, production onshore or offshore? Why?

2.

Why did the oil industry start drilling and production offshore?

3.

What are the main differences between oil production and gas production?

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Chapter 3

Performance of Flowing Well

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Content
3.1. Production Wells 3.2. Well Productivity 3.3. IPR and VLP 3.4. Skin Factor 3.5. Two Phase Flow in Tubing

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Production Wells
Production well is a conduit between the petroleum reservoir and the surface.

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Types of Production Wells
There are 3 main types of production wells:
Oil well with associated gas Natural gas wells: contain little or no oil Condensate wells: contain natural gas and liquid condensate. Condensate is a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that is often separated from the natural gas during the processing.

Lifting equipment and well treatment are not necessary in natural gas and condensate wells. For oil wells, many types of artificial lifts may be installed, particularly when reservoir pressure declines during production.
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Well Productivity
The productivity of the system is dependent on the pressure loss which occurs in:
The reservoir The wellbore The tubing string The choke The flow line The separator

In natural flow conditions: PR = ∆Psystem + Psep.
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Well Productivity
For natural flow: PR = ∆ PRES + ∆ PTBG + PTH
Where: PTH = tubing head pressure

The pressure drop across the reservoir, the tubing and choke are mostly rate dependant. There could be limitations on the extent to which we can optimise the dissipation of this energy. These are the following:
Limited Reservoir Pressure Minimum Surface Pressure

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Limited Reservoir Pressure
If the reservoir pressure is limited, it may not be feasible to achieve economic production rate from the well. In such cases it may be necessary to use gas or water injection for pressure maintenance or possibly system repressurisation. Alternatively, the use of some artificial lift technique to offset some of the vertical lift pressure requirements, allowing greater drawdown.

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Minimum Surface Pressure
On arrival at the surface, the fluids are fed to a pipeline through a choke and into a processing system. In many cases the mixture will be “flashed” through a series of sequential separators. It will be necessary to have a minimum surface pressure which will be based upon the required operating pressure. Separator pressure will depend upon the physical difficulty in separating the phases and pressure requirement for fluid flow.

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IPR and VLP
Minimisation of energy loss between these various areas has a major bearing on the cost effectiveness of a well, recovery factor, and production costs. The pressure drop which occurs across the reservoir, ∆Pres, is defined as the inflow performance relationship or IPR. The pressure drop in lifting the fluids from the reservoir to the surface, ∆PTBG, is known as the vertical lift performance or VLP, or the tubing performance relationship or TPR.

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IPR and VLP (cont.)
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)
Single phase Two phase

Vertical Lift Performance
Single phase Two phase

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IPR and VLP (cont.)

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Production Performance
Production performance involves matching up the following three aspects:
Inflow performance of formation fluid flow from formation to the wellbore. Vertical lift performance as the fluids flow up the tubing to surface. Choke or bean performance as the fluids flow through the restriction at surface.

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Tubing Performance
The pressure loss in the tubing can be a significant proportion of the total pressure loss. However its calculation is complicated by the number of phases which may be exist in the tubing. It is possible to derive a mathematical expression which describes fluid flow in a pipe by applying the principle of conservation of energy. The principle of the conservation of energy equates the energy of fluid entering in and exiting from a control volume.
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Determining Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure
Use correlation By metering or logging, which is can not operate regularly.

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Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
The nature of the fluid flow Time taken for the pressure change in the reservoir Fluid migrate from one location to another For any pressure changes in the reservoir, it might take days, even years to manifest themselves in other parts of the reservoir. Therefore flow regime would not be steady state. Darcy’s law could not be applied. Time dependent variables should be examined.
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Idealised Flow Pattern
They are: Linear, Radial, Hemi-spherical and Spherical. The most important cases are linear and radial models, both used to describe the water encroachment from an aquifer. Radial model is used to describe the flow around the wellbore.

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Characterisation and Modelling of Flow Patterns
The actual flow patterns are usually complex, due to:
1.

The shape of oil formations and aquifers are quite irregular.

2.

Permeability, porosity, saturation, etc are not homogeneous.

3. 4. 5.

Irregular well pattern through the payzone. Difference in production rate from well to well. Many wells do not fully penetrate the pay zone, or not fully perforated.

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Darcy’s Law
P1 Q A L P2

Darcy’s law

P − P2 A Q=K 1 L µ
Q K P − P2 K ∆P 1 U= = =− A µ L µ ∆L
Introduction to Production Technology

Henry Darcy (1803 – 1858)

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Darcy’s Law
Definition
One Darcy is defined as the permeability which will permit a fluid of one centipoise viscosity to flow at a linear velocity of one centimeter per second for a pressure gradient of one atmosphere per centimeter.

Assumptions for use of Darcy’s Law
Steady flow Laminar flow Rock 100% saturated with one fluid Fluid does not react with the rock Rock is homogeneous and isotropic Fluid is incompressible
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Radial Flow for Incompressible Fluids
Reservoir is horizontal and of constant thickness h. Constant rock properties φ and K. Single phase flow. Reservoir is circular of radius re. Well is located at the center of the reservoir and is of radius rw. Fluid is of constant viscosity µ. The well is vertical and completed open hole.
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Characteristics of the Flow Regimes
Steady-State: the pressure and the rate distribution in the reservoir remain constant with time. Unsteady-State (Transient): the pressure and/or the rate vary with time. Semi-Steady State (Pseudo Steady-State): is a special case of unsteady state which resembles steady-state flow. It is always necessary to recognise whether a well or a reservoir is nearest to one of the above states, as the working equations are generally different.

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Radial Flow for Incompressible Fluids
Two cases are of primary interest: Steady state: the reservoir conditions does not change with time.
Flow at r = re

Semi steady state or pseudo steady state: reservoir conditions change with time, but dP/dr is fairly constant and does not change with time.
No flow occurs across the outer boundary. Fluid production of fluids must be compensated for by the expansion of residual fluids in the reservoir.

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Coping with Complexities
There are essentially two possibilities:
1.

The drainage area of the well, reservoir or aquifer is modelled fairly closely by subdividing the formation into small blocks. This results in a complex series of equations which are solved by numerical or semi-numerical methods.

2.

The drained area is represented by a single block in such a way that the global features are preserved. Inhomogeneities are averaged out or substituted by a simple pattern. Here the equations of flow can be solved analytically.
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Skin Factor

∆PSKIN S= qs µB 2πkh

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Skin Factor
The actual drawdown across the reservoir when a skin exists, ∆Pactual, can be related to the ideal drawdown predicted from radial flow theory ∆Pideal and the skin pressure drop ∆PSKIN by:

[P − P
e

∆Pwf − actual = ∆Pwf −ideal + ∆PSKIN
wf − actual

∆PSKIN = Pwf −ideal − Pwf − actual ∆PSKIN ∆PSKIN qs µB = .S 2πkh qs µB = 141.2 .S kh

[

] = [P − P
e

wf − ideal

]

] + ∆P

SKIN

In field units
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Skin Factor
We can simply add the ∆PSKIN to the radial flow expression developed earlier e.g. for steady state flow of an incompressible fluid, by adding in the skin pressure drop:

Pe − Pwf − actual ∆PSKIN

⎤ qs µB ⎡ ⎛ re ⎞ = 141.2 ⎢ln⎜ ⎟ + S ⎥ kh ⎣ ⎜ rw ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦
For compressible fluids

Qs' T = 1422 .S kh

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Flow Pattern
Flow in a tubing can be vertical, horizontal or inclined, depending on the direction of that tubing. Flow in tubing can be:
Single phase: simple Multiphase: complicated, use experienced correlations.

Flow in tubing is affected by several factors:
Pressure Temperature Viscosity Roughness …
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Multiphase Flow Pattern

Multiphase flow up the tubing
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Multiphase Flow Pattern

Horizontal Multiphase flow
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Practical Application for Multiphase Flow
Multiphase flow correlations could be used for:
Predict tubing head pressure at various rate Predict flowing bottom hole pressure at various rate Determine the PI of well Select correct tubing sizes Predict maximum flow rate Predict when the well will die and hence time for artificial lift Design artificial lift application.

The important variables are: tubing diameter, flow rate, gas liquid ratio, viscosity, etc.
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Chapter 4

Artificial Lifts

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Content
4.1. Stages of Production 4.2. Artificial Lifts
Sucker Rod Pump Hydraulic Jet Pumping Electrical Submersible Pump Hydraulic Piston Pumping Progressive Cavity Pumping Gas Lift Plunger Lift

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Stages of Production
Production of a well can be divided into 3 stages: Primary recovery: original reservoir drive mechanism Secondary recovery:
Reservoir pressure maintained by water, gas injection Artificial lift

Enhanced recovery:
Hydraulic fracturing Matrix Acidization Acid Fracturing Frac Packing
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Artificial Lifts
Artificial lift is required when a well will no longer flow or when the production rate is too low to be economic. Over 90% production well is applying artificial lift. Artificial lifts include:
Submersible pump: Gas lift Plunger lift

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Artificial Lifts (cont.)
In details, artificial lifts include:
Sucker Rod Pump Gas Lift Electrical Submersible Pump Hydraulic Piston Pumping Progressive Cavity Pumping Plunger Lift Hydraulic Jet Pumping

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Artificial Lifts (cont.)
Each artificial lift system has a preferred operating and economic envelope influenced by factors such as: Fluid gravity GOR Production rate Sand production Development factors such as well type, location and availability of power/gas.

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Artificial Lifts (cont.)

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Sucker Rod Pump – Surface Equipment

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Sucker Rod Pump

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Gas Lift
Gas lift methods include:
Continuous Lift Intermitten Lift

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Gas Lift Valves
Two type of gas lift valve
Orifice Valve Dummy Valve

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Gas Lift Valves (cont.)

Orifice valve

Dummy valve

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Gaslift Valve Installation

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Gaslift Valve Retrieval

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ESP

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Chapter 5

Enhanced Oil Recovery

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Content
5.1. Type of Well Stimulation 5.2. Enhanced Oil recovery

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Well Stimulation
Why well stimulation is required?

Productivity of a well naturally arises fluids mobility and the flow properties of the rock. In some cases the degree of inter-connection of the pore space may be very poor. In such situations it may be beneficial to stimulate the production capacity of the well.

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Well Stimulation
What are the objectives in stimulation?

Stimulation techniques are intended to:
Improve the degree of inter-connection between the pore space, particularly for low permeability or vugular rocks Remove or bypass impediments to flow, e.g. damage Provide a large conductive hydraulic channel which will allow the wellbore to communicate with a large area of the reservoir.

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Well Stimulation
What are the techniques in stimulation?

In general, there are 4 principal techniques applied, namely:
Propped Hydraulic Fracturing Matrix Acidisation Acid Fracturing Frac Packing

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Enhanced Oil Recovery
Propped Hydraulic Fracturing Whereby fluids are injected at a high rate and at a pressure which exceeds the formation break down gradient of the formation. The rock will then fail mechanically producing a “crack”. To prevent closure or healing of the fracture, it is propped open by a granular material. This techniques increases the effectiveness well bore radius of the well.

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Propped Hydraulic Fracturing

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Enhanced Oil Recovery (cont.)
Matrix Acidisation This process is conducted at pressure below the formation break down gradient. It requires the injection of acid into the reservoir to either dissolve the rock matrix and/or dissolve damage material contaminants which has invaded the rock pore space. The main objective of acidisation is to increase the conductivity of the rock.

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Enhanced Oil Recovery (cont.)
Acid Fracturing Whereby acid injected at a pressure above the formation break down gradient, creates a fracture. The acid then etches flow channels on the surface of the fracture which on closure will provide deep conductive flow channels.

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Enhanced Oil Recovery (cont.)
Frac Packing Which is a shallow penetrating hydraulic fracture propagated usually into a formation of moderate to high permeability, and is subsequently propped open prior to closure. The process is used to reduce the near wellbore flow induced stress, and in some cases can also limit/reduce and production.

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Review
Production Technology is a diverse and broad based discipline, closely associated with the maintenance, operation and management of wells. It is critically important to the economic success of field developments. As a discipline it interfaces with drilling, geoscience, reservoir engineers, as well as well intervention specialists. It is a business driven responsibility but it based on an integrated understanding of reservoir behavior and engineering systems.
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End of Lesson

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