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Lab Report: Blood Grouping

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Name of the experiment:
Blood Grouping

Aim:
To know the exact blood group of a person.

Principles:
1. If blood contains A antigen then it will be A type blood group. Again, if the blood contains B
antigen then it will be B type blood group. If A and B both antigen is present in the blood then
it will be AB type blood group. O type blood group occurs when there is no presence of A
antigen or B antigen in the blood. This system is known as ABO blood group.
2. Antigen D or Rh determines whether the blood group type is negative or positive. If Rh is
found in the blood, the type of the blood will be positive. If not, then it will be negative.

Materials:
1. 3 drops of blood
2. Slide
3. Marker pen
4. Cotton
5. Alcohol
6. Lancet
7. Anti-A antibody
8. Anti-B antibody
9. Anti-D antibody
10. Tooth pick
Methods:
1. Take a slide and on the back write A, B and D at a distance with a marker pen.
2. Take some cotton and pour alcohol on it. Then clean a hand finger with the alcohol.
3. Use a Lancet to pierce the clean finger.
4. Drop 3 drops of blood on the three different parts (A, B, D) of the slide.
5. On the part A add Anti-A antibody. On the B, add Anti-B antibody. And for D, add Anti-D
antibody.
6. Use a toothpick to mix the blood with the antibody.
7. The blood of part A remained unchanged and part B and part D blood broke. So from this we
can tell the blood type is B positive.

Discussion:
From this experiment we have came to know how to identify the blood group. We have also learn
about a disease called Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN). Following is the sum up of the
results:
Result:
After mixing the antibodies with the blood drop we found that different antibodies react with
different blood. For instant, if A and B part remain unchanged but D part of the slide look pale and
if the blood breaks, then it is O positive type blood. Again if B and D remain unchanged and the
blood of the A part breaks, then it will be A negative type blood group. Following picture describes
the whole system:

Blood grouping is important. Because without knowing ones blood group type, we cannot donate or
accept blood from the others. It may cause agglutination reactions. Antigens have antibodies to
work against. That’s why if blood groups, both donor and recipient, do not match with each other,
it will cause clumping. Only O blood type can give blood to other blood groups, therefor if is called
universal donor. On the other hand, AB can take blood from any donor, so it is known as universal
acceptor.

Hemolytic Disease of newborn (HDN):

It is a disease that happens to newborn child. It only happens when the mother has a negative type
blood group and father and their child have positive type blood group.

When a negative blood group mother and a positive blood group father breed and the first child is a
positive blood group child, this disease could happen to the second child. The baby in mothers
uterus receives nourish from mothers placenta. In normal condition, bloods do not mix through the
placenta. But on the birth period, a small amount of baby blood can be mixed with mother’s blood.
In that case, mother’s negative blood creates an antibody against baby's positive blood. That is a
little amount of blood so the mother cannot be affected.
After the first child birth, if the mother conceives a positive blood type baby, the antibodies attack
the fetal red blood cells. Therefore, after birth the child could be abnormal or it could also cause
death.

To prevent this disease, after the first child birth a injection should be given to the mother for the
sake of the second baby. It is called Anti-Rh-antibody or Anti-D-antibody.

Reference:
1. Internet.
2. Class slide.