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  • CHAPTER I
  • INTRODUCTION
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • The objectives of the study:
  • Limitations of the study:
  • Significance of the Study
  • Assumptions
  • Abbreviations
  • Definitions of Major Terms
  • CHAPTER-2
  • REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
  • Review of the Related Literature
  • Secondary Education
  • Structure of Secondary Education in Pakistan
  • Examination
  • A Brief History of Examinations
  • A Brief History of Examinations in Pakistan
  • Group A:Compulsory Subject
  • Group B:Elective Subject
  • Existing Situation of Examination in Country
  • i. Emphasis on Memorization
  • Kinds of Examination
  • Conduct of Examination
  • Functions and Purposes of Examinations
  • i. Selection
  • ii.Certification
  • iv.Motivation
  • v.Monitoring
  • Types of Tests
  • Achievement Tests
  • Teacher Made Test
  • 1. Essay type test
  • Essay Type Test
  • a.Restricted Response Questions
  • c. Objective Type Test
  • d.Short Answer Item
  • e.True/False Items
  • f. Matching Exercise
  • g.Multiple Choices:
  • Characteristics of Examination System
  • I. Validity
  • iii.Usability
  • Examination System at SSC Level in Pakistan
  • Administration of Examinations
  • Governance
  • Management
  • Finance
  • Responsibilities
  • Staffing
  • Professionalism
  • Examinations
  • Frequency of Examination
  • Examination Sites
  • Private Candidates
  • Invigilation
  • Marking
  • Malpractice
  • Evaluation of Present Examination System
  • CHAPTER-3
  • METHOD AND PROCEDURE
  • Population
  • Sample
  • Instrumentation
  • Research Design
  • Data Collection
  • Analysis of Data
  • CHAPTER-4
  • INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
  • Table 4.1:More Conceptual clarity in examination system
  • Table 4.2:Encouragement of creativity in examination system
  • Table 4.3:Encouragement of selective study in examination system
  • Table 4.4: Completion of syllabus in examination system
  • Table 4.5:Pressure of examination in examination system
  • Table 4.6:Provision of adequate feedback by examination system
  • Table 4.7:Better performance of students in examination system
  • Table 4.8: Management of homework by students in examination system
  • Table 4.9:Encouragement of rote learning among students in examination system
  • Table 4.10: Better performance of teachers in examination system
  • Table 4.11: Achievement of educational objectives in examination system
  • Table 4.12: Overall suitable examination system
  • CHAPTER-5
  • SUMMARY
  • FINDINGS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • DISCUSSION
  • RECOMMENDATIONS
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................1 ABSTRACT........................................................................................................I CHAPTER I........................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.....................................................................................................3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................3 The objectives of the study:.......................................................................................................................3 Limitations of the study: ........................................................................................................................3 Significance of the Study.........................................................................................................................3 Assumptions..............................................................................................................................................4 Abbreviations...........................................................................................................................................4 Definitions of Major Terms.......................................................................................................................5

CHAPTER-2......................................................................................................6 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.............................................................6
Review of the Related Literature............................................................................................................6 Secondary Education...............................................................................................................................6 Structure of Secondary Education in Pakistan...........................................................................................6 Examination...............................................................................................................................................7 A Brief History of Examinations...............................................................................................................8 A Brief History of Examinations in Pakistan............................................................................................9 Group A: Compulsory Subject................................................................................................................10 Group B: Elective Subject.......................................................................................................................10 Existing Situation of Examination in Country.........................................................................................10 i. Emphasis on Memorization..................................................................................................................11 ii. Subjectivity..........................................................................................................................................11 Kinds of Examination..............................................................................................................................11 Conduct of Examination..........................................................................................................................12 Functions and Purposes of Examinations................................................................................................12

i. Selection...............................................................................................................................................13 ii. Certification.........................................................................................................................................14 iii. Control................................................................................................................................................14 iv. Motivation...........................................................................................................................................14 v. Monitoring...........................................................................................................................................14 Types of Tests..........................................................................................................................................15 Achievement Tests...................................................................................................................................15 Teacher Made Test...................................................................................................................................15 Essay Type Test. .....................................................................................................................................15 a. Restricted Response Questions. ..........................................................................................................16 c. Objective Type Test.............................................................................................................................16 d. Short Answer Item. .............................................................................................................................16 e. True/False Items. .................................................................................................................................16 f. Matching Exercise. ..............................................................................................................................17 g. Multiple Choices: ................................................................................................................................17 Characteristics of Examination System...................................................................................................17 I. Validity.................................................................................................................................................18 ii. Reliability............................................................................................................................................18 iii. Usability.............................................................................................................................................18 Examination System at SSC Level in Pakistan........................................................................................18 Administration of Examinations..............................................................................................................19 Governance..............................................................................................................................................20 Management.............................................................................................................................................20 Finance.....................................................................................................................................................21 Responsibilities........................................................................................................................................21 Staffing.....................................................................................................................................................21 Professionalism........................................................................................................................................21 Examinations...........................................................................................................................................22 Frequency of Examination.......................................................................................................................22 Examination Sites....................................................................................................................................22 Private Candidates...................................................................................................................................22 Invigilation...............................................................................................................................................22 Marking....................................................................................................................................................23 Malpractice..............................................................................................................................................23 Evaluation of Present Examination System.............................................................................................24

CHAPTER-3....................................................................................................26 METHOD AND PROCEDURE........................................................................26
Population................................................................................................................................................26 Sample.....................................................................................................................................................26 Instrumentation........................................................................................................................................26 Research Design......................................................................................................................................27 Data Collection........................................................................................................................................27 Analysis of Data.......................................................................................................................................27

CHAPTER-4....................................................................................................27 INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA............................................28
Table 4.1: More Conceptual clarity in examination system....................................................................28 Table 4.2: Encouragement of creativity in examination system .............................................................29 Table 4.3: Encouragement of selective study in examination system ....................................................30 ................................................................................................................................................................30 .................................................................................................................................................................30

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Table 4.4: Completion of syllabus in examination system .....................................................................31 .................................................................................................................................................................31 Table 4.5: Pressure of examination in examination system ....................................................................32 Table 4.6: Provision of adequate feedback by examination system .......................................................33 .................................................................................................................................................................33 Table 4.7: Better performance of students in examination system .........................................................34 .................................................................................................................................................................34 Table 4.8: Management of homework by students in examination system ...........................................35 Table 4.9: Encouragement of rote learning among students in examination system ............................36 Table 4.10: Better performance of teachers in examination system .......................................................37 .................................................................................................................................................................37 Table 4.11: Achievement of educational objectives in examination system ..........................................38 .................................................................................................................................................................38 Table 4.12: Overall suitable examination system ...................................................................................39

CHAPTER-5....................................................................................................40 SUMMAY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................................40
SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................40 FINDINGS..............................................................................................................................................41

CONCLUSIONS..............................................................................................43 DISCUSSION...................................................................................................44 RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................................45 BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................46 Annexure............................................................................................. ..................... –49-

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ABSTRACT
The study was designed to explore teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards the separate and combined examination system at SSC level. Examinations are an integral part of teaching and learning process, which determines the destiny of students and their life career. There is a general impression that examination system in Pakistan is not up to the desired standard. There are many flaws in its conduct, marking and result process. So this study was conducted to know the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. The views of teachers and students were known and investigated. In the light of their views, it was found that majority of teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. Most of the teachers are in favor of separate examination system at SSC level, with the views that it provides more conceptual clarity, encourages creativity; syllabus can easily be completed, provides adequate feedback to them, students perform better, volume of homework is manageable and is more helpful in the achievement of educational objectives. Majority of students like the separate examination system at SSC level, with the views that it discourages rote learning, teachers teach better, examination pressure is less and syllabus can easily be completed.

i

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Evaluation is an essential part of each system. Education has no exception. Educational process is incomplete without evaluation. It tells what the students know. (Haq, 1989). Educational evaluation is a systematic process to determine educational outcomes (Farooq, 1993). Tyler (1950) relates evaluation to changes in behaviors. According to him, "Evaluation is the process of determining the degree to which certain desirable changes in behaviors have actually taken place". Evaluation is a process, which includes a careful gathering of evidence on the attainment of objectives, a forming of judgment on the basis of that evidence, and a weighing of that evidence in the light of objectives. The judgments may be formed against some criteria or norm, such as the national average, an expectancy formula or the stated objectives. Evaluation can be carried on different levels and by different categories of people. Examination is a part of evaluation and is used to decide who is to be promoted to the next level. As part of the process, "the results of examinations and teachers' judgments have been turned into a grading system in which all the students are classified annually or more frequently".(Siddiqui & Bukhari, 1991) Education has five major components i.e. management, teacher training, curriculum, research and examinations. Examinations, in Pakistan, are considered more important because over time they have become the primary end of the process of formal education at the school, college and university level. "It seems as if schools, colleges and universities have been established for the purpose of preparing students for examinations. The teachers, students and parents have taken it upon themselves to ensure that those who sit in examinations do their best to get the best results". (Khan, 2004) Examinations have been with us since the creation of man. This world is itself an examination place for human being. Individuals are supposed to undergo different examinations in their lives. While practicing Islam, Muslims find themselves in a state of test in every matter in their daily life for their activities, both spiritual and mundane. Generally, the examinations are considered as an evaluation of competency, 1

administration and examination. Over past few years particularly our examination system at secondary level has been under heavy fire from all sections of people. the public. Examinations cannot sensibly be studied or planned in isolation from the educational system. These factors are students. The students. Various steps/measures have been proposed and discussed for the improvement of examination system at secondary level. the result will not be satisfactory. the employers and the government agencies complain that the standard of education in the country has declined and the output of the educational institutions is very inferior to their output about 25 years back. which determine the destiny of students and their life career. environmental conditions. but also helps fostering accountability for institutions and their standing. rather there are at least seven most important factors. At the same time all educational systems working in the world today have examinations as an integral part of their system related to the objective of the education. which they serve and an educational system must be considered in relation to the society. The efficacy of an educational system basically depends upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its examinations system. Examinations play a vital role in the selection of the students for participation in the educational system and entrance to next grades. Examinations are an integral part of the teaching learning process. The problem has to be taken even more seriously. Examinations not only serve the purpose of certification of educational attainment and determine a student’s standing on the scale of achievement and educational standard. It also indicates that there must be close coordination between and among these factors. curriculum. The unfortunate position leads us to ask as to how we can bring about effectiveness in the educational system. curriculum and teaching process. but so far no headway in this respect has been made. the teachers. government took the examinations at secondary level under 2 .knowledge and capability of students and the effectiveness of teaching process. the parents. methodology. During the past few years. the press and government. This effectiveness does not depend on a single factor. Unless all these factors function properly. objectives. which it serves.

interest. To seek the views of teachers and students regarding different aspects of present examination system at SSC level. ability. The present study is useful to improve the examination system of secondary level. very fruitful and desirable results can be achieved. 3. Therefore a survey study was designed to measure the teachers and students perception on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level. Teachers and students felt a lot of problems due to change of examination system. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study: 1. It is the base through which someone is given the standard of learning skill. but if it is not held in proper way. nature. Significance of the Study It is an accepted reality that examination is the tool through which we can judge and predict about the capacity. So it is necessary to 3 . To analyze the weak areas in the present examination system at secondary level 4. attitude and knowledge of the individuals. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study aimed at exploring the teachers and students perception on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level in District Peshawar. the investigation is limited to secondary schools in University Campus Peshawar and surroundings. To judge the perceptions of the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level. its prediction and the judgment can be a huge loss and can create harmful situation for the nation. If it is fair. knowledge and thought.combined and separate systems inconsistently. To recommend suggestions for the improvement of examination system at secondary level Limitations of the study: Keeping in view the scope of the study and shortage of time and resources.

Assumptions It was assumed that the secondary school teachers and students are competent enough to provide the requisite information and give their candid opinion.make it fair and according to the demanding standard of education like advanced countries of the world.S APS&C PPS&C GGHS Govt Com Sep UD University Public School University Model School Islamia Collegiate School Agriculture Public School & College Police Public School & College Government Girls High School Government Combined Separate Undecided 4 . The topic under study is selected to bring forth the facts and realities about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level. It is considering that the findings of the study would be helpful generally for the teachers and students and particularly for administrators and policy makers of education. Hurdles and problems being faced by the people involved in the examinations or the difficulties of the students should be highlighted. The issues and difficulties of curriculum and in teaching process should be weeded out as early as possible as to cope with the need of the present era of science and technology. Now it is the responsibility of government to take proper steps for the smooth functioning of the education system and the problem faced must be talked at priority basis.C. Possible efforts were made to collect the real thoughts and concepts given by the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system. Abbreviations UPS UMS I.

S The boy’s school runs under the management of Islamia College (Chartered) University. Government of Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa Examination In this study examination means an examination conducted by the board at secondary level. Marking Marking of answer scripts by teachers 5 .S The boy’s school runs under the management of Agriculture University Peshawar.C. A.P. PPS&C The boy’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar GGHS The girl’s school runs under the management of Ministry of Education.Cat N SSC BISE Category Number Secondary School Certificate Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education IAEA International Association for Education Assessment Definitions of Major Terms UPS The boy’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar UMS The girl’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar I.

a brief history of examinations in Pakistan. government announced a policy that the intermediate stage was to be a school stage taught only in higher secondary schools. middle or elementary (VI-VIII). colleges and universities. in which a new stage is added to already existing school (Govt of Pakistan. a brief history of examinations. These are primary (I – V). bachelor (XIII-XIV) and master (XV-XVI). characteristics of examinations. examination system in Pakistan. intermediate or degree colleges. functions and purposes of examinations. physical. Secondary Education Secondary education plays a very important role in education. It is not mere public instructions. ideological and moral training to the individuals of the nation. 6 . it is a social institution. These stages are incorporate in to several types of schools. Education is not something static but it is a continuous and lifelong process. existing situation of examination in the country. which provides mental. Structure of Secondary Education in Pakistan In Pakistan at present. Most of the schools have reached their present stage through a process called upgrading. education is delivered in five stages. The secondary stage is taught in high or higher secondary school. 1979). In 1979. secondary (IX-X). while intermediate stage is taught in higher secondary schools. Secondary School Certificate Examination. Education is a process through which a nation develops self-consciousness by sensitizing individuals who compose it. It is a terminal stage from where the student goes to the higher and professional education and is a major determinant of the quality of higher education. intermediate (XI-XII).CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of the Related Literature This chapter includes literature review on: examinations.

Written test were started from 1219 B. bravery.C.C.Examination "The basic role examination plays in the educational process can be appreciated from the fact that good examinations motivate pupils. 1945-1900 B. Mughal period is also eminent in this respect. The capacity means the power to respond to stimulus provided by the examiner.C. During the second period. 1998). for being a rank of adult only the physical strength was measured. An examination is primarily a test of the capacity of individuals. Some types of formal test were given to students in Sparta. and provide opportunities to the teachers to try new methods to improve the teaching methodology". The first period was concerned with historical primitive trails. endurance. Mughal used written as well as oral examinations. help them know their strengths and weaknesses. In some form or other these found a place in particularly every scheme of education of which there is any record. (Shah. is a growth of last century. it becomes competitive as in most scholarship and civil services examinations. But generally examinations are taken to measures the ability of the students against the certain standard. Examination is an ancient institution. Chinese used oral test before 800 B. When an examination is held to select the individual for a limited number of places. Thorn Dike divided the history and form of examination in to three periods: First period Second period Third period 2200 B. Written examinations are a late development and the system as we have it at present. in the University of Bologna. this type of examination is called pass examination. 7 .C.C. Cambridge University developed achievement test and other countries followed and improved these tests. 2200-1945 B.

Western European examination system spread as the French. history. examination conduction of written examinations started in the European schools in the 16th century. The Abitur was introduced as a graduation examination for the classical middle school in 1788 and soon became a qualification examination for university. has so far not adopted a public examination system. Whilst New York Regents examinations continue to this day. 1976). As countries gained independence over the past fifty or so years. the assessment method. In 1865. though it was not until some two hundred years later that public examinations of the type found in China were instituted in Europe for selection to universities. but still considerable. However. Syllabuses and examination papers from the 'home country' were used. during the 1980s and 1990s. A World Bank (2001a) report revealed that examinations in schools have a shorter. the civil service and the professions. policy statements. which. 1991). the New York Board of Regents conducted the first examination in NY State schools. and the professions. In Britain. However.A Brief History of Examinations The origin of public examinations is to be found in the school entrance and civil service examinations of China. usually unchanged. Inspired by the Chinese system. and in some cases the syllabuses. government service. Public examinations are now a major feature of the examination systems of most European countries. which go back at least to the period of the Sui emperors (589-618) (with a prehistory going back much further) and which achieved their most complex form towards the end of the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1911) (Miyazaki. passed them on to their former colonies in Africa. 8 6 . The Baccalaureate was established in Napoleonic France in 1808 to admit students to the grandee’s echoless. London University held its first matriculation examination in 1838. in the colonies. It still conducts school examinations in the UK and around the world. with some exceptions (e.. a number of proposals contained in reform reports. British and Dutch empires expanded in the 19th century. they took control of their schools examinations. public examinations are not a common feature of schooling in the USA. Asia and the Caribbean. in turn. (Kellaghan. the Regents' examinations in New York). The United States. and legislation have advocated a national system or system of examinations for the country (Madaus & Kellaghan.g. 1992).

They practiced traditional methods of student assessment. Rote Memorization.remained largely unchanged. At the foundation of Pakistan there was a single examinations board. which was responsible for examining students from all over the country. In the light of Macaulay report. A Brief History of Examinations in Pakistan Khushk and Christie (2004) claim. Minimal use of modern assessment techniques and dependency on traditional learning processes are the significant factor of low quality education in the country. grammar and national philosophy. especially multiple-choice testing. In 1853 educational activities took a new direction as a result of the Lord Macaulay Report. Africa and South East Asia and the subcontinent. logic. Quran theology. Since then the number of examination boards has gradually increased to 23 in line with growing numbers of candidate. The prevalence of low quality education in the country is one of the major constraints on its development. America developed a significantly different approach to assessment of students. The most prominent feature of this is a strong theoretical base of behavioral measurement (psychometrics) and a heavy reliance on objective and standardized modes of assessment. Examination systems on the American approach can be found in South and Central America. Oral. while the level of quality education in most institutions has not been improved to satisfy the academic needs of the time. In the 20th century. law. "Pakistan is listed among the developing nations of the world. geometry. In this newly introduced 9 . The curriculum designed for this institution comprised arithmetic. Indonesia and the Philippines. Questioning and Open Forum Discussions for awarding certificates to the candidates. The European tradition of public examinations for schools can be found in the Caribbean. In these minutes he proposed English as the only medium of instruction and all the money earmarked for education would be spent on English education. the British government started to establish missionary schools at Zilla (district) and Tehsil level. In sub-continent the Muslims established the first institution the "Calcutta Madarssah" in 1781 for the benefit of Muslim students.

education system government emphasized the introduction of new subjects and up-to date techniques of assessing student learning outcomes". Elective Subject Group B: i. Pakistani languages such as Urdu. Physics and chemistry. Existing Situation of Examination in Country Khushk and Christie (2004) described emphasis on memorization. Drawing. poor content coverage and administrative shortcomings as main drawbacks of the examination system. v. Persian. Mathematics or in case of girls. subjectivity. iii. iv. Domestic arithmetic and Household Account. Arithmetic. Pashto. French or German. say. Agriculture Physiology and Hygiene or Civics and Hygiene or Domestic Economy for girls only. Bhatti (1993) pointed out that before independence Bombay University and Punjab University were responsible for conducting examination at secondary level in the areas. According to the statement of the Board of Secondary Education Karachi (1994) little earlier before the independence of Pakistan in April 1947 University of Sindh at Karachi replaced Bombay University and took responsibility of control and regulation of Secondary as well as Higher Secondary Education in province of Sindh. Latin. which are now part of the Pakistan. ii. or a foreign language. History and Geography. Hebrew. 10 . Punjabi. or Greek. ii. iii. A classical language Arabic. vii. At that time subjects offered by universities were divided into two group’s compulsory and elective subjects. Compulsory Subject English. The detail of subjects is as follow: Group A: i.

The subjectivity of examinees in writing answers when total marks of a question are not specifically divided /allocated. Practical examination is held in physical education. a. drawing. They are merely exploited to memorize the content. Oral examination is limited to specific subjects usually languages or to test oral reading and comprehension. Emphasis on Memorization This practice has overlooked the testing of higher objectives like understanding. Subjectivity The subjectivity of a person who is setting question papers. e. Along with this. Test items developed for assessing the knowledge of examinee are outdated. 11 . d. Kinds of Examination Presently different practices are being used to evaluate the work of students and for promoting the students from one grade to another. d. Oral and practical examination is common in Pakistan. f.i. The examinees are not enlightened about the nature of the course contents. no innovations have been made by paper setters to help examinee in exploring his/her knowledge through different type of test items. Periodical examination Annual examination Records Automatic promotion Internal examination External examination External and internal examinations are the most common and widely accepted practices at secondary as well as at postgraduate level of education. c. The subjectivity of paper setters plays important role in creating heterogeneity regarding developing test items for examination. b. b. Following types of examinations are being practiced in various institutions in our country: a. ii. c. and application of knowledge and skills. handcrafts or home science only.

This use becomes more obvious when results of each school are published. artisans. 12 7 . admission to professional preparation. a major reason of introducing public examinations was to replace patronage and nepotism in making appointments to the civil service (Montgomery. and schools and teachers may be judged for their students' achievements as reflected in examination performance. formally or informally. The results are then frequently used to discriminate among students with regard to their future goals: further education. and students were not asked whether they were merchants. or employment. Chinese examinations were designed to select government officials on the basis of ability and intellectual achievement rather than of birth. Professional institutions held examination according to their own requirements while affiliated colleges and institutions held examinations according to the rules of universities or affiliating authority (Hoodbhoy. Examination results are also often used. 1976). The greatest precautions are taken to insure the secrecy of the examination papers before and during the examination and to isolate the individual candidates in the examination hall. 1965). In Britain also. to provide evidence of school effectiveness. There are three types of examinations held in Pakistan. Functions and Purposes of Examinations Public examinations normally are intended to serve a number of functions. From (9-12) examinations are held by the boards. From (1316) examinations are held by the universities. there were no class restrictions on examination entry. particularly for those students who are leaving the educational system. 1998).Conduct of Examination The examinations are to be organized in a way that each candidate shall be treated precisely in the same way as every other candidate. From (1-8) internal examinations are held by the institutions. Public service commission and federal service commission also held the examinations yearly. While certification is important. The most obvious is to assess the competence of students' learning related to some agreed standards. there is often a danger of losing sight of this function because of the strong emphasis on selection. or peasants (Miyazaki.

thereby improving their study habit and standard of achievement. to what extent. "Examination is an important process of assessing the progress of students. which can be used as the basis for continued efforts at strengthening the educational system. from junior secondary to senior secondary. and help in assessing whether pre-set educational objectives have been achieved or not. from senior secondary to higher education). vi. and if achieved. the form and methods have changed from time to time. and the administrators' frame policies on a sound basis.that better planning may be undertaken. They furnish the educational authorities with objective evidence of the performance of the schools.g.Malik (1987) examines various issues involved in examination in the light of available literature.g. They serve as a basis for promotion from one grade to the other. It is as old as man himself. World Bank (2001b) report specifies the following main purposes of examinations: i. However. vii. the French 13 . iv. Examinations imbue the students with a competitive spirit to excel. from primary to secondary school. Selection To select students' for the next level of education in a situation in which the number of places at each successive level is reduced (e. They help to evaluate the curriculum and determine its strengths and weakness so . He states. iii. v. ii. Examinations elicit greater dedication among those concerned with education including students studying the course. The author enumerates seven main purposes of examination: i. Examinations act as a sort of control by delineating certain minimum standards for students. Some examinations are designed solely for selection e. Emphasis is laid on the quality of education with a view to regulating admission institutions of higher learning and providing suitable man-power for man to development. Teachers can thus improve their performance. teachers and administrators.

Most serve other functions as well. Control By controlling the examination system the content and 'spirit' of the curriculum can be tailored to national goals. a sense of purpose. Certificates may be important for gaining employment. A uniform (standardized) examination system promotes national homogeneity in educational standards and practice. selection becomes increasingly important raising the 'stakes' of the examination. There is evidence that some students. Motivation In theory. certificates retain their 'value' over long periods. ii. In general. In theory. It also allows governments or regional authorities to control disparate elements of the education system. iv. 14 . Where opportunities are extremely limited. the use of examination results for selection allows positions to be filled on the basis of merit rather than factors such as socio-economic status or 'influence'. Monitoring Examination pass rates may be used to gauge changes in achieved educational standards. a School Leaving Certificate gained in 1990 may be used to support a job application in 2005. this is achieved by providing clear goals to strive for. iii.concourse and the Transfer Tests used for selection to grammar schools in Northern Ireland. may be demotivated. exam results may be used to hold schools and teachers accountable for their students' unsatisfactory performance. For example. v. Certification Formal certificates issued after examinations may be taken as evidence that students have reached certain levels of achievement. This may be done by publishing 'league tables' ranking schools by performance in public examinations. and tangible incentives and rewards. particularly those who consider the demands of the exam to be unrealistic. In some instances.

Types of Tests Following are the different kinds of tests:    Educational tests or achievement tests Personality tests Aptitude tests Intelligence tests With respect to our examination system generally achievement tests are concerned. 15 . It is usually rather detailed test covering the work that has been taught. 2. Achievement test measures the current status of individual’s with respect to proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skills. 1963). Achievement test measure the amount and quality of learning that has been taken place in specific area. Essay type test Objective type test Essay Type Test. Achievement test is a test that measures the attainment of a student or individual after expiring of his period of teach (Howard. describe and to give reason for. opinion and interpretation both on the part of student and person who evaluate his/her answer. 1985). Achievement test is further divided into following two categories (Gronland. Achievement Tests The actual accomplishment of students in a course may be measured by an achievement test. These categories are called restricted response questions and extended response questions. Teacher Made Test There are two major categories of teacher made tests: 1. It emphasizes such letters as judgment. It consists of a few questions asking the student to discuss. These are categorized into two categories depending upon the degree of freedom.

In each case there are two possible answers for example. True/false are alternative response test items consist of a statement that the pupil is asked it mark true or false. where as the completion item consists of an incomplete statement. integrate and evaluate ideas. 16 . organize. This freedom enables them to demonstrate their ability to select. These are essentially the same. For example. what is the name of the man who invented the steamboat? (Robert Fulton) Completion type item: the name of the man who invented the steamboat is (Robert Fulton). Extended response questions allow pupils to select any factual information that they think is pertinent to organize the answer in accordance with their best judgment and to integrate and evaluate ideas. These types of questions are used in all the subjects like science. arithmetic and social sciences etc. different only in the method of presenting the problem. some plants do not need sunlight because they get their food from other plants. phrase. Extended Response Questions. True/False Items. e. The short answer item uses the direct questions. c. Restricted response questions lemmatize both the contents and the response. correct or incorrect. number or symbol. The short item is supply type test item that can be answer by a word. d. fact or opinion. Yes/No the common criticism of the true/false item is that a student may be able to recognize a false statement as incorrect but still not knows what the correct answer is. short test type item. Objective Type Test There are following forms of objective type items. Short Answer Item. yes or no. The restricting responses in essay test are to base the question on specific problem because the restricted response question is more structured therefore it is most useful for measuring learning outcomes. b. right or wrong.a. Restricted Response Questions. they deem appropriate. agree or disagree and like or dislike.

g. Matching Exercise. future learning activities or occupations. Multiple Choices: The multiple-choice form is generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type objective test item. The most essentials of these are validity. sentence or phrase in the other column. The item in the column for which a match is sort is called premise and the item in the column from which the selection is made is called response. placement. 17 . understanding and application areas. For example. It can effectively measure many of the simple learning outcomes measured by true/false and matching exercise. Aptitude test might be used for predicting success. Matching exercise consists of two parallel columns. c. d. which one city is the capital of France? a. The knowledge can be tested through matching exercise: Person Date Symbol Rules Achievement Historical event Concept Example The main advantage of matching exercise is its compact form. reliability.f. which makes it possible to measure a large amount of related factual material in a relatively short time. London Tehran b. number or symbol in one column being matched to word. For example. Regardless of the type of instrument should process certain characteristics. diagnosis or certification of mastery. This flexibility found in the multiple-choice form. tests of achievement might be used for selection. Rome Paris Characteristics of Examination System Examination. tests and other evaluation instrument serve a variety of uses in educational system. In addition it can measure a variety of the more complex outcomes in the knowledge. with each word.

one should be able to interpret the scores as a relevant and representative sample of achievement domain to be measured. 1985). Arian. comprehensions and are not distorted by irrelevant factor. an evaluation procedure must meet certain practical requirements. validity is always concerned with the specific use of the results and soundness of interpretations. Basically. It should be easily administered and scored. reliability is also related to the type of interpretation to be made. If the results are to be used to predict pupil’s success in some future activity. interpretations should be based on evidence that the scores actually reflect reading. interpretations should be based on as accurate an estimate of future success as possible. Examination System at SSC Level in Pakistan According to Creighton. For example. Usability In addition to providing results that process a satisfactory degree of validity and reliability. but reliability can be achieved without achieving validity. Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of evaluation result. it should produce results that can be accurately interpreted and applied by the school or board personnel. comprehension. These practical aspects of an evaluation procedure can be included under the heading of usability. If one obtain quite similar to the scores when the same test is administered to the same group on two different occasions. (1995) "candidates sit in Secondary School Certificate (SSC) or Matriculation examination at the end of grade 18 . If the results are to be used as a measure of pupil’s reading. One can conclude that this result has a high degree of reliability from one rater to another. The term usability refers to the practically of the procedure and says nothing about other qualities present (Gronland. As with validity. and Bethel. Validity Validity refers to the appropriateness of the interpretations made from test scores and other evaluations results. with regard to a particular use.I. The relationship between reliability and validity may become confusing sometimes. It should be economical from the viewpoint of both time and money. iii. Reliability (consistency) of measurement is needed to obtain valid results. ii. if a test is to be used to describe pupil’s achievement.

Examination system in Pakistan can be discussed under following headings: Administration of Examinations Following national independence in 1947.S. Hoodbhoy (1998) mentions that "theory examinations at grades 10 (9 and 10) in all boards since 1996 take about three weeks to administer. The first Board of Secondary Education was established in Karachi in 1950. However. Over 60 subjects have been included in the syllabus for S. Islamyat and Mathematics. Practical in science.0 examination. Most boards prepare papers for over 60 percent of the approved subject areas. Teachers.10. Head masters and Principals of various institutions usually outside the district are appointed by the controller of the examinations for the conduction of these examinations in order to check the malpractices. But unfortunately. In addition. Pakistan Studies. practical assessments are offered in science subjects and home economics while the majority of candidates tend to opt for a narrow range of subjects. In addition to theory papers.0 examinations could not be eliminated completely and they continue still in one way or other way. Boards are required to prepare papers for the less frequently taken subjects. The SSC is also accepted as a minimum qualification for admission into some lower level positions in the public and private sectors. secondary schools often have to be closed during theory examinations to free buildings and teachers for examination work". Schools remain open during practical as relatively small numbers of students are examined each day in small groups. English. the malpractices in S. home economics. and commerce subjects take up to 3-4 weeks and are administered after the theory examination.S. the Universities of Punjab and Sindh administered examinations modeled on the English and Welsh examinations. The Lahore Board was created in 1954. Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education were established in Hyderabad and Peshawar in 1961 following a recommendation of 19 . SSC candidates are required to take five compulsory subjects-Urdu. The SSC also termed the Entrance Examination is used as a terminal school certification measure and as a selection test for entry into the pre-tertiary grades 11 and 12. they take either three sciences or three general (humanities) subjects". Secondary Schools Certificates Examinations are conducted by various Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education.

Each BISE has a board of directors. Many Boards have exceeded these numbers. Apart from the three senior officers. Further Boards were created in the 1980s and 1990s to accommodate the increase in candidate numbers and to create employment opportunities in different regions.000 candidates. a body whose members have special expertise and interest in public examinations. Many members of the Boards are nominated by the Controlling Authority. Experience or competence in educational assessment is not a criterion for appointment. there were 19 Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISEs).the Commission of National Education (1959) that secondary and higher secondary should be a terminal stage. separate Karachi Boards for Secondary and Intermediate Education. Boards tend to be politicized. Normally. for instance. Governance Boards are autonomous organizations but the Provincial Controlling Authority limits their powers (i. the governor or minister for education). None of the Boards. the term of appointment of three senior officers of the Boards does not exceed three years after which they are transferred to other senior positions within the education sector. In effect. The overall appointment procedure helps to ensure that some employees owe their positions to external influence. and three additional Boards for technical and vocational subject areas (Hoodbhoy. The 1972-80 education policy recommended one Board for every 25. They adopt government rules on salary scales. a Secretary and a Controller and in some instances. Clerical and low staff-level positions are appointed at the discretion of the Chairman and/or Secretary. Management The Controlling Authority of each Board appoints a Chairman. they are public sector organizations with a culture of job security. 20 . and without any financial input from the federal or provincial governments. 1998). By the end of 1995.e.. which exerts considerable influence over the Boards within its jurisdiction. rather than primarily a stepping-stone to university education. Board staff has had a high degree of job security. is affiliated to internationals bodies such as the International Association for Education Assessment (IAEA). terms of appointment and financial procedures. little accountability. other senior officers.

Staffing The majority of Board employ in access of 200 staff. assessing papers (by teachers). For most Boards. setting examination papers (by senior teachers). exceeds expenditure in most instances. reliability and validity studies of their examinations. tabulating results and issuing mark-sheets and certificates. marking and checking and tabulation of results. if any. printing and distribution of papers. In addition.1050 for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC). income is devoted to improve the quality of examinations. securing examination certificates. Boards also provide part time income to very large number of teachers engaged in examination related activities such as paper setting. The majority of staff does routine clerical work. the issue of examination quality relates only to examination security. Savings are invested in the long-term saving schemes and have been used to construct Board offices and residential buildings. 950-Rs. Little. nor do they engage the services of outside personnel to undertake these tasks. Professional books and journals on examinations and assessment are conspicuous by their absence in board premises. arranging for supervision of examination centers. science fairs and art and essay competitions. The Controlling Authority sometimes requests Board funds to help defray government expenses. Boards organize sports competitions and co-curricular activities such as debates. 21 . naat/qirat. Most Boards are overstaff. Responsibilities Board responsibilities include registering candidates.Finance Examinations fees in Pakistan are approximately Rs. Virtually all examinations expenses relate to personnel and administrative costs. Examination fees also pay for Board expenses. A small proportion of the Board’s excess income is used to finance scholarships. Professionalism Boards do not have staff technically qualified to undertake item analysis. sports and other extra-curricular activities. In a departure from general practice in many developing countries the government does not make any financial contribution to the public examination system. Income. Fees include charges for registration and certificates. which is tax exempted under legislation.

Frequency of Examination In many countries. Invigilation 22 . there is a pronounced scarcity of optical-mark type equipment for speedy and accurate processing of examinations results. administer and correct two separate examinations for the SSC in each subject. The SSC is also accepted as a minimum qualification for admission into some lower level position in the public and private sectors. Examination Boards have to prepare. However.While some boards have recently invested in computers. candidates who fail a final national public examination must wait for one year before repeating. The SSC also termed the entrance examination for grades 11 and 12. A number of schools in the interests of getting good school results hold trial (send up) examinations to weed out weak SSC candidates who must then register as private candidates. A number of Boards have requested halls or sites dedicated slowly to the holding of examination to address space and security concerns. Many schools and colleges are reluctant to allow their halls to be used for public examinations due to the unruly and sometimes violent behavior of the candidates and their external helpers. or failed earlier as a regular candidate or a candidate from an unaffiliated school. where candidates have been too close to one another to prevent coping. Examination Sites Most Boards rate their present sites for holding public examination as satisfactory. a significant minority has held them in unsuitable rooms and corridors. each year. In effect. In Pakistan candidates who fail may take a supplementary examination in autumn. Private Candidates The term “private candidate” is used to describe a person who has prepared privately for the examination. Examinations Candidates sit for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination at the end of grade 10.

The low level of monetary reward and the risk of physical violence at examination centers have deterred many teachers from taking up invigilation work. Forms of examinations malpractice perpetrated by examination official including leakage of questions before the date of examination. Malpractice The use of “unfair means” or cheating refers to any action taken in connection with an examination that attempts to gain an unfair advantage for a candidate or in some cases. malpractice in the conduct of public examination seems to be particularly pronounced in Pakistan (Graney and Kellaghan. Boards appoint examiners. even when those teachers have neither formal qualification nor teaching experience in the designated subject. removal of scripts. By international standards. An invigilator of two-three hour examination session in one day earns roughly the equivalent of an unskilled laborers daily wage. Private schools tend to be reluctant to release teachers for this task. usually from the ranks of teachers. establishment of factitious or (Ghost centers) where candidates prepared their answer without supervisions and with assistance. Boards are hesitant to appoint private teachers. Marking Reproduction of large session of material from the textbook is rewarded with high scores by examiners. A variety of efforts have 23 . Requests for re-marking of papers are not entertained. rechecking of scripts. Malpractice serves to undermine confidence in the integrity of the system. Possession of unauthorized material or “helping material” and the unauthorized activities of examiners were the most common form of detected malpractice (Commission 1992). is permitted. frequently put boards under pressure. In some instance. and falsification of results and certificates. appointment of supervisors with ulterior motives. It is primarily an ethical issue. including re-tabulation of marks. Government officials. to place a candidate at a disadvantage.Teaches appointed for invigilation duties at examinations centers are drawn mostly form government schools. It is reasonable to assume that a large amount of malpractice goes undetected. politicians and teachers unions to appoint specific examiners. substitutions of scripts prepared outside of the examination centre in place of candidate’s original efforts. 1996). However.

It cannot afford a large wastage of manpower. 1959) Education policy 1972. 24 . It is recommended that a committee of experts should be appointed to look into various facts of examinations system at different stages. Evaluation of Present Examination System Pakistan is developing country. (Government of Pakistan. as internal exams have at present no value. Therefore. “We have had evidence that examination is responsible for many of the weaknesses in our education for. Moreover. The commission of national education reviewed the situation related to the education in the country and also dealt with the subject of examination. the external exams is exclusive pre occupation of the students and do not feel under strong immediate pressure to attend lecture or to secure his/her teachers guidance personally or in the tutorial group”. most students’ examination have come to be more important than the acquisition of knowledge and skill. but a lot more is required to be done to overcome this practice (Hoodbhoy.been made by Boards to combat various forms of malpractice. The commission observed that the system of examination in all the fields of education has also become symptomatic of much weakness and emphatically stated. suggested that the change in curricula should be accompanied by necessary reforms in examination system. it is very important to give a new orientation to the educational system of Pakistan. The main aim and objective of education in Pakistan should be to gear mass education so that our people are able to live productive public life. so that it may fit the need and aspiration of our people. The defects in present examination system have been investigated in various reports of commission on national education in its reports. the existing system of examination fails to serve as an incentive to learning. Students have postponed their study few weeks before the examinations and in consequence have not learned the habit of sustained effort and application. This is possible if we re-evaluate the present educational system and replace it by a better and improved system. The progress of any country depends upon her educational system and performance of educational system can be judged only through the examination system. 1998).

point to the need for persistent efforts to improve the method of ordinary examination. to develop testing.The commission on national education 1959 reported about examination that exams have almost been taken as the sole measure of the student accomplishment. In the direction of objectives and informed based for making it must also be supplemented with test of any type. The evaluation of objective and scientifically valid test experience has profound influence on examination of traditional type. (1959) suggested modern concept of examinations that the art of examination is probably most difficult one in the whole range of educational practice but is. but no clear cut result has been made. The objective test no doubt. 25 . Staff prepares the subject matter with an eye. As a necessary mean. growth in the knowledge of psychology and development and new techniques of testing only. has helped to improve the examinations. there is considerable volume of expert’s opinion in favor of the retaining the essay as one form of examination. the students refuse to study anything not specifically required and the whole issue hinges on the performance in the few hours. gratifying to note that in recent years serious attention has been given to the problem of exam and attempts have been made to refine its procedure and ascertain its basic principles. clear and logical expression. however abounding unusual type of exam on the contrary. Mohiyuddin.

Agriculture Public School. provision of adequate feed back to teachers. Islamia Collegiate School. UoP Islamia Collegiate School (Boys) Agriculture University Public School Govt: Girls High school. UoP Police Public School. University Model School. Government Girls High School and Police Public School at District Peshawar. 26 . was conducted. Population Target population of the study was all the secondary school teachers and students of Government schools. Private Schools in District Peshawar. management of homework etc. two questionnaires (Appendices ‘A’ & ‘B’) were developed comprising of 10 item each. Following method and procedure were adopted. UoP University Model School. related to the provision of conceptual clarity.CHAPTER-3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE The research work. regarding the study of the perceptions of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. Instrumentation For obtaining the perception of teachers and students on the combined versus separate examinations system at SSC level. The items were related to the effectiveness of separate and combined examination system of SSC level. Sample Sample was taken out of following schools: S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 School University Public School. encouragement of creativity. Peshawar Total 5 5 5 5 5 5 30 Teachers Students 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 The sample of 30 teachers and 60 students were selected randomly. whereas the accessible population of the study consisted of the teachers and students of University Public School.

Researchers had to face no difficulty in return of filled in questionnaire. These questionnaires contained ten questions. Data Collection It was considered that the most suitable tool for collecting data was questionnaire. The conclusions were drawn on the basis of finding of the study and finally recommendations have been drawn on the basis of conclusion in the light of objective of the study. In this way data was collected from thirty teachers and sixty students and responses given were hundred percent without any delay or refuse. CHAPTER-4 27 . Analysis of Data The data collected was tabulated and analyzed by applying simple percentage method. Therefore for the collection of data of the study two questionnaires (one for the teachers and one for the students) were developed with the consultation and under the supervision of research supervisor.Research Design Design of study was descriptive in nature. Questionnaires were personally given to the teachers and students. Teachers and students were requested to give real views without any hesitations and formality. Data regarding the perceptions of teachers and students towards combined and separate examination system was collected through survey method with the help of questionnaire.

Conceptual clearity students (com bined) teachers(com bined) students (separate) teachers(separate) 28 .1: More Conceptual clarity in examination system Category Teachers Students Number Combined Number 30 60 7 10 % 24 16 Separate Number % 22 47 74 78 Undecided Number % 1 3 2 6 The table number 4.INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The study aimed at exploring the teachers and students perception towards combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. 2 % teachers and 6 % students were unable to decide.1 indicates that 74 % teachers and 78 % students were of the view that separate examination system provides more conceptual clarity. Table 4. Two questionnaires (one for teachers and one for students) were prepared to get the requisite data from the teachers and students of schools surrounding the Greater University Campus of Peshawar. where as 24 % teachers and 16 % students viewed vice versa. The analysis and interpretation of data is presented in the following tables.

2 shows that 69 % teacher and 72 % students liked separate examination system in respect of encouragement of creativity. 29 .Table 4.2: Encouragement system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 9 11 % of creativity in examination Separate Number 21 43 % 69 72 31 18 Undecided Number 6 % 10 The table 4. where as 31 % teachers and 18 % students are in favor of combined examination system in this respect. 10 % students were unable to decide.

where as 33 % teachers and 53 % students opined vice versa. 30 .3: Encouragement of selective study in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 10 32 % 33 53 Separate Number 20 28 % 67 47 Undecided Number % - The table number 4.3 indicates that 77 % teachers and 47 % students opine that separate examination system encourages selective study.Table 4.

4 indicates that as for as completion of syllabus is concern. where as 41 % teachers and 23 % students are in favor of combined examination system.4: Completion of syllabus in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 12 14 % 41 23 Separate Number 18 46 % 59 77 Undecided Number % - The table number 4.Table 4. 31 . 59 % teachers and 77 % students are in favor of separate examination system.

5 indicates that 50 % of students are of the view that in combined examination system pressure on the students is more than in separate examination system.Table 4. 32 . Whereas 44 % of students are of the view that examination pressure on the students is more in separate examination system. 6 % could not reply.5: Pressure of examination in examination system Category Students Number 60 Combined Number 30 % 50 Separate Number 26 % 44 Undecided Number 4 % 6 The table number 4.

24 % of teachers are opined in favor of combined examination system.6 indicates that 76% of teachers are of the view that separate examination system provides adequate feedback to them.6: Provision of adequate feedback by examination system Category Teachers Number Combined Number 30 7 % 24 Separate Number % 23 76 Undecided Number % - The table number 4. Whereas. 33 .Table 4.

Table 4.7.7: Better performance of students in examination system Category Teachers Students Number Combined Number 30 60 10 18 % 34 30 Separate Number % 19 41 64 69 Undecided Number % 1 1 2 1 According to table number 4. 34 . 64 % teachers and 69 % students viewed that students perform better in separate examination system. whereas 34 % teachers and 30 % students opined vice versa.

where as 31 % teachers and 30 % students viewed that combined system is better in this respect.8: Management of homework by students in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 9 18 % 31 30 Separate Number 21 40 % 69 67 Undecided Number 2 % 3 The table number 4. 35 .8 indicates that 69 % teachers and 67 % students are of the view that students can manage homework easily in separate examination system.Table 4.

9: Encouragement of rote learning among students in examination Category Teachers Students system Separate Number % 16 27 53 45 Undecided Number % 2 3 Number Combined Number 30 60 14 31 % 47 52 The table number 4.Table 4. whereas 47 % teachers and 52 % students are of the view combined examination system encourages rote learning. 3 % respondents could not decide in this regard.9 indicates that 53 % teachers and 45 % students viewed that separate examination system encourages rote learning. 36 .

whereas 32 % of students viewed vice versa.10: Better performance of teachers in examination system Category Students Number 60 Combined Number 19 % 32 Separate Number 41 % 68 Undecided Number % - The table number 4. 37 .Table 4.10 indicates that 68 % students opined that teachers perform better in separate examination system.

Table 4. whereas 40 % teachers are of the view that combined examination system is more helpful in this respect.11: Achievement of educational objectives in examination system Category Teachers Number Combined Number 30 12 % 40 Separate Number % 17 59 Undecided Number % 1 1 The table number 4. 38 . 01 % respondents could not decide regarding this aspect.11 indicates that 59 % teachers viewed that separate examination system is more helpful in achieving the educational objectives.

39 .Table 4.12 indicates that 66 % teachers and 74 % students are in favor of separate examination system. whereas 34 % teachers and 26 % students are in favor of combined examination system.12: Overall suitable examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 10 16 % 34 26 Separate Number 20 44 % 66 74 Undecided Number % - The table number 4.

Total 30 teachers and 60 students (5 teachers and 10 students per school) were selected as the sample of the study. whereas the accessible population of the study consisted of the teachers and students of University Public School. Researchers had to face no difficulty in return of filled in questionnaire. The sample was taken through cluster sampling technique For the collection of data. These were located in District Peshawar. Private Schools in District Peshawar. Questionnaires were personally given to the teachers and students. CONCLUSIONS.CHAPTER-5 SUMMAY. These questionnaires contained ten questions. FINDINGS. were selected as a sample. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY The study aimed at exploring the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level in District Peshawar. The purpose of the study was to explore the perception of the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level. 40 . By using cluster sampling technique six (6) schools representing Greater Campus of Universities. In this way data was collected from thirty teachers and sixty students and response given was hundred percent without any delay or refuse. Islamia Collegiate School. two questionnaires (one for the teachers and one for the students) were developed with the consultation and under the supervision of research supervisor. Teachers and students were requested to give real views without any hesitations and formality. Agriculture Public School. University Model School. to find out the weak areas in the present examination system at secondary level and to offer suggestions for the improvement of examination system at secondary level Target population of the study was all the secondary school teachers and students of Government schools. Police Public School and Government. Government Girls High School and Police Public School at District Peshawar.

7. whereas 31 % teachers and 18 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 69 % teachers and 72 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 76% of teachers were in favor of separate examination system. FINDINGS On the basis of the analysis of data following findings were drawn. whereas 24 % of teachers were in favor of combined examination system. in relation to the conceptual clarity. where as 44 % of students were in favor of separate examination system. 64 % teachers and 69 % students favored separate examination system. 1. In the area of encouragement of creativity. 50 % of students were in favor of combined examination system. 6 % respondents cannot reply in this respect. whereas 34 % teachers and 30 % students favored combined examination 41 . Therefore it is recommended that there should be separate examination system at SSC level and such kind of study with broader population may be carried out at provincial level. in order to have clear picture of the situation. As per findings of the study most of the teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. In relation to the completion of syllabus. 6. where as 33 % teachers and 53 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 10 % students were unable to decide in this area. in relation to the encouragement of selective study. Seventy four percent teachers and 78 % students were in favor of separate examination system. where as 41 % teachers and 23 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 4. In relation to the provision of adequate feedback to the teachers. 3.The data collected was tabulated and analyzed by applying simple percentage method. 77 % teachers and 47 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 5. 59 % teachers and 77 % students were in favor of separate examination system. where as 24 % teachers and 16 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 2. in relation to the pressure of examination.

whereas 34 % teachers and 26 % students were in favor of combined examination system. where as 31 % teachers and 30 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 66 % teachers and 74 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 3 % students remained undecided in this area of study. 53 % teachers and 45 % students were in favor of separate examination system. where as 47 % teachers and 52 % students were in favor of combined examination system. where as 40 % teachers were in favor of combined examination system. 8. 2 % teachers and 1 % students could not decide regarding this aspect. 12. 42 . in relation to the better performance of students. in relation to the overall suitability of examination system. In the area of management of homework by the students. 11. 3 % students could not decide in this respect. 10. 68 % students were in favor of separate examination system as the performance of teacher increased in this system.system. 9. 59 % teachers were in favor of separate examination system. in relation to the better performance of teachers. whereas 32 % of students were in favor of combined examination system. in relation to the achievement of educational objectives. 69 % teachers and 67 % students were in favor of separate examination system. in relation to the encouragement of rote learning.

while most of the students viewed that combined system encouraged rote learning. 43 . 5. 4. 6. The majority of the student viewed that teacher. performance of students and teachers. 3. easy completion of syllabus. The majority of teachers and students were generally in favor of separate examination system at SSC level. 2.CONCLUSIONS In the light of findings following conclusions are drawn. Most of the teachers were of the view that separate examination system was more helpful in achievement of educational objectives. in relation to the provision of more conceptual clarity. management of homework and standards of teaching. Most of the teachers were of the view that separate examination system provided more feedback to them. have teached better in separate examination system. 1. Negligible % of the respondents was unable to decide about various aspects of the examination system at SSC level. 7. The majority of the teachers viewed that separate examination system encouraged rote learning. encouragement of creativity. The majority of teachers and students were in favor of separate examination system.

Examinations are an integral part of teaching and learning process. with the views that it discourages rote learning. Most of the teachers are in favor of separate examination system at SSC level. provides adequate feedback to them. There is a general impression that examination system in Pakistan is not up to the desired standard. Majority of students liked the separate examination system at SSC level. examination pressure is less and syllabus can easily be completed. encourages creativity. So study was conducted to know the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system of SSC level. students perform better. Therefore the views of teachers and students were known and investigated. There are many flaws in its conduct. with the views that it provides more conceptual clarity. which determines the destiny of students and their life career. 44 . marking and result process. it was found that majority of teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. teachers teach better. syllabus can easily be completed. In the light of their views. volume of homework is manageable and is more helpful in the achievement of educational objectives.DISCUSSION The study was designed to explore teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards the separate and combined examination system at SSC level.

Examination system may not be changed again and again. 2. 45 . 1. 3. Separate examination system at SSC level may be implemented.RECOMMENDATIONS Based upon the findings and conclusion following recommendations are made. 5. Inter Board Chairmen Committee (IBCC) may be encouraged to conduct separate examination system at Federal and Provincial level. Consistency must be observed in examination system. Such kind of study with broader population may be carried out at provincial level in order to have clear picture of the situation. 4.

Islamabad: Ministry of Education.BIBLIOGRAPHY Govt of Pakistan. N. Govt of Pakistan. London: Telly Publishers. School Organization and Management. of Pakistan. W. Hoodbhoy. Gronland. New York: Karachi: Oxford University Press. Fifty Years Achievement Test. (1972). (1979). Pervez. Islamabad: National Book Foundation. (1959). Islamabad: Ministry of Education.M. Howard.The New Education Policy (1972-80). Measurement and Evaluation in Macmillan Publishing Company. (1963). Govt of Pakistan. (1959). Islamabad: Ministry of Education. (1998). (1985). Commission on National Education. Education and the State. Mohiyuddin. Commission on National Education. Construction of 46 . S. Teaching.

Questionnaire for Students Annexure . Don’t know 3. Separate B. Don’t know 47 . Separate B. Combine C. syllabus can easily be completed? A. Combine C. Which examination system provides more conceptual clarity? A. Separate B. Combine C. Which examination system. Which examination system encourages creativity? A. Separate B. Don’t know 4. Combine C. Which examination system provides encourage selective study? A.A Topic: Perceptions about separate and combined examination system at SSC level Note: please fill in the particulars Name: ----------------------------------Class: ----------------------------------Age: ------------------------------------Note: please tick the appropriate option 1. Don’t know 2.

Separate B. Which examination system encourages rote learning? A. Separate B. Which examination system provides adequate feedback? A. Separate B. Don’t know 8. Which examination system’s homework is manageable? A. Don’t know 6. C. What do you think that in which examination system teachers teach well? A. Separate B. Combine C. Separate B. B.5. Separate Combine Don’t know 7. Combine C. Combine C. Don’t know 48 . Which examination system is more helpful in educational objectives? A. Combine C. What do you think that in which examination system students perform better? A. Don’t know 9. Don’t know 10. Combine C.

Don’t know 4. Which examination system encourages creativity? A.B Topic: Perceptions about separate and combined examination system at SSC level Note: please fill in the particulars Name: ----------------------------------Designation: ----------------------------------Professional qualification: ------------------------------------Note: please tick the appropriate option 1. Combine C. Combine C. Separate B. Separate B. Combine C. Which examination system provides encourage selective study? A. Don’t know 49 . Separate B. syllabus can easily be completed? A. Don’t know 3. Which examination system provides more conceptual clarity? A. Don’t know 2. Separate B. Combine C.Questionnaire for Teachers Annexure . Which examination system.

What do you think that in which examination system students perform better? A.5. Don’t know 10. B. Separate B. Separate Combine Don’t know 7. Don’t know 8. What do you think that in which examination system teachers teach well? A. C. Don’t know 9. Which examination system’s homework is manageable? A. Which examination system provides adequate feedback? A. Don’t know 6. Don’t know 50 . Combine C. Which examination system encourages rote learning? A. Combine C. Separate B. Separate B. Combine C. Separate B. Combine C. Separate B. Combine C. Which examination system is more helpful in educational objectives? A.

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