TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................1 ABSTRACT........................................................................................................I CHAPTER I........................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.....................................................................................................3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................3 The objectives of the study:.......................................................................................................................3 Limitations of the study: ........................................................................................................................3 Significance of the Study.........................................................................................................................3 Assumptions..............................................................................................................................................4 Abbreviations...........................................................................................................................................4 Definitions of Major Terms.......................................................................................................................5

CHAPTER-2......................................................................................................6 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.............................................................6
Review of the Related Literature............................................................................................................6 Secondary Education...............................................................................................................................6 Structure of Secondary Education in Pakistan...........................................................................................6 Examination...............................................................................................................................................7 A Brief History of Examinations...............................................................................................................8 A Brief History of Examinations in Pakistan............................................................................................9 Group A: Compulsory Subject................................................................................................................10 Group B: Elective Subject.......................................................................................................................10 Existing Situation of Examination in Country.........................................................................................10 i. Emphasis on Memorization..................................................................................................................11 ii. Subjectivity..........................................................................................................................................11 Kinds of Examination..............................................................................................................................11 Conduct of Examination..........................................................................................................................12 Functions and Purposes of Examinations................................................................................................12

i. Selection...............................................................................................................................................13 ii. Certification.........................................................................................................................................14 iii. Control................................................................................................................................................14 iv. Motivation...........................................................................................................................................14 v. Monitoring...........................................................................................................................................14 Types of Tests..........................................................................................................................................15 Achievement Tests...................................................................................................................................15 Teacher Made Test...................................................................................................................................15 Essay Type Test. .....................................................................................................................................15 a. Restricted Response Questions. ..........................................................................................................16 c. Objective Type Test.............................................................................................................................16 d. Short Answer Item. .............................................................................................................................16 e. True/False Items. .................................................................................................................................16 f. Matching Exercise. ..............................................................................................................................17 g. Multiple Choices: ................................................................................................................................17 Characteristics of Examination System...................................................................................................17 I. Validity.................................................................................................................................................18 ii. Reliability............................................................................................................................................18 iii. Usability.............................................................................................................................................18 Examination System at SSC Level in Pakistan........................................................................................18 Administration of Examinations..............................................................................................................19 Governance..............................................................................................................................................20 Management.............................................................................................................................................20 Finance.....................................................................................................................................................21 Responsibilities........................................................................................................................................21 Staffing.....................................................................................................................................................21 Professionalism........................................................................................................................................21 Examinations...........................................................................................................................................22 Frequency of Examination.......................................................................................................................22 Examination Sites....................................................................................................................................22 Private Candidates...................................................................................................................................22 Invigilation...............................................................................................................................................22 Marking....................................................................................................................................................23 Malpractice..............................................................................................................................................23 Evaluation of Present Examination System.............................................................................................24

CHAPTER-3....................................................................................................26 METHOD AND PROCEDURE........................................................................26
Population................................................................................................................................................26 Sample.....................................................................................................................................................26 Instrumentation........................................................................................................................................26 Research Design......................................................................................................................................27 Data Collection........................................................................................................................................27 Analysis of Data.......................................................................................................................................27

CHAPTER-4....................................................................................................27 INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA............................................28
Table 4.1: More Conceptual clarity in examination system....................................................................28 Table 4.2: Encouragement of creativity in examination system .............................................................29 Table 4.3: Encouragement of selective study in examination system ....................................................30 ................................................................................................................................................................30 .................................................................................................................................................................30

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Table 4.4: Completion of syllabus in examination system .....................................................................31 .................................................................................................................................................................31 Table 4.5: Pressure of examination in examination system ....................................................................32 Table 4.6: Provision of adequate feedback by examination system .......................................................33 .................................................................................................................................................................33 Table 4.7: Better performance of students in examination system .........................................................34 .................................................................................................................................................................34 Table 4.8: Management of homework by students in examination system ...........................................35 Table 4.9: Encouragement of rote learning among students in examination system ............................36 Table 4.10: Better performance of teachers in examination system .......................................................37 .................................................................................................................................................................37 Table 4.11: Achievement of educational objectives in examination system ..........................................38 .................................................................................................................................................................38 Table 4.12: Overall suitable examination system ...................................................................................39

CHAPTER-5....................................................................................................40 SUMMAY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................................40
SUMMARY............................................................................................................................................40 FINDINGS..............................................................................................................................................41

CONCLUSIONS..............................................................................................43 DISCUSSION...................................................................................................44 RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................................45 BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................46 Annexure............................................................................................. ..................... –49-

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ABSTRACT
The study was designed to explore teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards the separate and combined examination system at SSC level. Examinations are an integral part of teaching and learning process, which determines the destiny of students and their life career. There is a general impression that examination system in Pakistan is not up to the desired standard. There are many flaws in its conduct, marking and result process. So this study was conducted to know the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. The views of teachers and students were known and investigated. In the light of their views, it was found that majority of teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. Most of the teachers are in favor of separate examination system at SSC level, with the views that it provides more conceptual clarity, encourages creativity; syllabus can easily be completed, provides adequate feedback to them, students perform better, volume of homework is manageable and is more helpful in the achievement of educational objectives. Majority of students like the separate examination system at SSC level, with the views that it discourages rote learning, teachers teach better, examination pressure is less and syllabus can easily be completed.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Evaluation is an essential part of each system. Education has no exception. Educational process is incomplete without evaluation. It tells what the students know. (Haq, 1989). Educational evaluation is a systematic process to determine educational outcomes (Farooq, 1993). Tyler (1950) relates evaluation to changes in behaviors. According to him, "Evaluation is the process of determining the degree to which certain desirable changes in behaviors have actually taken place". Evaluation is a process, which includes a careful gathering of evidence on the attainment of objectives, a forming of judgment on the basis of that evidence, and a weighing of that evidence in the light of objectives. The judgments may be formed against some criteria or norm, such as the national average, an expectancy formula or the stated objectives. Evaluation can be carried on different levels and by different categories of people. Examination is a part of evaluation and is used to decide who is to be promoted to the next level. As part of the process, "the results of examinations and teachers' judgments have been turned into a grading system in which all the students are classified annually or more frequently".(Siddiqui & Bukhari, 1991) Education has five major components i.e. management, teacher training, curriculum, research and examinations. Examinations, in Pakistan, are considered more important because over time they have become the primary end of the process of formal education at the school, college and university level. "It seems as if schools, colleges and universities have been established for the purpose of preparing students for examinations. The teachers, students and parents have taken it upon themselves to ensure that those who sit in examinations do their best to get the best results". (Khan, 2004) Examinations have been with us since the creation of man. This world is itself an examination place for human being. Individuals are supposed to undergo different examinations in their lives. While practicing Islam, Muslims find themselves in a state of test in every matter in their daily life for their activities, both spiritual and mundane. Generally, the examinations are considered as an evaluation of competency, 1

the parents. objectives. These factors are students. government took the examinations at secondary level under 2 . the press and government. Over past few years particularly our examination system at secondary level has been under heavy fire from all sections of people. the employers and the government agencies complain that the standard of education in the country has declined and the output of the educational institutions is very inferior to their output about 25 years back. Examinations play a vital role in the selection of the students for participation in the educational system and entrance to next grades. environmental conditions. the teachers. The students. curriculum and teaching process.knowledge and capability of students and the effectiveness of teaching process. administration and examination. methodology. Unless all these factors function properly. At the same time all educational systems working in the world today have examinations as an integral part of their system related to the objective of the education. rather there are at least seven most important factors. Various steps/measures have been proposed and discussed for the improvement of examination system at secondary level. but also helps fostering accountability for institutions and their standing. but so far no headway in this respect has been made. The efficacy of an educational system basically depends upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its examinations system. The problem has to be taken even more seriously. Examinations not only serve the purpose of certification of educational attainment and determine a student’s standing on the scale of achievement and educational standard. which they serve and an educational system must be considered in relation to the society. During the past few years. It also indicates that there must be close coordination between and among these factors. curriculum. the result will not be satisfactory. which it serves. This effectiveness does not depend on a single factor. which determine the destiny of students and their life career. Examinations cannot sensibly be studied or planned in isolation from the educational system. Examinations are an integral part of the teaching learning process. The unfortunate position leads us to ask as to how we can bring about effectiveness in the educational system. the public.

attitude and knowledge of the individuals. Teachers and students felt a lot of problems due to change of examination system. Therefore a survey study was designed to measure the teachers and students perception on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level. 2. the investigation is limited to secondary schools in University Campus Peshawar and surroundings. interest. To analyze the weak areas in the present examination system at secondary level 4. To judge the perceptions of the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level. Significance of the Study It is an accepted reality that examination is the tool through which we can judge and predict about the capacity. If it is fair. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study aimed at exploring the teachers and students perception on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level in District Peshawar. To recommend suggestions for the improvement of examination system at secondary level Limitations of the study: Keeping in view the scope of the study and shortage of time and resources. its prediction and the judgment can be a huge loss and can create harmful situation for the nation. knowledge and thought. The present study is useful to improve the examination system of secondary level. It is the base through which someone is given the standard of learning skill. nature. 3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study: 1. So it is necessary to 3 . very fruitful and desirable results can be achieved. but if it is not held in proper way. To seek the views of teachers and students regarding different aspects of present examination system at SSC level.combined and separate systems inconsistently. ability.

Possible efforts were made to collect the real thoughts and concepts given by the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system. The issues and difficulties of curriculum and in teaching process should be weeded out as early as possible as to cope with the need of the present era of science and technology. Assumptions It was assumed that the secondary school teachers and students are competent enough to provide the requisite information and give their candid opinion.S APS&C PPS&C GGHS Govt Com Sep UD University Public School University Model School Islamia Collegiate School Agriculture Public School & College Police Public School & College Government Girls High School Government Combined Separate Undecided 4 . Hurdles and problems being faced by the people involved in the examinations or the difficulties of the students should be highlighted. It is considering that the findings of the study would be helpful generally for the teachers and students and particularly for administrators and policy makers of education. Abbreviations UPS UMS I.C.make it fair and according to the demanding standard of education like advanced countries of the world. Now it is the responsibility of government to take proper steps for the smooth functioning of the education system and the problem faced must be talked at priority basis. The topic under study is selected to bring forth the facts and realities about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level.

Cat N SSC BISE Category Number Secondary School Certificate Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education IAEA International Association for Education Assessment Definitions of Major Terms UPS The boy’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar UMS The girl’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar I. Marking Marking of answer scripts by teachers 5 .S The boy’s school runs under the management of Islamia College (Chartered) University.C. A.S The boy’s school runs under the management of Agriculture University Peshawar. PPS&C The boy’s school runs under the management of University of Peshawar GGHS The girl’s school runs under the management of Ministry of Education. Government of Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa Examination In this study examination means an examination conducted by the board at secondary level.P.

Most of the schools have reached their present stage through a process called upgrading. functions and purposes of examinations. Secondary School Certificate Examination. colleges and universities. Education is not something static but it is a continuous and lifelong process. It is not mere public instructions. intermediate (XI-XII). existing situation of examination in the country. It is a terminal stage from where the student goes to the higher and professional education and is a major determinant of the quality of higher education. The secondary stage is taught in high or higher secondary school. in which a new stage is added to already existing school (Govt of Pakistan. government announced a policy that the intermediate stage was to be a school stage taught only in higher secondary schools. a brief history of examinations. which provides mental. while intermediate stage is taught in higher secondary schools. 1979). middle or elementary (VI-VIII). examination system in Pakistan. secondary (IX-X). it is a social institution. These are primary (I – V). physical.CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of the Related Literature This chapter includes literature review on: examinations. education is delivered in five stages. Secondary Education Secondary education plays a very important role in education. 6 . a brief history of examinations in Pakistan. In 1979. ideological and moral training to the individuals of the nation. intermediate or degree colleges. Structure of Secondary Education in Pakistan In Pakistan at present. characteristics of examinations. bachelor (XIII-XIV) and master (XV-XVI). Education is a process through which a nation develops self-consciousness by sensitizing individuals who compose it. These stages are incorporate in to several types of schools.

Mughal period is also eminent in this respect. 1945-1900 B.C. Written test were started from 1219 B.C. it becomes competitive as in most scholarship and civil services examinations. (Shah. and provide opportunities to the teachers to try new methods to improve the teaching methodology". for being a rank of adult only the physical strength was measured. When an examination is held to select the individual for a limited number of places. The first period was concerned with historical primitive trails. endurance.Examination "The basic role examination plays in the educational process can be appreciated from the fact that good examinations motivate pupils.C. 1998). Mughal used written as well as oral examinations. Cambridge University developed achievement test and other countries followed and improved these tests. During the second period. help them know their strengths and weaknesses. this type of examination is called pass examination. An examination is primarily a test of the capacity of individuals. bravery. But generally examinations are taken to measures the ability of the students against the certain standard. in the University of Bologna. In some form or other these found a place in particularly every scheme of education of which there is any record. Written examinations are a late development and the system as we have it at present.C. 7 . Chinese used oral test before 800 B. 2200-1945 B. The capacity means the power to respond to stimulus provided by the examiner. is a growth of last century. Some types of formal test were given to students in Sparta.C. Thorn Dike divided the history and form of examination in to three periods: First period Second period Third period 2200 B. Examination is an ancient institution.

and in some cases the syllabuses. history. However. Inspired by the Chinese system. Syllabuses and examination papers from the 'home country' were used. Whilst New York Regents examinations continue to this day. In Britain. As countries gained independence over the past fifty or so years. the civil service and the professions. However.. Public examinations are now a major feature of the examination systems of most European countries. and legislation have advocated a national system or system of examinations for the country (Madaus & Kellaghan. they took control of their schools examinations. 1992). the New York Board of Regents conducted the first examination in NY State schools. the Regents' examinations in New York). policy statements. public examinations are not a common feature of schooling in the USA. The Baccalaureate was established in Napoleonic France in 1808 to admit students to the grandee’s echoless. which. The United States. London University held its first matriculation examination in 1838.A Brief History of Examinations The origin of public examinations is to be found in the school entrance and civil service examinations of China. 1976). 8 6 . has so far not adopted a public examination system. which go back at least to the period of the Sui emperors (589-618) (with a prehistory going back much further) and which achieved their most complex form towards the end of the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1911) (Miyazaki. the assessment method. in turn. passed them on to their former colonies in Africa. usually unchanged. Western European examination system spread as the French. A World Bank (2001a) report revealed that examinations in schools have a shorter. examination conduction of written examinations started in the European schools in the 16th century. The Abitur was introduced as a graduation examination for the classical middle school in 1788 and soon became a qualification examination for university. In 1865. It still conducts school examinations in the UK and around the world. with some exceptions (e. during the 1980s and 1990s.g. government service. though it was not until some two hundred years later that public examinations of the type found in China were instituted in Europe for selection to universities. and the professions. a number of proposals contained in reform reports. 1991). (Kellaghan. but still considerable. in the colonies. Asia and the Caribbean. British and Dutch empires expanded in the 19th century.

A Brief History of Examinations in Pakistan Khushk and Christie (2004) claim.remained largely unchanged. In this newly introduced 9 . In these minutes he proposed English as the only medium of instruction and all the money earmarked for education would be spent on English education. In the light of Macaulay report. Oral. Rote Memorization. Minimal use of modern assessment techniques and dependency on traditional learning processes are the significant factor of low quality education in the country. the British government started to establish missionary schools at Zilla (district) and Tehsil level. The most prominent feature of this is a strong theoretical base of behavioral measurement (psychometrics) and a heavy reliance on objective and standardized modes of assessment. Examination systems on the American approach can be found in South and Central America. Africa and South East Asia and the subcontinent. while the level of quality education in most institutions has not been improved to satisfy the academic needs of the time. The European tradition of public examinations for schools can be found in the Caribbean. Quran theology. especially multiple-choice testing. Indonesia and the Philippines. The curriculum designed for this institution comprised arithmetic. geometry. grammar and national philosophy. In the 20th century. The prevalence of low quality education in the country is one of the major constraints on its development. At the foundation of Pakistan there was a single examinations board. Since then the number of examination boards has gradually increased to 23 in line with growing numbers of candidate. In 1853 educational activities took a new direction as a result of the Lord Macaulay Report. law. which was responsible for examining students from all over the country. logic. "Pakistan is listed among the developing nations of the world. They practiced traditional methods of student assessment. Questioning and Open Forum Discussions for awarding certificates to the candidates. America developed a significantly different approach to assessment of students. In sub-continent the Muslims established the first institution the "Calcutta Madarssah" in 1781 for the benefit of Muslim students.

Pashto. Elective Subject Group B: i. At that time subjects offered by universities were divided into two group’s compulsory and elective subjects. ii. or Greek. The detail of subjects is as follow: Group A: i. say. Pakistani languages such as Urdu. Agriculture Physiology and Hygiene or Civics and Hygiene or Domestic Economy for girls only. A classical language Arabic. Latin. According to the statement of the Board of Secondary Education Karachi (1994) little earlier before the independence of Pakistan in April 1947 University of Sindh at Karachi replaced Bombay University and took responsibility of control and regulation of Secondary as well as Higher Secondary Education in province of Sindh. Physics and chemistry.education system government emphasized the introduction of new subjects and up-to date techniques of assessing student learning outcomes". Bhatti (1993) pointed out that before independence Bombay University and Punjab University were responsible for conducting examination at secondary level in the areas. French or German. ii. Drawing. or a foreign language. History and Geography. vii. iii. 10 . Punjabi. iv. poor content coverage and administrative shortcomings as main drawbacks of the examination system. Mathematics or in case of girls. v. subjectivity. Domestic arithmetic and Household Account. Arithmetic. which are now part of the Pakistan. Compulsory Subject English. Existing Situation of Examination in Country Khushk and Christie (2004) described emphasis on memorization. iii. Hebrew. Persian.

The subjectivity of examinees in writing answers when total marks of a question are not specifically divided /allocated. Kinds of Examination Presently different practices are being used to evaluate the work of students and for promoting the students from one grade to another. drawing. Oral examination is limited to specific subjects usually languages or to test oral reading and comprehension. Test items developed for assessing the knowledge of examinee are outdated. 11 . and application of knowledge and skills. handcrafts or home science only. f. Practical examination is held in physical education. Emphasis on Memorization This practice has overlooked the testing of higher objectives like understanding. Oral and practical examination is common in Pakistan. b. d. e. They are merely exploited to memorize the content. Subjectivity The subjectivity of a person who is setting question papers. a. The examinees are not enlightened about the nature of the course contents. d.i. The subjectivity of paper setters plays important role in creating heterogeneity regarding developing test items for examination. Along with this. ii. Periodical examination Annual examination Records Automatic promotion Internal examination External examination External and internal examinations are the most common and widely accepted practices at secondary as well as at postgraduate level of education. c. Following types of examinations are being practiced in various institutions in our country: a. no innovations have been made by paper setters to help examinee in exploring his/her knowledge through different type of test items. b. c.

The results are then frequently used to discriminate among students with regard to their future goals: further education. 1965). From (1316) examinations are held by the universities. Professional institutions held examination according to their own requirements while affiliated colleges and institutions held examinations according to the rules of universities or affiliating authority (Hoodbhoy. and students were not asked whether they were merchants. While certification is important. This use becomes more obvious when results of each school are published. Functions and Purposes of Examinations Public examinations normally are intended to serve a number of functions. From (9-12) examinations are held by the boards. artisans. there is often a danger of losing sight of this function because of the strong emphasis on selection. Chinese examinations were designed to select government officials on the basis of ability and intellectual achievement rather than of birth. to provide evidence of school effectiveness. and schools and teachers may be judged for their students' achievements as reflected in examination performance. From (1-8) internal examinations are held by the institutions. there were no class restrictions on examination entry. In Britain also. There are three types of examinations held in Pakistan. Public service commission and federal service commission also held the examinations yearly. or employment. Examination results are also often used.Conduct of Examination The examinations are to be organized in a way that each candidate shall be treated precisely in the same way as every other candidate. The most obvious is to assess the competence of students' learning related to some agreed standards. 1976). 12 7 . a major reason of introducing public examinations was to replace patronage and nepotism in making appointments to the civil service (Montgomery. particularly for those students who are leaving the educational system. The greatest precautions are taken to insure the secrecy of the examination papers before and during the examination and to isolate the individual candidates in the examination hall. formally or informally. admission to professional preparation. or peasants (Miyazaki. 1998).

g. which can be used as the basis for continued efforts at strengthening the educational system. They furnish the educational authorities with objective evidence of the performance of the schools. ii. vi. The author enumerates seven main purposes of examination: i. the form and methods have changed from time to time. Examinations act as a sort of control by delineating certain minimum standards for students. iv. and help in assessing whether pre-set educational objectives have been achieved or not. "Examination is an important process of assessing the progress of students. from senior secondary to higher education). Some examinations are designed solely for selection e.Malik (1987) examines various issues involved in examination in the light of available literature. It is as old as man himself. and if achieved. Selection To select students' for the next level of education in a situation in which the number of places at each successive level is reduced (e. and the administrators' frame policies on a sound basis. from junior secondary to senior secondary. from primary to secondary school. Examinations elicit greater dedication among those concerned with education including students studying the course. Emphasis is laid on the quality of education with a view to regulating admission institutions of higher learning and providing suitable man-power for man to development. iii. Examinations imbue the students with a competitive spirit to excel. Teachers can thus improve their performance. He states. the French 13 .g. However. vii. thereby improving their study habit and standard of achievement. World Bank (2001b) report specifies the following main purposes of examinations: i. teachers and administrators. to what extent. They serve as a basis for promotion from one grade to the other. v. They help to evaluate the curriculum and determine its strengths and weakness so .that better planning may be undertaken.

ii. Certificates may be important for gaining employment. In general. Most serve other functions as well. the use of examination results for selection allows positions to be filled on the basis of merit rather than factors such as socio-economic status or 'influence'. certificates retain their 'value' over long periods. For example. a sense of purpose.concourse and the Transfer Tests used for selection to grammar schools in Northern Ireland. 14 . Monitoring Examination pass rates may be used to gauge changes in achieved educational standards. In some instances. may be demotivated. This may be done by publishing 'league tables' ranking schools by performance in public examinations. particularly those who consider the demands of the exam to be unrealistic. and tangible incentives and rewards. It also allows governments or regional authorities to control disparate elements of the education system. Control By controlling the examination system the content and 'spirit' of the curriculum can be tailored to national goals. There is evidence that some students. selection becomes increasingly important raising the 'stakes' of the examination. In theory. Where opportunities are extremely limited. v. a School Leaving Certificate gained in 1990 may be used to support a job application in 2005. iv. exam results may be used to hold schools and teachers accountable for their students' unsatisfactory performance. this is achieved by providing clear goals to strive for. iii. Motivation In theory. Certification Formal certificates issued after examinations may be taken as evidence that students have reached certain levels of achievement. A uniform (standardized) examination system promotes national homogeneity in educational standards and practice.

It consists of a few questions asking the student to discuss. opinion and interpretation both on the part of student and person who evaluate his/her answer. Achievement Tests The actual accomplishment of students in a course may be measured by an achievement test. These categories are called restricted response questions and extended response questions.Types of Tests Following are the different kinds of tests:    Educational tests or achievement tests Personality tests Aptitude tests Intelligence tests With respect to our examination system generally achievement tests are concerned. 1985). Achievement test measure the amount and quality of learning that has been taken place in specific area. 1963). Achievement test measures the current status of individual’s with respect to proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skills. These are categorized into two categories depending upon the degree of freedom. Achievement test is a test that measures the attainment of a student or individual after expiring of his period of teach (Howard. Essay type test Objective type test Essay Type Test. It is usually rather detailed test covering the work that has been taught. describe and to give reason for. 2. Achievement test is further divided into following two categories (Gronland. 15 . Teacher Made Test There are two major categories of teacher made tests: 1. It emphasizes such letters as judgment.

These are essentially the same. some plants do not need sunlight because they get their food from other plants. fact or opinion. integrate and evaluate ideas. b. organize. These types of questions are used in all the subjects like science. Extended response questions allow pupils to select any factual information that they think is pertinent to organize the answer in accordance with their best judgment and to integrate and evaluate ideas. number or symbol. phrase. This freedom enables them to demonstrate their ability to select. Short Answer Item. short test type item. True/false are alternative response test items consist of a statement that the pupil is asked it mark true or false. Restricted response questions lemmatize both the contents and the response. what is the name of the man who invented the steamboat? (Robert Fulton) Completion type item: the name of the man who invented the steamboat is (Robert Fulton). The short answer item uses the direct questions. For example. e. agree or disagree and like or dislike. d. The restricting responses in essay test are to base the question on specific problem because the restricted response question is more structured therefore it is most useful for measuring learning outcomes. 16 . Extended Response Questions. right or wrong. Yes/No the common criticism of the true/false item is that a student may be able to recognize a false statement as incorrect but still not knows what the correct answer is. Objective Type Test There are following forms of objective type items. The short item is supply type test item that can be answer by a word. correct or incorrect.a. In each case there are two possible answers for example. where as the completion item consists of an incomplete statement. Restricted Response Questions. different only in the method of presenting the problem. True/False Items. arithmetic and social sciences etc. they deem appropriate. c. yes or no.

diagnosis or certification of mastery. Rome Paris Characteristics of Examination System Examination. tests of achievement might be used for selection. Matching exercise consists of two parallel columns. d. which one city is the capital of France? a. future learning activities or occupations. For example. In addition it can measure a variety of the more complex outcomes in the knowledge. reliability. understanding and application areas. placement. which makes it possible to measure a large amount of related factual material in a relatively short time. London Tehran b. This flexibility found in the multiple-choice form. For example. c. Regardless of the type of instrument should process certain characteristics. It can effectively measure many of the simple learning outcomes measured by true/false and matching exercise. 17 . tests and other evaluation instrument serve a variety of uses in educational system. sentence or phrase in the other column. The knowledge can be tested through matching exercise: Person Date Symbol Rules Achievement Historical event Concept Example The main advantage of matching exercise is its compact form. The most essentials of these are validity. with each word. Multiple Choices: The multiple-choice form is generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type objective test item. number or symbol in one column being matched to word. g. The item in the column for which a match is sort is called premise and the item in the column from which the selection is made is called response.f. Matching Exercise. Aptitude test might be used for predicting success.

interpretations should be based on as accurate an estimate of future success as possible. and Bethel. validity is always concerned with the specific use of the results and soundness of interpretations. If one obtain quite similar to the scores when the same test is administered to the same group on two different occasions. with regard to a particular use. it should produce results that can be accurately interpreted and applied by the school or board personnel. 1985). Arian. The relationship between reliability and validity may become confusing sometimes. Examination System at SSC Level in Pakistan According to Creighton. iii. Validity Validity refers to the appropriateness of the interpretations made from test scores and other evaluations results. ii. comprehension. one should be able to interpret the scores as a relevant and representative sample of achievement domain to be measured. an evaluation procedure must meet certain practical requirements. As with validity.I. One can conclude that this result has a high degree of reliability from one rater to another. It should be economical from the viewpoint of both time and money. interpretations should be based on evidence that the scores actually reflect reading. Usability In addition to providing results that process a satisfactory degree of validity and reliability. These practical aspects of an evaluation procedure can be included under the heading of usability. reliability is also related to the type of interpretation to be made. The term usability refers to the practically of the procedure and says nothing about other qualities present (Gronland. if a test is to be used to describe pupil’s achievement. For example. Reliability (consistency) of measurement is needed to obtain valid results. Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of evaluation result. If the results are to be used as a measure of pupil’s reading. (1995) "candidates sit in Secondary School Certificate (SSC) or Matriculation examination at the end of grade 18 . Basically. It should be easily administered and scored. comprehensions and are not distorted by irrelevant factor. but reliability can be achieved without achieving validity. If the results are to be used to predict pupil’s success in some future activity.

S.0 examinations could not be eliminated completely and they continue still in one way or other way. Most boards prepare papers for over 60 percent of the approved subject areas. Examination system in Pakistan can be discussed under following headings: Administration of Examinations Following national independence in 1947. The SSC also termed the Entrance Examination is used as a terminal school certification measure and as a selection test for entry into the pre-tertiary grades 11 and 12. However.0 examination. practical assessments are offered in science subjects and home economics while the majority of candidates tend to opt for a narrow range of subjects. home economics. Schools remain open during practical as relatively small numbers of students are examined each day in small groups. Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education were established in Hyderabad and Peshawar in 1961 following a recommendation of 19 . and commerce subjects take up to 3-4 weeks and are administered after the theory examination. the Universities of Punjab and Sindh administered examinations modeled on the English and Welsh examinations. Head masters and Principals of various institutions usually outside the district are appointed by the controller of the examinations for the conduction of these examinations in order to check the malpractices. Secondary Schools Certificates Examinations are conducted by various Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education. English. In addition. they take either three sciences or three general (humanities) subjects". The SSC is also accepted as a minimum qualification for admission into some lower level positions in the public and private sectors.S. Teachers. The first Board of Secondary Education was established in Karachi in 1950. Hoodbhoy (1998) mentions that "theory examinations at grades 10 (9 and 10) in all boards since 1996 take about three weeks to administer. Pakistan Studies. But unfortunately. Over 60 subjects have been included in the syllabus for S. the malpractices in S.10. Boards are required to prepare papers for the less frequently taken subjects. Practical in science. The Lahore Board was created in 1954. Islamyat and Mathematics. In addition to theory papers. secondary schools often have to be closed during theory examinations to free buildings and teachers for examination work". SSC candidates are required to take five compulsory subjects-Urdu.

e. the governor or minister for education). little accountability. terms of appointment and financial procedures. for instance.. separate Karachi Boards for Secondary and Intermediate Education. which exerts considerable influence over the Boards within its jurisdiction.the Commission of National Education (1959) that secondary and higher secondary should be a terminal stage. The 1972-80 education policy recommended one Board for every 25. is affiliated to internationals bodies such as the International Association for Education Assessment (IAEA). Board staff has had a high degree of job security. None of the Boards. 1998). In effect. there were 19 Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISEs). Many Boards have exceeded these numbers. Management The Controlling Authority of each Board appoints a Chairman.000 candidates. they are public sector organizations with a culture of job security. By the end of 1995. a Secretary and a Controller and in some instances. and without any financial input from the federal or provincial governments. Governance Boards are autonomous organizations but the Provincial Controlling Authority limits their powers (i. Boards tend to be politicized. Further Boards were created in the 1980s and 1990s to accommodate the increase in candidate numbers and to create employment opportunities in different regions. Apart from the three senior officers. rather than primarily a stepping-stone to university education. other senior officers. Experience or competence in educational assessment is not a criterion for appointment. Clerical and low staff-level positions are appointed at the discretion of the Chairman and/or Secretary. The overall appointment procedure helps to ensure that some employees owe their positions to external influence. Each BISE has a board of directors. Many members of the Boards are nominated by the Controlling Authority. the term of appointment of three senior officers of the Boards does not exceed three years after which they are transferred to other senior positions within the education sector. They adopt government rules on salary scales. Normally. and three additional Boards for technical and vocational subject areas (Hoodbhoy. a body whose members have special expertise and interest in public examinations. 20 .

The Controlling Authority sometimes requests Board funds to help defray government expenses. income is devoted to improve the quality of examinations. Savings are invested in the long-term saving schemes and have been used to construct Board offices and residential buildings. sports and other extra-curricular activities. Boards also provide part time income to very large number of teachers engaged in examination related activities such as paper setting. marking and checking and tabulation of results. exceeds expenditure in most instances. securing examination certificates. science fairs and art and essay competitions. arranging for supervision of examination centers. For most Boards. setting examination papers (by senior teachers). Professional books and journals on examinations and assessment are conspicuous by their absence in board premises. naat/qirat. Staffing The majority of Board employ in access of 200 staff. Virtually all examinations expenses relate to personnel and administrative costs. Little. reliability and validity studies of their examinations. Income. The majority of staff does routine clerical work. Most Boards are overstaff. tabulating results and issuing mark-sheets and certificates. nor do they engage the services of outside personnel to undertake these tasks. assessing papers (by teachers). if any. Boards organize sports competitions and co-curricular activities such as debates. Examination fees also pay for Board expenses. the issue of examination quality relates only to examination security. Fees include charges for registration and certificates. In a departure from general practice in many developing countries the government does not make any financial contribution to the public examination system. which is tax exempted under legislation. 950-Rs. Professionalism Boards do not have staff technically qualified to undertake item analysis. Responsibilities Board responsibilities include registering candidates.Finance Examinations fees in Pakistan are approximately Rs. In addition. printing and distribution of papers. 21 . A small proportion of the Board’s excess income is used to finance scholarships.1050 for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC).

or failed earlier as a regular candidate or a candidate from an unaffiliated school. However. a significant minority has held them in unsuitable rooms and corridors. each year.While some boards have recently invested in computers. Invigilation 22 . Examinations Candidates sit for the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination at the end of grade 10. administer and correct two separate examinations for the SSC in each subject. In effect. Examination Sites Most Boards rate their present sites for holding public examination as satisfactory. Examination Boards have to prepare. A number of Boards have requested halls or sites dedicated slowly to the holding of examination to address space and security concerns. there is a pronounced scarcity of optical-mark type equipment for speedy and accurate processing of examinations results. In Pakistan candidates who fail may take a supplementary examination in autumn. Many schools and colleges are reluctant to allow their halls to be used for public examinations due to the unruly and sometimes violent behavior of the candidates and their external helpers. The SSC also termed the entrance examination for grades 11 and 12. where candidates have been too close to one another to prevent coping. Private Candidates The term “private candidate” is used to describe a person who has prepared privately for the examination. Frequency of Examination In many countries. A number of schools in the interests of getting good school results hold trial (send up) examinations to weed out weak SSC candidates who must then register as private candidates. The SSC is also accepted as a minimum qualification for admission into some lower level position in the public and private sectors. candidates who fail a final national public examination must wait for one year before repeating.

By international standards. to place a candidate at a disadvantage. Forms of examinations malpractice perpetrated by examination official including leakage of questions before the date of examination. appointment of supervisors with ulterior motives. Malpractice The use of “unfair means” or cheating refers to any action taken in connection with an examination that attempts to gain an unfair advantage for a candidate or in some cases. It is primarily an ethical issue. malpractice in the conduct of public examination seems to be particularly pronounced in Pakistan (Graney and Kellaghan. Possession of unauthorized material or “helping material” and the unauthorized activities of examiners were the most common form of detected malpractice (Commission 1992). However. removal of scripts. Boards are hesitant to appoint private teachers. Malpractice serves to undermine confidence in the integrity of the system. 1996). The low level of monetary reward and the risk of physical violence at examination centers have deterred many teachers from taking up invigilation work. establishment of factitious or (Ghost centers) where candidates prepared their answer without supervisions and with assistance. is permitted. politicians and teachers unions to appoint specific examiners. In some instance. Boards appoint examiners. rechecking of scripts. Private schools tend to be reluctant to release teachers for this task. Requests for re-marking of papers are not entertained. Government officials. A variety of efforts have 23 . It is reasonable to assume that a large amount of malpractice goes undetected. including re-tabulation of marks. even when those teachers have neither formal qualification nor teaching experience in the designated subject. An invigilator of two-three hour examination session in one day earns roughly the equivalent of an unskilled laborers daily wage.Teaches appointed for invigilation duties at examinations centers are drawn mostly form government schools. usually from the ranks of teachers. substitutions of scripts prepared outside of the examination centre in place of candidate’s original efforts. and falsification of results and certificates. frequently put boards under pressure. Marking Reproduction of large session of material from the textbook is rewarded with high scores by examiners.

The commission of national education reviewed the situation related to the education in the country and also dealt with the subject of examination. Evaluation of Present Examination System Pakistan is developing country. 1959) Education policy 1972. It cannot afford a large wastage of manpower. so that it may fit the need and aspiration of our people. The defects in present examination system have been investigated in various reports of commission on national education in its reports. Students have postponed their study few weeks before the examinations and in consequence have not learned the habit of sustained effort and application. The commission observed that the system of examination in all the fields of education has also become symptomatic of much weakness and emphatically stated. This is possible if we re-evaluate the present educational system and replace it by a better and improved system. the existing system of examination fails to serve as an incentive to learning. The progress of any country depends upon her educational system and performance of educational system can be judged only through the examination system. (Government of Pakistan. suggested that the change in curricula should be accompanied by necessary reforms in examination system. the external exams is exclusive pre occupation of the students and do not feel under strong immediate pressure to attend lecture or to secure his/her teachers guidance personally or in the tutorial group”. as internal exams have at present no value. It is recommended that a committee of experts should be appointed to look into various facts of examinations system at different stages. “We have had evidence that examination is responsible for many of the weaknesses in our education for. 1998). but a lot more is required to be done to overcome this practice (Hoodbhoy.been made by Boards to combat various forms of malpractice. Therefore. most students’ examination have come to be more important than the acquisition of knowledge and skill. 24 . it is very important to give a new orientation to the educational system of Pakistan. The main aim and objective of education in Pakistan should be to gear mass education so that our people are able to live productive public life. Moreover.

growth in the knowledge of psychology and development and new techniques of testing only.The commission on national education 1959 reported about examination that exams have almost been taken as the sole measure of the student accomplishment. has helped to improve the examinations. clear and logical expression. (1959) suggested modern concept of examinations that the art of examination is probably most difficult one in the whole range of educational practice but is. point to the need for persistent efforts to improve the method of ordinary examination. Mohiyuddin. to develop testing. but no clear cut result has been made. As a necessary mean. 25 . gratifying to note that in recent years serious attention has been given to the problem of exam and attempts have been made to refine its procedure and ascertain its basic principles. The objective test no doubt. The evaluation of objective and scientifically valid test experience has profound influence on examination of traditional type. In the direction of objectives and informed based for making it must also be supplemented with test of any type. however abounding unusual type of exam on the contrary. there is considerable volume of expert’s opinion in favor of the retaining the essay as one form of examination. the students refuse to study anything not specifically required and the whole issue hinges on the performance in the few hours. Staff prepares the subject matter with an eye.

Peshawar Total 5 5 5 5 5 5 30 Teachers Students 10 10 10 10 10 10 60 The sample of 30 teachers and 60 students were selected randomly. Agriculture Public School. The items were related to the effectiveness of separate and combined examination system of SSC level. management of homework etc. regarding the study of the perceptions of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. UoP University Model School. University Model School. Sample Sample was taken out of following schools: S# 1 2 3 4 5 6 School University Public School. whereas the accessible population of the study consisted of the teachers and students of University Public School. UoP Islamia Collegiate School (Boys) Agriculture University Public School Govt: Girls High school. Instrumentation For obtaining the perception of teachers and students on the combined versus separate examinations system at SSC level. Following method and procedure were adopted. Private Schools in District Peshawar. Islamia Collegiate School. Population Target population of the study was all the secondary school teachers and students of Government schools. UoP Police Public School. provision of adequate feed back to teachers. related to the provision of conceptual clarity. Government Girls High School and Police Public School at District Peshawar. 26 . two questionnaires (Appendices ‘A’ & ‘B’) were developed comprising of 10 item each. was conducted.CHAPTER-3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE The research work. encouragement of creativity.

Questionnaires were personally given to the teachers and students. Therefore for the collection of data of the study two questionnaires (one for the teachers and one for the students) were developed with the consultation and under the supervision of research supervisor. These questionnaires contained ten questions. In this way data was collected from thirty teachers and sixty students and responses given were hundred percent without any delay or refuse. Researchers had to face no difficulty in return of filled in questionnaire. Teachers and students were requested to give real views without any hesitations and formality.Research Design Design of study was descriptive in nature. Data Collection It was considered that the most suitable tool for collecting data was questionnaire. Analysis of Data The data collected was tabulated and analyzed by applying simple percentage method. Data regarding the perceptions of teachers and students towards combined and separate examination system was collected through survey method with the help of questionnaire. The conclusions were drawn on the basis of finding of the study and finally recommendations have been drawn on the basis of conclusion in the light of objective of the study. CHAPTER-4 27 .

The analysis and interpretation of data is presented in the following tables. 2 % teachers and 6 % students were unable to decide.INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The study aimed at exploring the teachers and students perception towards combined versus separate examination system at SSC level. Conceptual clearity students (com bined) teachers(com bined) students (separate) teachers(separate) 28 .1: More Conceptual clarity in examination system Category Teachers Students Number Combined Number 30 60 7 10 % 24 16 Separate Number % 22 47 74 78 Undecided Number % 1 3 2 6 The table number 4.1 indicates that 74 % teachers and 78 % students were of the view that separate examination system provides more conceptual clarity. where as 24 % teachers and 16 % students viewed vice versa. Table 4. Two questionnaires (one for teachers and one for students) were prepared to get the requisite data from the teachers and students of schools surrounding the Greater University Campus of Peshawar.

where as 31 % teachers and 18 % students are in favor of combined examination system in this respect.Table 4.2: Encouragement system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 9 11 % of creativity in examination Separate Number 21 43 % 69 72 31 18 Undecided Number 6 % 10 The table 4. 29 . 10 % students were unable to decide.2 shows that 69 % teacher and 72 % students liked separate examination system in respect of encouragement of creativity.

Table 4.3: Encouragement of selective study in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 10 32 % 33 53 Separate Number 20 28 % 67 47 Undecided Number % - The table number 4. 30 . where as 33 % teachers and 53 % students opined vice versa.3 indicates that 77 % teachers and 47 % students opine that separate examination system encourages selective study.

where as 41 % teachers and 23 % students are in favor of combined examination system. 31 . 59 % teachers and 77 % students are in favor of separate examination system.4 indicates that as for as completion of syllabus is concern.Table 4.4: Completion of syllabus in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 12 14 % 41 23 Separate Number 18 46 % 59 77 Undecided Number % - The table number 4.

Whereas 44 % of students are of the view that examination pressure on the students is more in separate examination system. 6 % could not reply. 32 .Table 4.5: Pressure of examination in examination system Category Students Number 60 Combined Number 30 % 50 Separate Number 26 % 44 Undecided Number 4 % 6 The table number 4.5 indicates that 50 % of students are of the view that in combined examination system pressure on the students is more than in separate examination system.

6: Provision of adequate feedback by examination system Category Teachers Number Combined Number 30 7 % 24 Separate Number % 23 76 Undecided Number % - The table number 4. 24 % of teachers are opined in favor of combined examination system. 33 .6 indicates that 76% of teachers are of the view that separate examination system provides adequate feedback to them.Table 4. Whereas.

Table 4. whereas 34 % teachers and 30 % students opined vice versa.7.7: Better performance of students in examination system Category Teachers Students Number Combined Number 30 60 10 18 % 34 30 Separate Number % 19 41 64 69 Undecided Number % 1 1 2 1 According to table number 4. 64 % teachers and 69 % students viewed that students perform better in separate examination system. 34 .

35 .Table 4.8: Management of homework by students in examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 9 18 % 31 30 Separate Number 21 40 % 69 67 Undecided Number 2 % 3 The table number 4.8 indicates that 69 % teachers and 67 % students are of the view that students can manage homework easily in separate examination system. where as 31 % teachers and 30 % students viewed that combined system is better in this respect.

whereas 47 % teachers and 52 % students are of the view combined examination system encourages rote learning.9: Encouragement of rote learning among students in examination Category Teachers Students system Separate Number % 16 27 53 45 Undecided Number % 2 3 Number Combined Number 30 60 14 31 % 47 52 The table number 4.Table 4. 3 % respondents could not decide in this regard.9 indicates that 53 % teachers and 45 % students viewed that separate examination system encourages rote learning. 36 .

whereas 32 % of students viewed vice versa.Table 4.10: Better performance of teachers in examination system Category Students Number 60 Combined Number 19 % 32 Separate Number 41 % 68 Undecided Number % - The table number 4.10 indicates that 68 % students opined that teachers perform better in separate examination system. 37 .

01 % respondents could not decide regarding this aspect.11 indicates that 59 % teachers viewed that separate examination system is more helpful in achieving the educational objectives.Table 4. 38 .11: Achievement of educational objectives in examination system Category Teachers Number Combined Number 30 12 % 40 Separate Number % 17 59 Undecided Number % 1 1 The table number 4. whereas 40 % teachers are of the view that combined examination system is more helpful in this respect.

39 .12: Overall suitable examination system Category Teachers Students Number 30 60 Combined Number 10 16 % 34 26 Separate Number 20 44 % 66 74 Undecided Number % - The table number 4. whereas 34 % teachers and 26 % students are in favor of combined examination system.12 indicates that 66 % teachers and 74 % students are in favor of separate examination system.Table 4.

The purpose of the study was to explore the perception of the teachers and students about the combined and separate examination system at secondary level. By using cluster sampling technique six (6) schools representing Greater Campus of Universities. These questionnaires contained ten questions. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARY The study aimed at exploring the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system at secondary level in District Peshawar.CHAPTER-5 SUMMAY. Total 30 teachers and 60 students (5 teachers and 10 students per school) were selected as the sample of the study. 40 . Agriculture Public School. University Model School. whereas the accessible population of the study consisted of the teachers and students of University Public School. Private Schools in District Peshawar. CONCLUSIONS. In this way data was collected from thirty teachers and sixty students and response given was hundred percent without any delay or refuse. were selected as a sample. two questionnaires (one for the teachers and one for the students) were developed with the consultation and under the supervision of research supervisor. Researchers had to face no difficulty in return of filled in questionnaire. to find out the weak areas in the present examination system at secondary level and to offer suggestions for the improvement of examination system at secondary level Target population of the study was all the secondary school teachers and students of Government schools. Questionnaires were personally given to the teachers and students. FINDINGS. Police Public School and Government. Teachers and students were requested to give real views without any hesitations and formality. Islamia Collegiate School. The sample was taken through cluster sampling technique For the collection of data. Government Girls High School and Police Public School at District Peshawar. These were located in District Peshawar.

6 % respondents cannot reply in this respect. Seventy four percent teachers and 78 % students were in favor of separate examination system. In relation to the completion of syllabus. in relation to the pressure of examination. As per findings of the study most of the teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. Therefore it is recommended that there should be separate examination system at SSC level and such kind of study with broader population may be carried out at provincial level. 6. 3. where as 24 % teachers and 16 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 50 % of students were in favor of combined examination system. 69 % teachers and 72 % students were in favor of separate examination system. whereas 31 % teachers and 18 % students were in favor of combined examination system.The data collected was tabulated and analyzed by applying simple percentage method. FINDINGS On the basis of the analysis of data following findings were drawn. whereas 24 % of teachers were in favor of combined examination system. 64 % teachers and 69 % students favored separate examination system. 2. in relation to the encouragement of selective study. where as 41 % teachers and 23 % students were in favor of combined examination system. In the area of encouragement of creativity. in relation to the conceptual clarity. 4. 59 % teachers and 77 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 76% of teachers were in favor of separate examination system. 5. where as 33 % teachers and 53 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 1. 77 % teachers and 47 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 10 % students were unable to decide in this area. 7. where as 44 % of students were in favor of separate examination system. in order to have clear picture of the situation. In relation to the provision of adequate feedback to the teachers. whereas 34 % teachers and 30 % students favored combined examination 41 .

68 % students were in favor of separate examination system as the performance of teacher increased in this system. whereas 34 % teachers and 26 % students were in favor of combined examination system. in relation to the better performance of teachers. 3 % students could not decide in this respect. where as 31 % teachers and 30 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 10. in relation to the achievement of educational objectives. 8. in relation to the overall suitability of examination system. whereas 32 % of students were in favor of combined examination system. In the area of management of homework by the students. in relation to the encouragement of rote learning. 3 % students remained undecided in this area of study. 12. 66 % teachers and 74 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 9. 59 % teachers were in favor of separate examination system. where as 40 % teachers were in favor of combined examination system. 42 . where as 47 % teachers and 52 % students were in favor of combined examination system. 11. 53 % teachers and 45 % students were in favor of separate examination system. 2 % teachers and 1 % students could not decide regarding this aspect. in relation to the better performance of students.system. 69 % teachers and 67 % students were in favor of separate examination system.

CONCLUSIONS In the light of findings following conclusions are drawn. 4. 1. performance of students and teachers. management of homework and standards of teaching. The majority of the student viewed that teacher. Most of the teachers were of the view that separate examination system was more helpful in achievement of educational objectives. 43 . 5. Most of the teachers were of the view that separate examination system provided more feedback to them. Negligible % of the respondents was unable to decide about various aspects of the examination system at SSC level. easy completion of syllabus. 6. The majority of the teachers viewed that separate examination system encouraged rote learning. have teached better in separate examination system. 3. The majority of teachers and students were generally in favor of separate examination system at SSC level. 7. 2. The majority of teachers and students were in favor of separate examination system. in relation to the provision of more conceptual clarity. while most of the students viewed that combined system encouraged rote learning. encouragement of creativity.

it was found that majority of teachers and students are in favor of separate examination system. students perform better. There is a general impression that examination system in Pakistan is not up to the desired standard. teachers teach better. 44 . syllabus can easily be completed. Majority of students liked the separate examination system at SSC level. Examinations are an integral part of teaching and learning process. Therefore the views of teachers and students were known and investigated. marking and result process. volume of homework is manageable and is more helpful in the achievement of educational objectives. Most of the teachers are in favor of separate examination system at SSC level. provides adequate feedback to them. with the views that it provides more conceptual clarity. examination pressure is less and syllabus can easily be completed. In the light of their views. So study was conducted to know the perception of teachers and students on combined versus separate examination system of SSC level. with the views that it discourages rote learning. which determines the destiny of students and their life career.DISCUSSION The study was designed to explore teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards the separate and combined examination system at SSC level. encourages creativity. There are many flaws in its conduct.

5. 45 . Consistency must be observed in examination system. Such kind of study with broader population may be carried out at provincial level in order to have clear picture of the situation. Separate examination system at SSC level may be implemented. Examination system may not be changed again and again. 1. 3. 2. 4. Inter Board Chairmen Committee (IBCC) may be encouraged to conduct separate examination system at Federal and Provincial level.RECOMMENDATIONS Based upon the findings and conclusion following recommendations are made.

Govt of Pakistan.M. Howard. Commission on National Education. (1963).BIBLIOGRAPHY Govt of Pakistan. Gronland. of Pakistan. Commission on National Education. (1985). New York: Karachi: Oxford University Press. School Organization and Management. W. Teaching. Mohiyuddin. (1998). N.The New Education Policy (1972-80). (1959). Education and the State. Hoodbhoy. S. Pervez. Govt of Pakistan. Islamabad: Ministry of Education. Construction of 46 . Islamabad: Ministry of Education. (1972). Islamabad: National Book Foundation. London: Telly Publishers. (1979). Measurement and Evaluation in Macmillan Publishing Company. Islamabad: Ministry of Education. Fifty Years Achievement Test. (1959).

Don’t know 47 . Separate B. Separate B. Don’t know 4. Combine C. Combine C. Which examination system. Don’t know 3. Which examination system provides more conceptual clarity? A.Questionnaire for Students Annexure .A Topic: Perceptions about separate and combined examination system at SSC level Note: please fill in the particulars Name: ----------------------------------Class: ----------------------------------Age: ------------------------------------Note: please tick the appropriate option 1. Combine C. Which examination system provides encourage selective study? A. Which examination system encourages creativity? A. Combine C. Don’t know 2. Separate B. syllabus can easily be completed? A. Separate B.

Which examination system’s homework is manageable? A. Separate B. Don’t know 10.5. Don’t know 9. What do you think that in which examination system teachers teach well? A. Don’t know 48 . Which examination system provides adequate feedback? A. Combine C. Don’t know 6. Separate B. B. Separate B. C. Combine C. Combine C. Which examination system is more helpful in educational objectives? A. Which examination system encourages rote learning? A. Separate Combine Don’t know 7. What do you think that in which examination system students perform better? A. Separate B. Combine C. Separate B. Don’t know 8. Combine C.

Separate B. Which examination system encourages creativity? A. Don’t know 4. Which examination system provides more conceptual clarity? A. Separate B. Don’t know 2. Separate B. Combine C. Which examination system. Combine C. Don’t know 3. Separate B. Don’t know 49 . Which examination system provides encourage selective study? A. Combine C.B Topic: Perceptions about separate and combined examination system at SSC level Note: please fill in the particulars Name: ----------------------------------Designation: ----------------------------------Professional qualification: ------------------------------------Note: please tick the appropriate option 1. Combine C.Questionnaire for Teachers Annexure . syllabus can easily be completed? A.

Which examination system is more helpful in educational objectives? A. Separate B. Separate B. Combine C. Don’t know 6. Separate B. Which examination system provides adequate feedback? A. B. Separate B. Which examination system’s homework is manageable? A. Don’t know 50 .5. Which examination system encourages rote learning? A. Separate Combine Don’t know 7. What do you think that in which examination system teachers teach well? A. Combine C. Don’t know 10. C. Separate B. Don’t know 8. Combine C. Combine C. Combine C. Don’t know 9. What do you think that in which examination system students perform better? A.

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