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You are on page 1of 8

This print-out should have 16 questions. Each charge moves off on its diagonal line,

Multiple-choice questions may continue on and by symmetry each has the same speed.

the next column or page – find all choices The initial potential energy of the system of

before answering. charges is

001 10.0 points 2 4 2

Ui = k e q + √ .

At distance r from a point charge q, the elec- L L 2

tric potential is 923 V and the magnitude of

the electric field is 298 N/C. The final potential energy is obtained by dou-

Determine the value of q. bling the distances.

By conservation of energy

Correct answer: 3.18087 × 10−7 C.

(K + U )i = (K + U )f

Explanation:

4 ke q 2 2 ke q 2 4 4 ke q 2 2 ke q 2

9 2

Let : ke = 8.98755 × 10 N · m /C , 2 + √ = m v2 + + √

L L 2 2 2L 2L 2

V = 923 V , and

ke q 2

1

e = 298 N/C . 2+ √ = 2 m v2

L 2

ke q ke q V

E = 2 and V = , so that = r. s

r r E ke q 2

1

The potential is v= 1+ √

mL 2 2

ke q ke q ke q E

V = = V = Since

r E

V

ke q 2 (8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )

V2 =

q= mL (0.01 kg)(0.35 m)

ke E

× (8 × 10−7 C)2

(923 V)2

= = 1.64344 m2 /s2 ,

(8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 ) (298 N/C)

= 3.18087 × 10−7 C . s

1

v= (1.64344 m2 /s2 ) 1+ √

002 10.0 points 2 2

Four identical particles each have charge = 1.49147 m/s .

0.8 µC and mass 0.01 kg. They are released

from rest at the vertices of a square of side

0.35 m. 003 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points

How fast is each charge moving when their The electric potential over a certain region of

distances from the center of the square dou- space is given by

bles?

V = a x2 y − b x z − c y 2 ,

Correct answer: 1.49147 m/s.

Explanation: where a = 1 V/m3 , b = 4 V/m2 , and c =

3 V/m2 .

Find the electric potential at the point

Let : m = 0.01 kg ,

(x, y, z) = (1 m, 9 m, 6 m).

q = 0.8 µC , and

L = 0.35 m . Correct answer: −258 V.

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 2

Explanation:

006 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points

Find the z-component of the electric field at

Let : a = 1 V/m3 , the same point.

b = 4 V/m2 ,

c = 3 V/m2 , and Correct answer: 4 V/m.

(x, y, z) = (1 m, 9 m, 6 m) . Explanation:

The electric potential is

V = a x2 y − b x z − c y 2 ∂V

Ez = −

= 1 V/m3 (1 m)2 (9 m)

∂z

= bx

− 4 V/m2 (1 m) (6 m)

= 4 V/m2 (1 m)

− 3 V/m2 (9 m)2

= 4 V/m .

= −258 V .

004 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points A linear charge of nonuniform density λ(x) =

Find the x-component of the electric field at b x C/m, where b = 0.8 nC/m2 , is distributed

the same point. along the x-axis from 2.9 m to 8.3 m.

Determine the electric potential (relative to

Correct answer: 6 V/m. zero at infinity) of the point y = 6.5 m on the

Explanation: positive y-axis.

The electric field is the gradient of the po-

tential, so Correct answer: 24.6238 V.

∂V Explanation:

Ex = −

∂x

= −2 a x y + b z

= −2 1 V/m3 (1 m) (9 m) Let : b = 0.8 nC/m2 = 8 × 10−10 C/m2 ,

+ 4 V/m2 (6 m)

x1 = 2.9 m ,

x2 = 8.3 m ,

= 6 V/m .

y = 6.5 m , and

ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

005 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points

Find the y-component of the electric field at The potential is

the same point.

dq

Z

V = ke ,

Correct answer: 53 V/m. r

Explanation:

the distance from the point on the y axis to a

charge element is

∂V

Ey = − p

∂y r= x2 + y 2 ,

= −a x2 + 2 c y

= − 1 V/m3 (1 m)2 + 2 3 V/m2 (9 m) and the differential charge element is

= 53 V/m . dq = λ dx = b x dx .

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 3

Thus Let P be the origin; consider the potential

Z

dq due to the line of charge to the right of P.

V = ke

r

x2

x dx

Z

dq

Z Z

= ke b p Vright = dV = ke

x1 x2 + y 2 r

p x2 3 R

3R

= k e b x2 + y 2 λdx

Z

x1 = ke = ke λ ln x

q q R x R

= ke b 2 2 2

x2 + y − x1 + y 2

= ke λ [ln(3 R) − ln R] = ke λ ln 3 .

= 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2

× 8 × 10−10 C/m2

By symmetry, the contribution from the line

q of charge to the left of P is the same. The

× (8.3 m)2 + (6.5 m)2 contribution from the semicircle is

q

− (2.9 m)2 + (6.5 m)2

π π

λRdθ

Z Z

= 24.6238 V . Vsemi = ke = ke λ dθ

0 R 0

π

Note: The change of variable u = x2 + y 2 is

= ke λ θ = ke λ π ,

used for the integration. 0

A wire that has a uniform linear charge den- so the electric potential at P is

sity of 1.4 µC/m is bent into the shape as

shown, with radius 4.8 m.

Vp = Vright + Vlef t + Vsemi

= 2 ke λ ln 3 + ke λ π

4.8 m

= ke λ (2 ln 3 + π)

9.6 m P 9.6 m = (8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )

× (1.4 × 10−6 C/m) (2 ln 3 + π)

Find the electrical potential at point

= 67176.1 V .

P. The value of the Coulomb constant is

8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

009 (part 1 of 6) 10.0 points

Explanation: Consider a system of a metallic ball enclosed

by a spherically symmetric metallic shell, as

Let : λ = 1.4 µC/m = 1.4 × 10−6 C/m , indicated in the figure. Let R1 be the radius

of the metal ball, and R2 and R3 be the inner

R = 4.8 m , and

and outer radii of the metal shell, respectively.

ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 . The net charge on the metal ball is q1 , and

the net charge on the metal shell is q2 . We

define several points along the radial direction

R Note: q2 is the charge on the whole shell, and

so q2′′ is the charge on the outside surface of

2R P 2R the shell and q2′ is the charge on the inside

surface of the shell, then q2′′ + q2′ = q2 .

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 4

q2

R3 , q2′′ the shell contributes V2 = k . The superpo-

c

q2 R2 , q2′ sition principle gives

R1 , q1

q1 + q2

VC = k .

c

q1

Determine the potential at B.

B

q1 − q2

D a 1. VB = k √

2c

b q1

C 2. VB = 2 k

d b

c q1 + q2 q1 q1

3. VB = k −k +k

Determine the potential at C. c R2 b

q1 + q2 q1 q1

√ q2 4. VB = k −k +k

1. VC = 2 k R3 R2 R1

c q1

q1 + q2 q1 q1 5. VB = k

2. VC = k −k +k b

c R2 b q1 + q2 q1 q1

q1 + q2 q1 q1 6. VB = k −k +k correct

3. VC = k −k +k R3 R2 b

R3 R2 R1 q1 + q2

q1 7. VB = k

4. VC = k b

c √ q2

q2 8. VB = 2 k

5. VC = k c

c q2

q1 − q2 9. VB = k

6. VC = k √ b

2c q1 + q2 q1 q1

q1 + q2 q1 q1 10. VB = k −k +k

7. VC = k −k +k R3 b R1

R3 R2 b

q1 Explanation:

8. VC = 2 k Basic Concepts

c

q1 + q2 q1 q1 • Potential due to a point charge is

9. VC = k −k +k

R3 b R1 q

q1 + q2 V =k

10. VC = k correct r

c

Explanation: • Potential due to one conducting shell is

q

Let : OA = a , V =k for r > a

r

OB = b and q

V =k for r ≤ a

OC = c . a

The potential at r, outside of a spherically Note: The standard convention of setting V =

symmetric charge distribution, is 0 at infinity is in effect throughout.

q Superposition principles: V = V1 + V2 + · · ·

V =k .

r where V1 is the potential at a given point due

q1 to the charge system of #1 alone; the same

Thus the sphere contributes V1 = k and applies to V2 , V3 .

c

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 5

Solution: Consider a conducting sphere with since we are outside of it at a distance b. Thus

radius R1 placed inside of a thick conducting the total V is

shell with inner radius R2 and outer radius q1 + q2 q1 q1

R3 . There is charge q1 on the conducting VB = V1 + V2 + V3 = k −k +k .

R3 R2 b

sphere and q2 on the shell. After equilibrium

is established, we have a charge q2′ = −q1 on 011 (part 3 of 6) 10.0 points

R2 and q2′′ = q1 + q2 on the surface with radius Determine the potential at A.

R3 . Superposition gives

q1 + q2 q1 q1

V = V1 + V2′ + V2′′ . 1. VA = k −k +k

R3 b R1

q1 + q2 q1 q1

At the point D where R2 < rD < R3 (see 2. VA = k −k +k

c R2 a

figure), the potential is therefore √ q2

3. VA = 2 k

a

q1 + q2′ q2′′ q2′′ q1

V =k +k = k 4. VA = k

rD R3 q′ =−q1 R3 a

2

q1 + q2 q1 q1

We are between the shell and the sphere. 5. VA = k −k +k correct

R3 R2 R1

Let us start from the outside and add contri- q1

butions as we go inward. The outer surface of 6. VA = 2 k

b

the shell carries a charge q2′′ , which means the q1 − q2

contribution is 7. VA = k √

2c

q2′′ q1 + q2

V1 = k . 8. VA = k

R3 a

q1 + q2 q1 q1

Note: The distance in the denominator is 9. VA = k −k +k

R3 R2 b

no longer the distance b to the field point, but q2

the radius of the shell we are taking into ac- 10. VA = k

a

count. This is in accordance with the “poten- Explanation:

tial due to one conducting shell” in the Basic Now we are inside the sphere too, so we

Concepts above – everywhere inside the shell expect all contributions to have a constant

the denominator is the radius of the shell. radius R1 , R2 or R3 in the denominator; i.e.,

Also, q2′′ = q1 + q2 , so the answer cannot depend on a, unlike previ-

q1 + q2 ous cases where the answer could (and did)

V1 = k . depend on b and c. This is supported by the

R3

physical fact that there can be no electric field

The potential due to the inner surface of inside a conductor. If we think of the elec-

the shell is tric field as the “slope” of the potential, we

q′ realize that zero electric field means “flat” or

V2 = k 2 constant potential – a conducting body is an

R2

equipotential body.

and q2′ = −q1 , so The first two contributions are the same,

q1 and the third contribution is now

V2 = −k . q1

R2 V3 = k

R1

The potential due to the sphere is so the total is

q1 q1 + q2 q1 q1

V3 = k , VA = V1 + V2 + V3 = k −k +k .

b R3 R2 R1

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 6

q1 − q3

9. VD = k √

012 (part 4 of 6) 10.0 points 2d

Consider a change in the setup. The charge q1

10. VD = 2 k

q1 is on the metallic ball at the origin, sur- d

rounded by a thick concentric spherical shell, Explanation:

and a thin shell. The thick shell has two sur-

faces at radii R2 (inner) and R3 (outer), and Let : OA = a ,

a thin shell is added at R4 (see the figure OC = c , and

below). OD = d .

There is no net charge on the thick shell,

q2 = 0. There is a charge q3 on the thin Again, we are outside the entire charge distri-

shell. We define several points along the radial bution, and the enclosed charge is all charge:

direction: Qencl = q1 + q2 + q3 = q1 + q3

q3 R4 , q3 and the potential at the distance d from the

R3 , q2′′ center is

R2 , q2′ q1 + q3

q2 =0 VD = k .

R1 , q1 d

q1 Find the potential at C.

q3 q1 q1

O 1. VC = k −k +k

R4 R3 R2

q1 + q3

A 2. VC = k

c

q1

a 3. VC = k

c

C √ q3

4. VC = 2 k

D c c

d q1 − q3

5. VC = k √

What is the electric potential at D? 2c

q1 + q3 q1 q1

q1 + q3 q1 q1 6. VC = k −k +k

1. VD = k −k +k c R3 a

R4 c R2 q1 + q3 q1 q1

q3 q1 q1 7. VC = k −k +k

2. VD =k +k −k R4 c R2

R4 R3 d q3 q1

√ q3 8. VC = k +k correct

3. VD = 2k R4 c

d q1

q1 + q3 9. VC = 2 k

4. VD =k correct c

d q3

10. VC = 7 k

q1 + q3 q1 q1 c

5. VD =k −k +k

d R3 a Explanation:

q1 Now we are inside the thin shell, so its

6. VD =k

d contribution is

q3 q3

7. VD =k V1 = k .

d R4

q3 q1 q1 The contribution from the thick shell to the

8. VD =k +k +k

R4 R3 R2 potential at C is

q2

V2 = k = 0,

c

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 7

and the contribution from the point charge to Furthermore, the flux through a surface inside

the field at C is the thick shell (between R2 and R3 ) is zero

q1 (there is no electric field within a conductor).

V3 = k , Therefore the enclosed charge is zero, or

c

so the total is q2′ + q1 = 0

q3 q1 meaning

VC = k +k .

R4 c q2′ = −q1

and, from Eq. (1),

014 (part 6 of 6) 10.0 points

Find the potential at A. q2′′ = q1 .

1. VA = k

a q2′′ q′ q1 q1

q3 q1 q1 q1 V2 = k +k 2 =k −k .

2. VA = k +k −k +k correct R3 R2 R3 R2

R4 R3 R2 a

q3 q1 We note that if R2 ≈ R3 , then the shell is

3. VA = k +k called “thin”, and the contribution would van-

R4 a

q1 + q3 q1 q1 ish.

4. VA = k −k +k Finally, the contribution from the point

a R3 a

q3 charge to the field at distance a is

5. VA = k q1

a V3 = k

q1 a

6. VA = 5 k

a so the total potential at A is

√ q3

7. VA = 2 k q3 q1 q1 q1

a VA = k +k −k +k .

q1 R4 R3 R2 a

8. VA = k

a

q1 − q3 015 10.0 points

9. VA = k √ Calculate the surface charge density for a solid

2a spherical conductor of radius 0.489 m if the

q1 + q3 q1 q1

10. VA = k −k +k potential is 0.978 m from the center of the

R4 a R2 sphere is 1.79 kV.

Explanation:

The Gaussian spherical surface of radius Correct answer: 6.48221 × 10−8 C/m2 .

a is enclosed by both shells. We know the Explanation:

contribution from the thin shell from part 5,

but how do we deal with the thick shell? The

first guess might be that the contribution is Let : R = 0.489 m ,

zero, as in part 5. However, this is incorrect. d = 0.978 m ,

Looking at the formula for potential inside a

v = 1.79 kV = 1790 V , and

shell, we find that the contribution depends

on the radius of the shell. But the thick ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

shell has two surfaces (inner and outer) on Since we know the potential due to the

which charge accumulates, and these radii are sphere, we can deduce its total charge:

different (R2 and R3 ).

Call the charge on the inner surface q2′ and Q

V = ke

on the outer surface q2′′ . Then d

Vd

Q= .

q2′′ + q2′ = q2 = 0 . (1) . ke

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 8

Thus the (uniform) surface charge density is

Q Q

σ= =

Area 4 π R2

Vd 1

=

ke 4 π R 2

(1790 V) (0.978 m)

=

8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2

1

×

4 π (0.489 m)2

= 6.48221 × 10−8 C/m2 .

The uniformly charged sphere gives a reason-

able model of the proton charge distribution

in an atomic nucleus. A nucleus of lead-208

has a radius of 6.501×10−15 m and contains 82

protons, each with a charge of 1.6 × 10−19 C.

Calculate the electric potential at the sur-

face of this nucleus.

Explanation:

e = 1.6 × 10−19 C ,

Z = 82 , and

ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

The potential is

dq

Z

V = ke

r

Gauss’s law tells us that the expression for the

electric field outside of a sphere (charge Q) is

the same as that of a point charge located at

the center of the sphere with the same charge

Q. Thus we can calculate the electric poten-

tial at the surface of the sphere by assuming

all the charge is concentrated at the center:

Qtot

V = ke

r

Ze

= ke

r

= 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2

82 1.6 × 10−19 C

×

6.501 × 10−15 m

= 1.81382 × 107 V .

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