You are on page 1of 8

brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 1

This print-out should have 16 questions. Each charge moves off on its diagonal line,
Multiple-choice questions may continue on and by symmetry each has the same speed.
the next column or page – find all choices The initial potential energy of the system of
before answering. charges is
 
001 10.0 points 2 4 2
Ui = k e q + √ .
At distance r from a point charge q, the elec- L L 2
tric potential is 923 V and the magnitude of
the electric field is 298 N/C. The final potential energy is obtained by dou-
Determine the value of q. bling the distances.
By conservation of energy
Correct answer: 3.18087 × 10−7 C.
(K + U )i = (K + U )f
Explanation:
4 ke q 2 2 ke q 2 4 4 ke q 2 2 ke q 2
9 2
Let : ke = 8.98755 × 10 N · m /C , 2 + √ = m v2 + + √
L L 2 2 2L 2L 2
V = 923 V , and
ke q 2
 
1
e = 298 N/C . 2+ √ = 2 m v2
L 2
ke q ke q V
E = 2 and V = , so that = r. s
r r E ke q 2
 
1
The potential is v= 1+ √
mL 2 2
ke q ke q ke q E
V = = V = Since
r E
V
ke q 2 (8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )
V2 =
q= mL (0.01 kg)(0.35 m)
ke E
× (8 × 10−7 C)2
(923 V)2
= = 1.64344 m2 /s2 ,
(8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 ) (298 N/C)
= 3.18087 × 10−7 C . s  
1
v= (1.64344 m2 /s2 ) 1+ √
002 10.0 points 2 2
Four identical particles each have charge = 1.49147 m/s .
0.8 µC and mass 0.01 kg. They are released
from rest at the vertices of a square of side
0.35 m. 003 (part 1 of 4) 10.0 points
How fast is each charge moving when their The electric potential over a certain region of
distances from the center of the square dou- space is given by
bles?
V = a x2 y − b x z − c y 2 ,
Correct answer: 1.49147 m/s.
Explanation: where a = 1 V/m3 , b = 4 V/m2 , and c =
3 V/m2 .
Find the electric potential at the point
Let : m = 0.01 kg ,
(x, y, z) = (1 m, 9 m, 6 m).
q = 0.8 µC , and
L = 0.35 m . Correct answer: −258 V.
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 2
Explanation:
006 (part 4 of 4) 10.0 points
Find the z-component of the electric field at
Let : a = 1 V/m3 , the same point.
b = 4 V/m2 ,
c = 3 V/m2 , and Correct answer: 4 V/m.
(x, y, z) = (1 m, 9 m, 6 m) . Explanation:
The electric potential is
V = a x2 y − b x z − c y 2 ∂V
Ez = −
= 1 V/m3 (1 m)2 (9 m)
 ∂z
= bx
− 4 V/m2 (1 m) (6 m)

= 4 V/m2 (1 m)

− 3 V/m2 (9 m)2

= 4 V/m .
= −258 V .

007 10.0 points


004 (part 2 of 4) 10.0 points A linear charge of nonuniform density λ(x) =
Find the x-component of the electric field at b x C/m, where b = 0.8 nC/m2 , is distributed
the same point. along the x-axis from 2.9 m to 8.3 m.
Determine the electric potential (relative to
Correct answer: 6 V/m. zero at infinity) of the point y = 6.5 m on the
Explanation: positive y-axis.
The electric field is the gradient of the po-
tential, so Correct answer: 24.6238 V.
∂V Explanation:
Ex = −
∂x
= −2 a x y + b z
= −2 1 V/m3 (1 m) (9 m) Let : b = 0.8 nC/m2 = 8 × 10−10 C/m2 ,


+ 4 V/m2 (6 m)
 x1 = 2.9 m ,
x2 = 8.3 m ,
= 6 V/m .
y = 6.5 m , and
ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .
005 (part 3 of 4) 10.0 points
Find the y-component of the electric field at The potential is
the same point.
dq
Z
V = ke ,
Correct answer: 53 V/m. r
Explanation:
the distance from the point on the y axis to a
charge element is
∂V
Ey = − p
∂y r= x2 + y 2 ,
= −a x2 + 2 c y
= − 1 V/m3 (1 m)2 + 2 3 V/m2 (9 m) and the differential charge element is
 

= 53 V/m . dq = λ dx = b x dx .
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 3
Thus Let P be the origin; consider the potential
Z
dq due to the line of charge to the right of P.
V = ke
r
x2
x dx
Z
dq
Z Z
= ke b p Vright = dV = ke
x1 x2 + y 2 r
p x2 3 R
3R
= k e b x2 + y 2 λdx
Z

x1 = ke = ke λ ln x
q q  R x R
= ke b 2 2 2
x2 + y − x1 + y 2
= ke λ [ln(3 R) − ln R] = ke λ ln 3 .
= 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2


× 8 × 10−10 C/m2

By symmetry, the contribution from the line
q of charge to the left of P is the same. The
× (8.3 m)2 + (6.5 m)2 contribution from the semicircle is
q 
− (2.9 m)2 + (6.5 m)2
π π
λRdθ
Z Z
= 24.6238 V . Vsemi = ke = ke λ dθ
0 R 0
π
Note: The change of variable u = x2 + y 2 is
= ke λ θ = ke λ π ,
used for the integration. 0

008 10.0 points


A wire that has a uniform linear charge den- so the electric potential at P is
sity of 1.4 µC/m is bent into the shape as
shown, with radius 4.8 m.
Vp = Vright + Vlef t + Vsemi
= 2 ke λ ln 3 + ke λ π
4.8 m
= ke λ (2 ln 3 + π)
9.6 m P 9.6 m = (8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 )
× (1.4 × 10−6 C/m) (2 ln 3 + π)
Find the electrical potential at point
= 67176.1 V .
P. The value of the Coulomb constant is
8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .

Correct answer: 67176.1 V.


009 (part 1 of 6) 10.0 points
Explanation: Consider a system of a metallic ball enclosed
by a spherically symmetric metallic shell, as
Let : λ = 1.4 µC/m = 1.4 × 10−6 C/m , indicated in the figure. Let R1 be the radius
of the metal ball, and R2 and R3 be the inner
R = 4.8 m , and
and outer radii of the metal shell, respectively.
ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 . The net charge on the metal ball is q1 , and
the net charge on the metal shell is q2 . We
define several points along the radial direction
R Note: q2 is the charge on the whole shell, and
so q2′′ is the charge on the outside surface of
2R P 2R the shell and q2′ is the charge on the inside
surface of the shell, then q2′′ + q2′ = q2 .
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 4
q2
R3 , q2′′ the shell contributes V2 = k . The superpo-
c
q2 R2 , q2′ sition principle gives
R1 , q1
q1 + q2
VC = k .
c
q1

OA 010 (part 2 of 6) 10.0 points


Determine the potential at B.
B
q1 − q2
D a 1. VB = k √
2c
b q1
C 2. VB = 2 k
d b
c q1 + q2 q1 q1
3. VB = k −k +k
Determine the potential at C. c R2 b
q1 + q2 q1 q1
√ q2 4. VB = k −k +k
1. VC = 2 k R3 R2 R1
c q1
q1 + q2 q1 q1 5. VB = k
2. VC = k −k +k b
c R2 b q1 + q2 q1 q1
q1 + q2 q1 q1 6. VB = k −k +k correct
3. VC = k −k +k R3 R2 b
R3 R2 R1 q1 + q2
q1 7. VB = k
4. VC = k b
c √ q2
q2 8. VB = 2 k
5. VC = k c
c q2
q1 − q2 9. VB = k
6. VC = k √ b
2c q1 + q2 q1 q1
q1 + q2 q1 q1 10. VB = k −k +k
7. VC = k −k +k R3 b R1
R3 R2 b
q1 Explanation:
8. VC = 2 k Basic Concepts
c
q1 + q2 q1 q1 • Potential due to a point charge is
9. VC = k −k +k
R3 b R1 q
q1 + q2 V =k
10. VC = k correct r
c
Explanation: • Potential due to one conducting shell is
q
Let : OA = a , V =k for r > a
r
OB = b and q
V =k for r ≤ a
OC = c . a
The potential at r, outside of a spherically Note: The standard convention of setting V =
symmetric charge distribution, is 0 at infinity is in effect throughout.
q Superposition principles: V = V1 + V2 + · · ·
V =k .
r where V1 is the potential at a given point due
q1 to the charge system of #1 alone; the same
Thus the sphere contributes V1 = k and applies to V2 , V3 .
c
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 5
Solution: Consider a conducting sphere with since we are outside of it at a distance b. Thus
radius R1 placed inside of a thick conducting the total V is
shell with inner radius R2 and outer radius q1 + q2 q1 q1
R3 . There is charge q1 on the conducting VB = V1 + V2 + V3 = k −k +k .
R3 R2 b
sphere and q2 on the shell. After equilibrium
is established, we have a charge q2′ = −q1 on 011 (part 3 of 6) 10.0 points
R2 and q2′′ = q1 + q2 on the surface with radius Determine the potential at A.
R3 . Superposition gives
q1 + q2 q1 q1
V = V1 + V2′ + V2′′ . 1. VA = k −k +k
R3 b R1
q1 + q2 q1 q1
At the point D where R2 < rD < R3 (see 2. VA = k −k +k
c R2 a
figure), the potential is therefore √ q2
3. VA = 2 k
a
q1 + q2′ q2′′ q2′′ q1
V =k +k = k 4. VA = k
rD R3 q′ =−q1 R3 a
2
q1 + q2 q1 q1
We are between the shell and the sphere. 5. VA = k −k +k correct
R3 R2 R1
Let us start from the outside and add contri- q1
butions as we go inward. The outer surface of 6. VA = 2 k
b
the shell carries a charge q2′′ , which means the q1 − q2
contribution is 7. VA = k √
2c
q2′′ q1 + q2
V1 = k . 8. VA = k
R3 a
q1 + q2 q1 q1
Note: The distance in the denominator is 9. VA = k −k +k
R3 R2 b
no longer the distance b to the field point, but q2
the radius of the shell we are taking into ac- 10. VA = k
a
count. This is in accordance with the “poten- Explanation:
tial due to one conducting shell” in the Basic Now we are inside the sphere too, so we
Concepts above – everywhere inside the shell expect all contributions to have a constant
the denominator is the radius of the shell. radius R1 , R2 or R3 in the denominator; i.e.,
Also, q2′′ = q1 + q2 , so the answer cannot depend on a, unlike previ-
q1 + q2 ous cases where the answer could (and did)
V1 = k . depend on b and c. This is supported by the
R3
physical fact that there can be no electric field
The potential due to the inner surface of inside a conductor. If we think of the elec-
the shell is tric field as the “slope” of the potential, we
q′ realize that zero electric field means “flat” or
V2 = k 2 constant potential – a conducting body is an
R2
equipotential body.
and q2′ = −q1 , so The first two contributions are the same,
q1 and the third contribution is now
V2 = −k . q1
R2 V3 = k
R1
The potential due to the sphere is so the total is
q1 q1 + q2 q1 q1
V3 = k , VA = V1 + V2 + V3 = k −k +k .
b R3 R2 R1
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 6
q1 − q3
9. VD = k √
012 (part 4 of 6) 10.0 points 2d
Consider a change in the setup. The charge q1
10. VD = 2 k
q1 is on the metallic ball at the origin, sur- d
rounded by a thick concentric spherical shell, Explanation:
and a thin shell. The thick shell has two sur-
faces at radii R2 (inner) and R3 (outer), and Let : OA = a ,
a thin shell is added at R4 (see the figure OC = c , and
below). OD = d .
There is no net charge on the thick shell,
q2 = 0. There is a charge q3 on the thin Again, we are outside the entire charge distri-
shell. We define several points along the radial bution, and the enclosed charge is all charge:
direction: Qencl = q1 + q2 + q3 = q1 + q3
q3 R4 , q3 and the potential at the distance d from the
R3 , q2′′ center is
R2 , q2′ q1 + q3
q2 =0 VD = k .
R1 , q1 d

013 (part 5 of 6) 10.0 points


q1 Find the potential at C.
q3 q1 q1
O 1. VC = k −k +k
R4 R3 R2
q1 + q3
A 2. VC = k
c
q1
a 3. VC = k
c
C √ q3
4. VC = 2 k
D c c
d q1 − q3
5. VC = k √
What is the electric potential at D? 2c
q1 + q3 q1 q1
q1 + q3 q1 q1 6. VC = k −k +k
1. VD = k −k +k c R3 a
R4 c R2 q1 + q3 q1 q1
q3 q1 q1 7. VC = k −k +k
2. VD =k +k −k R4 c R2
R4 R3 d q3 q1
√ q3 8. VC = k +k correct
3. VD = 2k R4 c
d q1
q1 + q3 9. VC = 2 k
4. VD =k correct c
d q3
10. VC = 7 k
q1 + q3 q1 q1 c
5. VD =k −k +k
d R3 a Explanation:
q1 Now we are inside the thin shell, so its
6. VD =k
d contribution is
q3 q3
7. VD =k V1 = k .
d R4
q3 q1 q1 The contribution from the thick shell to the
8. VD =k +k +k
R4 R3 R2 potential at C is
q2
V2 = k = 0,
c
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 7
and the contribution from the point charge to Furthermore, the flux through a surface inside
the field at C is the thick shell (between R2 and R3 ) is zero
q1 (there is no electric field within a conductor).
V3 = k , Therefore the enclosed charge is zero, or
c
so the total is q2′ + q1 = 0
q3 q1 meaning
VC = k +k .
R4 c q2′ = −q1
and, from Eq. (1),
014 (part 6 of 6) 10.0 points
Find the potential at A. q2′′ = q1 .

q1 + q3 Thus the contribution from the thick shell is


1. VA = k
a q2′′ q′ q1 q1
q3 q1 q1 q1 V2 = k +k 2 =k −k .
2. VA = k +k −k +k correct R3 R2 R3 R2
R4 R3 R2 a
q3 q1 We note that if R2 ≈ R3 , then the shell is
3. VA = k +k called “thin”, and the contribution would van-
R4 a
q1 + q3 q1 q1 ish.
4. VA = k −k +k Finally, the contribution from the point
a R3 a
q3 charge to the field at distance a is
5. VA = k q1
a V3 = k
q1 a
6. VA = 5 k
a so the total potential at A is
√ q3
7. VA = 2 k q3 q1 q1 q1
a VA = k +k −k +k .
q1 R4 R3 R2 a
8. VA = k
a
q1 − q3 015 10.0 points
9. VA = k √ Calculate the surface charge density for a solid
2a spherical conductor of radius 0.489 m if the
q1 + q3 q1 q1
10. VA = k −k +k potential is 0.978 m from the center of the
R4 a R2 sphere is 1.79 kV.
Explanation:
The Gaussian spherical surface of radius Correct answer: 6.48221 × 10−8 C/m2 .
a is enclosed by both shells. We know the Explanation:
contribution from the thin shell from part 5,
but how do we deal with the thick shell? The
first guess might be that the contribution is Let : R = 0.489 m ,
zero, as in part 5. However, this is incorrect. d = 0.978 m ,
Looking at the formula for potential inside a
v = 1.79 kV = 1790 V , and
shell, we find that the contribution depends
on the radius of the shell. But the thick ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .
shell has two surfaces (inner and outer) on Since we know the potential due to the
which charge accumulates, and these radii are sphere, we can deduce its total charge:
different (R2 and R3 ).
Call the charge on the inner surface q2′ and Q
V = ke
on the outer surface q2′′ . Then d
Vd
Q= .
q2′′ + q2′ = q2 = 0 . (1) . ke
brice (db32768) – Home Work # 6 – lopes – (22201) 8
Thus the (uniform) surface charge density is
Q Q
σ= =
Area 4 π R2
Vd 1
=
ke 4 π R 2
(1790 V) (0.978 m)
=
8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2
1
×
4 π (0.489 m)2
= 6.48221 × 10−8 C/m2 .

016 10.0 points


The uniformly charged sphere gives a reason-
able model of the proton charge distribution
in an atomic nucleus. A nucleus of lead-208
has a radius of 6.501×10−15 m and contains 82
protons, each with a charge of 1.6 × 10−19 C.
Calculate the electric potential at the sur-
face of this nucleus.

Correct answer: 1.81382 × 107 V.


Explanation:

Let : r = 6.501 × 10−15 m ,


e = 1.6 × 10−19 C ,
Z = 82 , and
ke = 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2 .
The potential is
dq
Z
V = ke
r
Gauss’s law tells us that the expression for the
electric field outside of a sphere (charge Q) is
the same as that of a point charge located at
the center of the sphere with the same charge
Q. Thus we can calculate the electric poten-
tial at the surface of the sphere by assuming
all the charge is concentrated at the center:
Qtot
V = ke
r
Ze
= ke
r
= 8.98755 × 109 N · m2 /C2

82 1.6 × 10−19 C
×
6.501 × 10−15 m
= 1.81382 × 107 V .