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Research Methodology

Questions

1. Short note on

± ± ± ± Scaling Techniques Tests of sound measurement Validity of measurements Measurement techniques

2. Bring out the importance & utility of Rating & Scaling techniques in quantifying data with examples 3. What is measurement in research? Explain tests of sound measurements.

Sep 2009

Measurement & Scaling Techniques

**What is Measurement in Research?
**

Measuring is a process of assigning numbers to objects or observation. Form of quantification expressed in numbers e.g. size, height, weight etc easy to measure Happiness, satisfaction etc are difficult to measure.

Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques

Measurement Scale Nominal (name and count) Ordinal (rank/order) Interval (Score/mark) Ratio Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

6 Ratio 15.1 9.1 13.Primary Scales of Measurement Scale Figure 8.1 Numbers Nominal Assigned to Runners 7 8 3 Finish Ordinal Rank Order of Winners Third place Second place First place Finish Interval Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale Time to Finish.4 .2 14. in Seconds 8.2 9.

Std deviation can not be used Measurement & Scaling Techniques Sep 2009 . no numerical sanctity Male -> 1 & female -> 2 or female ->1 & male -> 2 (does not make any difference) Count is only statistics.Measurement Scale Nominal (name and count) Numbers are used to label only. Chi-square test can be used Mean.

in market research. respondent might rank various brands as per his/her likings Rank 1 means higher than rank 2 Median.g. percentile & deciles are the measure to use Mean can not be used Measurement & Scaling Techniques Sep 2009 .Measurement Scale Ordinal (rank/order) Places events in order e.

of coefficient. t and f test can be applied Difference between 1 & 2 is same as 2 & 3 Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques . Here we can calculate mean & std dev.Measurement Scale Interval or Rating scale(score/mark) Most of the behavioral measurement scales used to measure attitudes of respondent on a scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 3 or 1 to 10. Pearson corr.

Mean can be used Not much use in market research Note : Researcher has to be careful while choosing the variable. Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .Measurement Scale Ratio Scale All statistical techniques are available Geom. Harm. Mean.

little knowledge etc) Situation (lack of rapport) Measurer (change in order. complicated questions etc) Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques . behaviour etc) Instrument (difficult words.Sources of Error in Measurement Respondent (reluctance.

Tests of Sound Measurement Measurement should be Valid Reliable Practicable «hence we need tests for a good measurement Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

Tests of Sound Measurement Tests of Validity The extent to which an instrument measures what it supposed to measure The extent to which differences found with a measuring instrument reflect true difference among those being measured Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

Tests of Sound Measurement Types of Tests of Validity Content validity Criterion related validity Construct validity Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

reliable Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques . the criterion should be free of bias.Tests of Sound Measurement Types of Tests of Validity Content validity ± Adequacy of the topic ± No numeric expression is possible ± Primarily intuitive & based on judgement Criterion related validity ± Ability to predict outcome.

Tests of Sound Measurement Types of Tests of Validity Content validity contd ± Adequacy of the topic ± No numeric expression is possible ± Primarily intuitive & based on judgment Criterion related validity ± Ability to predict outcome. the criterion should be free of bias. reliable Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

Predictive validity refers to usefulness of test in predicting some future performance Concurrent validity refers to usefulness of a test closely relating to other measures of known validity. Criterion related validity refers to ± Predictive validity ± Concurrent validity. This is expressed by coeff of corr between test scores and scores of another measures of known validity Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .Tests of Sound Measurement Types of Tests of Validity contd.

Construct validity if measurement on our derived scale correlate in an predefined way with those other proposition. we can conclude that there is some construct validity Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .Tests of Sound Measurement Types of Tests of Validity contd.

Tests of Sound Measurement Tests of Reliability Instrument should provide consistent result Contributes to validity Takes care of situational factors Note : reliability can be improved by standardizing the condition of measurement and by using trained and motivated researcher Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

Tests of Sound Measurement Tests of Practicability Economy Convenience interpretability Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

Techniques of developing Measurement Tools Concept development Specification of concept dimension Selection of indicator Formation of an Index Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

customer satisfaction are the dimensions for the study of Company Image Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .g.Techniques of developing Measurement Tools Concept development ± Major concept pertaining to the study Specification of the dimensions of the concept ± Done by using deduction or intuition e. ± Product reputation.

Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques . researcher create a single index.Techniques of developing Measurement Tools Indicator ± Once dimensions have been specified. Index ± Finally combining all the indicators. indicator for measuring each concept element has to be developed.

attitude and other concepts Scaling provides a mechanism for measuring abstract concepts Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .Scaling Techniques What is Scaling? Scaling describes the procedure of assigning numbers to various degrees of opinion.

A Classification of Scaling Figure 8.2 Techniques Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Noncomparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Q-Sort and Other Procedures Continuous Itemized Rating Scales Rating Scales Likert Semantic Differential Stapel .

Important Scaling Techniques Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects. In noncomparative scales. each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. Sep 2009 Measurement & Scaling Techniques .

With n brands.Comparative Scaling Techniques Paired Comparison Scaling A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. it is possible to convert paired comparison data to a rank order. Paired comparison scaling is the most widely used comparative scaling technique. [n(n .1) /2] paired comparisons are required Under the assumption of transitivity. . The data obtained are ordinal in nature.

Pert Vi l H & Recording Form: J ir ck i ss J ir i Vi H rt r f i r f rr aA ck ss l & ss l rs s 1 1 0 1 ¡ 0 1 0 1 ss 0 0 0 0 0 l 1 1 1 1 4 rs 0 0 1 0 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over the brand in the corresponding row. .Obtaining Shampoo Preferences Figure 8. bThe number of times a brand was preferred is obtained by summing the s in each column.3 Using Paired Comparisons Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of shampoo brands. For each pair. please indicate which one of the two brands of shampoo you would prefer for personal use. A means that the row brand was preferred over the column brand.

It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense. rank order scaling also results in ordinal data. .Comparative Scaling Techniques Rank Order Scaling Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. Furthermore.1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling. Only (n .

Just try to be consistent. . The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. Using Rank Order Scaling Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of . Then find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2.Preference for Toothpaste Brands Figure 8. No two brands should receive the same rank number. There is no right or wrong answer. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number .

Ultra Brite 7. Aim 4. Pepsodent 9. Form Brand 1. Gleem 5. Crest 2. Plus White 10. Close Up 8. Macleans 6. Colgate 3. cont. Stripe Rank Order _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ .Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Figure 8.

the name of the scale. the respondent assigns it zero points. it receives twice as many points. Hence. . If an attribute is unimportant. such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance.Comparative Scaling Techniques Constant Sum Scaling Respondents allocate a constant sum of units. The sum of all the points is 100. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute.

it should receive twice as many points. . assign it zero points. The more points an attribute receives. If an attribute is not at all important. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute.Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Figure 8. the more important the attribute is. Please allocate points among the attributes so that your allocation reflects the relative importance you attach to each attribute.5 Using a Constant Sum Scale Instructions On the next slide. there are eight attributes of bathing soaps.

Mildness 2. Fragrance 6. Price 5.Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Figure 8. Cleaning Power Sum Segment I 8 2 3 53 9 7 5 3 Segment II 2 9 7 5 3 6 Segment III 7 7 9 9 9 2 5 . Moisturizing 8. Form Average Responses of Three Segments Attribute . Shrinkage . Packaging 7. Lather 3.5 cont.

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