You are on page 1of 13

Mathematics

WORKED SOLUTIONS
FOR CSEC® EXAMINATIONS
2006 –2010

DEREK MCMONAGLE

CSEC® is a registered trade mark(s) of the


Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC).
MATHEMATICS Worked Solutions for CSEC®
Examinations 2006–2010 is an independent publication
and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise
approved by CXC.

9780230407381_FM.indd 1 9/15/10 9:22 AM


Macmillan Education
Between Towns Road, Oxford, OX4 3PP
A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited
Companies and representatives throughout the world

www.macmillan-caribbean.com

ISBN: 978-0-230-40738-1

Text © Derek McMonagle 2011


Design and illustration © Macmillan Publishers Limited 2011

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be


reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission
of the publishers.

Design by Tech Type


Typeset by MPS Limited, a Macmillan Company
Cover design by Mike Brain Graphic Design Ltd

Printed and bound in Malaysia


2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

9780230407381_FM.indd 2 9/15/10 8:06 AM


CONTENTS

1 Introduction 4

2 Time for revision 6

3 Mathematics – Paper 01 – Multiple choice questions 10

4 Mathematics – Paper 02 – General proficiency – May 2006 64

5 Mathematics – Paper 02 – General proficiency – May 2007 80

6 Mathematics – Paper 02 – General proficiency – May 2008 95

7 Mathematics – Paper 02 – General proficiency – May 2009 109

8 Mathematics – Paper 02 – General proficiency – May 2010 123

9 How did you do? 137

10 Table of topics from the Mathematics Syllabus 139

9780230407381_FM.indd 3 9/14/10 3:41 PM


1 INTRODUCTION

What is this book about?


This book is your companion to the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) Secondary Education Certificate
examination in Mathematics at General Proficiency level.

It contains five sets of 60 multiple choice questions similar to those that will appear on Mathematics Paper 01,
together with answers to these questions.

It also contains complete answers to the questions set on the Mathematics Paper 02 in the May series of
examinations between the years 2006 and 2010.

In addition to the answer to each question, an appropriate explanation is also given so you don’t just get the
right answer but, more importantly, you can see how it has been worked out! There is also an indication of
how the marks are distributed so you can see how you might get partial credit for an answer even if it isn’t
totally correct.

How can I use this book?


This book is designed to help you to increase your knowledge of mathematics and improve your chances of
success in your forthcoming examination.

One of the best ways for you to find out exactly what you know (or don’t know) and how well you can
organise your knowledge is to try to answer actual examination questions taken from past papers.

In addition to examination questions there is a chapter on how to revise. This will help you to draw up
a revision timetable, and to stay focused on what you have to do. The chapter also includes tips from
experienced examiners on how to avoid throwing away marks by making silly mistakes and how to squeeze
those few extra marks by writing down what you know in the clearest possible way. Those few extra marks
just might earn you a higher grade!

This book is a very flexible revision aid and you can use it in different ways depending on what best suits
your revision programme.

• At the end of your revision programme you could simply try to answer the questions on the
examination papers to check how much mathematics you know by comparing your answers with
those in this book.

However, this book allows you to make far better use of the examination questions as an actual part of your
revision programme.

At the back of the book there is a Table of Topics from the Mathematics Syllabus. This is a list of
topics which together cover the entire content of the Mathematics syllabus. Alongside each topic there is a
list of questions that appear in the multiple choice tests and in the 2006–2010 examination papers.

• A hard and daunting task, like revising for your mathematics examination, is often made easier by
breaking it down into smaller parts. You may decide to organise your revision programme topic by
topic and test yourself at the end of each topic. Each time you complete a topic you will have the
satisfaction of knowing a little more and that will give you the confidence to carry on with your
studies.

9780230407381_ch01.indd 4 7/19/10 7:48 AM


• You may be having trouble with particular topics. You can use the topic list to identify the questions
about these topics very easily and concentrate your time on them. This might be useful at the end of
your revision when time is short.

After completing the questions, you might like to compare your marks with the grade indicators provided by
the examination board. This will give you some idea of what grade you are likely to get in your forthcoming
examination.

There is far more to this book than simply providing a set of correct answers. Read the explanation given
for each question carefully, even if you got the question correct. It will help you to organise your answers in
order to get all of the marks available. You will be able to apply much of the advice given on examination
technique and organisation when you come to answer the questions in your examination.

9780230407381_ch01.indd 5 7/19/10 7:48 AM


2 TIME FOR REVISION

School folklore abounds with stories of students who ‘never did any revision and got a grade I in the
examination’. Do you believe them? Well, I suppose that every once in a while there might be a really gifted
individual for whom this is true but for the vast majority of us lesser mortals the secret to examination
success (and it isn’t really a secret – it’s just common sense) is revision.

A long-term plan
Be honest with yourself and realistic in your expectations. Do you really believe you can leave things until the
last minute and then do well in your examination? Of course you can’t! In order to prepare yourself properly
for an examination you need time. How much time depends on how hard you have worked over the period
of the course, how much natural ability you have and how well you want to do in the examination.

Revision is not about sitting down, opening your book at some random page and reading the text. Revision
is about dividing the content of a syllabus into manageable sections and spending time specifically revising
those sections, so that, over a period of several weeks, you cover all of the syllabus content.

In order to revise efficiently, you will find it useful to keep a record of what you have done. The following
table is a record of the revision carried out by a student in the first three weeks of preparation for their
Mathematics examination. The topics in the table are taken from the syllabus. You will need a similar table
for each of your other subjects.

SUBJECT MATHEMATICS GENERAL PROFICIENCY


Week Week Week Week Week Week Week Exam
Topic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 week
Sets 0.5 h
Relations, 1h
functions and
graphs
Computation 0.5 h 0.5 h
Number theory 0.5 h 0.5 h
Measurement 0.5 h 0.25 h
Consumer 0.5 h 0.5 h
arithmetic
Statistics 0.5 h
Algebra 0.5 h 0.5 h
Geometry 1h
Trigonometry 1h
Vectors 0.5 h
Matrices 0.25 h 0.5 h
TOTAL TIME 3.75 h 4h 4.25 h

9780230407381_ch02.indd 6 7/19/10 7:49 AM


What advantages does drawing up such a table have?

• It divides the syllabus content up into smaller parts so you can focus on each one individually.

• It provides a visible record of what has been revised so that no topics are left out or neglected.

• It provides a visible record of how long is being spent revising the subject so that time can be slowly
increased as the examination week comes nearer.

• It provides a visible record of what has been achieved to date which, in turn, increases confidence.

Notice that the amount of time spent revising a topic is between 15 minutes and 1 hour.

• Revising something for less than 15 minutes doesn’t really allow you enough time to get into the topic
so you will achieve very little.

• Revise for more than 1 hour and you will probably get very tired and stop being effective. However,
we are all different; you might find that your tiredness threshold comes after 45 minutes or even
sooner. You must decide on the maximum length of time you can revise effectively and organise your
timetable accordingly.

Sitting reading notes for even a short time can be very boring, so try and make your revision time as
interesting as possible by doing short bursts of different things. For example, in a 30-minute revision session
you might spend the first 10 minutes reading, the second 10 minutes writing down key facts and the final
10 minutes attempting examination questions.

The environment within which you revise is also very important. The ideal conditions for revision will vary
from student to student. Some might be happiest sitting at a table somewhere cool and quiet, while others
might prefer to sit in a comfortable chair, books on their lap, with quiet music playing in the background.

You may need to experiment in order to find which conditions work best for you. However in doing this, be
honest with yourself. Revising whilst you are watching your favourite television programmes might appear to be
killing two birds with one stone but can you really say you are learning effectively like that? I don’t think so.

The night before the examination


• Never work late the night before an examination.

You need a good night’s sleep before an examination. There is no problem with doing an hour or two
of revision in the evening as long as you finish at least a couple of hours before you go to bed. This
gives your mind time to unwind so that you don’t lie awake in bed worrying about knowing this or
knowing that.

The day of the examination


• Make sure you have some breakfast, or if the examination is in the afternoon, have some lunch.
Your body is like a machine; it needs fuel to work properly. You need to make sure that your blood
sugar level is high and you have lots of energy. If you really can’t face eating a meal, suck a few glucose
sweets.

• Don’t try to cram at the last minute.


How much are you really going to learn while eating your breakfast or travelling on the bus to school?
My guess is not a lot. If you have revised thoroughly you shouldn’t need to worry at this stage.

9780230407381_ch02.indd 7 7/19/10 7:49 AM


By trying to cram at the last minute all that will happen is that you will start worrying about this
topic or that.

• Make sure you have all of the equipment you are going to need.
You can’t do a good job without the necessary tools. For this examination I recommend you have
the following in your pencil case:

2 pens (1 spare)
2 pencils (1 spare)
1 pencil sharpener
1 eraser
1 ruler
1 protractor
1 set of compasses
1 calculator
1 spare set of calculator batteries

Some students find it helps their concentration if they suck an occasional sweet during the
examination so you might want to put a few of these in your pencil case as well.

• Don’t discuss the examination with other students.


Comments made by other students waiting to go into an examination can often be un-nerving.
They might set you off worrying about whether you have done enough revision or whether you
have revised particular topics thoroughly enough. Why worry about such things when it is too late
to do anything about it?

Some people have to chatter because they are nervous and if you let them, they will affect you
in the same way. My advice is to keep your own counsel. If you revised thoroughly before the
examination you have every right to feel quietly confident that you will do well. Don’t let anyone
persuade you otherwise.

• Don’t be tempted to cheat.


If you have to resort to writing things on the back of your hand or on bits of paper hidden in your
pencil case then you have not done sufficient revision. Are you really going to benefit from these
illegal prompts?

You might think you have invented a novel way of cheating but experienced examination
invigilators will have seen it all before. Is it really worth the risk of being caught and bringing
disgrace on yourself and your family? Of course it isn’t. Revise the subject thoroughly and you
won’t even need to think of doing such a thing.

In the examination
• Read through the examination paper at least twice.
Spend the first 10 minutes reading through the paper. This is never time wasted. Look upon this
first 10 minutes as an investment that could save you marks later on in the examination.

• Work out a rough time schedule in your mind.

The Paper 02 examination last for 2 hours 40 minutes. Subtract 10 minutes reading time and that
leaves you 2 hours 30 minutes, or 150 minutes and the examination paper has a total of 120 marks.

9780230407381_ch02.indd 8 7/19/10 7:49 AM


150 5 1.25 minutes per mark. So for a Section I question worth 10 marks,
This means that you have ____
120
for example, you should be spending no more than 10 3 1.25 5 12.5 minutes answering it. All of
the Section II questions are worth 15 marks so you should not be spending more than 15 3 1.25 5
18.75 minutes answering each one.

You can only use this as a rough guide, since you are going to find some questions harder than others.
However, if you find that you are spending significantly longer on a question than the number of
marks justifies, perhaps you should move on and come back to it at the end of the examination if you
have time. If you don’t, the danger is that you will not complete all of the questions you can answer
and all those marks will be lost.

• Choose which questions to answer from Section II.


Look carefully at the Section II questions and decide which you think you will find easiest to answer.
It may be that you are stronger in some topics than others, so questions in your strong topics should
be given particular consideration.

• Read each question again before you attempt to answer it.


Every experienced examiner will tell you that the biggest single mistake that students make is to
answer questions that they are not asked. They don’t read the question properly, or they copy numbers
down wrongly from the examination paper. Make sure you know exactly what is being asked of you
before you start.

• Take care with how you present your answers.


Nothing alienates examiners more than scripts which are untidy and difficult to read. Examiners
get paid by the script for marking so they will not waste time trying to decipher a horrible mess.
Do yourself a favour and write your answers clearly, making sure that words and numbers can be
understood, and that diagrams and graphs are drawn carefully with a sharp pencil.

• Don’t leave questions unanswered.


One of the certainties of an examination is that you will get no marks for leaving a question
unanswered. You will not be penalised for giving the wrong answer so put something down on your
answer sheet for each question.

If you don’t know the answer to a multiple choice question then have a guess. At worst you have a
one in four chance of being correct, and by giving the question some thought, you may be able to
eliminate one or two of the wrong answers and improve the odds.

In longer questions, marks are usually given for the method as well as the correct answers. Even if you
are uncertain what to do and your answer is wrong you may score some marks for your method.

• Check your working carefully.


If you have some time at the end of the examination, don’t sit there looking out of the window feeling
all smug and self-satisfied. Go back to the beginning and check through your answers.

Check your arithmetic; many marks are lost because errors are made carrying out simple sums in the
heat of the moment.

Check that you have answered the question exactly as you have been told. For example, were you
asked to give your answer in a particular format such as correct to 2 decimal places?

9780230407381_ch02.indd 9 7/19/10 7:49 AM


SOLUTIONS 3 MATHEMATICS 2 PAPER 01 2 MULTIPLE
CHOICE QUESTIONS

The questions in this section are not taken from actual


examination papers because these are not available to
the public. However, they are similar questions based on
the curriculum content and examination style adopted
in the General Proficiency Examination.

The number of questions given over to each topic in


a test reflects the content stated in the curriculum
document.

Number of
Topic questions
Sets 4
Relations, functions 6
and graphs
Computation 6
Number theory 4
Measurement 8
Consumer arithmetic 8
Statistics 6
Algebra 9
Geometry 9
TOTAL 60

Test A Paper 01 Paper 01 Test A

1 C The sequence increases by the set of odd 1 The next number in the sequence 3, 6, 11, 18, 27 is
numbers 3, 5, 7, 9 ... so the next number is
A 34 B 36 C 38 D 40
27 1 11 5 38.
2 D 3 4 8 5 0.375 2 The fraction _38 written as a decimal is
A 0.305 B 0.325 C 0.350 D 0.375

3 B The second decimal place digit is a ‘4’ so the first 3 The number 86.345 correct to one decimal place is
decimal place digit is not rounded up.
A 86.0 B 86.3 C 86.4 D 86.5

10

9780230407381_ch03.indd 10 8/23/10 6:17 PM


Use the following diagram to answer questions 4 and 5.

Athletics Baseball

Cricket

In the Venn diagram a dot (•) represents one pupil.


The diagram shows the pupils in a form who take part
in athletics, baseball and cricket.

4 How many pupils in the form take part in athletics? 4 D Pupils taking part in athletics include those who take
part in athletics only plus those who take part in
A 5 B 6 C 8 D 11
athletics and other sports, i.e. 5 1 3 1 2 1 1 5 11.
5 How many pupils in the form take part in two of 5 B The different combinations are athletics and
the sports but not in all three? baseball (3), baseball and cricket (5) and cricket
and athletics (1) giving a total of 9.
A 2 B 9 C 11 D 22

6 If M 5 {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, N 5 {2, 5, 7} and O 5 {5, 6} 6 B (M ∩ N) ∪ O is the set of numbers in both


then M ∩ N ∪ O 5 M and N or in O.

A {5} B {5, 6, 7}
C {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9} D {1, 2, 9}

11

9780230407381_ch03.indd 11 8/23/10 6:17 PM


Use the following diagram to answer questions 7 and 8.

5 cm

4 cm
8 cm

3 cm

7 A Volume 5 area of cross-section 3 length 7 The volume of the prism is


5 _12 3 3 3 4 3 8 5 48 cm3
s d A 48 cm3 B 60 cm3 C 80 cm3 D 96 cm3

8 D Total surface area 5 sum of the areas of all faces 8 The total surface area of the prism is
5 2 3 s _12 3 3 3 4 d 1 (4 3 8) 1 (3 3 8) 1 (5 3 8)
A 40 cm2 B 72 cm2 C 96 cm2 D 108 cm2
5 108 cm2
9 C 21.45 hrs to midnight 5 2 h 15 min 9 The flight from Kingston to London leaves at
2 h 15 min 1 6 h 55 min 5 8 h 70 min 21.45 hrs and arrives at 6.55 hrs Jamaica time.
5 9 h 10 min
How long does the flight take?
A 8 h 10 m B 8 h 55 m
C 9 h 10 m D 9 h 55 m

10 C 400 1 400 3 0.065 5 $426 10 A sales tax of 6.5% is charged on a bill of $400.
The bill after tax is
A $374.00 B $406.50 C $426.00 D $462.00

11 A He must take home 100 2 35 5 65% of his 11 A man loses 35% of his weekly wage in stoppages.
weekly wage If he takes home $136.50 how much does he earn
100 5 $210
Weekly wage 5 136.50 3 ____ each week?
65
A $210 B $230 C $310 D $390

12 D 18 1 18 3 0.45 5 $26.10 12 A shopkeeper buys a box of candles for $18.00. If


she wants to make a profit of 45% how much
should she resell them for?
A $8.10 B $9.90 C $25.90 D $26.10

13 B The decimal point is moved 3 places to the right; 13 0.001 951 1 in standard form correct to 3
the fourth significant figure is less than 5 significant figures is
therefore the third significant figure is not
rounded up. A 1.95 3 1022 B 1.95 3 1023
C 1.96 3 1022 D 1.96 3 1023

12

9780230407381_ch03.indd 12 8/23/10 6:17 PM


14 The set of fractions { __
20 3 2 12 }
11 _
, 2 , _1 , __
7
written in 14 A If we express these fractions over a common
descending order of magnitude is denominator: ___ {
33 , ___
40 , ___
30 , ___
60 60 60 60 }
35 it is easier to

arrange them in descending order.


A { _23 , __
12 20 2 }
7 __
, 11 , _1 B { _12 , __
12 20 3 }
7 __
, 11 , _2

C { _12 , __
20 12 3 }
11 __
, 7 , _2 D { _23 , __
20 12 2 }
11 __
, 7 , _1

15 Which of the following is a prime number? 15 B 23 has no factors except itself and 1.
A 21 B 23 C 25 D 27

16 What is the H.C.F. of the numbers 36, 54 and 90? 16 D 18 is the largest number that will divide exactly
into these numbers.
A 6 B 9 C 12 D 18

17 17 B There are 9 fully shaded and 16 partially shaded


squares; the partially shaded squares are
approximately equal to 7 fully shaded squares so
the shaded area is about 9 1 7 5 16 squares.

Which of the following is the nearest estimate of


the area of the shaded figure above?
A 12 cm2 B 16 cm2 C 20 cm2 D 26 cm2

18 If f : x → 3x2 2 1 then f (2) is 18 C 3 3 (2)2 2 1 5 12 2 1 5 11


A 3 B 9 C 11 D 13

19 19 D f : x → 2x 1 1 is the only function that correctly


1→3 maps all the given values.
2→5
3→7
4→9

Which of the following could describe the mapping


above?
A f : x → 3x 2 1 B f:x→x15
C f : x → 3x D f : x → 2x 1 1

20 A van is worth $14 000 today. If its value 20 B It will be worth 100 2 12 5 88% of its original
depreciates by 12% per annum, how much will it value 5 14 000 3 0.88 5 $12 320
be worth in one year?
A $1680 B $12 320 C $13 832 D $15 680

13

9780230407381_ch03.indd 13 8/25/10 2:08 PM