HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

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Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11.13 m. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations.0.3. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group.5.2. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. or 5. depending on their level of sophistication. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.0.11.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. LINUX running RH 7. such as drawing a line on the screen.8.23. or information concerning future platforms.11 m and IRIX 6.1.3 or RH 8. 5. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. In general. However. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.3. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. WIN 2000/XP.5.0 or 11.0 User’s Guide 1 . IBM running AIX 4. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration.

alias or . For example.. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. At the operating system prompt. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . Windows 2000. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. and Windows XP platforms. 2. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.alias or . 2 HyperMesh 8. For more information about the hm. see Configuring HyperMesh. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.cfg configuration file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg.cshrc file in the user home directory. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key.g. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. To start HyperMesh: 1. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. add the following line in the . see Start-up Files.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. hm.

To exit HyperMesh. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. click Start and choose Programs. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. To start HyperMesh: 1. By default. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. 5. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. 4. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. From the Start menu. you may wish to change this directory. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 3 . 2. click quit. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. Since HyperMesh creates user files.

Select the Shortcut tab. For example. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. Select Properties. 3. 4. 2. After Start in:. 5. To change/use startup options: 1. 3. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop.To change the working directory: 1. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. command. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 2. 4.cmf and hmmenu. Select Properties. Your user files. 4 HyperMesh 8.set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click Apply. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. are created in this directory. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select the Shortcut tab.

Since this batch version does not have graphical display. type hmbatch –ccommand.0 User’s Guide 5 . 5.cmf. etc. to this path. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. postscript.) are ignored. plot. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. create. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. 3. After Cmd line:. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. At the operating system prompt. Append the option.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. 2.g. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. 6. command.cmf and press ENTER. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. fit. Select Properties. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. Click Apply. –ccommand. 4.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. Select the programs tab.

pre-set export paths. Always continue on error when processing a command file. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). fl.msf file. change screen resolutions.set. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. Write the mouse commands to a mouse.res).hm. Print this message. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Sets the global template file to the specified file.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. or the specified file. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. Otherwise. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. Use the results file. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Allows Templex within command files.cmf file.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file. or to print messages.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to write a master hmmenu.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example.res suffix. Automatically run the specified command file. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. These options include: fl. nodes are not drawn.

cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site. Each of the hm.cfg. If the hm. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command.cfg file exists in multiple directories. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. with each command occupying one line.cfg file to save your preferences. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The following commands are an example of a partial hm.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg. hm. You can edit the commands in the hm. only on start -up.cfg file are acknowledged. They may begin in any column. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config. The commands in the hm. or all of the commands may be on one line.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file.0 User’s Guide 7 . The hm.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.

tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.cfg file hmexec file feconfig.mac file hmmenu. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. However. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. tabs which are visible (e. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name.altair on Unix and Linux. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program. recent files imported and recent files loaded.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. key bindings. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means. called hmsettings. Hmsettings.g. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. such as catia.ini Fatigue. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.cfg file hyperlaminate.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white. model or include browser).cfg file userpage.ini. However. iges. or ug. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).tcl.ini files. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg).set file Cadreader. hmcustom.ini.

0 User’s Guide 9 . (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font. under Windows. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh.

0. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization. but a lower frame rate (slower).0.-5. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.999937705) *quatrotate(-0. When mode is set to 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .00529684395.00170778765. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.0.00785649346.000802068982.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.00228960797. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.0.00994070323. In this case.0.0. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. In this case.0047803938.7397916e005. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.0. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.0. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file.999966514) *quatrotate(0.000673180986.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.

-3.703590.722177.00106667981. Otherwise.213868.000000. By default.00100703597.030465. 0. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file.575689. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. -0. 0 = off. 0.000000. -0.*quatrotate(0. 0. only the finial position is output. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or a symbolic name for the translator.000395387048.612440.583235.000230328525.00263644785.964252.0. 1.623743. When the mode is set to 1.756111. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.0. 0. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator.0.0. 2.000000. 1 = on (default).9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0. 0. 0.0 User’s Guide 11 . 0.657815.299006.621393) 5.000327769044.886445.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. reducing the size of the command file.0. 8. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. -8.485656. Comments 0.0. -3. 0. 0. the Utility menu is displayed.761037.000000.

This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory. 12 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default.

style and curComp are not required. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. and legends in the graphics area. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. style. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. under Windows. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode.0 User’s Guide 13 . This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. element handles. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics.

*noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily.0. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. if this command is specified. where R. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. Other colors include: dark blue (0.0. The color must be between 1 and 64. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. white (255. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). For example. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. a character string closed in double quotes "". Green and Blue.cfg file. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. To circumvent this.128). The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. and B are the intensity values for Red. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).B). however. The command requires one parameter. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. or khaki (210. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. For testing purposes.80.255. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel.175.0). black (0. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. G. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.80). if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8.100). This improves graphic performance. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm.G. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3.255). Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.

By default. For testing purposes. For testing purposes.dll"}.S. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. To circumvent this./non-HyperMesh) tasks. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer.g."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). rapid menu functionality is enabled. "". *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. a character string closed in double quotes. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. This command requires one parameter. Enable rapid menus."Hyper3Dwrite".0 User’s Guide 15 . In general. O. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page.1"}."Hyper3Dwrite". it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. This command is only used in the command file.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. use *printfile("print_it junk"). *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file.

*output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . 16 HyperMesh 8. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. On UNIX platforms.out". A character string that is of type file or value. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. one for the memory in MB. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer.out). By default. contact your systems administrator. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture.sdp is created by HyperMesh. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . and one for the output file name. Each character string represents an input field. one for the solver executable. > *output. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. "file:input". "*solver *input. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver."{home}\ {solver}".) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. after substituting the user-input parameters.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering ."*solver *input file *output file *options". This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. The name of the solver executable file.fem. one for the input file name. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. "value:memory in MB". The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values.fem *memory in MB. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. which is a value. optistruct. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name."infile:input file". The solver field can be of type value or file. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. A file named sliden. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. Functionally. depending on the expected input."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. the colors representing black and white should be reversed."outfile:output file". The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument.

For more information about creating bitmap screen images. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. thus. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. Functionally. In such cases. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. A file named sliden. When *screensize(14. Circles may look like ovals. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. green.g. To determine this value. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. width).30) is implemented.0 User’s Guide 17 . (1 through 64) The color’s red component.6). measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). height). Syntax *setcolor(index. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. Note: in some cases. After you press CTRL-F2. height. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. On UNIX platforms.8. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height.sdf is created by HyperMesh. contact your system administrator. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. HyperMesh generates a *. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. To find this value. For example. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. On the PC. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness.75. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. *screensize(1200. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. The units used are not important but must be consistent. red. the proportions of the objects is corrected. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename.

Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. : ‘ / ? .cfg file or from a command file. spaces. 0. . Place the element coordinate system number here. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here.0. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. vertical direction of screen. horizontal direction of screen. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * . a-z. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. y. Currently. 1. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . Place the real number here. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. 0-9. in/out of screen. 18 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Y axis location. This command may be used in either the hm.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. Z axis location. z) x y z Comments X axis location. Place the material number here.0. Place the section ID number here.0. Syntax *setlightsource(x. The default setting is 0. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID.

cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10.0.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry.1. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.0. The higher the value. *setspecularity(0.0.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. 5 is the default). *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.cfg file. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file.5.7.7.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction. or from a command file. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. Note.0. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm.0.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. Syntax *setspecularity(red. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.0 – 1. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.1.5. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.0. but small in another direction.0) The shininess value. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. green.0 – 1. blue.5.0. however.7. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0 – 1.0 User’s Guide 19 .

This program. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. On some platforms. This command requires two parameters. With a shared colormap. This string may contain wild card. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. *. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. A non-shared colormap can be used. or a similar one. In general.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. 20 HyperMesh 8. the *xfontname() command must be modified. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. characters in the name. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. However. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette.

All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. 5. or delete the start-up file commands in command. 5. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. Click the TMP line under User variables for . Delete the command. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. If you rerun the command.. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked. .Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. Start HyperMesh. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. If the environment variable is set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file.cmf file.0 User’s Guide 21 . it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. 4. Rename command. 3. 2. To avoid this problem. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. After you have generated all of the necessary commands. double click the System folder. To create a start-up file: 1. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. quit HyperMesh. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.cmf. 3. 2. On the Control panel.cmf to the file name particular to your system. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. Select the Environment tab. Click OK. including those generated by your start-up file. if it exists.. HOME). 4.hmexec or hmexec.cmf before you run it.cmf file when HyperMesh is started.cmf file.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. When HyperMesh is invoked. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially.

The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. if the current database has been modified but not saved. at Altair we use the extension . See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. and systems. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. including nodes. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. vector. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element." 22 HyperMesh 8. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. or are referenced by a card image. All HyperMesh entities. lines. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. are organized within collectors. elements. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. points. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. The original database does not change until you save the model. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . However. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. loads. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. or group. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system.

Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. and surface data. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. for those entities. line. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. see the organize panel. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. For more information about reorganizing collectors. for example. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. assigned colors. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. Lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. lines. and surfaces that belong to the component. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. elements. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. rotated.0 User’s Guide 23 . If you have not created a component first. Entities can belong to only one collector. or deleted. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. In this case. auto1. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized.

2-D or 3-D. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. Properties for all other element types. if you delete an assembly. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. For example. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. Components can belong to more than one assembly. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. the components in the assembly are not deleted. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. After an assembly is created. including its walls and cells. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. then the model should have at least one material collector. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements.

Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. A load can belong to only one load collector. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). nodes. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. groups. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. Typically. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. or materials. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. components. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. A system collector can hold any number of systems. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. mbplanes. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. simulating a system loading condition. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. elements. A system can belong to only one system collector.0 User’s Guide 25 . and planes. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. Typically. cylinders. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. systems. and mbjoints entities. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. which can be composed of specified elements. which allows you to access them as a unit. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time.

and z= entry fields. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. card image type. center of gravity. release the mouse button. y. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. select a node on in the model window. and z.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. change. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. To define a center of gravity location. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. To modify the name of a multibody collector. Review. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. drag the cursor over geometry to select it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". and the body’s local coordinate system. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Define. y=. review and reset the multibody collector type. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. 26 HyperMesh 8. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. location of the center of gravity. Change. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection.

The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. hex) of the element. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. store. and rigids. i. If a model uses only the basic element types. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.0 User’s Guide 27 . In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities.e.. quad. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. and work with the element. trias.e. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. quads.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes..

The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). which allows the template. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). or output translator.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 4-. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). refer to Template Design. or orientation node. (Must be Type 1. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. local vector. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). and pin flags (configuration 60). 3-noded bar element with property reference. to distinguish between the different types. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). offsets. offsets. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. 28 HyperMesh 8. 2-. or orientation node. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). For example. local vector. and pin flags (configuration 63). A joint element does not allow types other than specified below.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). (Must be Type 1.Element Type Defines the category of the element.

6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). and a property reference (configuration 21). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). an orientation vector.Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2).0 User’s Guide 29 . (Must be Type 1. Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes. 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133).

A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. but are then less efficient. ruled. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. An edge is a trim line of a surface. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. In general. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A joint is the common point between two line segments. ellipse. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. as well as many other types of curves. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. and their color is determined by the status of the component. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. you can use surface edges as free lines. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. such as when you are working within the spline . circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. Under certain conditions. or parabola. Used to represent conics such as a circle. However. or line drag panels.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent a spherical surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Used to represent a toroidal surface. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Each surface type is referred to as a face. In general. When a surface has several faces. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes.

Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. applied at a node. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. When you delete an analysis system. may be rectangular.0 User’s Guide 33 . temperatures. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. nodal points. concentrated moments. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. or both. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. concentrated forces. When a reference system is deleted. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. loads. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. commonly called a coordinate system. an analysis system. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. In HyperMesh. Constraints. and mass elements. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. Several systems may be nested. If you delete a system. and pressures are currently supported. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. Note: A system may be a reference system. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. velocities. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards.Systems The system entity. cylindrical. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. If a system does exist. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. By default. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. Entities that have a reference system are systems. Additionally. concentrated fluxes. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or spherical. A constraint. accelerations. For example. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. After a constraint has been applied.

including the name of the title.Title Title collectors contain title information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the color of the title. and the text displayed in the title. 34 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. this displays the current HyperMesh version.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session.0 User’s Guide 35 . these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.

It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Tab Location sub-menu. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. and model status information. or both sides of the graphics area. or two toolbars stacked vertically. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. this area may contain one toolbar. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. in a tabbed format. such as changing display options. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. right. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. Located just under the graphics area. Located across the bottom of the window. these sidebars display additional tools.Tab Area Located on the left.

and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. located just beneath the title bar. This approach sub-groups similar features together. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). Each menu contains many different options. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. When clicked. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels.0 User’s Guide 37 . One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected.

and keyboard configuration. Meshing tools. 38 HyperMesh 8. or finding entities. solid map. such as automesh. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. among other options. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. for example). Rotate. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. Change the angle of view on the model. including element check settings. or Scale entities. connectors. Model quality checks. Access the on-line Help system. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. assemblies. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. To import multiple files. First. Translate. and press enter to select a highlighted option. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. among other options. and export models and other files. Boundary Conditions such as forces. etc. Morph. press the alt key to activate the menu area. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. such as OptiStruct. Model properties such as materials. To add extra models to your workspace. global options.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Tools for creating and renaming collectors. or visibility and location of tab area items. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). or constraints. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. Reflect. and contact surfaces. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. import. save. tetramesh. deleting. lighting. moments. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. use import. element edit. pressures. etc. use load. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Models.0 User’s Guide 39 . Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. and plots are displayed in this area. geometry.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the property (PBEAM. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. or import files. save. the two-row configuration is shown above. For example. set global modeling parameters. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. Selects the element color style. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. Create or update load collectors. For example. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. Access the collectors panel. Access the visual attributes panel. and edit solver-specific data. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. Edit solver-specific data in card format. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. This accesses the files panel. if you select "by comp".Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. Create or update property collectors. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. This button accesses the display panel. etc) is assigned directly to the element. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. Turn the display of collectors on and off. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8.0. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu.

internal partition faces in yellow. .• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. By Topo: In this mode. etc. By Comp: Surfaces. geometry is colored based on topology. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. if you select "by component". By 2D Topo: In this mode. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. By 3D Topo: In this mode. In most cases. trias etc. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. surface edit. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). 2-dimensional geometry (i. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. free edges in red. lines.e. For example. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. and no lines. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. Note: • • . surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. If geometry shading is turned on. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. .e.g. automesh). Some exceptions apply. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). are colored according to the components that they belong to. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. suppressed edges in blue. 2D and 3D elements differently. Determines how geometry features are colored. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. 3-dimensional geometry (i. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 41 . feature lines. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. quad. All the 1D elements are colored in green. etc. bar. materials are assigned to elements via their components. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. etc.

Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. Right -click to activate center mode. or to alternate between two different views. . Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Once active. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Zoom incrementally. Once active. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. free edges in red. Left-click to deactivate. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. Right -click to deactivate. (shared edges in green. Once active. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model.) In addition. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. 42 HyperMesh 8. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Right-click to deactivate. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Returns to the previous view. etc. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. left-click to zoom in. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. . this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. Modal Zoom. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. Once active. Once active. Left-click to deactivate. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. right-click to zoom out. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Left-click to deactivate. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area.

and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide 43 . and the right button to rotate it rightward. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. See Keyboard for more information.

the current include and current component (comp). the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. When you are in a panel.e.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). 44 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. Geometry) are displayed.. along with the current menu page name (i.g. comp:) in the message bar. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. If you access a panel by using a function key. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status.

Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button.0 User’s Guide 45 . These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as status updates or completed operations.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.

utility functions. To correct this condition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . each containing a list of panels and modules. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. lines. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. masses. quit HyperMesh. model checking functions. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. such as bars. and informational functions. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. and load creation functions. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. Model editing.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). delete the file hmmenu. coordinate system. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. 46 HyperMesh 8. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. The page menu. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. and then start HyperMesh once again. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. or surfaces 1-D element creation. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality.

0 User’s Guide 47 . right side. both. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. and/or the solver browser. such as the utility menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To maximize available space.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. model browser. multiple features are organized onto tabs. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side. However.

properties. components. vector collectors. system collectors. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. multibodies. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. load collectors. 48 HyperMesh 8. materials.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. entity sets. groups.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars.

a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. and click the desired color from the palette. etc. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. right-click on the current color in the model browser. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. To change an entity’s color. load cols. entity sets. Note: When the color picker palette appears. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Load Collectors. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure.0 User’s Guide 49 . Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. groups. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). Materials. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. vector cols. properties. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. An empty assembly never displays. multibodies. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. Properties. Materials. unchecked entities are hidden. In this instance. therefore it does not have a check box. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. When appropriate. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. Colors Assemblies. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. Components. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. The currently assigned color displays in the column. for example. system cols. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. groups. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly.) display.

groups. and vector cols. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. 50 HyperMesh 8. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). only the items displayed in the tree are affected. system cols. assemblies. or load collector. Depending on which option you select. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry.Display Mode Components. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Multibodies. load cols. and vector cols shown in the tree. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. but no mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. assembly. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. geometry entities. In either case. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. Display None . Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Click a second time to remove them. Click a second time to remove them. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. system cols. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. multibodies (not assemblies). Global Switches The Display All . system cols. and load cols have several display states. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. load cols. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. multibodies. Include geometry entities in tree structure. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. groups. groups. components.

the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. In addition. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. For example. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. including upper/lower case letters. However. a down-arrow button. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). For example. with the same buttons for Display All.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. click OK to close the list. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. For example. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. and Reverse Selection. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. Otherwise.0 User’s Guide 51 . In this way. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. an up-arrow button. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Select None. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. . Display None. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. in this case they are used for Select All.

Since this function works in combination with the filters. For instance. clicking third time finds match #3. Drag and Drop Components. with this option active. To find entities matching your specified string and options. So. rather than only part of the name. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. If an assembly is moved or copied. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). select it again to remove the checkbox. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. clicking again finds match #2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. such as searching for whole names with matching case. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. In this way. for instance. “FrontChassis”. For example. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button.To find an entity. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. In other words. In this way you can combine the search options. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. finding match #1 again. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. multibodies. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). To deactivate the option. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. or “RearChassis1”. 52 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. type a search string into the combination box. it is highlighted in the model browser. for example.

material. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Option New Available for: Assemblies. Properties. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. Most items can be deleted. beamsectcols. system cols. Materials. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. vector col. Components. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. property. A new assembly. load col. component. system col. vector cols. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. Once created. multibody. Folders that contain materials. load cols. set.0 User’s Guide 53 . and groups cannot be renamed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Plots. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. group. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Description A new assembly. Load Collectors. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). The new name must be unique. sets.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. component. properties. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location.

materials. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. In such cases. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. so that only the top-most level of items displays. plots. plots. components. all materials. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. materials. load collectors. materials. all groups. The current component is designated with bold font. and properties. and properties. properties. properties. system collectors. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. load collectors. load collectors. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. plots. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. In such cases. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. materials. components. groups. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. system collectors. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. materials. Display the item in the graphics area. and properties. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. plots. card.) Make Current components. Assemblies. plots. load collectors. A component. properties. components. multibody. Assemblies. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. materials. cards. In such cases. all materials. plots. components. components. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. components. etc. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. all groups. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. groups.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . groups. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. exposing every item nested at every level. load collectors. multibody. this hides all of the items within that branch (e.g. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. load collectors. etc. system collectors.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item.g.

Separate tabs organize entities and columns. and select reverse buttons in this mode. select none.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu.0 User’s Guide 55 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. click the Entity types: radio button. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. You can also use the select all. To select entity types manually. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses.

choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. click the Column types: radio button. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. To select columns manually. and select reverse buttons in this mode. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. select none. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. 56 HyperMesh 8. You can also use the select all.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 57 . and update the contents of a model into various include files. which does not have any references to an include file. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type.dyn contains 55 vectors. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. Data. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. 116 sets. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. the include named dummy. 55 system collectors. 55 systems. in the above example. 296 properties. edit. review. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. is stored in the master model. organize. For example.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. etc. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. It allows you create.

In this way. groups. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. an up-arrow button. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. multibodies (not assemblies). Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. However. 58 HyperMesh 8. Display None. . multibodies. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Select None. system cols. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. a down-arrow button. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. and vector cols shown in the tree. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. In addition. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components.Global Switches The Display All . assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. For example. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. components. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. groups. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. and vector cols. with the same buttons for Display All. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. in this case they are used for Select All. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load cols. Display None . and Reverse Selection. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Otherwise. load cols. system cols. click OK to close the list.

until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. “FrontChassis”. finding match #1 again. Since this function works in combination with the filters. In this way. To find entities matching your specified string and options. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. select it again to remove the checkbox. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. To deactivate the option. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”.0 User’s Guide 59 . clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. clicking again finds match #2. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. or “RearChassis1”. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. For instance. In this way you can combine the search options. with this option active. For example. it is highlighted in the include browser. type a search string into the combination box. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. for example. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. clicking third time finds match #3. rather than only part of the name. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found.To find an entity. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). for instance. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. such as searching for whole names with matching case. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). So. In other words. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Makes the selected include "current". Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Deletes the selected include. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. are automatically placed in the current include. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). contacts. etc. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. the new include is created within it.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. components.

Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include.. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. For the remaining solvers this option is not available.0 User’s Guide 61 . mats. etc. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Nastran. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. the entire set of entities of a specific type. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. etc. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. or Case Control.). Executive Control.

Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. 62 HyperMesh 8. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and scale the axis of plots. perform simple math on curves. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. xy plots located on the Post page.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. contains panels that allow you to read curves. To select a module. the module.0 User’s Guide 63 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. For example. edit curves. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages.

Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. select none. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. Instead. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). it can be turned on and off.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. When activated. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. and then sync the browser with one click. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. Note: For the 8. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. the settings apply only to the current display. For help specific to each profile.0SR1 release. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. When inactive. but may not be active by default. To alleviate this. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. 64 HyperMesh 8. For large models. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. Each control has its own function: Select all. This button acts as a toggle.

The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. MLOAD. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. or all folders if none are selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or all folders if none are selected. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. Depending on the entity selected. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. This loadstep will be exported. Delete the selected entity or entities. Rename the selected entity. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. This loadstep will not be exported. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. MOTION. Renumber the selected entity. LOAD. There are many functions available. OptiStruct In addition. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. organized into folders.0 User’s Guide 65 . these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase.

Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. allowing you to edit the subcase. To edit a subcase: 1. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. • • • • 4. In order to support this. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on.To create a new subcase: 1. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. 5. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. Another pop-up window opens. When importing a model into HyperMesh. To add a loadcol to the load reference.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To activate an option. 2. Click create. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. a warning message appears to notify you. Depending on the Subcase Type. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. 3. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. and select Edit options. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. When this option is active. A pop-up window opens. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. allowing you to: • • 2. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. allowing you to edit the subcase. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. a warning message appears to notify you. the list will change accordingly. Right -click on the desired subcase folder.

use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate.6. For renaming and renumbering. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. renumber. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). 2. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI.0 User’s Guide 67 . To display a subcase: 1. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. Select the desired option from the popup menu. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. 8. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. Note: To rename. 9. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. delete. 1. 2. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. 7. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. To select multiple loadcols.

Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. LOAD. Inside the Edit options popup. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). and selecting the appropriate loadcols. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. nor are they always aware of their existence. when appropriate. Inside the Edit options popup.) • 2. However. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. MLOAD. For example. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. the Auto-manage load references option is available. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. This option does the following: 1. assigning the appropriate card image. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. To satisfy both types of users. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. In HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. MOTION. However. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#).0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference.

Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. advance to the next selection. Note: Once a panel is active.0 User’s Guide 69 . Release the mouse button to access the panel. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. To select a panel. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. a message is displayed stating the error. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. and continue selecting or complete the operation. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. thus reducing mouse movement. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. This behavior is called rapid menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation.

Collectors .update sub-panel. Collectors . Collectors . click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. To select a sub-panel. on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create.create sub-panel. For example.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. update.card image sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. 70 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. the menu item following it alternates between choices. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you click a toggle. data entry fields. When you click a switch. toggle switch In some cases. plane collectors. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases.0 User’s Guide 71 . a list of options is displayed. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. and function buttons. Each panel contains input collectors.

If you want to reset the entity selections. and select the type you want to use. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Input Collector To change the data type. If the data type is a node list. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. Therefore. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Extended entity selection window. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. show node order. See The Mouse for more details). Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. Note: If the data type is a line list. or by window. by path. a data type button. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. and a reset (|< ) button. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. this function does not apply. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. displaying a list of available selection methods.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. The extended entity selection window opens. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. To access the options: • Click the data type button.

HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). and loads as well.N2. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule.N3). the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. Double-click a node’s button (N1. Note. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). When defining a plane. or plane (N1. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. however.0 User’s Guide 73 . it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. that not every item appears at all times. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. The options available are: • Use x-axis. Local systems may be rectangular. N2. Use N1. and z-axis to define the first. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. or N3.N2). while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. N2. This selector is broken down into the following items. cylindrical or spherical. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. For example. N3 to define a vector (N1. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). This includes vectors defining coordinate systems.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. y-axis. If you select two free (red) edges.

4. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. y-. N1. N3 option. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. y-. For example. N1 and N2. N1. Select three nodes. N3. 3. Select two nodes. N2.. N1 and N2. if selected). but serve a different purpose. Select the x-. Select three nodes.N3 and base). 3. 2. or z-axis and a base node. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely.N2. Select the x-. N1 (or the base node. 4. A base node provides the extra information.e. and N3. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector).B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. N1.e. For example. N2. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). Select a model vector (i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select two nodes. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. To define a vector: 1.. To define a plane: 1. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. 2. N2. Note that when using the N1. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. 74 HyperMesh 8. or z-axis. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. Select a model vector (i. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified.

If you want to edit the existing data. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string.e. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). respectively. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. title =). Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. and press CTRL-v. plot =.. press the ENTER key. To cut and paste character strings. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. press CTRL-c. A description of the type of input precedes the field. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). the value previously assigned to the field is erased.). select another menu item. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. After positioning the cursor in the input field.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values.0 User’s Guide 75 . or press a function key. The first character in a string cannot be a space. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. Character String Input To enter a character string. After you click either the input field or the description. Input field. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. In edit mode. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. comp =.

Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. To cut and paste numeric data. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation.). 76 HyperMesh 8. To enter numeric data. In edit mode. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. For example. if you type 123e+1q1. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. you must make a selection before you can proceed. When the pop-up menu appears. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. and click exit to close the calculator.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. If the pop-up menu has a border. press CTRL-c. If the pop-up does not have a border. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. Calculator pop-up. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal.000. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. To use the calculator. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation.45. the second click gives you access to the calculator). and press CTRL-v.

browse…. and last date modified. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure.. Creates a new folder within the current directory. import…. Lists the file name.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. as well as the contents of the open directory. type. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. write as…. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. You can open new directories from this list. retrieve…. Lists only the file name. load….0 User’s Guide 77 . etc.. based on the search criteria used. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. you use the standard Windows file browser.. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. Click Cancel to close the file browser. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field.

hm extension) in the specified directory. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. For example. In the File name field. 3.To search for a particular file extension: 1. For Look in/ Save in. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. etc. type *. specify the directory to search. Type *.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . 3. Or For Files of Type. hm6. For File name.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. select the file type from the drop-down menu. 2. specify the search directory. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .* to search for all files in the directory. Press ENTER. You can also type *. 78 HyperMesh 8. For Look in/Save in. *. hm5.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. Press ENTER. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. To search for a particular filename: 1.

Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Single click and hold. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Click and move. Aborts graphics operations. Selects a new center of rotation. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Aborts intensive processes. CTRL Single click and release. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes.0 User’s Guide 79 . If you release the mouse. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Click and move. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. If you release the mouse. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Single click and release. such as Penetration Checks. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Performs selection operations on single entities. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Single click and release.

In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. In entity selection mode . Dynamically rotates the model. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Zooms into an area of the model. Pans the model. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels.quick window deselection of entities. SHIFT Single click and release. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Click and move.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 80 HyperMesh 8. Click and move. Single click and release.CTRL Click and move. Click and move. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window.

For example. For example. For example. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. in the replace panel.0 User’s Guide 81 . the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. resulting in an error message. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. when you try to move nodes using the N1. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. In these panels. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. For example. N3 vector option in the translate panel. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. In such cases. For example in the ruled panel. For example. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. Since you do not have N1. But once you pick a node to create the line. In some panels. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. In most panels. when you enter the lines panel. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. return is assigned to the rapid menu. thus reducing "mouse miles". create becomes the rapid menu function. if you pick two nodes. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. an error message results. rapid menu advances to the next collector. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. N2. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation.

Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. but simply + on the numeric keypad.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. +. and reverse view Zoom by increments. global panel Open the Help. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. it opens the Help’s table of contents. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. -. or arrow keys. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. In addition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. this opens help for that panel. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. clockwise. and CTRL key to access panels. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. SHIFT key. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. When a panel is active. from the main page menu.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which.0 User’s Guide 83 . Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. when pressed. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display.

alt. and down respectively. For example. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. Next. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel.jpg screen capture or animation file. cannot be mapped. shift.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. backspace etc. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Notes • • Some special-function keys. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Generates a *. right. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. such as tab. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. up. 84 HyperMesh 8. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. ctrl. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. The selected key highlights in blue. esc. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation.

0 User’s Guide 85 . Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. 1). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.tcl file. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0.tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. "". "none". *deletemark elements 1.shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. 1. To call the same macro. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}.

When you use the secondary menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . to continue using the initial panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. and upon completion.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. 86 HyperMesh 8.

Macros may contain any valid command file command.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. although only one displays at a time. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. When HyperMesh starts. to specify where the arguments should be substituted.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. etc.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. or the application’s base directory. it first looks for the userpage. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.0 User’s Guide 87 . The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). A macro file (hm. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. radio options. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. A userpage. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages.mac file in their home directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.mac globalpage. it looks for a macro file named hm.mac qamodelpage. If it finds this macro.mac userpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. The utility menu includes several pages of its own.mac in the current directory.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. Populates the User page of the utility menu. HOME directory (UNIX only). Macros may accept variable arguments. passed to them from a control. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu.mac geommeshpage. Only one button can be depressed at a time. by using the arguments $1.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. When HyperMesh starts. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. $2. Thus it is actually a group of menus. The default hm. each dedicated to different tasks. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.

and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. For example. The Geom/Mesh. if that pane is open. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default.By default. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. simply check it in the view menu. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. By combining these features. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. Note. Then. QA/Model. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. you must remember that once a macro is executed. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. however. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. with the current page’s button depressed. if you wish. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. in the Tab area pane. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. To restore the utility menu. However. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. showing or hiding all 2-D elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. and a macro may not be called recursively. and save additional model views. 88 HyperMesh 8.cfg file. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways.

For example. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. including its boundary conditions. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. 3) save macros. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. In other words. For example. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. Smaller sub-types of entity. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). even within the same broad category. lines. such as 2-D elements or lines. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. So. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. or 3-D elements. control an array of several related entities (such as points. such as 2-D elements or lines. These views function in addition to the user views. or 3-D elements. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. for example. clicking none hides the entire model.0 User’s Guide 89 . Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. 2. For example. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. such as geometry. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. Broad categories. 1. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. such as elements or geometry. 1. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. such as elements or geometry. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. 2. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. or isolate the display of an entity type. Scene (1. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. regardless of entity type. surfs. 3) Save Scene (1. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. but does not affect the display of 0. slot 2. if you turn off the display of lines. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. are more restrictive. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. followed by 2-3 buttons. but does not affect the display of 0. however. For example. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity.2. or slot 3. and solids). These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off.

as well as removing temporary nodes. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. Similarly. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) displaying. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. For example. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. however. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Note that these functions are accumulative. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. such as rbe3 elements. for this reason. For example. then turning on lines. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. turning off all geometry. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. Note. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. hide. To exit the macro. Like the display controls. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. etc. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. however. or press the <esc> key. boundary conditions. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. if you choose to show only 2-D elements.

You select a node along the hole. the macro determines the radius of the hole. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. etc. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid.0 User’s Guide 91 . and then projects those points to a concentric line. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. Projects free points to surface edges.5 times its original size. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. with ribs (T junctions). Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. and then trims this new line into the surface. creating a higher quality mesh. Depending on the tolerance you specify. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. points may even project to multiple edges.

If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. If any elements fail the criteria. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If any elements fail the criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. if necessary. If any elements fail the warpage test. If any elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria.

it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. does not break connectivity. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. If any elements fail the criteria. They only affect the report. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. The remesh uses the current size. If any elements fail the criteria. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. If any elements fail the criteria. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and uses the mixed element type. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model.0 User’s Guide 93 . Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. This macro displays the component name. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. number of elements in that component and their ID range. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. two. two.

these comps are un-masked. including forces. 94 HyperMesh 8. these loads are un-masked. constraints. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. Since these buttons affect all loads. these elements are un-masked.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. these elements are un-masked. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. If masked. while 3 is the largest. If masked. If masked. and so on. pressures. If masked. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component.

and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. LS-Dyna. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. and Abaqus user profiles.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. model comparison. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format.0 User’s Guide 95 . assembly. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. property assignments. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. Radioss-Block. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Contains master column selection.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. This section controls most tool functions. part of the tree section. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. 96 HyperMesh 8. Contains options for metadata management.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids.

You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. click Continue to generate the new file. You can select additional items from a combo box. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. Material Id. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session.0 User’s Guide 97 .BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). If all are found. and Gauge. Part Id. Material. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. If any are missing. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. or type a new header into it and Add them. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name.

98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as Edit > Update Model. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Same function as Edit > Check Model. Same function as File >Save and Export. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as File > Show Failed.

This section also includes selection and filtering controls. You can enter a string in the combo box. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. It then displays the part names. select the desired header in the options menu. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. appended with part ids. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool.0 User’s Guide 99 . to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . i. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8.e. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. and Comparison. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. part name and part number. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. columns containing part id. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key.

Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the Different category.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info.0 User’s Guide 101 .

Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. 102 HyperMesh 8. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . First row corresponds to BOM info.

However. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Removes all lines from the preservation list. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Saves the preservation state. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Thus. When you click the preserve edges button. When active. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps.0 User’s Guide 103 . this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge.

allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. have thickness information stored in their definition. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. using the same units as your model. 104 HyperMesh 8. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. The Midsurf thickness macro. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The lines remain preserved. Type a value into this field. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After selecting surfs and clicking proceed.

This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles.0 User’s Guide 105 . Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. (For example. check the Z-offset values checkbox. For each User profile. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card.. In order to execute this mode. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. 2. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). 3. (For example. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. a base component named t0 must be defined. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness.. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account.

n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. If the Assigned Value is not specified. it is a review/display function only. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes.Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. 2. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. Closes the tab. Close 106 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

2. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the Components option. Create the base component “t0”. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Load the desired model file. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Load the desired model file. 4. Load the desired model file. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Click the Proceed button. Change to your preferred User Profile. Pick the desired nodes. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Select a Thickness Calculation method. 5. 2. 2. 3. 3. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 9. 3. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 7. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. assign the base property card image. 5. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 6. 6. 7. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 11. 6. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel.0 User’s Guide 107 . Select the Nodes/Elements option. and enter any default values for this card. 4. 4. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 8. 7. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 8. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 10. 5. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1.

108 HyperMesh 8. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 4. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 10. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the Components option. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the desired nodes. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. 9. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 6. 7. Select the Components option. 4. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 7. 9. Select the desired elements. Load the desired model file. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 8. Click Proceed. Change to your preferred User Profile. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 7. 10. Select the desired elements. Select the desired nodes. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Select the desired nodes. 5. 4. 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 5. 2. Click the Proceed button. 5. Load the desired model file. 11. 6. 3. 8. Load the desired model file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. 3. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Proceed button. 6.

1 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.15 0.05 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 3. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.1 0.1 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.0 0.05 0.2 Assigned Value 0.0 User’s Guide 109 .15 End 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.05 0.15 0.

• Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. 1. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. 3.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. • • • • • 3. 110 HyperMesh 8.

Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2. Nodes/Elements • 2.Ls-Dyna 1.0 User’s Guide 111 . • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1.

To alleviate this. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. During the process of quick tetramesh.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. helping to better maintain the geometry. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. For example. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. Click proceed to finalize the selection. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps).

and projections onto the original geometry. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. Choose floating. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. Choose between automesh and batch. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. Average element size of the mesh to be created. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. or the one used by the batch mesher. feature lines. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. ignores/replaces existing elements. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. and always uses uniform density. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. even if doing so would improve element quality. and edges to improve accuracy. correction of sliver elements. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. but requires more computing time. both trias and quads may be created. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements.0 User’s Guide 113 . or fixed. Minimum allowable area for any element. splitting of elements. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. With the Mixed mesh type. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. When this option is checked. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. but only for the elements selected as sacred.

Locate entities attached to the selected components. In addition. 5. if any (e. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Identify problem areas. Select these elements as sacred elements. Run with the desired mesh size. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). 114 HyperMesh 8. 6. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. After making adjustments.g. manually mesh problem areas. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. any surfaces edges that were ignored. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. 2. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. These sacred elements need to be trias. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. manually mesh using chordal deviation. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. and Maximum angle. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. 3. the tool heals small cracks in the model. As a part of the cleanup. Closes the tab. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. Load the geometry. 4. Locate T-connections in the model. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. however. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements.

This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. Remember that this is a minimum length. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. but no greater than 1. Click proceed. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. 3. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. 2. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. nd Order Midnodes window. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. nd The Fix 2 4. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. so a value of 0.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. and using that panel’s save failed option. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. From that point onward. HyperMesh 8. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value).

5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you click Apply. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window.

only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. then click proceed. measured from the node. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. with a nodes selector and a proceed button.Trim Hole Macro This macro. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. If you chose varying width for the layers. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. The number of a specific washer layer. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. or to vary from one another. Otherwise. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width.0 User’s Guide 117 . No.

If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). if necessary. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . evenly spaced around its circumference. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. use “0. Click this button to create the new hole(s).Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. click this button to undo it. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. For example. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius.

Close the Filling holes with mesh window. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. 3.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. For example. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. Split the model along global Y=0. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Click this button to perform the fill operation.0 and Y=ymax. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. 4. and attempt to fill them with mesh. Split the model along global Y=0. and X=xmin and X=value.0 User’s Guide 119 . The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2).0. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle.0 and Y=ymax. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. and X=value and X=xmax. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. 2. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:.0 and X=value (selected value). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. click this button to undo it. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. Click proceed in t he panel area. The window temporarily minimzes. and X=xmin and X=value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. 120 HyperMesh 8.

You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. If you select custom.To box trim a model: 1. Y and Z directions. . Y and Z bounds of the box. 4. click the icon. If no load collector is specified. select the node/enter value for trim location. the constraints are created in the current load collector. Click Trim. 2. 3. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). click the icon. Using the extended entity selection. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Then enter Delta X. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button.0 User’s Guide 121 .) 5. click Box Trim. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. If you select a standard type. 6. and select the center node. all displayed elements are selected. the outer X. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. If you select Corners. You can also specify a Box collector. From the Box Trim dialog. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. . If no elements are selected. (Reject will undo all the above. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.cfg file.0 User’s Guide 123 .cfg file) in the Fe type field.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 Maximum thickness 1. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. Diameter vs. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.4 to 1.exe feinput translator. For additional supported formats. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected. see Spotweld Interface Overview. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface.4 2.0:: 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0 for the thickness range of 1.25: 3.05:: Y 2.9 3.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. Minimum thickness 1. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.25:: 3. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.25:: Z 1. A format example is shown below. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.99.

ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.0 User’s Guide 125 . The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.

In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 5. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If no DvsT file is selected. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. Select a DvsT file. 4. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Once a connector is created. 3. 8. 6. 9. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. 126 HyperMesh 8. 7. meshless elements. Click realize.0. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. For CWELD elements. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. 2. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value.

They include Abaqus. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). and removing. loading a specific Utility menu. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. moving. or renaming panel options. removing unused panels or sub-panels.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. and an interface customized for CFD uses. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. The configuration can include loading a specific template. renaming panels.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. Ansys. They may. OptiStruct. Madymo. Nastran. HyperMesh. Moldflow. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 127 . Pamcrash. however. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. The hmmenu. LsDyna. Actran.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . The current user profile displays on the header bar. Once you choose a standard user profile. Permas. Radioss.

the template remains the same.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a template file exists before loading the profile. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8. the template remains the same. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile.mac) is loaded. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.

click save.. Save simply saves the current model under its current name.0 and earlier. dialog. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or type in a name for the file to be saved.. and then select the hm file sub-panel. and click Save. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. Next. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. and then select the hm file sub-panel... select a file using the Open file.0 User’s Guide 129 . select a path and file name.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open.. You can also click save as. If the file being saved already exists. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. To save a database. Using the Files Panel However. click retrieve.. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save... and click Open. Next. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Save.

see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Note: For more information about picking entities." If there are many pick handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. or surface within that component. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. To select a node. see Entity Selection. line. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. A component can be selected by picking an element. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8.cfg command file. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. Components do not have pick handles. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+.

simply select a system within that system collector. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). A plot can be selected by picking within its border. elements. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. To select a system collector. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Load collectors do not have pick handles. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. To select a load collector. simply select a load within that system collector.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. or loads. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar).0 User’s Guide 131 . Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. Blocks do not have pick handles.

The cursor becomes a small white box 2. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. 3. Release the left mouse button. 4. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. 3. edges. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. release the left mouse button to select it. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. 132 HyperMesh 8. 2. To select new nodes on elements: 1. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). While the line/surface is highlighted. . When you are in a node collection mode.

When you select all. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. To access the extended selection menu. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. loads. When you select by adjacent. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. click the data type button on the current input collector. and points by collector. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies.0 User’s Guide 133 . surfaces. Allows you to select elements. coordinate systems. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. vectors. You may select multiple collectors from this list. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. With all other entities. When you select by collector. Allows you to select entities by assembly. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. lines. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. When you select by attached. equations. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. When you select by assems.

When you select by group. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. 4. 850 1 . Attached. groups and mats within an outputblock. 100 3. You may select multiple groups from this list. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. 77. When you select by id. 5. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. "thru". groups etc.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. 5. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. 3. HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. comps.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .<end number> by <increment value> "through".2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges.100 by 2. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. Allows you to select entities by group. systs. When you select by include. 134 HyperMesh 8.10. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. When you select by output block. that belong to selected include. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. 800. elements. 8 . When you select by config.2000 by 100 1000 . Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . The standard format is: <start number> . loads. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. Allows you to select entities by surface face.

and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). Alternatively. When you select by sets. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane.0 User’s Guide 135 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. When you select by surface. When you select duplicate. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. lines. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. Allows you to select the entities within a set. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. Similarly.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. Once the surfaces have been selected. or points. as shown in the global panel. surfaces. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. When disp is selected. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. Allows you to select surfaces by width. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel.

Some collectors. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. 136 HyperMesh 8. If you select two free (red) edges. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. for example. When reverse is selected. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. all selected elements are removed from the mark. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge.

fill the window with the model. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. Slide zoom. up.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. specify an area to see in closer detail. Hold down the ctrl key. • • • Use the left. View pop-up menu. The save and restore options allow you to save. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. and refresh the screen. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. right. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. identify.0 User’s Guide 137 . reverse the view. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). and restore different views of your model.

To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on.CTRL . Release the mouse button. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. 2. Slide the mouse: or 4. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. Press . These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. 2. Press the s key. 2. 3. With the mouse button still depressed. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. 138 HyperMesh 8. To drag the model: 1. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. 2. To perform a circle zoom: 1. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. Press Z on the keyboard. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. Click and hold the mouse button. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. 3.right click allows you to drag the model. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. Press C on the keyboard. To change the screen center: 1. The current center is indicated by a small white box. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. center. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. or other viewing manipulation was performed. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. Move the mouse into the graphics area. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. 4. zoom. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button.0 User’s Guide 139 . also called panning. by clicking the right mouse button. 2. or by pressing any key. The center relocates.

140 HyperMesh 8. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. Click the upper switch. To turn a collector on: 1. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. 3. To turn a collector off: 1. Select the collector type. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. To change the collector list to display names. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. Click all. located on the permanent menu. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. To change to another collector type: 1. 3. In the default mode of the display panel. At this setting. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. 2. Click the upper switch. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. The colors of each component display next to the component names. 3. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. 2. 2. Click the upper switch.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. IDs. Select the type of collector you want to display. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. 2. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. Select the type of collector you want to display. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. or both: 1.

To use a filter: 1.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. Enter the character string to use for the filter. 2. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard.0 User’s Guide 141 . Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. For smaller models. it is easier to pick an entity. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. For example. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. You can then pick the appropriate load. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. When the pick tolerance is increased. elements. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. for more information see Setting Tolerances. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. This does not affect the display of free points. loads and systems.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. in pixels.

Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. If no shrink is selected. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To select a node. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. select the element to which the node of interest is attached.0 User’s Guide 143 . Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. If a shrink value is applied. For lines and surfaces. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. then selecting FE Styles. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel.

If this situation occurs. you should obtain more system memory. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). and then another entity closer to you at another. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. When a component is set to hidden line. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. To perform this task. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. To correct this situation. this could seriously affect performance. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. the interior is filled with solid color. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. Here. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. If this occurs. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. or nearly the same location in space. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. edges. contour. If you encounter this problem. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. If you have solid elements in your model. and animation panels. In some cases. and faces panels. This can make it very difficult to see a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device.

01 1.0 User’s Guide 145 . any entities created are stored in the active collectors. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file.0 10. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. When you specify a node tolerance. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. If you want to create second order elements. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.1 1.1 0.. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.0 0.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.1 0. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.0 0. Elements are designated as first order elements by default. These parameters remain constant until changed. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.0 1e-4 0.01 1..0 Cleanup tolerance min. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu.01 1e-3 0. deleting fillets.0 100. click the toggle after element order: to second. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.max 1e-4 0. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels.01 1e-3 0.1 10. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.1 10. and eliminating extraneous vertices. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation.

The Multiple File Import window opens. 7. Abaqus. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. Cmold. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. Radioss. VDAFS. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. Ls-Dyna. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. CATIA. 6. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. HM ASCII. Click multiple files. Altair Engineering 9.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. PDGS. STL. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). Ansys. 8. To import multiple files: 1. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. 3. 146 HyperMesh 8. UG. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. Marc. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. 2. Patran. Pamcrash. HyperMesh ascii. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. and STEP. The window minimizes during the import process. DXF. Click Import to import the selected files. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. Click the file pull-down menu. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations.hm) into the current model session. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Select the desired file type. Moldflow. but not all. Click import to open the import sub-menu. and Ideas. PRO/E. Nastran. 5. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list.

and use the browser to select a file. Select IGES. 2. A new input field.. 4.0 User’s Guide 147 . 4. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Select IGES. click import.. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. 3... 6. To read data using a custom translator: 1. 7. 3. 2. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. 8. Click the lower switch and select layers. Select the CUSTOM option. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. 9. Select EXTERNAL. Select the FE option.To read data using a standard translator: 1. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 4. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 5. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. For translator:. click import. 5. 6. template = appears if it is not already present. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right. 4. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data.. 3. Click write as. and enter the name of the output file or select. Click write. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. For file:.. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 2. if they are not already present. 3. Click write. 2. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. For file:. or layers & groups. groups.

Open the File pull-down menu. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. The color checkbox is active by default. To create a PostScript file: 1. Select Image > PostScript. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Select the PostScript sub-panel. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. 2. The standard page length is 11. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. 2. Set the options to your print specifications. A PostScript file with the name post?.0 inches. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog.* is generated. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. press the Options button in the print dialog. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. The following options are available in the options panel. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. To change PostScript settings file: 1.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. If it is not selected. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color.

This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. hm. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. On UNIX platforms. a slider bar is displayed. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. hm. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. but takes longer to generate.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. Generates a *.jpg screen capture or animation file. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). It creates a smaller PS file.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. (Note: This works only in UNIX. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. hm. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. In order for the functions to work correctly. The standard page width is 8. If you select enhanced. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. please contact your systems administrator.cfg. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. If the functions do not create output.cfg.cfg. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications.5 inches.0 User’s Guide 149 . The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour.

Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. the label text color changes to cyan. 150 HyperMesh 8. pick the yellow field label. A card that has been defined may be disabled. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. The attributes for that card remain. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . however. the control card is not output. When you override a default value field. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. and allows you to enter data in the field. To override a default value field. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted.

General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 151 . the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In general.

Select the collectors panel. If you choose not to. Select the create sub-panel. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. 7. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Select the collectors panel. 4. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. 3. Click name= and enter comp1. 2. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click name = and enter a name for the collector. Select the create sub-panel. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. 5. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. 4. select material = and enter a name for the material.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. Click create. 2. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. 7. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Click the switch under creation method:. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. if desired. Where available. 5. Based on the assigned template. For collector type:. refer to Collectors in Database Design. 8. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. 6. If you are creating a component or property collector. 3. Click the upper switch and select comps. To create a collector: 1. 6. Click return. To create a component: 1. Click create. 152 HyperMesh 8. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property.

Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 5. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. Using the toggle. Select the Geom option. ACIS and STEP. IGES. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. To import geometry: 1. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Pro/E. − − Using the toggle. Parasolid. 3. DXF.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. select create blanked component or no blanked component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. PDGS.0 User’s Guide 153 . select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Unigraphics. surface data. 4. 2. VDAFS. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. When the geometry is read into the current database. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information.

Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. including squares. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. extending. or spin. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. drag. cones. spheres. such as spline.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. and cylinders. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. knots and weights. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. 154 HyperMesh 8. Create circles or arcs. or extend. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. split. smooth. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. and at the intersection of other geometry. Several methods are available. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. including: from points. spline/filler. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. The ruled. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. or shrinking. at tangents.

These lines result in a more complex surface. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. and slows the automeshing process.0 User’s Guide 155 . Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. smooth. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. which takes longer to create. line by using the lines panel. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A skinned surface created from the lines. which results in a much simpler surface. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. Lines used to define a skinned surface. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. 156 HyperMesh 8.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line.

Lines used to create a ruled surface.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines.0 User’s Guide 157 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A ruled surface created from the lines.

you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. and while holding the mouse button down.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .. edit elements). moving the mouse slightly from side to side. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. faces. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. click anywhere on the surface to select it. In wireframe mode. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list.e. If several surfaces share an edge. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. i. where appropriate. In the temp nodes panel. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. Each surface highlights as selected. In shaded mode. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. edges. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. Similar to wireframe mode. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. 158 HyperMesh 8. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. and release it to confirm the selection. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes.

You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. to trim a surface with a line. which contain surface editing tools. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. For example. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel.0 User’s Guide 159 . The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. After the circle is used to trim the surface. the surface is not trimmed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the sweep does not intersect the surface.

160 HyperMesh 8. Two surfaces before trimming.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use the trim with surf sub-panel.To trim one surface with another. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.

To re-associate a node to a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. a surface. associativity is broken. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as translate. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. When you create a mesh with the automesher. Some operations break associativity. node. or element. the associativity is not broken. If you transform. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. use the node edit or project panel. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. When nodes are associated to a surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. However.0 User’s Guide 161 .

each a separate mathematical face. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. or pinholes. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. The quick edit.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . edge edit. or other misalignments. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. overlaps. point edit. 162 HyperMesh 8. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. misalignments. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can easily build a much better mesh.0 User’s Guide 163 . cleaner geometry. you can close the gaps between surfaces. Using the simpler. and eliminate pinholes.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. combine surfaces into large meshing regions.

Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. Supports complex beams. or features panel. gaps. rods. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. elem offset. you can build elements directly on the geometry. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. Masses can be created in the masses panel. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. welds. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. plots. Purpose Supports complex beams. bar3s. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. springs. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. a value of mass. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. and joints. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. rigid links. edges. Supports springs or damper. Supports simple beams. Masses have the ability to store one node. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. rigids. Supports display type elements. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. and a property reference. Supports gap elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . rbe3s. line mesh.

Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. six-noded trias. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. four-noded quads. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a row of nodes and a line.0 User’s Guide 165 . By default. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. row of nodes. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements by spinning a line. or two lines. row of nodes. or group of elements along a vector. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. or group of elements about a vector. Builds elements by hand.

lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Propagates split hexas. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids.and 15-noded pentas. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. and 8. 166 HyperMesh 8. Builds elements by hand. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel.and 10-noded tetras. By default. and surfaces. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. 6.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. Builds solid elements between nodes.and 20-noded hexa elements. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.

aspect ratio. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements.0 User’s Guide 167 . CFD-style volumetric skew. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. skew. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. aspect ratio.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. skew. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse.

Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. create a load collector. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a flux load at a node. EQ. Before you apply loads. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. reviewing. The label may include the magnitude of the force. P. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Applies a velocity at a node. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. M. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. T. 168 HyperMesh 8. V. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Equations are displayed with the label. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. with an optional label. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. and updating loads and constraints. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. A. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. flux. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label.

0 User’s Guide 169 . or spherical. forces. Note: System collectors collect system entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. Nodes. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. mass elements. cylindrical. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system.

which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. If you do not use surfaces. • For either method. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. the module operates the same. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. While you are in the meshing module. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. If you use surfaces. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. • If you use surfaces. 170 HyperMesh 8. Furthermore. Most of the element creation panels use this module. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. The created mesh can be previewed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. trias. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel.

0 User’s Guide 171 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

172 HyperMesh 8. smooth. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu. abort. reject. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. undo. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section).Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad.0 User’s Guide 173 . Such an operation is exceedingly fast. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. In this case. rectangular. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. if that is the case. or pentagonal in shape. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. a submapping algorithm is used. If mixed is the element type. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. To make tria elements. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. If trias is the selected element type. Ignoring rotations. and where applicable. HyperMesh uses a single tria. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. an advancing front algorithm is used. If quads or trias is the selected element type.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. gives quality results rapidly. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. Rectangle. Map as Triangle. it chooses the Free algorithm. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. For most configurations. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge.

the algorithm is to drag.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. If you use the drag panel. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. with no surface. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. If you use the spin panel. and if you use the spheres panel. 174 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the algorithm is to spin.

The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. allowing variation in element size. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.0 User’s Guide 175 . this choice usually gives the best results.

Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval.1] of the Real Line. then: . near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. and b is its y-intercept. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. near the end of the edge. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. let n be the element density and let . There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. 176 HyperMesh 8. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. If m is the slope of the line. Within the automesher. In linear solids. or near the middle of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. Specifically. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end.

Specifically. If the biasing intensity is negative. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. That factor is 1. we find: so. let n be the element density and let . Let be the geometric growth factor.20]. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.20]. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. progressing along the edge. the nodes are placed according to 1 .1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. Thus. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Using x(0) = 0. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0.5. and convenient values will fall in the range [0.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. . Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. The value used is b = 1.x(s). and x(1) = 1. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0.0 User’s Guide 177 . For this. Thus.1]. .

We need so that takes values in [0.1] with x(0) = 0. x(1) = 1. let n be the element density and . and if it is negative.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . they are placed at the middle of the edge. and has the behavior noted above. Specifically. If the biasing intensity is positive.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. 178 HyperMesh 8. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. .

Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In these circumstances. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. The error message. it has no effect. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset.0 User’s Guide 179 . HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced.

Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.

a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is displayed in red.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. The connector is created at the point location. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or the weld element is deleted. and density values. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. The connector location option is set in the create panel. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. Only one connector is created for each line. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. for example. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. spacing. The connector is displayed in yellow. Only nodes. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is displayed in green. points.

The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. and components can be added to connectors. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. Only nodes. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. or an element that it holds. The following entities are supported. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. surfaces. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. tags. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. elements. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only).Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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To read in metadata. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.4375:: 9.cfg file under the same directory.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. Each template works on only one specific format file.0 User’s Guide 191 . The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld.375 Weld Template :: 2.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats. For custom templates. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks. The spotweld.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4. num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

dyna.0 User’s Guide 193 . LSDYNA. The user-defined number for the FE combination. optistruct. Seam. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. and pamcrash2g. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. The user-specified name for the FE combination. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. pamcrash. nastran. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. Area.). This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. ansys. the feconfig. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. etc). marc. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types.g. By default. etc.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. The data can be separated using a space. Supported solvers are: abaqus. Spot.

If the rigid flag = 1. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. In addition. If the type is not defined. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. plot.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. so the type field should be zero. etc. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. For example. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. For example. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. The various types supported for rigids are equation. For example. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. If rigid flag = 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . rbe3. rigidlink. and that they are native types. a zero should be input.

tcl extension. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). based on the solver. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. There can be more than one weld in a series. The various types supported for welds are. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. welds are created in parallel. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel.0. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. hexa8. rod. etc. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . a series weld is created.0 User’s Guide 195 . If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. attributes. Starting with HyperMesh 8. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. Note. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities.0). If the body flag = 0. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. however. If the length location flag = 1. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. plot. If the body flag = 1. the users home directory (UNIX only). the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). For example. spring. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The *post lines are optional. and other solver specific details.

196 HyperMesh 8. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions.5 (50%) each. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. Therefore. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.0 (100%). 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported.

0 User’s Guide 197 . Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 spring 6 0.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. or "2". The behavior for each value is as follows.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . "1". 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. 198 HyperMesh 8.

It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. During the morphing process. logical and intuitive. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful.0 User’s Guide 199 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.

A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. rotation. or you can define your own domains and handles. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. on-screen method. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. angles. the morph volume concept. radii. into morphs using the record sub-panel. such as scaling or node projection. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. the nodes which will stay fixed. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. You define the nodes which will move. When the handles are moved. HyperMorph can do this automatically. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. such as translation.0 User’s Guide 201 . You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. and the freehand concept. dividing the mesh into logical domains. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. and the affected elements manually. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms.

even for large models. When the handles are moved. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. the actual morphing occurs quickly. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. or elements. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. edge. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. in the case of 1D. global and local. and general domains. parametric changes to the model. For very large domains. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. 3D domains. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. 3D. cyan. However. In the areas between the handles. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. for very large domains. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. 202 HyperMesh 8. Thus. Therefore. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. However. thus making morphing slower. or yellow. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. Domains consist of nodes. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. and general domains. 2D domains. edge domains. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. which in turn. The global group consists of global domains. 2D. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. For domains that have more than 50. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. the color indicating their level of dependency. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. in the case of global domains. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles.

HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model. These handles are named handle followed by a number. you can always delete them. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. reposition them. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. or use the generate auto-function. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or create new handles.0 User’s Guide 203 .When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight.

global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. the direct method. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. In the direct method. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. 204 HyperMesh 8. In the mixed method. which in turn influence nodes. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you wish to preserve the local geometry. In the hierarchical method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. and the mixed method. choose the direct method. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain.

the mesh is affected directly. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. it moves the local handles. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. which move the mesh.0 User’s Guide 205 .An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected.. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. a cube for 3D domains. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. These local handles are named local followed by a number. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. but may produce more desirable influences. and a line for edge domains. 206 HyperMesh 8. The spatial method is the default. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. four joined rectangles for general domains. When local domains are created.

such as bars and rigid elements. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. are called 1D domains. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. Domains made up of 1D elements. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. In the example above. The independent handle is larger and orange.0 User’s Guide 207 . The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. Finally. Additionally.

maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. By moving the orange handle. If partitioning has been selected. edit them. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. such as floating in space near the domain. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. or create new ones. Also. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. you can delete them. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. In general. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. the entire spider is moved. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. Since you morph the model by moving handles. 208 HyperMesh 8.

The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. if you do. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Handles can be placed anywhere. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model.0 User’s Guide 209 . solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. However. even at nodes not on the associated domain. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain.

Also. 210 HyperMesh 8. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. and curved edges retain their curvature. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. flat surfaces remain flat. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. When you release the mouse button. Note that when an edge domain is created. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. Similarly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges.

How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. Note that the edge domain remains straight. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. 2D. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. Otherwise. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. When a general domain is created. 2D. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. However. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. Like all other domains. preserving the shape of the feature. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 211 . General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. thus no handles are created for the domain. In the bottom frames. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. and 3D elements. where 1D. and 3D domains are used. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either.

or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. shell. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. 212 HyperMesh 8. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. or where the domain changes from flat to curved.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. and solid elements. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. If there are no surfaces in the model. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). However. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel.

otherwise they are considered to be curved. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. In general. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. partitioning was used.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. When using curvature-based partitioning. For the node based method. In either case. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. If you have also selected add to geometry. For instance. For the model on the right. the other method might work better. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. element-based and node-based. they are considered flat. If you have selected use geometry. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. changes direction. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements.0 User’s Guide 213 .

and so on. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. cyan. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. Global handles. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. and violet) Local handles. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. 214 HyperMesh 8.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. the shape of the edge can be changed. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. all local handles are dependent on global handles. When the dependent handle is moved. blue. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. independent (orange) and dependent (green. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. biasing will affect them. In the hierarchical method. but dependency loops are not allowed. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. performing localized “global” morphing. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. the center handle is moved independently. the center handle follows along.0 User’s Guide 215 . In the lower frame. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. Dependencies . in essence. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame).

example 2 In the model on the left. Also.Dependencies . each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. both holes move with it. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the independent handle is moved. Dependencies . Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. The bottom has similar dependencies. 216 HyperMesh 8. In the model on the right. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles.

the morph consists only of node perturbations. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. In the case of freehand morphing. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape.0 User’s Guide 217 . If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. When you morph your model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. if constraints are being used. When you create a shape. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. However. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. For many morphing operations. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. all of these shapes must be applied. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part.

you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. Select the shapes to be converted. From the BCs page. select the shape panel. you should save shapes as node perturbations. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. 3. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. Whenever you make a change to your model. Click create. 9. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Click convert. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable.When you are saving a shape. select the morph panel. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. select the shapes panel. 6. The shape is converted. optimization module. Once a shape is saved. Save your morph as a shape. 218 HyperMesh 8. If you select handle perturbations. it becomes a shape variable. If you select node perturbations. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. If not. 2. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. 10. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. 3. Select the save shape sub-panel. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. 2. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. or vice-versa: 1. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. Each desvar is given a unique name. 8. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. 4. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. Select the convert sub-panel. redone. 5. or saved as part of another shape. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. 5. 4. 7.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module.0 User’s Guide 219 .11. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Click animate. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. The deformed panel displays. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies.

Type in a name.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . wider. 6. select the handles panel. use a cluster type morph constraint. From the HyperMorph module. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. shorter. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. 4. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. Select the domains panel. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. Delete any unwanted handles. Creating Handles and Domains . From the Tool page. In many cases. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. these handles will be where you want them to be. Set the toggle to all nodes. 3. 5. 220 HyperMesh 8. In many instances. Set the toggle to create handles. Select create. select the HyperMorph module. 2. For these types of models.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. Often the desired shape changes are general. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. Click create. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. such as a car body. Click create. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. If not. such as a wheel or the engine block. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. If more than one handle is created at a time. but their basic structure is rather simple. Set the selector to global domain. 7. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame.space frame model 1. such as making it smaller.

Adding. or symmetries. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. editing.0 User’s Guide 221 . this can be time consuming. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For large models or large changes. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. There are many options available for moving the handles. or deleting handles. domains.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. if necessary.

Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. 222 HyperMesh 8. 9. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. Click morph. select the morph panel. 6. When you release the mouse button. Line. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. If the handle position needs to be changed again.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. 4. Since on release was selected. Select move handles. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. select the morph constraints panel. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). Click create. the handle follows along the selected vector. 4. 6. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. As you drag the mouse. 7. 8. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. From the HyperMorph module.Matching a Mesh. 2. 3. 3. 2. Select the nodes on the target mesh. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. Switch the selector to fixed. 5. 5. From the HyperMorph module. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. Select a vector. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. only the graphics for the handle are updated. Select the create/update sub-panel. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. repeat steps 7 through 9. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them.

select several handles on the screen. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line.0 User’s Guide 223 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line.10. When you release the mouse. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. Perform steps 7 through 9.

a plane. 3. save your shapes as node perturbations. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. However. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Click on the line or surface where you want the node.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. edit. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . or delete any morphing entities. or a surface. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. 2. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. Select a handle. Select a node. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted.

Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Change the distance value. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. both node a and node b will move the same distance.0 User’s Guide 225 . Click morph. Rotate the handles. 2. Click translate. Set the rotation angle. select the morph panel. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Set the upper left selector to distance. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. To translate or rotate handles: 1. 3. Click rotate. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. Select a vector and distance. Select a few handles. Select a few handles. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Or Select the desired xyz translation. If the left selector is set to hold end a. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Translate the handles. node a will not move (same for node b).Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Select alter dimensions. Select an axis of rotation. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. If the left selector is set to hold middle. From the HyperMorph module.

Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. the vertex. Change the angle value. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. 7. 3. The distance is changed and the model morphs.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. 5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. If necessary. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Click morph. Select node a. iterattion is not necessary. vertex. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. or at least get close. To change the angle: 1. 4. and node b are the specified angle. 226 HyperMesh 8. 2. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. Set the upper left selector to angle.

for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 227 . positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node).Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. blue. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). When you perform global morphing operations. However. By placing three fingers on each side. For the general space frame cases. and red). you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence.

Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it. 228 HyperMesh 8. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 229 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the fender of the model is morphed. 3. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. Mirror Images . select the symmetry panel. Select the global domain icon. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. 8. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 2. 7. 5. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. Select the system you created. 9. morph volumes will usually yield better results.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. Return to the HyperMorph module. select the systems panel. 4. 6.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Enter a name. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. From the HyperMorph module. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. 230 HyperMesh 8.

The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. When handles are created or deleted. As a result.10. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. use the approximate option instead.0 User’s Guide 231 . Click create. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. Since enforced was selected.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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select the domains panel. From the HyperMorph module. Change the selector to combine domains. 2. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. 240 HyperMesh 8. 5.To group two or more domains together: 1. Select organize. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. Select the domains to be grouped together. If you do your edge editing first. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. Click organize.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 3. You may need to correct this by hand. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. 4. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points.

Click split. From the HyperMorph module. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Select any number of connected edge domains. 4. Select edit edges. 3. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 5. Change the selector to split. 6. Click merge. select the domains panel. 4. Splitting an edge domain . 2. A handle is created at the selected node. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to merge. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. 2. 5. Select an edge domain.0 User’s Guide 241 . select the domains panel.To split edge domains: 1. To merge edge domains: 1.

select the domains panel. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. Click create. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. 5. Select edit edges. the handle at the joint was deleted. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 3. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 4. Since retain handles was unchecked. 2.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. Change the selector to add handles. From the HyperMorph module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 242 HyperMesh 8. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Select one or more domains.

Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects.When you are satisfied with your domains. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. . In these cases you should divide large domains.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. record. delete unnecessary handles. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. Secondly. line and surface difference. plane. The first is that since they are dependent. or mesh Using section mapping. curvature. It will be as if they were not there. click return. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles.0 User’s Guide 243 . or lower the limit of the large domain solver. surface. the influences do not need to be recalculated.

This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. or another mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or another mesh. line. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. surfaces.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. or domains. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. surface. or place them on lines. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. You select an entity such as a vector. plane. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. surfaces. it is better to use a non-interactive option. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). the length of the flange is reduced. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 245 .

the thickness of the lower section is reduced. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the width of the channel is increased. 246 HyperMesh 8.

Morphing by rotating handles . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the position of the bolt boss is modified.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node).Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.0 User’s Guide 247 .constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. Morphing by rotating handles . the end angle of the section is modified.

This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. To correct this situation. check the true rotation checkbox. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. Morphing by rotating handles . 248 HyperMesh 8.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by rotating handles . Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. When applying handle perturbations to your model. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient.

0 User’s Guide 249 . the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. such as the distance between nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b).Morphing by rotating handles . the angle between nodes. While morphing a model. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. If you click no. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. For most cases you will want to click yes. For solid models.

Morphing by altering dimensions . the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. 250 HyperMesh 8. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node. Morphing by altering dimensions .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. Morphing by altering dimensions . blue. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. blue.0 User’s Guide 251 .angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green.Morphing by altering dimensions . and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. near.

the radius is changed from 5 to 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .The radius. curvature. and arc angle options are used as follows. and click morph. 252 HyperMesh 8. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. set the new radius. or arc angle factor for them.6.5. curvature multiplication.0 to 8.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. so if you want to change a radius from 5. select the center calculation and style options. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.radius . Morphing by altering dimensions . the radius is changed from 3 to 1. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. you need to set the curve ratio to 1.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.0. All the domains are changed simultaneously.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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000 at the corners. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. and 3. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. 2.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. When the handles are translated.000.000 at the edges. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the handles were translated linearly. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. In this example.0 User’s Guide 261 . the morphing between the handles is linear. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains.000 in the middle.

000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. the mesh unfolds (right frame). the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000.000. 262 HyperMesh 8. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want.000. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2.000. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.500. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph.000 for the handle at the hole.000. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. After applying a morph. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1.

Select create. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. 4. Click create. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. If they are not. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. bosses. Once partitioned.0 User’s Guide 263 .solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. In many cases. edit. This procedure is automatic. edges. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. If the model is made up of more than one part. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. Creating Handles and Domains . This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. 2. and ribs. From the HyperMorph module. If partition 2D domains is checked. 3.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. Set the selector to 3D domains. namely. Change the toggle to all elements. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. flanges. 5. tetras. select the domains panel. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. pentas. you can add. For solid models. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. and hexas. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. or manually select all of the elements in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. In general.

and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. However. If there are any domains or handles in the model. Select create. select the domains panel. as well as a global domain and handles. Without handles. 2. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. 3. such as first order tetra meshes. global handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. and 1D domain. If you click yes. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. the node based partitioning will work better. which produces dependent (green) handles. element based and node based. 4. From the HyperMorph module. before deciding to partition by hand. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. 264 HyperMesh 8. morphing cannot be performed. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. Click generate. 2D. 1D. However. Set the selector to auto functions.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the domains panel. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. However. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. Click create. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. To do this. 6. for first order tetra meshes. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. 2. Set the selector to subdivide 3D.0 User’s Guide 265 . Select update. Therefore. 4. Additionally. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. When the new domain is created. 4. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. you do not need to select only solid elements. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Click subdivide. When selecting elements for the new domain. 3. Set the selector to 3D domains. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. To subdivide your solid model: 1. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. 5. 5. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. select the domains panel. Select create. For these meshes. Also. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. in the parameters sub-panel. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. 2. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. you only need to create domains for that part. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. 3. To divide your solid model manually: 1. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. but it will not partition the interface.Also. From the HyperMorph module. From the HyperMorph module.

the internal elements can become distorted. 266 HyperMesh 8. edited. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. domains. you can edit them in the domains panel. and place handles along edge domains. or deleted.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. Occasionally. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. Create and edit the edge domains. Create and edit the 2D domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. When some meshes are morphed. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Some cleanup may be required. or symmetries are added. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. merge. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion.

For this example. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. 3. 6. the retain handles option was left unchecked. New handles may also be created during this process. 4. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. handles may be deleted.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. 2. From the HyperMorph module. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. and if retain handles is not checked.0 User’s Guide 267 . select the domains panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. Select the elements to be moved. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Select organize. Click organize. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. 5. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. Select the target domain.

3. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. Click split.To group two or more domains: 1. 5. You will need to correct this by hand. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. select the domains panel. From the HyperMorph module. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. To split edge domains: 1. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. Select edit edges. but in some cases. From the HyperMorph module. 4. which becomes a handle (right model). Change the selector to combine domains. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Select organize.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 5. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. 2. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 3. 2. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). Select the domains to be grouped. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. 6. If you perform edge editing first. 4. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. Select an edge domain. A handle is created at the selected node. Click organize. select the domains panel. 268 HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to split.

4. Select edit edges. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. select the domains panel. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Select any number of edge domains.0 User’s Guide 269 . To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. Select edit edges. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. It will be as if they were not there. The first is that since they are dependent. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. select the domains panel. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Click create. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 4. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. Change the selector to merge. Change the selector to add handles. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain.To merge edge domains: 1. 3. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 5. 3. Select one or more domains. If a model is very large. 2. From the HyperMorph module. 2. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. From the HyperMorph module. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Secondly. Click merge.

delete unnecessary handles. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. In these cases. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. 270 HyperMesh 8. You can still display the surface mesh. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. you should divide large domains.6. Viewing Solid Models . click return. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you are satisfied with your domains. your model is displayed as a wire frame. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. However. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. if desired (as shown). since the viewing mode is still wire frame. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other.

so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter.0 User’s Guide 271 . This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. rod) element property data for an FEA model. surface. beam. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. its local coordinate system. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Select the lines. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. Each step is described in more detail below.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. as dictated by the beam section template. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. and any beam section properties calculated. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. moving. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. It is a threestep process. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating.

You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.Step 3: Beam Property Import.0 User’s Guide 273 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. N1. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. 274 HyperMesh 8.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 275 . N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point.

HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 276 HyperMesh 8.If the node selection was performed differently. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).

the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. the HyperBeam alignment axis. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. This operation is performed in the bars panel. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. In this case. After the card image is created.0 User’s Guide 277 . the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. This can be done in the collectors panel. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and the local bar element alignment axis. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction.

278 HyperMesh 8. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system.0 User’s Guide 279 .Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. The x axis is defined along the beam axis. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. Thickness warping is also neglected. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.z plane. For shell sections.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. Fachbuchverlag. Leipzig.D. and W. A. V. Wiley & Sons. 1979.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Rubenchik. Gjelsvik. 1993. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars.D.. ed. CRC Press. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. 1981. FL. Boca Raton. H.0 User’s Guide 281 . Schramm. U. Pilkey and W. Pilkey. Wunderlich. Goeldner.

282 HyperMesh 8.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. toolbar. and status bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and results/spreadsheet sections. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. shell section graphics pane. It also has a menu bar.

select the section. select Cut from the Edit menu. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. To export sections to an external file. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. To move a section. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. and select Paste from the Edit menu. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. select the collector where you want the section to appear.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. click once on the item to select it. holding down the control key. select the section. and enter the new name. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. and select Paste from the Edit menu. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. right-click in the section browser pane. and renaming sections and section collectors. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). Section types are identified by icons. To view thumbnails of selected sections. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. click Save.bm extension to save beam section files). select the collector where you want the section to appear. copying sections. select Copy from the Edit menu. right-click in the section browser pane. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. To copy a section. select the collector branch in the section browser window.0 User’s Guide 283 . At the highest level is the model. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. select a section by left-clicking on it.

if you have them enabled on the view menu. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. or equivalently. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. separated by a colon. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. For shell sections. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. 284 HyperMesh 8.

" Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. then the spreadsheet displays equations. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. Also. To see the list of all the results available. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. If the results are not available. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. variables. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. then HyperBeam displays the message. and optimization bounds for the section. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section.0 User’s Guide 285 . If there are computed values that are not necessary. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. consult the documentation for the results output template. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. it displays them in the results pane. text color. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. to toggle between them. "No results to display. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You specify the text font.

The equation is passed to the optimization solver. you can use other vertex coordinates. Alternatively. arithmetic functions. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. and optimization bounds.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. a new blank line appears. or trigonometric functions. In the equation. with a few restrictions. Next. Select delete variable on the menu. a lower bound. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation.) To delete an equation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . variables. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. If all three values are equal. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. initial value. click the variable with the right mouse button. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. (For example. into which you can enter the variable's name. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. To define a variable for use in an equation. 286 HyperMesh 8. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. and an upper bound. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. blank spaces may be prohibited. To delete a variable. A menu is displayed. If you choose add.

HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Displays a print preview.0 User’s Guide 287 . File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. select Preferences. or generic section. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Redo the last procedure. Delete the currently selected text or entity. or only selected sections. From the Edit window. Options are provided to export all sections. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. On the Edit menu. Copies the selected text or entity. Save the beam cross-section. Set the graphics and results preferences. standard section. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. select Preferences to display the tabs. Allows you to set up printer preferences.

x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. such as courier. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. Each section type can have its own custom script. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. Displays the font dialog box. so that their sizes are relative to one another. for best formatting. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts.

Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. When selected. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar... Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If selected. Allows you to move vertices. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Moves the model in the selected direction. rearrange vertices in a part. automatically updates the display when you make changes... updates results. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Properties. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane.. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Part Editor.0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane.

if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. or the principle axes change. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. or the current centroid to be the new origin. If you move a defi ning vertex. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. if you subsequently move that vertex.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. To specify a new coordinate system. the current principle axes. 290 HyperMesh 8. Likewise. reflecting it about the y-axis. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Note that. the origin will not move with it. the origin for the section does not follow it. the current shear center. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

2. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list.. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. 12.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. 3. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. When you use the part editor tools for. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. enter a value in the appropriate field. 2. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. 5. include those vertices in more than one part. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges.0 User’s Guide 291 . For example. 4.) If you are currently in an optimization section. in the section illustrated below. 14. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 13.. To set a new thickness.

Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. On the Tools menu. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. select properties. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. Set the warping factor. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This operation cannot be undone. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. or equations tying coordinates together. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. or vertex coordinates.

Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.0 User’s Guide 293 .

double-click the last vertex. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. To finish the part. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. Resize the display to fit the pane.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Bring the section results up to date. activate this tool and click on the vertex.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Specify a new center for the graphics display. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. If you want to delete a vertex.

rearrange vertices in a part. Paste a copied or cut item. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 295 . Open the print dialog. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Copy an item.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. activate this tool. Redo the last action performed. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Undo the last action performed. Open the HyperBeam on-line help.

The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. center of gravity. and torsion and warping constants. calculate its properties. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. shear center. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. Note: For design reasons. principal axes. 296 HyperMesh 8.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. moments of inertia.

your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. If you use the default method. All properties are calculated on the plane. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). the coordinate system. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. offset values are calculated for you. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. or elements is used. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. If you are using offset sections. When you pick elements. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. second order elements are always used. Axes. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines.Describing Cross Section Planes. using NASTRAN conventions. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements.0 User’s Guide 297 . these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. If you define the plane. If you do not specify a base point. Unless you change the name of the component. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. the Y. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. or have it calculated for you. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. surfaces. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. the cross section must be planar.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. in this case. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation.

The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. Although you can use the line segments option. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. 298 HyperMesh 8. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. When you use this method. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. thicknesses. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. or by entering the desired values. normal to the line. an offset of each line is created. based upon the line data in the model. and weld points. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. the offset direction is centered. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. By default. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. After the initial cross section is defined. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. When you define a weld point. The offset direction is user-specified. the section must be a contiguous area. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. With either method. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. or reverse normal to the line. The choices are centered.

you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. No alterations are made to those elements. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. When lines or surfaces are chosen. If you select by elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. aside from projecting to a common plane. those elements are considered to be the section. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently.0 User’s Guide 299 . lines. If the section is defined using elements.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition.

Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. the properties are calculated.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. 300 HyperMesh 8. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. The post-processing panel is displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. Otherwise. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions.

I2. J. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. Izz. These factors. For more information. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Iyy. Ist. K2 A. Ir A. ANSYS. and the modified value. J. J. As. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. independently developed over many years. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. Centroid x1 and x2. CW. no changes are made to the calculated value. OPTISTRUCT. Γw. or PAM-CRASH. and the spacing between welds. N2 A. Iss.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. Similarly non 1. N1. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. It.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. K1. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. see Save and Display Results. Is. When you apply the results to the properties or components. I1. LS-DYNA. ABAQUS. I2. CENTROID. K1.0. Irr. I22. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. MARC. that solver is automatically selected. I12. I1. Izz. K2. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. I12. SA A. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. Itt. you may select NASTRAN. For more information. I1. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. Otherwise. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. RADIOSS.0 User’s Guide 301 . The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. J. I2. see Creating Collectors. Iyy A. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. If data exists. After you select the solver. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. the original value. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values.

check to make sure the desired component is currently active. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. If you use a nodal orientation. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. that is referenced by the bar element. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. to describe the bar’s orientation. and not with summary alone. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. If you want to save these. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. The element is created in the currently active component. it creates a new node. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. If you use a vector orientation. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. 302 HyperMesh 8. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. to which the calculated properties were assigned.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. if any. you must save the results as an ASCII file. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. This feature works only with apply results. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. If only one property is selected.

If you need a different reference point. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Select those lines as your section definition. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split.0 User’s Guide 303 .

component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. this is not advisable. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. Nastran.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. 304 HyperMesh 8. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. review and edition of composite laminates. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct.

Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. and delete entries in text boxes. edit materials. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. laminates or design variables. paste. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and access on-line help. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. This browser. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. laminates and design variables. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. copy. laminates and size design variables in your model. provides a vertical tree view of materials. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser).HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. and to cut. change views. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files.0 User’s Guide 305 .

Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. 306 HyperMesh 8. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Exit HyperLaminate. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. This text file can be printed. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. The following chart lists each menu option. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting.

Display/hide status bar.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Displays version. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. contact. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 307 . and copyright information.

(a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. The toolbar is shown and described here. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. 308 HyperMesh 8. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

SHELL99. Laminates and Design Variables.0 User’s Guide 309 . provides a vertical tree view of the materials. On launching HyperLaminate. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. and laminates in your model. for the active user profile. for Abaqus: i. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Materials: MAT1. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. 2. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. Laminates: SHELL91. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. Design Variables: DESVAR b. These are: a. for Ansys: i. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials.

• • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree.which allows the entity to be renamed. A new entity appears under the selected branch. 2. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. Click New. At the lowest level are the entities. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Click the New icon. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. The selected entity is highlighted. i. Select New from the File pull-down menu. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. displayed with the names as defined by you. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity.e. A new entity appears under the selected branch. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To review and update entities: 1. . Or 1. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. on the toolbar. a new MAT1 entity is created. 2. 310 HyperMesh 8. Or 1. 3. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. Rename . Right click on selected entity sub-type.3. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. 2. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New.

A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser.To rename entities: 1. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Right click on selected entity. 6. 3. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. The name of the selected entity. Duplicate. Click Yes. Right click on the selected entity. 4. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 7. 3. Enter the desired new name in the text box. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 2. Click Duplicate. 3. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 4. To duplicate entities: 1. and Delete. Right click on the selected entity. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Or 5. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Yes. Duplicate. switches to a text box. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 2. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click Rename. 2. Duplicate. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. and Delete. and Delete.0 User’s Guide 311 . in the Laminate Browser. Click Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename.

Click Yes. . The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 312 HyperMesh 8. A confirmation dialog is displayed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the Delete icon. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 9. as they do not really exist. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). To delete these undefined materials. 10. on the toolbar.8.

Nastran and Ansys materials.0 User’s Guide 313 . Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. Once the desired changes have been made. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button.

Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. HyperMesh component color. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. As with the other user profiles. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button.

Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. 90. 180. d. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 315 . The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. The midlayer is not reflected. 180. Due to the midlayer. 90. f. c. 270 and 360 respectively). Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 180. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. the total number of plies is always odd. e. The midlayer is not reflected. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). the total number of plies is always odd. 180. Due to the midlayer.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 90. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. b. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 90. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. 270 and 360 respectively).

Ctrl+c. pasted or deleted to/from the table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. using the toolbar.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). with the Ctrl key held down. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. Each row of the table defines the material. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Rows may be cut. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. Rows may be inserted in the table. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. When multiple rows are selected. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field.

on the toolbar. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. A new material appears under the selected branch. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. you can click the Clear button. 2. but this is not enforced in the GUI. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide 317 . To define a new material: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). c) Click New. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. b) Click the new icon. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Once the desired changes have been made. the No. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A new material appears under the selected branch. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. A new material appears under the selected branch. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). . of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG.

Each change is reflected in the Review pane. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click Apply to save the changes. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 5. 318 HyperMesh 8. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. 3. For the OptiStruct. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Ctrl+c. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click return. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero.For the OptiStruct. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 2. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. using the toolbar. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 4. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 2. To review or modify an existing material: 1. 3. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 3. Data may be cut.

2. b) Click the new icon. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 6. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 4. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 5. 4. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 3. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click Apply to save the changes. 3. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. c) Click New. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette.0 User’s Guide 319 . The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. on the toolbar. . 2. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. Click return. To define a new laminate: 1.

If Constant is selected. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. 320 HyperMesh 8. Table rows may also be cut. copied. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. Note: 7. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. using the toolbar. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). if you now uncheck the box. Data may be cut. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. pasted or deleted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+c. 8. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. a) For Convention:. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. Ctrl+c. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. they will be pasted as sequential rows. 10. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. but are now editable. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. 6. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. Eg. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. 9. select Constant or Variable. copied. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. using the toolbar. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. b) For Ply thickness:.5.

The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. c) Click New. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 7.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. on the toolbar. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. 2. . where a move limit value other than the default of 0. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 5. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. (See To define a new laminate). Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 4. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 3. (only subtype available is DESVAR). 3.5 may be entered. 2. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 1. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. Initial.0 User’s Guide 321 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. b) Click the new icon. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 6. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate.

Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. using the toolbar. copied.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. 3. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Ctrl+c. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. Data may be cut.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. 322 HyperMesh 8. 2.

all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. no information is displayed in the Review pane. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. the review pane has two tabs. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. Materials For OptiStruct. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. This is followed by a description of the laminate. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Nastran and Ansys materials.0 User’s Guide 323 . Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition.Review Pane The Review Pane. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. thickness and orientation. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. For Abaqus materials. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles.

324 HyperMesh 8. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). creating "dead cells. fluid flow. the outer boundary of the volume." All of these dead cells are placed in walls.0 in each direction. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. three-dimensional. wall. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. After you create a finite difference block. chemical reaction. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. you can export the grid. If a finite element model is currently loaded. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. j. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system.0 and 110. and k directions of the block. When the block is displayed. Otherwise. These axes serve as a reminder of the i.

you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. j. j nodes. marked as dead. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. After you create a mesh. each cell within a block is live. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. After you create a wall. which creates dead cells wherever a one.0 User’s Guide 325 .or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. select the desired elements and click intersect. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. respectively. Updates the color of an existing wall. Deletes the specified wall. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. and displayed in the current wall color. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. or k nodes has been selected. j. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. Displays a list of all walls in the block. based on whether i nodes. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. Initially. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. See the FD nodes panel for more information. A cell may exist in only one wall. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. To intersect the model with the cells. and k directions. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Deletes all existing walls. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button.

since only dead cells are plotted. 326 HyperMesh 8. by using the next and prev menu functions. It is possible to step through the model. When the entire block is plotted. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. After edit cells is selected. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. j. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. If the block is displayed in planar mode. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. or by planes. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. plane-by-plane. j. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. Otherwise. it is easier to see which cells are dead. Because cells have no visible pick handle. they are highlighted. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. However. and i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. where the block coordinate axes are located. and k are at their minimum values. by volumes. the color menu items in the i. When cells are selected. If you change the color of a plane. you can edit any cell in the block. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead.

by exporting the FE deck. you control the display of loads applied to elements. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. and accels.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. using the load on geom panel. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms.0 User’s Guide 327 . temperatures. When elems is selected. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. velocities. Use the none. moments. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. Automatically. See Exporting Loads for more information. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. pressures. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). using the files panel/export sub-panel. When geoms is selected. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. flux. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. constraints. After remeshing.

load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8.Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. or a surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a line. Loads applied to geometrical entities. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry.

lines. velocities. moments. and accels. lines and surfaces. forces. flux. 2. constraints. and click create. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. Next. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. points. and updating loads and constraints. lines and surfaces. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. constraints. To apply a load to a geometrical entity.g. lines and surfaces.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. and choose the create sub-panel. The process includes two basic steps. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points.0 User’s Guide 329 . 1. in each of the load application panels listed above. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. points. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. etc. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Third.) located on the Analysis Page. node). select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. temperatures.g. pressures. reviewing. lines and surfaces.

The basic length of the arrow also differs. 330 HyperMesh 8. If displayed is selected. or both. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported.hm file. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. mapped from geometry to mesh. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. only the loads on mesh are exported. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If all is selected. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. When exporting the model using an export template.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any).

to the next field below. or ANSYS format. NASTRAN. until all data has been entered. NASTRAN. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. ABAQUS. ABAQUS. dlm.mac. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed. on the macro menu.0 User’s Guide 331 . The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. in order..

The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. This file is related to the base CFD model. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. This file is related to the structural input model. 332 HyperMesh 8. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. These files are always called hmimp.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. for example. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. used to post-process in Altair HyperView.0 format file related to the structural input model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . structural_model_tecplot.dat Structural analysis model file. For instance. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. for example. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space.

and z coordinates first. a warning message is displayed. click Browse. i. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. .Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.e.548135996E-01-8. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1..960631967E+00 4. Each row should show the x.960968852E+00 4. Click Open.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format.105462790E+00 1. . y. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4. .357369840E-01-8. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model.356568158E-01-8.854129910E-02 1. filename_dynain.0 User’s Guide 333 .926119655E-02 1.970389962E+00 4.095489740E+00 .452460170E-02 1.098905325E+00 1. 2. Use the browser to locate a file. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file.

the X. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. For Mapping method:. i. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. 2. For Data parameter mapped:. 3. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. 2. click Browse. For example. The default value is 1. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. select Element nodes or Element centroids.000. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. NASTRAN. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model.500. . Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. For example. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file.. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. For CFD model scaling:. Set the scale factor 1. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. For Structural analysis model file:.00 (no scaling). Use the browser to locate a file. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. or ANSYS input file format) 1.500. ABAQUS.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. 334 HyperMesh 8. 2. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. or ANSYS input deck. ABAQUS. For CFD result scaling:. Y. if the CFD result scale factor is 1.e. Click Open. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. NASTRAN.. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. select the data type to be mapped. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). Select a data type and a mapping method 1. Once the data is mapped. filename_dynain. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. The default is 1.

Click OK. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. The mapping algorithms are accessed. The default mapping algorithm. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the mapping process runs.0 User’s Guide 335 . and takes an average of these two values.Set the mapping algorithm 1. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. for instance. For Mapping algorithm:. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to.

mac. on the macro menu. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x.0 corresponds to 1.. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands..y. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function.0 Altair Engineering .Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math. dlm.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.0 corresponds to 1.

use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 337 .0.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained.1e+01 corresponds to 1. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions.

This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. A data type may contain only one type of result.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. If this occurs. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. phase. offset) at an element. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. If you run a nonlinear job. For example. phase. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. and vector plots. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. For example. 338 HyperMesh 8. if this is appropriate. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This translation is done using result translators. for more information. and may contain a subset of the total model. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. Stores one floating point value at an element. Stores one floating point value at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. assigned. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. deformed. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. offset) at a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database.

. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. In this case. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. to select a file using the browser. In the global panel. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. and transient. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. to select a file using the browser.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. and for file:...0 User’s Guide 339 . in either wire frame or hidden line mode. For transient animation. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. For linear and modal animation. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database.. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. select the results sub-panel. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. modal. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. for results file:. The three types of animation include linear.

so no further calculations are required. In order to accomplish this. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. The values are located at the centroid of the element. In order to accomplish this. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. based on the values found in the results file. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. See the vector plot panel for more information. For each element. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. When a contour function is performed. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. based on the values in the results file. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. When the assign function is performed. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After you enter the title and create the plot. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. simulation and data type. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. modify the colors used in the legend. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot.0 User’s Guide 341 . Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. you can add titles. The ID. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. change the color of the text in the legend. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. reverse the colors of the legend. To modify the descriptor. By default. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. To modify a legend. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. change the font size.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. To display a curve. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. which are referred to as plots. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. which are referred to as curves. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. 342 HyperMesh 8. The plot may contain any number of curves. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model.

you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. marker style (used to indicate the point location). font. thickness of the grid lines. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. etc. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. subtitle. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. and the line style (solid. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. Allows you to rename curves. In addition. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Reads curves from an ASCII file. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. and zoom out. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend.). circle zoom. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks).XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color.0 User’s Guide 343 . Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. To access the xy plots module. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. line style. and label. thickness. dashed. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. and number of significant places in the labels. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend.

After each change.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To modify an xy plot. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. subtitle. or width of the border. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. Plot attributes include the title. or a subset of the plots. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. you can change the color. Every time you change the current xy plot. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. the grid labels and grid attributes. and labels. in one step. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. Access this panel by pressing the w key. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. or add a title to the plot. This process also applies to curves. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. thickness. 344 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. and change the attribute in the panel. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. select the plot you want to change. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. For example.

which define two curves. ENDDATA XYDATA. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Y1 X2. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. or export the curve. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. which is displayed in the legend. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Point data follows with a set of (x. After XYDATA.0 User’s Guide 345 . you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. The block begins with the statement. XYDATA. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. Y2 . Y1 X2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you create an analysis curve. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. In the above example. After this information has been supplied. follows on the same line. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. Essentially. y) data pairs on each line. . For every operation. . transform a curve. you select entities of interest in your model. Y2 . there are two blocks of data. . Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. .TITLE X1.TITLE X1. the title assigned to the curve. You can combine two curves.

the data request set needs to be selected.vector: For example: c1.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. Available data types depend on the data file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. To reference the y vector of curve 1. Once the data type has been selected. Source file data is divided into type. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. After the data request set has been selected. request. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. For more information about math expressions. the component must be selected. based on what has been modified. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. the data source for the x vector could be a file. For example.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. When you modify a curve. in the format curve number. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. refer to the Altair Math Reference. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. and component.x c1. 346 HyperMesh 8. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data.

HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. select the plots panel and click select curves. The style of line used to draw the curve. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves.0 User’s Guide 347 . The color used to draw the curve. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. when the curve is displayed. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. To select curves for a plot.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. and four different patterns. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. triangular. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. and square markers. no line at all. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh currently supports circular.

and must be imported by use of the update button. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. The curve displays in the graph area. 348 HyperMesh 8. 3. For this reason. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. graph area (red). in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. and graph attributes (cyan). Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. The curve editor contains four main areas. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. To display curves in the graph area: 1. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To quit the curve editor. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). because they are automatically applied as you make them. click the close command button. 2. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Modify the curve attributes if needed. curve attributes (blue).

Click the curve that you wish to modify. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). For example. click the thick line checkbox. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . 1.0 User’s Guide 349 . you could change it from “Y” to “time”. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. and then typing in a new value. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. In the graph attributes area. For example. Either click the curve in the curve list.0. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. or show no line at all. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis.0. Or 2. and 1. To change the symbol spacing.5. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. For example. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. select a symbol from the list box.To change a curve's attributes: 1. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. A list of available colors displays. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. select a number from the every: list box. the line’s symbol points will still display. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. 2. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. if it is already set to Display. To change the graph's attributes: 1. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. making a finer grid. Click the curve in the graph area. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. For example. To draw the curve in a thicker line.5). click the desired color to select it. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. Note: If you choose no line.

even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. 2. 3. For example. Type in a name for the new curve. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. 1. and 1. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. To delete a curve: 1. 350 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. click the curve that you wish to delete. For example. 3. 3. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. In the curve list. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. which now uses the curve’s new name. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Click the Delete command button. you cannot recover it.0. Type in a new name for the curve. 3. making a finer grid. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. or No to keep the curve. To create a new curve: 1. To rename a curve: 1.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Click the desired curve in the curve list.0.5. 4. 2. Click proceed. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. Click proceed. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. A confirmation window displays. For example. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area.5). - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. once you delete a curve. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. 2.

Nastran. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. Altair HyperOpt provides both. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . and Genesis. Altair HyperStudy. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. and spring properties are design variables. such as beam section properties. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. In shape optimization. input parameters of a model. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. HyperStudy. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. the shell thickness. is the vector of nodal coordinates. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. In size optimization. HyperOpt. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. If there is a choice in the optimization code. Genesis. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. In topology optimization. BVi variable DVi . x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. Nastran. Altair HyperOpt. The basis vectors define nodal locations.0. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. x.0 User’s Guide 351 . In finite elements. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. and Templex. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. Using the basis vector approach. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. In the past. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. Further. Before importing AutoDV data. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. Starting with HyperWorks 6.

352 HyperMesh 8. 7. Before these methods can be applied. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options.pert<nnn>. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. To generate another perturbation vector. 5. 2.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. Do not save the perturbed model. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. 4. 3. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. Write a <prefix>. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. 6.pert006. where nnn is the design variable ID. 2.base model. identifies the perturbed grids. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. However. Select the solver panel.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. In HyperMesh.pert file a different ID. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. 3. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. using the AutoDV template. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. giving the *. Example: mymodel. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains.

On the BCs page. 2. It is recommended. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. Assign shapes to design variables. If needed. Define shapes and control perturbations. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. none of the domain components should include finite elements. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. 7. 5.0 User’s Guide 353 . Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. To create a domain element: 1. 2. but not necessary. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. Select the domain subpanel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. 3. 4. 6. Select the perturbations panel. 3. DPENTA6. However.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. Select the type of domain element. 5. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. select the optimization panel. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV.

Select the nodes for the domain node set. 4. Select update. Click add.. Toggle nodeset to manual. On the BCs page. select the optimization panel. However. or they can be created manually. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. Select the domain subpanel. 354 HyperMesh 8. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. it is identified by AutoDV.e. 6. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. 5. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. i. A given node may belong to more than one node set. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. 7. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. 8. Select the perturbations panel. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. 3.

AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e.g.0 User’s Guide 355 . Click return to return to the perturbations panel.. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. Instead. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Py. 8 characters) in shape =. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. For corner control points. For 2-D domains. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. Click create shape. Enter a name (max. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Select perturbations using the toggle. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. On a given edge. 3. you do not need to create a second order domain element. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. otherwise it is linear. In either case. Click create vector to create the vectors. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. Select the perturbations panel.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. To define control perturbations: 1. The interpolations are performed as follows. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points).

Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. 356 HyperMesh 8. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.For mid-side control points. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation.

This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. However. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. For example. Here.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. Here. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. illustrated below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set.0 User’s Guide 357 . the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. they remain unperturbed. With only primary domain.

Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point.Using the example illustrated above. this yields the perturbation shown below. 358 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.

Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. These are part of the vector collector card. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. However. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. In the shape panel. create a design variable using that shape. one DQUAD4 element at a time.y) T (x. The design variable label should not have more than four characters.0 User’s Guide 359 . Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . Edit X_ORDER. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. There should be no other vector in that shape. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. X_TYPE.one at each corner control point of that element. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1.y) = P (x. Y_ORDER. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. 2. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. 3. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables.

Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. odd. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. even all. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. even Default all all For given values of m and n. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. Accordingly. odd. odd.You have the option of generating all. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. 8 characters) in desvar =. Select AUTODV as the solver. Click create.0 User’s Guide 361 . Variable loading can be generated for forces. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template.dv. Click apply to apply the variable loads.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. 2. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. select the apply result panel. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. 3. Select desvar using the toggle. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Click create to create the vectors. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. the corner and mid-side control points. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. select the solver panel. 4. moments and temperatures. To generate a variable load: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. − − − − On the BCs page. Enter a name (max.animate suffix. Select the perturbations panel. Select the create load subpanel. On the Post page. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. select the results subpanel. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
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After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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It also includes functions for displaying. Nastran. select Set Manager. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. Nastran. renaming. From the Tools pull-down menu. or Abaqus user profile. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. appending entities to. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. deleting. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. 3. and changing the export state of entity sets. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. creating. and ABAQUS user profiles. geometry. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1.0 User’s Guide 371 . along with the entity set display and export states. The set manager displays in the tab area. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. 2. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct.

Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). 3. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. on folders. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Rename: Rename the selected set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . From the Tools pull-down menu. 2. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. 372 HyperMesh 8. grouped in folders by type.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. or Abaqus user profile. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The set manager displays in the tab area. select Set Manager. Nastran. accessed by right clicking in the background. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Supported entity set types are shown above. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name.

Nastran.0 User’s Guide 373 . and is only available for component and element sets. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. which control the display of each of these entities separately. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. 2. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. or Abaqus user profile. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Once a display toggle is changed. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. Available options are shown above. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. select Set Manager. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. The set manager displays in the tab area. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. grouped in folders by type. From the Tools pull-down menu. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. When switching between supported solvers. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written.ses). or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. to the disk. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets.ses) containing group definitions. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. 3. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. after clicking either the display or sync buttons.

374 HyperMesh 8. Export states synch automatically. For large models. Instead. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. In addition. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. To remedy these occurrences.

Location: Results menu. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. 3. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. Once an . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If a new . The tool also supports . This procedure reduces the size of the . Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. only the LABEL is used. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. you must load the new .op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . Additionally. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE .op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted.LABEL(ID)”. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. 2.op2 file is selected. a text summary table within HyperMesh. 4. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. then FBD Displacements. From the Results pull-down menu.op2 file changes.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model.op2 file. Select a sub-case. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. select Free Body Diagram. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If no SUBTITLE exists.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). and a formatted . consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran.0 User’s Guide 375 .op2 file is required.op2 file display for selection. Use the .FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). or if the original . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control.

op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. otherwise modify the value as desired. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. then all nodes within the element set are used. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card.0e-6. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. when checked.op2 file format. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set.op2 file.csv file output options. click Coordinate Systems. • 6. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). To maintain float precision the default is set to 1.5. select the required nodes and a coordinate system.y. On the Setup menu. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. and click Set Analysis. Select entities. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default.z) in the summary table and . 376 HyperMesh 8. If a node set is not selected. and toggle to the assign sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. Displacement data (Ux. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. Uy. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. If a coordinate system is not specified. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the .

For example. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. for the current element and node set.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. If it does not exist. node set and sub-case IDs). you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. IN any case.csv file option creates a . The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. The table contains information about the sub-cases. it will append/replace the data. element and node set(s). You may select a new file or an existing file. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. • The Create .csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. and detailed displacement data at each node. A single load collector. is created for each sub-case. but in a comma-separated file. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. A sample window with partial output is shown below. node set 1 and sub-case 1. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel.0 User’s Guide 377 . Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. it will be appended to the end of the file.

Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 378 HyperMesh 8. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). use this to browse to and select the desired . To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. If a new . for Nastran and OptiStruct. If no SUBTITLE exists.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.op2 file are displayed for selection only. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). overwriting the previously selected. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. This opens the standard file selection dialog window.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. Once you’ve selected an op2 file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . The tool supports . and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. a text summary table within HyperMesh. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model.op2 file. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.op2 file into the database. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file is required (or if the original .op2 file changes) you must load the new .FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. Location: Results menu. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Additionally. only the LABEL is used.

This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. In addition.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. 3. 4. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. and Reaction Loads Only. On the assign sub-panel. If a results system is not specified. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. 2. or output to. results coming from. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. RROD. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. RBE3. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. Applied Loads Only.0 User’s Guide 379 . The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. SPC. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. To specify output options: 1. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .0) is used by default. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. If a node is not selected. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. and RBAR. Available options include All Loads. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s).0. result system and summation node. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card.To select entities: 1. the extracted values will be incorrect. RJOINT. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . applied.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. Rigidlink. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. the HyperMesh origin (0.op2 file.

but in a comma-separated file. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. Use the Create . the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. 3. However. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. it is appended to. activate the Show summary table option. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. 5. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. sub-case IDs). If it does not exist. it will be appended to the end of the file. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. element set(s). and component Fx. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above.0e-6. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4.csv file option to create a . For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1.2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . referencing the component force and moment load collectors. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. A sample window with partial output is shown below. When you save the HyperMesh database. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. The table contains information about the sub-cases. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. sub-case 1. modify the value as desired. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. If an existing file is selected. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database.

If no node is selected. 4.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. and a local result coordinate system. node set. To define a cross-section manually: 1. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. 3. If multiple element sets are selected. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. gaps. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. When using the “Centroid” option.0 User’s Guide 381 . 5. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. 2. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If a results system is not specified. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. displays the element set. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. node set. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. which are defined by an element set. when checked. If this node is deleted from the model. Location: Results menu. a temporary node is created. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. summation node. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set.

each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. or deleted. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. This is the offset value for generated set names. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. result system and summation node. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. 5. 6. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. 3. where “#” increases with each new set generated. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. When the HyperMesh database is saved. node set. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. Therefore. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. or only the new “row” of elements. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. 7. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. 7. If checked. Therefore. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. For example. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. By default. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. highlighting the currently selected element set. This displays the entire model in transparency mode.6. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. where “#” increases with each new set generated. 382 HyperMesh 8. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. For example. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. 4.e. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. first cross-section). Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. 2. all cross-section definitions are also saved. modified. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i.

consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”.0 User’s Guide 383 .FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. The tool supports . overwriting the previously selected. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards.op2 file into the database.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. you must load the new . If no SUBTITLE exists. To select a results file: Use the . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Additionally.op2 file is selected.op2 file changes. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When an . The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. and/or a formatted .op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. If a new .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). or if the original . a text summary table within HyperMesh. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). for Nastran and OptiStruct. only the LABEL is used.op2 file is required. Location: Results menu.op2 file. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. This procedure reduces the size of the . Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file display for selection only.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model.

y. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. RJOINT. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. sub-case 1. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. RBAR. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero.0e-6. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. RBE3. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. 384 HyperMesh 8. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. 2. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and . Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. the extracted values will be incorrect.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1.op2 file. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this .fbd file output options. Rigidlink. (On the assign sub-panel.z) in the summary table. node set 1. If a coordinate system is not specified. each made up of an element set and node set. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . In addition. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. RROD. otherwise modify the value as desired. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. 1. and component Fx. .csv file. 3.

it is appended to. but in a comma separated file. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. Activate the Create . If an existing file is selected. sub-case IDs). • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager.0 User’s Guide 385 .The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities.csv or .fbd file.csv file option to create a . it will be appended to the end of the file. You may select a new file or an existing file. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. Activate the Create . and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. If it does not exist. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. 5. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. You may select a new file or an existing file. However. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. Comments When saving over existing . If an existing file is selected. it is appended to. 4. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. When the HyperMesh database is saved.

when checked. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Pick the desired Results type. Displacement. Displacement. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). 3. The optional Show model checkbox. FBD Forces (All Loads). This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. and Resultant Force and Moment. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. Fy. 4. Valid types include FBD Displacements. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Select one or more Element sets. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. 2. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. • The Fx. • • 386 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If multiple sub-cases are selected. Location: Results menu.

The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields.0 User’s Guide 387 . The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. Click the Color box to pick a different color. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. • 5. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. each of which requires a numeric value. Magnitude % or Uniform size. Two options are available. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if desired.

Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Displacement. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. an additional list of node sets displays. 5. Specify Export options:. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. 388 HyperMesh 8. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. In addition. 3.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. 2. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. 4. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities.op2 file. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. Displacement. Location: Results menu. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. To export FBD. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . After export. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. This populates the list of subcases. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. For FBD Displacements. or type in a name for a new one.

Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. Exports the model with the “displayed” option.0 User’s Guide 389 . Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. removing it from the tab area.6. Close closes the tab. Displacement. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process.

several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). 390 HyperMesh 8. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Location: Results menu. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. a fixed support on the left end. This model cons ists of two elements. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. and a point load on the right end.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

For FBD type Reaction loads only. Element 1 has nodes 1. For FBD types Applied loads only. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Node 2 i.121e+03) and is extracted iii. • • 2. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. Node 1 i. Fx calculation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. 2. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. Therefore. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only.121e+03 b. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Applied loads: Zero ii. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Furthermore. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Applied loads: Zero ii. v. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. MPC loads: Zero iv. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads: Zero iv. 3 and 4. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. for any given node.121e+03) and is extracted iii. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. 3. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. v. The element set serves several purposes: 1. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. 4.

only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1.0 User’s Guide 393 . Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Fz) for each node. illustrated in the screenshot below. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. ii. iii. iv. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.085e+03) v. Mx. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. iii. The sum of the forces components (Fx. Fz. ii. Node 3 i. v. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. iv. Fy. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. d. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. My. is the simple sum. however. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.c.085e+03 e. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy.0 (ie. My. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Node 4 i.

SPC loads: Zero iii. Fx calculation. 2. Node 4 vi. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. 5. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Node 3 i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. summation node set to node 3. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. 4. Applied loads: Zero ii. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4.085e+03 b. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. MPC loads:Zero ix. • 394 HyperMesh 8. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.085e+03 c. SPC loads: Zero viii. MPC loads:Zero iv.085e+03) x. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. All values are zero in this model. Applied loads: Zero vii. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. 3.0 Fy calculation. For all nodes in the node set.085e+03) v. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4.

SPC loads: Zero xxiii.0 User’s Guide 395 .000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1.871e+00) xxv.085e+03) + (0. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8.0*3. Node 3 xi.024e+00) xxx. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. MPC loads:Zero xix. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. SPC loads: Zero xviii. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Applied loads: Zero xvii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. Applied loads: Zero xxii. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a.166*1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. My calculation. All values are zero in this model. Node 4 xxvi.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii.808e+02 xxxiii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Node 4 xvi. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.426e+02) xv.574e+02) = -1. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Applied loads: Zero xii. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. SPC loads: Zero xiii.024e+00 c.000e+02.426e+02 b. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. MPC loads:Zero xxix. Node 3 xxi.871e+00 b.574e+02) xx.808e+02 d.574e+02 c. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

looping through all the nodes in the node set a. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. nodes 3 and 4 (node set).op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. 2.• Mz calculation. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. This procedure reduces the size of the . The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). summation node set to node 3. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Additionally.op2 file. for Nastran and OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. All values are zero in this model.

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