How to Read

Egyptian Hieroglyphs
A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO TEACH YOURSELF
Mark Collier and Bill Manley
New illustrations by Richard Parkinson
University of California Press
Berkeley Los Angeles London
01L\ litorni<1 Pit' '''''
Ik rkdt' Y.u td : .tb
. u Pn-s... . Lid.
Loud on.
Pilb lish c d oy a n angc- ucru whh : 11C
Brn isl: Pres...
ISIJ:\ 0 -520-2 1507 -4
bv And rew St-oolhrcd
Ty pt'<;t ' l ill Me ridie-nh y ;-.sigci St rnd v·>1c\.. ,
h ierogl yphs 1: 0111 t he Forn bv
Exi ra di,lai l ifs .md hi erogl yph s
Si gel Su udwi ck.
( l iver dt. ·::. ign: Ii Ca Iroll
Cover: l nscnp uon Oil J ri 11lJI i mp let ncr u.
dcdtc.ne.t by Sn l \ vnSf e l I hi II;SJ nt" CS\ or
Kiq : i\ k l: lj uht lh' V :1. For .11: cxp l.nr.ui un 0:l i h'
insc npnou. se t' pa s t' I Tilt' ,\.k lr n jl()lil.l ll
,\ 111o::,CIH!1uf An, Nr-w Yor k , .1CC. lt d. I ,
fu ud.
Pru .u-d i ll Brhar n
Contents
Introduction vii
Chapter I Hieroglyphs
§1 lt ltr'1duCli<tn 1
§2 Reading hieroglyph s 2
§ 3 Tra llsl itl'r ati oll 2
§4 1-cons onant signs 2
§5 Arra n geme nt of signs .J
§6 Determinatives: meaning-signs
§7 Direct iOIl of wri ting 6
§S qi and 1- II' and plurals 8
§9 " " Uns
§ 10 Adjective s 10
fxacises 10
Chapter 2 More u ses of hieroglyphs
§ ll 2-con sonant signs 15
§ 12 , -col15onant signs J7
§ 13 Ideograms: s' lulld- me.1ning ; iglls 17
t:i 14 Variant writi ngs 18
§ I 5 Wri t ing th e pl ur al J<)
§16 =" li b, ' ail, cver v. .my' and
=" 11/ ' , ' lord, master' J<}
§ I; RUy.1l na mes a:..I tules 20
!j III Roval epit hers 21
§19 Da tiug 21
Churt {If r,'y ,11 2':
E'(crclSrS 2 3
Chap t e r 3 Special wr it ings
§20 Ahl rrcvi a: ion s 32
§2 ! Ch ange of order: spacillg 32
§22 Change of order : prest ige 33
§23 Def ect ive or stra nge writings 34
§ 24 Titles 34
§25 Epit hets 35
§26 Th e .:ffering formula 35
§27 The genitive 39
t :q,l'priall fwurary deities 40
Exercise, .J3
Chapter 4 Scenes and capt ions
§28 C1pti,) m : the mlin irivc 49
§29 Adur ation 50
§ , 0 Verb classes and t he tutmirivc 50
§" The [,1f1) lS of the inf in itive 5.2
Ti ll' cult ofCh iris at Abydo: 5.J
Cha p ter 5 Descript ion
§ >2 tnrroduruou: descri pti'1n 65
§B Th e pas t : slim,,, r=j ) 65
66
§35 Or uisviot: o f the first person slIffix
pro uuuu 07'
Suffix PTd I Wl111 <; 67
'The lM')l rcl .u ivc [orm : 68
About the Iront cover 126
Egyptian-English vocabulary 151
The aim of th is book is 10 enable you to read and e njoy the hier oglyph s
and the langu age of ancient Egypt. It is ch iefl y aimed at th ose who ha ve
had no previous experience of reading h ieroglyphs, but should al so ben-
efit ot hers who would like to improve their knowled ge in line with con-
temporary research . Above all, this is a practical guide: from the ver y
beginning yo u will be intro duced 10 genuine hierogl yphic text s. with full
supporting exp lan at ions and study aid s. In or de r to do this, we have con -
centrated on monuments in the British Museum, in particular the stelae
(or funera ry im criptions) of Egypt ian officials, as well as coffin s, romb
scenes, and the famous Abydos King -list of Ramesses II. Each chapter
introduces you to a new feature of the hie rogl yphic scri pt or the la nguage,
and ends with copies of inscriptions on which you can pr actise your skills .
We believe thi s approach ha s a number ol advantages.
First. by reading gen uine anci en t inscri ptio ns from the first lesson,
you can build up your familiarit y with the tricks of the trade: everyth in g
here (from indi vidual signs to whole inscripti ons) is typi cal of the kind of
monuments displayed , no t j ust in the Bri tish Museum, bu t in muse ums
throughout the world. Secondly, by reading these monuments, we hope
you will feel a real sense of achievement at each sta ge of the book.
Th irdly, con centrating on a coher e nt group of monument s W1]] allow us
to rai se some import ant topics - such as the role of Osiris, god of the dead,
and the Mysteries cele brated at hi s cult ce nt re. Abydos - which will help
you to u nde rsta nd the cu ltural background of these monumel1ls.
Rather tha n cramming in unnecessary derail . we will give you
plemv of pr acti ce in reading hieroglyphs, and introduce you to the most
common features or th e ancient Egypt ian language as it appears on these
monuments. This will give you a firm basis on which 10 buil d, if yOll later
move on to study other genr es of the we alth of texts whi ch surv ives from
an cient Egypt -literature, religiou s wisdom. royal decree s, or whatever.
This book has developed a lit of a course wh ich we have been teach -
ing sinc e 1992. It wa s clear to US back the n tha t the exis ting introductions
to ancient Egyptian were either 100 bri ef or 100 det ailed , and th at there
Introduction
1
_,

"
Bibliography and furt her readi ng
Key to the exercises 16::
Index
Refer ence tables
Verb forms 144
Pronouns, nouns and adjectives 148
HIerog lyp hic sign-lists for t he exercises
I I- consonant signs 127
II Somc common 2-consonant signs ;21
111 SOniC common 3-collsonall! signs ill
IV Some conunon ideograms 128
V Full sign list 129
§54 The' appeal Wllte living t i :
§5) Wishes. expect.' tions and reqnesis:
the tui urc 1; ·1
§56 The Abydos formnla 114
§57 Pur pose and cau sar iou ! 15
§5S :'-:egaiioll 115
§59 for ms of the srlmly-!" and the futur e
n «
§60 Adjectives in -y 117
Exercises J J9
Chapter 8 Th e future
§53 The s4mty.fy rOflll II I
Cha pter 7 Char acterisation
§44 Adjectives 93
§45 Adjectives used as nouns 94
§40 Participles 94
§47 Parti ciples and epithets 95
§48 Part iciples as nouns 96
§49 CharaClerisalion with ink 96
§50 Passive pan iciples 98
§5 1 ill + noun + participle :nO
§52 Relative Iorms again lOu
Midd!" Kinyd,'m titles luI
Exercises 104
Names and ki nship terms 69
Chapter 6 Furt her aspects of descr ip tion
§ 38 Cant inUJI:Oll SO
§ 39 Negalion 81
§40 Making someone do
",met hing 82
§41 Depcndent pr onou ns 82
§42 The present tense 83
§43 Other things going on 84
Exercises 85
vii i How 10 read E.qypli an iIie,,',qlyphs
studying at home. We have taught the course in vanou s guises for seve r-
al gro ups and insti tu tions: the Unive rsity of London Centre for Ext ra-
Mural $1udtes. the Egypt Exploration Societ y. the Universit y of Glasgow.
th e Workers Edu cational Associa tion. the Sussex Egyptol ogy Societ y and
the Tha mes Valley Egyptological Society at the University of Reading . At
the Bloomsbury Summer School in part icular. we have had the chance 10
introduce people to hiero glyphs in the ho t-house of a single. conce ntrar-
ed wee k of study. This book OWl' S a great deal 10 t he constr uctive feedback
of the students at all these ven ues . wh o have helped us (someti mes forced
us' ) to re fine and clari fy the text. and as a resul t it is much cleare r and
more accessible. Although it woul d be impossible 10 ac knowledge so
many by name. we are immensel y gra teful 10 each and eve ryone of them
for t he ir en th usiasm and feedback. and for encouraging US in our belief
that th is hook - and the approach it embodies - is a worthwhile pr oject.
In developing this projec t into book form. we have had the good for -
tune to be able 10 draw on the kn owledge a nd suppor t of many peop le.
At the British Museum, Vivian Davi es. Keeper of Egyptian Antiqui ties .
first brou ght th e project to th e attention of Brit ish Museum Pre ss. and
encour aged us 10 ma ke use of Richar d Parki nson 's expert ise in copyi ng
hier oglyph ic mo nume nts: Stephen Quir ke freely shared hi s conside rable
knowledge of Middle Kingdom officialdom. as well as encouragement and
the first round of dri nks: as noted. I'll' are especially grateful to Richar d
Par kin son lor hi s outstanding line dra wi ngs. At Bloomsbu ry Summe r
School. we would like to thank the Director. Christopher Coleman. who
allowed LI S carte blanche 10 develop lan guage course s. and also his
admirab le staff for diligen tly keeping us all (tutor s and stu de nts) ali ve.
Seve ral colleagu es have hel ped us to teac h hieroglyph s at the School:
Ludwig Mo renz. Toby Wilkinson. and especially Jose-Ramon Perez-
Accino , who is now a regular partner in o ur teaching. At the University
of Lon don Cent re for Extra -Mural Stu dies. our grateful thanks are due to
Tony Legge and Lesley Han nigan. who allowed us th e freedom 10 dev el -
op t he cou rse as I'll' Si\W fit. and also to Louise Lambe. Ma rk drafted his
contrib utions to the boo k wh ile a resident Fellow at All Souls College.
Oxford. and completed them afte r his appo int ment to the Schoo l of
Archaeology. Classics and Oriental Stu dies. Unive rsity of Liverpool; he
would like to ackn owledge the support of both these institution s. His
work on the language sections of t he hook has deve loped in tandem with
his comprehensive undergradua te grammar course. t ntroduction to Middl e
f.:qyptiml . whic h will be published separately.
We arc gra teful to the stal! of t he British Museum Press. not least for
agreeing to take on such a complex book ; above all our edit or. Carolyn
Jones . for he r dedicati on and good h umour in dealing with such a
Int roduai on
demanding project . We would specially like to thank Nigel Strudwick for
undert ak ing th e English and type sett in g. and Helen Stru dwic k
for correcting proofs in Nigel' s abse nce. Finally our t han ks are due to
Mark Mechan. who prepared the map of Abydo s on page 55.
It is customary to add a fina l wor d about part ners. nut in the present
case our love and genuine heartfelt th anks art' due 10 our wive s. Joan ne
Timpson an d Kathy McFall . who have put LIp with us, and this project. for
a long time. In part icular. Joa nne. as well as toping with t he arrival of
Oliver and a preoccupi ed husba nd. st ill fou nd t ime to comment on the
fina l dra ft.
Ma rk Collier
Bill Manley
ix
The pu rpose of this book is 10 show you j us: how this is done ,
t.h apter J
wat e r-pot
' f have been roast tug since th e
beginning of rime - I have neve r
see n ihe like of thi s goose'
(Meir Ill, pI. 23)
<:::;-::> mou th :it scaled mart
§ 1 Introduction
Hier oglyphs an' pict ures used as signs in writ ing. Man y depict living crea-
iures or objec ts (o r t heir pan s):
7 r mou th
And. as you mi ght expect , some signs represe nt the object th ey dep ict . So.
for exa mple, the mouth-sign -=--> is used 10 writ e the word for mout h , usu-
ally in combinati on wli h a stroke -sign (see § 13 belo w for ihi s sign):
Hieroglyphs
However, ver y few wo rds are act ual ly wrinen in ihi s way. Inste ad. hiero-
glyphi c pio ur e-sigus are used to convey t he sound (and meaning) of th e
an cient Egyptian lan guage, j ust as th e letters of our own alphabet con vey
ihe sounds of English. So. for exa mple. ihe hi eroglyphs abov e ibe figure
roasting the goose do not read ' reed. chick. ma ti, face ' eic.. which makes no
sense; rat h er, i hey convey ihe sounds of var iou s words in Egypt ian which
toge ther have the following mea ni ng:
The line drawings of ih e stelae re- produced in th is book were drawn by
Richard Par kinson, Department of Egyptian Ant iquities , British Museum.
The scenes from ihe Middle Kingdo m iombs .n Me ir ar e from A.M.
Blackm an, The Rock Tombs of Mm . vols I and 11. Egypt Expl or ati on Societ y.
Londo n 19 14 an d 1915; we ar e graieful to ih e Society [or permission 10
reprodu ce rhem. The ph oi ographs on pages 31. 44. 63. 64. 108 and 125
are suppli ed court esy of the Tru stees of the British Museum. C Briti sh
Museum Phot ograp hic Service. Ma rk Meeh an prepa red the map of Abydos
on page 55.
Illustrations
Authors' note: Due 10 refurbishment work a1 the British Museum duri ng
199 7-8. it has not always bee n possible for the authors 10 collate their
own copies against ihe orig ina l monument s.
§4 t-consonant signs
It is now time to get yo u started readin g hi cr oglvnhs for vourself. The most
§2 Reading hieroglyphs
How then can hi erog lyp hs be read to show us somet hing of the sound of an
anci ent Egyptian word? The easiest way to sec thi s is throu gh lookin g at a
real example . Th e sign n depicts a schematic house (in plan) and is used to
write th e word for ' ho use ' as fo llows ( I is the strok e-sign al ready noted
above):
§3 Transliteration
In th e last secti on we rendered L( into our writi ng system as proIt is the
normal pr actice among Egyptol ogi sts to transliterate the sounds of a h iero-
glyphic word in thi s wa y. It is a very good discipline to get used to thi s right
from th e beginning and we en courage you always to transliterat e when
reading . The only rea l oddity abou t thi s is th at hieroglyphs ar e not us ed to
wri te vowels (a, e. i . 0 , u ), on ly conso na nt s; although thi s wi ll seem a bit
strange at first. you sho uld soon get used to it.
3
d
sh
tj
g
k
k
d
k
k
9
Hieroglyphs
Li
=
=
=
SIGN TRAN'S- SAY
LIT.
kh
kh
n
h
m
h h
h
n
m
TRANS- SAY
ur.
~ o r _
SIGN
w/ u
it a
y
b
p
b
p
f
y
IV
TRANS- SAY
irr.
o
~
4
44or \\
} orl:'
J
--'
like trying to say ' ah' while -= b
like German 'ig !'
swallowing. Made by
clenching the throat muscles:
to imitate, say ' eto ' wi th = t
as in '.illip'
finger on thr oat
~
glottal stop, like Cockney
~
back k. made further back
' bo'::le' for 'bottle'
LJ
in the mout h
j ~ t
emphatic h. made in the
llke qunc'
th roat
0
like Scot tish 'loW'
'( Ii
like French 'dieu or
€> English ' l o k ~
SIGN
Each l -consonant sign represents a di snnci sou nd in th e ancient Egyp t ian
cont ribu tes a single sound towards the readi ng of a word, rather like th e let -
ter s of our own alp hab et:
We shall conce nt ra te here on the reading of these signs . If you wi sh to iden -
tify the objec ts the signs depic t. consu lt the full sign-list begin n ing on p. 129 .
The proper valu e of ea ch sign is the transllteranon value given in the
second column; th e th ird column simpl y gives a way in which we, as English
spea kers, can vocalise these signs for our own convenience .
Most of these sounds resembl e their English count erpart s and ca n be
transliterated dir ectly int o familiar letters from our own alphabet. However,
some l-cons onant sign s ar e used to represent sounds not pre sent in spoken
or written English , and th ese require speci ally adap ted transl iterat ion sym -
bols of th eir own:
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
In thi s word , n is no longer being used to depict a hou se, but rather to
' pict ure: the sound combinati on pr (t his is discussed in Cha pter 2) . Put more
formally, n is being used as a sound-sign or phonogram. This is termed th e
rebus principle; it is as if we were to writ e th e Eng lish word belief wi tlt a pic-
ture of a bee and a leaf as ..~ . On thi s basis hieroglyphs can be used lO
in dicate sounds rather than things and can thus be used in words quite unre-
lated in meaning to the obj ects they depict.
Th e word n Jj pr, 'go out', also displ ays an other tWOsign s who se use
will be explainedmore fully lat er. The mouth-sign <r> reads r as it did in ~
r 'mou th' , alt hough it has not hi ng to do with ' mou th ' here, be ing used
inst ead to complement or clarif y the reading of n pr (thi s is discussed in
Chapter 2 ). The walking legs Jj ar e used as a determinative, a sign sometimes
placed at the end of a word to give a genera l idea of iTS meaning, here of
moti on (see §6 below).
C( pr house
As it happens, thi s word is ba sed on th e two consonant s p and r combined
to give proWe shall di scuss t he way the ancient Egyptian word is put into our
own wr iting system - how it is transliterated - in §§3 and 4 bel ow. Now, th e re
is another word whi ch make s use of th e same sound combination p and r.
the word for ' go out' , ' l eave". In hi er ogl yphs thi s is written as:
~ Jj pr go out, leave
2
Pur el y for our own con venience we cou ld pronounce th is ' apedu'.
§5 Arrangement of signs
It may alre ady have str uck you, from looking at the exa mples discussed so
far, that hierogl yph s ar e not arrang ed one after the oth er as in our own
alpha betic system, but in balanced groups or ' blocks' arra nged to fill the
ava ilable space. In part icular, some signs ar e placed over othe rs in order to
fill the spa ce in a mo re plea sing manner. As an example, her e is the name of
t he official Senbi (Sl/bi) fru rn Exercise 1.8 on p. 13:

-, J
The nam e is wr itt en from left to right, starting with the s (I) . But notice ihar
the signs maki ng up the na me are group ed toget her, so that the 11 (2), as a
long thi n sign, is placed above both the tall thin signs fm b (3) and I (4).
forming a hlock. The rule for such arra ngements is quite simple: wh en you
inclu de all th e various dot s and dashe s wh en trauslit craung - they ar e not
optional. In translile rat ion you shou ld use ihc proper symbo l given in the
second column of ihe table on p. 3. This is tr ue even if we find it difficult to
tell the difference between two sounds. For exampl e. k and k are quite dif-
Icrcru sounds in Egypt ian, even though distinguishing bet ween th em is
rather difficult for us as English speake rs.
The re is no need to tr y an d pron ounce ancie ru Egyptian words exactl y
(in any case t his is imp ossible, since tile vowels are no t written ant for us ).
However, it is useful 10 be able to read out your transliterations and vocalise
wh ole words, rather than spelling iheru out sign by sign. So, a purel y con-
verniona l pronunciation, ent irely for our convenience, is usua lly adopt ed.
These are the renderings given in the third column in the tabl e on p. 3.
Man y signs have value s si milar to lette rs of our own alp hab et an d pr esent
no problem, whe reas t he more unusual one s ar c usua llv given a convenient
English approxima tion. We also need to add vowels. The convent ion nor-
mall y ad opt ed is to insert an ' e' between ea ch con sonant , except in t he cases
of J and -, where 'a' is used, and '.1', where ' u is some times used beca use t hey
are easier to pro no unce. Once again, th ese pronu nciat ions are pur el y a prac-
tical con venience an d are not intended to bear any relat ion to spoke n
Egypt ian . For example, t he following is t ile word for ' birds' , ipdw (a wri ting
discussed in §8) , given wit h its transliteration and its English meaning:
ipdw birds
5 Hieroglyphs
:it
man and his occupations
ma n
kJ. I
t51
god, king
'C'> • skr (ihe god) Saker
-cz»
0
sun, light. lime

!lrw day
.f'.
motion
hsb send
s,
small bird used for bad,

bill bad. evil
weak or lillie things
@ iown. village LlQr@
kls Qis (place-name)
At this point, yvil may wish tc attempt Exercises 1.1 and 1.2 <'1l PI', to -I I.
Q n is call our. summon
I)et erminatives do not contribute to t he sounds of th e word and so ar e not
transliterated . From our point of view, th ey simply help US to get some gen-
era l idea of t he me aning of a word. A lar ge n umber of signs can be used as
dere rnunati ves. but for two reason s thi s Iact sho uld not get in your way.
First . as already ment ioned, we do not tr an sliter ate detcrrninattvc s. so they
do not need 10 be at the centre of your att enti on. especially early on in your
st udies. Seco nd ly, in th e ins cription s you will be reading in thi s book det er-
minai ivcs are quite frequ ently omitted. Howe ver, if yo u a re bothe red by a
parti cular deter minative, consult t he fnll sign -list beginning on p. 129 .
Two oth er common deterrninati ves req uire a little more descripti on .
(not 10 be confused with :it ' ma n' ) is the mean ing-sign used with word s
for what can be taken in or expelled through the mo ut h, either literall y (ea t-
ing, speaking) or met aphoricall y (emot ions, attitudes. thinking) as well as
the rele vant activities conne cted with these, for example:
§6 Determinatives: meaning-signs
So far we have stu died words writteu ou t wit h sound-signs alone. Howe ver,
in hieroglyph ic wr iting words are sometimes written wit h mea nin g-signs, or
detemlinan'ves, placed at th e end of the word after th e sound-signs . The fol-
lowin g are examples of some com mo n deterrnina t ives an d words written
with them:
and then carry on as nonna!. You will see a number of examples of group ing
throughout the rest of t his chapter. Yon may wis h io read this paragraph
again whe n reading §7 on th e dire ction of wr iting.
H,'\\' ((1 read Fgypti,m hieroalyphs 4
AI this point. you may wish 10attempt Exercise ].3on p. 11.
7 Hieroglyphs
Offe ring scene from the
tomb of Senbi at Meir
(read from right to left )
(Me ir I. pI. 9)
c:::J 80
/ J \
3 I
In thi s case, the inscription is fitt ed in to the space surro unding the figure.
The overa ll direction of writi ng is indicated bes t by t he foot -sign (10): to read
into the from of this sign we need to read from right t o left, the direction we
would al so need to look in to the face of th e accompa nying figure. Verticall y,
we always read from top to bottom (see §5 ab ove), so th e text begin s at the
top right. The first three signs read horizontally above th e top of the foreleg
of beef carried by the figure . Th e remaining signs th en read down the col-
umn, but still from righ t to left within each block, as indicat ed by nos 4· 13.
You may well recognise the na me of Senbi di scu ssed in §5 above. Compa re
th e right · to- left wri ting of this na me (nos 8- 11) with the left- to-right order-
ing given in §5 (taken from another inscripti on in Senbi's to mb) . To increa se
your con fide nce in thi s skill, a full vocabulary for thi s inscription is provided
at th e end of this chapte r. so that you can practise reading it for yourself.
As an example read ing from left to righ t. we can look on ce more at the
inscript ion we use d to introduce this book, shown on p. 8 wit h the orde r of
ticul ar , th ey often Iormed a fundamental pa rt of the ae sth et ic scheme of a
monument . Alth ough we sha ll continue to present the hie roglyp hs in left-
to- right orde r wi thin the text of t his book, when you stu dy real ex amples of
inscriptio ns, these may well be or ganised from right t o left (t his is in fact th e
more usu al directio n ) and possibly in col umns. Fort unately, th er e is a very
simple trick to reading hi eroglyp hs in the right order:
Read into thefroIII orfaces of the various signs, and f rom above10 below.
Put another wa y, signs nor mall y loo k toward s th e beginni ng of th e text .
So, if we look at the foll owing scene. the hi eroglyphs are to be read in
the order numbered. Notice that th e ori entation of a figure helps, part icu-
larl y when t he re are not many signs with a clear ' front' :
4),}1 i ll v adoration, praise
How 10 read Egyplian hieroglyphs
~ ) , } ~ fi ll' old, the old
6
- n .,t,. individual, ordinary man, person
"l l' jf..l!f nds (from root meaning ' little, small'}
~ , ~ IJI thingts)
The word fJ l is often written with the plural strokes I I I (see §8 below) ,
although it is not itself a plural word. Noti ce that , for reasons of spaci ng, the
papyrus roll can be positi oned ei ther hori zontally or vert ically - you will find
th at a number of long thi n signs can be arranged like th is.
Somet imes a word can have more than one determi nat ive:
Having a det erm inat lve thus gives us a second way of getting at a word
_ a general clue as t o its meaning . Th is has the advantage th at we can disti n -
guish between two word s written with the same sou nd-s igns :
One important word often written with the papyrus roll determinative is:
The mos t common determinati ve. however, is ~ , th e papyrus roll, used for
abstract words or concepts. Alth ough such words could Dot easily be re pre -
sent ed by a picture. t he y could be written down, for example on papyrus,
thus acqui ring a tangi ble ph ysical fonn. This writt en form cou ld then be
depicted in the shape of the rolled -up papyrus sheet:
r1~ S1!b health. healthy
n ~ ~ siJ r counsel, plan, conduct. manner
k il' or k il' \l. roast
§7 Direction of writing
50 far. we hav e ordered the hieroglyphs foll owing our own syste m of writ-
ing, i.e . wr itin g th em in lines fro m left to right. However. hieroglyphs were
As we sh all see in Chapt er 2, th ere are other features of t he hieroglyphic
scri pt whi ch tend to ensure that differ ent words ar e writt en differ entl y ev en
when th ey share the same sounds.
In practice, however. as on the monumental in scripti on s we shall be
study ing in thi s book, deterrninat ives ar e oft en omitted . For example, in
Exercise 1.2 you are aske d to tr anslit era te the followi ng words (fro m th e
roasting scene in § I) without der erminauves. They a re sho wn her e along -
side ex amples with a determinati ve:
~ ~ ? ~ Jpd bird, fowl
9 Hieroglyphs
2 st woman 'it I ) man
~
m in. with, from, as
Q ~
i n hy
11 toj war ds) tpeople). for
J ~
loll' with
, , ~
<a> to twards) rplacc t. ar
indicate the plural. the -wendi ng is often simply left out of the writing (a nd
transliterated in brackets), leaving a more compact grou p of hieroglyphs:
§9 No uns
Lea rn ing to read hie roglyp hs is, however. only on e pa rt of reading a hiero-
glyphic in scription, especiall y if yo u aspire to making rea l progre ss with yo ur
studies. Since hie roglyphs were used by the a ncient Egyp tians to write down
thei r own language, it is neces sary to build up a familiarity wi th how words
ar e pu t togeth er in Egyptian . Through out this book, we will intro duce you
step by ste p to th e most common featur es of ancie n t Egyptian which you a re
likel y to mee t in th e sort of inscrip tio ns studied he re, Some of the ways
Egyp tian works ar c rathe r like Eng lish, and so will see m qu ite normal to
you, but some of its features ar e not as we would expect fro m English , and
will need a little more discu ssion and thought.
As a sta rt ing point, it is usefu l to know so me thin g a bout nouns in
Egyptian (nouns are the words typically used to refer to people, object s,
living things and th e like). In Egyptian, all nouns are t reated as being ei th er
masculine or feminin e, even if th ere is no obviou s rea son (to us ) wh y this
should be the case; you may be fa miliar with a simila r convention in French.
Fortunatel y, this disti n ction is ve ry easy to Spot in ancient Egyp ti an, since
feminine nouns al most always end in <:> - L, whereas masculine nouns ra rely
do . For example:
Also th ere are no special words for ' th e' or ' a ' in classical Egyptian and so
'l!I S 'man' ca n mean either ' a man' or ' the man ' (although one or the oth er
often suggests itself in transla tion into Engl ish ).
On e feature of Egyp tian which is rather like English is the usc of pr ep-
ositions iwo rds which are ' pre-posed' , or put before, oth ers) to indica te
loca tions (i n ' ). directions ('towards ' ), tim es (' dur ing' ), accomp animent
(' With ') and how things are done ('b y' ). As in Engli sh , the simplest
preposi tions tend to be very short words and are wri tt en wi th I- consona nt
signs :
~ ' .
Me} (
flow IL' read Egyptian hieroglyphs 8
In this example, there a re two rows ot inscript ion s. an upper one
which is read fir st and a lowe r one, read second. Noti ce, once again, that the
hieroglyphs have been fined aro und the figure. So, Line I reads from left to
righ t horizontally (rea ding into th e fac e of the chi ck, the seated man, the owl
and the bird in flight) and the n at th e end turns the corn er, as it were, dr op-
ping down to fini sh in a column with nos 13- 15. As with our writing system,
we the n ret urn to th e sta n of th e ne xt line and read a long once more (into
the face of signs suc h as the seat ed man and the chick).
As these examples al so indi cate, hierogl yphic signs were placed in a
continuous seque n ce wi th out an y pu nc tuation marks or word spaci ngs. No
doubt thi s will see m qui te intimidating at first, but we hope to sho w you by
exam ple that. as you bec ome familiar with the script and gai n a gr asp of
usef ul words. thi s is nothing like as bad as it mi ght see m. Exercise 1.8 (see
pp, 13- 14) will give you fun her practice in thi s ski ll.
§8 1/a n d } wan d plurals
Hieroglyphic writ in g is quite economical. Along with vowels, t he conso-
nant s ~ i and } ware often omitted in writing, except a t th e beginning of
words. This is parti cularly tru e for grammatical ending s. For example, the
plur al is indicated by a -w cnding (just as it is typ ically indicated in English
by adding ' -s', as in ' bird' , 'birds') ; th is is sometimes fully writt en out, but
more often the -IV is omitted. The word for ' bird' (singular ) is:
For o ur convenienc e thi s word can be sou nde d ' aped' .
Th is is made plural by adding on a -w, A plural determi native of th ree
str ok es I , i is also usuallv added. Since the de termi native I I , suffices to
Exercises
II
goose
Hekel
Sebek or Sobek
Hieroglyphs
bad, evil
name
roast
Ptah
Anubis
individual. ordinary
man, person
festival
Aten
Ra or Re Seker or Soker
'Sobek' and 'Saker' are usually rendered with an 'a' because of the Greek
forms of these names. There is nothing of importance in this traditional
practice.
Many readers of this book will be familiar with the famous pharaoh
Akhenaten. his wife Nefertiti. and Akhenaten's innovative religious pro-
gramme centred on the solar disc, the Aten. In hieroglyphs, the Aten is
written as follows. Once again, try to transliterate:
1.3 Gods' names
The names of certain gods are typically written with I-consonant signs.
Transliterate the following. Once again, the traditional English rendering
will help to guide you in most cases (although 'Anubis' is derived from a
Greek version of the god's name - 'Inpu' or 'Anpu' might be a more conven-
tional rendering into English). Remember to use the proper transliteration
symbols from the second column in the table in §4. Any unfamilar sign
(such as the seated dog) is a determinative and so not to be transliterated:
1.2 Words from the roasting scene
In the roasting scene used in our introduction, some words are written out
with I-consonant signs. Transliterate the following and see if you can isolate
the words in the original scene in § I:
'Aten. like 'Anubis', shows the alternative conventional use of 'a' for initial
I (Tten: would be the other way of pronouncing this word in English).
1.4 Transliterating words
Transliterate the following words written with I-consonant signs and deter-
minatives (any sign which is not a I-consonant sign is a determinative and
need not be transliterated);
to the house r pr
in snbi by Senbi
Khufu
LJ
=1
51 bini the/an evil woman
in the house
How to read Egyptian hieroqlyphs
1!t IJ s bin the/an evil man
n snbi for Senbi
10
For example:
C( m pr
Like adjectives, pn and tn follow their noun and agree with,it.iAn example
clthis occurs in the inscription used at the beginning of this book, where the
text ends with the phrase 'this goose':
§lO Adjectives
An adjective is a word used to describe a noun, to give it a particular prop-
erty or quality (e.g. 'a stupid man', 'a clever woman'). The distinctive
feature about adjectives in Egyptian is that they followtheir nouns and also
they agree with the noun - if the noun is feminine and ends in -L, then so
does the adjective:
-=- 3;> srw pn this goose
iJ pn ihls (masc.) In this (fern.)
The word for 'this' behaves in a similar manner:
1,1 Kings' names
You are now in a position to read the names of several Old Kingdom kings.
First here is the name of the famous builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza,
who'is usually known by a Greek adaptation of his name as 'Cheeps'. In
hieroglyphs his name is written as follows (we have given you a conven-
tional rendering in English afterwards to guide you in your transliteration;
for the use of the name-ring or cartouche see p. 20):

Here are two further names of Old Kingdom kings. The first is one of
two names of a 5th dynasty king, Djedkare Isesi. Which is given here? The
second is a name shared by two kings of the 6th dynasty;
(11-= y',
, IA
13
for the ka of
I
b
. . I
Sen I (na me) ;
Hieroqlyphs
n ki n
snbi
VOCABULARY
rhe j ust ified k!J
foreleg (of ox USl 'O n
in offering! l'1'j
The sce ne on p, 12 was u sed to illu stra te th e use of hieroglyphs writt en in
right -t o -left order in §7 a bo ve . Ha ve a go at tr anslating the cap tion wit h t he
hel p of ihc vo cabu lary pr ovided a nd the o rderi ng of the signs given in §7.
(Th e co ntext of t he scene is that th e figu re is offering t he for eleg of a slaugh -
tered bu ll 10 th e to mb owner Senbi : ih e inscri pnon relates his spcerh .} This
ex e rcise is useful in illu st rating a co uple of ot her point s as well. Fir st , th ese
are draw ings of re al hierogl yphs found on the wall of the tomb of Sen bi an d
nOI the viandard hi croglvphs of a font such a s tha t used in thi s book ( rec all
how Eng lish wnuen let te rs di ffer a little from sta nda rd lype Ioms) . This is
rea lly just a matt er of ge tt ing u sed to vari ab ilit y. particularly in th e infill of
signs - use the vo ca bu lary provi de d to see the st anda rd hi eroglyp hs . Sec-
on dly, the inscription contains words wr itten in other ways than wit h 1-
cons on ant signs which yo u will n ot be ab le to read thro ugh at presen t.
Instead. use a ' cut -and -pa ste ' approach. relyin g on us to iso late th e cor rect
groups of hierogl yphs in th e voca bulary and to give their corr ect reading and
meani ng. You sho uld JUSt ' cut -and -past e ' the rel evant groups in to your
translations. By t he end o f i he next cha p te r. even these words should be
clear to you.
tmr -hrw is use d like our own R.LP as a phrase referri ng to t he blessed dead:
offerings a re made to the ka- spiri t of the dec eased.)
Not e the int eraction of an an d text in t h is example. where rhe foreleg
is an int egral pa rt of the sce n e, but als o serves as t he determinati ve of the
word IIp.( (it can be ' rea d ' a t t he co r rect poi nt o f th e in script ion at the e nd of
t he word for foreleg\.
Th is inscri pt ion co mes from the Mi ddle Kin gdom to mbs at Mcir, t he
ce mete ry site for Qis. the principal to wn o f the 14t h Upper Egyptia n nome
(pro vin ce ). We s ha ll make us e of ihese to mbs. part icularl y that of rhe gov-
er n o r Scnbi, for sce nes to supplement your st udy of th e M idd le Kin gdom
s telae in the British :\l u seu m .
1.8 Study exercise: A [ish inq and fowling scene
Translite ra te an d translat e the label s above the scene on p. 14 using the
vocabulary a nd n otes below the picture.
n. -v--- - · _..__._._. .----- - -_._- -
I bps
: c::::J
fish
go north.
go do wn st rcarn
alabaste r
Poker (place-name.
see p. 55 )
shooung. spe aring
d
h
c::=J 80
g (v.) sea l. dose: (n .) a/ th e seal
kr st C burial
!J em


staff
for eleg (join! of meal
used in offering s)
sky
gar ment
thro wing (the throw
suck in fowling scenes )
How I<' read Egyptiall hieroqlyphs
sr 13} offid al
ar Y'" fall
\
J,-<,_" I
12
1.7 Translati ng tile offe ring scene
1.6 Trans lation
Transliteratr an d translate th e foll owing phrases:
1.5 Writin g out words in hieroglyphs
Write ou t the following words in hie roglyp hs using t he determi native su p-
plied . Re member to arr ang e th e h iero glyphs iruo groups as noted in §5 above:
SIGN EX... MPI.E SIGN EXAMPLE
- =
r

' I
great,
)r.
bt
)r. t
bsk servant
large
3&,
3&,
gr eat.

love,
wr wr
importan t
"'Z.
mr mr
want
=
nb it nb
lord ,
pr
;:: .f.l
go out
= master
n r r
2
hs
U:M
hs
praise,
ill
" !J'
thousand
favour A !.
The aim of this chapt er is to introduceyou rothe 2· con,;onan ran d s-consonant siqns,
which provide much ofthe subtlety and flexibility of rlre hierogly phicscript. Ir will also
supply you with the inf orma tion needed to read the names of mriou,;f amous kings of
ancient Egypt. including the names on the Abydos kina -list ill the Bri tish Museum.
Chapter 2
§11 2- consonant sign s
The second major gro up of signs are th e 2-consona nt signs, which cont rib-
uie two consonants 10 the read ing of a wor d. We have already seen an
example in th e use of the 2- consonant sign n p r in the wor d n.IJ pr ' go
(out)' . The 2-consonant signs are rather common - over used in
this book - and becom ing famili ar with the m repre sents the major hurdle to
be overcome in reading hi eroglyphs. The sign -list on p. 128 gives a table of
the most common 2· consonant signs used in the inscri ptions studied. and
we shall a lso introd uce several at a time in t he vocabularies to the various
exercises to allow you to become familiar wi th them in convenient num-
ber s. The following are some commo n examples of 2- con sonant signs to get
you start ed, along with some common wor ds in which the y occur (includi ng
pr again so th at you can see how the table works):
More uses of hieroglyphs
Conside r the wor d bsk 'se rvant' , ln its most basic for m, the word is huil t up
through using th e 2'COJlSonant sign 5r- hi followed hy t he t -rnn sonan t sign
'=' k, which toget he r give the read ing of th e word as bsk (it may also be fin -
:r '
'"' I
I
g l
fbF' 1

' L

-/
I
I
14 How to read Egypriall hi eroqlyphs
16
t he word refers to per son ). No lic, ' ho w th is a mort' visually di stinctive
writ ing for the word th a n if it were si mpl y written out wi th I- consonant
signs . Alt h ough we mi gh t view t h e numbe r of 2-Cc1ll 50Jlam ,i gns as rat her
forbidd ing, it i s nothing compared to the cnurruous number of words which
any language coniaius. By having a mixed syste m in which they ca n he writ-
te n wit h differing com bmanons of hie rogl yphs, words ta ke on more
di stinct ive and memorab le writ ings than if t hey were simply wri tten o ut in
an .Ilphabl"l-li ke system (think of t he dilli cultivv of English spcIling").
The secon d no ticeable poin t in t he writing of so me of th ese words is
that I -co ns on ant signs often occ ur as sound complements fleshin g out t he
rea ding of a 2- consonaJ1l sign, he lpin g to jog the mem ory, as it were, about
it s reading. Th er e is a sim ple rule about thi s: if a I-consonant sign s ha res the
sa me value as a n acc om panyi ng 2 -consonan t sign. then thi s I -co nsonant
sign is not read a s se pa rat e so u nd. So, if we look at aga in , we read pr
and not prr even t hough it is w ritten wi th [J pr + <z> r. beca us e co= r jogs
our me mory abou t t he r of pro
If . however. t he j- conso naiu sign ha s a different value [rom th e
sounds of an accompan ying 2 -co nson ant sign , then it should be read as a
separat e sound. So, if we look at the word 5r i bsk, then the I -consonant
sign,=, k must be n -ad separatel y. sinc e the sign 5r only reads /)1 on it s
own. So read btk ,
From our poi nt of vie w, t h is might seem an u n necessa rily complex
way to go abou t writing words, but th ere are a n umber of ad vant age s. Fo r
ex ample, such a system provides the flexibility 1O be able 1O write words in
blocks as not ed in §5 . More impo rta n tl y, it allows a good deal of flcxibili t v
in t he act ual choice of si gns used; t h is was parti cularl y usef ul in view of the
fact t hat most hie rogl yphic inscr iptions were written on fixed and infl exible
surfaces s uch as sto ne.
Suppose that we hav e two insrriptious. each with a dHferent -sized
space left at t he end of a line, and we wis h to write the word luk:' sen' an l' in
eac h of t hese spaces. The hicr oglvphic svstcrn all ows liS a convenie nt and
elegant way out of our problem. In the srualk-r space we can write hs): as it
is writt en in t he table abo ve : ':;z; . III the larger space, we could include a
.. .Jr h
sound-complement JB, fleshi ng out t he J of th e hi-sign an d thus fill t he
sli gh tly larger spa ce: 5r 'it' . , . .
Th e two words readjust the same, th ey arc JUSt ' spclt out slightlv di l-
Iercntlv. Words in hi ewglyplIic writing, th erefore. do not have one single
corr ect spelli ng but ar c rat he r ' cl ast ic' and can he cont racted or ex panded
through. for example, t he inclusion or omission of sou nd -complements .
Fortunately, we ca n lea ve it 10 thr ancient Egypti ans to do all the spelling [or
us - the impo rta nt point [or us is just to be aware of t he Hcxibilit v of t he
17
§ 12 3- consonanl si gns
TI1<' fin al maj or group of sound- signs a rc the 3-co nsoll ant signs, which co n-
tribut e th ree consonant s to th e reading of a word. 3·con sonant signs are also
often a ccompanied bv one or two 1-o1l1sonant signs as so und complcmcms
helping to flesh ow t he reading of thr sign . Then- ar e far fi-wvr of t hese signs
and a lso many o f th em are eruhl emarir - tlI ,' \' arc used o n lv ill cert ain words
and an' oft en ronner u-ri t o. or come to DC' el;1hlc-ms for, tll'e words in which
they a rc used. Per ha ps the most famous ex ample of th ese signs is 1- ' 11[1,
' an kh', used in th e word for ' life ' :
EXAM PLE SIGI' r:XANIPLE
1-
' Ilil
,, -
(' n[I life
1
strung,
To
It ) r w5r
powerful
t nf r 1"- nfr good
I
11fT
I I
ntr god
'"

"""=
!lIp ="= htp
rest,
til
I;rr g I;pr become
0 0 satisfy
mr:

n Bf'
true, ri ght.
i m \'

hrw voice
proper
Th e t wo words 1111' and [trw ha ve already been met in th e phrase mr- h rw
' tr ue of voice' or 'j usti fied' . This, as already noted, is a commo n epi t het
bestowed on the blessed dead (wh ose con du ct has been judged before t he
gods to be true ) and is used a fte r t he names of the decea sed in a sim ila r
manner to our R.I.P. I > is a z -consonant sign readi ng 1111) :
mr -hrw tru e of voice, justified
You ha ve encou nt e red t his in more condense d wri ti ng s. (Se c furthe r § 14 on
p. 18 bel ow. )
§13 Ideograms: so un d- me a ni ng signs
The final signs to he looked at in t h is chapter ar e the so und -mean ing signs
(idcogr.nus} whic h combine sou nd and meaning and which come rlo sest to
our own preconceptions of ho w a pict u re- script should work:
\7 i b hca n mouth
---!
arm
?
r: the sun
I
. - pr hou vr
<;>
!tr fan '
i
As tht' examples ind icate, t hese signs are oftell fo llowed bv i which hel ps to
• • • 1. " • _ _ •._ .. __ •.•• " , 11 .. . , . : _ .. " • • 1• . ,., • • ,', " , __
meant; it also serves as a space hile r to gin' a convenient gro uping of the
signs. A fuller list of ideoj<rams is give n on Pl' · 128 -129 .
So und-II1eani ng signs ca n be acco mpa nied by so und complemeI1ls or
der crminat ivcs:
§14 Variant writings
Hieroglyphs a re written in gr oups, accommodatin g ae slhetic considerations
and the limi ts of physical space by lIsing differ ing combinations of signs. For
these rea son s, words can be wri tt en in a number of dif ferent ways. For
example, we have a lrea dy encountere d t he ph rase Ime-Lznv ' tru e of voice' or
'justified' in a number of different writ in gs:
19 Mort' uses ojhieroqlyphs
=- I1b all, every, any
ill nbt every thing
§16 C/ nb ' a ll, every, any' and =- nb 'lord, master'
There arc two import a nt words which can be wri tten alike. The firs t i s th
word for ' all' , ' ever y' or 'any' : e
IJrl> T or Jll>swor !l b;'( w} dOlhes
Another way of wri ti ng the plura l is for a sign to be repe ate d three times:
t stw) lands
Th is method is rarer in practice, al though it is fav oured for certain wor ds
such a s II(W) ' la nds'. "
Egyptian al so sho ws a restricted use of a dua l en ding: msc. -wv and
fern. c.\\ -t y (in dicati ug two of something ). but t his is common only' wi th
rhi ngs which tend to co me in pa irs:
I"'.'!?' ' uy arms tmy the two lands (Egypt: Delta and Valley)
tlwy is wri tt en by re peating two signs, like the second pl ural method not ed
above.
§15 Writing the plural (see al so Refe ren ce table on p. 149)
The mos t corruuon wa y of writing the pl ural has al ready been discu ssed in
§8 above. It IS tvpicallv written with plural stro kes ( . a t d
• , . . ' . ' .' "1 I ma y or ma y not
a -w sound-SIgn (m the latte r case, a IV is added to the transl iter ation
III bra ckets for convenience ):
=. I1b 'a ll every ' b h her Ii . .' ' any , e a ves rat er like an adjective (sec § I 0): it follows
the noun It goes WIth and, like an adje ctive , agree s wi th i t :
=- also occu rs in another comrnnn word , the word I1b meanine ' lo rd'
' maste r' hi I . . e- or
, w I C I, m liS most abbrevi at ed form. is writt en simp ly:
"-. '7 Il l> lord. master
Fortunat ely, when I1b means ' lord' or ' master' i t comes fir st in expres sion s:
<z:» rJ lib Ib.f w lord of Abydos
(Sec Exercise 2.2 fo r tbd w .Abvdos")
• •So the rule .is quite simp le: wh en I1b comes second in its phrase (a rid
agrees with t he first noun ) the n it is t he word nb " II ev e ' r whcn i . . u , ry, any ; w en It
nr' l In 11 .... 11 th,... word 11h ' l out m a xte-r '
",,-
\\" 1> pu re, pnc st
c c..
rnpt year

;
I r

sdm hear
;
11 land
:IT
How tc read Fgyptian Ili erL'-iJ1yplls
As already no ted , we can safely leave it to the ancient Egypt ia ns to show us
how it sho uld be done. We ne ed only be aware that va ria nt spelling is a per-
fectly normal featu re of hieroglyphic writing.
However. it is wort h no ti ng tha t ' spellin g' is const rained by co nvention
and tr ad ition within fairly str ict limi ts. So, even though m l ' -tlnV is wri tt en
nut in a n umber of different ways, the re are usually distiucuve and recog-
ni sable ele ment s to the phrase (in thi s case == and! ). Furthermore, by
tradition, nil ' is never found written nut wi th 1-con sonant signs as
* nil' (* is the symbol for 'n ot found' ); rather th e ra nge of 's pell-
ing ' of ms: concerns whether = 1111' wa s wri tt en al on g wit h> ml as a
so und cOlllp k ment (often combined into .jp). and pe rhaps a lso wit h ot he r
sound complemenls in differin g combin atillns, to sui t aest heti c and phy sical
cll ns ide ra tillns.
This usag e of signs illust ra tes an import ant po int for using this book.
Alt hough you may be able to ' spe ll out ' a couple of th e words given in thi s
sect ion , most of them will not be immedia tely readable (you sh ould, how-
eve r, ra pidly grow used to reading Q as \V'b. tor exa mple). The refore we
en courage yo u to focus on words as a whole, rather th an tr ying to puzz le
th ro ugh th e use of every single sign from first princip les, We will do th e
work for you by supplying yo u with words in the format used in the table
above: hieroglyphic writin g followed by transliteration and translation. If
yo u concentra te on whol e words as opposed to single sign s, you should fin d
th a t you make faster pro gres s in reading .
18
Sf- ffi hr rnh-ms»: the Horus Ankhme sut
21
It of
lord of I lIt-' ) \, \, 0 lands
f,r under
Mort' USt' Sof hieroqlyphs
JIb tnvy
{o rnpt -sp regnoI yea r
1
1
ltm person
mi r' like Re
'1 * ntr nlt the perko god
R. i.j dt r nhh end urin gly and repeat edl y
J;.;;. A (for ever and eternity)
On the written or der of t he phrase till r: 'like Re' . vou may wi sh to look
ahead to §22 in the ne xt chapter. .
A co uple of other tit les o[ th e ki nu u vpicallv arcompanving th '
arc : ' . ' . f- < pracnnrncn)
hm is used to refer ind irectl y to the king .
Egyptian n umberi ng is de cimal, broken up into te ns and un its. Th e
ten s reckoned by repetition of the sign n (so nnn =30 ) a nd the uni ts by
of I (so 111 1= 4 ). Consi der the foll owing example (here vear 28 of
king Nin iaatrc Amcncmhct Ill ) which shows how t he is put
toget her and how the numbering syste m works:
§ 18 Royal epithets
The ki ngs name and tit les are usually as sociated wi th a number of epi thets.
Among the most common arc epit hets co nnected with life:
1- 'n!! <ir Jiving cnduringlv di ' ntr given Jife
often extended:
§19 Dating
recorded in ancient Egvpt accordin g to t he reg nal year of the
r crgrn ng king an d no t by some absolu te dating system like Rei AD. The dat in g
formula ha s a fixed and regular for m based around the following word s,
along with the names, titles and ep ithets of t he kin g and th e numb f v
of his reign: e r 0 year s
Til t' dat e in the lunette of HAl EA 827:
l oU;' e n I t
t <z> __., . .
B,\ l FA rnpt-sp 28 tr r hm 11nsw -btty (m-mr t-r: <nh dl
Reg_nal year under. lh e person of the of Upper and Lower
Egypt "mwatrt' In-'ll g cnd uri nglv
ia n the tit le and epithet s of t he king, see t he previous paragraphs. On t he
na me of th e ki ng himsel f. St 'l' Exercise 2.7 o n pp, 26-27. The 1/ o [
" . . \ ' .' . . \ ,
the king ur Upper and Lower Egypt
Kheperkare
How TO read EHyptl<m hieroglyphs
The nomen, or second canollche -name. is th e kiug's own bi n h na me a nd
might be commo n to other members of t he dynasty . It is al so t he name by
whi ch scholars nowada ys refer to t he kings : ln-ncc we have Semvosret I,
1I, and III in t he 12th dynasty. Th e n umbers are a modern convention and
do not occur in t lte anci ent na mes. Th e n omen is typicall y introduced by
the 51 r: ti tle ' sou of Rc' - i.e . th e king as th e he ir ol th e sun- god Re on
earth . The nomen of Senwosret I is:
(Se e Exercise 2.7 o n pp. 26-27 [or th e rea din gs of t he cartouche na mes
themselves, and the or deri ng of the signs. )
The ot her tWOcommon names are wri tt en in cart ouches (name- ring s). Th e
praenomen. or first canouche- name (a na me as signed on th e kings acces-
sion), follows the nsw-bity ti tle ' king of the duali ti es' , ' d ua l king' - i.e .
t he king as ruler of the duali tie s which composed the Egyptian world: Upper
and Lower Egypt ; de sert and cultivation; th e h uman a nd th e divine . It has
be en tra ditiona l to focus on the division of Egypt into the Nile Valley and th e
Delt a a nd to translat e this title as ' ki ng of Upper a nd Lowe r Egypt' . The
praenomen of Senwosret [ is:
§ 17 Ro yal names and titles
One of the principal gnab of this chapter is to equip vuu to read the names
of t he ki ngs o! Egypt. lu rhe next lew pa ragraphs. we will deal wi t h some of
the backgro und ab out ruyalnames. focusing on the titl es. ep it hels and the
da ting for mula. In the Exe rcises to this chapter. we shall set you loose on the
names u] the kings themselves .
The king in ancient Egypt had an elabora te mu lary ma de up of his
names. titles an d epithets . Prom the Old Kingdom o nwa rds . each king ha d
five names. of which three a re panicularly common on mo nument s (the
ot he r two _ the ' tWO ladi es' and the ' golden Horus' na mes - are used less
often). The t hree common names arc t he Horus name and the names co n-
tai ned in carlouches - the praenornen and t he nomen.
The Horus name designates the king as the god Horus. th e so n a nd suc -
cessor of Osiris (for whom. see pp. 40 -42 ). The name is int roduced by t he
fa lcon hr. As an example th e Horus na me of senwosrei [ is:
20
.b ut r nr
V
wr 'Z
mr nb
U
k,
--
or 1 ' r
>
m' nor b
r
(,.,j ,fll/
' "
WI r-;
ffi
ms

S'

Jd
b. J·cv!lStmanr s(qns
The fo llo wing J -collso na m signs we re imroduo 'd ill the main text above.
\Vrite out a nd lea rn the se stgns a nd t he lollowtng common words rhev occur
in, t h e o ppo r ru nuv 10 follo w th e use (If so u nd-coruplerne nrs and
determinillives.
2.1 Signs
The following are a Ii!<lt uf signs III llc used in t he Exercisr-s. Thev arc wort h
mem ori sing iwrni ng them ou t is a good of fa mil ia ristug Yl;ursclf wul t
thcm i .
Exercises
t1. 1 ·l.' om O/ la Il15(qllS
Some IIf 11Il.'SC orcur i ll th e wor d cxr- rciws lrelow: others wi ll l« - of lise
whe n kings' names in Excn'is es 2. 7 and 2.8:
1-
"nlj
f ";;
"11; life
"'
wsr ' r= u'.\" r [nrwerf u!
I l ......
*
n'[r
4:::
nfr
C
l
II (r
"'i
II ,r god
II
htp
00
hip re st sati sf y
$
!!p r
it
br
r become
A fun he r uv- Iul j -consoua ru sign is: ann!
c. /tA'ograllls
FXA.'-1PlE

ASS, vase with wa ter flowi ng. combined wit h .'.'-
...J.
:J !.J.=
pure
( 9, fla t allu viall and wit h of sand
:0: :
i· land
4--"
F42, ruad bo rde re d by sh rubv
"""
Wit road, wa v
0
To ai d yo u in fu rther st udy, these signs have In-en quon- d with th eir
class itira rion (compose d or a leit e r a nd a numbe r} as Inund in the !<I igll -li,)1
on pp. 119 -143.
Note: __ .. often oc cu rs without the gra ins of sand as ...-.,. (Cl Or a lou c .
2.2 Words
a. Co py Ollt a nd rrau slit cr .. He t he Ioll owiug words ( you ma y wi sh 10 r efer (( I
the list of signs above o r the sigu -rabl es at the en d o f th e book):
12th Dynas ty (c. 1937- 1759 RC)
Sehetepibrc Amenemher (II I
Kheperk ar<Senwosre( II )
ilil

Khakaure Se nwos rt"1 11U,
Nimaauc
Maakhcru re An k'o crn he t (IV)
Sobekkure
18th Dynast y (c,1539-1295 BO
Ahr nuse
Djeserkare Amenhotep r l)
Aakhcpc rkare Thur mose (0
Aakhcpcrenre t l l )
Thuunnse urn
Maatkure
Aakhcperure Amenhocop (In f
I) V',
Nebmaarre ,\ m.:nholep l III)
Nef<r1Jlep<rure· " ·aen", Akhcna tcn I
Ankhkhepcrur e SnJenkhk,m:
S t"bkhqx·ru n.>Tntankhar uun-
hckaiunushema
Khepcrkheperure jmeqcr-Ay

11Of(' nlhe b--me0 amun
19th Dyna say BC) I
Mcupehtyre Ramesse (I)
Menmaatrc Sety (11
Usermaarrc -se'e pcr't "
RJm.:.. (II)

Perllxi


Uyn.1:<.ti, 'S ) 4" ,
l..<l \e Pt' riod
D,,",,:,>t ie-;2t>-30
.",n-h..UI: I'l' l ltoJ
1-:
AD
Be
50 0 BC
100 0
25 00 BC
NutI' : all dates a n ' apprllximate; you will fin d sli ghtly di ffe re n t sche mes used
in d iffe re nt books.
Exc urs us : cha rt of ro ya l dynasti e s
ul prinf hl ti lt' h rvav iutt I-v Akxtllltl,,-' r ihe Gr,,-',ll()32 li t.:) J r.l'
lrv c" chnla rs t hirt y dynasti es, further arranged intrt ruajttr pert-
(lct.., kn own J:-. Kin gdums (tturrn all v when unl v u n e ktng at ,1 tim e ntk- d
Egypt) and IntcrmeJiaw Per iods rwhr -n the kingship was Oft CII dtvtd ed).
Thi s lnmk pri nci pall y (Ul1ll'r nS rmu n un e nt v from rhe Firs! jun-rrue-diate-
Pe-riod aud Mitltllc Kingd un t ((. 2 150 iK - t·. 16 -t 1 H,,- : I. h111 tlu- kin gs
below an' tlhcll')st..' tl ti ll pp. 26· 31.
22
25 More uses of hieroglyphs
Writt en with E60-seat above A36-eye for reasons
which are still obscure . tsir is a recent ly suggested
readi ng (rather tha n older wsirv
Written with D2 5 and F9 or FlO-bread
de term inauves and plural strokes. In offering
formul ae it is often abbreviated to G.
It seems that "'- is an obscuredeterminati ve here'
father however, the common phrase father' is '
probably influent ial too (cl. §§33, 36).
bread
I I
it
ISI r Osiris
,; ,
0 =
G i l
. '- -
b.
0
As so often, t he same phrase ca n be writt e n ill a more con densed ma n ner
(a lt ho ug h it is read in the same way ), for example:
8M EA 557:
8M EA 586,
Line I :
(You may wi sh to co nsult §§ 9 and 10 on nouns a nd adj ect ives in Egypti an. )
2.5 Words
Some very common words a re writt en with othe rwi se uncommon sign s and
with some idiosyncracies of thei r own. Copy Oll! th e foll owing and rea d the
accompa nyi ng not es:
2.6 Dating
The followin g a re examples of da tes from British Museum ste lae. It is per-
hap s better to do this ex ercise after th e st udy exercis es on pp . 26 -30 , when
you will be able to read the ki ngs' names more ea sily.
The lunette of tile round- lopped stela of Scnwosretsenbu (EM EA 55 7) begins:
In the first line of EM EA 586 the king 's cartouche is surmounted by the sky hiero-
glyph, which is not read:
=d.
Khnum
Djedu (Busiris)
ka (the spirit
of sustenance)
open, separate
love, wi sh .
wan t desire
wepwawet
y or u son
cOlllpanion
road , way
Abydos
Amli n
How 10 read ( qyplic1 11hieroglyphs
f !,J?\:;"
rni
2.3 Variant writings
In § 14 in t he text, yo u wer e int rodu ced to th e noti on of va ria nt wri tings.
which allow a word to be str etched or compr essed to tit space. The example
used wa s th e phra sc mv-hrw 'j us t ified' Of ' tru e of voice' , used as arrepithet
of thc blessed dead. The variant s given in previous ex amples are repeated
her e. Work throu gh the wri t ings, iden tifying t he var ious signs , and satisfy-
ing yoursclf tha t despite th e dil fcrcnces. they all yield th e same tran s-
literation: mr-hrw.
2.4 EXl, ressions
Translite rate and tr anslate the follo wing phrases (both of which are
co mmon e lements of the offering formula which yo u wi ll st udy in mor t'
The names of these gods can be wri tt en wi th or with out th e de terminative
for gods: m(A3 ).
Try and translit era te the na me of the god Wepwawet (you may need to
co nsult § 15 aga in) :
c. Some more names of gods:
(Notice that in the word for ' road' , ' way', 1:;;'" can be used as a determi native
wi th the word ' spelt out ', or as a n ideogra m a s in Exer cise 2. 1. ;
b. Two importa nt to wn-sit es which oc cur in common epi the ts of the god
Osiri s a re:
Sin ce both of th ese common words re ly on a single 2·c onsonant sign, it i s
not at all unusua l t o fin d th em writt en at th eir briefe st with j ust th e 2· con -
so nant sign .
24
27
'i r= ---''j
\....
mv -hrw-r r
Maakh erure
sbk -ks-r t
Sobekkare
Mort' Wt-S of hieroqlyphs
- --A"
' 0 <3> 1!t '
'-=_. IV
iJpr-b -r'
Kheperkare
sht p -ib- r:
Sehetepibre
SIGNS
s-n-wsrt
s-n-u.:sn
h' -opr-r'
Khakhcperre
nb w- k sw-rr
Nubkaure
n- msrt-rr
Nimaatre
L,("- kn,v-r ("
Kha kaure
Amenern het (IV) imn -m-hu
Amenernhe t (III) imn -m-hn
Senwosre t (II)
Scnwosret (III)
. . . . . . . . . . . .
Ncfruso bek nfrw-sbk
List of first-carrouche names lin j umbled orde r):
'C'
Ib
ib
n=

heart y-
lnt tl
(th e god ) Amun

ws rt
wosret em
the po we rful one
IN
i n
ml'
maa

maar
--JJ true
m ir t (the goddess)
Maat (tru th)
11
ell or 111 nllb
01
1""1
Il bw
gold

I1fn"
nefru
J)
hetlha t
bea uty a
!111
(f orej front
<3> 0'
kha kheper
appearrance)
upr
being/ for m

orw
kheru s(e)
voice man
=-
sbk
sebek/sobek

sehetep
(the god) Sobek 0 0
ship
make sdlisiled
L__U_
kl
ka kau
the ka -spirit
UU b w
U the ka-spiri ts
--_... _ - _. -- - - - _ .
s ehetepibre
shtp -lb-r '

:4
CS
-- :.351
Amenemhet (I)
imn -m-hu
'_ _GlJ-=-,


:1l: _ i
Sen wos ret 11 )
s-n-wsrt
,_ __.__J
r 0--i.iu i ( . c:::i J;'
A O"lpnrn 1h et 1rJ\ imn- m- hit
',F"l _ Uj :L...,.", . , ..:>J
How [(1 read Egypri,:n hieroglyphs
BM EA 567 ,
lines 1-2:
2,7 Study exercise: Middle Kingdom kings of the 12th dynasty
It is now time for you to read through the cartouche names of various kings
of Egypt. The kings we hav e selected come from the some of the most cele-
brated dyna sties of ancient Egypt: the 12t h dynasty in the Middle Kingdom,
and the l St h. 19th and 20th dynasties in the New Kingdom . You can eith er
piece their names together from the sign resources provided below or you
can go furt her and refer back to Chapter s I and 2 (as well as making use of
the sign- tables at the end of the book ) to improve your familiarit y with the
signs.
The t wo most common names of th e king - the prae nomen and no men
- are wri tten in ca n ouches and are thus easy to spot . However. th e way that
th e names themselves are written is actu ally surprisingly complex, playing
with the various resources of the script for aesthetic an d spacing reasons.
The one Iactor we have not covered so far (because it finds a more appropri -
ate place in Chapter 3) is that element s drawing on divine names are written
first. regar dless of the order in which they are read, For example, the sun-
disc rr (the name of the sun god) regularly appear s first in the praenomen
but is read last (as the tr ansliteration values and Anglicisation of the names
below show), For the purposes of this exercise, we would ask you to follow
the reading order we give below, but you may wish to look forward to §22
in Cha pter 3 for an account of this peculiarit y,
rill in the first cart ou che names from the list bel ow into the prsper
place in the following table (the first one is don e for you), Notice , on ce
again, tha t the clement r' is written before the oth er elements of the name
(similarly with wsrt in s-n-wsrr). although it is not rcad first:
BM EA 567 begins with a date; the writing of nsw-biryis tofir the rounded shape:
26
29 .\1ore usesof hieroalyphs
.-- (0 - -e;-''i
',... p 6... ;-., )
VOCAIlClARY
,\ l enpchtyre
Rarncssc (I )
Memnaarre
Set y-rnc rvenpiah (I)
Userma.n rc -setepenre
Rarncssc-mcrvaruun III )
Userrnaa t rc -mervarnu n
Ra messc -h c kaiuuu (111 1
.-- --- -_ ..
j;
II;
ak h tijah
spirit
-
I' b
moon-god

' Il'IIlt'
i unu
or
amuniamen-
Hcliop olis
l mn (the god)
Amun

1m
dUn
0 Aren (solar disc)
or ...-=
r
aa
great
Sf-
'11[1
al1kh
life /livi ng
w'
wa

the (sole) one
r
WJS{
warel
Thebe s (place-name) 4
tvsr
weser/user
powerfu l
p/11I
peh tv
ptah
'D
for Ci
Cl C\
phry
st rength
ptl: (the godl
w"
Ptah
111
em
in
maat
mr t
Maat (t r ut h )
=
ml1
men
r::: or

m t' '!)'
es tabhsh ed
tnry
beloved
ffir
»I S
mose
hear, form
n
ell
of
<z:> nh
neb nefer
lord @
nt r
per fect
o
r :
re/ra hal
(the god) Re
J,. hJl
<:> front. ti m
'Ji7 bb
heb
hor
festival b
hr uhc god)
Horus
r
hks
heka helep! h(l/ep
ruler
hip
W J satisfied

tJr'r
khep er

klieperu
bl'illg/form
bprl\'
bdllgs/[orms
\') hnmt
khcnmet
t W loined (with)
nr ___ 5 \1' , SU, H
him





'-- -_ . ---
If ES



']'-=;-; 1[:
.. _ _.A
<nc ':;::?r :
'...

'j .8 __Jt',,-)
12J'¥'()-?51:'
-,1.,.,...:.. 2".1
; 0 " ,

.•




Nebmaatre
Amen hlllcp hckawa sct I III)
:-lcler khepnlre-waetlre
Akhena ten
Nebkhepentr e
TlIlJllkhame n- hekai unu shema
Dj cs erkh cperu rc -S<' tcpl'IIrc
lloremheh-lllervJtnull
Djeserkare
Ameuhoicp (I)
Aakheperkare
Thur rnosc (Ii
Aakheperenrc
Thut mose (II )
Maal kare
Halshepsut-khen meWInUll
MenkheJlerre
rhuunose (JII )
Aakheperm e
Amenhoi ep hckaiun n (II)
Menkheperurc
'rh mrno- e llV)
Nebpehtyre
Ah mo sc
How to read E:Jypl ian hicroqlvph»
rL1 or re
iZ' r : (the Rc IOrRJI
2,8 Study exercise: New Ki ngdom killgs
Transli te rat e bot h the cartouch e names [o r each ol t he f" lI",ving Ne w King-
dom kings, using th e <l ids pro vided , A wmplica ting Iactor is that. duri ng th e
New Ki ngdom, it is not at all uncommon to find epi t hets inclnded within
ro ya l ca rtouc hes. So me 01the na mes below contain suc h epi th et s (for exa m-
ple that of the ruling queen Hatshep snt. which regu larly incl udes t he ep it het
ljnml -im
ll
- 'joined wi th (t he god) Amun') . If th e epit het contains the name
of a god , this divi ne ele ment may be writt en at the front of t he cart ouc he.
eve n if it is no t read first. Foll ow the lead given in the Augliciscd versio ns of
the names bel ow :
Ma ny of these elements have pr oper meanin g as WI irds (In their own, which
we ind icat e he re . However, th e re is no need to Iry a nd rran slare the names.
All the first ca[louche names « lIuain the [ollowing d emcllt :
28
=;r."
~ S'
v. !)'O
g ~
~ -
-
- --- --- - - ~ - - - _ .
sip
setep
c-« chos en
1-
sm
r
shema
soUlhern
" ~ .
rut
rwr
image
V
dsr
djeser
sacred/ holy
as a gift of (literally, in th e giving 0[ 1
for ih e king
W nllSW
~ ~ m dd
--- _. --
Sery
\ M ~
sty
Sety, l.e . ma n of
(t he god ) Se lh
~
}PSWf
sheps ut
diSlinguished wo men
kl
ka
U the ka -spirh
The king-list shows some int er esting gaps between the Middl e and New
Kingdo m (be tween the fourt h and fifth cartouche s of the second surv iving
register) and wi thin th e 18th dynast y. Use the roya l names list ed in ihc pre -
viou s Exercises and the chart of ro yal dynast ies 0 11 p. 22 to ident ify th e
The word nsw is wr itt en using ':f which is also a variant for - common in
the New Kingdom (compa re the mor e usual spellin g of nsw in §23).
[An offeri ng wh ich the king gives bef ore Ptah-Sokar-Osi ris .. , a thousand
bread and beer. etc. I to kin g X as a gift 01Rame sses II:
2.9 Study exercise: 8M EA 117 (tire Abydos king-list of Ramesses II)
Th e ' ki ng-list' of Ramesses 1\ shown on p . 31 originall y came from his temple
at Abydos . Mod ell ed on a similar list in his father Seti I's mortuary templ e
nearby, the list forms part of an elabo ra te offering fonnula (!ltp -dl -nsw; see
Cha pte r 3) for the cult of previous kings. Originally, there were 78 car-
t ouches in th e upper regist ers (t he 76 found in th e Seti I list plu s the two
carl ou che names of Ramesses II ). Th is number probably reflects cult ic tr adi-
tion, the space available on the wa ll, a nd possibly th e 76 forms of the sun-
god enumerated in t he religi ou s text kn own as the Litany of Re. The kings
ar e identified by pr aenomen beneath which are deterrrunati ves of seated
kin gs alternat ely wearing th e white (I and red ?:j cro wns . The names of
Ra rnesses II (alte rn at ing bet ween n omen and praenomen) ar c repeated in
the bottom reg ist er and show a range of var iant writings for the nomen .
Reconstructing the top lin e from th e Set i I king-list, the overall format is as
follows:
VOCABULARY ( CO:-lTlNUFDI
30 How to read (qypri an hi ao.'1
l
yphs
."",- "'It Thut-
-'f - u. WIY (th e god ) ruoin
l _. _ _·_ - ...• - .- - .- - ---.- - - .- .-----. - - . - - - - ". - .• ~ . - " ' - . - - . - - . _ . - . _ - ..-.- ._-
Chapt er J
Special writings
I n J/Iii d JJpl cJ It' .:' i ntroduce )'t) U JLJ a 11Iml ba spetlt tl wriunas: ubbr N i.lJI JJJs,
i n ,h( order .. l(i ;g ll S ,11Id dr!fecliw wrn in.ol s. Si nce dil 4 J/uSf art' ruthe r Iw n-
mon: patt i.. -ularlv in " ' It rendtTing Ilf titles and f!pll !l tl.{ . cl J.:. n'Hvlt'd. qt' elf them is
essential [or successful monument rradinq in IJ ml1st!um. Yt1U art' also imrodl1Crd Itl
the offering [ormula, probably the must [t,mmon form of ltit'rt1g1yphit-inscription 1(>
he[ound ,1 " [nnvrary inannments survivi ng[romlweii'm E.&/,vPt. This chapla should
(tho Sin'r as a convenient f i !at ll ce resource to which you ClUJ return when SlUdyin.o1
varitJlI Sm.muments later .. ", in th« book .
§20 Abbrev ia t ions
Abbrevi at ed wrirtngs a re common ill the writing of titlt"s and epu hcrs:
} III1 hry -hbt In10r pr ies,
huy-s (litera lly, 'foremo st o f posit ion ' ) is written with the ideogra m -1) hn
(front part of lion ) over bry -lIbl (lit era lly, 'the carri er of the book
of rn ual') is writ ten wi th a bbreviated writi ngs of bo th lJr)' a nd hb: (wi thout
sou nd comple me llls o r determinatives) . There is also gra ph ic transposition,
wit" t he two tall signs placed either side of i& brlY) (sec §21 bel ow} . Clear ly
suc h ,v ritin gs can ne r be read by sigll wit h an y eas e. Even a fter mo rt"
than a cent ury a nd a half o f stu dy, the exact readi ng of some words remains
romeruiou s among He nce \ VC st rongly recommend rhat you
foll ow o ur gen e ra l advi ce o f concent rat ing on whole wo rds rather tha'rt gCI -
nng bogged down iII i lrc stu dy of individua l sign s,
As we have already seeII, abbreviated wri t in gs of ihe ep ithet usuallv
bestowed on th e blessed dea d a rt' CtJlllnJUJI:
wriucu in lul l as: rru c of voire. j ust ific:d
§21 Ch ange of o rde r: sp aci n g
The se cond feature is the swit ching of the order of It l enable Ihl' 1IIto
fit into the available space in a mo re sat isfad ory man ner ot.' f11lt 'cI mOre for-
ma lly .'1r aphi c frarfSpt1S;fiNI) :
illSll'ad tl f '}'@ Jdw Djcdu
Speciat wr ;,;n:/ J } 3
Grap hi c t ran spositi on als o i /l vr-rucal ( OhIllIlIS:
Djr-d u. illslt'ad tl t
Someti me.. graphtcrransposttton is .J regular featu re of rtn- wrui ng of a word:
:rr:. mn See. hhlk at
Thi s ie, wrincn with t he dcn-r minat lvr plJ n: d unde-rJIlt" 2- Cllll -
cona nt sign ml.
§22 Change of ord er : p restige
For reasons o f prest ige, names for gods and and relat ed words some -
times precede clos ely connect ed words, alt hou gh the y are acr ua llv read
afterwar ds (t his is termed more formally honorijit transposiiionv.
rra uspostt ion is part icul arl y common in epithet s a rnt uth- s:
+1:
rb nsH'
ktng's advisor;
11
k m-nt r
serva ur of the-
royal tmimat c god. priest

m ry. 'lmll beloved or Amuu
82
ntt r " Iik(' Rr
(Norice ihat abb reviat ed wr iting s are: also comrnon .]
You hav e a lready euo umtc red t his pheno menon in t he writing of rova l
nam es ill Exerci ses 2.7 a nd 2.8. A rather dram at ic illustration of this poin; is
the following writing of the nom en o f Raru esses II
' Rarnesses beloved of Ar nun' }: . '
Here th e two divi ne d em en ts t Ra o f the name Rarnesses an d Ann m of the
epithet 'beloved nf Arnun) have been w ritt en as seat ed gods and place d ar
the top of th e cartouche fat ing each ot her, creating a ve-rtical div ision . The
low Oat sign of mrty) ('bcloved') bas been placed in 'he mi ddl e of ' be ear -
touch e, crea t ing a hor izoural division. The: vert ical div ision mirror ed ill the
hotto rn half of the cart on ch e (giv illg t he m S-H t.-'or ' messe pa n of Raruess cs )
where rhe rhrec-prongcd »u-s ign sta nds in t he cent r...between IWU tall thin
signs (th e sw and the hot lr of which bend flwa y at the Hlp from I he tTntra l

m -r rr stewa rd
35 Special wr itings
possessor of vc nerationr reverence
venerable one. revered one,
1/1"hy or ill1!(zw honourable one
nb l/1l1lj
It is not at all uncommon for titles 10 be written with ou t dererrninar ives.
l?el(qious titles

u"-b
pr ies: ditl'raily,

};1I1- priest duerallv,
pure OIll" j 1"1 1'
servant of the god)
9
J1I\,'
ma ster of secrets
bd
brr'
le ctor prt esi
«z> SSll hb:
in,,!;y !;r tsir the revered one before Osirls
§25 Ep it hets
Egyptian text s abound with epi thets of gods, kings and offi cials. Her e a re a
couple of rela ted epithe ts part icula rly common on stela e:
§26 The offe r ing for m ula
Formulae comprise rel ativel y fixed combina tions of words and so can be
read with out a det ailed unde rstand ing of their int ernal grammar. The most
common example, the offeri ng form ul a. is a ubiqui tous feat ure of th e hier-
oglyphic monuments found in museums throughout the wor ld. By worki ng
thro ugh , and becoming familiar wi th, the element s of the formula discussed
below, you will gain access to a vast nu mber of hi eroglyph ic in script ion s.
The offering formula merges two rela ted functio ns: official and pe r-
sonal. In officia l terms, th e status of the decea sed as on e of th e blessed de ad
was linked 10 th e successfu l pe rformance of official funct ions in roy al servi ce
and et hical be h aviour in life. Thi s success was inst ru men tal in qualifying t he
decea sed for access 10 th e means of commemo ratio n in ter ms of memorial
inscri ptions and fun er ar y monument s, One purpose of the offering form ula
was to allow the decca sed to pa rtake of the offeri ng s presented to the dei ties
in the ma jor cu lt temples in the name of th e ki ng, pa rticu larly on festival
occasions . Thi s reversion of offeri ngs displ ays the importance of official life,
and other varia n ts based on the fuller wr itin gs suc h as: ' reve rence',
' veneration' .
These epi thet s ar e primarily applied 10 the blessed dead. Afte r a life of
official du ty and ethica l behaviour, the blessed dead were revered by the
living (who perpetuate thei r mem ory on ea rt h, par ticularl y th rough offer-
ings) and ho noured before the gods (with whom they exis t beyond death as
tran sfigured spi rits) . The lauer is often ex pressed in the followin g way :
overseer ol
IIl·r 111.1' ihe army
overseer 01the
L:' m-r 'tlIt",t y cha mber
gl lVern or,
mayor
steward. overseer
m-r pr 01 ihc evtarc
...:.:=:::- .:..t
r (lI1}1 penpk
'; l) p.
!lir. )!:: / beer
b . •
,." slm y )z dc- sen
t':
nsw king

How 101 read Egypli m l hieroglyphs
a. Conventional ti tles of stat us and aut hority
The two most common convent iona l tit les are:
htmty bi tv seal·bearer of the king smr ",'t(y) sale companion
(The reading of !Jtl1l1y-bfty is unsure: othe r possibili ties a re lumw-buy and
s(/lwry.bi ty; for bi ty ' king', see p . 102. ) These two titl es often occur toget he r.
b. Titles of office
Titl es of office can be divided int o secular and religiou s t itles:
Secular titles
m -r probabl y mean s lite rall y ' the one in who m is th e word' (i.e. t he one who
has th e authorit y to issue orders). On th e basis of a graph ic pun around r
(whic h means both 'mo uth ' and 'word'), it is occasionally writt en with '\
B44 ton gue (the ton gue being ' the one in the month' ):
A number of tit les arc composed wit h the clement Jl;. m -r (fully t nty -r i
' overseer':
§24 Tit les . .
Office- holdi ng playe d a cen tral role in the ..lite cult ur e of a n cient Egypt.
locating the indivi du al wi tIlin societ y, most notabl y i,n relat ion to th e king
(see also PI' . 10 1· 104 ). Titles come in two forms: of ficial or adn ulllstrallve
titles and conve nt ional titl es connected wi th sta tus and author ity. Abbrevi -
ated writings arc commo n to both.
34
§23 Defect ive or st range writings . '
A Iew common word s are writ te n wit h ou t th e Inll se t 0 1 sound -SIgns, prob-
ably for rcasons of grouping: "511' ' king' is written in an unusual manner :
Tile offerillg formula from 8M EA 558:
The most com mon form of the offering formula is composed o f three parts,
which can be divided accordin g 10 the ch aracteristi c Egypt ian expression
found in each:
An offering which the king gives (to) Osiris, lord of Djcd u. grea t god, lor d
of Abydos . so t hat he ma y give a volcc offer ing tin) bread, beer, ox. fowl.
alabaster. linen, everyt hing good aud pur e on which a god lives for the ka
of the revered one Key

from
t ::
nsw kin g

from

htp offni llg
c . cCJ:C)
/;;,
fro ut
/},
di give
[ - :1 from

prt a going fort h
lrom

hrw voice
0
Iroru
r. <:r>
bread
0 : I !
1-\
from

hnkt beer
Special writinqs
lli prt -ljrw a voice offering
a. The offerillg to the god (s)
The co nvent ion al grouping o f this ex pression uses t he foll owing elements:
1 C A l up -di -nsw an ollc ring which the kmg

(For the writing of the verb 'giv e' . see Exerci se 3.5.)
The expression htp -di -nsw is ofte n used to refer generally to the offer-
ing formula and its associated offer ing rile s (a nd might less lit erall y he
iranslat ed a s ' t he o ffe ring rite') . The actu al rendering of t hi s stereotyp ica l
phrase is notoriously obscure an d st ill exe rcises the minds of scholars. What -
ever its original form. it is clear th at by the Middle Kingdom the p hrase had
co me to be tr eat ed as a fixed, compou nd exp ression. Here we ha ve ad op ted
a standard renderi ng which we encou rage yo u to follow, rat her than trying
to work out it s me an ing from the individual signs.
The name. title and epi thets of the god(s)
The name of the god t hen follows . The god mo st co mmon ly na med in the
offer ing for mula (as in th e exampl e above) is Osiris and we shall co ncen tra te
on him in thi s chapter. For t he ot he r common divi ne rec ipient of t he offering
formul a, Anubi s, see BM EA 178 3 in Ch apt er 5. and for an example with a
nu mber of god s, see BM EA 584 in Chapter 8. Th e standard name s and tit les
of Osiris are int rod uced sepa rate ly in the notes on funer ar y de ities al the e nd
of thi s chapte r.
b. TI,e off erings are passed 011 to the deceased
The voice offering
This sen ion of t he offeri ng form u la ce nt res around ih e foll o wing expr ession:
The sta nda rd wril in g o f prt -ljrw conta ins th e foll owing cl ements:
II kt tI Iml !lly! ky
h tp-dt-nsw ssir n b ,Jdw tW ' I lib lbdl\'
ljl nbtt} IIfr (r) wrbtt ) 'tliJi ntr 1m
r hnk: kllpd 55mnlt t
<l,

hi p-dt-nsw all offering wh ich ih « king gives
b.
o!t:
r rr·!;rw a voice of fcrtng
c.
U
11 ta 11 for the ka of
10 read Ejypriml hieroalvphs
r <::> A
l' lJ@ IJ' '=' @
<-D cp n G
,,- _ 005'"8 u


36
We sh all lake you t h ro ug h each of th ese pa rt s in tu r n. assembling her e the
materi al yo u nee d 10 be ab le to read the sta nda rd Os iris offer ing formula. It
you return 10 th is sec tion when reading stelae such as BM FA 587 on p. 46
a: rhe en d of thi s chapter, y(lU sho ul d find all the he lp you need. As yOIl
st udy th e vario us slel ae in t h is book. yo u wi ll no dou bt gai n mo re a nd more
. rr ._. : __ 1 .., •• 1 ..,
particula rly in terms of Th e pe rson of ihc kiug . in th e rc la uonship between
the livi n g and Ihe de ad.
The se cond, perso nal . Iuuct ion relates more to the pr ivate [amil y-ba sed
a spect s of the funerarv cul t of the deceased. TIl<' priv ate offerin gs to ihe dead
co uld be either phys ical (t he o ffering of food. drink a nd goods) o r verba l
(t hro ugh the uuerance o f the off eri ng formula ): furt her mor e. these offer,
ings could be perpelUat ed in pic to rial a nd ve rbal form (th ro ugh an a nd
writing). In Ih i, way. t he offerings made a l rhc bur ia l co uld be pe rpet uated
by fami ly members (pan icularly th e son and he ir), o r by people visiting the
tomb or pa ssing by the stela .
Fir st o f all. here is a n example o f the offer ing fo rmula, whic h you may
wi sh 10 refer ba ck 10 as you read over the di scussion be low:
i prt -hr w is her e written with bread and bee r signs but simply read pr t-hrw:
Tireinventory<!f offerings:
The offeri ngs a re usuall y enume rate d via a standa rd list of items, usu all y
w ritten with ab breviated writi ng s (given here al ongside fulle r writ ings) :

BM EA 6 14, pr t-hrw 1;1 1 hnkt 1]1ks lpd !J. Is mnht
Column I : A voice offering (of) a thousand bread and beer, a thousand ox and
fowl. a thousand alabaster and linen
39 Special writings
t lnl [I (Wj the revered one U I n kI n for rhc ka of
"'Z. c " "
mrht oil. u nguent
1''''=''
sn tr ince nse
<=> j.IT:
<:,&.. or CL)
hlp or hII' I o £kr ings

</f(lwj prov ision s
nO :,,:1...-. [ ,
mr-h rw the j usnfi ed
c. The recipient of the offeri ng
Th e decease d re cipient of the offeri ng is in troduced by one o r both of th e fol -
lowing phrases :
You have al rea dy stu died th is ex pression in Exe rcise 2.4. It is ofte n qual ified
by the foll owing fixed ex pression:
d Oll/ h(li IIfr( rj w/b it) evervth ing good an d purl'
fJ 'n tlt ntr 1m on which a god lives
Si nce thi s is a fixed expression, yo u shou ld read and translate it as a whole
for now, without worryi ng about its int e rna l gramma r (which will be
expl ained i n Chapter 7).
The invent ory is wrapped 111':
A, well as listing a standa rd set of offerings, the offering formula also usually
includes a more ge ne ric and all-embracin g phrase :
Ot he r offerings someti mes occ ur (part iculorlv in lat er 12th - and 13th -
dynast y ste lae) and ar c usually more fullv writt en ou t :
In the l l th dy nast y an d in to the early 12th dynast y (aft er which it di es o ut),
we usu all y find imihtw} on its own. Th e co mbined u sage n kl n tmiljtw)
begins in t he early 12th dyna sty and rea ches its peak in the mi d-12t h
dyn asty. The us e of 11 k1 n o n its own is rare in the ea rly 12th dy nasty, but
be comes the most common for m Irom th c lat er 12t h dy na sty onwar ds.
Once yo u have reached this po int. then yo u will find the name of th e
deceased, usuall y wit h a title, a nd ending with the commo n epith et:
§27 The gen itive
Th e genitive ' of' (as in ' the king of Egyp t ') occu rs in two forms:
a. Direct genitive
The two nou ns are pu t toget her with o ut a ny linking word. Th is co nst ru ction
is on ly common bet ween clos ely connect ed words or in fixed expressions:
linen
bee r
fowl
' a thousand
How to read I:'gyptiall hieroqlyplts
oor bread 0 or 12.6 hn kt
b or 14, ";Bl kl ox 11 or tpd
6 or c=r,b r< alabast er 11 or mnh;
Often th e offeri ngs are nu mber ed wi th l lB ' t housan d' or
of /i n'.
The voiceofferingfrom the stela of Tjeti:
m= prt-hrw a voice offering
The second part of th e offeri ng formula eit her starts o ff with prt- hrw im me -
diatel y o r marks th e pa ssing over of th e offerings from th e god by the use 01:
ill dl=f p rt-hrw so thai he m ay give a voice offering
di=fis aga in a form of t he ve rb rdi ' 10 give' (see Exercise 3.5). Once again, at
t hi s stage we advise yo u to follow our sugges ted transl ation (see Cha pte r 8
for an explanation) .
prt -hrw a lone is typical of 11th -dynast y stelae. di=f prt -hrw is more
t ypical fro m th e mid - 12th dynasty o nwards (pr t-hrw alone bei ng rare by
then ). During the ea rly part of the 12th dynast y a mixture of both usages is
found.
38
The term prt -hrw is regu larl y writ te n with th e bread and be er signs . even
when th e voi ce offe ring itself is int end ed without any referen ce 10 the br ead
an d be er. Th ey arc depi cted whether br ead and beer ar e mentioned
sepa ra te ly in the suosequem invcnto rv of offerings or not lin which case they
Ola v ha ve been thought of as being included within the writin g of pn-hrwi .
, Bv th e Middle Ki ngdo m prt -hrw had become a fixed ex pression used
as a cover term for th e offerings themselves (and might he loo sely tra nslat ed
as ' the ritualllfferi ngs') . As a fixe d expressio n, prt -hrw ca n even be written
with a det ermi native for th e whole phras e, such as = ' loaf for offe ring ' :
Excursus: Egyptian funerary deities
4 1
late 12th
dynasty
onward
Alternative writing
from the late 12th
dynasty
Special writings
"=' 1 nb sbdw lord of Abydos
Written with E60-seat above A36-e,"" for reasons
which are still obscure. .
great god
/SI r Osiris
nb ddw lord of Djedu (wri tt en with graphic transposition, see §21)
ntr " J
Osiris written without determinative
(written with det erm inan ve in the
I Ith dynasty)
Il th -
mid-12th
dynasty
The writing of Osiris' nam e (and the number and nat ure of his epi thets)
altered at different per iods of Egyptian history. as follows:
These three toget her represent the classic Middle Kingdom combination of
epithets, part icul arly common in the early 12th dynast y.
The wri ting of Dj edu itself cha nges over time (as well as sometimes dis-
playing graphic transposition) :
1v-.- §l hnt y-tmmw Khent yimcntu

pure as to the exact reading - ill thi s book we adopt the more recent
suggestion 10 read ssir rather than wsir, not least since th is bri ngs out the par-
allel with the wriring of the name of Isis (for wh ich sec p. 42):
As a ' great god' i n tr ' I), the cull of Osiris was celebrated at man y sh rines, the
most importa nt of wh ich are reflected in his t itles 'l ord of Djedu' and ' lor d
of Abydo s' , the writing s of which yo u studied in Exe rcise 2,2. In EM EA 587
(see Exercise 3.8 bel ow ) they are writt en as follows:
The pre-eminence of Osiris is reflected in hi s ot her name, Khen tyimentu
([mty -imnrw ), 'the one who is for emost of the westerners' (i.e. the dead
gathered in the realm of the setti ng sun) ; the name evokes his subj ects (t he
dea d spir its) arrayed befor e hi s throne:
As will beco me clea r from a nu mber of th e stelae which you will st udy in
th is book, th e na me Khc nt ylmcruu is often included in the offeri ng form ula
amon gst th e epit het s of Osiris (agai n t ypical of the early 12th dynast y).
In mytho logy, Osiris had been a living king at the beginning of hi story,
bu t wa s murdered and dismembered by hi s ambit ious brot her. Se th. Osiris '
remains we re ma gically restor ed by Isis (1st) - his sist er - wh o was then ab le
to conceive his child, Hor us; Horus grew up 10 defeat Set h an d in herit his
father's throne in legit imat e fashion . Osiris is represent ed as a deceased king,
nt
FEMI NINE
PLUR.'..l
nu' o
.\ l ASCULL'1E
ti t
FEJ\UNl NE
3r
='" = -

"'-- y ----".DC'
b,k=[ ml' tI st· /b=[
His true servant of his affect ion
St:'i GlJ LAR
n
H oJW to read Egyp tian hieroq lyphs
MASCVI.INE
BM EA 162,
Cent ral column:
overseer or
yU
nb lord of Abvdos

m-r pr
the estate
=, @
'bJ'"
(Cpithet of Osiris)
m-r overseer 01

ti t lord of Dj edu
•Lrnwty the chamber
=',, @ ddw (epit het of Osiris)
The stela of Ameny iden tifies his subordina te, Sahatho r, with the epithet:
b, Indirect gellitive
The two nouns are lin ked by forms of the 'genitival adjective' n. This
behaves like an adje ctive and agr ees wi th the preceding noun, taking the fol-
lowing forms:
U I n k: It for the ka of
_ ' of' is writte n in exa ctly the same way as the preposition - It 'to' , ' for'.
However, in t ranslating into English, one or othe r of t hes e usu all y suggests
itself (d . ' for t he ka of' ). Also t he re is a tendency for nt o be used for all num-
bers and genders, as in bmt=fll st-Ib=f' his wife of his affection' in Exer cise 4.6.
An example occur s in blk=f m« n st-tb«] above . Another example occ ur s in
th e ph rase:
It also occu rs in cen ain compound expressions. such as thos e compounded
with tb ' heart ' :
,1 co \l H-Ib affe ction. intimacy (literally. situauon of the heart )
JJn l .
st -lb occur s in a rather common epithet:
Osiris
Osiris (l sfr ) was a cen tr al figure in the fune rary cults of the an cient Egyp-
tian s. As noted in Cha pter 2, his name is writt en in an idiosyncrat ic manner
and canno t easily be broken down sign by sign. Indeed there is still some dis-
40
43
wc ncnnefc r
Ameny (name)
Special writinqs
EXAMPLE
hit or hw
;:;"1 lu t from
lmnt th e west
lie=; s: place, position
'i : mi: ar my, expediti on
o
Jc=; sf place, po sitton
Khen tvi rncnt u
Ill' 1,
great
SIGN
E7 feather on standar d
1 E60 seat
A24 soldier with bo w and qu tvcr
..J:; B49 forepart of lion
wr
sb or mr
Exercises
3, 1 Siqns and wonts
a. 2-( /,.1 11S0nalll and 3-(ollsl.-' llant s(qllS
As yo u will see below, the name o f the god Khe nt yirnent u di splays th e TIl'-
bird (B5 long-legged bu zzard ), a sign which re ads TW or Tvw (in thi s book we
sha ll go fur t he simple r rea di ng Tw) , bu t looks simila r to ;he r-bi rd (B3 Egyp-
tian vult ur e ). The rw -bi rd has a mo re ro u nded head, but oft en th e two birds
are ve ry simila r in writin g (somet imes we add a ti ck to the rw-bird to distin-
guish it). Fortu natel y th e rw-bir d has a ver y restrict ed usage:
No tice tha t t he sign 1has ap peared in two differ ent words which should not
be confused:
3.2 Words
Transli terate the followi ng words (one uses a sign introduced in an earlier
chapter):
3.3 Gods' names
You have already been introduced to tWOforms of Osiri s: Khcntvi men tu and
Wencn ncf er. Thes e are wr itten as follows . Transli te ra te : .
lord o] rile 'a cted land li t /l dsr
lir Horus
WP -WIIII wepwawet
c lll "-r"

tnpw Auuh is
&d
i p(y j dw=! upon his mountain
l 0 c u .

+}S
im (y )-\l' 1
the one
II h /l dsr lord of the sacred land
in the " 7
WepwalVet
wepwawct sha res a major ep it he t wi th An ubis :
Anubis
The name and standard epithe ts of An ubis:
The passion of Osiris is also reflected in th e name wenennelc r twnu -njr i.
whi ch me ans ' t he one who contin ue s to be perfect ' an d hints at his myst e-
rious pOSTmortem potencv :
Wepwawet 1I11d Anubis
Fu nerary ste lae fro m Abydos and el sewhere of ten in voke We pwawet and
An ubis a longsi de Os iris . Repres ented as a dog or jackal. we pwawer (wp-
wnw) was an ancient go d o f Abydos a nd an ac tive particip ant in the cult o[
Osir is: t he annual passion -pla y at Ab ydos began with the procession of Wep-
wawcr '10 protect his fa th e r' , Osiri s. More generally, Wep wawet wa s
associa ted with ce meteries and fun eral s, as reflect ed in h is tit le 'lord of th e
sacr ed land' inb ts fisr). where ' sacre d land ' means the ce metery. Even the
name We pwawet (litera lly, ' th e one who opens t he ways' , see p. 96) re call s
th e un trodden pa ths ov e r th e de sert along whi ch he guided the souls of th e
newl y de ceased to t he ki ngdom of Osir is,
The other maj o r fune rar y deity was An ubis, whose iconography is
clo se to th at o f Wep wawet; he also ap pears in ca nine form a nd bears the tit le
'l ord of the sacred land': hi s ot her tit les are more obsc ure. ' k ve rt heless, t he
fu nerar y gods have dist inct roles, apparent in t he mythol ogy of t he fune ral :
Anubis embalmed th e bod y of the decease d and cond uc te d th e burial cere -
monies: wcpwawei led the deceased from t his world to the next; an d Osiris,
ki ng of t he dead , represented arrival and re j uvenat ion in the next life ,
mummiform but wit h royal rega lia, and a gr een or bla ck complexion all ud -
ing to th e fert ility of t he Nile floodplai n ,
42
4 5 Specia)wr itings
=!
he. his
11"..--",,-
.pronourn
0
in
bctor«.
in lroru of
kbw Qebu (name)
m. ,.- ms: wr gene ral-in-
chid
Meir L pl. 9
VOCAIJULARY
ir-n horn of
Tr.mslucratr and tra ns late . using the templat e provided in the text (§26
above i . and stu dy t he indi vidu al writing s of th e va rious compo ne nt part s of
the formula. You should also ma ke use of the vocabulary int roduced in t he
ot he r exe rcises ab ove .
NOles:
ir-n me ans ' whom such-and-such a per son made ' hu t thi s is not a satis-
factory idiom in English .
ii lIl - r IIlS
r
IVr mea ns liter all y ' great ov erseer of th e army' .
iii In lin e I, the damaged hier oglyphs ar e pan of t he standard epi th ets of
Osiri s: hnty-lmttt w (wit h an extr a rw-hird) . nt r r J. nb sbdw (see p. 41 ).
3,7 Offering tabl e scene
In scenes, the offer ings are often shown placed on a table bef ore t he
.......".. , c ,. .4 Tr .' , H: l ; ,p'r- ::1 " .4 Tr :lnd;l l f'> r h t» hi .. rnoh/nh" hf, lnvJ t h e- ,.,Hprino
J
L _ _ .

....ompanion
ove rseer of
the cham be r
i rii) 'make' , 'do' . 'art ' - written with the 2,con5onant sign =- /r
m il 'see'. ' look at ' - written with z», determinative placed
m il under .:v mi . Some forms of t his verb arc written with only
one I - - transliterated mt
' give' , ' place' - --..; A41arm giving loaf. or IJ:, E61 conical loaf.
rd! without r as "--" or fA, transliterated dl. From the hieratic.
also written with arm as rdi cn ---n di
' bring', written with a combination of 0 DB pot and A5 7 ./)
I I/(i ) walking legs, often with sound complerueut L,« 1/
How to read hieroglyphs
1
The offerin g formul a is usually writt en in a telegram-li ke style wi th ver y
ab br evia ted writings and certain prepositions omitt ed. The tOPportion of the
st ela of Arn en y reM FA 1( 2 ). however, rath er unusually pro vide s us with a
more fully wri u cn OUt ver sio n of ce rtain sections of t he offering for mula.
8M EA 162
(carved limeston e: w. 75clll)
3.6 Tile offt'ri ng f ormula from 8M EA 162
3.5 Common verbs
Some common verbs are w r iuen with ot herwise uncommon sign s and will:
some idiosyncracies of their own. It will be usef ul for you to be familiar wi th
t he se when rea ding Chapter 4 (where th e pr esence of (i) in brackets will also
be explained):
44
3.4 Titles
In th e text, th e following two rules we re introd uced. Her e rhe y are wr itte n
in a sligh tly differe nt Wd Y. Tra nslite rate th em, using th e sign-tables abov e:
3,8 Study exercise: BM EA 587
47
lmn-
m-htt Arnenernhet
_... .. _ _ . . I
Speci aI wri tings
VOCABl: LARY
(Sec p. 102 for some remarks on th e titl e m -t ' bl/wty. )
tra nslat e th e hieroglyphs wri tten within th e registers (and not those accom-
pa nyi ng th e vases at th e top left. writt en witho ut regis ters ). You shoul d
consult the sect ions on the offe rin g formul a in the te xt (§2 6 ) whe re neces -
sa ry. Yo u ma y a lso find it usefu l to read th rough th e no tes on Osiris given
on pp . 40-42.
Notice that t he inscrip tion has bee n ca ref ully laid out: th e htp-di-nsw for-
mula takes up th e first line; th e prt-ljrw formula th e second line and the
ep ithets , name and title s of th e stela owner the third line.
3.9 Study exercise: BM EA 585
EM EA 585, shown on the next pa ge, has another sta ndard offering for -
mula , this time written from right to left.
a. Translation
Transliterate a nd translat e, usin g th e not es and vocab ulary be low.
Notice how the names of Sar enenut et and his mot her Bameket a re
written to fit the space ava ilable . The scenes and figures ar c in ra ised relief
a nd the inscriptions in sunk relie f. The clement -mkt in the mo the r's name
is writte n in the sce ne a rea and in ra ised re lief.
: . .c:> 0 m-r overseer of
X7ln rhn wtty) the chamber
l_ . ' ..... __,, . _., .__ .
b. Epigraphy
Compare this stela wi th BM EA 58 7:
i Identify the differences in the shape and arr a nge ment of pa rticula r
hie roglyphs (you may also wish to con sider the figures a nd th e offe ring
tab les).
ii Ide nt ify the differ ences in t he phrase ol ogy of t he offerin g formu la.
VOCABULARY
._ _ ______. _ _ _ .___ v_.
,---------- ._.

bi -mkt Barnekc t
.ill.
1115-11 born of
hsb
count er of
111
n ttw gods
C', @@
the double
."",., n l tnwtv
granaries

dd offering-

51-
Sarcne nutet
&...-.D c.... )11' htp-ntr giver rnnwu
- ._- _.. .. __. _ . . _....,
thou sands
_", Ho _ , .. _ _ i
't '1 [1l( IV)

dbh t-htp rhe required offerings
VOCABULARY
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
i h ity-: governo r, mayor
EM EA 587
(carved and painted limestone; II . 56cm)
It is now time for yo u to stu dy your first stela - EM EA 587, th e funerary
of thp overcr-r r of Ih p r hambr-r Amencmher. Tran sli te ra te and
The laden offering table consrit uring th e 'fune rary meal' for th e de ceased is
referred to as :
table scene from the tomb of Scnbi (consult the sectio n on the offe ring for-
mula if necessary ).
4 6
8 M EA 585
(carv ed limestone; H. 52cm)
Chapter .:J
Scenes and captions
Tile first part of this hook was dedicated p rimarily 10 building up your knowiedqe of
the hieroglyphic siqns needed to equip you for the twin goals of reading the nant es of
the king s and the ofJering f ormula. In this part of the hook we will moveon to broaden
your kno wledge of the ancient Egyptian language an d how it works, equipping you
10 read a wider ranqe ofMiddle Kingdom stelae ill the British Museum and elsewhere,
and also supp ly ing you wit h afi n n foundat ion for moving on 10 study the wealth of
surviving ancient Eqyptian writings.
§28 Captions: the infinit ive
verbs typi cally label action s or event s suc h as ' do' , or ' kick' , though some
verbs label states or condition s such as ' remain' , A maj or topi c to be dealt
with in reading hieroglyphs is how to get the right trans lation of verbs
according to whet her they refer to actions in the past. present or future.
Over the next few chapte rs we will equip you to bring this degree of accu -
racy to your translations.
A good place to start is with scenes and capti ons . Scenes are oft en
accompanied by capt ions whi ch very convenient ly label the action :
n ~ K J spt smlt Binding a skiff (Meir 1[, pl. 4)
(In capt ions, words arc often writt en wit hout det cr minauvcs. since' t he
irnace itself oicrurcs the mc aninc. \
For the vocabulary, see the ne xt section and the excursus on titles, p. 103.
The vertical columns of stela BM EA 580 comprise a hymn to Osiris which begins:
51 Scenes and captions
VERB CLASS EXAMPLE AND DESCRIPTION
STRONG VERBS e.g.
.11 .1\
slim to hear
stem does not usually
show any alteration
DOr; BLl NG VERBS e.g.

mu ( 0 see
stem ends in a doubl e
consonant
WEAK VERBS e. g.

mr ti) to love
stem ends with a 'weak'
consona nt. usually -I
EXTRA WI;AK VERBS e.g. rd(l) to give
chiefly verbs with two or
!L....Jj three weak consonants
Notes
i With weak verbs, the final -I is usuall y omitted in writing and therefore
in translit erati on. For pra ctical reasons, however, we will transliterat e
th e extra weak verb ' to give' as rdl or dt .
ii Extra weak verbs behave like ordinary weak verbs, but somet imes
show add itional features.
tr an slat e ' kissing' in the example above as opposed to ' kissed' or ' wi ll kiss'? ).
tWOpoints sh ould be borne in mind :
i what help do es the writing of the ver b give us? (the quest ion of form )
ii how doe s the verb fit in the context of t he inscri pt ion? (t he ques tion of
[unctions
As you will see, since hi erogl yphs on ly wr it e consonants and not vow-
els, th e hieroglyphic writ ing alon e will not always dir ect us 10 the exact
form. However, once we take int o account how the verb seems to be being
used in th e inscriptio n, th en we can usually get good se nse out of it. The first
' 100 1 of the trade' that we need to int roduce you to is the topic of verb
classes, All the verbs in ancient Egyptian can be gathered int o a small
number of groups, which, when considere d as a whole (or paradigm ), usu-
ally allow us to see ea ch form somewhat more clearly. The following are the
standard verb classes with a con venient example for each class:
The stem of a strong verb is not usuall y th at helpfu l since it rarely sho ws an y
differences. As yo u will see below, the infinitive of strong verb s gives us littl e
wr itten due. Doubling verbs have a root which ends with the same conso-
na nt re peated twi ce. In wr itin g, some forms of these verbs sho w onlv one o f
these consonan ts (e.g. mJ) and in oth er forms show two (e.g. mJJ) and thi s
can hel p in dist inguishing certai n forms. Weak and extra weak verbs, whose
root s e nd in a ' weak con sonant ' (-lor - IV) , are the mo st interes ting because
they sh ow a wider range of variati on in different verb-forms, whi ch can be
mo st usefu l in spott ing a partic ular form (we shall see that weak verb infin -
itivr-c ;Hf' rar hr- r m o rr.. f'r1 l\V tn t h a n crrrrnc verh in fi n ir ivr-ci

n.=.
di i uw II isir sn lJ n Wp- WlWI
Givin g praise to Osiris, kissing the ground to wepwawet
How to read Egypt ian hieroglyphs
BM EA 58 0,
Lines 1-2:
§29 Adoration
The owner of a stela often expressed a wish to part icipate in certain impor-
tant festivals beyond death, parti cularly the Osiris Mysteries (for whi ch see
pp. 54-56). He either wished to participate in them directly - through seeing
(mlJ :J':}'}'), ad oring (dwt *'1 ),kissing the groun d (sn u &6 :-1)' or
giving pr aise tdtt [JW to the god - or through having offerings
made to h im at such times. For example:
BM EA 567 : sn 11 n ljllIy -lmnt w m prt 'II ... In m- r 5n'(w) imn-m-hst
Kissing the ground 10 Khentyimentu in the great procession ... by
the overseer of the provisioning areas Arnen emhet
§30 Verb classes and the infinitive
So how does this all work? The first and most basic point is that when
50
In English the -ing form of the verb translates rat her well here,
whereas using th e si mple English past ' bound a skiff' seems a little inc om-
plete and unsati sfact or y, Exactly th e same is true in Egyptian. In such
captions, Egypti an uses a pa rt icu lar form of the verb whi ch, as yo u will see
in the next chapt er, differs markedly from th e form for expressing the past.
In Egyptian the equivalent of the -in9 form in thi s usage is termed the infin-
itive (see §31 bel ow for its forms),
Before we progress further, there is on e general comment we would
like to make. The terms for the various Egyptian verb-forms are now rather
traditional; they are not always ver y clear in th eir meaning, nor do they
always agree with the use of the same term in describing the grammar of
English . So the te rm ' in finitive' and its meaning is not really impo rta nt - it
will. however, serv e as a conveni ent label by wh ich we can readil y refer to
the verb-form.
When the actor is mentione d in an Egyptian ca ption, t his is usually
introduced by - In ' by' :
Before the figur e of the owner is a lengthy adoration caption, the bare bones of which
are:
Here a re some examples 10 illustrat e th is:
53
d oing or to do infinit ive translation scheme
ni l co il of rope is a co mmon dcre n uinauve for ropes, co rd s a nd ac uo us
performed wi th t he rn . )
spt smh Bindi ng a skiff
Just like Englis h dict io narie s. dictionaries and word - Iisrs of ancient Egyptian
ju st give you a stan da rd cita tio n fOIDl (t h e r oot), he re sp(i) 'b ind (tog et her)' ,
and do no t tell wh et her you n eed 'b ind ing' , ' bou nd' or wha tever in you r
ac tual tr anslati on . All the ci ta tion form tell s us is th at spti) is a w eak ve r b .
But if we look at the actual example we find the foll owing form. sho wi n g an
exira - I :
'I SPI binding
and al so, of course, it is being used in a cap tion . Toget he r th is in for mation
all ows u s to de cide th at spt is an example of the Egyptian infiniti ve and can
be t ranslated well into Eng lis h as ' bmd-In g.
We advise yo u at this st age to follow our exam ple here in adheri ng to
a small number of sugge sted translation schemes for th e various forms we wi ll
int ro duce yo u to, sin ce this will hel p you to get good sens e o ut of the h ier -
og lyphic in scri p tio ns yon will read in thi s book. At fir s!' it is be uc r 10 ref rain
from tr yi n g to be marc imaginative or 10 'guesumat e th e mean ing. So our
first t ran slation sch em e is for th e infi n itive (simply su b stitute th e necessary
verb for ' do):
In the example s in thi s ch ap ter ' doing' will be the right ch o ice, hu t on othe r
occasions ' to do' will fit bet ter. If th e ra nge of mea nin g seems a bi t loose,
compa re the Englis h ' To s tud y hi erogl yphs is int eresting' wit h ' St u dyin g
hieroglyphs is int eresting' wh ere the Engli sh ' to do ' and ' doin g' fonns h ave
a similar usage.

giVing/placing
rdit or dt: (r op rlori al in boi h
writings . See p. 44)
SlRO:>;C VERll S

sdm hea ring
no change
DOtJBLlNG VERBS

m il seeing
- doubling
WEAK VERBS

nt rJ loving
- end in-I r -,
EXTRA WEAK VERBS
- end in -I
} f<11I' h ' read ( qYPlial/ hieroqlyphs

STRON( , VI'RBS M c i r I. pI. 2 : 'Ill " r ipdt w)
Throwing al the bird s

DOUll U!'(G \ 'ERBS Melr I. pI. 9 : 1Ill! I WlW
Seei ng the ( aIlk
The most n oticeable feat ure of th e table is that the form of t he infi n itive of
weak ve rbs en ds in a -I. Co ns ider again th e sce ne and ca ption wit h which
we in trodu ced th is ch apter (repea ted on p. 53 ).
If you look a t the vocabulary al the end o f the book. r Oil will find th e
fnIl Il W;ll l1 worn

EXTRA Wh\K VERBS BM Ell 58 0 , I : dlt liw 11 lSlr
Giving praise to Osiris

In <--""
VERBS l\k ir II . 1'1. 4 : spt smh
Binding a skiff
52
§31 The forms of the infinitive
SO It' I 'S uun 10 th e in fi nit ive and see how all t his works o u t. Th e inf i niti ve
in Egyptian ha s th e followi ng form:
One uu po rt ant poilu 10 nol l.' about weak ve rbs is thzu th e - I and - IV
with which their ro ot or dict iona ry forms end do 110t usuall y appear in
wri ung a ud so nee d nOT be rran-lu crat ed . However. so rhar yo u can see read -
ily whether a verb is a weak ve r b or n ot. the ·i or -IV of weak verbs wi ll be
added in brackets (as in t he tab le ab ove I in th e vocabulari es in thi s book.
55 Scenes and captions
Here we shall concent rate on t he route of the festival. In Exercise 6. 5,
you will stud y one o f t he principal sur viving ancien t sou rces for th e festival
pr ocess ion itself. The exact location and scope of th e various Egyptian place
names use d are still a rnauer for debat e. However , th e rua p below gives a
plausible version.
.-::arting po int of t he festival procession wa s th e Osiris Temple
(lQ0 1 ), housing th e st atue of the god . As you will see for your-
self in Exercise 6.5, th ere were actually two outward processions - the
, ' f W 'n -P---"-
procession 0 epwawet ( <"" >/l V ........ "'"" ) and th en the 'great procession'
f Osi n '" c, IIi 'Y'
o sins ( 7:.fl r> ) . Stelae were concentrated near th e west ern en tra nce to
in an area of high ground known as the 'te rrace of th e great god '
so t ha t th e decease d could look up on th e emergence an d
return of the gods (hence the ref erences to 'kissing th e ground' and 'giving
praise' as the images of gods pass by - t he cult images of t he gods ar e
often referred to as thei r nfrw ' splendour' ). The pr ocession cros sed t he
terr ace be fore into a wadi (the sacred land, The god
th en proceeded out mt o the dese:r on the God's boat-j ourney (Ii 0 'JD )
to Poker where t he divine mysteries and rites were
Abydos had a lon g hi story as one of t he most sacred sit es in th e country since
I t " "'I(. 1 t' I l T"nl <'" th ".- L·inooe H lp",.o h llrl t .rt P " thp 11 th
stt rm(w) ill snbl mr-hrw
Spearing fish by Senbi. rhc justified
' m'l r lpd(w) I" snbi mr -hrw
Throwing at the birds by Senbi. the justified
How to read ( qyprian hieroglyphs
Meir J. pl. 2:
Meir I. pl. 2:
Excursus: The cult of Osiris at Abydos
The heart of the cult of Osiris at Abydos wa s the annual fest ival at which his
cult -stat ue was bro ught. in a rit ua l boat carri ed al oft bv pri ests, in procession
from hi s tem ple to his supposed to rnh at Umm el-Oarab (' mot he r of pot s' ).
The festival pr oces sion had two fundamental compo nents - a public section
during which t he div ine image passed through t he cemetery ab utt ing the
templ e 's we stern side , and a pri vate section ou t in the desert where the
secret rit es conce rn ing th e myst eries and passion of Osiris were performe d.
Dur ing the Mi ddle Kingdom at Abydos, members of the elite dedicated
stela e, or erected offeri ng chapels as ce no tap hs, hoping to en sure th eir con-
tinued part icipa tion in th e fest ival afte r th ei r own death. The cemetery at
Abydos was t he refore a veritabl e cit y of the dead with a wealth of rnon u -
rne nts. and, as you will see , Abydcne stelae form an imp ortant body of the
Midd le Kingdom monument s st udied ill th is book.
st(i ) ' spear' is a weak verb, hence the infinit ive str 'spearing' . rmrs, however,
is a st rong verb an d does not provide a part icul arly helpful writing. Yet t he
cont ext of th e capt ion and the parallel with t he other capt ion showing ussu
'spearing' ur ge us to con side r th e infi ni tive an d the tra nslation 'th rowin g' .
Notice also ho w using th e sugges ted tr anslat ion scheme helps US to draw
together a decent English translation of th e whole: 't hro wing at th e birds hy
Senbi the just ified' , whereas reasonable alternatives such as ' t hrows at the
bi rds' do not: ' thro ws at the birds by Senbi the ju stified' is not particularly
goo d Eng lish.
b. Scene of Throwing the throw- stick at the birds:
54
Now, of cour se, infi nitives of strong and doubling verbs do n ot offer us
much help ill their writing. But the conte xt and so met imes ot her parall el
exa mples can help out. As an example, we can cons ide r again th e fishing
and fowli ng sce ne from th e tomb of Senbi which you stu died in edi ted form
in Chapter 1 and which yo u can stu dy in its original. complete form as Exe r-
cise 4.6 , The two edited labels we re :
a. Scene "f spear ing fish :
57
long-horned
bull
bull
n9m'
or iii

separate, open
lassoo
VOC ABULA RY (NORMALt SED WR m NGS)
4.4 Translation
Translitera te and translate th e following sections (rom the 101' of 8M EA
10 1, the st ela of Ncbi puscnwosrer, da ting from the reign of Amcnernhet III
( shown o n the ne xt page - igno re the sect ions in grey ). You ma y wi sh to
rea d th e notes on th e cult of Osi ris at Abydos on pp , 54- 56 for usef ul back-
ground information .
Th e following not es will hel p you in translati ng th e cent ra l section:
Notes
The eye emblem in the centre can be read as a verb ' 10 see' . It is though t 10
Meir I. pI. 11
Mei r II, pl . 4
The bull is al so lab elled sep aratel y be tween the tw o figures at the top.
See/res and captions
r---- - """- --- - --
I V wp(l )
l OX
roI spit
1_. _ .. _. .
repeat
kiss
wife
r.
sn
j
wit m

m(t<-j/
*
dws
EXAMPLE
UlIJ or CIJ
hb festival
1or 1
h(w) praise. adora tion
hm
111
o
SIGN
A20 man with
out stret ched arms
F6 basin combin ed
with canopy
How 10 read Egypl iall hieroglyphs

sister

.; e-. "
*1
adore. praise
;0

brother

4.3 Translation
Both of these dctcrminativcs a re used widel y. for various festivals and for
words to do with pra ise and suppli cation . Note. however. that when used on
thei r own. the y a re abbreviated writings of t he two speci fic words give n.
VOCABULARY
4.2 Words
Tra nslit erat e the foll owing words:
b. Determinatives:
Exercises
4.1 Signs
a. Sound Sig/IS:
56
Dynast y. th e tomb of the Isrdvnas tv king Dje r wa s beli eved 10 be that of
Osiri s hi msel f.

pre procession
:: LJ
rwd terr ace
n
pre'JC
the great
1[;]
h wt -
temple
= JI procession nt r
C> c
LJ
pre the procession

(I dsr
sacred
! W p -WJWl of wepwawet land
O Li @ l':::r
Poker

<ill ntr
god's boat - i
=
journey
_ ___ _ .. _. _ ._ ·_ - - _._-
- _ .. _ _ ..__ _ _ _ _ _ ___ __ .. -1
59
born of
Se net
i r-n
SIll
b,\ nf rw splendour, wonder
his wo ndc rtul procession
Scenes and captions
his wond erful festival>
th e gr eat procession
VOCA BUlARY
I'r:=fnfrt
prt ru
hb (Wj=f nf r w
land , }:round /l
int] In tc f
sn
13MEA 58 1
(carve d lim estone; w. 36c ll1)

lJO
<::>JJo
m fJ see , look al
4.5 Translatian
Tran slit erat e and tra nslate t he foll owing se ct io ns on the next pa ge fro m BM
EA 58 1, one of t he th re e stelae of t he ov erseer of t he chambe r Int ef son of
Senet in the British Mu seum, These stela e ar e extremely el ab orat e in their
wording, so we 'Nil! only cons ider two sections . Ign ore the parts in grey,
How to read ;':"ypticlH hiercaly phs
VOCABULARY

----_. _---- - _ . ----- ----- ----_. .
[C o
prt procession

ptr viewi ng ih e
=./l
nf rw splendour
"'"-
his

'II in, during
"c" ""r=
nb t'=i) - Neb ipu-
*
nfr
pcrteci .
pw-s nws rt se nwos ret
wonderful

nfrw
perfection, bcau iv.
Q) I I /:IMw) festivals
wo nd er. splendou r
*1
dWI adore, praise

41r enduringly and
"iIiI
repeate dly
- -
0_ '
Grammar
BM EA 101
(ca rved an d pain ted lim est one; w. 66cl11)
ii See §§ 17- 18 on th e ki n gs name and epit hets (the epithets are di vided
in to two columns mirr ori ng th e geueral di visio n into a sect ion on Osi ris
on the left and one on w epwawct on the right), mry is used in lhe epi-
th et ' beloved of t he god X' . Th e name of the god (and h is titl es) a rc
written fi rst fo r reasons of presti ge (as not ed in §22 ab ove ).
The dec....a scd king Sen wosr et III forms th e ce ntra l focu s of th e scene , As
recorded in ' t he middle sect ion of th e stel a, Nebipusen wosret had th is st el a
sen t to Aby dos in the care of th e eld er lect o r-priest Ibi who had come, as part
of the priesthood o f the temple of Ab ydos, to th e reside nce of th e t hen reign-
ing king Am enemhet II I.
58
61 Scenes and captions
IJ and" arc similar
sound; and can occur
in variant writings
The first sign has two
variant s. with three or
') four pots (E38. E39)
[ltt'y-
imntw
m-r overseer of
' Unwty the chamber
How 10 read Egy ptian hieroglyphs
4.6 Study exercise: Fishing and fowling scenef rom rite tomb ofSenbi at Meir
You are now in a position 10 translit er at e and translat e the origina l version
of the fishing and fowl ing scene from the to mb of Senbi shown o n page 6 1.
60
writinqs
The extracts fro m BM EA 581 show two vari ant wr itings wort h noting:
VOCABULARY
, - - -- - ------- ---- - - - - - --- - -- - - ---- - - -- -
i d( ) f I bl d '=' nb. lord (masc.) 1

I I Ip W ow . If S C/ , 0 nbt lady (Iern.) :

\l
Ib hea rt
at, towards
QIII.,
tmil] reverence
<0< rmtw) fisb
II'

Inl1l;y the revered
.J') hsty- : gover nor
N
c.

lmrut western
d hmt wife
--
0
....
'u
4-
In hy
'"
[Ir before
::?:
1:f1
Osir is

[rtmty- seal -bearer of -
IS/T
bl ty the king

<mrs th row
0 smyt desert

=f
his

smr - sole
"'- ,vl(Y) compa nion
:>::!or =:1
11JJ r-bnv justified

snbl Senbi
I'
ove rsee r of
affection.
i

m-r

st-ib
I
hm- ntr priests
intimac y
I

mrs Meres

st(i) spear
.._.._- " --- ---'. ---- _.---_._- _._- ' - ... .- -- ---- - -- - - - - -- - - -
Not es ,-; J
i
Fishing scene: ancient corre cti on at end of line . read: -50
ii Fowling scene: end of first line, read
Above wife. read _ n ' of'
above J
w
><:: N
S E
The easternside
The eas tern side of the coffin is sho wn on the next page. Transliterat e an d
tra nsl ate with the help of th e vocabulary and notes below:
63
OTIlER DEITIES

SW Sh u

gb Geb
0 -
tjnt Tefn et
...... 0
00
nwt Nu t
="
Khentyi rnentu .
_____ _____ --.J
Nakhtankh
tlllr(y)·imnlll·
Scenes and captions
BM EA 35285 (eastern side )
(painted wood; L. 2 12ml)
.------- ...- --.- ----- -1
i -;; nbr--nb
.
,---------------
THE EOUR SO"'S OF HORUS

imst ! Irnsett
*
0
dwi -mwt e ] Du arnute f
'--'''--..

hpy Hapy

kbh-snwr] Oebeh scnuef
(:;, "
Notes
Imlb(y) tlr displays ha plography (i.e., where the last sign in one word
and th e first in the next are the same and the sign is wr itten onl y once) .
ii mr -hrw is (a) written occasionally with the papyrus-roll and (b) omit-
ted in the north ernmost column .
iii the gb-goos e (B8 ) is different from th e sr-duck (B7).
VOCABCLARY
The western side
The pri ncipal inscript ion on the western side of t he coffin is an offering for-
mula to Anubis. Wher eas the Osiris offering formula con cerns the offerings
to susta in the ka of t he deceased, t he Anubis offeri ng formula concerns the
burial itself.
Translite rate and t ranslate with the help of the following notes:
How to read hieroglyphs
The body was laid on its left side, facing towards the east. in orde r to be able
to look out throug h th e eyes on the eastern side towards th e newly rejuvc-
nat ed sun at sunri se. Hence th e inscri ptions run from th e head at th e
north ern e nd towar ds th e feet at the southern end. This represents the typ-
ical arrangement of a Middle King dom rectangular coffin. On the eastern
side (the side wit h the eyes looking out towards the sunri se). the main
inscr iption is an offering formula to Osiris. On the western side is an offering
formul a to Anubi s. At th e corne rs, the inscr iptions invoke th e four sons of
Horns. protective deities for th e body of the deceased (with the classic
Midd le Kingdom a rrangeme nt of Irnseti and Duamu tef on the east side an d
Hapy and Qebehsenuef on the wes t ). The cent ral colu mns invok e deities
closely linked to Osiris: Shu and Geb on the east side and th eir female con -
sort s Tefnet and Nut on the west.
62
4. 7 Study exercise: The coffi n of Nakhtankh (BM EA 35 285)
Although in t his book we concentrate on stelae in the British Mu seu m, the
mat erial th at you <I re worki ng through also puts you in a position to st udy
inscr iptions on ot he r kinds of museum objects, part icul arl y where th ey
incl ude the offering form ula. In this exercise you will study the inscripti on s
on the outside of a Middle Kingdom coffin (BM EA 35285, the coffin of
Nak htank h) .
We shall concent rate on t he two exterior sides of the coffin. om it ting
the inscripti ons on the head an d foot ends. The inscriptions are aligned on
the coffin as follows:
BM EA 35285 (western side)
iw krs.n»! ittw)
I buried the old
BM EA 562,
Line 10:
Chapter 5
Description
In the next two chapters. we will introduceyou to the past tense, concentratinq on
inscriptions in whichthe deceasedreflects back upon, and describes, hisofficial life. We
will also introduceyou tothe ancient Egyptian pronouns.
The offici£l l lntef son of Senet proclaims his ethical behaviour:
§32 Introduction: description
In a typi cal type of funerary inscription - which we can term self-presentation
- the owner presents himself (rarely, her self) according to the ethi cal valu es
of Middle Kingdom elit e society and in te rms of success an d achievement .
part icularly in roya l service. In orde r 10 describethe activitieswhich the offidal
pa rticipa te d in , th e tasks he accomplished, and his ethical beha viour, the past
tense is generally use d.
This constructio n comprises th e past form of th e verb (.;;, = krs + _ .n;
d . English 'bury' + ' -ed' - see § 33 below) followed by the subject ('1' ) and
other elements; the sentence begins wi th an iw which is no t
translated in to English (see §34 below ).
§33 The past: sgm.n(=f)
The past form is termed the .tJ1\,::: sdm.nt-f) (pronounced ' sedj cmenef)
' he heard' , using the verb sdm ' 10 hear' in the 'he' form (' he heard' ) as t he
stan da rd example. In th is form, an affix _ .n <ed' . is added 10 the verb-
stem (wri tten after the det erminative). As a standard convention, in trans-
literat ion th e .n is usu ally separated from the stem of the verb by a dot - this
just makes it easier 10 spot. The forms of the s4m.n(=j) for t he verb classes
(§30 above) arc;
burial
nfr
.Ll n a krst
= I' i:==l
the one befor e the divine booth
VOCABULARY
tomb
e 9 IT tmt)' sh-ni r
mlJlli
...._ - ---
! IS
1
b
cemet ery,
L__ .
Notes
The standard organization of th e Anubis offeri ng formula is: htp -dl -nsw
followed by An ubis wi th his epi the ts and then krst nfrt wi thout being
in troduced by dt»]. You may wi sh 10 introduce your tr anslation of krst
nfrt wit h a dash or colon aft er th e htp-di-nsw section.
ii Read ts=f nfr n I1rt-ntr wi th the indirect genitive (see §27 above) . ls»]
means ' hi s tom b' ; for =f see §33.
iii An ubis is invoked wit h hi s standard epi thets (see p. 42 ) and a furt her
epit het:
64 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
67
IW d,.nl =I) [ww <m> m/;nI(=t) dsl=i)
I ferried th e boatles s in my o wn fer ry
:1 "" ....e.l
"'j .:r_ I , A _ ... X __ A....ID\ i 1 2;.
i ll' rdt. nt -cl] { tl hk r hbs w tl hi v
1gav e bread In Ihe hungrvand clothes IOth e na ked
BM EA 178 3,
Li nes 4- 0:
BM FA 1783.
Li ne 4 :
IJr..' EA 562.
l.i ne 10:
Note:
Iwll' ' the boat lcss: is writt en with a doubling 01 the 2-consonan t sign

ii Repeated consonan ts are somet imes omitt ed : he re only one m is wri t-
ten in In mhntiv i) ' in my ferry ' .
iii lis is used for the empha tic reflexive ' (my/ h im )sd f' or 'own' .
lll hu remaklt r extols his proper conduct as a responsible offi cial:
An other of Inhuretnakht 's stated ethical acts:
§35 Omi ssion of the firs t person suffix pronoun
The fir st pe rson suffix pronoun (' I-me- my') is sometimes omitte d in writing,
particu larly in te xt s where a figure of th e person is pr esent (e.g. stelae a nd
tomb inscri ptions) or st rongly implied (e.g. w he r e th e te xt is all abou t th at
per son):
(There is no wor d for ' an d' in Egvptian; for vocabulary. see Exer cise 5.4 . )
There is no simple English equi valent for I w and so it is left unt rans-
lat ed. Ir invokes a sense of involvement in the assessment or prese n tation of
what is said/ wriu e n. In self-presen ta tion inscriptions, Iw f dm.n(=fJ gi ves a
sense of looking back over one's life. In ot her contex ts the perf ect (' someo ne
has done something' ) also su its, particularly in recorded speech.
§36 Su ffix pronouns
Alt ho ug h, as we shall see, i here are different set s of pro no uns in Egyp tia n
with different usages, the y do no t correspond to the difference between ' 1-
me-my' or ' he-himhis' in Eng lish. The Egyptian pronouns translat e by
whatever ha ppens to be the most ap propri ate En gli sh form o f pronoun. The
suffix pronouns arc used:
a. As the subiectsof verbs 1'1', 'he ')
The official Inte] son of Senet proclaims his ethical behaviou r:
he gave
he loved
he hea rd
:;4m. n(=.fj
mr.Il=!
(rJdf.ll =f
r opt iona l
l1H.n=I
no dt)t:htillg
sdm.l!=f

I t<' ipn hk : 1w ,( w )( = !)
The ruler ins pe cted my cau le
SUFFIX PRON OUNS

it
=1

sdm.n=/ t heard
He)[l
"'=--
=!

sdm.n«] he heard
DOUHU N<..; VERR S
EXTRA W1:AK V[ RBS
Wf AK VFRBS
STRO J\G VERBS
How 10 read Fgyptian hier oqlyphs
BM EA 167.
Line 10:
The suffix pronouns (see the refe rence tables on p. 148 for a full list ) au ach
to th e ve rb; this is indi cat ed in tr anslit er ati on by the symbo l '= ' . On ce again
thi s ha s the practical value of making the suffix prono uns easy to spot in
transliteration: slim .Il =I is much easier to read isdm ' hea r' + .n ' -d' + =f ' he' )
th an sdmni.
Wit h an ordin ary noun subje ct (e .g.trhe man heard' ), the noun follows
t he ver b, but docs not fix onto it (hen ce there is no ' =' in tr an sli ter ation):
Hekaib record>all inspection o] his property by the ruler:
§34 Aux iliarie s
Th e slim.nl=/) is usuall y preceded by a n a nxilia ry such as i w. In stela
inscrip tions iii' s!i m .Il(=f) often tr anslat es well as a simple past (' someone did
somerhi ng) :
(For the omission of = 1 in IWI(w)= 1 ' my cau le' . see § 35 below; see p. 73 for
vo cab nla r y.)
When th ere is a pr onoun subje ct (e.g. 'I hear d' , ' he heard' ). th e suffix pro-
nouns a re used (see §3 6 below); the pronouns for 'I' and ' he' are give n her e
(compare with the exa mple above ):
66
The self-p resentation of lnhuretnakht ends:
69 Description
frt.n=/ what he did
-=- "-- Ir.n=f he did
lrt.n -n=f sl=f smswef mry=f dbl
What his eldest and beloved son Debi made for him
PAST TE:"SE
PAST RELATIVE
8M EA 178 3:
In Egyptian , the desc ribed eve nt ' I asse mbled 100 bull s' is expressed by using
the scjm.n(=j) for m ir.nt-ei) . However, the cha rac terised event 'what I did
myself' is expressed by usin g anot her verb-form - the past relative form:
l rt.n te i ). In rhis usage , the re is no separate word for ' wha t' or ' which' , rat he r
the verb, form shows a -t ill its wr iting , so irt .nt ci } in itself means ' wha t I did'
without needi ng extra words. Notic e that missing ou t a word such as ' what'
in translation leave s the sent ence with poor sense: ' I assembled a hundred
bulls through I did mysel f' . You will often find this to be the case: the relative
forms (and the ir cou sins, the part iciples introd uced in Chapter 7) scream ou t
for the inclusion of an English word such as ' what' or 'which ' in translation.
The same stela pro vides another similar example:
Between thefigures of lnhuretnakht and Hui. tit" following dedication label about the
stela appears:
Notes
-n=/ precedes sl=f smswe] mrye] in word order.
ii In si»]smsll'=f mry=f both SI1lSW and mry share the followi ng =f and th e
ph rase means literall y ' his son, his elde st. his beloved' .
In this book we shall focus on the relative fonn onl y when it shows the ext ra
-I. In thi s wa y we can isolate the following convenient tran slation schemes
for the pa st sdm. I1(=j) form an d th e past rela tive fonn sgm/,I1(=f) discussed in
this cha pt er:
Excursus: Names and kinship terms
Names and family re lat ionshi ps play an importa nt role on Iune rarv stela e.
We pr esen t here a number of the names to be found on the monuments
studied in this book, and the kinship terms used, for you to refer to . As the
section on names indi cates, many Egyptian names (like our own) have a
mea ning. Nevertheless. in tra nslating Egyptian monument s, it is better to
stick to the name itself. rather than trying to translate the name into English.
Names
Nantes referrtnq to personal condition
In a society wit h high infant mortality, it is not surprising that many names
n'"
.JiI\':,_ ; I
i w Ir.n(=I) klw /00 In In .n(=ij 4.«=1)
I assembled 100 bulls through what I did myself
How to read Eqyptian hieroglyph s
BMEAI62,
Line 5:
BM EA 1783.
Line 5:

4d.I(I<J=fn=!l w In hi p 111 wrw It Ibilw
May ' Welcome in peace' be said for Will by the great of Abydos
(For the meaning of cjd.l(w)=f , see p. 115. )
For the full list of su ffix pronouns, see Reference table, p. 148.
c. As the object after a preposition t' me', 'him ')
From the Abydosformula on 8M EA 162:
N<Jt"s
is the numbe r 100.
ii m here has the mea ning ' through' or ' by the means of' .
, , _. t s,
* 10
8 M EA 101 : d wi tsir m (Ib(W)=! nfrw 41 r nhh
Adoring Osirisin his wonderful festivals endur ingly and repeatedly
b. As the possessor of a noun tmy, 'his' )
The top pan of BM EA 101 behind the iiqure of Nebipusenwosret (see p. 58):
§37 The past relative form: stjmt.n(=f)
The followi ng paragraph discusses a more advanced point wh ich some of
you may wi sh to work thro ugh at this stage in order to gai n the maximum
understa ndi ng of the inscripti ons read as study exerci ses to this chapter,
Others ma y con sider these points a little abs trus e at this stage and ma y
prefer to return to this paragraph later on.
As well as being described (someone did some thin g' ). events can also
be characterised (trea ted as a ' t hing which someone did ' : 'what/ which some -
one did') . Egyptian has a special wa y of characterising an eve nt - by using
th e relativeforms - whi ch is qui te different from English and is often seen as
one of the more difficult aspe cts of ancient Egyptian . However, the use of
the relative forms is ext re mely common and wi ll crop up in a number of
examples, and so we will attempt to ope n up thi s ar ea of Egyptian for you
by t he use of our notion of a translation scheme. The difference bet ween
description and characterisation can be see n in the following example:
68
_ _ J ••• ,. _ : . _ . . • n._ .... 1• . .... • \. . .....
7 1 Description
born of nts-n born of tr-n
Sl=! mry=/ ,mny
His son, his beloved. Ameny
Sl=! mrv-fpih-htp
His son, his beloved, Ptahho tep
.:'\ 0 or c. II father

ntH" mother
"-- ""- u

hi husband

hmt wife

sn broth er snt sist er
.j 0 L ...J

ss so n

Sit da ugh ter
U 0 sbt family, househ old
= . .
BM EA 584:
BM EA 571:
Fami ly me mbers a re oft en referred to as be ing ' be loved' .
various relat ives and dependant s on the mo n ument of th e deceased, these
100 e njoyed th e benefits of bei ng comme mora ted by figur e and bv name.
Access to such mouurnent s as funera ry stelae was rathe r limit ed. mos tly to
those holding some for m of elite position . The crucial relationshi p wa s t hat
between the fa th er and the eldest son: in socia l te rms, thi s wa s the rou te of
inheri tance. providing family cont inu ity; in cult terms, th e eldest son was th e
chief cele bra nt for his fat her (as Horus was for Osiri s).
Priru'i pa l kinship terms:
Label befor e one ofthe sons of Khuenbik offering f owl:
Somet imes, th o ugh, we find a more abbreviat ed wri t ing.
Label before thefirst sons ill the third row ofBM EA 571:
(In idioma tic Eng lish we might p refer ' his beloved son'. )
The pa rentage of th e own er is us ually introd uced by one of the two
following ph rases:
literally, i r-n means ' whom X made ' and inS- II means ' whom X bore' .
Usuall y tr-n is used of both the fat he r and mothe r, wh c rcas ms-n is us ed of
the mot he r alone. when the person thi s ph rase is a pplied to is fem inine,
hor h. il< nsu.rl . show a '" · 1 rhefo re _ Il l.
pth -ht p Ptah is content
1,,1;"-II!1I Iuhur et it. stfUng Inh uretnakht (BM EA 1783)
Ptahh otep (BM EA 584)
rn
Scubi (Meir tomb -
snb i heah hy
chapel B. I'll . I )
-OQ Nakhti (OM EA I·B ) nb"
strong. vigorous
'>.-'-- 0
,,€I ,}
Khu IBM f A 571) tIll' protected
H £lIV to read J-:'gyprian hieroqlvphs
c .4"
c:..\ cO

Sarenenu tet (BM EA 585) ss-rnn wtt son of Rencnutct

Sat sobek (BM EA 586) su -sbk daughter of Sobek

Senwosre t (BM EA 571) s-n-wsrt
man of the
powerful one
] .c
Intel
I",!
11th dynasty nomen
(EM EA 581)

Amcnernhet
imn-m- hst 12th dyuasiy nomen
(BM EA 587)
cz.> r-c:>
Ncbipusenwosret
IIb(=lj-pw,slI wr rl Sen wos ret is my lord
(0 ,\ \ EA 101)
Kinship terms
Ste lae emphasise family re lationships by naming members of the de ceased 's
family and household (often including servan ts and de pendants) . The living
member s a re usually shown prese nti ng offeri ngs to th e offering -table, th us
A third ty pe involves a pious stat eme nt in response to the ch ild's birt h:
Loyalist names
Names whi ch associate the ind ividua l wit h th e king:
The birth names of the kin gs themsel ves accord wit h the standard naming
conventions. Hen ce Amcn ernhet mea ns ' Arnun is in fro nt'. i.e . Amun is
guidi ng the child's fort unes (compa re wi th Scnwosret above ).
A secon d type invok es a dose - often familial - relati ons hi p with a god:
Names referring to deities
One t vpe ass ociates the ind ivid ual dir ect ly with a deity :
J7L1 Isis (BM EA 143) sst
70
73 Descript i on
BM EA 562 , Line 10:
BM EA 178 3. Line 4:
BM EA 178 3. Lines 4- 5:
BM EA 586 , Line 2:
b. The official In tejson of Senet proclaims his ethi cal behaviour:
e. Ity notes his success an d achievement:
c. ln huretnakht extols his proper conduct as a responsi ble official:
VOCABULARY
-,.." ..._ - -_._ - -_.__.•-- _.,... _--- ---
!

li (w) the old

Iw/(I<' ) cattle

" ;
i
I
.... Iww the boatless

Ip inspect
"'-'
I
I
wbm repeat g prt procession
0
I mJ-:;,
IIIUnt ferry
t::
Il SW king
i
!IIY the naked ' Ll lit hkr the hungry
{=o-
I
e [lr before

!:rs bury
=0-

di(1j ferry

lis=! myself. my own
__.. ._ - - --_.-'
For e. keep to a liter al rendering of the Egyptian.
d. Another of Inhuretnakht 's stated ethical acts (m added for clarity) :
5.4 Study exercise: BM EA 1783
In t his exercise. you can make a start on st udyi ng a more complex stela in
the British Museum: BM EA 1783, the stela of the governor Inhuretnakht
and his wife Hui from Nag' ed- Deir. The stela is shown on p. 74.
a. Translite rate an d transl at e the offering formula at th e top of the stela
(Lines I- 2 ending wit h the word ad ju st befor e the end of Line 2), using t he
notes given.
b. Tran sliterat e an d translate t he section starting at the beginning of Line 4
(we sha ll return to the section from the end of Line 2 to t he en d of Line 3 in
Chapter 7).
The ceme tery of Nag' ed -Deir, opposite modem Girga, wa s th e ceme -
tery for Thinis (::: Q@tnts, the capi tal of th e 8th Upper Egyptian no me
(which also includes Abydos): l n-hr t (lnhuret or Onuris) was its pri ncipa l
de ity. Nag' ed-Dcir was an important cemetery cen tre from Prcdyna stic
, 1n H·"c f n 'hI'> 1 1 f h .h,. c f ::)r, .-, f , h ,.. u , h ;: rh
wrong
friend
amethyst
proceed,
go. set out
I li b lJb, Ill'
1 nm
mdhw mst-n imny msrt-hrw
Medhu born of Arneny. the justified
How to read Egypti an hi erogly phs
8M EA 162

favour, praise


boat -journe y
3ti./.l
11,
ruler

- 0./.l
formal

iAo' , ,
journey
i l,-'
ferry
Berlin 1204, Line 18:
(The verb i r(l) ' to do' is used with a wi de range of idiomatic meanings: her e
Exerci ses
The name an d filiatio n of the wife ofAmeny 011 BM EA 162 (see Exercise 8.5):
72
5. I Sig"s
Properly speaking ir-n an d ms-n are probably ma sculine relati ve forms - see
§52 below. However, in this book we will stick to the distin ctive translit era-
t ion using ' -' : i r -n and ms-n .
5.3 Tran slation
Trans literate and translate the following sentences . Some we re used in the
text above and so give you th e cha nce to work through t hese exampl es thor-
oughl y. You may wish to consult §35 on the omi ssion of the pronoun =i .
a. Ikhernofret relates his role ill the Mysteries of Osiris:
5,2 Words
Transliterate t he following wo rds wri tt en wi th these signs :
1111/11 is the word used for the form al and festal jou rne ys of the god and the
kin g. It is a collect ive term and not a plur al (and hence does not require ( w )
in tran slit era tion despite the pre sence of plu ral strokes).
The for m of the kinship expression s are alike, although some writ ings
..... ... .. ....._ ...: ...... .. .. f ..... ......... ,........
75
priestess
01 Hathor
the boat less
mother
Inhure makht
ferry
the naked
praise
siblings,brothers I
and sister s
ferry
Descr iptio n
Iw w
mltn t
in- hrt -
nht
mwt
hsfl)
hmtti- ntr
hwt-h r
snw
snu' (
IN I)



lamily,
household
gracious.
gentle
lather
100 bulls
love
lord 01
the sky
the hu ngrv
clothes
Im (J)
sb:
mr(i)
If
nb pt
Uh f mw W' II sole lady in
wanmg
BM f A 178 3 dates fro m the First Inter mediat e Pe riod and is a classic
example of the regional Nag' ed-Deir style of t hat per iod, bot h in terms of its
art work and the conventional phraseology of the ins cript ion , which is ori-
entated a rou nd t he famil y and eth ical be ha viour.
Notes
i = is a dete rminat ive of prt-hrw. See §26, p. 38
ii See Cha pter 3 for the variou s tit les of In huret riak ht and t he use of
imshw ' the revered one ' . Be careful with t he title at t he sta rt of line 2_
iii Self-presentat ion inscr ipt ions a re usually cast as a speech, and are int ro -
du ced by rid ' who say s' or rid=f'he says' ,
iv See §35 for the omission of th e first per son pro noun ,
v (/5( =1) is used as t he emphat ic reflexive (a s in ' 1 sha ll do th at myse lf' or
' my O\VI1 hou se' ),
vi Before mhnt th e preposi tion m ' in' has bee n omitted,
vii lrtt) ' do, ma ke' is used he r e in t he sense of 'acquire' or poss ibly ' raise' .
VOCABULARY
Tire Family
c. Translite rate and t ranslate th e labels around the ot her family members,
Hui ha s t he foll owi ng titles:
I - " ' - - -
I
i hbsw
I
. b(w)
I. 100
EM EA 1783
77 Description
BM EA 57 1 (lOP)
(ca rved limestone; w. s tcrm
Saamun
(name)
Saha rho r
ma rne)
festival
the god's boat -
journey 10 Poker
the Thoth-fcstival
the half-mont hly
festival. i.e. full moon
SI=f mrv=1 his beloved
son
oil. ungue nt
ss-imn
ds: ntr
r pkr
dhwl1
coo nnuy Ncnwv
mrht
sntr incense
:-;.\ ,\\ I S
beer
water
dbi Debi
-----.--- ----- _._- - -
overseer
I1/W
the Wag-festival
the moruhlv
festi va l
hmt -tmt t»] his beloved wil l'
ibd
m-t pr
How 10 read J::qyptiil n hi eroglyphs
The procession of Osiris 10 Poker :
76
" , - s;=f sms w=! his beloved
mry»] eldest son
Festivals
The general word for a Iesuval is hb: 1JCD or CD hb
The readin g of the half -mon th festival is still un clear. An old suggestion t o
rea d smdt has problems. Mor e recently. th e suggestion has been made th at
the readin g shou ld be based arou nd the nu mbe r fifteen . as mddint.
The pr esence 01 the festi va ls on suc h ste lae rcfh-crs th e desire 01 the
The second offering form ula co nt a ins a differe nt set of offerings :
A number of particular or periodic festi vals arc oft en mentioned on ste lae.
The loll owi ng is a lisI 01 t he ones which a ppea r on BM EA 57 1, arrang ed in
the typica l order in which th ey occur :
5.5 Study exercise: 8M EA 571 (t op)
The top secti on of th e st ela of Khu and her IWO hus bands. shown on p. 77.
a. Trans late the offeri ng formulae above the two scenes .
VOCABULARY
i hw! Ra i
L ... .. _
I
, rh nslV kings advisor
. :2' ';; rynb=f beloved of his lord
._ .._!!__»:
79
. -- .. --' - - i
hrt -pr domestic
sftw butcher
[ msw att endant
;==0
c-,
[ ' .1
washerman
BM EA 57! (bo tt om )
(carved limestone; w. Slcm)
OCClj PATJONS
Description
cm ering -rnard
(literally. ' the en tvrer)
cup- be arer [Iern.)
rhty
1*
: IC>


his beloved
friend
overseer of the
storehouse
bIlIll S=!
mry(=JJ
VOCABULARY
accompanymg the overseer of th e sto reho use
Emsaf
(name)
cup-bear er,
but ler
m-sr«]
wbi
accompa nving lite son
i'iAMI: S Ai'i D TITLES
-_... _-_ .-
. . ._- . ._ .-. _ -

Amen)'
sn -mll(U-' Satrnentj u
;::; '.Jj

(l W Tjau

sst-wsrtt) Sat wosret

Amen ern hvi
JQ
hi Bet
1_

bw Khu

si- hwthr Sahathor
--.;;
"
ddc Dedct
Hct cp
L...,.;,,; 0 0
s-n· wsrt SCIlwosrCl
hm-ntr p ril'st
Samenkhet Scherepib (name,
= e sI-mnbl ro:b'(j sh tp-ib more fully
.. . .... _ J
(Names endin g with m-sI=f usually start with a god 's n ame, as in hr-m-ssv]
Horernsaf. )
5.6 Study exercis e: BM EA 571 (bot tom)
Th e bottom sect io n o f ste la BM EA 57 1. shown on the foll owing page, shows
furt her family members and members of th e household and est ate staff.
a. Transliterate a nd tr anslate th e inscri pti ons. You may wi sh to make use of
the Exc ursus on na m es and ki nship,
b. Here are th e names and titles in th e sce ne. SOllie of th e names ar e not
trans litera ted. Transln eratc them yo urself:
fest ival da ys: on ce the god h ad sati sfi ed hims elf with th em , the)' were passed
on to th e blessed dead. Sec the concl usio n of the festival list on BM EA 162
in Exe rcise 8.S for a fu rther illust ration of th is poi nt .
Offering bearers
b. Trans literate and tr an slat e the inscrip ti ons accumpanyi ng the offerin g hear-
ers in th e two scenes . The inscriptions accompanying th e two major uffe rin g
bea rers in the top scen e tit th e hieroglyphs aro und the figures . This can lead
to unus ual arrangements. Th ey ar e given below in a co nvent iona l orde r:
78
Chapter 6
lnhuretnakht is extolling his proper conduct as a responsible official:


n lr(=I) twi t r rmt
I did not do wrong against people (or: I did no wrong ...)
. \.i3. 0"' - 0

n nI l =! mt ty srwpn
I have never seen the like of this goose
q}
J1
r:
IW whm.n(=I ) hst hr nsw
s,j I b(= i ) r bprw r-Ill/ = I
I repealed favour before the king
and advanced my heart further than my
forefathe rs who existed before me
8 M EA 586,
Line 2:
BM EA 562, Line I I:
Meir In , 1'1. 23:
J gave bread to the hu ngry
and clothes to the naked
Irynotes his success and achievement:
Further aspects of description 8 I
5 (.:&-} rdl.n(=I) 'I gave' is sha red: "] gave bread to the hu ngr y and (I gave)
clot hes to t he naked' .
Following on immediately from his statement of positive ethical virtues (see above),
Intef adds:
Notes
1ft .n(=I) ' I .. -(e )d' is sha red; ' I repeated favour ... and ( f ) ad vancet d)
my hea rt ' .
ii r 'to, in relation to' sometimes has th e se nse of ' more than ' .
iii hprw 'who existed' is a particip le (see Chapter 7 ).
§39 Negati on
The negat ive of th e past ('I did no t do tha t') is made up of th e negati ve wor d
-'- n foll owed by sgm(=f) (it is not. as we might expect, fonned by n
s<!m.n(=f)!):
This neg ation al so occu rred in t he openi ng scene to t his book (no tice the
sligh tly stro nger tr ansl at ion wi th ' never') :
Above the man roastinq agoose:
Sometimes t he negation is written (rat her confusi ngly!) wi th _ .
IW krs.n>! Il(W)
hbs.n>i htv
J buried the 01:1
and J clothed the naked
BM EA 562,
Lines 10- I I :
The official InterSOl1 of Senet proclaims his ethical behaviour in general terms:
llM EA 1783,
Her e the second past tense Iorm lJr::: .:&- hbs.n=I'1 clothed' carrie s on the
desc riptio n of Intel's ethical behaviour, rather than starting a new point.
Not ice how thi s gives a sense of shape and connecti on to episodes ; for a clea r
example of the use of auxiliaries and s<!m.n(=j) s [0 give shape [0 descripti on ,
see Exercise 6. 5 bel ow.
Somet imes elements are shared, ju st as in the English tran slation:
Further aspects of description
§38 Continuation
Descriptions are often presented as a series of connected episodes. In past
descriptions, as we saw in Chapter 5, the first episode is introduced by an
auxiliary such as Iw, then de scribed by a verb in the past tense made up of
the sgm.n(=f) form, A past de scription is con tin ue d on simpl y by carrying on
wi th the sgm.n(=j) without an y further introductory au xiliary. In translating
such a seri es, it is useful to trans late the followi ng sgm.n(=j)s wi th 'and .. .'
(the re is no separate word for ' and' in Egyptian ). or to usc commas or semi-
col ons , de pending on Engl ish styl e:
In this chapter, we \ViII lookat how complex descriptions are presented, in particular
continuing tothe next point and notingother things goingon at that time,
Now is a good time for you to starr using the Egyptian-English vocabulary
(starting on p. / 5/) , when reading the examples in the text.
Tile official Semti refers to his early fa vour at court :
83
hr irt the) is doing
SPECl Fl( PRl Sc :"T
- hr slim
Further aspects,'fdescription
Q
';;, .J) , T' t i e
.1r' .. _ t.lJ. .c. ' H, 0 ," I M 'JI
til' - SlI ' r s{w)I={ " bI nf n '" sLr ml,·'b
I followed him to all his places oft he hearts dd.ghl
(i.c. wher ever king wanted 10 go)
iw Ji. n -wl hm;f r rdwyrf m n!Jm{=I)
His person [i.e. the king) placed me at his feet ill my youth
ir,,! he does
c.r s r RAI , PR1:SENT
.<elm; f
11 M EA 6 14 ,
Line [ 3:
RM EA 574,
Lines 2-3:
Tietii records that, after Inteft ! died. he served the new Inte] JlJ:
If you look care fully at thi s example, the n -wi is a depen dent pr onoun and
the refore should be the obj ect of the verb (someone must ha ve placed me )
and so the sente nce must mean t ha t the kin g placed me at hi s feel. des pite
the orde r o f the words. This sent ence can no t mean : ' I placed the king at his
feet in my you t h' (for T to be t he subj ect. thi s woul d req uire the suffix pro -
no un =1) and in a ny case such a sen tence scarce ly ma kes much sense ,
§42 The presen t t ense
The monument s discussed in th is book do no t include man y inscrip tions cast
in the pre sent tense, Howe ver, for you r inf ormat ion, and to all ow us to cover
one inscript ion we would ot he rwise have shown you hut not equip ped you
to read, we wi ll briefly note the pre sent ten se forms,
Middl e Ki ngdom Egyptian distinguishes, ju st as English doc s, be tween
a qcncral present (usua lly ex pressing habi t - She goes to visit her friend every
week' - or th ings which ju st generally ar c - 'two an d two make four') and
tl specific or on,qoinH present (She is leaving right now' ), In Midd le Egil lTi an
t hese have the following [orrn (using sdm to label th e fonn and the weak
ver b i r ii) to exemplify it):
Notice that the suffix pronouns serve as subjects of the ver b (sec §§ 33 an d
36 ) and depen dent pronouns as objects of the verb,
The depeude rn pronouns displa y all impo rt an t fea ture of wor d order-
ing: th e dependent pronouns att ach to a nd dir ectl y follow the ve rb and so
precede any nouns:
In the specific presen t. the verb ap pea rs after hr in the infinitive form discussed
in Chapter 4, For a full list of forms. see the Refer ence tables on p, ] 4 5,
Roth t,'n '<" ha ve " fOlldn,." for Ih,' a\lxili a rv ,] I w introd" n' o in 5, 4
or }
-wi or -wt i) helil
+}or
-su:
you
()r o} - ( W or -ru: sheI i.
P\\ or r
-siv)
::::::: lfi'
Bc rlln 1204 , dl .n»! w.!, ; f r-/JllH' wr t
li lies 21-22: 1had him proceed inside the great hark
(literally, 'I caused that he proceed imide the great bark' )
The major usage of the dependent pronouns ar e as the obje cts of verbs (typ-
• II _1_ _ __ " .... .-L; ..... t, ,, \ o,h i r h t h ". "",.,.h::d i c :ln n h p r1\ -
It may help 10 t hink of this as ' placing someo ne in the position to do some-
t hi ng' or 'giving someone t he oppo rt unity to do somet hing': hen ce the
exa mple would mea n: ' I put him (in the positi on ) to proce ed inside the grea t
bark' or ' I facilitated his proceeding into the great bark' , The precise me anmg
can range from nuances of compulsion ('make someo ne do somet hing' ) to
permission ('all ow/let someone to do something') and guidance (' ha ve
someone do some t hing) .
§41 Dependent pronouns
The second set of pro no uns a re the dependent pronouns (st"e Reference tab le,
p, 149 ):
Nega tions wi th -'- do not go wi th au xiliari es and so the, patte rn can ei ther
he use d to start up or to carr y on a series of connected episodes WIthout any
obvious writt en mark,
§40 Making someone do somet hing (for use with Exercise 6,5) ,
Causa tion, the notio n o f ' ma king someo ne do somet hing' , is expressed III
the following way in Egyp tian : the verb rdl ' give, place' is used wit h the
sense of ' causing' and is followed by anot h er verb, rdl ap pears in wha tever
form is suitable (in ihe example below it appea rs in the pas t ten se ,qj m ,n(=fJ
form) whilst the ot her ver b appear s in a fixed form (as it happens, the ot,her
verb appears in the future sdm(=fJ , for which see Chap ter 8; however, t his IS
not important at thi s point):
Aft er the festivities are ova , Ikhernofret has the image of the god placed back in the
bark (see Exercise 6.5 for the general context of this example):
The official Key his ethical virtues:
;;::; } ri-
£lM EA 55S, lin e 5: n n h ry-ip»]
I did not den ou nce it mall to his superi or
lkhernojret relates h is activities during the performance of the Mysteries of Osiris:
Notes
-=- l ri i ) literally, ' to do /make", here with the se nse of leading or
conduct ing.
85
lik e, as
night of vigil
drive away, repel
follow
r hs]
sms
Further aspects ofdescription
El dr ml
nli

i
Q} - J.
1LJJ ll1r
El
since

t'-'
prot ect . save
+Ijj

the like,
r*P9
peer, equal

sail

6. 1 Siqns
2-consonant and 3· cons onanr signs:
Notice that the re is no Egyptia n word for ' wh en ' , ' while' , 'as' in th ese usages,
although the appropriate English word ma y be needed in transla tion. ln
English , the noti on of ' going on at the same time' is expressed by con necting
words such as 'as' , ' whilsi ' . ' when'. In Egypt ian it is the ver b itself which
expresses thi s by app ea ri ng in a present ten se form (pr esent or going on a t
that time ). Indeed, yo u may have noticed that whereas in English con nec-
tions are sh own by words suc h as 'and' and 'as' , in Egyptian the same
meaning is achieved by st ringing together different ten ses suc h as sdm. fI(=})
and sdm(=f) and Jelling th e ve rbs do the work.
Exercise s
BMEAI67 L
Lines 4-5:
6.2 Words
Transliterate th e foll owing words written wi th these signs:
6.3 Translati on
Transliterate and tr an slate th e following (see §35 on omission of =f '1' ).
The first one repeats ex amples from the chapter above and is written
here without any breaks (as in the ori ginal inscription ):
a. The official lntef 5011of Senet proclaims his ethi cal behaviour in qeneral terms:
b. Hekaib asserts his ethical behavi our:
This First Intermedi at e Peri od stela shows a number of idiosyn cracies in the
fnrm o f dl (!o..-.-il in<;; 1p;u i or n\ ;1nrl t h p fOi Tno f l h ,. ", dpf p r -
n ",, -=- -..ll LJ T O'
11' V D IIIJ?lr' 1. ,,-- =- I "--
Iw Ir n=1 prt .. p -W/W I "'til=! r IlIi I/=!
I conducted rhe procession of Wepwawct
when he set out to protect his (ath er
How to read Eqyptian hieroqlyphs
Berlin 1204 ,
Line 17:
Egyptian, like many languages, concentrat es on the faet that th e subject is
co nt in uing to roast despite the long time he ha s been doing it: 'I am stil l
roast ing and have been since the beginn ing of time' .
b. hr sdm
An ' exa mple of th is construct ion occ u rre d ill the first inscription shown to
you in th is book:
Above rile man roasting a goose:

Meir III. pI. 23: IW=l hr mrk er pst
I have been roasting since the beginning of time

BM EA 587 : l w wrb hs m t hnk t sntr mrht
The rhousandts j of bread: beer, incense and oil are pure
§43 Other things going on (advanced notes for use with Exercise 6.5)
However, there is one use of the present tense which will be useful when yo u
study Exercise 6.5. In past de scrip tion , as we have seen, the past events are
descri bed by u sing th e pa st ten se sgm.n(=f) form. By stringin.g Joge th er a
present sgm(=f) form or hr sdm form after a pa st sgm.n(=f), Egyptian expresses
th e noti on of somethin g else going on at th e same time as that event expressed
by the sdm.n(=f) for m (something else curren t or present at that time ):
usage as their English equiva lent s (for example, in Egyp tian, as in English,
verbs of state and condition prefer ih e ge ne ral present 10 the specific present
even when refe rring 10 rhings going on now: ' I know t he answer now' , nOI
' I am knowing the answer now' ):
a, sr;j m(=f)
To tile left of lhe main offering f ormula inscription on BM EA 587:
84
87
advance .
promote
confidence
complain
abo ut . accuse i
pUI (SOl llCOn C)
at case
skbh
sr[t
.'\l
Lm-il>
Further aspects ofdescription
VOC,\IJ ULARY (CO"1TI "1CED)
.-- - - -

!rrv -rp superior. chief
=1
sr H'
-:::-
sLIIll
augrn eru ,
pr omote

i l
plan'. posuion.
stat u,
6.5 Study exercise: The Osiris Mysteries at Abydos
The celebra tion of th e Myst eri es of Osiri s at Abydo s wa s clearl y one of the
ma jor festiv als of ,\<Iiddle Kingdom Egypt. Th e festiv al centred arou nd th e
burial and rejuvenation of Osiris, wit h its promise of burial and rej uven ation
for th e blessed dead . Indeed, as discussed in Chapter 4. a n um ber of th e elite
erected stelae or cenotaphs in t he area bordering the ro ute to ensure their
eternal pa rt icipation in the rite s.
The fes tival itself see ms to have comprised five part s:
Th e first pro cession Jed by wepwawet and culminating in combat
agai nst the en emies of Osiris. Thi s see ms to have been a cele bra tion of
kin gship with the repelling of th e forces of chaos and disord er (po ssibly
re flecting the threat of disorde r at the death of the old king Osiri s - see
p. 4 1 for the my thological account) .
2 Th e grea t pr ocession of Osiri s h imself. Th is seems to have been the start
of th e bur ial pr ocession of Osiris as th e dead king, when he was
equipped and prep ar ed for burial. Osiris he re appeared in his form of
Khcntvirnenru ' the one who is foremost of the westerners and was
taken out from th e temple th rough th e surro unding cemetery site .
3 Th e god's boa t -jo urney to Poker. Th e god was conveyed in the great
hark out in to t he des ert to hi s supposed tomb at Poker (probably the
tomb of King Dje r of the First Dyn asty at Umm cl-Oa rab).
4 A nigh t of vigil in whi ch the god was rej uve nated as Wenenncfer (see
p. 42). including th e Haker -fesu vities and a slaught er of the en emies of
Osiris at Ned yet (the mythological place of his deat h). Unf ort unat ely,
t his remains th e most secretive and elusive part of the mysteries.
though later account s menti on that Osir is was crowne d with th e crown
of ju st ificat ion IIW-J;rw) and transfigured or ens piri tcd
Sl I; ) .
5 The re tu rn jou rney to Abydos among genera l rejoici ng and th e re -ent ry
of the god int o his temple.
The stela of th e Treas urer lkhernofret, now in Berli n, is one of th e prin-
How 10read ( qypli<1l1 hieroglyphs
VOCABUl.ARY
-- .. ... ._ - _. --- - - - -- --

iwit wrong

' I( W) the great
a--'
rb palace
! }
privacy
LJ
o};J:. f;;i
pf/
the beginning
0 pit this
of li me

mr k roast

ndstw)
ordinary folk.
the lowly
,
.... 1..... 1 l-" . ...... 1 1
Notes
I -w is writte n for -wi .
i i Rea d di.n»] · w (i j in clause 3.
iii Also read cI:: =! n wr w.
Notes
i On su ffix pro nou ns, see §33 and §36.
i i On the fir + infiniti ve tense, see §42.
iii On nega tion , see §39.
E,\-' EA 6 14.
Lines -\· 5:
6.4 Translat ion
It has been a lon g time coming, but you are now in a positi on to read for
yourself the speech of the ma n roast ing t he goose. whi ch we used to begin
th is book. This is shown agai n below.
The final example is slightly mo re compl ex and is written in the right- to- Icft
order of the or igin al:
c. Tjetji describes his advancement by king Int41I:
86
Further aspects ,>f description 89
VOCABULARY
(for ot her words, see Egyp tian-English Vocabu lary, beg in nin g on p . 15 1)
-- --"". _ ._ - -----. "
CO>
1/ father
S
palace.

' it
u-rnpk-
if:'J
'J.: '
fight.
f=¢
"" ( l\')1 ways. roads
Iigh'ing 0 11/

It.'l1 n · Wt'nenllefer

the :c:rt'JI
nt r I name of Osiris}
U'fI
bar k
Ji Ll)
wds
proceed. go,
0
pJ thai
iJ, set out
"=-
o Ll@ pkr Poker


tOnlb, oftell
=
cenota ph
J\
11111 11 journey

ni mt
xeshmet-
i I I I bark
I
;1111 or !
ntr god
- r
o
ndy t Ncdyet
I
=0 q@
t
na
protect.
hrw day
save
o
<;> hr (Up)OH, at
bNl\') enemies
"=- "
r1lI\
l/tllt
(which is) at the
4-
lIS!
drive awa y,
Ioretro nt of repel
)i7j 0
!JIlW inside

' iii' ,., sbitw)
rebels.
or enemies
r!,'j='
slJ r fell, overt urn

si:d(1) sail, ' rave!
or

'1m, follow e-.} IT
1511' (sand rbank
- I

dpt-
t he god's boat ifsr
separate,
nt r :"J
clear
..._-----_.__... ___" __ ·_ .• 0 " _ _ _ _ ____,
..._------ --_.,, _.- --
EXTRA VOCABUl.ARY
:- .. c;o_ ..... - .-..... . - .- - ...- - - - -.. -..... - - - --- . - - . - - - -
It:: hi kr the Haker-fesnvities r%n s,Jn night of vigil
L _ __ . . __ . _ _ _ • ._ .__ s: __. __..
b. Lo ok at t he epi sodes in t hi s sect io n from the ste la of Ikhc rno fret and
exa mine how iw and the past tense sam.Il(=)) form are used to give shape 10
the pa ssage. As a guide, not e t ha t in most ins ta nc es, t he a uxiliary nv is fol-
lowed no t by o ne hut by t wo or three past -te nse verbs; only in th e se ntence
begi nn.ing Iw qsr.n=1 i.s ill' followed by a sing le verb. How docs yo ur gra m-
n ® r' -lil
1'<.;;::>

Notes
r lid p repos it ion + infinit ive, trans lat e ' to pra ted ' . On th e wri ting offt,
' la t he r', see Exercise 2.5: rea d he re it=f ' hi s father' . J
ii You ma y find §43 helpful in tr a ns lating wd/=! and [ms» ],
iii You may find §27 on t he direct and Indirect genit ive he lpfu l.
iv dsr as an adject ive means ' sacred ' (i n u dsr ' sacred la nd ' ) and as a verb
mea ns ' to clear (some t h ing) ou t' ; in th is text t he ve rb is deliberate ly
chosen 10 mark t he tra nsition of th e fest ival from t he public view to th e
hi dden mysteri es 10 take plac e at t he tom b. an d th is happens once th e
procession has passed th rough ts dsr.
v Sec §40 on di .n>! 101l0wn J by a ve rb to e xpress ca usa tion.
vi hrw pf' t hat day' , translate ' (01 ' ) t hat day .. .'
vii Th e bark 01 Osiris is called t he Neshrn et-bark (ll.(mt) or else is simply
refer red to as t he great bark (wrl): both a re femi n ine words and a rc re l-
ere d to by the femini ne pronoun =5 ' it' in 111 .11=5 ' it bro ugh t ' (for It/ ( I )
The stela is unjortunately silent 0 /1 the most mysterious features of the festivities such
as the niqht of and the Haker-festivities (compare with BM EA 567 in Study
Exercise8.3). Therefollows a description of the rejoicinq along the route back, ending
with tile boat arriving <11 Abydos. then:
There f ollows a brief description of the manner in which lkhern ofret equi pped the
bark and put the proper regalia all the god, then:
a. Trans literate and translate t he following sections fro m the st ela of
Ikh cr nofrc i:
88 How to read Egyptiall hieroqlyphs
Scnwos re t III to rc pair t he image of th e god a nd to perform t he necessa ry
rimaI ac ts. He subscqu eurly erected a stela in which he re co u nt s how he
organised the fest ival (an accoun t which draws on p rev ious versions given
by ea rlier generatio ns of official s se nt by th e Middle Kingdo m kings 10
Aby dn s ).
6.6 srud)' exercise: 8M lOA 586
II. The stela on p. 90 is by no me ans an easy te xt, but with the help of t he
following note s, have a go at transliterating and translating the top sect ion
of thi s stela or lis e the key on p. 170 to work through it.
Sotes
On dat ing and th e titles of the king, sec §§ 17-I The kings cartou che
is surmounted by th e skv hieroglvph. which is not read .
ii wirm !tSI ' (0 repeat favour' with wh m in the sdm.n(=.n form . 0 11 the
omission of =i T , see §35 .
iii S( I ' to advance' (one's position, here 'heart ' ) lite rall y, ' to make great' .
The full form would ha ve bee n s(J.n=i, see §38 on coordinat ion and
sharing. r has th e sense here of ' more than ' .
iv hprw ' who existed' is a parti ciple (see Cha pte r 7 for discussion ).
v The section beginn ing iw ts.n is ano ther example of coor dination, he re
dealing with the king's gift of a great seal ([Hm ( J) and a staff (JTy r) to It y,
fs(i ) lit. ' to tie on' , is used for th e seal which the kin g tied aro und lt v's
ne ck, but thi s precise meaning does not rea lly go with th e decorated
staff which Ity was also given, so translate 'assign (to )' .
vi mi ,(PS- II SW nb 'just like any digni tary of the ki ng' (which you might
wi sh to put in brackets) goes with the first gift (the seal), and contrasts
with th e special gift of th e staff (wit h which IIY is depi cted in the lower
scene) . ,(PS' /I SW is a conventi ona l design ation.
vii sw rbt is a participle with femin ine agreement with sry t ' sta ff', tra nslate
' (which was) decorated' . See Chap ter 7.
viii it-nt r ' god's father' . In the Middle Kingd om, th is seems to have bee n a
title besto wing high rank an d favour on an official, typically for per-
forming special commissions for the king to do with th e cult of th e
gods , and also legitimating him for th is task. Perhap s here th e t itle is
di rectl y connec ted to the episode of th e king's assignment of the grea t
sea l and a staff to lt y.
ix The text ends abruptly with the names of lty and Iur i. The wife 's name
is sepa rated off by a vertica l bar.
90 How to read ( qyp ri ,m hiercqlvphs
BM EA 586
(carv ed and painted lime ston e; II . 63. 5cm)
Further aspect,' ofdescription
VOCABULARY
1-
_." -._ H ," --- -_.. _------- .. _- - -- -
..
irvt staff

i wrl luri (name)
'(;
l b heart " c 1ft 11(U' j
(Iorc- )
I . fa thers
t qQ lt-ntr god's father
Qm
lIy ltv (name)
a or ,"'-

re peat
) c
n. H \ ' king
"F_
e, r-hn before
"- . Mill' eho nv
91
IU " I n l =l 1"1 '"It
I cond uct ed the grea t pwcession
S:C. _\1Sc. no specia l end ing

/lf r
rJ -c- ...:>
s«. f"EM .
'"
-t
n t rt
iii ""
PL ,\15C.
}
- w o r o
b:::(}l
nfrtw)
PL rL\1.
'"
- I
n fr ;
n
Berlin 120,1.
Line I H:
Characterisation
(The plural can be wri tte n wit h or with out the pl ural strokes ' I: moreover,
the of the ma sculine plural agree ment is ofte n omitted in writing, le aving
no ending at all - thi s is indicated by the symbol " in the ta ble abovc. )
Compa re the following examples showing feminine singula r agree-
ment and masculine plur a l agr eement :
lk hcrnofret relates his role ill the Mysleries ofOsiris:
§44 Adjectives
You ha ve alr ead y been introduced 10 adj ective s in § IO, In Egypti an , these
foll ow and agree wit h the noun th ey de scribe. If th e noun is fem inine and
ends in - L, th e adje ctive will al so end in -t . To wrap up this to pic properl y, the
full list of endings ar e:
This clutpter concentrates on the elaborate epithets which abound on stelae. purticu-
larly epit hets characterising the uwner as having lived an ethical lif e Col' having
well in royal service. This will also allow us ru introduce you to anothe r
extremely common F.gypriatz verb-form - the participle. T,' start wi th, howe ver. we
need to rerUTII to adjectives.
The lop pari <l/ fliHEA !OI has Nebipuscnwcsrct ad,' rin,qthegods. Behind the !i!/ure
L'! Nebipuscnwosrct:
favou r
come int o
being, cxrsi
before
ad vance
·-- - - 1
Intel i
!i' 1II elcctrum
{ p H ISv.' dignitary of
the king
su-sbk Satsobck I
I
J!
Amc nern hct 1..::.. 111I=f
Sat wos ret
VOCA BULARY: :-iA.\\ES
VOc. \BUrAHY !(()!':Tl :-il.'[[))
imn-m-hit
sl1-wsrr
rslf) tie. knot


0"\<6:
his beloved
..-. "=-- mrr=f wife

hsmtt amethyst
:,,?$ U}
llpr-k.l - r
r
Kh cpcrka rc
t Seu wosrei l j

{11 m seal
Q
rrJ
sw' b decorate
Thej amily
b. Tran sliterat e and translate the labe ls above the sons and daught er s of lt y.
You will be ask ed to study the insc riptio n from the bouom sce ne a t the end
of Cha pter 7.
9 5
rdl (one)
(w it h r) who gave
Characterisatioll
,' AST OR COMPLETE
(one)
who gives
(one)

sdm
(one)
who hear s who heard
(one)

rt U
(one)
who sees who saw
(one)
;;1D
mr
(one)
who loves who loved
mrr
dd
(no r )
PRESF,' H OR ' XCOMPIETI,
oouuuxc
WEAK



EXTRA
'-"
WEAK &-fl

BM EJ\ 162, blbI mr II st-ibv]
Cent ral column: lrr hsst»] r: nb
lli s true servant of his aflection,
who does what he Iavour s every day
(ilSst=f 'what he favo ur s' is a present relative for m, see §52 below)
In the first pa rt of thi s example both>:: 11/1' ' tr ue' and /I st-lb e]
' of his affect ion' help to characte rise bik"Cf'h is servant ' . Sim ilar ly in
th e second half of t he example, -=- irr is the present partici ple ('w ho does' )
ami is also used 10 elabor ate the of brk=f ' his serva nt',
(Part iciples als o sometimes have a - I\' end ing .)
§47 Participles and epithets
Since a participle behaves a lot like a n adjective , it is often us ed to qu alify a
no un , For example, pa rtici ple s are commonly us ed in t he epi thet s ch ara c-
te rising a n official :
The stela of All/my identifies his subordinate, Sahathor. with the epithet:
Basically, any verb other th an a strong ve rb has a doubl ed con sonant in t he
presen t pa rticipl e bu t not in t he pas t participle , In the ca se of str ong verbs,
however, it is n ot possible to tell the two apart on the basis of thei r forms
alo ne, As yo u will see in the examples below, there is no need in Egyptia n
for a separate word meaning 'who' (or ' which' or ' what' ) since this is an
integral pa rt of the meaning of the Egypt ian participle verb-form,
There are two grnups of parti cipl es: th e present participle ha s the meaning
'lone) who does sume thing': the pas t parti ciple has th e mea ning ' (one ) who
di d sOlllcthing' , The forms of the part iciples in different verb class es are as
follow s:
nfr good, perfect
bin had
dWI 'sir m Irh (w)4nfrw <11r nhh
Adoring Osiris in his wonderful festivals endu ringly and repeatedly

nfrt
good (n . )
from
r-
' what is good' <t>

bill/
evil ( n. )
fr om
' wha r is bad'
H<1\VW read t ::JYPlian hieroqlyphs
BM EA 558,
Line 4:
Key proclaims his OU71 ethical behaviour :

Ink rid nfr t
I was nne who said what Is good
Notes
i For tnk . see §49 below,
ii dd is a participle mean ing ' one wh o said ' , see §§48 and 49 ,
The official l lllef son of Senet, proclaims his ethical behaviour ill qcncra l terms:
BM EA562,
Lines 10- 11: lw krs.ne t ist w) hbu l=1 1uy
I hur ied the old and I clothed the naked
94
§45 Ad ject iv es used as no uns
Adjecti ve s are typically use d to de scribe other words, but th ey can be us ed
on thei r ow n to mea n 'a person/people with that particula r qualit y' , for
example, in English ' I am an Egyp ti a n ' , means ' I am an Egyptian person'
(n01 a sold ie r, or a donkey, or anything cls e l): compa re also English expres -
sions suc h as th e ' the rich ' an d ' t he poor', In Egyp tian th is is ra ther common :
However , i n Egypt ian , the adjective ca n be singular with the mea ning 'a rich
onel(some)one rich ' , wherea s Engli sh prefers to add a ra the r general word
such as ' someone' (so hsy probably mean s more accurat ely 'someone naked'
or ' the na ked one') .
If the ide a is indefini te, abstra ct or general: ' anything good' or 'what is
good', th e feminine form of th e adje ct ive is used:
The meaning of the feminine form of the adje ctive as ' w hat is goo d' is similar
to th e meaning of th e rela tive form mentio ned in §37,
§46 Participles
The parti ciples arc spec ial forms of t he ve rb which have many of the quali-
Bef ore the figurr of Mrdehu. the wif e of Ameny:
97 Owracterisation
Independent pron oun. written with the
D33 pal. read here as in ,
Ink 1
Ink nli s I kr
Ijd III r=!
1 was all astute individual ,
who spoke with his (own ) mouth
o - 0 \!\.. n LJ
=' 'I -ec>
Ink I1li s Ik r
1was an 'astute individual
o
ti 0.
in): !!dnin
1was one who said what is good
BM EA 558 .
Line 4:
BM EA 167 1.
Line I :
BM EA 167 1,
Line I :
The owner is referred 10 the second time in the third pe rson: ""-- »[. moving
from the specific in di vidual 10 a generalized social characte risa t ion by char-
acterisin g the first person T (specific individual ) in genera lized third person
terms (' one who spoke wi th his own mouth') .
In th is example. the adjective ikr ' a stu te' ) and th e pa rt icipl e
lid ' who spoke ' ) both qualify it nds. Often, however, ink is followed
by a participle us ed on its own, to create a st atement which means ' I was
someone who did ' (when using the past participle ):
The self-presentation of Hekaib continues:
ink is th e T -fonn (firs t pe rson ) o f a t hird a nd last type of pronoun, called th e
independent pronoun because it can come at the beginning of a statement:
Notice th at in this example ther e is no word for ' was' i n this construction
(the statement could al so be translated in the present tense, i.e. ' I a m an
astute indi vidual' . but here the past tense seems appropriate to the idea of
an offi d allookin g back over a life pres ented a s now ended ).
It is no t unusual to find the use of qu alifying express ion s such as
par ticipl es:
The officia! Key makes a common statement about appropriate behaviour:
The self-presentati on sectionof the stria of Hekaib beqins in the f ollowing way:
person with cert a in qualitie s or attributes: in ef fect . it an swers the qu estion
' what was 1 lik e?' . ' who was I?' , focusing on et hical behaviour and success
and achlevernent :

7P.!!f
It(\\')=1llPrw r-!W=I
my (fore-itathers wh o existed before me
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
B;\1 EA 586,
Line 2:
96
§48 Participles as nouns
Aga in, like adjectives, pa rt icip les ca n be used on thei r own to mean ' a pe rson
who does somethi ng' or more succinct ly ' one who does someth ing'. For
example, BM EA 6 14 (the stel a ofTjetji ) introduces Tjetji himself with a lon g
li st of his rules and epithets, incl uding:
-:;- 0 i
Il,"\ EA 16 2, "-."-'- a ,, <.-=
Lef t column: !mll=Imrc=! lrrt !mt=fr' nb
His wife, beloved of him, who does what he favou rs every day
fn this example, irrt (' who doe s' ) agrees with hmt 'wife'; for mrt
' beloved', see §50. below.
Alternativel y, a part iciple may show a n extra } -w with masculine
plura ls:
lty asserts that he advanced hi mself mo re than:
Just like an adjective, a pa rt icipl e must agree wi th the noun it de scribes
and so wi ll end wi th a - t if the noun is feminine:

BM EA 6 14, rh hr t-l b nb= f
Line I : s-m; -sw r nmtt »] nb
one who knows the desire of his lord,
one who follows hi m at all ht s journ eys
(For vocabulary, see p. 106.)
In thi s example, !: rb a nd sms a re participle s used on thei r own to
mean ' (a person) who kn ows' and ' (a person ) who follows' ,
Incidentally, the pa rt iciple is the form used in the name of Wepwawet,
' the one who opens t he ways' (compare th is with his role in th e Osi ris My s-
teries studied in Exercise 6. 5):
"'p-WIWI Wepwawe [
(Part iciples used on their own sometimes translate well as an English agen -
rive noun ending in <er' . here ' t he opener of the ways' . )
§49 Characteri sa ti on w ith 0 In k
="
99 Ch araaer isati cn
tt n l fl i fu-n;t t i r J= n (l l i ch \ V,' rn ioh: urr- fr-r ' h is beloved son'. )

BM EA 57 1:
His ,Oil, his beloved. Amenv
Fina lly, you have alrea dy en count ered the past passive usage on a
number of occasions itt vari ous labels of filiation . A part icul arly good exam-
ple occurs on BM EA 584, to be studied in Chapter 8:
Label before the fi rst SOliS in the third row of BM EA 5 71:
Often, though , we find a more abb reviat ed writing:
4"'::' Arn
BM EA 178 3, ink mry n ir=! hsy n mwtc] mrrw snwe] snwtx] im(l) n IM=!
Lines 2-3: I was one beloved of his father, praised of his mothe r, beloved of
his siblings, and one graci ous of .to his household
As an alternat ive, nrrrw might be trans lat ed as a ma sculine relativ e form -
see §52 below - and the tra nslati on reshaped: ' one whom his siblings love
and one gra cious to his hou sehold' .
Inhuretnakht 's fu ll declaration of his status within his f amily (this completes Study
Exercise 5.4) :
Lube! before one of the SOil S of Khue nbik offeri llg f owl:

BM EA584 : sl=lmry=! pllt-!l1P
His son, his beloved . Ptahhoi ep
Ink mry nh=!
!.tsy=!m !Jrt-hr", nt r: -n b
I was one beloved of his lord
and favoured of him (or, ' his favoured one",
ill the course of every day
In expr essions of familial affection , mr(i) someti mes occurs in the
pr eseItt Jinc omplete pa rticiple form mrrw. The reason for this is still
mueh discussed and may have to do with the pr esence of the lollowing
plur al genit ive expression. However, a much easi er way to understand this
in th e next examp le is to note that th at the pre vio us gener at ion (the owner's
mo th er an d fath er) take the past passive parti ciple, whereas his siblings (i.e.
the present gen erat ion fro m his point of view) take the present passive
part iciple :
Ink mry nb=!
1 was one beloved of his lord
BM EA 1783 ,
Li nes
BM FA 614 ,
Line
98
A made-up example ro illu strate the point in the text:
The two const ructions differ clea rly in form and also in meaning, ju st as thei r
English tra nslat ions do .

il<" dd. n»i nfrt
I said what is good
This characterisation cons truc tion tell s us about what he was like. It dot's
not mean ' 1sa id wha t is good' - thi s would be a des cription , usin g th e past
tense srjm. n(=fJ for m. an d would tell us ab ou t what he did, rat her t han wh at
he was like:
lnhu retna kht declares h is status within his fami ly:
§50 Passive participles
Participle s can either be active (' one who loved' ) or passive (' one who was
(bej loved). Unfortunately, th e passive participles do not usua lly have a dis -
t inctive writin g in Egypti an. However. t he most commo n examp les in our
inscriptions concern th e ver bs mr i i } ' love' and hst i ) ' favour '
which, as we ak ve rbs, in the past passive participle do sometimes show a dis-
tinctive qy-y ending in th e past passive part iciple. Since this is a rather
commo n usage , we will discuss the poi nt in some detail :
Tjetji declares his status in relation to the kmg:
f, c:/
I>:: ''I
tnk mry n i r=f
1was one beloved of his Iarher
In such a usage , th e passive part iciple is often followed by t he geni tive I'of' ,
either the indirect genitive (as in the last examp le) or the direct genit ive:
The stela oi Tjetji COli rill lies:
The passive partic iple ma y even be followed by a suffix pronoun :
PAST OR COMPLETE
101
official
II .}S individual
sr
servant
til -nbt IIf,.l!) wrbtt) ' 11/]1 'IIr im
evcrvrhing good and pure on which a god lives
Churactcrisation
13M fA >58.
Li ne 2:
Tire c'fferil1g formula in 8M EA 558:
Exc ursus: Middle Kingdom tit les
In Chapte r 3, va riou s titles were introduced to provide you with a resource
for you r reading. In these notes, the titles a re ga the red toget her acco rding to
th eir funct ion , to provide anoth er convenient ref er e nce resource (the list
incl udes some tit les from oth er stelae in the British Muse um).
Mascul ine relative forms do not show suc h a "" - L and thus ar e har der to
spot. Fortunat ely th ey are also fair ly uncommon and need not concern us in
this book. As not ed in Chapt er 5, p. 71, th e filia tion expressions for ma les I r-
n and ms-n may well be examples of masculine relat ive forms.
The stela of Amen).' identifies his subordinate, Sahathor, with the epithet:
Also, j ust like adj ectives, the relative for ms sho w thi s helpful e xtr a c-" -t
when used on their own with th e meani ng 'what someone docs/ did' :
t... =">= fC'''=.. .fr>. 0-;;- 0 I
.1r l\=- ---J __ <:::::>J..
BM EA 162 . b.<k=f nil' n st -lb»]
Central column: i r r !,ssr=f r : nb
His tru e servant of Ius affection,
who does what he favou rs every day
General terms
Gener ic terms for office holdin g and status amongst the elite include th e
followi ng:
or l 7 11/ office
5r-1;
The term 'f In is the genera l te rm for a regular office or function.
Such an office brought status, posi tion and power, and al so wealt h throug h
its attached estate (7 prj . The term 5r- it blk 'servant ' wa s often used as
a mea ns of stressing the de pendent relationship of one per son on another
and could he used of people who oth erwise h ad high status. /lds
' individual' was often used, particula rly in t he First Intermediat e Period. for
someone of high status who did no t ho ld an officia l position.
, "am!=! what he hears
dJ
'b...

111111=/ what he sees

nrrrr=f what he loves

ddt»] what he gives --.f;Y"",,---
co


sdml.l/=f what hr heard
DOt.:BLI:-IG
""
what he saw
;;:::
WEA K

111 rt ,11 =/ what he loved
f XTRA Wb\K
<= -
rdl t.ne] what he gave ot.-':
<:> "--
How to read Egyprian hieroqlyphs 100
WEAK
;\.: rQ U
I '-__ "
BM EA 584: In sJ=f s' nft rne f m-r ikdw n-pth-ksw
It is his son who made his name live (on),
t he overseer of builders Nipta hkau

PRESE:-IT OR
I)OCBLING
§51 ill + noun + participle
The participles ar e also used in a construct ion introduced bv /11: in +
noun + pa rticiple ' it is so-and-so who did' , Like its Eng lish equi valent. thi s
const ru ction highlights the per son who performs an actio n. It occ urs quite
common ly in a dedication for mula whi ch ide ntifies th e donor of a stela:
EXTRA wrAK
§52 Re lative forms again
In §37 abov e we introduced you to the past relat ive form . The relative form
is in fact similar in usage to th e pa rticip le. First of all, her e is a tab le of th e
forms of the re lative for ms in the pre sent and the past. As wi th t he previous
secti on on the relative for m §3 7, we shall exhib it the for m wi th a - L
(alt hough, as you will see, this is actually rhe -r of femi nine agreement):
Tire label above Ni ptahkau on the stela dedicated rohis[ather Khu cnbik (Sfe Chapter
8, 1'1'. 122·3) :
(Compare with the forms of the participles in §46 above. )
In pa rt icula r. like participles, relative forms display certain adjectival
qualiti es. Thu s they agree with the nonn they accompa ny. for example
tak ing a ·1 when going with feminine wo rds. A good example occurs in th e
offe- rin c for mula:
Administra ti ve ti tles are compounded with t he bity for ' king' .
trrntty-blty is prefi xed only to high-level titles. As well as signifying high
rank, th e rul e indi cated tha t th e holder was a uthorised 10 use the royal seal.
10 3
report er, herald wh nuw)
counter of the double granartes
m -r Jl::d1l' overseer of budde rs
/II-r pr overseer elf the CS!aIC (steward]
hsb slI l<'r)'
dd itlp(w)-Illr 11 ntrw otlering-gtver 10 the gods
governor,
mayor of a town
Olaraeterisatf oll
/11/)' ''
m -r mir wr general-in- ch icl
1- @ 'n l; II flWI soldier of the rown regirnem
wrb Il"b-priesl
1
0
or
it 1I1r god 's-lather
1], =
9C (1111 ntr hm'p riesl
9
(1In k: ka-priest
II

hryssu
Keeper-
iili:J
Vry 11 M lector priest
of-secrets
Stewardsltip and production
Military
Altho ugh we have divided secular and religious titles for convenience h ere,
ill pr acti ce th ese were intert wined in eli te Middle Kingdom society, where
the same per son co uld hold both sec ular and reli gio us title s at once. BM EA
58 5, wh ere Saren en utet has th e followi ng titl es, provides a n example of this:
Religious tit les
Tit les associa ted with pri estly fu nct ions. In the Middle Kingdom, there were
few full-time priest s, but elite men regu larly served in th e temples:
Reg ional authority
Tit les as socia te d wi th th e governmen t of region al districts:
Tit les of women
In gen er al women were not included in th e formalisati on of elit e society
through office holdin g, whi ch te nded to be a male preserve (yo u may
already have not ed th ai most women dep icted on rhe stela e in this book arc
usu ally referred to by their family relationship with th e mal e owner) . How-
eve r. some wome n ar e shown bearing a certa in range of tilles wh ich usuall y
accord with the sta tu s of their menfolk . Of part icu lar note for the stel ae
overseer of
the charnbrr
sole companion
chamberlain
(the one in fronl)
J myal rruun are.
rJ nsw king's adviser
rrt- r
i r[J l lwty
OQ..... -:'" snit IVfty
I' l n I
imy -hnt
tl: or 1
keeper of ih e
royal diadem
follower of
the palace
treasure r (ove rseer
of what is sealed)
seal-bearer, assistant
110 the treasurer )
smswpr rt
m- r
htm:
ht mw
hry J
How to read Egyptian hieroqlvphs
I;IIIIIY bity kings seal-hearer
ttlt -& fry nfr-hu
102
Titles proclaiminq attendance at callrt
Titles pr oclaiminq rank and authority deleqated fr ont the k ing
Titles associated wi th the ritu al appearan ces of the king ar e us uall y com-
pounded wit h th e word t ':: /lS W for ' king' .
Titles proclaiming attendance ,m the king
TIle t reasu ry
For th e monument s stu died in th is book, th e officials att ached to the treas-
ury ha ve particu lar import an ce:
Procurement , storaqe, dispensing and utilisation
The palace and til e king
The ' palace' was an iti nerant comm unity gathered round the king, who, as
well as residing at a centra l res idential and administra tive complex, also
moved abo ut the cou nt ry in orde r to cele brate t he festi val s of Egypt's man y
gods. Officials would n-gularl v visn th e palace in or der 10 renew th ei r
att endance on t he king, before returning 10 th e var ious regions to exerci se
th eir dele gat ed a ut ho rit y.
Th e ti tle m- r rhnwt» was or igina lly mo re general . In orig in it prob-
abl y re ferred 10 the 'ove rseer of th e chambe r of the residenc e/ pa lace'.
However, by th e Middle Kingdo m th e titl e had become split between a
nu mber of dilt erenr br an ches of th e ad ministration . A part icul ar ly common
m- r rh nwty 'overseer of the cha mber ' was th e m -r ' [r nw ty
II m-r htnu ' overseer of the cham ber for rhe treasurer' , who seems to have
been responsible for the procurem ent of raw mat er ials (for example th rough
mini run and for monumental buildinc work .
105
l rr
Characterisation
irr , more
rarel y tr
mt,


ir

a

BM FA 167 1.
Lines 1-2 :
BM EA 6 14,
Line 1
7.4 Tra nslation
Transliiera te and tr an slat e i h c following.
a. Th e self- presentation section of the stela of Il ekaib beqin s in the following way,
stressinq the topi c ofself -reliance (y oll may consider adding ' 01171' in yo ur translation
10 help brinq this 011/) , compare with §49 above
Notes
The hi erogl yphs a re o rga n ised a s they are on th e o riginal. except that
Ihe el ernerus o f i he pa ssa ge a rc sepa ra ted o u t for you r conve nience.
You ma y find th ai yo u need to i nser t ' a nd ' occas iona lly in your
tra ns lation.
ii Th e pronoun =f is used 10 refer back 10 ih e owner of th e siela as n oted
in §49 (as in: 'I was a n official we ll re spected in his dist rict ' or th e li ke) .
Th e switch to the third person is normal in such const ructions.
iii shs] ... r ' to keep (something) .11 a di stan ce from ', idiom of impartial uv,
iv 1\1' 11 ' I ' great pillar' is used metap ho rically (cf. o ur own express ion fo r
so meone being ' a to wer of strengt h ' or a ' pillar of t h e commun it y')
v On ihe omissio n of th e suffix pronou n =/ T in w ri tin g in i he ihird sen-
tence. see §35 a bove . Rea d mity lib m II WI IIl .
7.3 A 1I0 t e 0 11 the writinq (Jf lrti ) 'to do '
A ma jor exceptio n 10 th e rule on sou nd com plements give n in Cha pte r 2 is
pro vi ded by th e ve rb .e-- irtl } ' to do, make' (I hi s ve rb a lso has many idi o -
mali c nI ea n ings ). Whe n read ir. it is ge ne ra lly w rit ten -c>- alo ne (a n
excep tio n occu rs on 8M fA 558 in St ud y Exe rcise 7.7 where, for space rea -
so ns . =- seems 10 be writ te n fo r lrri . wh ile .:: is us ually to be
t ranslit erat ed irr (a th ird form. al ways be tr an slit er ated irr):
b. The stela of Tj et]i begins with the kinq's name and then Tj etji is introduced with
a list <Jf epi thets:
br ea th
town
dignified.
aug ust. rich ,
office,
function
official

y} / m'

r=t1t sr
v/
br
7 wi
>In! r:t
D18 - village with
crossroads
AIOi Al 1 - man of rank
on chair wi th rwit hout Ilail
E58 - sail
A7 - man holding stick
and kerchief
EI 0 - emblem ere cted
outside rill' temple 01 Min
Hewto read Egyplian hieroglyp hs

5WC l't

crea te

comma nd
<it unde r, carryi ng
(see also §2 1i
<=>
Exercises
b. Ideogr ams an d deterrninarives
I hkrt IlSw ""II sole lady in wailing
<f :l DoC)
ImI OJ-lI l r (III' I-/l r r rk, le» of Haihor
104
Hi:}h status
7.2 Words
Translit erat e th e following words w riu e n with these signs:
(hkn-nslV means literally ' t h e kings or namcm")
An other common title of elite women as soriare« ihcm with th e ru n-
n in g of i hc esta te . II a ppe ar s on stelae fro m th e la i c 12th dynast y onwards:
Estate and household
'= nbt pr lad y ol ih c house, mistress ol ihc estat e
c LJ I
7, 1 Signs
a, 2-consonanl and 3- consonant sign s
106 How [(I read Egypti JII
"'N t'S
i .- is an early Io rtu of t l tc papy rus AIIOIher variant Io nt t is .-.,. ,
ii 0 11 rhc depend ent pronou n -sw, see §4 1.
7.5 St ela of It )' (8. \1 EA 586)
Trartv ltt crate a n d translate rln- fol lo wing. which is t h e lov...-r sec t ion o f th e
ste la give n as Exerci se 6.6:
BM lOA 586 (lower secnom
Notes
i Not ice th e wri t in g of rlie tit le it-rut 'god' s fa th er: (cf. Exercise 6.6),
i i Read nay truly belo ved of his lor d'. where mI)' is a parti ci-
ple (see §50 above}, flb=f! s placed fi rst through p restige (see §22),
VOCABULARY
._- -- ,""._- --- ,
· __ _ _ _ .0'_
,
-- -_ ._-_.-
I WIf pillar
Q= f IiJ
tmn-r -
rthc god}
Amun -Ra

u-ntr
gofs tn bcr
4
lIy Ity mat ttc]
tprtcsrly titl e i

Wist Thebes {pl ace ]
C""J pr house, estate
I
2
0
;14
muy peer. equal
- 0 .1\
nm tt jou mc vs

mouth - hry-sin
master of
...-> secrets ll i l k J
r J
bpi strottg arrn

b"ty l
Khe ntvt
= 6
(place-n ame!
ffm!.
tm!( y) (one) foremost
[tn -i b desire
>1 of position "1-f'" 1
,
III daught er

Sll - \.l.1T I
sa twos ret

. ;' Co [ name)
.. .... _-_._... _.
_ . _ ______ _ •• _ _ •• _ _ _ • _ _ • • • _ _ _ _ H __• •
Characterisation 107
\'OCABt.:lARY ( CONTIx VFD)
'''-'.-.
su-sbl:
Satsobe k

to pass by.
HVI
i rname ! SUrp.1SS
'O,r
10 keep at a

,t pl.JCef q
distance

Jp,
dtgru tarv (literally,

,?pH
digntty.
'august nn e') wealth
i ..__. . __._ .. .. _ .. . ....- ._ ---"
7_6 Relat ive fo rms
The relat ive forms a re used in a con trnou late Middle Kingdom add it ion to
rhe offer ing Iormnla. which occurs »n RM FA 1,13, the stela ot Nakh ti to be
st udied ill Exe rcise 7.8:
TIlt" voice-off ering can be ext ended after 't wrything and pure on which il
/i vC')" as[ollo ws:
BM EA 143,
Lint' 2:
NOles
Remembe r that since these are relative forms, they will req uire t ra ns -
lar ing he re wi th 'whi ch' . Also cons ult ih e table in § 52 for the wri tings.
it See stela RM EA 143. Exercise 7_8. for vocabul ary .
7. 7 Stud}' exercise: BM EA 558
The stela of Key on page 108 corues acr oss as some thing of a corupe ndi lint
of sta ndard e xpressions, ra ther than J smoo t h- ru nn ing composi tion . So rne
of th e sections of th is inscrtption han: al ready been used as ex amp les ill ihe
main text. Translitcrnte and translate th e stel a wit h tlte help of th e: notes .
Notes
i For t he epit het s. sec §§47 and 50 ab o ve.
ii For Ii m. read lI(.n=i) m. parall el 10 hJ.n= i m_Transl ate m as ' front'.
iii For the omission of the suffix pronoun ; 1, set.' §3 5 above.
iv for ink + pa rt iciple, see §49 above.
v mrrt is pr oba bly a pre sent re lative form. see §52 abo ve.
vi For th e "v-n rmg of th e negauve -"- n as _ , see §3 8 above (in boih n
<lws(=/) an d n w<l(='»).
vii The express ion n w<l(=1) hwt In is nOI witho ut its difficult ies. In En g-
lish idio m. you may wi sh 10 tran slat e m as ' for/ to' .
viii The re is some do ubt as t o whether whm shoul d be read as a tit le or as
part of a name whm-ky.
This mscri puon also introduces th e imp ortant ve rb ' to conte:
'rente' - written i n two forms:
.Jj } iyfi J/ i ", fi ) a. monogram orGl and ./).walking leg:..
. b. with wal ki ng legs ideog ram
Notes
Translate 111 near th e end of line 3 as 'as' (a n elaboration into th ree
pans: offeri ng , bre at h and in cense).
i i In the writ ing of Abydos and Djedu the town det erminative @ has been
ex pa nded as th ough it were the word nwt 't own ' . However , it is still
simply the det er mi native for Abydos and Djedu. n ot a separat e word.
7.8 Study exercise: 8M EA 143
Transliterate and translat e the ste la of Nakhti (BM EA 143) on p. 110. You
may wish to make use o f your work for Exercise 7.6.
VOCAB ULARY
r--''''''''--
•....._--_ ._--

lsi
[set, [sis
1
in (i ) bring
(name)
DC>
pi sky, heavens

mWI=! his mother
<==>
i =.......n Inure wei -nurse

ms-n ba m of
I
-co
I
= LJ I nbl pr
lad y of
nht t
Nakh ti (nam e, both
I c> the hou se
'-'- c> male and female )
I -r=\
nt-
Netnebu

II dm
nbw
sweet
o 0 00
I
10"0
h' py
the inu ndation
0'Y II m/=! hi s wife
(as the god Hapy)
"-
I

sntr incen se

killl create
cs st smell, scent
y}
l ilt' breat h
.._--- - --
109

wh m repeat

m rti
Merti
(name)
0 I r : nb every dav
=.

hu t }
descend.
go down

hry-tp
chief,
superior

hrt-hrw
course of
the day
EEl
SPIl dis trict
c>1
M}r
[ws den ounce
___ _ ___u " '' _ _ ---1
reporter, herald (title:
aile who repea ls)
king
comma nd
king' s adviser
(litle )
beating
man
Key (name)
director of king's
advisers
wllm(w)
nsw
hWI
VOCABUL \ RY
Characterisation

o}
+..':.
+:[ or i

H
! it
ky
L'::: . _
How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs
'. -";:-. ,'
BM EA 558
IDS
t}, °n-
&J.1Y1, \\ i I I I
sdmty.sn
PLURAl. ( BOTH GiNDERS) FEMININE

slimIY·s)'
f ' /l[z w 11'11' II sws ttyr .sn hr 1> pn
o the living upon t he eart h w ho may p ass by th is tomb
sdmty.fy

Fitz.E9. 1921,
Line I:
In this fi nal chapter, II 'e will introduce you 10 th e 'appeal 10 the livi nq ' formula in
which the' deceased calls upon [uturegmermiollS til main min his [unerary cult. We
will also look at the future tense used particul ar ly to express wishes and expectations.
Cltaptcr S
The future
§53 The sg m ty.fy form
In express ing the future, the place o f the part iciple is ta ken by the sdmty.fy
form: ' (so meone) who will/ may do somet hing '. Th is for m has the same uses
as the participles, bu t has its own particular endings. In it s fullest writings
th e sdmty fy for m displays the following for ms:
Oft en, however, the \\ .y of th e endings is omitt ed :
The stela ('f Mentjuhotep ill the Fitz william Museum, Cambridge. has an appeal to
the li ving which begins:
(See § 54 below for th e form of t he appea l 10 the living and its vocabulary.)
As with participle s, the sdmty .fy form ca n be used with a noun (in thi s
example, swuty t.sn ' who ma y pa ss' goes with ' t he living' ) or on irs o wn
(' sornconc who will do someth ing ' ).
The appe.r! I" the livinq <'[Ihe'chnmberlnin Mi nnc'fa (l ear 29 of Amenemhet II) :
§54 The a ppea l to the living
The appeal 10 the livinq formula is found on many stelae . A sim ple ex ample is:
BM EA 14 3
iv Thi s stela s hows a number of features wh ich place its date rather lale in
the sequence of st elae studied in th is bo ok. The wo rd tor Djed u is writ -
ten wit h two dd-signs, su ggest ing a date of at least the late 12th
dynasty. This is con firmed by the use of n k! II with out im.'[I(w) (sec
§2 6 ) and by the use of th e dd11', · fonn ula . It is thought that the ' brea th -
of -lil c' formula o n ly came into use in the 13th dvnast v: if S(l , thi s would
su ggest a date in t he earl y 13th dynast y for thi s stel a .
110 How 10 read L' gvl'lial/ hicroalvphs
11 3
...... :::.:;' f Ob -: rr
..I , i '''' 0-:i' ".1WI 7i71 t" - 1 i'i
lid=tl1II! t hnkt ks tpd 11 Im.IOl w) m- r 'bnll'ty mn w-nf r mr -hrw
May you say, 'A thousand bread, beer, ox and fowl lor ih e revered
one. the overseer "f the chamber Minneler, ihe Justified'


i rntn v tpw fI SUNl)'.sn hr I!; pn
mnw ' 11 1] msddw tlPI
lid=111 SII] tslr hn ty-i mnt w mntw-htp
o living ones upon the earth who may pass by ihi s tomb
and who love life and who hate death,
may you say, 'May Osiris Khcntytrnem u transfigure Mentjuhotep'
EM FA 829,
Line 5:
b. Tile offerinq reques t
Tile owner requ est s that offeri n!(s or pra yers be made or said lor him:
The f uture
Fit z.E9. 192 2,
Line 1:
From BAI FA 829:
EM EA 584 , :1 --1g- - oil
Lines3 -5: hT}Jil'
I},. b... = = :;n kf,....... = '- - "-. = 0

I rnhw sWIl{y j.SI1 I" mrhrt III In Od In i lsf l
m mrr =rn f ms U' 'P*Wl lVl r l WUf =! nb
lid=tl/ t hnkt ..
The request lor saying the off ering formu la u ses the future form dis-
cussed bel ow in §55 ,
c. The appeal to goodwill or piety
The appeal to th e living is oft en augmented by a third element - an invoca-
tion of the goodwill or pie ty of th e visito rs, or a decla ra tion o f th e ben efit s
visitors wi ll gain if they make the offering. Sometimes this is included in
hailing the visitor s in the form 01participles:
The appeal 10 the living of the priest Mentultotep:
mrrwand msddw arc both partici ple s: see §46 above.)
Oft en, however, th e appeal to the goo dwill or piety 01 th e visitor takes
the form of a sepa ra te clause (he re beg inning A\- m + mrr=lII)
leading on to th e request to say the offering: = I,
The appeal to the livi ng of the oversea oj builders Khu enbi k:
SWI pass (by)
u the ea rth
I p W (who are) upon
TI l
AHBRH'l ArF.n WRITI NGS
n.AQ",
l!iI T .1f .ff:0 .1f ' TI 9 U[
I ' 1I0W IpW u s lVlt (v) ,sn hr IS pn
o rhe living upon the earth who may pa ss hv ihis tomb
i rnij w tpw u ..
o ihe living upon the ear th .
"-. &; t =,.
I 11 1)0. _ I
I "l1bw tp H' '-' fl m(w)t-n tr w'"bw nW r-pr pn
Jd=!11tll 1 hnkt kl Ipd n tmitjt w) m- r ' bll " 'ly mnw- nfr 1n·" -tIT\\'
() living ones up on ihe ea rt h. the (" II-priesls and IIm-prks lesses,
and i he w' b-priesls <)1 this u-mple.
may you say, ' A ihou sand (of) bread, beer, ox and Iowl lor ihe
revered on e. i he overseer of the chamber Minnefer, ihc justified'
FULLER w Rl n " GS
How to read ( qyptlan hieroqlyphs
or Q1 0
Sf- } ' II Ow the living
FiIz. E9. 1922,
Line I:
Fitz .E9 .1922,
Line I :
11 2
a. Hailing tile visitor
Th e owner 01 th e memorial addresses the passer s-by; th e visito rs arc
hailed, typicall y in the Iorrn :
As we saw above, the stela of Mentjuhotep begins with an appeal to thclivinq:
(Sec th e Referen ce table on p. 148 lor th e suffi x pron oun =!11 ' vo u")
The appea l to the living is composed of two basic elements plus a Iur-
ther. optional eleme nt:
Thi s is composed 01 the foll owing words:
As in thi s exam ple, in hailing the visitor , the verb swi ' to pass ' U"' by') is typ -
ically used in th e sJmty.fy form: Sl l' lty. S1l ' (they) wh o sha ll pas s' . SWI can be
wri tten in the following wa ys:
(On the lonn 01 tpw ' upon', see §60 below.)
There may follow an enumeration of the people like ly to pass by - such
as temple staff and scribes - who are ofte n hai led in pas sing the monument :
The stela ofMent juhotep continues:
A brief version of the Abydos f ormula OCC/.1rS on 8M EA 162:
115 The f uture

htp-dl -nsw ssi r nb ddw II/r ' I lib Ib,Jw
d/=f prt-hrw t hnkt la JpJ ts mnh: ...
An offeri ng whi ch the king gives 10 Osiris lord of Dj edu, great god,
lord of Abydos.
so that he might give an invocat ion offering of bread, beer, ox
and fowl. alabaster and linen ...
BM EA 558,
Lines 1-2:
Berlin 1204,
Lines 18-19: iw ir.n>! prt ' JI sms=1nt r r nmtt- ] .11.n=1skd dpt-ntr
I cond ucted the great procession, followi ng the god at his travels.
and I made the god's boat sail
§57 Purpose and causation
a. Purposeiresult clauses
The fu ture sdm(=f) is al so used to ex press pu rp ose or resu lt (' so that ' , ' in
orde r tha t') , This is the form used in t he offering formula :
The offering f ormula fr om BM EA 558:
May hand s/ help be given 10 him in the Neshrnet -ba rk on the ways
of the we st:
May he receive offerings on the great altar On the festivals of the
necropolis;
May ' Welcome i ll peace' be said for him bv the grea t of Abydos: on
the Wag-festival and on the Thmh-fcsrival ... la list of fest ivals
follows)
(.t(w) is t he affi x of the pa ssive with in used for ' by' I'may somet hin g be
do ne by someone ') .
You wi ll be studyin g t h is formu la in t h e Exer cises to thi s ch apter.
Ikhemofrets description of the qreat procession of Osiris:
b. Causati on
We have al ready not ed t he use of t he ve rb rdl to express ca usation when fol-
lowed by anot her ve rb wit h the se ns e of ' to ca use/ have/ le t/ allow some one
to do somet hing' (see §4 0 ). Thi s ot her verb goes in the future sdm(=f ) Iorm:
§58 Negation
The future sdm(=f) in its ma in usage is negat ed by nn +[uture sl}m(=f) :
' you will / may nor do tha t' : -
i -t }-:itm}-
"-. =\' Ob -: ---" 0 - t =
= l;-;"",,,e'4 .. I
1' n[lw tpw ts hmiwi -ntr hm(w)/ -nrr wbw nw r-pr -pn
I!d=!n lJl t hnkt ks spd n ImJ[t(w) m-r rhnwty mnw-nf r mr -hrw
o living ones upon the earth, the !tm-priests and !tm-priestesses,
and the w' b-prieSlS of this templ e.
may you say, ' A thou sand (00 bread, beer, ox and fowl for the
reve red one, the overseer of the chamber Minnefer, i he jus tified'
How to read EHyprian hieroglyphs
BM EA 829,
Lines 4-5:
di .t tw) n=f 'v.y m nlmt hr WI (w)1 imntt
f ..._ ( !.r,., f 11.". l1r,., r , 1"'" Hf, {1J: 1 1'1 " r l . Hlt'"
Th e future stim(=fJ is a form dist inct from th e present sdm(=f) not ed in §42
above (alt ho ugh the t wo ca n be di fficult to distinguish by t he writings
al one ). The fut ure sdm(=f), for ex ample , is not used wit h auxiliari es such as
fw. It s full forms ar e given in §59 below (you may wi sh to compare t he writ -
ing s of t he two forms in th e reference ta bl es on pp . 14 5 and 14 6).
BM EA 162,
Lines 4-6:
§56 The Abydos formula
Th e Abydos form ula is a fairly standa rdised set of afterl ife wi shes. The
ma ture version bel o ngs to the first ha lf of the 12th dyna st y wi th earlier (less
st andardi sed ) ve rsions occurring in th e 11th dynasty. Th e full formula has
twen t y elemen ts (as in BM EA 567), but many te xt s cont ain a selection :
The appeal to the liviru; of the chamberlain Minnefer once more:
114
§55 Wishes, expectations and requests: the future sgm( =f)
Th e fo rm used to exp re ss wis he s, re qu est s, expectations and the like is th e
future stim(=f) . In the appeal to th e living, you have alr ea dy, in fact , enco un-
tered t he future stim(=fJ for m o f :':1 dd rsay) :
o living ones wh o may pass by ihi s cenotaph in going north or in
going south,
as you wish 10 follow wepwawet at his journ eys,
mav you say, 'Bread and beer ...'
Grammatically, the first cla use is so metimes introduced by m 'as' a nd t he
re q uest clause som etimes by ml ('j ust as .. .. so yo u should say . . .' )
117
may he bri ng
may he come
The future
;u'r={
(With exi r a -r )
1>1I=f
(with ext ra -1)
I rnhw tpw 11 ".
o the Jiving (w ho ar e) upon the earth ...
PI.. SG. PI..
\\
}

MSC. e.g. wsc.
.y -w Imy 1mB.'
H1\
not 1\
FE.\!. r EM.
'i I
· 1 -L tmt l mf
SPe CIAL CASES
Fitz. E9. t 922 ,
Line I :
ADJ ECTIVE -y

III in

Imy (which/who is) in
at. towards
r:
iry (which/who is) at, towards, relating to
in relation to
<;:-
hr upon Q " Ill Y (which/ w ho is) upon
I
= =
/5)1
rp upon or /5) t p» (which/w ho is ) upon
0\\
ADJECffi' ES IN .y
Notes
The ve rb mu ' to see ' also displa ys a form mm«],
i i The weak verb form wi th 44 -.I' is most common in the first person.
iii The furms from (he verb s ' come: and ' bring' show an ext ra 1.
§60 Adject ives in -y
Wh en used with nouns , a special adjecti ve form of the pr e posi tion is used:
The stela ofMentjuhotep:
Here tpw is an adj ective derived from th e preposit ion /5)1 tp ('upon') .
As an adj ective !f} tpw agrees with th e n oun Sf- } 'n l/w (both sho w
the plur al -w). This form is termed th e adjective ill -.I' (the -.I' only occurs in
the ma sculin e singular form). Some prepositions displa y a distin cti ve wr iting
in the adje ctive in '.1':
Adjectives in -.I' agree with their nouns in number and gender :
may he hear
may he st"e
may he give
may he love
sam=!
mr-fc: mry=!
fm=f
.il=!
(no rl
n iTlJR E saml=fJ
Hewto read hieroglyphs

EXTRA WEAK
DOUBLlt'G
- no doubling
\ ... ·fA)\
5\\ 4 =1" lJ(W)T=1'l " iJrd (w )=1'l . " "" hkr=m "" Ibi =I" .
Yon will hand over your offi ces to your children ... VO\l ,,,,II not he
hungrv, you will not be thirsty
EM EA lUI.
Lines 2·4 :
J J6
The bOIl,JIII section of 8M FA IVI is based on the goodwil l and wish elements of the
appeal to the Jiling (i.e. that goad thinq« will happen tc passers-by when they say the
offering [cr m ula for the deceased):
§59 Fo rms of the sgmty.fy and the future sgm(=!)
The sJmtyf y and the fut ure s(jm(=!) have th e followi ng forms :
a. sdmty.fy
PLURAl
MASCUUNE FEMIl'l SE
___
"' 0
.tJ \\ \\ J} \\ i\\ .:tJ \, !: I I

sdmty.sn sqmry f y sdmty.sy
DOUB LING :J::£'\:£'\ r:-;-,
- doubling
mmy.[y mutv. sy muty .sn
91fJJ.:> "-- 4"=. l 1fJJ C> [I
9 1fJJ "'r-
\\ \\ <!':?;::J \\ \\ \\ I I'
WEA K
SdlY.[Y Id lY·sy sdty.sn
<=>0 ""-
<:>°r

EXTRA WEAK \\ \\ I
. rdi shows r
rdt ty.i y rdlty.sy rditysn
o,
or
ly( l)l t wOi J)Jr\\ \\
fJ J> \\ '"
- shows nv
lwry Iy Iwry"ly iu. 'ty.sn
b. The fu ture s(jm(:!) :
119
rr an sfigu re
entourage
akh-sp irit
(who is) in .
See §60 above
(who is) up on.
See §60 above
e XAMP LE
Im -Il l r necropolis,
cemcrerv
rpy
fmy
[n
tp Is
E17 - dagger, Used in the
adje ctive in .y tpy

The future
E30lE31 - combi nation of I
E29 and If'/; D32 (and L e l l
- sandy hill -slope)
E33 - Iwo pl an ks crossed a nd
j oined. Used in the adject ive
in .y Imy.
b. Three othe r signs whic h arc usefu l at this po int:
+
l or1

recei ve, lake

lk, aA'
tomb, cenotaph


tu rnb

Exe r ci se s
8. 1 SigllS
a. 2 -consona m and 3-cLl nso nall1 signs:
8.2 Words
Transl it erate the following words:
(The bless ed dead become Ilj -spirits in t he after life by bei ng t ransfigu red
(Sib ) after death. )
8.3 8M EA 567
BM EA 567 (sho wn on p. 120 ) hegins wit h a date, an offe ring for mula, and
then moves on to a full set of the twent y elements of the Abydos for mula, of
which a select ion are given her e, incl uding som e mentioning th e Abydos
myst e ries. Ignore th e sections in grey,
, -
leri or pri est (Ilt erally,
the one carrying I he
lector book )
j
n bry-
hor
ma ster o f secrets
(lit er ally, rh e one
upon sec re ts)
I CO>
@
(Itp -d/-IISW istr nb lidw !Jnt y-t mlllw (n/r) ' 1 lib t bliw
An offe ring which ih e king gives 10 Osiris lord of Djedu.
Khent y lmentu, great (god), lor d of Abydos
h rv-
ssn
VOCABULARY
' --'-'-'
... _ -. ---" - ".'_. _ - ----
u;.;
/5 tomb
T6
IHf1W-1l!r Minnd er
mn tw- htp Mer rtj uhot ep

msdti) ha te
;;;; c [
r-pr t emple

hmtwi -nir hm-priests
In
hm iwn-ntr
hm-
€I'"
bpI de ath
. j', p riestesses O .!J

-'Ii} t ran sfigure
BJ\1 f A 584,
Line I :
Adjectives in -y ar e commo n in titles. for exa mp le:
The stela of Khuenbik begins wi th an offering formula invoking Osiris:
t 'Lit, } C) t)
H,\ \ EA 178 3, hip -di -ns w inpw tp(y) o"=/ lm(y) wr rib11 dsr
l.ine I : An offeri ng which th e king gives ( 10) Anuhis who is upon his
muuntain, t he one in rhe wI-fet ish, lord or rhe sacred lan d
118
(bry is derive d from th e prepo sition iJr ' und er ' , whi ch is also us ed with the
se nse of 'carrying'. )
like othe r adjectives, t he adjecti ves in -y can be used on their own
('t he one who .:', ' the thing which ,, : ). A pa rticular exa mple is the n ame of
Kh entvimentu ' t he fore mo st of th e westerner s' :
i ntr ha s bee n omitt ed in the phr ase rur 'I ' great god')
onty is an adject ive in -y meaning ' (t he one) at th e front ' . imntw is also
an adjective in -y, de rived from th e noun 1/111/1 ' I he west ' an d ml'ans l' th e
ones of the west' ,' westerners' . So hnty- tmntw means ' the one at the front of
t he weste rners' (t he ' western e rs' are the dead , the people in th e realm of
sunset) .
The stela of Inh uretnakht begins with an offa ing formula invoking Anubis:
Notes
See notes to Exercise 7.8 for th e writin g of the det erminat ive of ddw
a n d /bdw.
ii wepwawct has the epit h et billy tbdw ' t he one at th e fro nt/ hea d of
Abyd os' (see §60 a bove for tlll ly ) .
iii The names of He ket and Khnum are writt en wit h thei r frog an d ram
dcrerrni nauvcs resp ecti vely.
iv bf -nbt ri[rtt} prtr)! m-bth II!r - .1 ' everyth ing good whic h goes befo re th e
gr eat god' . pr (r) 1is a pa rticiple.
v In Line 5 th e Abydos formul a begins wit h ms.l (w) -11 =/ 'I vy br ... ' May
a rms be presented to him ca rry ing ..: Th e two gro ups of th e venerated
dead noted arc Sill SII' nssir ' the followers uf Osiris' and Ip J lj prw br-Im
' t he ancestors who exi sted before ' .
vi In Lin e 5 -rw is the dependent pr on oun ' yo u' (the ow ner Amenernhct
is sometimes referred to as ' he' somcu rues as ' vou' ). Sec §41.
vii On snyt imiy t} Jbdw, see §60.
viii In Line Rd in dd is flatt er than th e normal form. Noti ce th at it does not
121 Thefu ture
VOCABULARY
--- - _.- ..._ - - - - -

iiw welcome ."..-'1
'wy arms


wr(w) th e great
1»,7
m-bih before
1»,7J
ms present. offer
=0=
t-pkr
Ro-Poker
I Llv- (Poker)

hskr Haker-rites
rgl
hnw jubil ation
J-
hn: ="=
offeri ngs,
, .-.J)
togethe r wi th
a C
IIII'
peace
mil
tlll lY
(the on e) at
hr
carrying,
the front
<Th
unde r
r:;
sdm
hear (th e (I has
< slim
changed int o d
.J)
S(l l tr avel
ov er ti me)
10 \

s./ rt vigil

followers
8 C> F9
smsw
n m
f nyl en tourage

grl1 night 'I. C I
,
fJ· w r
Tawer
6---1 tptwj -: ancestors
... mome) I
. . - ... _... - ...
i 9,. 7.......
sdryl nt the vigil of Horus-.<II
I <= k:'_CD
ix Transla te nsnn u-rr I IIml1=s as ' when the great IIsml -b ar k is at it s j our -
neys' .
x In Line 10 I I -WI . th e 1I 0me comainmg Abydos. here ref ers 10 the inhab -
itant of the nome, henc e it call have a ' mou th' .
xi Inse n ' at' in your translat ion befure Iuk r ill Line 10.
xii The vigil uf Horus-J» or Horus the figh ter remains one of the most
el usi ve aspects of the Osi ris myster ies, although it p robably refe rs to
pan uf th e rites con cerned wit h the rea n ima tion of th e dead Osiris.
When yo u have finis hed bot h Exe rcises 8.3 an d 8.5, yo u may wish to corn -
pare the Abydus formul ae on th e two ste lae .
8.4 St udy exercise: BM EA 584
Transliter ate a nd translat e the ste la of Khucn bik (BM EA 584 sh uwn un
p. 122 ) with its appe al tu th e livin g.
Note
In Lines 4-5 til mrre tn sms "'P-W/wl r nmtt »] lib 'i n th at yu u wish tu follo w
Wep wawet at all hi s journeys' ; [ms is in th e in fini ti ve for m and supplies the
B:lil EA 567
(carved limestone; w. 63 .5cm)
How 10 read hicroqlvphs 120
Trn.ES AN D OCC UPATIONS
, - ---- - ----- -

hm -ntr pri estess of
j},,@
m-r overseer of
it....t -h r Harbor -c-i - C> Ltl11l1 the trea su ry
<p
h nt -ki ka-pncsr

m-r
general -in-chief '
1 :0:::- "';::" 1115""wr
- . ----- . .----- -- ---,- _. _- - --- .. - .. - .- - . - -1
--: or }\z JnTIS
U'r (wj the grea t
Will
hbt w] fest iva ls I
hlp
peace,
2h., c:. I
htp: offerings
san sfaction o Oc:n:::)i
I
hlp ' I grea t alta r d!11 .ssp receive
0
FESTI VAI.S
The tutu re 123
VOC Allli LARY (CONTINUED )
- - - --- -- - - - - - -
m name
CO} .
rrwt
Rcr ut
-ez> mame)
> Ll hkr
( I he god dess)
="= iJlp offering s
j.d Hckct 00

bw·n - Khuenbi k

lj nmw
(th e godl
bl ]: (na me) Khnurn
jl q.
sf nb
mak e live.

smyt the wester n
p erpe t ua te lmntt desert

sms to foll ow
'::l
dfp w) pr ovisions
8.5 Study exer ci se: 8M EA 162
The final stela for you ro study is 13M EA 162, the stela of the general-in -
chief Ame ny. The stela is shown on!' . 125. As usual, transliterat e and trans-
late with t he hel p of t he acco mpany ing vocabulary.
NOl es
See Exercise 3.3 for vocab ulary for the offering formula section.
ii Read di.ti w) at the beginning of Line 4 wit h ---'l for ......,-; .
iii See Chapter 7 for t he stru cture of the va rious epith ets.
VOCABU LARY
./)}. or 1(1111' welcom e
13&. 111 or
cob.
",0
r -
" , . .
I f \wQ;J
wig

[ ' J ....
prt mnw
processio n of
festival
Min

Jl l wlI
TI>Olh -
Si! ./) 6°
pr ocession of
festival
p rt spdt
Sothi s
i
hb sk r
Soker-
!V iW
begi nning of
I => Iestiva l
tp-rnp t
th e lunar year
Blv1 EA 584
(carved lime stone; II . 53cm)
VOC ABU L \ RY
,---. .-- - - '
. . . _- ._.. _. - . _. . - . ._-
_.

m in going

nt hd
in going
£Isf l sout h non h
1ft
111 -' overseer of
E\
lIl>in
cenotaph.
or
IkJ", builde rs rorub
57nu. ;;-
nui -n- ,\ 1aicn hor
O? de"
plh- Pialiho tcp
:rf- 'j .h (n ame ) hlp (nam e;
rr u
n-ptlt - :'lipla hka u .c.
nnttt jou rneys
L. J\
122 How fa read F:!lypli'l/1 hieroqlvph»
J2 5 The Iuture
13M EA J62
hairdresser ns:
Kh nvet
Ameny
Satsobe k
Kheneikhetvhetep ;
I
Saha tho r
Medhu
Sakhene rkh e ty
Saut yr
- - - - --------_ .- -- - - - -
TITLES AND OCCUPATION S (coxnxuru]
:-lAMI: S
cup- bea rer

fmny
C3 "4 0 b\<yt
I .
rrM- -=eb hnt-hty-ht p
0 ,, 1100

ss-hwt-h r

sst-sb k

mdhw

ss-h nt -h ty

snvtyt
I

sit-h nt -ljt!
n'" C>
How iii read Egyptiall hieroglyphs
n hry- pr dorn csuc serva n t
=
124
Sat khenetkh ery
. = rJft -It' p(\,j Dj efahapy :
L..... . . . • .J
Onc e you ha ve read th is stela. il will no dou bt strike you ihat rhe
owner himself is actually mi ssing from ihe figur es shown. Thi s is because.
like a number of stelae from Abyd os. BM f A 162 belongs to a gro up dedi-
cared in an offering-chapel at the site. Unfortunately, Abydos was clea red of
many of us Middle Kingdo m mo n uments by collectors and earl y archaeo lo-
gists in i hc ninctccruh ceru ury with out a prope r record bein g made of the
find-sues . II is only through the wor k of scho lars scouring th e museum col-
lccuons of rhe world and sihing th rou gh ihe spa rse arc haeological record
thai ori ginal groups of stelae are graduall y being reassembl ed .
Fortunarely. EM EA 162 has be en allocated 10 a group now known
conventionall y as Abydos NOrIh Offerin g Chapel (ANOC) 2. II has a com-
pani on . now in the Egyptian Mu seum. Cairo (CCG 20546). whi ch shows the
same SI }' 1e and phraseology: ihc IW O wer e clea rly mad e in ih c same wor k-
shop as a pair. JI 100 lacks a figur e of Amen}' himse lf: inst ead il depio s
furth er relati ves and dependants looking from lef t to righ t (whereas in EM
EA 162 Ihe y look from right 10 left ). This pair of stelae no doubt framed a
cent ral su la depi ct ing Arncn v hi msel f: one pie ce which has been propos ed
is in ihc Mnsee du Louvre, Paris (C35).
About the Front Cover
The cover sh ows a derail of an inscribed ritual 1001 used in the ri le
of ' ope ning the mouth' - an obscure cer emony designed to breathe
life into an embalmed corpse , a statue or a n inscribed image. The
text records a dedication from Senwosret [ to his celebrated prede-
cessor (here termed It "(fo rc jfather) . Mcn tjuhot ep ll of t he l l rh
Dvn ast y, who is h er e identified by hi s pra enornen Nebheperre .
Like t in tune
Hieroglyphic sign-lists for the exercises
List I: l-consonant signs
Called aleph. Originally a throat y trill, it later became a stop. as in
cockne y pronunciation of bottle as bo'l, and a hal as a 'a'
Called yodh. Originally a stop, it tended 10 sound more likey. A
weak sound, often nor wriuen
Like y in yes
Called ayin. A throaty gurgle, like saying a whilst swallowing
Called waw. Like w in weI. A weak sound, often not writt en
Like b in bel
Like p in pel
Like fi n jit
Like m in met
Like n in net
Like r in rain, bu t distinctly rri llcd as in Scots pronun rt atlon
Like h in home
Emphatic h pronounced in ih e throat
Like Scots ch in loch
Sllghtly softer than iJ, like Gennan ch in ich
Like s in soap
Like sh in ship
k pronounced at back 01 mou th, like Arabicq in Qun in (Koran)
Like k in kit
Like gin gfl
Like I in tub
Like d in did
Like j in joke, or French di in dieu
The following lists are intended to help you to identity particul ar hiero-
glyphs qu ickl y and easily. and then work out how they have been us ed to
write words. You can also, if you wis h, treat ih ern as a co nv enient resource
for memori sin g so me of the most co mmon ly used hieroglyphs.
·--- --....--·- ·- ·---1
~ ~ [ 1 nb -hp t-rr Ncbhepctrc I
rur nf r lib lmy s-n-wsrt
ir.n=f m mnw»] II It=fnb -hpt -rr mr- hrw
The perfect god, the lord of th e twin lands, Senwos rci:
he has made a dedi cati on for his Iarhcr,
Nebh epetre, the justified.
dedication mrnv
MMA 24.21:
-_._- _ .. _---
1=
coo
l_._.. .... .
mnw 'dedicati on' refers here to the opening of the mouth implement
itself and th e rit es associa te d with it. mllw is often translated as ' mon u -
ment ' in di cti onaries, but act ua lly refers mor e ge nera lly to ro yal
dedications, here for a celebrat ed ro yal predecessor.
The ap pea rance of an extra m bef ore th e obje ct mn w is a sta n da rd part
of th is dedicat ion formula , alt houg h the re ason for it is st ill disput ed by
scholars (as indeed ar e the intricacies of th e gra mma r of th e formula ) r
so you ce rta in ly sh o u ld n ot worry too much a bou t it. According to o ne
sugge stio n, iI indi cates th ai it is t he dedi cation of t he obj ec t it self wh ich
is seen a s th e focal -point of th e fo rm ula, focusing on Senwosr ct 's per-
fonnance of th e commemorat ive funct ions of kingshi p th ro ugh
supplying th e ope ni ng of the mouth implement for the animation o f st at -
ues of his cel ebrat ed predeces sor.
VOCABULARY
129
Al l
( I ) clear
(2) sacred
upon
land
bread
ox, bull
dsr
ks
tp
1\10 All
e
t
,Jl vr official
i~ .
:IT I
0=
G" I
.fJ ~ sdm hear
~ r spsy dtgnified
illill ; siJt counr rvside
(I ) face
12 ) on
elder,
eldest
offering
seat, place
district
Hieroglyphic sign -lists for the exercises
lilt front
rnpt year
hr
rdwy legs
rd(l) give
'i'
I
smsw
~ I Spit
f7
~ htp
00
11
mouth
n ot (§ 39)
town
sun
house,
estat e
expedition
rr
n
!tW(
pr
ntr god
o
I
e
cd
n
I
a nmu step.
.1\0 journey
~ ~ ndm sweet
List V: Full Sign Li st
What foll ows is a complete list of signs appearing in this book , with an expla-
nation of th e differ ent wa ys in which each one has be en used to wri te words.
Sinc e thi s is a practical list designed to help you find an unfamiliar sign
quickly, mor e recogn isable sign s ha ve been grouped int o three broad cate-
gories (humans, animal s, nature), whilst others have been gro uped by sha pe
(small. ta ll. broad) . The signs ar e given her e in a standardised font . but it
should be remembered that th er e will be some variation in their forms as
they ap pear on monuments; in particular. the det ails of a sign will be
affected by whether it is painted (as 0 11 a coffin ) or inscri bed (as on a stela) .
Read er s who cont inue th eir st udy of an cient Egyptian will eve nt ually
need to become familiar with th e systematic sign-list of Gardiner 's Egyptian
Grammar (sec p. 176) . Since Gardiner used many mo re categories th an we
have, th ere is no correspo ndence between hi s list and ours in the wa y a par-
ticular sign is classifi ed . Here. we have used t he following abbreviations: I c..
one-conso na nt sign ; 2e.. two- con sonant sign ; 3e.. three -consonant sign;
ideo .. ideogram; com.. sign combi ned with othe r elements.
Index
§A, Signs depicting people or parts of the human body
AI 1\2 A3 A4 A5 A6 1\7 A8 A9
kd
II
tp
tm
II
dw
dr
dWI
*
palace
u
sw
br
wit road, way
Sl
st
SII
Sl
skor WI/.!
SS
~ spd
'Ill fight
11} hnm
~ I
htp
[Ipr
IIh
lin
n . ~
lib
11m
bl
lid
11IV or b/.!
iJi
nbw
m l'
IIf r
ntr
c
A
t
t
? Ib hear!
f ~ tmnt wes t
ml
ml
bl
pi
bh or IIlV
pr
mw
pb
mr
mr
mr or sb
ms
mb
mt
mtwjt
whm
wsr
WI/.! or sk
n
=
>
g
'\
ffi
=
r
r1
j
1
I. my (§36)
How to read Egypt ian hieroglyphs
I W
IW
sb or mr
Ir
In or nw
W'
wd
Wp
Wn
11moriml
Iwn
Jl IIw praise
128
Li st II : Some common 2-consonant signs
List III: Some common 3-consonant signs
o
List IV: Some common ideograms
f\ WI
i is
<-=> or ~ ' 1
E35
~
~
E23
02 4
£47
F3 6
F24
FI2
EIO El l
0 23
E22
E46
E34
FI I
F35
~
F23
E9
D22
E2l
E45
E33
FlO
Fn
F34
9
E8
~
E32
o 0 00 ~
0 2l
£20
E44
F9
F33
F2l
=
e
E7
EI9
~
LJ
0 20
E3I
9
L.n
E43
F8
F20
F32
=
x
E6
E30
"I
~
EI8
E42
0 19
F7
Fl 9
F31
=
E5
r
DI8
El7
£29
E4I
F6
FI 8
F30
=
n
o
CJ
1
E4
Dt7
£: 40
EI6
£28
r
F5
FI7
F29
=
1
t
DI6
E27
1
U
E39
EI5
o
I . I
EI4
E26
[
'"
0 15
E38
E62 E63 [64 £65 E66 E67 E68 E69 E70 E71
g ~ ~ 1 J g ~ ~ m
\\
f
E25
E37
El3
0 14
E48 E49 E50 E5I £: 52 E53 E54 E55 E56 £57 E58 [ 59
E24
EI2
~
Dl3
025 D26 0 27 02B D29 03 0 0 31 032 D33 D34 D35 036
Hieroglyphicsiqn-lists for the exercises 131
E36
037 845
E60 E61
F25 F26 F17 F28
FI3 FJ4 FI5 FI 6
ill ~
§D. Other small signs
DI D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 DB D9 0 10 0 11 O!2
§E. Other tall signs
EI E2 1:3 B54
§F. Other broad signs
FI F2 F3 F4
u
CIl
M
C2 4
t
Ll
en
q
1.
( I I CIO
cn
C9
0 1
j
BI9 B20 B2l B22 B23 B24
~ ~ ~ ~ J0. ""5r
B3I B32 83 3 B34 B35 B36
*' *'
CI9 00
MI!l I)
J
j
BI6 BI 7 Bl8
Il28 B29 B30
\) ~ b
T .=.. *
CI 6 CI7 CI8
BI4 BI5
B26 B27
'\-... Ij
~ f'
A6I A62
B25
Bl3
A37 A38 A 39 A40 A4I A42 A43 A44 A45 A46 A47 A48
AI3 AI4 AJ5 AI6 AI7 AI 8 AI9 A20 A21 A22 A23 A24
A49 A50 A5I A52 A53 A54 A55 A56 A57 A58 A59 A60
A25 A26 A27 A28 A29 A30 A3 I A32 A33 A34 A35 A36
B37 B38 B39 B40 B4I B42 B43 B44 845 B46 B47 B48
B49 B50 B5! B52 B53 B54 B55 B56 8 57 B58 B59 B60
! 30 How to read Egyprian hieroqlyphs
o e =
B6I B62 B63 864 B65 B66 B67
C25 C26 C27 C28 C29 C30 C3l C32 C33
c n CI4 CI5
IY'-"l ~
§B. Signs depicting creatures or parts of their bodies
BI B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BI O BI I BI2
§G. Signs involving sky. earth. wat er, or plants
CI C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8
13 3
dc t. give birt h
( I) del. chi ld; (2) hence abb. brd 'ch ild' ;
(3 ) 2e. /11I (or ,m i)
id eo , or del. mi' ' expedition, army'
ideo . dsr ' sacr ed' and rela ted wo rds
ideo. ' Ill ' fight' a nd relat ed wor ds
ideo. ptr ' observe, view'
( I) id eo . r ' m out h' : ( 2) hence l c. r
del. face, nose, c.g. sn 'kis s
( 1) 2e. I r; (2 ) del. mil 'see'
ideo. or de t. f ry ' keeper'
(I) varia nt of A27; 12) del. lmiy-imruw (a
na me of th e god Osiris I
( I ) a bb. ns\\' ' king' ; (2 1de l. nam es of th e
god Osiris
ide o. lm/1 ' (the god ) Am un
( I ) alt ernat i ve for A 55; (2) hence ideo,
web 'priest
del. lying dO W11, death
( 1) id eo , !,Ir' face' , ' on'; (2) hence 2e. !,Ir
( 1) ideo. tp ' head', ' upo n ' ; ( 2) h ence
2e. tp
de l. hair
l c, :J
(l) ideo . r ' a nn' ; (2) hence l c. <: (3)
often a lter na tive for A4 1-44
( II ideo, di or rdl 'givc ', alternati ve for
£61 ; ( 2 ) read m or mi in the na mes bs-
mk t a n d dw,. mwt=f by confusion wi th
anot he r sign iL..Z
del. acti on. viole nce, effort , alt erna tiv e
for AI 2
2e. [ III'
de l. actio ns or co nditions of the eye
2e.an
ideo . the negat ive words /I (§39) an d nn
(§5S)
( I) ide o. ks ' ka' : (2) hence 2e. ks
Hieroqly phic siqn-tists for the exercises
infant
woman giving birth
soldie r
man seated with dag ger
fig ure of Am un
priest com. wa ter
pouring from ju g
mummy on bier
face
ann offering loaf (E6 I )
royal figur e with Oail
head in profil e
ha ir
arms rowing
hand
front of face
roy al figure
arm hold ing st ick
ann
a nn holdi ng flail
a n n holding wand or
le tt uce
arms holdi ng shield and
axe
arms gesturing den ial
U arms raised
JE>. eye wi th cosmetic
mouth
::<f 1ie eyes com. falcon
markin gs
A4 0
A29
A44
A23
A24
A32
A28
A26
A4 1
A36
A37
A3 8
A39
A22
A 35
A2 5
A27
A43
A3 3
A34
A30
A3 1
A45
A48
A42
A47
A46
1'56 1'57
[j0 f""'1
1'55
=
del. hnw 'j ubilation '
(I) ideo . sr ' official' : (2) hence del.
offic ial
ideo . smsw ' elder, eldes t:
( 1) de l. man , occupa tions o f men; (2 )
ideo . or del. ' I. me , my' (§36, §4 1. §49 )
del. w?man, ooupations of women
de l. god, names/ti tles of gods
ideo, or de l. 1111'1 ' harmony' . espe cially if
person ified as a goddess (compa re with
B27 )
del. ea t, speak , emot ion (§6)
( I ) det. bu ild; (2) abb. ikd 'builder'
del. or abb. IIII' ' old'
( I ) ideo. spsy ' dign ified' an d related
words; (2 / del. de ceas ed offic ial
ahcrn auve form of AID
ideo. or de l. lad ' st rike'
del. effort , act ion . vi ole nce
det. fall, fell , overt h row
del. en emy
del. srl: ' talk about . accu se'
de l. I the in te rjection ' O!'
del. tir ed, weak
( 1) abb , :JWI ' adore' ; (2) hence del. ado re
del. rej oice
1'54 1'53 1'52 1'5 1
goddess with fea ther on
head
man sealed with ha nd 10
mouth
man kneeling in
ad orat ion
official with staff and
leat he r grip
man lea ning on forked
Slick
old ma n lea n ing on Slick
god sea ted
man bu ilding wall
woman scared
oflicial holdi ng flail
man fallin g
m.1I1 falling with blood
str eaming
man gesturing
man sta n ding with ha nd
to mouth
ma n wi th arms raised in
joy
man wit h a n ns in
adoration
man slu mped
man sealed
o flicia l seared
ma n stri king I W O ~
han ded wit h sla ff
man str iking
1'50
How 10 read Egyp tian hien1glyp hs
1'49
AS
A6
A4
A7
A8
A9
AI D
A2
A l l
A 3
A l
A I2
AI 3
AI 4
AI5
1'37 1'38 FW 1'40 1'41 1'42 F43 1'44 1'45 F46 F47 1'48
A1 6
AI 8
A I 7
A20
At9
A21
13 2
Full list
§A. Signs depicting peopl e or parts of tile Ill/ma ll body
134 1I0wto read Egyptian hieroqlyp hs Hieroglyphic siqn -listsfor the exercises 13 5
A5 0
~
boa t's mast (E56) corn.
3e ' h e, altern ative for E56 B I 4
~
cormorant 2e r}:
A40
A5! y breast dc t. breast. suckle
B I 5
Sf.
jabiru 2e bs
B 16 &,
huma n- headed bird
ideo . bt ' soul' (New Kingd om ) A5 2
="
pen is ( I ) de t. male; (2) ze. mt
com. howl
A 53 peni s wi th issue of fluid
del. or abb . bth in m-bth ' in i he
B I7
~
falcon
( 1) det. falcon; (2) hence ideo. h r ' (the
F -w
presence of : god) Harti s'
A54
J
lower leg l c. b B I 8
~
BI 7 com. E52 ideo. hwt -hr ' (the godde ss) Hath or
A 55
eX
A5 4 com. wa ter pouri ng
ideo . or det. web ' pure' and re lated words
B I 9
~
falcon pe rched det. gods
from j ug
A56 j leg ( I ) ideo. or det , rd ' leg'; ( 2) det. tread
B20
~
falcon -headed god ide o. r: ' (the god) Re '
( I ) det. moti on; ( 2) id eo. Iw(I ) ' co me' : B2 1 3;>.. sparro w det. small. wea k. path etic
A57 J) legs wa lki ng
( 3) ide o. nmtt ' (fo rmal ) journ ey'
combined sound -sign and de t. for 1(1)
B22
3;?, swallow 2c. wr
A58
~
C20 com. A5 7
'come'
B23
~
vulture ( I ) ideo. mwt ' mother' ; (2) hen ce 2e mt
A5 9
1
D33 com. A5 7
combined sound-sign and det. for In!I)
B24
~
black ibis ( 1) ide o. 9m ' find' ; ( 2) hen ce 2c. 3m
' bring'
combined sound-si gn and del. for words B2 5
'3r.
cres ted ibis 2c. Ib in I IJ 'aklt-spirit ' and related words
A60 ~ FI 5 com. A5 7 suggesting motion which include t he
B2 6
4'-
sacre d ibis ideo. [hwt y ' (the god ) Thot h '
sou nd s, e.g. sbti) ' go' , ms ' bri n g'
combined sound -sign and del. for ssm B27 p feather ( I) 2e. sw; (2) abb , mrt ' har mon y'
A6 1 )r F29 com. A57 ' conduct' an d rel ated wo rds.
alternative for F29 B28 \) egg ideo. or det. lSI ' (the goddess) Isis'
A62 7f' F33 com. A 57
co mbined sou nd -sign and det. for 11(1)
B29
lJril
ox ideo. or det . ox, bull, catt le
'seize'
B3 0 ~ head of ox abb. kl ' ox'
§B. Siqns depicting creatures or parts of their bodies.
B3 1 );:jj ca lf det. cattl e
8 1
1>
qu ail chick I e. w
8 32 b new-born calf 2e lw
B2
~
owl l c. m
B33
fril
kid zc, ib
133
1h
Egyptian vul ture I e. I
B34
"'B
det. ram , sheep ram
B4
~
pair of vultu res vari ant of B3 wh en writ ing II
B3 5
~
B34 com. bowl abb. b, ' ram'
B5
~
bu zzard
2e. IW, especially at the en d of words,
oft en con fused wit h B3 B3 6
n7l
hide of goat zc. bn
B6
~
gui nea-fowl 2e nh
B3 7 y hide pierced hy arrow det. pierce
B7
~
pintail duck ( I) 2e Sl; ( 2) det. bird, al ternat ive for B8
B38 piece of flesh
( I ) det , flesh; (2) ideo. 1St ' (t he goddes s)
'"
Isis'
B8
~
whi te -fronted goo se ( I ) 2c. 9b; ( 2t det. bird
ideo. or det , bps ' for el eg' (of animal ).
B39 fC' forel eg of ox
B9
~
duck tn flight 2e. pl
' strong arm' (of man )
~
840 j leg of ox 3e. w!lm
B I O trussed goose or du ck det. goose
B4 1 a nim al belly wi th tail l e ll
B I I -:r head of duck abb, spd ' bi rd'
fi>
B42 V ox horn s 2e WI'
B I2 duck ling 2e. I '
B4 3 .tJ ox ear ideo. or del. sam ' hear '
Bl3 " ' ( L ~ nair of nlovr-rc ide-o or Ii.... f r n fv ' w :t<: h f"r m .::l n '
§c. Siqn s depicting sky, earth, water or plants
137
2e. SI
( I) de l. plant ; (2 ) 2e. hn
( I ) 2e. iJ'; (2) abb, iJJ ' th ousand', or uni ts
per th ou san d in co un ting
2e. ill
Ie. .v
( I) de l. moo n, even t base d on lun ar
mo nt h; /2) ide o. I 'll ' moon'
( I) in dWI ' adore' ; (2) del. sta r; (3) del.
"'mvl ' priesthood'
ideo.l bd ' mont h ' and rela ted words
ideo . ha lf-mo nt h fest ival, reading
uncert ain (see p. 76)
(I) 2e. rr: (2) del. in ar 'e ternit y'
alternat ive Conn 01 C9
Ie. ~
2e. dw
( I ) del. desert: (2) ideo. lp sr ' foreign land'
del. terrace
I e. I
I e. n
ideo . or del. stl l ' count ryside'
( I ) del. wa ter, cleanse; (2) 2c. mw
Ie. S
( I ) 2e. sw; (2) abb. IISW ' king'
abb. rh-nsw ' ki ngs adviser'
ideo . or del. sm: 'Upper Egypt '
2e. 1111
( I) del. tree; (2) 3e. 11m, i nu
(l ) de l. iJt ' wood ' and related wor ds; (2)
hen ce 2e. iJr ; (3) de l. pkr ' Poker', and
hskr ' Haker-rires'
( I) ideo . or del. fl am 'sweet ' ; (2) hence
3e. ndm
ideo. or del. bnr ' sweet'
( I) ide o. or del. spd 'sharp, kee n ' ; (2)
hence 3c. spd
Hieroglyphic sign-listsfo r the exercises
th orn
* sta r
~ crescent moon
str ip of land corn . D4
strip of land
L slope of hill
c:.J terraced slope
ripp le of wa te r
grou p of ripples
garden pool
M valley be tween hills
~ desert h ills
*' C5 corn . C6
* half moon corn. C6
C7
C5
C6
C8
Cl 3
C9
CIO
C I I
CI2
CI4
CI 5
CI6
CI7
C18 ~ pool with flowers
CI9 !lili1 reeds
C20 Q reed
C2l Qq pair of reeds
C22 '\. he rb
a
cn lotus
C24 f clump of pap yru s
C25 t sedge plant
C26 t C2 5 com. DI6
C27 + flowering sed ge
C28 ff pair of ru shes
C29 0 tree
C30 tree branch
C33
C3 1 ~ scent ed pod
C32 ~ scented rhysome
( I) ideo. m- r ' overseer' (§24b l; (2) 2c. ll s
ideo, or de l. ib ' hea rt
de l. or abb, Inll b ' venera tion' and rela ted
wor ds
3e. wsr
ideo. or del. plity 's tr en gt h'
( I ) ideo. hst ' front' ; (2) he nce 3c. IlJe
2e. pI}
del. dog, incl uding the god w epwawet
ideo . or del. wp-w. wr ' (the god)
Wepwawet '
ideo . or del. l npw ' (the god ) An ubis'
ideo. sty ' rthe god) Set h '
ideo. ity 'sovereign '
2e. Wll
2c. JW
ideo . sbk ' (t he god) Sobek '
ideo. sbk ' (the god) Sobek' , alternat ive for
B58
Ie. a
( I) Ie. [: (2) det .P ) tt ' father'
3e. hs], alterna tive for E16
de l. frog, including th e goddess Heket
de l. or abb. fish
( I) del. sun, day, time ; (2) ideo . rr 'sun',
' (the god ) Re'
2e. b'
( I) del. sky; (2) del. hry ' which IS upon'
(§60)
del. n ight. dar kness
2e. 111
3e. hpr
abb. buy ' king'
ox tongue
pai r of crocodiles
mu mmified crocodile
horned viper
EI6 corn . B6 1
heart
spine wi th issue of
marrow
spin e wi th issue of
ma rro w at end s
he ad of leopard
forepart of lion
hindpan of lion
desert dog
dog corn . shrine
head of dog
god with head of
mythical animal
h ar e
dog corn . standard
frog
fish
cobra
crocodile on shr ine
oxyr hync hus fish
dun g beetl e
bee
o sun-disc
e sunrise above hill s
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
==" ca nopy of the sky
T C3 cum. E3
CI
C2
C4
C3
B45
B55
B46
B53
B54
B47
B52
B44
B59
B48
B49
B50
B5 1
B58
B56
8 57
B67
B60
B6 1
B62
B63
B64
B65
B66
136
'1
138 How to read Egyprillll hieroglyphs Hieroglyphicsign-lists[or the exercises 139
§D, Other small siqns
D27 0 beer jug del. or abb, !l nkl ' bee r'
(I ) ind icates word group or ideogram
D28 V
basin (7) det , sn' w ' magazi ne'
DI single st roke (§ 13); (2) abb. w' ' one' , or unit s of one
in coun ting (§ I 9)
D29 0 well full of water 2e. hm
D2 \\ pair of stro kes Ie. y. especially as the dual en ding (SI5)
D30 bundl e of tlax 2e. dr ~
( I ) del. plurals (§8,; (2) del. singu la r
D3 th ree str okes nouns which represent colle ctions of D31 ill jar-stand ( 1) l c, g; (2) ideo . nSI ' th rone'
indi viduals, e.g. ih!m )'(r 'expedition'
D32 o1t butc he r's block 2e. br
04 0 0 0 grains of sand del. mi ne ral
(I ) 2e. I/W; (2) 2c. /n (§49);
D5 canle hobble
abb. mdw ' ten', or un its 01tell in
D33 0 pot (3) often as a graphic complement for
(\
couming (§I 9) nd (E15) an d ~ d (E24) .
D6 :II irrigati on canals del. irrigated land (1) 2c. nw, alt ern ati ve for D33 at th e en d
D7 crossed sticks del. sepa rate, cross. pass by
D34 0 00 three pot s of a word; (2) 3e. Ilnw (7) in the name
x
n n"y
08 LJ
burning cha rcoa l wi th
( 1) ideo. km ' black'; (2) hence 2c. km D35 'B sto ne j ug 3e. lJnm
tlam es
D9 I,] reed she lter I e. h D36 A
pa rt of steering-gear of
(1) ideo. hpt ' st eering oa r' ; (2) h ence 2e. hp
boa t (7)
DIO <i!
BI as abbreviated for
Ic. w, alte rna tive for BI g sea l on necklace ideo . or del. IJCm 'seal' and relat ed wo rds
hieratic
D37
DII coil of rope
(1) del. rope; (2) abb. fl n) 1' hundred' , or
\J heart see B45
unit s per hundred in counti ng
Dll ~ twisted cord ( I ) 2e. ss; (2) hence abb. 5S ' alabaster'
§E. Other tall siqns
DD ~ twisted cord 2C 51l
EI
i
wooden st aff del. sryt ' staff'
DI4 9 twisted cord 17) del. hbsw ' clot hing'
1
t h row -stick
( I) del. th row; (2) del. fore igne r, enemy;
E2
(3) del. kmi ' cr eate'
DI 5 ] reed rnat or s10 0 1 I e. p
y
placent a (?),
E3 fuller 's cl uh 2e. hm
DI6 €I
ball of stri ng (7)
l e. O
1
head of dog see B5,1
DI 7 0 th reshing-floo r 2e. sp
E4
1
3e. WI S sceptre
DI8 @ road s within enclosure
(I ) ideo. nwl 'tow ri ' : (2) hence de l. to wn,
y
estate E5 sceptre with feath er ideo. W'SI 'Thebes'
DI9 G rou nd loaf
del. pt t ' begin ning of time', from a word
E6
1
scept re with spi ral sha ft 3e. d'tl!
pt t ' loaf' (simi lar writ ing)
( I) 3e. psd; (2) by confusion , alternat ive
E7
~
standar d with feat her ide o. lmn t 'th e west ' and related words
D20 e moon part ly obscured
for DI9 "' ".
E8
1
totem ideo. or del. mnw ' (the god ) Mi n'
(1) del. we in imy-wt, title of An ubis; (2)
E9
!
totem ideo . /l -wr ' t he nome of Tawer'
D21 ~ pustule del. scent , odou r, disease; (3) abb. hsb
' cou nt' and relat ed words
EI O
'f
totem ideo . or del. III 'o ffice'
D22 '\J
pu stule wit h issue of del. scent , odour, disease , alt ernative for
El l
r
crook ( I ) ideo. Ilkl ' ru ler'; (2) hence 3c. IZ!;I
fluid D2 1
D23 log stri pped of bar k del. scent . scented wood
Ell
~
crook wi t h pa ckage i deo .5ms ' follow' an d relat ed words
024 bUll (1) l c. I; (2) abh. it in lt- nt r 'god's father'
T
(1) ideo .l;rp ' cont rol' and related words;
'"
ED sceptre (2) ideo. shm ' cont rol' and related
D25 G small loaf de l. or abb. Z' bread'
wor ds
, , ~ ~
"
\.-. 1" ') " to
EI4
f
stone mace 2e. IzIf

sian-lists fi.'1 th e exercises 14 1
1'4 5

ti re- drill 2c. 41
1'46

drill cutt ing bea d )c. w ith a sim ple r va ria nt
1'47

pala ce facad e ideo . ' 1/ ' pala ce '
1'48 reed co lum n 2c. ,jd
1'49 woo.len column 2c.
"
E50 pilla r
I I) id eo. 111"1 ' pillar' : 12\ hence 3e l wn;
r·"l"
13) abb. iI "nw ' Ihe o ry of Hcli opoli s'
1'5 1
JJJl
s l trl ll l' ideo , or del. sh 'shrin e'
1:52 Q p lan of estat e ide o. 1)wt 'encl osure. foundation'
E53
¥
1'52 com. D24 an d 1'5 id eo . nbt -hwt ' (th e go dd e ss) Ncphrh ys'
E54
J11
gra in h eap ideo. or del. Jnwr ' gra llar y'
E55
II
fri n ge d clot h dct . or ab b. mll Ll1 'linen'
1'56
ij
boat's In aSI 1c.
1'57
!
oar 3<. hrw
1'58
Y
ship 's sa il ideo. {I IV 'b reath
E5 9
0
he art a nd windpipe 3(". nI t

( I I ideo, SI 'pl ace, sca t ' ; ( 2) hence 2<. st :
[(;0 sce t (3) he nce (I I 2e. IS( /) inls/t '( the god ;
Osi ri s' and sst ' (th e goddess) Isis'
Eol Ii, o ffe r ing loaf id eo, dt or rd! ' give', a ltcrn arive for A4 1
1'62
r
mi lk-j ug withi n n et 2c.
6
111 1
1'6 3
r,
lasso
1f ".
2c , H' 1
1'64 Q.. bra zie r with fla me de l. li cat . cook
E65
t
bu n dle of reed s 2<. Is
E06
)0 pie ces o f wood lash ed
2c rs
togeth er
,
E07
J.J
st ylise d ba la nc e a lt erna uv e for E66
1'68
Q
wall orn ament ideo. or del. I; kn 'di adem . ornam en t '
1'69

wri ting eq uipmen t ide» . sl; ' scr ibe '
e I
royal cro wn 1'70 y t c. 11 ( fro m th e 13 1h d yn asty onwar ds)
E71 I' ll Iairnrc necklace
det . e i ibt ' falll ily, household' ,
"'
a lternative lor 1'8
2c. 1Ii.. i. nsu al lv JCCl) lII p.lI l icd hy D"
illlP:/ 'which is upon ' (S60)
2c. nut
2r. .\11
atu-ruauve fnr Elf:
ideo . h rt -ntr ' cemet ery', al ternative for 1' 30
( I ) 2c ms; 121a simila r sign ' lI.bl ' Ian ii lv,
household' is probab ly a writi ng of 1'71
in i my ' wh ich is in ' (§6 0)
2c. fi
t 1) 2e. sk: (2 ) 3(. 14.' 1(1
alt crua tiv c Ior E22
( I ) id eo. or de l. kd ' bui ld' and related
words; ( 2) hence 2<. ktl, usu al ly
accompamed hy D33
3<. rnp
l e 5
I I) ideo. li l t 'god'; (2 ) hence 3c , ntr ill
SIl!' ' ince nse:
i deo. hrt-utr 'cemctcry'
abb. rupt 'y ea r '
2c wd
i c. h
klpll
2c hs
alt crna tiv r for E, S
id eo . or oct. khltw "libation wa t er ' and
relat ed wor ds
a Item " Ii \ e for 1'40
de t . Dr JUh. rnrht 'oi ntu u-n t '
.iltcrua tiv« for FA2
( 1, 1c. I! '; ( 2i 2c. mr
lI!1 Kl lOWIJ
but cher 's kn ife
spindl e
l nuclu-rs knife
cord wo u nd on stick
crossed p lan ks
twi st ed wick
iu ort.ir f10J I (?)
cord wou nd On stick
notch ed palm
p estle
fold ed clot h
[ 25 com. D2-1
pen na n t
1.'29 rom. Cl I and D32
wat er put
rack of ..varer pots
sanda I st rap
1' 29 COl [(. D32
wa ter pot in stand
rack of wa te r pot s
wate r pot with issu e: of
con ten ts
ointment j ar
ointment jar
"
I
'"
I
1
ffi
+
1'1 5
1' 17
1'1 6
FI 8
1'19
1'20
1'22
1'24
Ell l argel pierced hv a rrows dct . .\Hi; or n(i) 'spear'
1'25
[ 26
En
( 2 1)
1'27
1'28
1' 30
0 1
1'32
FB
E34
[37
E41
1'35
1'38
E39
1'42
1'40
1'4 3
1'44
l .JcO H<'lI' to re.u! li ieroqtvphs
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
143
2e. mh
2e. .fa
2e. we
Ie.
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
dei. clothing
alternative form of F34
2e. ss
det. (Ni) 'ferry'
ideo. or det. Wlt 'road'
(1) 2e. mr, but read m in mhrt 'cenotaph';
(2) del. water
ideo. or det. spst 'district'
dct. mljnt 'ferry-boat'
det. boat, sail (downstream)
det. sail (upstream)
2e. ss
2e. eil
(1) ideo. rs(i) 'tie' and related words; (2)
hence 2e. Is
(1) 2e. ,qs; (2) sound complement for tm
orm
der. papyrus boat
later alternative for F39
det. nimt 'the Neshmet-boar of Osiris'
(I) 2e. bh; (2) 2e. hw
alternative form of F50
det. festivals for the god Soker
2e. tm
2e. mn
ideo. btmly 'seal-bearer', alternative for
D38
(1) ideo, nbw 'gold'; (2) hence det.
precious metal
water-skin
harpoon
whip
tethering rope
weaver's comb (?)
fringed c101h com. E28
netting needle
ferry boat
boat with sail furled
boat under sail
processional boat of
Osiris
processional boat of
Osiris
boat of Sokar
sledge
elephant tusk
gaming board
seal with necklace
gold collar
=
"1'"
I
=
F32
F31
F30
F33
F34
F35
F36
F43 canal
F37 gird Ie knot
F39 6 vertebrae (7)
F40 a vertebrae (0)
r41 <ffII> cattle hobble
F42 i';;"r road bordered by shrubs
F45 ~ papyrns boat
F46 ~ papyrus (7) boat
F44 lHlH irrigation canals
F38 pair of ribs (0)
F47
F48
r50
F49
F51
F52
F53
F55
F54
F57
F56
alternative torm of E49
Ic. s
3e. ssp
3c. ms:
3c. m«
det. open
det. krs 'bury', perhaps as alternative for
FI8
det. coffin, burial
ideo. ssir '(the god) Osiris' (see p. 41)
det. dbht-htp 'ritual offerings'
(I) det. festival; (2) abb. hb 'festival'
lc.k
ideo. htp 'offer' and related words
(1) ideo.pr 'house, estate'; (2) hence 2e.
pro (3) det. building, location
abb. prt-hrw 'voice offering'
2e. nb
alternative form for F1
alterna tive fonn of F9
alternative for F6
(I) det. sbw 'the town of Elephantine';
(2) hence det. sbt 'family, household'
(similar writing)
det, bread, offerings
det. write, abstractions (§6)
earlier fonn of Fl
(1) 3c. sn«: (2) 2e. hb
2e. mr
2e. nil
3e. stp
ideo. or det. sttwor strw 'buicher:
3e. S.flll
basket
papyrus roll
papyrus roll
papyrus roll
basket with handle
stylised bowl
loaf (for offering)
loaf (for offering)
loaf on mat
wooden column
plan of house
F12 com. D25, D27 and
E57
laden offering table
door bolt
alabaster basin
lid or door
fence
coffin
F22 com. F24
stone block (0)
hoe
carrying chair
statue plinth
sickle
plough
adze on block
FI
F2
F3
F5
F4
F7 'lP
F8 =
FlO
Fil ~
FI7
F9
F20
F6 mbasin com. canopy
Fl8
F21
F19
FI2 n
Fl3ff!J
FI4 •
F15
Fl6
F28 ~ knife or saw
F22
F23
F24
F25
F26
F29 "c" knife-sharpener
F27
142
§F. Other broad signs
Reference tabk s 14')
is listening
is looking
i\ loving-
is

hr sdm
?
tw mn

lJrmn

tu rdi v
, dm.n(- f >


he heard
nocuu vc

nJl.n=/ he' \ <I\-\'
- no dc ublrng
wr AK

mr.n=I he loved
exTRA WEAK
t=--:"1- (r)di n4
he gave
L...) ..... (r opti onal)
STRONG
J7.1% 'b..
he hears
DOUAU KG

m1lo-cf he sees
- doubling


mr;:;f he loves
EXTRA Wl::AK
d!of
he gi ve s
"-
Inor)
PRFSPlT
hr sdm
W!:.AK
GF:r.,;F RAL PRESENT


Main t ense s appearing in this book
Tile past tense (§§J J and 38)
The infinitive of st ro ng verbs sho ws no specific writing . whereas weak verb s
show a fina l -t.
The present tense: pres ent sfjm(::;f) and specifi c presen trr sdm
(§§42-4J)
The specific present is man e lip of hr followed by (he infimrive.


srJm
heari ng,
- 110 change 10 hea r


mJl
St"CIDt: ,
- doubli ng (0 se e
WE AK

Inn
loving.
- end i n 'l mlove
[ XTRA WF .-\K

rdl l id i l
- end ill · 1 I r optional! (0 give
VERns c.g.
f..1i,
sdrn hear
stem docs not usually
show any alteration
[JOt;BU1\(, VERBS

mn sec
stem en ds in a double
e.g.
consonant
WE AK vr sns

m r (l) lo ve
stern ends whh a ' weak '
c.g.
consonant . usuall y ·j
EXTRA WEA K VERBS rd( j ) give
chie flv verbs wit h two or
c.g .
'-"'
t hree consonan ts
Reference tabl es

Verb Iorms
The fOt115 of th is boo k is on read ing actua l rnu nu ments. rather (han Str u g -
gling through a nWTas50 of gr ammar. :\t"vcnhelt:s:s. a size-able area of Egypti an
grammar has also been co vered. The reference ia bles provi de d he re COVCT
the gra mma r as. prese nted in th is book and are for quu-k refer ence a nd
cornpanso n.
Verb classes (§JO)
Middle Egypt ian ver b-forms show differences in th eir writing according to
the type of the verb. The following arc the (our basic ve rb classes:
Notes ,
i \Vith wea k ver bs. the final -Jis usually omitted in writ ing a nd th er efore
in tra nvlite rat ion. thou gh for practica l reasons we norma lly rranslucr arc
'give' as rdf.
i i Ext ra weak verbs behave like ordina ry' weak ver bs. but sometimes:
show addit ional features.
Tile infi nitive (§ J l )
The future tense (wishes, requests, expectations} : the fut ure sgm(=f) (§§55-57,
§59)
Negation (§§ 39 and 58)
Th e three prindpaltenses above are negated as follows :
:-l EGATlOl<S
Notes
Th e verb I1I U 'to see ' also displays a Iorm msnr].
ii The weak verb form wi th QQ.y is most common in the first person .
iii Not ice th a t the forms from the ve rb s 'to come ' and ' to bring: sh ow an
extra r tn the future sgm(=j) form.
147 Reference rabies
PAST OR COMPLETE PRESENTORINCOMPLETE
II sltm=!
STRO'o;G VERRS
-"-.a.'P:, "-
II sdm»] he did not hear
DOUBLING VEKBS

II m!=! he did nOI see
. no doubling
\VEAK VERBS
II mr=! he did not love
EXTRAWEAK "ERBS
<z> 11 rdl=!
he did nOIgive -"-
<-J ""- (with r)
So, the present a nd past tense negat ive s are be tter th ought of as constr uc-
tions in their own right wi th th eir own grammar, rather th an j ust as sdm(=f)
a nd sdm.II(=j) with -'- 11 st uck in front of them,
Sp ecialised forms: the participles, relative forms and sgmtY,fY
The participles (§§46-5I)
STRONG
d7 .'P:,
sdm
(one)

sgm
(one )
who hears who heard
DOUBLI NG

m il
(one)

Ill'
(one)
who sees who saw
WEA K

mrr
(one)

mr
(one)
who loves who loved
EXTRA
'--"
dd (one) rdl (one )
WEAK L....1: (no r) who gives LJ (w it h r) who gave
Part iciples also somet imes show a} -wend ing.
The relative forms (§§37 and 52)
PRESE:-.-r ORIl' COMPLRTE PASTORCOMPUTE
STRONG

, gllll=!
what he
.t71\":
s<!ntl,n=!
what he
hears heard


mill=!
wha t he

mtt.n»]
what he
sees saw
WEAK
ss-.
mrn=!
what he
mrt.n»]
what he
"i: loves Z:? loved
EXTRA
'-"
ddl=!
whal he => -
rdil.n=!
wha t he
WEAK '-""'--
gives
L-"J
gave Co Co "'-
Compare with th e corresponding fonns of th e participles,
How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs

n ,(im.n=!
he does not hear,
PRf:SE:>'TTENSE
he cannot hear
PASTTENSE
-'- .t1 ........
n sgm=! he did not hear

nil Sglll=!
mav he not hea r,
FUTURE TENSE
he nOI hea r
Fl'TURE s(im(=.f)
STROl<C
.t7 "-
sdrn--f may he hear
DOl;BUNG

rlll=! may he see
. no doubling
WEAK
or
mr=! ormry=! may he love
d/=!
may he-gi ve EXTRA WEAK
"'-
(no r)
sPECIALCASES
fj k"'-
(WI=!
may he come
(with eXira .1)

Int=!
may he bring
(with extra ·1)
146
The future is nega ted by adding th e negat ion 1111 10 th e future sgm(=f)
Iorm. However, th e present and past tens e ne gat ives display a most unu sual
apparent reve rsa l - known as GU1m 's rule - wh er e n Igm, n(=f) negates th e
pr esent sgm(=f) , not the past sqm./I(=j), a nd n sgm(=f) negates the past
sgm,n(=f) , not th e sdm(=j), In fact. t he sdm(=j) in thi s co ns truct ion shows a
special fo rm:
The sdmty .jy f or m (§§53-54, §59)
149 Referencetables
We
lfg, , I
Inn
you rpl)
or
0 minor
0 1
,
I 0 I I nlln
they - l-
or nt51J
c::. If I r C . j I I
SG. MSC. no special ..nding

511 brother
SG. FEM . 0 - I

Stll sister
> 0
PL. MSC.
}
-w

Sl1 11/ brothers
PL. FEM.
:r
-wr
1
Sll w t sisters
....::to
Dependent p ron ouns (§4I )
} :it or
1>
· w l or · w(i) we · rr
you
= 1> or o}
-(tv or - ( \.1' you (pl . )

or .52..
-tn
I I I
, ,
I or -tn
you rfern .)
= ,.:;
or
C>.
- {11 or -tn
he rit
i } or +I?
".Hi! thcv r- or ::::: -sn
I I I I i
'helit
r"
or r -sy or -sty) it. they

·51
-st is used for ind efini te ' it' and ge nerally as th e de pend..nt pronou n for m for
' t hey/ them'.
Uses:
a. Obje ct of the verb (except the infinitive, whi ch usuall y takes a suffix
pronoun object ).
b. After ini tial part icles and the nega tion 1111.
Independent pronouns (§49)
or ink
you
0 ntk
="
you (Iem .j - or 1It( or n il 0

he/it 0
lit!
---
sh../tt - nor - nts
a
0
Uses: As the subject of cha racterisations .
Nouns (§§8, 9, 15)
Nouns have a number (singular or plural ) and a gen der (mas culine or fern.
ini ne) : the -w of th e plur al is often omitted in writing :
The du al en ding rnsr . ow )' and fem. -ty is common only with things wh ich
come in pairs:
How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs
s,Jmly.j1'
STRO!': G Vl'R BS
___
silmty.fy (one) who may/will hear
JJ \\ \\
DOUBUNG VERBS

mmy.fy lone) who may/will see
WEAK VERBS

SdlY.fy (one) who may/will read
EXTRA WEAK VERBS
<=> 0"'-
rdfly.fy (one) who may/wilt give
'----fj \\ \\
148
The relat ive forms here display th e ·1 of femi ni ne adjectival agreement. They
can also occu r in cert ain usages wi thout the· ( (i.e, wit h masculi ne adjecti val
agree me nt). t hough they still carry the same meaning of 'which someone
doe s/did ' . See §52 .
Pronouns, nouns and adj ect ives
Suffix pronouns (§§33, 35, 36)
:it or
=f we =n
" ,
you
'=
=k you (pl.) or <lrt o t r tn
I I I I I I
you (Iem.) or 0 =1or =1
helil
"'- =!
they n- or - =sn
I I I I I I
she/ it or_ =5
Uses:
a. as the subject after a suffix-co njuga tion verb-form. such as sgm.n(=fJ
b. as the object after a preposit ion .
e. after aux iliarie s.
d. as the possessor or genitive of nouns.
The suffix pronouns tran slate as the ap propriat .. English pro noun , so :it or
Q= / tran slates as 'I' or ' me' or ' my' depen di ng on English usage (and so on
for the ot he r pro nouns) . The use of T , ' you' etc. in t he tables above an d
below is merel y to poi nt out the person or thing the pro noun refer s to.
Egyptian-English vocabulary
Her e. as in ot her Egyptian dictionaries. words are liste d alphabetically in
transliteration following the orde r set OUI in List 1 (the only exception being
that the feminine ending -t is ignored, e.g. 5 ' man' and st 'woman' are listed
together). In other words. th e part icular hierogl yphs used to write a word
do not determine where it is listed. So to find a word. you need to know its
reading in transliteration : if necessary, con sult th e variou s sign- lists . For
example, imagin e you come across the wo rd ...lciFt but do not recogni se
its constituent signs. There are two stages in down its mea ning: ( I)
If you turn to List V beginning on p. 129, you wiu find 4- (862) ha s the
reading Us/. whilst (F49 ) is not a sound- sign but a determinative for 'sail
upstream'; so the reading of the whole word is fJ sf. (2 ) Returning to this
vocabulary, you will find in th e section headed !J that there ar e two words
rea d hs]': 'repel ' and ' travel upst ream' (see p. 158). Of course, the determi -
native indi cat es that the second of these is the co rrect meaning, although,
more often than not . the cont ext in which t he word OCCllIS will also help
you decide whi ch of the two is correct . Although the hierogl yphi c writings
given in this list are representat ive of what you ma y find . it is not possible
to list all of th e wa ys in which a word could be writ te n (see § 14 agai n, if you
ar c not yet sure about th is). The followin g abbr eviations have been used
here: (a.) adjecti ve: (n.) no u n; (v.) st rong verb; (w .v.) weak verb; (I.) femi-
nine; (pl .) plural.
150 How to read hieroglyphs
Adjectives (§§1O, 44-45)
Adjectives foll ow the noun they describe and agree wit h it in number and
gender:
SG. MSC. no special endin g
SG. FEM. e> -t
PL MSC.
}
-w
PL. FEM. e> -r
The plural can also be written with the plural strokes, and the -w is often
omitted in writing,
Adjectives can be used on their own as a noun, e.g.:
nfrt the good (n.) from t::: nf r good (adj .)
The genitive (§27)
Direct genitive : common only between closely connected words or in fixed
expressions.
Indirect genitive: the two nouns ar e linked by forms of the 'genitival adjec-
tive ' n:
SINGULAR PLURAl.
MASCUlJ:-iE 11 o or_ nw or n
FEMI:-ilNE nt nt
e>
Adjectives ill -y (§60)
SG. MSC. \\ -y

imy who/which is in
SG. FEM. e. -L

imt who/which is in
PL MSC.
1>
-w
Hl%}
imw wh o/which are in
PL. FEM. e. -t

imt wh o/which ar e in

IW (a .) long; joyful
QJ= tbt In . ) family, househ ol d
I O J t t
sbd (n . j month: monthl y
fes tival
Ihaw Abydos (place na me)
ipd (n. ) bird
sryt m .) staff
II] Wi become an akh-spirit ; be
useful
m .. akh-sniri t
lSI (the goddess) Isis (see p. 70)
tsir (the god) Osiri s; possibly
read wsir
llt =1I. me. lil y (suffix pron ou n. p.
148)
4A I O! (In terject ion} 1§54a)
f tu (n .) office. function
Q jJ II ( w) (n.) prais e. ado ra tion
I IW (a.) old ; (n .) old age
[iu 1\ Iv(fj ( w. v . ) come
iiw welcome
see also Iw(l)
"It (n.) moon
Iw see §34
./l} Iw(l) rw.v.) come
J}} Iw welcome
see also iytt )
Iw(l) (w.v.) be boatless
Iww (n.) bootless person
IWl (n.) ox
,'lHl iWi(W) (n.) cattle
iwtt (n.) wrongdoing
gl Iwn (n.) pillar.
gg Iwnw Heliopolis (place-name)
iwrt luri (name)
? Ib (n.) heart: see also hrt-Ib, st-ib
Ib(l) (w.v.) be thirsty
Ib thirsty
person
Ip (v.) count, inspect
>0 im) (a.) channing, gracious
(the writing indicates the reading
has become Inn or 1m)
-fiIll\ Imil; (n.) reverence
iIll\ or i11i!\]> or imihy
or imshw (n.) revered one.
or +Imy (a.) who/which is
in (§60)
+]>C) imy-wt 'the one who is
in the wr , i.e. Anubis (title)
Imy-itnt chamberlain
(title)
Imn (the god) Amun
r= "".,.2j Imn-m-Itil
I
,
(']1 in n-rst-n because
WI see imv
153
wrt (n.) the great bark
wr(w) (n.) the great (in
=1:'1,
society)

Eqyptian-Enqlish vocabulary
}- or]>1ft -WI I. me (dependent
pronoun. p. J49)
d=1ft wrb (n.) pure one, i.e.
w'-b-priest
?J,-" or C wbs (rr.) cup-bearer
+ +
t- wbst (Iem.) cup-bearer
wp(l) (w.v.) open, separate
WP-Wiwt (the god)
Wepwawet
wn (v.) open
wnwl (n.) priesthood
wnn IV.) be, exist:
n-wn-ms: truly, truthfully.
wnn-nfr (the god)
Wenennefer, i.e. Osiris
wr (a.) great. important
J b
whm (v.) repeat; reporter, herald
(title)
-4r <rr> wsr (a.) powerful
w5rt Wosret (name),
literally 'powerful one' and may
be used as a designa tion for
female deities
w' (a.) one, alone
wrr w (11.) privacy
11= web (a.) pure
or bi In.1 ba-spirit
}? WO! (v.) order; (n.) order
Wili (v.) set OUl, proceed


of
'm'i(v.)(hrow(a
throw-slick)
-t--;; 'nl; (v.) live; (n.) life
-t 'nl; ill living for all time
-t]>1ft: r nhw rn.j the living
-t cs <nht ntr 1m on which
a god lives I§26)
Ii, t di 'Ill:! given life
---- r (n.) arm; note "try arms;
see also hrv-: sl", Ip-'
'i (a.) great
::::: 'i(W) (n.) the great
(in society)
]> w
or I[{I) (w.v.) seize (the
Ian er wriring indicates ihe reading
has become II)
Q"'::" T... rnh-n-nwt (n.) local soldier
'h rn.) palace
(':j \.jj 'hi (v.) fight; (n.) fighting
'he (v.) stand
rhnwty variant form of 'onwty
'onwlY (n.) chamber; m-r
rhnwt» overseer of the chamber
uitle;
'kyt (n.) entering maid
or '1C Wist Thebes (place-name)
f\ Wi!! (n.) the Wag-festival
f
l \'-, '" or W!I In.) road, wav
Q I
r!i tmn-r: (the god)
AmUII-Re
l1yIty Iname)
Ity (n.) sovereign
'="r ) 4_4\ imny Ameny (name
t imnt (n.) west
r imnty (a.) western; for
lmntw people of the west. see hnt
imsti uhe god) Irnseri. one of
t he sons of Horus.
In by 1§28); 'it is' (§5f)
1 In(l) (w.v.) bring
11 0 mw (n.) produce, gifts
lJl I I
1 9;:;;;- in-hrt-nht
-=
Inhuretnakht (name)
Inpw (the god) Anubis
ink I (independent pronoun, §49)
1...::. Intflntef (name)
-<00- Ir(I) IW.v.) do, make; plus many
idomatic meanings
:: ir-n made by, i.e. born of
-=: Iry (a.) relating to (§60)
-=:\1) try (n.) keeper
try-nfr-hst (title)
keeper of the kings diadem
H;:; Is (11.1 iornb
Ikr (a.) excellent, effective,
astute
Y1=}1ft Ikdw (n.) builders; see kd
1ft or": 11(n.) father
1ft! It(w) rri.) forefathers
I'" It-11fT god's father (title)
(') Itn (n.) sun-disc; Ithe god)
How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs 152
o p
155 Egyptian-English vocabulary
nbt (n .) lady
nbt pr (n .) lady of the
house, mi str ess of the estate , i.e.
woman of high status
IIbl=!J·pw·
..if II' a _
snwsrt Nebipusen us ret (na me)
or 'i' n bt -hwt (th e
goddess) Nephthys
A II bw (n.) gold
n-p th -ktw Nipt ahkau (name)
.:::: nf see pf
nfr (a .) perf ect , good , wonderful.
beautif ul
nf rw (n.) pe rfection,
splen dour
or nmtt (n.) step, formal
journey
++ nn see pn
nil without: fut ure negati on (§58)
0 0 0 nnwy Nenwy ma rne )
o or 101 nhh ( n. ) (for)
eterni ty
-;:-, nh nt (n .) yout h
I1J nill (a. ) strong. vigo rou s
nht! Nak ht i (name)
0;,1- @ I1bt-'llb Nakhtankh
(name )
t':' IlSw ( n. ) ling (§23)
± nsw-bl ty ki ng of the
dua lities, king of Upper and Lower
Egypt (royal t itle )
nf t (n.) hai rdresser
nfmt (n.) Neshme t· ba rk,
the processional boat of Osiris
";;"'1;. n,9l\<' (n.) long · horned
/1
n of (§27 ); :- i1. ) Ill; 0 (pl.) II W
negative n (§ 39 1
=n we, us , our (suffix pronou n,
p. 148). ·n we , us (dependent
pronoun, p. 149)
n to , for ; for negative II (§ 39) ; for
n -r u- n see f"J ; for n-wn -ml
r
set" um
or 11 mnht (n .) line n
mnrw (the god) Montju
e d.o
o
mntw -htp
'S= .lt 0 .
Mentjuhotep (name)
mr t l ) ( w .v.) want, love
or ff mrht ( 11.) oiL unguent
\ = r mrs Me res (name)
mrti Merti (name)
1P1:---\ mh nt (n.) ferry
l\1r IIt S (v . ) bring, present
m·s/=fEmsaf (name)
ffir4} msii) ( w. v. ) give binh
ffi - ms-n born of
ffi } ' i msw (n .) offspring
ffi r"l msdt t] (w .v.) ha te
Lh '-ll.
'.iJf f't , mt' (n.) expedition , army
""-'" 1} mdhw Med hu (name)
nwt (t he goddess) :-<ut
2, nWI (n.) town, d ty; see also nlr
=' nb aiL eve ry (§ 16)
, , ,
-'- J 0 n 51' never
n nls (v.) call out, summon
o nw see n
1\ min
m-bih in t he presence
or m· m among
or \ m -r (n.) overseer; for
specific titles, e.g. m-r pr, see the
second element
mil (v. ) see, look at
§;. msi-n-hr Maienhor (name)
-:Jp--;:{' mst (v. ) present, gui de
• . •......J: or = IIW (v.) be true, righ t,
'7 ='= .....JJ
pro per; (a.) true; for n·wn ·ml 'see
\Vn
mr -hrw (a.) true of voice,
justified ; ( v.) be justified
or m t rt (n. ) what is
proper. i.e. truth, harmon y: (t he
goddess) Maa t. oft en writ ten
mi as. like
¥ or miry ( n . )
equal. peer
Il1'h'l (n . ) cenotaph, to mb
---' 0 mr]: (v .) roa st

'- f
""'- =f he. him, his (suf fix pronoun,
p . 148)
_ mw (n. ) water
mwt (n.) mo ther
mnrt (n . ) wet-nurse
mn w dedicat ion , monn ment (see
p. 126 )
1 mn", (the god) Min
(Iem. ) rf,
(fern . ) tn ,
How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs
p] that ; ,.:.
(pl .) n].
.......
I'll thi s; .:.
o
154
pr (n .) sky
I' ll (n.) ant iquit y, beginning
of time
o} pw it is, this is
'ft Ink (n .) servant (see p. !OI)
Jh.. bin (a. : bad
c §'j or btty (n.) kin g
t;;;;: bnr (a. ) pleasant

" bt Bet (na me)
,(ft br-mkt Ba rneket
(name)
++ (pl .) li n.
7 pr (II . ) estate
5::n prJ I (n . } palace
';;\ m-r pr overseer of an estate,
stewa rd
see also nbt -pr, r-pr
prti) (w.v.) go OUI
prt (n. ) procession
ill prt-htw (n .) voice -ol leri ng
or ph ty (a.) strength
pkr Poker (place- na me); see
also r-pk r
pi!' (th e god ) Plah
o! d= prJl. h,p Pla hh ot ep
c olaO
/name)
10'>- or ;Jf prr (v.) observe,
hr -lnt hdl)[ e
III.v la.)
CM4T:;;' (n l naked
pt'r Sl,U)
/;rty· .. ( n . ) gm't"fn \)r, ma yor
!I'PY(n .) :\ile inu nd al illn toften
pnsonified as th e god Hapy)
b hWI (n.) en cll)sur e, fnundation
/:z wr- mr (n.) temple
uh,>godd ess l Ha.h or
156 H ,1'o1! III read Fyyptiun hieroqlyphs
-;:;:;d 1l 1-lIb, \-' Neru ebu m amet
Ll' nt r m} }:nd
n rrwl;wtW J(lWII-
lo:ol1s
I ! nrr nj"r the pt'rfl' n r ruva l
1§17i
;: ndvt Nedyet tplace -nam e j
t ml (V,) prot ect
nJm (a.} sweet
'I f);.. nils (a.) sma ll
9!3t-.:rlt nJs ru .) per son.
indi vid ua l
'lr,3t-.1ft : n. s(wl (n. j th e
lowl y
= r
r inwar ds. at: mo re than rp, 8 1); in
or de r to (p. 841; for wor ds
co mpo unded with r under the
second elemen t, e.g, r-hst, etc
r (n.) ruu u t h
i-pr {n.) temple complex
r-pkr Ro· Pok t' r .p tacc-
fi ..1ITot' I; see Jbu ph
c:.::: 0 nr t" In. t day ; \1111; uhe god I
Ra or Ri.'
.::=;-:. or I m(w) In. ) fish
rm/ (II .) pt'oplt'
::: rn In.I na llle
17 rHpI (n. ) yea r
13 rnpHp Ill.) regna l yea l
til iet ,p-mpl (n .) festival tlf
the beginning of t he lU lhU yea r
::: }a rnvl Re fll t IJlame)
e r[z ( V. I kn ow. Iea ru
or ct <; )1) r[' · m w kin{s
ad viser. kmgs confidant Uilll' )
tn .t wash cr man
rJor rwd (n . t tcr racc
ur 1'" rdO) (w.v.) give . put: caus e
1§40j
j rdwy m.] legs. feet
fU h
hl(l ) (w. v.t descend
rnj;"J.Il iub (v.) send
hskr (11.) Hake r- ritcs tat
Abydos}
it hi In . } husband
'J; 7 ....- hbny in . ) ebonv
rg I hnw (n.) j ubilati on
hrw (n . ] day, dayiirue
I)rr -hrHi dail y (o UISe
h
J)! !lit [ n.) fr ont
-:: .:> -i".; r-hn befo re
h W ( I J 1\ \ '. \ ' . 1 beat
J ha'l i ll . ) bearing
Hui mamc)
tJet or CD t n. t festival
I Jp= has 'V. I clot he
T hbsw rn. j clothing
IIp' (n. j oar
Iz.;\qQ IIpy (l ilt"' gud) Hapv, i.e one I)f
th e SOll S (Jf Horus
(. hm [n.] pe rson 1§lg)
10. )
lnm-rur If .)
\f bm-k/ tn . j ka·p ries t
hmi In .) wi fe
C::;' I",' toget her wit h
L;oor '3 (n .) beer (§11)
IIr (the god) Horus; as ki ugs name
1§17j
hr (n.) tecc
? hr on . at: be ca use II f; usu all v
wri tten ? be fore suffixe s; as
verbal al :Jiia ry (§42)
hry la ) who/ which is
upon 1§60 ,
=-: hry -pr In. l dOnlestic
servant
Irrt· pr I k m .)
serva lll
o r
In .; masl n of SC'Cfets
l hry-' p (n .) ch ief, supe no r
see nh h
h.t(i ) i W.v. ) pr aise
ly --:: !lSt In. ) favour
hsb (n .) co unter
h )ll111 (n. t arnerhvst
hkr rthe goddess } Hck ct
I hk r rule
r.:: IJkl l,n .) ruler
J /:zkrlv.) hunger
I (n.! hungry pe rso n
hip (Y.) cont ent , sa tisfy, res t, be
content: (n . j pe ace, vatisfacuu n:
m. j offering; In.) d lJ':lI ; Hetep
mame )
tnp -nt r (n.) divi ne
of fertu gs
aD flirt o fft'rings
.:.:.C.:>I • I
£ hlP Ji nsw (11.) an offe ring
which the kin g give s (§26 )
e b
!II ( n . ) th ing. t hings
11til (n.) th ousand
J.!.(} hw Kh u (Hamel
I lj\\.-y, Khuyt mame i
!,w. n·bik Kh uc n bik
marne)
[,pI In.1 death
..!! &rr IV.I (n. 1 ftlfm. king
In.) for..-!C'g, Siroll g dr m
bfry tn , )
[mm (v .) gladd ( n
-=:' lrlft t1l1m) ' VI-I fri(r hl
om in fft)I]t
!Jm}" (a .) who/ which is
in fnmt for em ost 1§60)
9
nr
y-imJu"v
Khentyime nlU, 1.e, ' foremost of
t he westt' flI er s' Ina me o f Osiri s;
1£ lmry sh- nt r ' t he o ne in
front a t t he Kod\ boot h ' (e pith et
of Anu bis}
sec tmy-hn t
f:znt.'.il Khcntyt j pla ce-
name)
ffit.l Q ',,:::C bnl -!Jnl .'o'-fllr
Kbcnctkbvn tvhct cp (name)
€I !.Jr before. in Irom »I
I)r lv.) (all
ij rr.tb (II. ) wi sh .
preference: sec SI
tJrvvtn .t vo ice; for mv-hrw se e
mv
brp Iv. ) control: director Wile }
4- bs! (v . ) repel . war d off
4- bsf(w) tw. v.j travel upstream.
travel SOUth: see also lJdft)
bl m (n.) sea l
(jU::r. OInI\\' sea l-beare r,
assi stan t (tit le)
@ Otmty-bi1.r seal -bea rer of
th e kin g "il k )
h guc. m ·r !Jlml Irea SUTer
llillt" :,
bd{(; ( \\1_\'.' trawl IlI)Tlh ,
trilvel dowll'jl re.llll ; 'jl'e al so lH[{Wj
""'R1!' lmw (I l.) iCllerior; Ihe interior,
i.e _Ih t" palac t"
<=- 1i7fg r'!Jnw insIde
Q} a/ 1m ( \'.) .io i ll; l a.) Unil l"d wi l h
1m)
\} ]. -;Jf bnm... Ithe god ) Kh num
br under. ca rr ying
r:'R\ \\ brv (.1.) who/ whic h is
(§60)
brv-: m.t de put j; asststa m:
hrv-h bt (n.) tcctor. pncst
EE brv-t» cha m be rla in n h le )
hrr rn . t sha re, dutv
X
0 0 hn-hrw m.) dail y co urse
o r l brl -n(r (n., ccmc tcrv
b,d (n. ) child
t "f hkrt -nsw lad v-tn -wai tmg 1.lil ld
r or - s
or -- =). she . h er (suffix pr onoun,
" . 148)
s m. j man
st t n . t woma n
ro -SI she . h er. it. th ey (depende nt
pronoun. p. 149)
Jje; )"1 (n .) place. posit ion. stat us
.08 n-tb (n .) af f ect i on. in timacv
st-r (n.) ability
SI- b rt -l h ln, )
confidell ce
m· r J! ovns('er (lft h t'
(ti lle )
Q see smy l (§23)
.l.J tn . ) Svll
SJ! (n .) da ugh l t"r
sH mn Saam//Il Ina,ne)
'1 HI-\t'srr $alwo-s rel
(namel
s, -mnot Samen kht"1
(name)
SII-mnrw Sa lmo nlJu
(n am e)
SJ-ff1nwrr
$a re llen u l t"1 (ll ame)
st -hw t -hr Sa harho r
III Jme)
q.{r: 51-tull -bl \'
Sakhentkh ety urame )
su-bnJ-bl (
Sa tkhen tkhcu (ua rru-)
3§: HI -) (rl.. Satsnbck marne!
.nwrj-r Saut yt rname l
f s,b IV. ) tr,Hl 'jf ,JTII1i nt o an ak h-
spnt r. transfigure
j,.\ .))' sh e, her, i r rdependent
pro noun. p. 149 )
S' J ( v.) promot e. ad vance
rt 0 S' t1tr (v.; pe rpe tua te (name )
} o r -sw he . him (de pe ndrru
pronoun, p. 1·19 )
rtl, X or ,wI [v.] pass by,
surpass
r(J sw' b ( v.) decorat e
f} \:i9 sw.j IV.) bequeath
or ' ICS'-'" , bt IV.) rebel ;
sbt (n .) rebel
sbk (th e Sobek
:' 10 f ro 1Il.i nll)nlelll . dt,t' t!; for fJ sp St'l'
'I ; for ff1r' -Sp st"C" rnpl
Sf" In. )
ipt t) ("' . \'.) bin d (l ligelher)
)'P(t ( v . ) las-soo
A6 sp,i l nile goddt"ss ) SOlhis
i.flU' ors1'"' (rl . ) bll icher
_<InI 1\\'. \'.) rep on; I n. , r"["HI
slII."t l1l.j dt"sC" n Isn' §2 3)
smr in _) l-OUrlit" r, fI, yal
C1 lmpanion
f: r .....-<1 (.'0'1 (n , ) sok
n mJpa n ltlD
i \ j" ll; l! L j pap vr us skiff
$mSW 1' a. ) cldcrvldcvt
PI- ur e rut hev. the-m. iherr
(suffl x pronoun. p. I ..:i Sj;
-on rbev. the-m tdepe-nden t
pnI110\ 1II , p . 1·19)
it sri (n .) br other
.Sl lt 'lhl t"r
;:.<'. .m w , mt'l in .,
bro thers and sh ins
+6 sn IV, ) kiss
=S-/I -W.trl Sl"n WOSTel (na m e j
rn snb (n.) health: (.Ll healthy
rJi snbv Semb i marne)
snf r (V. ) improve
:-- .011 Se- nct (n ame)
sntr III . ) incen se
sr (n . ) official
srw m.j goose
srb (V . ) complam abou t. accuse
11 S!I in !Jnry JJ:l·n[ r. 'iee ulld er bn f
:1;t J/u].' tv. ) sa l i<; fy; set" .l i'l "
1-:;00::' .'/:! Jr -ib Se hcl t"pib (Ila mt"j
sIp m .) cou lllr ysilk
J.[J m (v. ) co ltlTnl
rt{ft{(: ' JO' U(v. ) promol e, dugmen!
r sllr iv.) lei L ov(' n u rn
r!':>i sljr (11. ) o mduG. plall
S[15[ ( V. ) (Kt"ejla l a ) di <;l ,lIlCC
sb ( 11. ) >i n ibe; I v be
re Jd )1
(n.) pr o cedJl rt",
con duct
J gb (the god) Geb
A gm(l) (w.v.) find
grh (n.) night
0=
ill , i or (l z m.) bread
:IT I ts (n.) land
=tIlvy (n.) the two lands, i.e.
Upper and Lower Egypt
! [j·wr the nome of Thinis (place-
name)
161
j': dbht-htp (n.) required
offerings
dpt (n.) boat
Egyptian-English vocabulary
'" - dr-ntt because
Reading uncertain
"i1 lis self; used in conjunction with
suffix pronoun, ris=i 'myself', etc
V risr (v.) separate, clear; (a.) sacred
ts dsr the sacred land
(place-name)
::.J rid(v.) say, speak
'";;} or ddw Djedu (place-
name)
lit (n.) (for) all time, enduringly;
see also under 'nlr
lilt (n.) wrongdoing
iii(I) (w.v.) cross, ferry
lilt (n.) boat-journey
T dw (n.) mountain; for tpy liw=fsee
tpy
dws (v.) denounce
ri'm (n.) electrum
"'-,= or....... lif(lw) (n.) provisions
-..J; ! I "_J
liji-h'py Djefahapy
(name)
1r lif;wty (the god) Thoth
dhwtt (n.) the festival
of Thoth
e lir since
1-;:g: J-m (n.) half-month festival,
perhaps read mddint or smdt (see
=
<tn, -tn you, your (pl.) (see <tn,
-tn,
tn see pn
I I I
a - tfnt (the goddess) Tefenet
"-- a
""'" d
ep tp (n.) head
B>"!" tp-r (n.) ancestor
(for hry-tp see hry ; for hry-tp see
hrv; for tp-rnpt see rnpt)
8Z, or ti tpy (a.) who/which is upon,
chief (§60)
tpy liw=f'the one who is
upon his mountain' (title of
Anubis)
tfsee pf
= =t you, your (I.) (suffix pronoun,
p.148)
y} tlW (n.) breath, wind
tlwTjau (name)
<tn you, your (pl.) (suffix
pronoun, p. 148);
-tn you (pl.) (dependent pronoun,
p.149)
=} -{W you (dependent pronoun,
p.149)
=1" ts(i) (w.v.) tie, knot. assign
tsw (n.) sandbank
_XI
Ii, or L..£ d(l) (w.v.) give; see rdtt)
ddt Dedet (name)
*1 dWI (v.) adore
"'0 *0
*..r.;, "-- or L..£ "--
dws-mwtc] (the god) Duarnutef.
one of the sons of Horus
J[f ssp (v, i receive
LJ 1<
L4r@ kis Qis (Cusae) (place-name)
L} '\ kbw Kebu (name)
m kbh·snw=f (the god)
Oebchsenuf, i.e. one of the suns ot
Horus
p or P'i kms (v.) create
krs (v.) bury
krst burial
kd (v.) build; see also Ikdw
=t you, your (I.) (see =1)
ill g
= =k you, your (suffix pronoun,
p.148)
Y ks (n.) ka-spirlt
or It ks (n.) ox, bull
=44 ky Key (name)
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs 160
= s
x
i' SSII fa.) secret; see also
hry-stu
nLJ JV] sJ;bh (v.) relax. calm down
n·...ak skdti) (w.v.) travel, sail
skr (the god) Saker
st (n.) scent; originally sty
ra if st(i} (w.v.) shoot, spear
stp (v.) choose; (a.) chosen
r!.1../l slil (v.) travel, depart
.o slim (v.) hear, listen; the
alternative r".::;; indicates that
the reading had become sdm
r*f=l sdrt (n.) vigil
r} Iw (v.) be free from (m)
c---=>r} Iw (the god) Shu
Ar Ipsy (a.) dignified. wealthy
Art:: sps-nsw (n.) dignitary
of the king
spsw: (n.) dignity
spss (n.) wealth,
dignity
1- smc (n.) Upper Egypt
sms (v.) follow
[msw (n.) follower,
attendant
smsw (n.) following
In (divine epithet) in Hor-Jn. a
name of Horus
l... 44a l'i lfr, Inyt (n.) entourage
snwt (n.] granary
or :: '0" snow (n.) magazine,
provisioning area
everythin g
good and pure
IJ' lib ,
ntrt wcbt
(Senwosr et 1Il1
(Amenernhet Ill )
(Amenemhet IV)
(Nefrusobck )
Ahrnosc
Amenhorep I
Thnmt ose I
Thut mose II
Hatshepsut
Thut mose III
Amc nh ore p II
Thutrnose IV
Amcnhotcp III
Akh en aten
Regnal year 14 under th e person of th e king of
Upper and Lower Egypt
Khepcrkare, living enduringly.
{J'-bw-r '
n-mrr-r -
mr-hrw- r »
sbk-ki-rr
y or U
kl

mr
V wp
Ox

ddw
'0
bnmw

Wp - WIW :
r h-ms
i mn-hsp
dhwty-ms
dhvav .ms
fJltv!pswt bn mt -Imn
-ihwty-ms
tmn -ht p hla -iwnw
dhwty -ms
tmn -htp hks- wtst
ih -n -trn
(Amc nernhct I)
(Senwosrct I)
IAmenemhet II)
(Seu wosrer II)
b. rnpt -sp 14 iJr IJm Il nsw-bity
shtp-tb -rr
tJpr-kJ-r'
nbw-krw-r"
(l' -ap r-r'
Key to the exercises 163
nb-phty- t "
gsr-k, · r'
, ,-tJp r-k r-r'
,, -apr -n·r'
mvt-ki-r-
mn -hpr-r »
r t-h prw- rs
mn -hprw-r:
nb-rnrt -r r
c. m pt -sp 1J iJr hm II nsw-bity Regnal year 13 under th e person of the king 01
Upper and Lower Egypt
nbw-kt w-r » di rn lJ al r nbb Nubkaure. give n lire end uringly a nd
repeat edly.
Ch a p t er 2
2.2 Words:

.<I

wu
pj j
smr
'bif\V


'mil
2.4 Expressions:
a.
I!
ntr "t great god
2.6 Datinq:
rrun-sp 25 IJr IJm (II) nt r nfr lib tlwl' Regnal yea r 25 under th e per son 01the perfect
god. th e lord of the two lands
n·ml'l -r' d! ' Ill; mt r- Jt Nimaat rc, given life like Re en dur ingly.
2. 7 Study exercise: Middl e Kingdom kings of the 121/, dyn asty :
The order of ihe first cart ouche na mes should be as follows:
2.8 St udy exercise: New Kingdom pharaohs:
The New Kingdo m pharaohs listed are :
the/a n excellent plan
to Poker

____ .1t srw
b. .'Ittr tk r
d. r pk r
1.2 Words f rom the roastinq scene:
Abo ve sce ne right
' n/' l r IpJ(W) in snbi nw- hrw
Throwing al the brrds by Senbi. Ihl' j usufied.
1.4 Transliterating words:

IIlis rn
urn
hb 1
n
- bill


spd

tkr

rnrr,

ph
''Y'

(Id
Co
p'

rm
t= =J
LJp'T
hbs
=r <3
Is
qr.l
@C
ra IJpJ

sn
=
A Iorcle g for the ka 01Scnbi. the jus tified.
[JIm
kr st
th e/a n ast ut e in divid ual
with Scnbi
Cha p ter I
1.1 Kings' names:

owfw Khuf u
'1- 1" tsst lse sr

ppl Pepi
'-. . ..._';
1.3 Gods' names:

Inpw

hkr

pt h
U=-
sbk:
<::>
rs sk r
-JJ 0
="
<rr>
sr r:1
IIJS Il:r
c. snbi
1.5 writ ing 0 '" words in hieroglyphs:
Key to the exercises
Above scene on let t:
'Il t rm(w) In snbi mr-hrw
Speari ng the fish bv the just ified.
1.6 Translation:
1.7 Translating the offe ring scen e:
1.8 St udy exercise: A fis hing and fo wling scene:
16 5
See ing ihe splendour of the perf ect god
Khak aure. the ju sufied.
bel oved of w epwawcr. lord or the sacr ed land
be loved of Osiri s-wen enneter, lord of Abyd os.
An offering which the kin]; give s
In Osiri s, lord of Dj edu. great god . lord of Abydci s.
so th.lt he may give a vc..ti c:e offering of
bre ad and bee r. ox an d fowl . alabaste r a nd l rneu.
and every thing on whi ch a god lives
for the ka of the rev ered one,
the offer ing-giver 10 {he gods.
th e couuu -r of the doub le gr anaries an d steward
Saren c ruuet. the j usu ficd .
bor n of Bamekci .
4.3 Trans lat ion:
the ter race of rh e grea t god .
th e temple of Osrris-Khernvt meru u.
Poker
sacred land
Adoring Wep wawet du ri ng hi s wottdcrful p-ocesston
for ever and ever.
Ado rin g Osi ri s duri ng his wonderfu l fl' sti val !i
f(lr ever and ever.
Kb sing Ihe 10 Khemyimem u
and the splendo ur of Wepwawet
ily th e \lvcrw er (If the cha mhe r Ime L
ht p-dt- nsw
ssir li b [ dw Ilfr rl nb ,baH
dl=[ prt -hr w
: hnl::t lpd ;5 mntll
tJt nbt ·· ntJr ntr tnt
n kl II fmt by
dd f:rtp( w) vnrr n ntrw
hsb-I1IIVTY mvr pr
.H-nJII Wrr mv-hrw
ms-n iu- mk t
C_Ji
snr

h mt Me lr H, pi. 4: sr f:r ns sw
t o .......J
Lassoo rn g t h c long- horn ed bull
*1
dwt

sn
Mel r I . pi. I I : wpt kf ( W;
'"


Separa ti ng t he bu lls
rwd n ntr
hwt -ntr 111 sstr J]nty-rnmtw
pkr
If dsr
ptr njrw n lr nf r
mv· tJrw
ml)' " 'P'W1wt n b th ! sr
mry ssir wn n -n]r nb sbdw
sn {l n l! nty· lm1ltw
ml! "rnYwp-wn... .It
In m' l inrf
p,-f-brw n
Chapter 4
4.2 Words:
Key to the exercises
4.4 Translat ing the capt ions 0 11 8M EA WI :
Cent re:
Labels 10 the mol' of Abydos on p. 55:
3.9 Study exercise: 8M EA 585
Righ t:
dlV! '.vp-wm..'t m prt=! ntrt
rfl r nh h
LefJ:
dws ssl r m bMwl =[ nf rw
rfl r nhh
4.5 Trall.slating tile captions on 8M EA 581
Top :
HOl lOn! :
wnn -nf r
Hnretttlte'h
Rame vsev I
Sei i I
Ra rnesses It
Ra III
c\ I( of fcrmg v...·hicll I he gin."\
hi Osir is. lord of Djed u. grt."3t lord of Abydos.
d voicl' of
hread an o ht."er. ox and fowl. aidbasin an d linen.
and good an d pure
0 11 wlt ic.:h a gocJ live s
for the ka of the rev ered olle.
, he ovrr Set'r of li te chamber Amcnemhe!. the jll s1ified .
An which th e king gives/p laces
be for e Osins-Khemyimeutu.
(great god. lord) of Abydos.
wrbl in all his good and purr: places .
so that he nra y gi ve a voice ollering
in bread and in beer
in ox and fowl and ev ervth tng good
fo r i he ka of ih e re ver ed one before ihe great god.
ih e geucr al -tn- ch iet Arneny,
born of Kcbu. the j ustified .
The requi red offe rings:
thct usau ds Hf ox an d fowl and every thing guod an d pu re
for the ka lIf the revered one,
the governor SC' l1bL the Justified.
hr-m-hb mry -l mll

.n } mr v-n -psh
r r.mssw nsrv- tmn
, · · mj' -J/:t") h k H WII W
3.3 Gods' "ames:
m' T "bnwty rV...d!- smr-wcty
I C) \\
3M IVr
=
r./sr·!Jprw-."-" str -n-re
mn -rhry-r:
mn -mr t- r r
I VST- m j " ! - , " :i1" - 1I-"
wsr-mr t-rs n.ry-imn
J64 How to read l::qYPlian hieroqlyph s
htp -dt-nsw
tJr ISIr !Jmy· /mnl w
[nt r ', nbltbrfw
m , (w)l "f " I>, nfrt
dl=[ prt -hrw
m [ m frnkl
m k, IJ'd m "b (l) nirt
1/ kJ 11 irnslt w br 'If f 'I
m ·T ml ' wr lmny
tr -n I1w -bnv
Chapter 3
3.2 Words:
3.4 Titles
2.9 St udy exercise: 8M EA 117
Tilt' Inis s/DRpharaohs a re all t he pharauhs of the I vth-t z t h dyn asue s incl usive, and wi th in
th e 18th dyn asty. Ha tshe psu t. Akh en at en an d Turan khamun (as well as the ot her Ama rna
p haraohs, Ay an d th e sha duwv figu re of Nt?fnlJderudlt'n/ SmetlkhkareL
htp -di-nsw
l sir nb Jdw n[r ' I llh lbdw
prt·!If1.V
I h"kl ki wd {,
!)I " bl ,,[rlt ) """blt l
rn!;t "Ir 1m
11 kf n It mb f wj
m -r rbn w( f}'/ tmn-m-hu
rn1r.!JI!'v
3.6 The offering formula from 8M EA 162:
3.7 Offen'ng table scene:
dbht-htp
ks ,p,i 11 1>1 ntrt W"I> I
11 kJ r
huv-: snbr 1n/ ( · tlTJA,
3.8 Study exercise: 8M EA 587
Western side - horizontal inscri ption :
Vert ical inscriptions from north to south:
Vertical inscription s from north to south:
167 Key to the exercises
I conducted the great procession.
I buried the old.
I gave br ead to th e hun gry and clothes to t he naked.
I fer ried the bootless in my own ferry .
I repe ated favour befor e the king.
I gave br ead to t he hungry
and clot hes to th e naked .
I ferried th e boa tless in my own ferry.
I acquired 100 bull s th rough what I did myself.
An offeri ng which the king grves
to Osiris, lord of Diedu . Khe ntyi rnen tu.
His beloved wife, the sol e lady-in- wai nng
a nd pr iestess of Hat hor,
th e revered one Hui.
His beloved son Nenwy .
An offering wh ich th e ki ng gives
to Anubis, the one on his mounta in,
the one in th e wr. lord of t he sacr ed lan d:
a voice offerin g for t he governor,
seal-bearer of th e kin g. sole companion.
an d lector-priest,
and revered one before th e gr ea t god and lord of the sky.
lnh uretnakht.
iw i r.n»! prt ('It
Iw kr s.n»! I,(w)
Iw I n hkr hbsw n b'y
Iw iI ,.n(=I) Iww m
Iw h51 br nsw e.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Chapter 5
5.2 Words:

h51

trnms

rill
} A./J
wril
Ib...m,
fi
hki

hsmn
- " ./J n/tl lt

twi t
I

NJ)
tup-dt- nsw
ssir nb ddw hntv.Imruw
5.3 Trans/a/ion:
5.4 Study exercise: BM EA 1783
lines 1-2 :
htp-dt-nsw
i npw
1;,,(y), wI nb udsr
prthrw n h1CV.r
btm,.\··b/ ,y smr -w'I (Y)
hry-hb t
imt hw ljr ntr (', nb pt
In- hrt-nbt
lines 4 -5:
iw rdt.ntwi] I n
hbsw n hry
Iw Iww <m>
Iw kl( wi J00 m irt.ni --i} ds(=l j
in.n H=f smsw»] mry»] dbi What his beloved eldest snn Debi made for him.
The famil y:
1}mt=f mrt==J bkr t·ns w-\{"'u
itm (I )·ntr bM-br
Im'b' bWI
mry»] ntll<Y
The ded icat ion :
5.5 Study exercise: BM EA 571 (lOP)
First offeri ng for mul a:
Spearing fish
by the rever ed one before Osiris, lord of the
western desert .
the governor and overseer of the pries ts
Senbi. the jus tified.
The revered one before HapI', Nakhtankh, the j ustified.
The revered one before Tefnut. Nakhtankh, th e j us tified.
The revered one befor e Nut. Nakhtankh, th e j usnfied .
The rever ed one before Qebe hsenuel. Nak hta nlth, th e
j ust ified .
An offering which the kin g gives
to Anu bis, the one bef ore the divine booth,
the on e on his mountai n, th e on e in the wr,
lord of the sacred land:
a good bu rial in his wonde rful tomb of th e necr opoli s:
the rever ed one before the great god,
Nakhtankh, the justified.
The rever ed on e before IJ11setLNakhtankh,
The rever ed one before Shu , Nakh tank h. the ju sti fied.
The rever ed one be fore Geb. Nak htankh, th e justified.
The rever ed one befor e Dua mut el. Nak htank h, the
justified.
Thr owi ng at birds
by th e gove r nor, sea l-bea rer of the kin g,
a nd sole companion Senb i. th e j ustifie d.
An offering wh ich the kin g gives
to Osiris , lord of Djedu. Khentyimentu.
grea t goo, lord of Aby dos,
so that he ma y give everything good and pure:
a th ou sand of bread and be er,
ox and fowl. ala baster and linen ,
on which a god lives ,
for th e ka of the rever ed one .
Nakhtankh, the j ustifi ed. '
His wife of his affect ion
Meres, possessor of reveren ce.
n
mrs nbt Im' iJ
SIt rm(w)
In Im' by fJr tstr nb smy t t mnn
huy-: m-r hm-ntr
snb i mr- hrw
rmt'f r Ipd(wj
tn hlly-' lIt mty-bl ly
smr vty snbl mr-hrw
htp-di- nsw
tsi r nb ririw lInry-Imnt w
ntr 'I nb IMw
di»] lIt nb(t) nfrt "", br
iJl m t hnk;
kl Ipd 5S mnll t
rnb l n tr 1m
n kI n Im'iJ( y)
ntrl- f'nu mr-h rw
Im'lI M IJr trnstt nllt -'n iJ
Im'IJ(Y) IJr 5W not -'ny mr-hrw
Im,o(y) IJr fi b not- 'no mr- hrw
Im'!J(Y) IJr dwi-mwt»] nIJI-' n!t
mr -hrw
ntp-dt-nsw
Inp(w) bnly sh-ntr
tp(y)-ilw=f tmtyr-wt
nb lI-dsr
krst nfr t m nfr n brl-n/ r
I ml!!Y lJr rur ( I
nlll-rn!J mr-hrw
Im' bM br bpy not -'nb mr- hrw
Im'b M !Jr tjm nb t-'nb mv -hrw
Im'lr(y) IJ r nwl n!JI-'nIJ mv-hrw
Im'!t (y) !Jr kbh -snw»] n!tr-'n IJ
ml('-!Jrw
166 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
4.6 Study exercise: Fishing and fowling scene f rom the tomb of Senbi at Meir
Left-hand scene:
Right -hand scen e:
Above Senbi 's wife:
4.7 Study exercise: The coffin of Nakhtankh (BM EA 35285)
Eastern side - horizont al inscript ion :
5_6 Study Exercise : BM EA 571 (/lOtlOm)
Translit eration and Translation :
"_Famil y:
You may have noti ced th at the use or "his' renders the precise recon struction of gene alogies
rat her pr oblematic. Here the ma le figures a re given in rela tion to eithe r Sahathor or Saamun
(the prin cipal male figu res in the offering scenes above) . whereas the pairing of ma le and
femal e figures seems to relat e the fema les 10 their accompanying male figu re father than
directly to either Sahat hor or Saamnn.
b. Household and esta te:
hi m kJ Jpd mnht a thou sand of ox and fowl. alabaster and linen,
1)1 nb [ t} nfr(l) w bl t) and everythm g good and pure
rnbr ntr (J irn on whic h the great god !ives
n Imlb (w) rh-nsw m ry nb»] for th e revered one, king-s adviso r beloved of his lord,
m-r p r ml' · brw th e steward Sahat ho r, the just ified.
mrt»] trw (a nd) his beloved wile Kh u.
(the formula is finished off by the inscri ptions above the figur es of Saha thor and Khu)
Offerin g-bea rers:
169 Keyto the exercises
buried th e old.
I clothed the naked,
and J di d no wr ong against people.
gave bread to the hungry
and clothes to th e naked;
I did not complain abou t the great .
and I put the lowl y at [th eir] ease .
He advance d me,
he promoted my position,
and placed me in his confi dence
in his pn vaie palace (pala ce of privacy) .
conducted the proces sion of Wepwawet.
when he set ou t to pro tect his father;
I drov e away the rebel s at the Ncshmer -bark:
and I felled the enemi es of Osiris.
conduct ed the grea t pr ocession.
followi ng th e god at his travels:
and I mad e the god's boa t sail.
cleared th e ways of the god
to his tomb at th e forefront of Poker.
protected Wen ennefer
on that day 01the great fight;
I felled all his enemi es
on the bank of Ncdvet
and I had hi m proceed inside the grea t bark .
(and ) It brought Osiris Khentyimen tu
lord of Abvd os to his palace,
an d I followed the cod to hi, house.
J have been roasting since the beginning of ti me ·
J have never see n the like of thi s goose.
tw tr.n»t prt WP- WIWI
r n<!
sbl(w) hr nlmt
shr.nv-i bfllw) ssir
iw ir.11=1 prt ' I I
{ ms=:. i n t r r nmtt»]
dt.n »i skd dpt -r ur
i n.n=s ssir tJnly· ,mnlk'
nb IMw n
( m< J-f =:.( nt r r r;r =:.{
Iw ,Jsr.n =1 WI(W) I ntr
r hnu ph
I w nd.n»! wnn-nf r
hrw r! n ' hI ' I
ofl(w)=f nb
hr (H I! n ndyt
dtn»! WJ to=f r anw wrr
b. Iw I n hkr
trbs(w) n hsy
n sro(=I) ' I(W)
nN w)
a. Iw kr s.n«! lJ(W)
hbsn »l trl)'
n IWI/ r rmr
c. tw s' s.n- f w(l )

w(l) m st
"m 'It=:.! n w-w
iw=:. i hr m' k: rjr pn
11 nU=:.J mity o-w pn
Chapter 6
6_2 Words:
1'}
(i r
2Q
mt

n,J

M

mll y

san

skd

t ms
6.3 Tran slation:
6.4 Tran slat ion:
6.5 Study exe rcise: The Osi ris Mysteries at Abydos:
a, Transliteration an d Tran slation
The cup-bearer Het ep .
The en tering-mai d Dedet.
The washennan Sahathor.
wbu hrp
' k(yj ' ddl
rhtv st-hwt -hr
His beloved son, the steward Samenkhe t. the j ustified.
The over seer of the storeho use Intel.
The \..up-bearer EmsaL
The cup-bearer Sehet epib.
His belov ed friend Intel .
His beloved son Ameny,
His beloved wife Satwosret.
His beloved son the priest Sen wosret .
Hi5bel oved wife Sat mentju.
His belove d son the steward Amenemhet.
His mother Bet.
The attendant Tjau.
The dom estic Khu.
The butcher Sahathor.
How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs
wbs sht p-ib
onms =! tnt]
mry»] imny
hmt»] mrt- f sn-wsrtt}
5J=4 mry=! hm.ntr s- n- wsrt
!,ml=! SfI-mnrW
SJ=f mry»] m· , pr imn -rn-hst
mWI =! bl
f msw (1W
hrt -pr b w
sftw st-h wt -hr
168
51=1 mry=f m-r p' ss-rnn ht mv-brw
m- r Sl truf
wbs
Secon d offering fonnula:
htp-dt -nsw An offering which the king gives
sstr nb tmnt nfrt to Osiris. lord of the beautif ul west.
nrr ' I nb IM w great god, lord of Abydos.
dkf mw SNtT mrht so that he may give wate r and beer, incense and un guent
bl nb(l) nfr( l) wb(l) and everyt hing good and pu re
' nb' nt' tm on which a god lives
m Jod m ?-nl at the month-festival. at the hall-month festival
wl9 f!trwn the Wag-festival an d the Tho th-festival
dn nt r r pkr and the (festival of) the god's boat -journ ey to Poker
n imJ!J( w) m-r p r ss-tmn mv- hrw for the revered one, the steward Saamun, the justified,
hmt»] mrt»] bw (and) hi s beloved wi fe Khu.
(once again the fonn ula is finished off by the inscript ions above the figure s of Saamun and Khu )
Offering-bearer s:
171 Key 10 the exercises
An offeri ng whi ch th e kin g gives
10 Osiris. lord of Djedu, great god. lord of Abvdos.
sa thai he may give a voice offerin g of
brea d and bee r, LlX and fowl. al aba ster and linen .
and everyth ing good and pure on which a god lives
Iur the ka of th e rever ed one Key,
a true ki ngs adviser beloved o f him
wh o doe s wha t t he king favo urs
dur ing the cou rse of every day.
I have come from my town;
I have desce nded from my district .
I wa s one who said wh at is good .
a nd what th e di rect or of king 's advisers loves.
I did no t de nounce a man to his superior;
I did not command a beati ng for a man of mine .
The reve red on e before t he gre at god
the reporter Key. born of Mell i. th e j us tified.
An offe ring whi ch the king gives
10 Osiri s. lord of Djedu. grea t god. lord of Abydos.
so tha t he may give a voice o ffering of
bread and beer. ox and fowl, alabaster and linen.
an d everything good and pur e on wh ich a god lives,
whic h t he sky gives, which the la nd crea tes,
and wh ich the in nundation brings
as an offeri ng which th e king gives.
the sweet br eath of life. and t he scent of pure
ince nse
fur the ka of the govern or Nakht i, th e j usti fied.
born of Nakhr i, the justified.
His wife, the mi stress of the hous e Net nehu, the [ustified.
His mot hcr, Ihe mislre ss of Ihe house Nakh tt. Ihe justified.
The Wet · nurse Isel.
wh ich the sky gives. wh ich ihe land creates,
an d whi ch t he i nun danon brings.
ddt pt krmt "
11111/ h' pl.v)
ht p-dt-nsw
vstr lib qdwnt r ' I lib vbdw
dl=[ prt -hrw
r k, Ipd fs mn tn
bt nbt nf rt w br r ntH ntr fm
ddt pt 11
111111
m htp-dt .nsw
II W n nJm st snt r w
r
/1
n kI tI hlty J nht t mr -hrw
ms-n nh t! mvt -hrw
7.6 Relative fo rms:
7_7 Study exercise: 8M EA H 8
tnp-dt.nsw
isi r nb [ dw n{r q nb vbaw
dl=f prt -hrw
I hnkt kJ spd Is mnh:
nb tt) nfr lt) .,..'bll) -lIbl II l r tm
II kl II ky
rh-nsw mF mry»]
Irlr) bsls)r II SW
m bn -hrw tit rr nb
111.11=1) m 11 1<11=1)
h' .III=I) m splll =1j
tnk: Jd IIfTl
mr rt lJrp rh- nsw
II qws l =I) S II hry-tp»]
II wq(=tj hwr m s=1
fm lb(w) lJr nt r r l
whm ky ms-n mrti mv-hrw
7.8 Study exercise: 8M EA 143
Below (from righ t to left ):
hm :=f nbt-pr 1I1' lIblV mrt-hrw
mwtx] nbt -pr nbt t mvt -hrw
mwt 1St
Cha pter 8
8.2 Words:
1t'---"
;sp

SIb

m' h'l

f llyl
;::;
Is
'3,:
II;
His tru C' servant of his affCt.1ion.
one forC' most of positi on in the hou se of his I()rd:
an ofhciJI grcal of his hc:art.
one who knows Ihe tlt'Sift' of his lord,
onc who follows hi m al all his journ eys.
I was an ,lSUllt' individual
wh o spoke wi th his (o wn ) mouth.
who acted with hi s (own) strong arm,
and who kepi h is i own at a distance from h imself.
I was a dign itarv in Thebes,
and a great pillar in Khenr yt ,
I surpassed allYpee r of mine
in thi s I OWTI in all ki nds of digniryrwcanh .
14 under the person of t ht ki ng of Upprr and Lower
Egypt Kheperk a re living forever.
The rever ed one . the bod 's falher ltv says:
I rep eat ed favou r bef ore th e king
and a dvanced my he art more than III)' Ior c.ar hers
wh o existed before me .
His pe rson assigned 10 fi t' a great seal
III pure arnerh vst.
JUS! like an y dignit ar y of th e king.
and III )' -aa ft in ebony decorat ed in clect rum.
The rever ed one. the god 's father tty.
His beloved wtfe lu ri .
Thl' ft'v("f('d O ll t" I h e- god '" falhC'r, v nl' lru ly bd tlYcd of hh
lo' d,
I!lt' rnasler of .St' crels of Amlln -Ra in J /I V place (,) f hi s,
His son trucf.
His SOli Amc ue mhet .
lIis dau ghte r Satsobe k.
His daug hter Sat wosrct ,
How CO read Eqvp tian hi eroqlyphs
blb f ml ' II SI-Ib=f
&1I1( V) 51 m pr IIb=f
sr q n tb=l
r&&r1-lb IIb=f
Imj JW r mutJ=f nb /I )
tt . I I ! } nds ikr
Jd m r=f
t r rn
shs] nwt»! r=f
fn k .{ps m wiiI
twn r l m 01HYI
. w sWI. n(=i) mfr.V(= fj nb
m m oW m m nb
tm'tUWj It · tlff mry mV
t .
SJ=f III/f
sf=f tmn- m-h n
5'1=f SlI-sbk
SIC=! sTl- wSrJ
170
r npt -sp 14 [r r am n ,Isw· buy
-1111 Jr
Iml g ( w ) i t -sur It...... JJ-::l
tw whm.n(::;;-i) li st Or nsw
sr; fb(o::::. ij r f1(w)l = ij
Orn' ! r.hu» t
Iw /511 -11= 1 hrn=f 1Irm "
m hsmn wrb
mi tps-mw nb
fryl::::t m hbny J w rb J m Jr m
tm l [l ( W) it -ntr ity
hmr =f mrt»] twr t
b. Thl family:
6.6 St udy exercise: 8M EA 586
<1. Te.\ 1
Chapter 7
7.4 Translation:
7.5 Stela of Ity (8 M EA 586):
7.2 Words:
How to read Eqyptian hieroalyphs
Family, colleague s an d staff in cen rral scene:
1
173
the overseer of bui lders Khue nbik . the j ustified.
ho m of xer ur.
An offeri ng which th e ki ng gives/pl aces
be fore Osiris-Khe ntyimentu,
(great god . lord] I1fAbvdos
in all his good a nd pur e places.
50 th at he may give a voice ol feri ng
in brea d an d in beer
in ox an d fowl an d in everyt h ing goo d
for the ka of th e reve red one befor e th e gr eat god.
the ge neral-in -ch ief Ameny,
born of Kebu. the ju st ified.
May hel p be give n 10 him in the Neshmet -bark
on the wa ys of th e We st.
May he receive offeri ngs (from) upon the great alt ar
du ring th e festivals 01th e necropolis.
May ' Welcome in peace' be sai d to him
by the great ones of Abydos
at th e wag-Icsuval , at th e Thoth-Ie sti val.
a: th e Soker-fesrival. at the procession of Min ,
at th e procession of Sot his. at the begini ng of th e
lunar yea r.
and at JII the great festi va ls which are performed
for Osi rts- Kh enryi mentu. the great god,
for the ka of the general- in-chief Ameny
Key to the exercises
His will' Hat h or. born of Ma iuenhor.
His da ught er Ren a , the ju st ified.
It is his son who h as ma de his name hve IOn }
the ove rsee r of builders Niprahkai.,
His beloved son Pta hhor ep .
His beloved wife
who doe s what he favou rs eve ry day
th e pn l'stt' sSof H<Itho r
bom of Amcny. t he justifie d.
The Clip -bea rer Salkhenelkhe lY.
His tru e servant of h is affection,
who does wh at h e favours every da y
the treasure r Saha tho r.
pos sesw r of rev erence, the.- j ustfted.
His beluved brother Khenc'khet yhe tep
born of Satsobek_t he justified.
Sakhen etkhetl'·
The ka -pIil'St Djdahal'Y.
the hairdres ser Khuye t.
The do me stic Ame ny.
itml=! mrt=!
I rrt I}SSI=! r r nb
Itm(l) -nl ' hwr -h ' mdh w
mst -n Imny mJr' · y n-t'
Wbil SlI-bm·b 'y
blk=! ml' n st- Ib=!
I " r r nb
m· r l] unt $,·h wl-J; r
n b fmrb mJr· tzrw
,"=! m' rY)=! !;1lI·bry-h tp
Ir-n SJl-sbk mJr· b rw
"-lm l-IIIY
hm -kJ <f!I -h' p!}')
nSI bwyt
J;r( v) .p r Imny
Lower scene:
m hbt w} lib ' I trrw
n isir hnty-tmntw nt r q
n kI n m- r mJr wr Imn y
hwt -hr ms-n mti- n-ht
Sl/=! " W(I) m" (I)-brw
III SI=! S'lll1 rn =!
mr tkdw n-nth-kstw,
51=! mry=! pIli -hIp
m.r tkdw hw-n-blk; mr- hrw
ms-n " wt
The fami ly:
8.5 Study exercise: BM EA 162
ht p-di-nsw
!.I r tslr tmtv-l mntw
[ nt r ' I nb] IMw
m sfw) l =! nbt nf rt wrbt
dl={ prt -hrw
m r m hnkr
111 kl ,pd m /11 nb(t) nfrt
n kJ n l] r l1(r r,
m-r ml r wr I mny
tr -n J;bw ml r-brw
dl .l(w) n=! "wy m 1l5mr
hr 1"1(1")1 Imnt
Ssp=! ht pl it' htp ' I
m hb (w) II brt '"lr
rid.l(w) n=! lt v m
111 w r (w) Jl I bdw
In \VJ; m dhwu
m hb-skr m prt- mnw
m pr t spdt m i p- m pt
o the Ihing whu may pass by thi s tom b
in non h or in going sout h.
in that you wish to follow Wcpwa w('1. at aUhis journeys.
may you say: ' Bread and beer. 1000_ox and fowL 1000.
alabast er and line n. 1000, offeri ngs and
pro\1sions. 1000.
as everyth ing gOtx! and pure on whi ch a god lives
for the ka uf the revered one before aUthe gods of Allydos
and before the killg.
An offering which the king Rives
to Osiris . lor d of Djedu. Kh ent yimentu
greal (god I, lord of Abydos,
Wepwawe t, lord of th e sacr ed land,
Khnllm and Heke t
and aUt he god, ollhe west ern desen.
so that th ey may give a voice offering of
bread an d bet:"r, ox and fowl, alabasler and linen .
offerings an d prov ision s
fo r th e ka of Ihc revered one
th e overseer of builders Khu nen bik, who says :
Regna l yea r 13 unde-r ihe person of
the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Nubkaure .
given life enduringly and repeatedly.
An offering whi ch the king gives
to Osiris. lord of Djt-du. Khernvi me ntu. lurd of Abydos
and wepwawei. the one at the forefront of Abvdos.
Hekel an d Kh num
ami all t he gods of Abvdos
S0 (ha l they may give a voi ce offering of
br ead and beer, ox and fow l. alabaster and linen,
and everyt hing good which goes before the great god.
May ha nds be pr esented to him carrying offerings
du ri ng the fes tivals of the ne cropolis
alo ng wi th the followers of Osiris.
the ance st ors wh o exist ed before.
May the gre at on es of Dj edu
and the entour age ill Abyd os enspirit you.
May ' welcome in peace' be said to h im
by the grea t ones of Abydos .
May he tr avel wit h t he great god
during the god 's jou rn ey to Ro-Poke r.
when th e great Neshmet-bark is at its journ eys
du ri ng the-festivals of the necropolis.
May he hea r ju bila tion in the mouth of Tawer
(at) the Haker-rhes of the night of vigil
during the vigil of Horus-s».
172
rnpt -sp J3 br hm n
nsw-bn:v nbw- kiw-r-:
d/ ' n!1 dl r
ht p-di -nsw
sstr nb ridwbm:,..imnrwnb ibdw
" 11-14! I WI !Jnt.v 'bau!
hnr !Jnmw
»rr w nb ,bf..fw
dl =slI pn -J;n-,;
I ta (pd 5S mnht
nbt n!'(I) pr(' )1 m-lnh 11(' ' I
ms.ttw] n=! r it OY br /:z Ip
m hb(w) rev.' brl- nt r
fm
r
Ims tw) n Is tr
Ip(Wj-' bp, w b, -Im
SIl l jw WT(W) 1/W ddw
InYI tmt Ibdw
sdmx] hnw m r n :1-""
hskr g,h II sdrt
m sdryt nt hr-l n
m /11 nb(l) n/ rt k<bt •n!1IIll' 1m
n kI n Jml !Jy br nt r ( w) nb(w} ,bd w
!Jr nsk'
8.3 BM EA 567:
i rntr w nv1t(y) .sn br mrJ:z r( tn
m bd m II'! I
m mrr=rn {,m Wp o W1A1l r nmu=! Il b
lid=ln I hn kt !;I kJ Ipd !;1
Is mll!; t!;1 h tp d! (lw) it'
dd.uw) Il=! IIw m !t' P
In wrw nw Ibdw
slil=! itll' Ill' ' I
m r r-pkr
nl mt wrr r nmtt»s
m itb(w) IlWhr t. mr
8.4 St udy exercise: BM EA 584
lup-dt-nsw
tstr nb ddw hnry-tmrnw
<nlr> rJ nb Ibdw
ap-Mwt nb fJ asr
IInmw hit' itkl
"trw nbw smyt Il11 ml
dl=sn prt-!;rw
I hllkt ki Ipd 5S mll!; 1
itll'dR IlY)
II kl n /m!/t (w)
m-' b w- n-bl k lid
Bibliography and further reading
The following bibliogr aphy is hig hly se lect ive and aimed at works which will
supplement thi s book and aid you in further reading an d stu dy. We hav e
tried to concentrate on books which a re still in print and ava ilable through
maj or stockist s. Howeve r, some works of pa rtic ula r re levance for the to pics
covered in this book will probably only be fou nd in specialist libraries and
the se a re prefixed wit h *.
Hieroglyphs
On hi eroglyphs, two books in particula r can be recommen ded to comple -
ment t he early part of this book:
W.V. Davies, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Reading the Past series, Bri tish
Museum Press, London 1987.
J . Malek, ABC of Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Ashmolean Museum, Oxfor d
1994.
Kings' names
A full er list of the cartouches of th e kings of Egypt can be found in:
S.J . Quirke, Who were the Pharaohs? A History of their Names wi th a List of
their Cartouches, Brit ish Museum Press. Londo n 1990.
Stelae
1£ yo u are interested in ext end ing your reading of ste lae and coff ns, then
examplesfor study are on di splay in mos t ma j or muse ums . In the UK, the
following muse ums have part icul arly su it able collections (the list is not
exh au stive and a numbe r of ot her museums and privat e collections al so
have Mi ddl e Kingdom stelae and coffins on display]:
Southern England: Bri tish Museum, Londo n; Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford; Fit zwilliam Mu seum, Ca mbridge.
Non hern England: Merseyside Count y Museum, Liverpool; The
Manch ester Mus e um; The Ori ental Mu seum, Durham.
Scotland: Royal Mus eum of Scotland, Edinbu rgh: Kel vingrove Art Gal-
lery an d Mu se um , Glasgow.
However. if you ha ve access to a good specialist library (such as the library of
the Egyp t Exploration Society, open to members of the society) then th e Iol-
lowinv two work, roruain a number of lnreresrin o 'kin" for vrudv-
f
!
Bibliography and fu rther reading 175
The most convenient collection of Aby dos ste lae re mains:
* W.K. Simpson, The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos: The Offering Chap-
els of Dynasties 12 and 13., Publications of the Pennsylva nia-Yale
Expedition to Egypt No . 5. Peabody Mu seum of Na tural Histo ry
and The University Mus eum of th e University of Pennsylvania.
New Have n and Philadelphi a 1974 .
(Th is book contains photographs of a n umber of Abydcne Middle King dom
stel ae from museum collecti ons around the world, includi ng some of th e
stel ae studied here. reassembled by Simpso n into the ori gina l gro up s of
monument s fo und at Abydo s. )
Th e foll owing titl e contai ns a number of st elae from Nagr ed-Dei r of a similar
ki nd to BM EA 1783 (p . 74 ):
* D. Dunham, Naga-ed-Di r stelae ofthe First Intermeditate Period, Mus eum
of Fine Art s, Boston 19 37.
Coffins
A convenient introduction t o coffins and their devel opment is:
J.H. Taylor, Coffins, Shire Publications, Aylesbury 1989.
A more detail ed discussion of Middle Kingdom coffin s can be found in:
* H.O. Wille ms. Chests of Lif e: A Study of the Typology and Conceptual
Development of Middl e Kingdom Standard Class Coffi ns, Orien taliste.
Leuven 1988.
Religion: Osiris and the afterlife
A co nvenient rece nt account is provided in:
S.J. Quirke, Ancient Egyptian Religion, Briti sh Museum Press, London
1992 (especia lly Chapte rs 2 an d 5) .
Titles
There is no readil y available gen eral work on title s to aid you in yo ur read-
ing . Howeve r, a convenient listing of tit les by functi on can be found in:
* S.J . Qu irke, 'The regular titles of th e late Middle Kingdom' , Revue
d ' f.'gyptologie 37 (1986). pp . 107-30.
Otherwi se. the ma jor listing of Middl e Kingdom t itles with hie roglyphs,
tra nslite ration and transla tion is:
* W.A. Ward, Index of EHyptiall Administrative and Religiolls Titles of the
Middl e Kingdom, with a Glossary of Words and Phrases Used. Ame ri-
can Universi ty in Beirut Press , Beiru t 1982.
Translations
The most con veni ent set of t ra ns lations for Midd le Kin gdom stelae (which
176 How tv read Egyptian hieroqlyphs
• M. Lich theim. Ancient l-.gypti<l11 Autobioqraphies chiefly "f the Middle
Ki ngdom: A St udy and an Antholoqy. Orbis Bibli cus et Orientalis 84 .
Uriive rsi ta tsverlag. Frcib urg and Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Got-
tin gen 1988 .
Some stelae a re als o included in Licht hcim's earli er and more rea dily a vail-
able book:
M . Lichtheim, Ancient Eqyptian Literature, 1: The Old an d Middl e Kingdoms ,
Unive rsity of California Press . Berkeley and Los Angeles 19 73 ,
A mor e recent a nt hology of transl ations fro m a variet y of Mi ddle Kingdom
tex ts . inclu ding stelae , is:
R.B. Parkinson, Voices f rom Ancient Egypt. An Amhology ofMi ddle Kingdom
Writings, Bri tish Museum Pres s, london 199 1.
Dictionaries and sign-lists
Th e most convenie nt dicti o na ry in English remains:
R.O. Faulkner , A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Grif fith In sti tut e,
Oxford 1962 .
A mor e comprehensive sign-list with a n ext ensi ve disc uss ion of th e use of
sign s is included at t he end of :
A.H. Ga rdi ne r, Egyptian Grammar, Being an Introductio n to the Study of
Hieroglyphs. 3rd editi on, Griffit h Institute, Oxford 19 57.
Bot h of these works are still in print and readily avai lable .
Grammar
Ga rdiner's Egyptian Grammar also remains th e mos t cumpre hensive treat -
ment of ancient Egyptian in English, although a num ber of the sections on
the verb (occupyi ng the second half of th e book) are now rather da ted.
Our book is n ot intended as a gr ammar book, but lying be hind the
pr esentat ion of t he la ng uage is th e pa rt icu lar 'verbalist' ap proach devel oped
by Mark Collie r in a number of special lst papers. A simila r 'verbal ist'
approach is conveniently presented in :
A. Lopr ieno. Ancient Eg.vptian: A Linquistic lntroduction, Cambridge
Uni ve rsity Press, Cambridge 199 5,
Thi s book also pr ovides a conc ise account of t he historical devel opme nt of
ancient Egyptian language and scripts.
The a uthors of thi s book ca n be cont acted via Sch ool for Scri bes, PO Box
25020, Glasgow GI 5YD. Un ited Kingdom,
Index
abbreviations, see words
Abydos 4 1. 54-6, 58, 73 ,87-9, 12 1,
124; Abydos formula 114-1 5: see
also Osiris
adjectives 10, 93-4. 117- 18, 150; as
nouns 94. 150; genit ival adjective
40
agreement 10, 19. 7 I. 93 -4. 96,
100- 101. II L 116, 117, 148, 150
Anubis 42, 63-4
appeal to the living I I 1-14
auxiliaries 66--7. 80-81. 82.83-4
captions 4 9-50
causation 82 . 11 5
cha racterisation 6&-9, 96 - 8
cartouches 20 . 26 , 28
coffins 62-4
compound expressions 40
cont inuation 80-81. 82
co-ordination, without linking words
67. /l0-8!. 84-5
dat ing 21
dati ng criteria 38, 39.41. 107. 110.
114
defective writing s. see words
descnprion 65 , 68, 80
dete rmina tives (meaning-signs) 5-6.
13
direct ion of wri ting. see words
Djed u 4 1
duals. dual endi ngs 19, 149
dynasties (of kings) 22
epi thets . see titles
eth ical beha viour 35. 65, 75
family, see kinship
feminine . see nou ns. gender; seealso
agreement
festivals 50, 76--8 , 12 3; seealso Osiris
filial ion, see kinship
First Int ermediate Period 22
funerary beliefs 35, 50, 76-8, 87,
114-15
funerar y cu lt see offeri ngs
fut ure. see tenses
genitive (possessor) 39--40, 9&- 9. 150;
seealso adjectives
graphic tran sposition. see word order
tinker-rues 87 - 9
honorific tr ansposition. see word
order
Horus: name of king 20 ; son of Osiris
4 1- 2, 71 ,12 1; four sons of 62- 3
ideograms (sound-meaning signs)
17- 18
infinitive 4 9-50, 52-4. 144- 5
Inhuret 70, 73
Isis 4 1-2
Khcutyirncntu . fee Osiris
178 I ndex
kinship (family. filiation) 69. 70-72.
75 . 99
masc uline , sa noun s, gen de r
me ani ng-s igns, see derermma uves
Meir 13
Middle Kingdom 22
Nag' ed- Den 7 3-5
na me s: of kings 20-2 1,26, 28,70; of
officia ls 69- 70; see also Osiris
ne ga tio n 8 1-2, 115-1 6, 146-7, 149
Neshmet-bark (of Osiris) 88
New Kingdom 22
nomen 20, 26. 28
nouns 9, 149; gen der (masculine,
feminin e) 9, 149; seealso adjec-
tives, as nouns
numbers 20. 21
object. see pronouns
offerings 35 , 35-9,70-71, 76-7;
offeri ng formula 35-9
Old Kingdom 22
Osiri s 40-42. 54-6; festivals a t
Abydos (Osiris Mysteries) 50,
54- 6,87-9, 12 1; tomb of 55-6. 87 ;
as Khentyimeruu 41. 87 , 118; as
wenennefer 42 , 87 ; seealso Horu s
palace 102
parti ciples 94-5, 147 ; passive 98- 9.
past 95, 147; present 95. 147: as
nouns 96 , I J I; sgmtyf y as futu re
equivale nt II I
passive 115, see also pa rticiples
past , see tenses
perfect, see tenses
pl ural ending 8-9; plural strok es 6. 8,
72 ; writ ing the pl ural 8- 9, 19, 93,
111 ,11 6, 1l7, 148, 14 9, 150
Poker 55. 87
possesso r, seegeni tive, pronouns
pracno mcn 20. 26. 28
prep osi tions 9-10, 117
presen t. see tenses
priests 10 3. 104
pronou ns 66: dependent 82-3, 149;
independent 97, 149; suffix 66, 67-8.
8 3, 98-9, 148. 149; a> subjects 66,
67, 1\3, 148, 149; as object s 68 .83.
148, 149; as gen iuve 68. 98 -9, 148
pronunciat ion 3, 4, II
purpose 115
regnal yea rs, see dating
rela tive forms 68-9,72. 100-101.
147- 8; past 68-9, 100, 107, 147;
prese nt 100, 147
' sacred land' 55
self-prese ntat ion 65, 67. 75
Seth 30, 41
sound-sig ns 1- 2; l -consonaru signs
3-4; z-consonam signs 15- 16; 3-
con son ant signs 17; sound-comple -
ments 16, 17, 18; sound- mean ing
sign s, see ideograms
sound compleme nts, see sou nd -signs
sound- meaning signs . see sou nd-s igns
st range writ ings, seewords
subject 66 ; seealso pronou ns
tenses 145-7; fu tu re 49 , 82 , II L 114,
146; past 49,65-6,97-8, 145; per-
fen 67 ; present 49, 83 - 5; present,
gen eral 83- 5, 145; present , speci fic
8 3-4, 14 5; seealsopart iciples; rela-
tive forms
titles and epithe ts 33,95-6, 118;
fun er ary 35, 39; of king s 20-21.
28 , 34, 102; of of ficials 34-5, 9 L
10 1- 3; of Osiris 24, 37 . 40-42; of
wom en 103-4
translation and translation schemes
49- 50, 50-5 1. 53-4, 67 ,67-8,
68-9. 80-8 1. 82 , 85 . 97 , 148
translite ration 2, 3-4, 19. 51-2,72,
105, 144
transposition. see wo rd orde r
treasur y 102- 3
ve rbs 49; classes 50-52. 144; doubli ng
,.
51; extra we ak 51-2; root 5 L 52,
53; stem 51. 65; strong 51; weak
51- 2
voice-offeri ng 37-9, 107
vowel s. abse nce of 2
weak con sonant s, omission of 8-9,
51-2,93,117,127,144,147,149.
150
weak ve rbs. see ve rbs
Wen ennefer, see Osir is
Wepwawel 42 .55, 87, 96, 120
word s; abbrevia tions 32, 44- 5; defec-
tive/strange writings 25, 34, 44 ;
di rection of writ ing 7-8; flexi bility
in spelling 16, 18,26,28,34,60
wo rd order 10, 66, 8 3, 150; gra phi c
tr an sposition 32- 3; hon or ific trans-
position 33-4
I ndex 179
Index of ill ust rations
(mon u me nts fro m the British
Muse um coll ection)
EM EA to I (Nebipusenwosret) 58
BM EA 117 (ki ng-li st o f Rarnesses II)
31
BM EA 143 (Nakh ti) 110
BM EA 162 (Amen v ) 44, 125
BM EA 558 (Key ) 108
BM EA 567 (Amcnemhet) 26, 120
EM EA 57 1 (KIm) 77 , 79
BM EA 58 1 (In te l) 59
BM EA 584 (Khu en bik) 122
BM EA 585 [Sa rcnenu tet) 48
BM EA 586 (lt y ) 25, 90 , 106
BM EA 587 (Ame n ernhe t) 46
BM EA 178 3 (lnhuremakht) 74
BM EA 35285 (cof fin of Nakhta nkh)
63,64

Contents

0 1 L\ litorni<1 Pit' ''''' Ik rkdt'Y .u td :.tb .-\ 1I ~d es . l ~ .\ li l lH r i .l
L n i vt.' rs it ~·

C II ; \'(.· I "' " ~·

Introduction

vii

Ch a p t e r 3 Spec ial wr it ings §2 0
Ahl rrcvi a : ion s 32

.u

( a; ifor lt ~;.

Pn -s.... Lid.

Chapter I Hieroglyphs

§2 !

Ch a nge of o rd er: spacillg 32

Loud o n . F n ~ l d l lt l

§1
§2
§3

lt ltr'1d uCli<tn

1
2

§ 22 Change of ord er : prest ige 33 §23 Def ect ive o r stra nge writings 34

Reading h ie ro glyp h s
Tra llsl itl'r ati oll 2

§ 24 Titles 34

Pilb lish c d oy a n angc- uc ru wh h : 11 C Brn isl: ,\1 11 ~ (.·i1 t11 Pres...

§4
§5

1 -co ns o n ant signs

2

§ 25 Epithets 35

Arra n geme nt of sign s

.J
6

§ 26 Th e .:fferin g fo rm ula 35
§ 27 The ge nitive 39

ISIJ:\ 0 -52 0-2 1507 -4 bv And re w St-oolh rc d Ty pt'<;t ' l ill Me rid ie-nh y ;-.sigci St rnd v·>1c \.. , 1l "' [ J1 ~ h ieroglyphs 1: 0111 th e l~kl1 Forn J("si~lI t'd b v ~:~(.'l )
D l>~ i g ll l 'd

§6 §7

Dete rm in atives: mean ing-signs Dire ct iOIl of w ritin g

t :q,l'priall fwu rary deities 40
8

§S
§9
§ 10

qi a nd 1" " Uns Adje ctive s

II'

an d plurals

Exerci e, s

.J3

} l llg~d l1s.

Exira d i,lail ifs .md hiero glyph s h ~"

Si ge l Su u dwi ck .
( l iver

10

Chapter 4 Scenes and capt ions §28 C1pti,) m : the m lin irivc
50

fxacis es
d t.::.ign: ·
" t~ n Il Cl Ii
Oil J

10

49

Ca Iroll
ri 11lJI i mp letncr u .

§2 9 Adur ation Chapter 2 More u ses of hieroglyphs § ll § 12 2-con son ant signs , -col15on ant signs 15
J7

Cove r: ln scnp uon

§ , 0 Verb classe s an d t h e tutm irivc

50

dcd tc.ne.t by

J\: i n ~ S n l\ vnSf e l

I hi II;S J nt" CS\ or

Kiq : i\ k l: lj uh t lh 'V :1. For .11: cxp l.nr.ui u n
,\ 111o::,CIH!1 u f An , N r-w Yo r k ,
.1CC.

0: l i h'

§"

The [,1f1) lS o f th e inf in itive

5.2

in sc npn ou . se t' p a s t' I ~~ '" T ilt' ,\.k lr n jl()lil.l ll
lt d . 2 ~ . ] I , R l)~l'r "

Till' cult ofCh iris at Abydo:

5.J

fu ud .

1 92 ·~
i ll ( ~ r(' Jl

§ 13 Ideo gram s: s' lu lld- m e.1ning ; iglls t:i 14 Varia n t w riti ngs 18
J<)

17 Ch a p te r 5 Descript ion § >2 tn rrod uruo u : descri pti'1n §B Th e pas t: slim,,, r=j )
~ ,4 A ux ilin ric~

Pru .u -d

Brhar n

§ I 5 Wri t ing th e pl ur a l

§ 16 =" lib, 'a il, cver v. .my' and

65

="

11 'lo rd, master' /',

J<}

65

§ I; RUy.1 na mes a :..I tu les l
!j III Roval epithers

20

66

21

§ 35 Or u isviot: o f th e first perso n s lIffix
p ro uuuu

§1 9 Da tiug

21
2':

07'

Chu rt {If r,'y ,11 J.VJt.1' tIL~S

~ 'b

Su ffix

PT d I Wl111 <;

67
68

E'(crclSrS 2 3

~, 7 'Th e lM')l rcl .u ivc [o rm : .'; J 111 t . J1 (~J)

Names and ki nship terms

69

§54 The' appeal W llte living t i : §5) Wishes. expect.'tion s and reqnesis: the tuiurc s4m( ~fJ
1 ;·1
114

Cha p ter 6 Furt her aspec ts of descr ip tion
§ 38 CantinUJI:Oll
SO

§56 The Abydos formnla §57 Pur pose and cau sar iou

Introduction

! 15

§ 39 Negalion

81

§40 Making someone do ",met hing
82

§5S :'-:egaiioll 115 §59 for ms of th e srlmly-!" an d the futur e
s!f.m (~.')


117

§4 1 Depcnd ent pr onou ns 82 §42 The present tens e
Exercises 85
83

§60 Adjectives in -y
Exerci es s
J J9

§43 Other things going on

84

About the Iront cover

126

HIerog lyp hic sign-lists for t he exercises Cha pter 7 Char acterisation §44 Adjectives 9 3 §45 Adjectives used as nouns §40 Participles
94 94

I

I- con sona nt signs

127

II Somc common 2-consonant signs
111 SOniC common 3-collsonall! signs
IV Som e conuno n ideograms
128

;21
ill

§47 Participles and epithets §48 Participles as no uns §50 Passive pan iciples
96

95

V Full sign list

129

§49 CharaClerisalion with ~ ink 96
98

Refer e nce tables
Verb forms
144 148

§5 1 ill + n oun + participle §52 Relative Iorms again
Midd!" Kin yd,' m titles Exercises 104

:nO lOu

Pronouns, nouns and adjectives

luI

Egyptian-English vocabu la ry Key to the exercises
16::

151

Chap ter 8 Th e future §53 The s4m ty.fy rOflll
II I

Bibliog raphy a nd furt her readi ng Index
I "
7~

1

_,
,~

Th e aim of th is book is 10 ena ble you to read and e njo y the h ier oglyph s a nd the langu age of ancient Egyp t. It is ch iefly aimed at th ose who ha ve had no previous experience of reading h ieroglyphs, bu t shou ld also benefit ot h e rs who w ould like to im pro ve their kn owled ge in line w ith contemporary research . Above all, this is a pra ctical guide: from the ver y beginning yo u will be in tro d uced 10 ge nu ine hieroglyphic text s. with full su ppo rting exp lan at ions and study aid s. In or de r to do this, we have con centrated on monuments in the British Museum, in particular th e ste la e (or funera ry im criptions ) of Egypt ia n officials, as well as coffin s, romb scen es, and the famou s Abydos King -list of Ram esses II. Each ch apter introdu ce s yo u to a n ew feature of the hie rogl yphic scri pt o r the la ngu age, and ends with copies of in scriptions on which you can pr actise your skills . We belie ve thi s approa ch ha s a number o l advantage s. First. by reading gen uine anci en t inscri ptio ns from the first les so n , yo u can build up yo ur familiarity with the tricks of the trade: everyth in g here (fro m indi vid ual sign s to whole ins criptions) is typi cal of the kind of monuments displa yed , no t j ust in the Bri tish Mu seum, bu t in m use um s through out the world . Secondly, by reading th ese monuments, we hop e yo u will feel a real sen se of achievement at each sta ge of the book. Th ird ly, con centrating on a coh er e nt group of monument s W1]] allow u s to raise so m e im po rt ant topics - suc h a s th e ro le of Osiris, god of the dead, and the Mysteries cele brated at hi s cult ce nt re. Abyd os - which will help yo u to u n de rsta nd th e cu ltural backgro u nd of these monumel1ls. Rather tha n cra m m ing in unnecessary de rail. w e will give you plem v of pr acti ce in reading hieroglyphs, and introduce yo u to the most comm on fea tures o r th e ancient Egypt ian langu age as it appea rs on these monuments. Th is will give yo u a firm basis on which 10 buil d, if yO ll later move on to stud y other genr es of the we alth of te xts whi ch surv ives from an cient Egypt -literature, religiou s wisdom . ro yal de cree s, or whateve r. Th is book has developed a lit of a course wh ich we h ave been te ach in g sinc e 199 2. It wa s clear to US back the n tha t the exis ting introductions to ancient Egyptian were either 100 bri ef or 100 det ailed , and th at there

Seve ra l colleagu es have h elped u s to teac h hie ro glyph s at the Sch ool: Ludwig Mo renz. as well as toping with the a rrival of Oliver a nd a preoccupi ed husba nd.'. In developing th is p rojec t into book form. who allowed us th e freedom 10 dev el op t he cou rse as I'll' Si\W fit. Classics and Orienta l Stu dies. conce ntrared wee k of stu dy. wh o prepared th e map o f Abydo s on page 55. and completed th em afte r h is a ppo intm ent to the Schoo l of Arch aeology. tntrodu ction to Middl e f. At Bloom sbu ry Su mme r Sch ool. a nd th is pro jec t.qlyphs q studying at hom e. the Universit y o f Glasgow. we h av e had th e cha nce 10 introduce people to hiero glyp hs in the ho t-house of a single. At the Bloomsbu ry Summer Sch oo l in part icu lar. Ox ford. our grateful th a nk s are due to Tony Legge and Lesle y Han niga n. Finally o ur than ks are due to Ma rk Mechan . Ma rk Collier Bill Manley . We have taught the co urse in va n ou s guises for seve ral gro ups a nd insti tu tio ns: the Unive rsity of Londo n Cen tre for Ext raMural $1 udtes. Unive rsity of Liverp oo l. Th is book OWl' S a great deal 10 the co nstr uctive feed ba ck of the stu de n ts at all these ven ues . for a long tim e . At the Univ e rsity of Lon do n Cent re for Extra -Mu ral Stu dies. we h ave ha d the good for tun e to be able 10 draw o n the kn owled ge a nd sup por t of ma ny peop le. and for encourag in g US in our belief th at th is hook .and th e approach it em bodies . nut in th e present case ou r love a nd gen u in e heartfelt th anks a rt' due 10 our wive s. h e would like to ackn owledge the sup port o f both these institution s. His work on th e langu age sections of the hook has deve loped in ta ndem w ith his comprehensive u ndergradua te gramma r co urse.. and as a resul t it is m uc h cleare r a nd more accessible. I'll' are especially grateful to Rich ar d Par kin son lo r hi s outs tanding line dra wi ngs. still fou nd t ime to com m en t o n the fina l dra ft. and encour aged us 10 ma ke use of Richar d Parkinson 's exp ert ise in copyi ng hier oglyph ic mo nume nts: Stephen Quir ke freely sh ared hi s co n side rable knowled ge o f Middle Kingdom officialdom. who is now a regu lar partner in o ur teaching. We arc gra tefu l to the stal! of the British Mu seum Press. a nd a lso his admirab le staff fo r diligen tly keep ing u s all (tu tor s and stu de n ts) alive . w e are immensely gra teful 10 each a nd eve ryo ne of them for the ir en th usiasm an d feedba ck. we would like to than k th e Director. above all our editor. We wou ld specially like to thank Nigel Strudwick for undert ak ing th e Eng lish and Eg~'Ptia n type settin g. not least for agreeing to take on such a complex book . At the British M useum. who allowe d LIS ca rte blanc he 10 dev elop lan guage course s.:qyptiml . th e Workers Edu ca tion al Associa tion. In part icu lar. the Sussex Egyptol ogy Societ y a nd the Tha me s Valley Egyptological Soc iety at the University of Rea ding . Joa n ne. Christo ph e r Coleman.is a worthwh ile pr oject. as well as e ncourage ment and th e first roun d of drinks: a s noted. and Helen Stru dwic k for correc ting proofs in Nigel's abse nce . a nd also to Louise Lam be. Altho ug h it woul d be impossible 10 ac knowledge so many by name . Keeper of Egyptian Antiq ui ties . for he r de dicati on and goo d h umour in dealing with su ch a deman ding project . w ho h ave put LIp with us. Carolyn Jo nes . Ma rk drafted his co ntrib u tions to the boo k wh ile a resident Fellow at All Souls College . It is customary to ad d a fina l wor d about part n ers. and especially Jose -Ram on PerezAccino . wh o have helped us (som eti mes forced u s' ) to re fin e and clari fy the text. the Egypt Exploration Societ y. Toby Wilkinson. first brou gh t th e pro ject to th e a ttention of British Museum Pre ss. Jo an ne Timpson an d Kathy Mc Fall. ypli an iIie. Vivian Davi es. whic h w ill be published sepa rately.Int rodu ai on vii i How 10 ix read E.

M. face ' eic. 44 . The sce nes from ihe Middle Kin gdo m io mbs . C Briti sh Museum Photograp hic Service. Man y depic living crea t iures o r o bjec ts (o r t h e ir pa n s ): :it scale d mart <:::. i hey co nvey ihe sounds of var iou s words in Egyptian w hich toge ther have the follo wing m ea ni ng: ' f h ave be en roast tu g since th e beginnin g of rime . ch ick. Egypt Expl or ati on Societ y. 64. So.. som e signs rep rese nt th e object th ey dep ict . Bla ckm an. ihe hi e roglyph s abov e ibe figure roastin g the goo se do not rea d ' reed. pI. Ho wever. The ph oio graphs on pages 31. So.I hav e neve r see n ihe like of thi s goo se' (Meir Ill.h apter J Illustrations Hieroglyphs The lin e drawin gs of ih e stelae re. Dep artment of Egyptian Ant iq uities . fo r exa mple. Lon do n 19 14 an d 1915. 108 a nd 125 a re suppli ed court esy o f th e Tru ste e s of the British Muse um . vols I and 11.t. j ust as th e letters of our own alphabet con ve y ihe sou nds o f Eng lish .prod uced in th is boo k were d rawn by Richa rd Par kinson. as yo u might expect. Inste ad. British Mu se um . rat h er. ver y few wo rds a re act ual ly wrinen in ihi s way . the mouth -sign -=--> is used 10 write the wo rd for m o uth . it has not alwa ys bee n possible fo r the auth ors 10 collate their own co pies again st ihe orig ina l m onument s. The Rock Tom bs of Mm . § 1 Introduction Hier oglyphs a n ' pict ures use d as signs in writ in g.n Me ir ar e from A.-::> mou th wat e r-pot And . hiero glyphi c pio ur e -sigu s a re used to convey the sound (and meaning ) of th e an cient Egyptian lan guage. ma ti. which ma kes no sen se. . 63. Ma rk Meeh an prepa red th e map of Abyd os o n page 55. w e ar e graieful to ih e Society [or pe rm issio n 10 reprodu ce rhem . 23 ) The pu rpose of this boo k is 10 sho w yo u j us: h o w this is done . us ually in combinatio n wli h a stroke -sign (see § 13 belo w fo r ihi s sign ): 7 r mou th A uth ors' note: Due 10 refurbish m ent wo rk a1 the British Museum duri ng 199 7 -8 . for exa m ple.

~ . be ing used inst ead to complement or clarif y the reading of n pr (this is discussed in Cha pter 2 ). The o n ly rea l odd ity a bo u t thi s is th at hieroglyphs ar e n ot us ed to wri te vowels (a. The walking legs Jj are used as a determinative. ' leav e". Most of the se sounds resembl e their En glish co u nt e rp a rt s and ca n be transliterated dir ectly int o familiar letters from our ow n alphabet. th e re is another wo rd whi ch ma ke s use of th e sa me so und combination p a n d r. as En glish spea kers. Th e sign n depicts a sche ma tic house (in plan ) a nd is used to w rite th e word fo r 'ho use ' as fo llo ws ( I is th e strok e -sign al rea dy noted abo ve): cont ribu tes a single sound towards the readi ng of a word. here of moti on (see §6 belo w ). m it a TRAN'SLIT.in §§3 a n d 4 below . . It is a very go od discipline to get u sed to thi s right from th e beginning a n d we en courage you alw a ys to transliterat e when reading . yo u sho u ld soo n get used to it. In hier oglyphs thi s is written as: ~ Jj pr y k h h 9 IV w/u h h go out. but rath er to 'pict u re : the sou n d combin ati on pr (t his is discussed in Cha pter 2) . made in the th roat like Scot tish 'loW' 0 '( Ii English 'lok~ like French 'dieu or §4 t-consonant signs It is now tim e to get yo u started readin g hicr oglvnhs for vourself. th e th ird column simpl y give s a w ay in which we . Made by clenching the throat mu scles: to imitate. 'go o ut'.illip' back k. and th ese require specially a da p ted transl iterat ion sym bols of th eir o wn: --' like trying to say 'ah ' while swallowing. Put more formally. This is terme d th e rebus principle. SA Y SIGN TRAN S SA Y SIGN ur. like Cockney 'bo'::le' for 'bottle' ~t -= b = LJ like Germa n 'ig !' as in '. The proper valu e of ea ch sign is the transllteranon value given in the seco nd co lu mn. On thi s basis hieroglyphs ca n be used lO in d ica te sounds rather than things and can thus be used in word s quite unrelated in meaning to th e objects they depict. n is no lo n ger bein g u sed to depict a h ou se. the word for 'go o ut' . i . it is as if we were to writ e th e Eng lish word belief wi tlt a picture of a bee a nd a leaf as . thi s w ord is ba sed on th e tw o consonant s p and r combin ed to give proWe sh all di scuss t he way the a ncie nt Egyptian word is put in to o ur o wn wr iting system . The m ost Each l -co nsonant sign repre sents a di snnci sou nd in th e ancie n t Egyp tian . say ' eto ' wi th finger on thr oat glottal stop. a ltho ug h thi s wi ll seem a bit stra nge a t first. Th e word n Jj pr. made furthe r back in the mout h llke qunc' t ~ ~ j €> emphatic h. u ). Th e m outh -sign <r> reads r as it did in ~ r 'mou th ' . rather like th e let ter s of o ur o wn alp hab e t: SIGN TRA NS irr. §3 Transliteration In th e last secti on we rendered L( in to our writi ng syste m as pro It is the norm al pr actice am o ng Egyp tol ogi sts to transliterate the soun ds of a h iero glyp hic w ord in thi s wa y. How e ver. = f We sh all co nce nt ra te here o n the reading of these signs .how it is transliterated .2 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Hieroglyphs 3 §2 Reading hieroglyphs Ho w then ca n hi e rog lyp hs be read to sho w us somet hing of th e so u n d of an a nci e nt Egyptian word ? The easiest way to sec thi s is throu gh look in g at a real e xample . leave J o b p b p ~ or _ kh kh = tj d d In thi s w ord . on ly co nso na nt s. 0 . Now. co nsu lt the fu ll sign-list be gin n ing on p. can voc a lise the se sign s fo r our o wn co nve n ie nce . If yo u wish to iden tify the objec ts th e signs depic t. a sign sometimes pla ced at th e e n d of a wo rd to give a genera l idea of iTS meaning. alt ho ug h it has not hi n g to do with 'mou th ' here. also displa ys an other tWOsign s w ho se use will be ex plainedmore fully lat er. n is being used as a sound -sign or phonogram. e. 129 . SAY ~ m n = Li sh k C( pr house 4 44or \\ } orl:' y n k k g As it happen s. som e l-co ns onant sign s ar e used to represent so u n ds no t pre sent in spo ke n or written En glish .

th ese pro nu nciations are pur ely a practical con venience an d are n ot intend ed to bear an y relat ion to spoke n Egypt ian . Two oth er co mm on deterrninati ves req uire a little more de scription . where 'a' is u sed. from looking at the exa mples discu ssed so far.f'. as a long thi n sign. whe reas the m ore un usual one s ar c usua llv given a convenient Eng lish approxima tion. in th e ins cription s yo u will be reading in thi s book det erminaiivcs are quite frequ ently om itte d . in hieroglyph ic wr iting words a re so me tim es writte n wit h mea nin g-sign s. but in balanced groups or 'blocks' arra nged to fill the ava ilable space. the follow ing is tile word for 'birds'. if yo u a re bothe red by a particular deter minative. pla ced at th e end of the word afte r th e sou n d-signs . consu lt the fnll sign -list begin ning on p.J) !lrw h sb s. except in the cases of J and -. First .2 <'1l PI'. In part icu lar. Y may wis h io read this paragraph again whe n readin g §7 on th e dire ction o f wr iting.m hieroalyphs Hieroglyph s 5 inclu de all th e va rious dot s and da she s wh en trauslitcraung . is placed ab ove both th e tall thin signs fm b (3) an d I (4).8 on p. Y w ill see a number of exam ples of group ing on throughout the rest of this chapter. even though disting uishing betwe en th em is rather difficu lt for us as English speake rs. weak or lillie things iown. man and his occupations god. especially ea rly on in your stud ies. a p urel y con verniona l pronuncia tion. But notice ih ar the signs maki ng up th e na me are gro up ed tog et her. The re is no need to tr y an d pron ounce ancie ru Egyptia n words exactl y (in any case this is imp ossible. Seco nd ly. The con ven tion normall y ad opt ed is to in sert a n ' e' between ea ch con son ant . evil Qis (place-name) ~ }0 ru~ j . LlQ r@ kls §5 Arrangement of signs It may alre ad y have str uck you. lime motion small bird used for bad. thinkin g) as well as the rele vant activ ities con ne cted with th ese. king sun. rather than spellin g iheru out sign by sign. so they do not need 10 be at th e centre of your att enti on. but for tw o reason s thi s Iact sho uld not get in yo ur wa y. This is tr ue eve n if we find it difficult to tell the diffe rence between tw o sou nds . speaking) or met aphoricall y (em ot io ns. 129 . Fo r exampl e. Howe ver. given with its tran sliteration an d its English m eaning: ~~~ ~ . For example. However. 3. k a nd k are quite difIcrcru sounds in Egypt ian .4 H. village ~I kJ. 3. either literally (ea ting. y vil may wish tc attemp t Exercises 1. for exam ple: :it Qf ~ n is call our.~ ipdw birds ou a nd then carry on as n onna!. In tra nslile rat ion you shou ld use ih c proper symbo l given in th e sec ond column of ihe table on p. since tile vowels are no t written ant for us ). so that the 11 (2). her e is th e name of t he official Senbi (Sl/bi) fru rn Exercise 1. The rule for such arra ngements is qu ite simple: wh en you I)et erminatives do not con tribute to the sounds o f th e word and so ar e not transliterated . is usua lly ado pt ed . Howe ver.'\\' ((1 read Fgy pti. sta rting with the s (I) . ent irely for our convenienc e.th e y ar e not optional. as alrea dy m ent ioned. So. ipd w (a wri ting discussed in §8) . J The nam e is wr itt en from le ft to righ t. summon . to -I I. At th is point. light. attitude s. so me signs ar e placed ov er othe rs in ord er to fill the spa ce in a mo re plea sing m anne r. Man y signs have value s si mila r to lette rs of our own alp hab et an d pr esent n o problem. th ey simp ly help US to ge t som e genera l idea of the me aning of a word . 13: '. 'C'> -~• -cz» ma n skr (ihe god) Saker day send bad. or detemlinan'ves. Th e followin g a re examp les of some com mo n deterrnina tives an d words writte n with them: :it t51 0 .1 and 1. @ JQ ~ bill Pur ely for o ur o w n con venien ce we cou ld pron o unce th is 'aped u'.1'. it is useful 10 be able to read out yo ur translite ra tions and vocalise wh ole word s. ~ (not 10 be co nfused with 'ma n' ) is the mean ing -sign used with w ord s for wha t can be taken in or expe lled through th e mo uth . form in g a hloc k. we do n ot tr an sliter ate detcrrnin attvc s. that hieroglyph s ar e no t arrang ed one afte r the oth er as in o ur ow n alpha betic syste m. and '. From our point of view. w here ' u is some time s used beca use the y are easier to pro no u nce . A lar ge n um ber of signs ca n be used as dere rnunati ves. Onc e aga in. We also need to add vowels. As an e xam ple . §6 Determinatives: meaning-signs So far w e have stu d ied words w ritte u ou t wit h so u nd -signs alone. These are th e rende ring s given in the third column in the table on p.~11-< -.

for reasons of spaci n g. if we look at the foll owing sce ne. 8 wit h th e o rde r of As we sh all see in Ch apt er 2. thus acq ui ring a tangi ble ph ysical fonn .. As an ex ample read ing from left to righ t.} ~ fi ll' Offe ring scene from th e tomb of Se nbi at Me ir (read from right to left ) (Me ir I. Put another wa y. They a re sho w n h er e alo ng side ex a m ples with a determinati ve : k il' or k il' \l. but still from righ t to left within each bloc k. de terrninat ives ar e oft en omitted .e . u sed fo r abstract word s or concepts. th e papyrus ro ll.~ IJI thingts) The word fJ l is often written w ith the plura l strokes I I I (see §8 belo w) . 11. as indicat ed by nos 4 · 13. Alth ough we sha ll co n tin ue to p resent the hie roglyp hs in leftto. Verticall y.l!f nds individual. the hieroglyphs a re to be read in the o rde r numbered. however.2 yo u a re aske d to tr anslit era te the followi ng w ords (fro m th e ro asting scene in § I) without der erminauves. Fo r e xample. To in crea se yo ur co n fide nc e in thi s skill. ma nner On e important word ofte n written with the papyrus roll determinative is: ~ . hie ro glyphs w ere . when yo u stu dy real ex am ples of insc riptio ns . Fort unately. as on the monumental in scription s we shall be study ing in thi s book. th ey often Io rm ed a fundam ental pa rt of the ae sth et ic scheme of a monument . for e xa m ple o n papyrus. conduct. wr itin g th e m in lin es fro m le ft to right. t he y could be written down. Alth ough su ch words could Dot easily be re pre se nt ed by a picture. th ere are othe r fea tures of t he h ieroglyphic scrip t whi ch tend to ensure that d iffer ent words ar e w ritt en d iffer e ntl y ev en when th ey share the sam e sound s. Th e re m aining signs th en read down the column. You ma y well recognise the na me of Senbi di scu ssed in §5 above . Notice that th e ori entation of a figure helps. pI. i. In practice. c:::J / 80 J \ 3 I "l l'jf. we can lo ok on ce more at the inscript ion we use d to introduce this book . Noti ce th at .righ t o rde r wi thin the text of t his book. healthy Read into thefroIII orfaces of the various signs. the inscription is fitted in to th e space surro un ding the figure. ordinary man. part icularl y when t he re a re n ot many signs w ith a clear 'front' : siJ r counsel. small'} Having a det e rm in at lve thus gives us a seco nd w ay of getting at a w ord _ a general clue as to its m eaning . the direction we would also n eed to look in to th e face of th e acco m pa nying figure. a full vocabu lary fo r thi s inscription is prov id ed at th e end of this chapte r. However. This writt en form co u ld then be depicted in the shape of the rolled -up pa pyrus sheet: r1 ~ n~~ ticul ar . the old 4).6 How 10 read Egyplian hieroglyphs Hieroglyphs 7 The mos t comm on determinati ve. these may well be or gan ised fro m right to left (t h is is in fac t th e more usu al directio n ) and poss ibly in col um n s..t. we hav e ordered the h ieroglyphs foll owing our ow n syste m of w ritin g. §7 Direction of writing 50 far.}1 i llv adoration. praise In thi s ca se.11) w ith the left. The ov e ra ll d irection of writing is indicated bes t by t he foot -sign (10): to read into the from of this sign we n eed to read from right to left.yo u will find th at a nu mb er of long thi n signs ca n be arranged like th is. so tha t yo u ca n pra ctise reading it for yo urself.. in Exe rcise 1.le ft wri tin g of this na me (nos 8. Com pa re th e right · to. signs n or mall y loo k tow ard s th e beginni ng of th e te xt . 9) old.to-right orde ring given in §5 (take n from a noth er inscripti on in Senbi's to mb) . you may wish Exercise ]. we a lways read from top to bottom (se e §5 ab ove). and f rom above 10 below. Th e first three signs read horizontally above th e top of the foreleg of beef ca rried by the figure . is ~. So. however. Som et imes a word ca n ha ve m ore th an one de termi n at ive : n . although it is not itself a plura l word . Th is has the advantage th at we can disti n guish between two word s written with the same sou n d-s igns : ~). the papyrus roll can be positi oned ei ther hori zontally or ve rt ically . so th e text begin s at the to p right. th er e is a ve ry sim ple trick to reading hieroglyp hs in the right o rde r: S1!b health. show n on p .3on p. roast 10 attempt AI this point. person (from root meaning 'little. plan.

except a t th e beginning of word s. as it w ere. however. In Egyptia n . as you bec om e fam iliar with the script an d gai n a gr asp of u sef ul word s. Fortunatel y. read se co nd . Me } ( In this ex ample. On e feature o f Egyp tia n w hic h is rather like En glish is the usc of pr epositions iwo rds which are 'p re-po sed '. the sea ted man. t he conso nant s ~ i and } ware often o m itted in w riting. fowl ~ <a> m in. No do u bt thi s will see m quite intimidating at first. th e ow l an d the bird in flight) an d the n at th e end turns the co rn e r. 'birds') .8 (see pp . as 11 Q~ J ~ . from. Notice . Line I reads from left to righ t horizonta lly (rea din g into th e fac e of the chi ck. Some of the ways Egyp tia n works ar c rathe r like Eng lish. th e sim plest preposi tions tend to be very short word s and are wri tt en wi th I.8 flow IL read Egyptian hieroglyp hs ' Hieroglyphs 9 indicate the plural.. the plur a l is in dicated by a -w cnding (just as it is typ ica lly in d ica ted in En glish by adding '-s'. there a re two ro ws ot inscript ion s. Through ou t th is bo ok. o th ers) to in dic a te loca tions (i n ' ). i is a lso usua llv a dded. tha t the hieroglyphs have been fined a ro u nd the figure. Along with vow els. bu t m ore o fte n the -IV is omitted. even if th ere is n o obv io u s rea son (to us ) wh y this sh o uld be the case. living th in gs a n d th e like). esp eciall y if yo u aspire to making rea l progre ss with yo ur s tud ies. This is parti cularly tru e for grammatical ending s. whe reas m asculine nouns ra re ly do . So. ~ in hy with toj w ar ds) tpeople). on ly o n e pa rt of readin g a h ieroglyph ic in scription. Since h ie rogly phs were used by th e a n cie nt Egyp tians to write down thei r own language. this d istin ction is ve ry ea sy to Spo t in ancient Egyp ti an. but so m e of its fea tures ar e n ot as we w ould expect fro m En glish . The word for 'bird ' (singu la r ) is: ~ ~ ?~ Jpd §8 1/ Also th ere a re no special words for 'th e' or 'a ' in cla ssical Egyp tian and so I S 'man ' ca n mean e ith e r ' a man ' o r 'th e m an ' (although one or the o th e r often suggests itself in transla tion into Engl ish ). thi s is nothing like as bad as it mi gh t see m . w e will in tro du ce you step by ste p to th e m ost common featur es of ancie n t Egyptian w hich yo u a re likel y to m ee t in th e sort o f in scrip tio ns stud ied he re . For e xa mple. object s. dr opping d own to fini sh in a co lumn with nos 13 . For example : 'it I 'l! ) man 2 st woma n a n d } wa n d plura ls Hieroglyphic writ in g is q uite ec on o m ical. a r . all nouns a re t rea te d as being eith er masculin e o r feminin e. As these examples al so indi cate. A plural determi native of th ree str ok es I .co nso na nt signs : bird. accomp animent (' With ') and how things are d one ('b y' ). su ffices to to twa rds ) rplacc t. Since the de termi native I I . it is u sefu l to k now so m e th in g a bout no u ns in Egy ptia n (nouns are the words typically used to refer to pe ople. an upper on e which is rea d fir st and a lo we r one. Exe rcise 1. lea vin g a m ore com pa ct grou p o f h ierogly phs: ~ '. sin ce feminin e nouns alm ost alw ays end in <:> . As in Engli sh . 13. with . as in 'bird '. we the n ret u rn to th e sta n of th e ne xt line and read a lo n g on ce more (in to the face of signs suc h as the seat ed man and the chick ).14 ) will give you fu n he r practice in thi s skill. yo u may be fa m ilia r with a sim ila r convention in French. direction s ('tow a rds ' ). and so will see m qu ite n ormal to you. As a sta rt in g point. b ut we hope to sho w you by exam ple th at. and will need a little more discu ssion and thought. Th is is made plural by a dd ing on a -w. or put before. §9 N o uns Lea rn ing to read h ie ro glyp hs is. it is n eces sary to b uild up a familiarity wi th h ow words ar e pu t toge th er in Egyp tian . for loll' For o u r co n venie nc e thi s w ord ca n be sou nde d 'aped '. th e -wendi n g is often simply le ft out of the writing (a nd transliterated in brackets). tim es (' d ur ing' ).15. As with o ur w riting sys te m . th is is som e tim es fully writt e n ou t. hieroglyphic signs were placed in a continuous seq ue n ce wi th out an y pu nc tuation marks o r word spacings.L. once again .

Which is given here? The second is a name shared by two kings of the 6th dynasty. Many readers of this book will be familiar with the famous pharaoh Akhenaten.if the noun is feminine and ends in -L. .4 Transliterating words Transliterate the following words written with I-consonant signs and determinatives (any sign which is not a I-consonant sign is a determinative and need not be transliterated). where the text ends with the phrase 'this goose': ~8 Ra or Re Seker or Soker -=. Once again. the traditional English rendering will help to guide you in most cases (although 'Anubis' is derived from a Greek version of the god's name . 1. evil IA . bad. Transliterate the following. pn and tn follow their noun and agree with. the Aten.3 Gods' names The names of certain gods are typically written with I-consonant signs. Any unfamilar sign (such as the seated dog) is a determinative and so not to be transliterated: Anubis Hekel Sebek or Sobek ~ 1!t IJ~3i-. and Akhenaten's innovative religious programme centred on the solar disc.iAn example this occurs in the inscription used at the beginning of this book. individual.g. 'a clever woman'). (11-= y'.2 Words from the roasting scene in the house for Senbi =1 LJ r pr to the house In the roasting scene used in our introduction.1 Kings' names You are now in a position to read the names of several Old Kingdom kings. person festival !~}-~~ Khufu Here are two further names of Old Kingdom kings.'Inpu' or 'Anpu ' might be a more conventional rendering into English). Transliterate the following and see if you can isolate the words in the original scene in § I: roast n snbi in snbi by Senbi goose §lO Adjectives An adjective is a word used to describe a noun.~=cJ) f~O ~'j name . who'is usually known by a Greek adaptation of his name as 'Cheeps'.it. The distinctive feature about adjectives in Egyptian is that they follow their nouns and also they agree with the noun .) Ptah cl Like adjectives. try to transliterate: Aten 'Aten. some words are written out with I-consonant signs. 'a stupid man'.3. First here is the name of the famous builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza. his wife Nefertiti. the Aten is written as follows. 20): 1. to give it a particular property or quality (e. The first is one of two names of a 5th dynasty king. for the use of the name-ring or cartouche see p. s bin the/an evil man :]. In hieroglyphs. like 'Anubis'. shows the alternative conventional use of 'a' for initial I (Tten: would be the other way of pronouncing this word in English).> ~ Exercises srw pn this goose 'Sobek' and 'Saker' are usually rendered with an 'a' because of the Greek forms of these names.) In this (fern. Djedkare Isesi.10 How to read Egyptian hieroqlyphs Hieroglyphs II For example: ~ C( m pr 1.J~~ 51 bini the/an evil woman The word for 'this' behaves in a similar manner: iJ pn ihls (masc. There is nothing of importance in this traditional practice. In hieroglyphs his name is written as follows (we have given you a conventional rendering in English afterwards to guide you in your transliteration. Remember to use the proper transliteration symbols from the second column in the table in §4. ordinary man. Once again. then so does the adjective: 1.

th e se a re d ra w ings o f re a l hie ro glyphs found o n the wall of th e to m b of Sen b i a n d nOI the vi a ndard hi croglvph s of a font suc h a s tha t u sed in thi s book ( rec a ll ho w Eng lish wnue n le t te rs di ffer a little from sta nda rd lyp e Iom s) . spe aring \ ~119 J. . the principal to w n o f the 14t h Up p er Egyptia n n ome (p ro vin ce ).--v.5 Writin g out words in hieroglyphs Write o u t the following w ords in h ie ro glyp hs usin g th e determi native su p plied . Se con d ly.. part icularly th at of rh e gov er n o r Scnbi.( (it can be ' rea d ' a t th e co r rect poi nt o f th e in script ion at the e nd of th e word fo r fo re leg \. Re m ember to a rr a ng e th e h ie ro glyph s iruo groups as noted in § 5 a bove : ar sr Y'" fall !J em kr st g C (v. VOCABULAR Y I ' -~--" '-~l--!J n. th e ce m ete ry site for Q is.-.-<. ' offid al burial rhe j ust ified . for sce nes to su p plem e nt your st ud y of th e M idd le Kin gdo m s te lae in the British :\l u seu m . We s ha ll m ake us e o f ihese to m bs.__..LP as a phrase re ferri ng to t he blessed dead: offerin gs a re made to the ka._" I garment for eleg (join! o f meal u se d in offe ring s ) 1. 14 usin g the vocabula ry a n d n otes be low the picture .) Not e the int eraction o f an a n d text in th is example. but als o serves a s the determinati ve of the w ord IIp.} This ex e rcise is useful in illu strating a co u ple of ot her p oint s as well.. 55 ) go north.. dose: (n . re lyin g o n u s to iso late th e co r rect gro u ps of hieroglyph s in th e voca bulary and to give their co rr ect reading and m eani ng._ - 1. the inscrip tion con tains w ords wr itten in other wa ys than with 1co ns o n ant signs wh ich yo u will n ot be ab le to re ad thro u gh at pre se n t. Se n bI (na me) Io~= : c::::J bps foreleg (o f ox in o fferin g! USl'O n l'1'j I . u se a 'cut -and -pa ste ' approach.7 Trans lati ng tile offe ring scene d c::=J 80 tmr -hrw is use d like our o w n R..6 Trans lation Transliteratr an d translate th e foll owing phra ses: k!J n ki n snbi for the ka of . particula rly in th e infill of sig n s . Yo u sho u ld JUSt ' cu t -a n d -pa st e ' the rel ev ant grou ps in to yo ur translations._. In stead .spiri t o f the dec ea sed. Ha ve a go at tr ansla ting the cap tio n w it h t he hel p o f ihc vo cabu lary pr o vided a n d the o rde ri ng o f the sig ns given in §7. This is rea lly just a m att er of ge tt ing u sed to v ari ab ilit y. .· _.8 Study exercise: A [ish inq and fo wling scene Tra nslite ra te an d translat e the label s abo ve the scen e on p . go do wn st rcarn sky fish alabaste r shoou ng .u se the vo ca bu lary p ro vi de d to see the st anda rd hi e ro glyp hs ._. Th is inscri p t ion co m es from the Mi d d le Kin gdo m to m bs at M c ir.. see p.. Fir st. wh ere rhe foreleg is an int egral pa rt o f the sce n e.) a/ th e seal 13} Th e sce ne on p . (Th e co n te x t of th e scen e is that th e figu re is offering the for eleg of a sla ug h tered bu ll 10 th e to m b owner Senbi: ih e inscri pnon relates h is spcerh . By t he end o f i h e n e xt cha p te r. " . even these w ord s should be clear to you.) sea l. 12 wa s u sed to illu stra te th e use o f h ierog lyphs w ritt en in rig ht -t o -le ft order in §7 a bo ve .-._. 1. I ~ r ~lft t~J h ~=rJ~ 1.12 How I<' read Egyptiall hieroqlyphs Hieroqlyphs 13 thro wing (the throw su ck in fow ling scenes ) staff Poker (place-name.

bt )r.f. I~ I '"' I :r ' § 11 2.famous k ings of ancien t Egypt.:: ..conso n ant sig n s The second major gro u p o f signs a re th e 2 -co nsona nt signs. wr '?~ gl = wr nb hs mr pr mr love.and becom ing famili a r with the m repre sents th e major hurd le to be ove rco me in rea ding hieroglyph s. The 2 -consona nt signs are rather com mon . ript.IJ pr 'go (out)' . MPI. ln its most basic for m. favour ill !J' Cons ide r the wor d bsk 'se rva n t'. "'Z. Ir will a lso which provide much ofthe sub tlety and flexibility of rlre hierogly ph icsc su pply yo u with the inf orma tion needed to read the names of mriou.ove r cight y~e used in th is book .con sonant signs to get you start ed. Th e follow ing are som e com mo n exam ples of 2. wh ich contribuie tw o consonants 10 the read ing of a wor d. w hich togethe r give the read ing of th e word as bsk (it may also be fin - 5r- .E SIGN EXAMPLE -= I r =~\~ 3&. 128 gives a table of the most comm on 2·con sonant signs used in the inscri ptions studied .consonant sign n p r in th e wor d n.. want go out thousand = nb hs ~~7 it n A . The sign -list on p.: ~ bsk servant 3&. th e word is huil t up through usin g th e 2'COJlSona nt sign hi followed hy the t -rnn so nan t sign '=' k . onan r an d s-consonant siq ns.14 How to read Egypriall hi eroqlyphs Chapter 2 i~ 'I~ L -/ More uses of hieroglyphs fbF' 1 The aim of this chapt er is to introducey ou ro the 2·con.l " !. We have already see n an exam ple in th e use of the 2. ' I great... a long w ith some com mon wor ds in wh ich the y occur (in cludi ng pr a gain so th at you can see how the ta ble wo rks): SIGN EX. including the names on the Abydos k ina -list ill the British M useu m . large gr ea t.. and we shall a lso in trod uce several at a time in the vo cabula ries to the va rio us exe rcises to allow yo u to become familia r wi th them in conven ient number s. ma ster )r. im portan t lord . t :. rr 2 U:M praise.

is a co m m o n e pit h et be stowed on the blessed dead (w h ose co n d u ct has been ju dg e d before t he go ds to be true ) a n d is u sed a fte r t he nam e s of the decea sed in a sim ila r man n er to o ur R. satisfy true. 'a n kh'. So read btk .. I:" L • • • 1. w o rd s ta ke o n more di stin ct iv e and memorab le w rit in gs than if they w ere sim ply writte n o ut in a n . each with a dHferent -sized sp a ce left at t he end of a line. the n the I -consonant sign. No lic. powerful co= our m e m ory abou t t he r of pro If. if we lo ok at the w o rd bsk. . ? < . as it w ere .=. we read pr and not prr even t hough it is w ritten wi th [ J pr + <z> r. proper 11fT II ntr god become !lIp ="= 0 0 htp I. : _ . Fortunately. Per ha ps the m ost fa mous ex ample o f th ese signs is ' 11[1.Jr h sou n d -co mplem ent JB. (Se c furthe r § 14 on p .. ~ l~ _ . he lp in g to jog the m em ory. th ey arc JUSt 'spclt out slightlv di lIercn tlv. ) § 13 Ideograms: so u n d.rr i m \' g !} ~ I. .> i •.con sonanl si g ns TI1<' fin al maj or group of sound..nus} w hic h combine so u nd and meaning and which com e rlo sest to ou r o w n p reco n cep tio ns of ho w a pict u re.z.co n sonaJ1l sign . or com e to DC' el. " :~ L " • _ _ •. The secon d no tice able poin t in th e w ritin g of so m e of th ese words is that I -co ns on ant sign s ofte n occ u r a s sou nd comp lem ents flesh in g out th e rea din g of a 2. it allow s a go od deal of flcxibili tv in th e a ct u al choice of signs u sed.I. aga in .•• " .'. we ca n lea ve it 10 thr ancient Egypti ans to do all the spe llin g [or u s . By having a mixed syste m in w h ich th e y ca n he w ritte n w it h differin g co m bm a n ons of h ie ro glyph s..I. So . ' ho w th is ~ i \'es a mort' visua lly di stinctive writ in g for the word th a n if it were si mply w ritten out wi th I. the inclusion or omissio n of so u nd -compleme nts .h rw 11' ' tr u e of voice ' or 'j u stifie d' . __ ~r . __ ~.i gn s as rath er forbidd ing. we could in clude a . th erefore.~ sli gh tly larger spa ce : Th e two w ord s readjust the same . ' " . So . . b ut th e re a re a n umber of ad vant age s. if w e look at ~ .m e a ni ng sig ns The final signs to he looked at in th is chapter ar e the so u n d -m e an ing sig ns (idcogr. " • • 1• . Fro m our poi nt o f vie w. The h icr oglvph ic svstcrn all ows liS a convenie nt and elegant wa y out of o ur problem . k must be n -ad separatel y.. fle shi n g ou t th e J of th e hi-s ign an d thu s fill th e Th e tw o word s 11 and [trw ha ve already been m e t in th e p hrase mr. . ~ _ .co n so naiu sign ha s a different valu e [rom th e sou n ds of an accompa n ying 2 -co n so n an t sign . 3·con so n ant sign s a re also often a ccompanied b v one or two 1-o1l1sonant signs as so un d complcmcms helping to flesh ow t he reading o f thr sign .. ju stified You ha ve e n co u nt e re d this in m o re co n de n se d writing s. I. • • .pr 5r i m r: 5r =:~ n B f' hrw voice own . t h e j.J'. . . Fo r ex ample.. Sup pose th at w e hav e two insrriptiou s. as alread y noted . use d in th e word for 'life ': 1- SIG ~ EXAM PLE SIG I' r:XANIPLE 1t ' Ilil To ~~ -> . ri ght. 18 bel ow.P.1hlc-ms for. ib hca n arm mo uth I .. w h ich co n tribut e th ree conso n a nt s to th e readin g of a word . about its read in g. . . tll'e word s in w h ic h they a rc used .nfr good rest.' \' arc used o n lv ill cert a in words and an' oft e n ronne r u -ri t o.signs a rc the 3-co n soll ant sign s.script sh o u ld w o rk: \7 ---! ._. a n d we wis h to write the w ord luk: ' se n' a n l' in eac h of th ese spaces. Th er e is a sim ple rule about thi s: if a I-con sonant sign s ha res the sa me value a s a n acc om pa n yi n g 2 -co n so n a n t sign .the im po rta nt point [or u s is ju st to be aware of th e Hcx ibilitv of t h e 5r 'it' . Th is._ .16 17 th e word refers to ~ per so n ). sinc e the sign on ly reads /)1 on its '" """= nf r 1". it i s no thing compared to the cnu rruou s number of w ords which an y language con iaius. 11 ~" r: the su n fan ' - pr h ou vr !tr As tht' e xamp les ind icate. do not h a ve one sing le co rr ect spelli n g b ut ar c rat he r ' cla st ic' and ca n he co nt ra cte d or ex p a nd ed throu gh . Alt h ou gh w e mi gh t view th e num be r o f 2-Cc1ll 50Jlam . Word s in hiewglyplIic writing. these sign s are oftell fo llowed bv i w hich hel ps to 1 ~ : _ . In the srualk-r spa ce we can write hs): as it is writt en in the tab le a bo ve : ~ ':. th is m ight se em an u n n ecessa rily complex w ay to go abou t w riting words. for exam ple. More impo rta n tl y. then thi s I -co n sona nt sign is not read a s ~ se p a rat e so u n d.ar e far fi-wvr of t hese signs a n d a lso man y o f th e m a re eruhl emarir . th is w a s parti cularl y usef ul in view of the fact t h at m ost h ie ro glyphic in scr iptions w ere written on fixed a n d infl exible surfa ce s s uch as sto n e. III the larger space . however.conson ant signs .Ilphabl"l-li ke syste m (think of the dilli cultivv of En glish spcIling "). Then. then it sh o u ld be read a s a sepa rat e so un d . - (' n[I life 1 I til It ) r 1~= w5r strung. beca us e r jogs § 12 3. su ch a syste m provides the flexibility 1O be able 1O write word s in blo cks as n ot ed in §5 . I > is a z -consonant sign readi n g 1111) : 2'~ ~ ! ~ m r -hrw tru e of voice. .tlI . .

'ever y ' or 'any ': e =- =- I1b all. The refore we en courage yo u to focu s on words a s a w h ole. by tradition . So und -II1eaning signs ca n be acco m pa n ie d by so u nd co m ple m e I1ls o r der c rm inat ivc s: c . 11 j~ th.' "1 a t Id ma y o r ma y n ot . rr)l nf'~ nr' l In 11 . er like the n ou n It go es WIth an d.Ab vdos") • •So the rule .f w lo rd of Abydos (Se c Exercise 2 . 149 ) Th e m os t co rruuon wa y o f w riting the plural has alread y b een discu ssed in §8 above . . words ca n be writt e n in a numb er of dif ferent ways. . ' . th e word I1b meanine ' lo rd' or ' ma ste r' . IS tvpica llv w ritten with plura l stro kes (. "-. c. al though it is fav o ured for certa in w or d s su ch a s II(W ) ' la n ds'. t he first noun ) th e n it is t h e word nb "u II. w hi CII. ev e ry..jp ). word 11h 'l ou t m a xte-r ' . Fo r th e se rea son s. rath er th e ra n ge o f 's pe lling ' of ms: co nc erns w h ethe r = 1111' w a s writt en al on g wit h > ml a s a so u n d cOlllp k m e n t (o ften co mbined into . h ow e ve r.1 iJ yplls Mort' uses ojhieroqlyphs 19 m ea n t. even thou gh m l ' -tlnV is writt e n nut in a n umbe r of d iffe rent ways.It . m aste r Fortunat ely . to sui t aest heti c and p hy sical cll ns ide ra tilln s.---" n il' (* is the sy m bol for 'n ot found' ). ~ S\ -wv an d fern . A fuller list of ideoj<rams is give n on Pl' · 128 -129 . you sh o u ld fin d th a t you m ak e fa ster pro gres s in read ing . a gree s wi th i t: As a lready no ted . most of them w ill n ot be immed ia tely read ab le (you sh ould.' every' any ' .18 How tc read Fgyptian Ili erL'. every.2 fo r tbd w . §1 6 C / nb ' a ll. an y ' . an y =. it is wort h no ting tha t 'spe llin g' is const rained by co nvention and tr ad ition w ithin fa irly str ict limi ts. wh en I1b m ea ns ' lord ' or 'm aste r' it co mes fir st in expres sion s: <z:» rJ ~ lib Ib. like an adje ctive . every. we hav e a lrea dy encou ntere d t h e ph rase Ime-Lznv 'tru e of voice' or 'ju stified' in a number of diffe rent w ritin gs: I"'.'!?' ' uy arms ~ tmy the two land s (Egypt: Delta and Valley) tlwy is wri tt en by re peating tw o sign s. Th e firs t i s th w ord for 'all'. whcn It r w en i . and pe rhaps a lso w ith ot he r so u nd com plem enls in diffe rin g combin atillns. ra pid ly grow u sed to reading Q a s \V'b. rather th a n tr yin g to puzz le th ro u gh th e u se of every single sign from first princip les.. However. We ne ed only be aware th at va ria nt spelling is a perfectly no rmal fe a tu re of hieroglyphic writing. If yo u conce n tra te on whol e words as o pposed to sin gle s ign s. pnc st c. § 14 Variant writings Hieroglyph s a re w ritten in gr oups . ~~ ~ ill nbt every thing also o ccu rs in another comrnnn word .. " Egy ptian also s ho w s a restricted u se of a d ua l en ding : msc. but t his is common o n ly' w ith rhi ngs w h ich ten d to co me in pa irs: This u sag e of signs illust ra tes an impo rt ant po int for using this book . b e h a ves ra t her Ii an adjective (se c § I 0 ): it follows . nhr::J ~ f' . • . Alt hough you may b e able to ' spe ll out ' a co uple o f th e w ords given in thi s section .is q uite sim p le: wh en I1b comes second in its phrase (a rid agrees w ith .. ' ~ lJ o w a -w soun d -SIgn (m the latte r case. lik e the se cond plural m ethod not ed above . r r~ = ".\\ -t y (in d ica tiug tw o o f som ething ). So . land Another way of wri ting the plura l is for a sign to be repe ate d three tim es: ~ t stw) lands Th is method is rarer in practice. I1b 'a ll. is writt en sim p ly: eI m .'( w} d Olhe s ¢1~ hea r :IT . liS most abbrevi at ed form . nil ' is n ever found written nut wi th 1-con son ant signs as * ~~. we ca n safely lea ve it to the ancient Egypt ia ns to sh ow u s how it sh o u ld be done . master' Th e re arc two import a nt words which can be wri tten a like. tor exa mple ). the re are usu a lly distiucuve and recogni sable ele ment s to th e p hrase (in thi s ca se == and! ). a IV is added to the tran sliter ation III bra ckets fo r con ve n ien ce ): rn pt 11 yea r IJrl> T or ~J r ~ Jll>swor !l b. it also serv es as a sp ace hile r to gin' a con venient gro u pin g of the signs. 7 ' =- Il l> lord . . Furthermore. We w ill do th e work for you by s u pplyin g yo u with word s in the format used in th e tab le above : hieroglyphic writin g followed by transliteration and tran slation.- \\" 1> sdm pu re. accommoda tin g ae slhetic considerations an d th e limi ts of ph ysical space by lIsing d iffer ing com bina tions o f sign s. For e xample. any' and nb 'lord.. I § 15 Writing the plural (see also Refe ren ce ta ble o n p .

along with th e names.i. \ ' . o r secon d cano llche -name. ep it hels and th e da ting for mula.' e n I t ~:0.7 o n pp. Th e king in ancient Egy pt had an elabora te mu lary ma de up of his n am es. Egyptian n u m beri ng is de cimal. j J. titles and ep ithets o f t he kin g and th e n u m b fv e r 0 year s of his reign : {o rnpt -sp ltm regno I yea r person ~ f.r u nder It praenomen of Senwosret [ is: th e king ur Upper and Lo w er Egypt Kheperkare The nomen. t he k ing as ruler of the dualitie s which comp osed the Egyptia n world : Upp e r and Lower Egypt . Prom th e Old Kingdom o nwa rds .lh e person of the ki~g of Upper and Lower _ Egypt "mwatrt' In-'ll g cnd uri nglv rnpt-sp 28 tr r hm 11 nsw -btty (m -m r t-r: <n h dl ia n the tit le and epithet s of t h e king. titles an d epithe ts . de sert and cu ltiva tio n. '1 * ntr nlt the perko god JIb tnvy lord o f I lIt-' ) \. each kin g ha d five n a m es. th e so n a nd suc cessor o f Osiris (for w h om.20 How TO read EHyptl< hieroglyphs m Mort' USt' of hieroqlyph s S 21 § 17 Ro yal n ames and titles One o f the p rin cipal gn ab of this chapte r is to eq uip vuu to read the name s of t h e ki ngs o! Egypt.~ mi r' 'n !! <ir Jiving cn duringlv ~t di ' n tr given Jife often extended : like Re ~~. Th e ten s ~ re reckoned by repetition o f the sig n n (so n nn = 30 ) a nd the un its b y r epetltt ~)u of I (so 1 = 4 ). th e kin g a s th e h e ir ol th e su n. brok en up in to te n s and u n its. §19 D ating ffi ~ hr rnh -ms» : the Horus Ankhme sut D ~ t e s w e~e The ot h e r tWO co m m on n ames are wri tt e n in cart ouches (name. Th e n u m bers a re a m od ern conv ention and d o n ot oc cur in t lte anci ent n a m es..e . The n om e n of Senwo sret I is: B.7 o n pp. 1I.~ nsw -bity title 'kin g of the d uali ties' . Th e n ame is int ro d uced by t he fa lcon ~ hr. we sh a ll set you loo se o n the name s u] the kin gs themselves .'2".' . The 1/ o [ " . fa rc : u p le o f other tit les o[ th e kinu u vpica llv arcompa nving th < p racnnrncn ) ' . The t h ree commo n names arc t he Ho ru s name and the names co ntai n ed in carlouches . . th e h uman a n d th e d ivine .) ~~nouc he Regnal year 2~ und er.. or first cano u che. \ ..i. \.ring s). and the or d eri n g of the signs . Consi d er the foll owing exa m ple (here vear 2 8 of 111 king Nin iaatrc Amcn cm hct Ill ) which sh ow s how t he fornl~la is p ut toget her and h o w the nu m bering sy ste m works: Til t' dat e in the lunette of HAl EA 82 7: l oU. . As an ex a m p le th e Horu s na me of senwosrei [ is: ~ Sf- A co ' ' .::-> t <z> ~ __ .go d Re o n earth . and III in t h e 12th dy n a sty. Th e praenomen. se e t he previous paragraphs. . 'd ua l king' . is th e kiug's ow n bin h n a m e a nd migh t be co mmo n to other members of t he dynasty . ·. 0 lan ds § 18 Ro yal epithets The kin gs name and tit les a re usually as so ciate d wi th a number of epi the ts. i..name (a na me as signed on th e kings a ccession ). of wh ich thre e a re panicu larly com mon on mo n u ment s (the o t he r two _ the ' tWO ladi e s' a n d the 'gold e n Horus' na mes . .\ l FA ~27 : 1 1 of hm is u sed to refer ind ire ctl y to the k ing .. vou may wi sh to look ahead to §22 in the ne xt c hapter. lu rhe n e xt lew pa ra graph s. On t h e na me of th e ki ng himsel f. follows the r._~~ . focu sin g on th e titles.G~)T ~( (Se e Exe rcise 2. 26-2 7. . In th e Exe rcises to this chapter.r:: R.the praenorn e n and t he n omen. It ha s be e n tra ditiona l to focus on th e d ivision of Egyp t into the Nile Valley and th e Delt a a n d to tran slat e this title a s ' kin g of Up per a nd Lowe r Egypt' .. It is al so t he n ame by w hi ch sc holars n ow a da ys refer to t h e k ings : ln-ncc w e have Semvosret I.are used less often ). 2 6-2 7 [or th e rea din gs of t he cartouche na me s themselves.C:~1. we will dea l wi t h some of th e b ackgro u n d ab out ru y alnam es. 40 -42 ). Th e d at in g formula ha s a fix ed and re gular for m base d arou nd the follo w in g w o rd s.e . St 'l' Exercise 2 . ~ A dt r nhh end urin gly and repeat edly (for ever and eternity) On the written or der o f t he phrase till r: 'lik e Re' .. se e pp. Among the most com mon arc ep it hets co nnected with life: 1. The Horus nam e design ates the king as the god Horus. Th e n om en is ty picall y introd u ced by the ~ 51 r: title 'so u of Rc ' . Th e record ed in a n cient Egvpt a ccord in g to t h e reg n a l yea r o f the r c rgrn n g king an d no t by some abso lu te dating syste m like Rei AD .

· Thuunnse * ~ n'[r htp 4::: 00 l II god re st sati sf y $ it brr becom e urn Maatkure Ha t sh c: p~ul -kh~ onl ~l am u n 1 00 0 . vase w ith wa ter flowi ng .b ut r nr . lI sin ~ th e o p po r ru n u v 10 follo w th e use (If so u n d -co rup le rne n rs and determin illives.. e t he Ioll owiug wo rds ( y o u ma y wi sh 10 r efer (( I H the list o f sign s above o r the sigu -rabl e s at the en d o f th e book ): in d iffe re n t book s .d Egyp t) and IntcrmeJiaw Per io ds rwhr -n the kin gs h ip w as Oft C II d tvtd ed). wa v 50 0 BC l.t·.rel l i ll -I ~ Khakaure Se nw os rt" 11U. NutI' : all dates a n ' apprllx imate.".':0: : 0 ~. ruad bo rde re d by sh ru bv D.n-h.kin gs 1i~I. Akhcna tcn Ankhkh epcrur e SnJenkh k... com bined wit h !. kn ow n J:-.>T ntan khar u unhck aiunushem a :J 4--" ASS.:nho lep l III) f I A fu n he r uv.of lise whe n ~ t l1 dy i n g king s' names in Ex c n'is e s 2. /tA'og rallls SI G~ ~.-' r ih e G r.. The v arc wort h m e m o risin g iw rni ng them ou t is a go o d \'\-'J~' of fa mil ia ristug Yl.rciws lrelo w: o thers wi ll l« .\" r II .1539-1295 BO N ebp< h l ~ re Ah r nuse Djeserkare Am enho tep r l) Aakhcpc rkare Thur mose (0 A akhcpcrenre ~ rn u (mo~ t l l ) ~knkhepcrn.\ m.ti.'S C s i ~n orcur i ll th e wor d cxr.'.= .:.j k..J. Thi s lnm k pri nci pally (U l1ll'r nS rmu n un e nt v from rh e Firs! jun-rrue-diatePe-riod aud M itltllc Kingd u n t ((. 129 ~ 11 86 BC) Mcupehtyre Rame sse (I) Menmaatrc Sety (11 Usermaarrc -se'e pcr't" RJm.. b S' r 25 0 0 BC Old Ki l1~d om b..m: S t"bkhqx·ru n. 1 ·l...~ Nef<r1Jlep<rure ·" ·aen". I: U I'l' l ltoJ D:-'n ~"'I ~-.m l~i <l t l' ~ c nkhepc ru re Thut m os ~ Aakh cpe rure Amenhocop (In I) V'. Co py Ollt a nd rrau slit cr .1 Signs The followin g are a Ii!<lt uf signs III llc use d in th e Exe rcisr-s.2 t>-30 Khepcrkheperure jmeqcr..2 150 iK . \Vrite o ut a nd lea rn the se stgns a nd t he lollowtng co mm on words rhev oc cur in.1 tim e ntk.~.d with th eir class itira rion (com pos e d or a leit e r a nd a numbe r} as In und in the !<Iigll -li. 1- "nlj f ".:: h<= pe ru r(.. 1 V wr m' 'Z mr nor . Nebm aarre .' tl ti ll pp.:I. 26· 3 1.d li t.f ll/ or 1 'r WI > r-. "'i u'. pure ( 9. (C l Or a lou c .<l\e Pt'riod F42.-. o fte n oc cu rs withou t the gra ins of sand a s .)1 on pp. fla t allu viall and with ~ ri1 in s o f san d i· Wit lan d road. further arran ged intrt ru ajttr pert(lct. nfr hip life ~(]Ild "'I C wsr II (r !!p r l'r= ..1759 RC) Sehetepibrc A menem her (II Kheperk ar< Senwos re( II ) ~ubbun: An ll...:. m~ ry a rr.". 1937.J .l' (lr~J t ti S l'd lrv c" chn la rs i t ~1U thirt y d ynasti es. 119 -14 3.om O/ la Il15(qllS ' be low a n' tlhc ll')st. th ese sig n s have In-en quon. J·cv!lStmanr s(qns '" ffi ms ~ ~ Jd Uyn. 1-: 12th Dynas ty (c...ll()32 J r.." l\~mhel ilil K hakh~perre S~nwo<..'-1PlE le~ Pe rllxi ~· I1 i1 st ie--< ::' I -2.. 16 -t 1 H.2 Words a.Ifd lJl c . Nimaau c A n~ nt" n1h ':llll n Maakhcru re An k'o crn he t (IV ) Sobekkure Ndro~oht. Kin gdum s (tturrn all v when un lv u n e ktng a t .. FXA. .r [nrwe rf u ! 18th Dynast y (c.Ay J)j e s e n.. N ote: __ ..:) 2. t1.1:<...'S ) 4" . Some IIf 11Il.. h111 tlu.. you will fin d slightly di ffe re n t sch e m e s used 2.u rsclf w ul t th cm i . .. "11.>t ie-. .-.se l ~ pe n rc """ 11Of ' nlhe b--me0 amu n ( Be AD 19th Dyna say Ic .-k The fo llo w in g J -collso na m s igns we re imroduo 'd ill the main text above .22 Exercises Exc urs us : ch a rt o f ro ya l dy nastie s K itt~s ul f~yp t prin f hl ti lt' h rvav iutt I-v Akx tllltl...-'.Iul j -consoua ru sign is: ~ an n! c.=~ nb U (.8: .. 7 an d 2. u n (II) I To ai d yo u in fu rth er st u dy.

lopped stela of Scn wosretsenbu (EM EA 55 7) begins: 8M EA 557: The names of these gods can be wri tt en wi th or with o ut th e de termina tive for gods: m(A3 ). o r as a n ideogra m a s in Exer cise 2 . 8M EA 586. Th e va riant s giv e n in previous ex a m ple s are repea ted h er e ..1. when you will be able to rea d th e kin gs' names m ore ea sily. the y all y ield th e sa m e tran s- In the first lin e of EM EA 586 the k ing 's cartouch e is su rm oun ted by the sky hiero gly ph. c.ressions Translite rate and tr anslate the follo w ing phrases (b o th o f which are co m mon e lem ents of the offering formula wh ich yo u will st u dy in m or t' . Line I : 2.." road . Som e more nam es o f go ds: Am li n Khnu m 0 = Try and translit era te the na me of the god Wepwawet (you m ay nee d to co nsu lt § 15 aga in) : w epwaw et Gi l 2. Two im p orta nt to wn -sit e s which oc cur in common epi the ts o f th e go d Djedu (Busiris) Abydos . 'w a y'. 2. Co py Oll! th e foll ow in g a n d rea d the a cco m pa n ying not e s: it f! .ISI r It seem s that "'. it is n ot at a ll unu sua l t o fin d th em w ritt e n at th e ir b riefe st w ith j us t th e 2· con so n ant sign . 26 -30 . . = d. Osiris Written with E60-seat above A36-ey e for reasons which are still obscure . 3 6). As so ofte n . separate (Notice th at in th e w o rd for 'road '.J?\:. In offerin g formul ae it is often abbreviated to G. The lunette of tile round.. ~ e G c::-" t~ ~":::"" 0 ~ c-c? ( j = Sin ce both of th ese comm on w ords re ly o n a sing le 2 ·c onson a nt sign . Work th rou gh th e wri t in gs.is an obscuredeterminati ve h ere' fath er how ever. yo u w er e int ro du ce d to th e noti on o f va ria n t wri tin gs. It is perh ap s better to do this ex ercise a fte r th e st udy exercis es on pp . w hich a llow a word to be str e tched or compr essed to tit space. u sed as arr epithet of th c blessed de a d .3 Variant writings In § 14 in t he te xt. id en tifyin g t he var iou s signs .24 How 10 read ( qyplic11 hieroglyphs 1 More uses of hieroglyphs 25 son y or u ka (the spirit of sustenance ) . 1:. wi sh . love. The example u sed wa s th e phra sc mv-hrw 'jus t ified' O f 'tru e of vo ice' . wh ich is not read: lite ra tio n: m r-hrw. the com mon phrase i~'h is fathe r' is ' probab ly influent ial too (cl. t he sa m e phra se ca n be w ritt e n ill a more con densed ma n n e r ( lth o ug h it is read in th e sa m e w ay ). '. way wan t desire rni Osiri s a re : cOlllpan ion open. tsir is a recent ly suggeste d readi n g (rath er tha n older wsirv Written with D2 5 and F9 or FlO-bread bread de term ina uves and plu ral strokes.5 Words So me ve ry co m mon w o rd s a re writt e n with othe rwi se uncommon sign s and w ith so m e idiosyncracies of th ei r own . a n d satisfy in g yoursclf tha t de spite th e dil fcrcnces. for e xample: a (You m a y wi sh to co n su lt §§ 9 a n d 10 on nouns a n d adj ectives in Egypti a n .'" can be u sed a s a determi native wi th th e word ' spe lt o ut '. §§33. ) 2. II b.6 Dating The fo llowin g a re exam p les of da te s from British Mu seum ste lae . b.4 EXl.

on ce again.:sn Amene rn he t (III) imn -m -hn 2..351 ~~_£..--A" 'i r= ---''j \.Mort' Wt-S of hieroqlyphs 27 26 How [(1 read Egypri. playing with the va rio us resources of the script for ae sthetic an d spacing reason s. lines 1-2: Scnwos re t (III) s-n-u.a re wri tten in ca n o uches and are thu s easy to spot . However.h it :L . CS :4 -.b kheper bein g/ for m s(e) shtp -lb-r ' imn -m-h u ~. ..m.:>J .. . - UU --_ _ . For example. regar dles s of the ord er in which they are read . _' u J~" u~j BM EA 567 .m srt-rr Nim aa tre Maakh erure sbk -k s-r t Nub kaure Seh etepibre SIGNS Sobekkare 'C' Ib ib h ea rt wosret the po we rful on e m aa y- n= lnt tl am lllllamt?n ~ --' (th e god ) Amun i~ ~ --JJ ws rt ~ IN em in ~ ml' true ell > :: ~ 1""1 J) a maar m ir t (the godde ss) Ma at (tru th) nllb 11 or 111 01 nefru Ilbw gold hetlha t (f orej front U~ <3> I1fn" bea uty kha appea rrance) kh eru !111 upr 0' ~ ~.__J . .~ ... rill in the first cart ou che names from the list bel ow into the prs per place in the following table (the first one is don e for yo u). F"l U j _ :1l__ . IV .' A O"lp nr n 1 h et 1rJ\ im n.. .1 '_ _GlJ-=-. You can eith er piece their names together fro m the sign resources provided below or you can go furt her and refe r back to Chapter s I and 2 (as well as making use of the sign. ..".r: m v -h rw-r r Kha kaure n..tables at the end of the book ) to improve your fam iliarit y with th e sign s.. the writing of nsw-biry is to fir the rounded shape: Senw osre t (II) s-n -wsrt '0 <3> 1!t ' '-=_. tha t the clement r' is written before the oth er elements of the nam e (sim ilarly with wsrt in s-n -wsrr).U ~} ~ or orw =sbk kl voice sebek /sobek man 00 Sen wos ret 11 ) s-n-wsrt (~ i!l:JJ r 0--i.. .. nfrw-sbk List of first-carrouche names lin ju mbled orde r): L kn. c:::i~J. ( .v-r (" ..("- h'-opr-r' Khakhcperre nb w. The one Iactor we have not covered so far (because it finds a more appropri ate place in Chapter 3) is that elements drawing on divine na mes are written first.. although it is not rcad first: s eh etepibre Amenemh et (I) Am enern het (IV) imn -m-h u Ncfruso be k .k sw-rr iJpr-b -r' Kheperka re sht p -ib. The kings we hav e selected com e from the some of th e most celebrated dyna sties of ancient Egypt: the 12th dynasty in the Middle Kingdom. 19th an d 20th dynasties in the New Kingdom .:.- -_ ...the prae nomen an d no men .. The two most common nam es of th e kin g ._ : _ i (the god) Sobe k ka ship sehetep make sdlisiled kau L_U_ _ the ka -spirit _. th e way that th e names themselves are written is actu ally surprisingly complex. but yo u may wish to look forwa rd to §22 in Cha pter 3 for an account of this peculiarit y. the sun disc rr (the name of the sun god) regularly app ear s first in the praenomen but is rea d last (as the tr ansliteratio n values and Anglicisation of the na mes below show). .b. we would ask you to follow the reading orde r we give below.7 Study exercise: Middle Kingdom kings of the 12th dynasty It is now time for you to read th ro ugh the cartouche names of various kin gs of Egypt. Notice ._. bw th e ka -spiri ts -. .:n h ieroglyphs BM EA 567 begins with a date.iu i '.. For the purposes of this exercise. and the l Sth. U --.

. iZ' r: (the ~()(I ) Rc IOrRJI Memnaa rre Se t y-rnc rvenpia h (I) Userm a. ) .-ia ~.8 __Jt'..... ~( W) satisfied klieperu tJr'r h nmt bl'illg/form khcnmet ~ ._ . ~1 'D for ph ry 111 strength C i ~ (the godl Pta h m aat M a a t (t r u th ) m t''!)' Aakheperenrc Thut mose (II ) Maalkare Halshepsu t-khen meWInUll MenkheJlerre rhuunose (JII ) Aakheperm e Amenhoi ep hckaiun n (II) Menk hep erurc 'rh m rno.(0 .:. /-0 -~::':::.'jo in e d with (t h e go d) A m u n') .-) ( ~2.n rc -setepenre Rarn cssc -mcrvaru un III ) Use rrnaa t rc -m e rv arn u n Ra m essc -h c kaiuuu (111 1 Ma ny o f th ese elements h a ve pr oper meanin g as WI ird s (In their own.~ _~ . ti m hor Nebmaatre Amen hlllcp hc ka wa sc t I III) :-lcl r khe pnlre-waetlre e Akhena ten Nebkhepentr e TlIlJllkhame n.~J3' _..d (~-ffiir) '-. beloved ell ~~~~tj ~. p 6. --- em in mr t tn ry n ':~lLij (G-c:JJ~) If ES tJ.-''i '..E::: o r ~ h ip bprl\' 5 \1'.J r ~ \') W ru ler khep er . th e re is no n eed to Iry a nd rran sla re the n am es. 1[: ':~ffir.-~... <:> hJl front.~' ~ .. ~ ~.--- -_ ..I.\ l en pchtyre Rarncssc (I ) .-. Sf- '11[1 W JS{ al1kh life /livi ng warel w' tvsr ptl: wa the (sole) one weser/user powerfu l ptah Dje serkare Am eu h oicp (I) Aakh e perk a re Th ur rn osc (Ii Cf J ~~ ~ ...-.e llV) .e. 2.Ii bdllgs/[orms SU.e.2". it is not a t all u n comm on to find epi t hets inclnd ed within ro ya l ca rto uc h es.. 0 ".S<' tc pl'IIrc < ':. Foll o w th e lead giv en in the Augliciscd versio ns o f VOCAIlClA RY . A wmplica ting Iactor is tha t. L ~I 'j .vin g Ne w Kin g d om kings..8 Study exercise: New Kingdom killgs Tra nsli te rat e bot h the cartou ch e names [o r e ac h ol t he f" lI"..-= r aa grea t the names bel ow : Nebpehtyre Ah mo sc ':~-rTlr~. r Cl C\ Thebe s (place-na me) peh tv 4 w" p/11I <J±':'!J. If th e ep ithet contains the name o f a god . 0 ak h spirit i unu Hc liop o lis dUn Q ~ or ~ ~- I'b lmn tijah moon -god amuniamen(the god ) Am un 1m A ren (solar disc) ~ or . usin g th e <lids p ro vid ed ..-_ .J _ 1jj = ml1 men es tabhsh ed r::: or ~Q ~ or 'C.1 v~.hekai unu shema Djcs erkh cp eru rc .. which r egu larly incl udes t he ep ithet ljn ml-im ll ..\1ore usesof hieroalyphs 29 28 H ow to read E:J lian hicroqlvp h» yp All the first ca[louche n a m es « lIuain the [ollowing d e mcllt : rL1 or re .•~~ffi~~~ u hc god) Horus helep! h(l/ep 12J'¥'() 51:' -? -. ~.r. _ _ ~ .. form neb of nefer pe r fect hal ']'-=.::? : nc r '..1.~_Q_(..[0 '\:"..-.-I\1. However. this divi n e ele m ent ma y be writt en at the fro nt o f t h e carto uc he . So m e 01the na mes below con tain suc h epi th et s (for exa m p le that of the ruling q u ee n Hatsh ep sn t.... '. bb hks b W J hr .. _ . eve n if it is no t rea d first.il ffir <z:> »I S mose hear.-.. ' Il'IIlt' j.. tI! l nh r: lord re/ra @ nt r o or ~ 'Ji7 (the god ) Re heb fe stival heka J. H llorem heh -lller vJ tnull loined (with) t nr ___ him . which w e ind icat e he re .A . during th e Ne w Ki ngdom . II.

. _ -. I to kin g X as a gift 01 Ra me sses II: - W ~~ nllSW for ih e king as a gift of (lite rally... ._ - ~."". ma n of (t he god ) Se lh sheps ut d iSlinguish ed wo m en ka c-« setep chos en shema so Ulhern rut ~ U .. the space available on the wa ll.. l. the list forms part o f an e labo ra te o ffering fonnula (!ltp -dl -nsw ..30 How to read (qyprian hi ao. -- . Re constructing the top lin e from th e Se ti I king -list. Th e names of Ra rnesses II (a lte rn atin g bet ween n omen and praenomen ) ar c repeated in the bottom reg ister and show a range of var iant writings fo r the nomen . ~ . . \M~ sty Sery Sety...- 2.... a nd po ssibly th e 76 forms of the sun god enumerated in t he religi ou s te xt kn own as the Litany of Re. 22 to ide nt ify th e ':f .-'f l _."..--. e tc.9 Study exercise: 8 M EA 117 (tire Abydos kin g-list of Ramesses II) Th e 'ki n g-list' o f Ramesse s 1\ show n on p . The k ing-list sh ows some int er esting gap s between the Middl e and New King do m (be twee n the fo u rth and fifth ca rtouche s of the sec ond su rv iv ing register) and wi thin th e 18th dyn ast y.._ . .• V dsr djeser sacred/ ho ly ._ _ ·_ .r. Th is number probab ly re flects cult ic tr ad ition..e .. WIY . in th e giving 0[ 1 m dd Th e word nsw is wr itt e n using wh ich is also a varia n t for . there were 7 8 carto uch es in th e upper registers (t h e 76 found in th e Seti I list plu s th e tw o carl ou che n am es of Ramesses II )..~ -..co m m on in the Ne w Kingdom (com pa re the m or e usual spe llin g of nsw in §2 3)._.'1lyphs VOCABULAR Y ( CO:-lTlNU FD I --._.." !)'O follows: [An o ffe ring wh ich the k in g gives bef ore Ptah -Sokar-Osi ris .-.-. see Cha pte r 3 ) for the cult of previou s kings.-.- the ka -spirh image "'It Th ut(th e god ) ruoin ---. The kings ar e identified by pr a en omen beneath which are deterrrunati ves o f seated kin gs alternat ely wearing th e white (I and red cro w ns .... 31 originall y came from his temple at Abydos .- }PSWf 1"~. smr rwr kl u..• ... Originally.--sip . . the overall forma t is as ?:j = S' ~ g~ v. Use the roya l name s list ed in ihc pre viou s Exe rcises a nd the cha rt of ro yal dynast ies 0 11 p ... -. Mod elled on a sim ila r list in h is father Seti I's m ortuary templ e n earb y. -"'-. a thousand bread and beer..

'forem o st o f p osit ion ' ) is written with the ideogra m -1) h n (fro n t part o f lion ) over ~ '( a ml).n'H qt' elf them is vlt'd. Yt1U art' also imrodl1Crd Itl the offering [ormula. 'the carrie r o f the book of rn ual') is writ ten wi th a bbreviated writi ngs of bo th lJr)' a nd hb: (wi thou t so u nd co m ple me llls o r determinatives) .:' mn See.fiNI) : ~C } .m uments later .-'o r ' m esse pa n of Raru ess cs ) where rhe rhrec-p rongcd »u -s ign sta nds in t h e cen t r. ( i . wit" t he tw o ta ll signs place d either sid e o f i& brlY) (sec §21 bel ow} .J regular fea tu re of rtn.1" [nnvrary inannments survivi ng [rom lweii'm E. A rather d ram at ic illustratio n o f th is poin.g ll S . illSll'a d tl f It l ot. creating a ve-rtical div ision . The low Oat sign of mrty ) ('b cloved') bas been placed in 'he mi ddl e of ' be ear tou ch e.ml. probably the must [t. 82 ntt r " Iik(' Rr h uy-s (litera lly..{ .mmon form of ltit'rt1g1 yphit. ' ~ m l~'lJ rw wriucu in lul l as: ~ ~! ~~ rru c of voire.' f11lt 'cI ena ble Ihl' 1IIto m Ore for- Here th e tw o divi n e d em en ts t Ra o f th e nam e Rarnesses an d Ann m of th e epith et 'belo ved n f A rnun) have been w ritt en as seat ed go ds and p lace d ar th e to p of th e cartouch e fat ing each ot h e r.b etween IWU tall thin signs (th e sw and th e ~i ) hot lr of w hic h bend flwa y a t th e Hlp from Ih e tT ntra l ms ~ si~ lI ..1 o varitJlISm .~f spetlttl wriunas: ubbr N i.lJIJJJs. v ritin gs can ne r be read s i~ 1I by sigll wit h an y eas e.inscription 1(> he[ound . .Spe t w r . As w e have a lready see II.l G rb nsH' m ry.:. b ry -lIbl (lit era lly. ~ '}'@ J dw Djcdu . the exact readi ng o f som e w ord s rema ins romeruiou s amo ng Egy pt nl ogists ~ He nce \ VC st ro n gly recommend rhat you foll ow o u r gen e ra l advi ce o f co ncent rat ing on whole wo rds rather tha'rt gC I nng bogged dow n iII i lrc stu dy of individua l sign s... gra phtcrransposttton is .7 a nd 2. Clear ly suc h . " J introdu ce )'t) U JL a 11Iml ba . hh lk at ~~ . abb reviated writ in gs o f ihe ep ith et usu allv bestowed on th e blessed dea d a rt' CtJlllnJUJI: (Norice ihat abb reviated wr iting s a re: also comrn on .'1 r aph i c frarfSpt1S.. priest 1 hry -hb t In10r pr ies.Cllll - §22 Chan ge of ord er : p restige For reasons o f prest ige.n:/ J cia }3 Grap hi c t ran sp ositi on als o Ot'CU ~ i /l vr-ru ca l ( OhIllIlIS: Chapt er J Special writings dd~'v' Djr-d u. illslt'ad tl t So m eti m e..s: §20 Abbrev ia t ions Abbreviated wrirtngs a re co m m on ill the writing of titlt"s and epu hc rs: } III +1: Q ~::::: . names for gods and kin ~ s a n d relat ed words some tim es precede clos e ly co n n ected words. rt" ~lIlarl y wrin cn with t he dc n-r m ina t lvr cona nt sign ~. essential [or successful monument rradinq in IJ ml1st!um .&/. ~1:\ I n J/Iii d JJpl cJ It' . a lt h ou gh the y are acr ua llv read afterwar ds (t h is is termed more forma lly honorijit transposiiionv.vPt .ols.lm ll ' ktn g's ad viso r.wrui ng o f a w o rd : :rr:.ularlv in " ' It rendtTing Ilf titles and f!pll !ltl.11Id drfecliw wrn in. This chapla should (tho Sin'r as a con venient f i!at ll ce resource to which you ClUJ return when SlUdyin.] You hav e a lread y e u o u m tc red t his phe no men on in t he writing o f rova l nam es ill Exerci ses 2. Thi s ie.jli1n&/t'. royal tm im at c belo ved or Am uu 11 k m-nt r serva ur of th egod. There is a lso gra ph ic tra nspo sitio n. cl J.h( order . Eve n a fter mo rt" than a ce n t u ry a nd a h alf o f stu dy.. is the fo llo w in g writin g o f the n om en o f Raru esses II I R d nr r ss t' ~merva nl ll ll 'Ra rn esses be loved of Ar nu n ' }: . crea t ing a h or izoural d ivis ion . Si n ce dil 4 J/u Sf a rt' ruthe r Iw nl ! mon: patt i. The: vert ica l div ision i ~ mirror ed ill th e hotto rn half o f the cart on ch e (giv illg t he m S -H t. H o~orific rra usp ostt ion is part icul arl y com mon in epithet s a rnt uth. plJ n: d und e-rJIlt" 2.~ i n .. just ific: d §21 Ch ange of o rde r: sp aci n g The se co nd feature is the swit ch ing of the orde r o f st~n s fit in to the av ailable space in a mo re sa t isfad o ry ma n ner ma lly .8 . in th « book .

)!::/ beer n sw 9 <=" r ~ )] C> ~ J1I\. On th e basis of a gra ph ic pun a ro u n d r (w hic h mean s bo th 'mo u th ' a nd 'wo rd').• . Her e a re a co u ple o f rela ted e pithe ts pa rt icu la rly co mm on o n stela e : venerable one. 10 1· 104 ). see p .. Th e lauer is o ften ex pressed in the followin g way : ~ '!\ ~ y ~ ~~ b. The m ost com mon exa m ple.:. t he o ne who has th e a uth o rit y to issue orde rs). Conventional ti tles of stat us and aut hority The tw o most common convent iona l tit les a re : ~!l0 htmty bitv seal·bearer of the king ~ 1-..) Th ese two titl es often occ ur toget he r. 'ven e ra tion' . is a u biqui tous feat u re o f th e hieroglyp hic m onu ments foun d in m u se ums throughout th e w or ld.i }... In officia l term s. th e status o f th e decea sed as on e of th e ble sse d de ad was lin ked 10 th e suc cessfu l pe rform ance of o fficial funct ion s in roy al servi ce and et h ical be h aviour in life .1I11"1 1' p riest d u era llv. 1/1"hy or ill1!(zw h onou rable one nb l/1l1lj possessor of vc ne rationr reve rence a. fo r bity 'k in g'. By w orki ng thro ugh . the blessed dead w e re re vered by the living (w ho perpe tuate thei r mem ory on ea rt h.:.n relation to th e king (see also PI' . Afte r a life of official du ty and e thica l be h av io u r. par ticularl y th ro u gh offerings) and ho noured befo re th e gods (w ith whom the y exis t be yond death as tran sfigured spi rits) . .lite cult ur e of a n cient Egyp t..y !. most notabl y i.holding playe d a cen tral ro le in th e . Title s come in tw o forms: of ficial or adn ulllstra llve titles and co nve ntional titl es co nnected wi th sta tus a nd author ity." l?el(qious titles !j =~ «z> u"-b pr ies: ditl'raily.34 How 101 read Egypli m l hieroglyphs Special wr itings 35 §2 3 Defect ive or st range w ritin gs . it is occasionally w ritt en w ith ' \ B44 ton gue (the ton gu e bein g 'th e o ne in th e month ' ): ~ m -r rr stewa rd §26 The offe r ing for m u la Formulae comprise rel a tivel y fixed com bina tions of wo rd s and so ca n be read w ith o ut a det ailed u nd e rsta nd ing of th eir int ernal gramm a r.. Office. pa rticu la rly o n festival occasio ns .bity.!. you will gain access to a vast nu m ber of hi e rogly ph ic in scription s. Abb rev ia te d writin gs arc co m mo n to both . servant of the god) le ctor prt esi r (lI1}1 penpk dc-se n '.t b .' 1 smr ". . the offeri ng form ula. .r tsir the revered one before Osirls Secular titles gl lVern or. and o the r va ria n ts based on the fu ller wr itin gs suc h as: ~ ~ ~ 're ve re n ce'.' SSll ma ste r of secrets 10 bd brr' hb: ~ slm y )z t': king It is n ot a t all u ncom mon for titles be written w ith ou t dererrninar ives. §24 Tit les . 'oversee r': stew ard.1' overseer ol ihe army m -r probabl y mean s lite rall y ' th e one in w ho m is th e word ' (i. Th ese epi the ts ar e p rim a rily a pplied 10 the ble ssed dead. pro bably for rca son s of grouping: "511 ' ' king' is written in an unusua l m ann er : . ~ n~ !lir. a nd becoming fa m iliar wi th. Th e offering formula me rges two rela te d fu nctio ns: official and pe rso nal. ' A Ie w com mon word s a re w rit te n wit h o u t th e Inll se t 0 1 so und -SIgn s. locating the indivi du al wi tIlin societ y.'t(y) sale companion (Th e reading of !Jtl1l1y-bfty is unsu re : othe r possibili ties a re lu mw-buy a n d s(/lw ry.~ 'j. re vered one. Titles of office Titl es of office can be divided int o secu la r a nd religiou s title s: in. kings a nd offi cials. the elements o f the formula discussed below.:=:::. Thi s reversio n of offeri ngs display s the importa nce of official life. overseer m-r pr 01 ihc evta rc IIl·r 111. pu re OIll" j ~ . ma yor .-Ji~1 L:' overseer 0 1 the m-r 'tlIt"..e . One purpose of the offering fo rm ula was to allow th e decca sed to pa rta ke of th e offeri ng s presented to the dei ties in th e ma jor cu lt te mples in the nam e o f th e ki ng . §2 5 Ep it h ets Egyptian text s abou nd with epi thets of go ds. 10 2. l) p.t y cha mber m -r (fully t nty -r i A nu m ber of tit les a rc com posed wit h th e cleme nt Jl. Thi s succe ss was inst ru m en tal in q ualifying t he decea sed for a ccess 10 th e means o f co m me mo ra tio n in ter ms of mem orial inscriptions a n d fun er ar y monu ment s.

in gs could be p e rp elUat e d in pic to rial a nd ve rbal form (th ro u gh a n a nd w ritin g).~ ~ . which ca n be divided accordin g 10 the ch aracteristi c Egypt ian expression fo u n d in each : <l. It you return 10 th is sec tion whe n re a d ing stelae su ch a s BM FA 58 7 o n p. alabaster. these o ffer. •• 1 . see Ex e rcise 3 . so that he ma y give a volcc offer ing tin) bread.005'"8 _ r <::> A . see BM EA 178 3 in Ch apt er 5. TI. perso nal .. <:r> hrw 0 1-\ Iroru from 0: I ! bread hnkt 1 . Anubi s.36 H. an d for an exam ple with a n u mbe r o f god s...Jd w tW dl~fl'rr · ljrw 'I lib lbd l\' <-D cp n G u r hn k: k llpd 55mnlt t !. 4 6 a : rh e en d of thi s ch apter. title and epi thets of the god(s) The name of the god t h e n follows . b. yo u wi ll no dou bt gai n m o re a nd mo re . TIl<' priv ate o ffe rin gs to ihe dead co u ld be eith er p h ys ical (t he o ffe ring of food .5 . Here we ha ve ad o p te d a stan da rd ren d eri ng wh ich we encou rage yo u to follo w. kt tI Iml!lly! ky An offering wh ich th e king gives (to) Osiris.e offerings are passed hi p-d t-nsw 011 to the deceased t ~~. The se co n d. y(lU sho ul d find a ll the he lp you n ee d . linen . The offerillg to the god (s) 1'db ~ 1 C A lup -d i -nsw an ollc rin g which th e kmg ~ I WS The co nven t ion a l grouping o f this ex pressio n u ses th e foll o w ing elements: l~ "'~~. drink a nd goods) o r verba l (t h ro ug h the uue rance o f the off eri n g formu la ): furt h er m or e. se e BM EA 584 in Ch ap ter 8.:1 from prt -ljrw a voice offering c. beer.1\~' 10 read Ejypriml h ieroalvphs Specia l writinqs particula rly in term s of T e pe rson of ihc k iug . cCJ:C) ~ nsw kin g htp di offni llg give /._. What ever its o riginal form. o r b y peo ple visitin g the to m b or pa ssing by the stela . everyth ing good aud pur e on which a god lives for the ka of the revered one Key Th e m o st com m o n form o f the offering formula is co m po sed o f three p arts. As yOIl st u dy th e va rio us slel ae in t h is boo k. : __ . it is clear th at by th e Middle Kingdom the p hra se h ad co me to be tr eat ed as a fix ed .1 A:l>.nc::O> "'I~ c'J rdI l '=' @ h tp-dt-nsw ssir n b .:::. ! ~ ti beer . grea t god. rat h er than trying to w o rk o ut its me an ing from the individ ual signs ... lord of Djcd u.) The expre ssion h tp -di -nsw is ofte n u sed to refe r gene rally to th e offering fo rmula and its associated o ffer ing rile s (a n d might less lit erall y he iran slat ed a s 't he o ffe ring rite') . h ere is a n e xa m ple o f the o ffer ing fo rmula . w hic h yo u m a y wi sh 10 refer ba ck 10 as yo u read o ve r the di scussion be lo w : a.. a ssemb ling h er e th e m ateri a l yo u n ee d 10 be ab le to rea d the sta nda rd Os iris o ffer ing formula. w a y. Th e stand ard name s and tit les o f Os iris are int ro d u ced sepa ra te ly in the notes o n fun er ar y de ities al the e nd of thi s ch ap te r.. from from fro ut t :: c . Tile offerillg formula from 8 M EA 558 : l' ~~ /Al1J= lJ @ IJ' .. fowl. In Ih i. rr . Iuuct ion relates more to the pr ivate [amil y -ba sed a spe ct s of the funerarv cul t of th e deceased. For t h e o t he r co m m o n divi n e rec ip ien t of t h e offerin g form ul a. ox. /}. Fir st o f a ll.J) prt a going fort h voice lrom i }~ r. Th e god m o st co m m o n ly na med in the offer ing for m ula (a s in th e exa m ple above) is Osiris and we shall co nce n tra te o n him in thi s chap ter. <::>&dlJ~~ ulq ~ =-~ ~ ljl nbtt} IIfr (r) w rbtt ) 'tliJi ntr 1 m II (Fo r the writing of the verb 'giv e'. com pou nd e xp ressio n . lor d of Abydos .rw 11 lli [ . ta 11 Th e sta nda rd w ril in g o f prt -ljrw con ta ins th e followin g clem ents: We sh a ll lake you th ro ug h each o f th e se pa rt s in tu r n. & a ll offering wh ich ih « king gives a voice of fcrtng for th e ka of The voice offering This sen ion of t he o fferi ng fo rm u la ce nt res aro un d ih e follo wing e xpr ession : b. T he actu al re nde ring o f thi s stereo typ ica l phrase is notoriou sly obscure an d st ill e xe rcises the minds of sc ho la rs. o !t: U r rr·!. the offe rings m ade a l rh c bur ia l co u ld b e pe rpet uated by fami ly members (p a n icu la rly th e son a nd he ir). in th e rc la uonship betwee n h the livi n g and Ihe de a d . The n am e.

h rw th e j usn fi ed The voice offering from the stela of Tjeti: m1 82 ~ H B M EA 6 14. The recipient of th e offeri ng Th e d ece ase d re cipient of the offeri ng is in trodu ced by one o r both of th e fol lowin g p h rases : Tire inventory <!f offerings: Th e o ffe ri ngs a re u su all y e n u me ra te d via a sta n da rd list of ite m s. then yo u w ill fin d th e name o f th e deceased . usually w it h a title. such as = 'loa f for offe ring ': Ot h e r offerings someti m es occ u r (p a rt icu lorlv in lat er 12th . at t hi s stage w e ad vise yo u to follow our sugges ted transla tion (se e Cha pte r 8 fo r a n explan ation) . . Th is co ns t ru ction is on ly com mon bet wee n clos ely connected wo rds or in fix ed expressio ns: i prt-hr w is h er e writte n w ith bread an d bee r signs but sim ply read pr t-hrw: . but be co m es the most com m on for m Irom th c lat er 12t h dy n a sty on w ar ds. 6 or c= r. a thousand alabaster and linen a. eve n wh en th e voi ce offe ring itself is int e nd ed w ithout any referen ce 10 the br ead an d be er. or G-~~ CL) "'Z. u nguent 1''''='' ~~ ~ ~ sn tr ince nse prov ision s :. we u su all y fin d imih tw} on its own .38 How to read I:'gyptiall hieroqlyplts Special writings 39 The term prt -hrw is re gu larl y writte n w ith th e b read and be er sig ns . the offering formu la also usu ally include s a more ge ne ric and all-embra cin g phrase : ~l p rt-hrw a voice offering d Oll/ h(li IIfr( rj w/b it) everv th in g good an d purl' Th e second p a rt of th e offeri ng fo rmu la eit her starts o ff w ith prt. B v th e Middle Ki ngdo m prt -hrw had b ecome a fix ed ex pression u sed as a cover te rm for th e offerings themselves (a nd migh t he loo sely tra n slat ed as ' th e ritua lllfferi n gs') .. Direct gen itive Th e tw o n o u ns are pu t toget her w ith o ut a ny linking wo rd . hlp or hII'I o £ ings kr </ (lwj f m = The inventory is wrapped 111': A. Once ag ain.b r< 11 or ~~ll O ften th e offeri ngs a re nu m ber ed wi th of /i n '..and 13 th dyn asty ste lae) and ar c usu ally m ore fullv w ritt e n ou t: <=> j.5 ).-. As a fixe d exp ressio n .. di=f prt -hr w is m ore t yp ica l fro m th e m id . Th e y arc depi cted w hether br ead and beer ar e mention ed se pa ra te ly in th e suosequem invc n to rv of offerings or not lin w hich case th ey Ola v ha ve been th ought of as be in g in cluded within th e w ritin g of pn-hrwi .Bl ox a labast er 11 or ~ ~ ~ tpd mnh . On ce yo u h a ve reached this po in t. prt -hrw a lo n e is typical o f 11th -dynast y ste lae. Th e us e of 11 k1 n o n its own is rare in the ea rly 12th dy na sty. a thousand ox and fowl. Is m nht Colu mn I : A voice offering (of) a th ousand bread and beer. prt -h rw ca n eve n be w ritte n w ith a det ermi n ative for th e w hole ph ras e.. §27 The gen itive Th e genitive 'o f' (as in 'th e k ing of Egyp t ') occu rs in two forms: pr t-hrw 1. It is ofte n qual ified by the foll owing fixed ex p ression: d l=f p rt-hrw so thai he m ay give a voice offering fJ ~ ~ 'n tlt ntr 1 on which a god lives m di=fis aga in a form of t he ve rb rdi '10 give ' (see Exercise 3.6 hn kt bee r fowl linen 14. yo u shou ld read and translate it as a w hole for now.:1. ll B 't hou san d' or I ~ 'a thousand In th e l l th dy nasty an d in to the ea rly 12 th dyn a sty (aft e r which it dies o u t). [ . ". c " " m rh t oil. Since thi s is a fixed e xpression. Th e co m b in e d u sage n kl n tmiljtw) begins in t he early 12th dyna sty and rea ches its pe ak in the mi d -12t h dyn a sty. well a s listin g a sta n da rd set of offe rings.12th dyn a sty o nw a rds (p r t-h rw alon e bei ng rare by th en ). Durin g the ea rly part o f th e 12 th d yn ast y a m ixture o f both u sa ges is fo u nd.4.1 1 h nkt 1]1 ks lpd !J. c. IT: nO <:.hrw im me d iatel y o r marks th e pa ssing over of th e o ffe rings from th e god by th e use 01: ~ ill You have al rea dy stu die d th is ex pression in Exe rcise 2. w ithout worryi n g about its int e rna l gramma r (which will be expl ained in Ch a pter 7 ). u su all y w ritten w ith ab bre via ted writi ng s (given h ere al ongsid e fulle r writ ings) : U I n kI n for rhc ka of ~~ tlnl [I (Wj the revered one o or b or G~ brea d kl 0 or 1 2. a n d en ding with the com m o n epith et: m r.&.

. th e cu ll of Osiris was cele bra te d a t man y sh rin es. 'for the ka of' ). Also the re is a tende ncy for n to be used for all n um be rs a nd genders."" for reasons which are still obscure. in tran slating into English . The pre -emine nce of Osiris is re flected in hi s oth er n am e.It 'to '.) 1 §l I m l f ~ f' J v-.ill thi s boo k we adopt the more recent sugges tio n 10 read ssir ra th er th an wsir.'.y ='" ----". h is n ame is w ritt en in an idiosyn cratic manner and can no t eas ily be broken down sign by sign . ~ Central column : b. In mytho log y. Hor u s. 4 2 ): /SIr It also occu rs in cen ain compo un d expre ssions. as follows: Osiris written with o u t determinative (w ritten with det erm inan ve in the I Ith dynasty) Alternative writing from the late 12th dynasty . Osiris had been a livin g kin g at the beginning of hi story.\ l A SCULL'1E F EM I N INE ntr "J great god "=' J~ 1 nb sbdw lord of Abydos These three togeth e r represent the classic Mid dle Kingdom combination of epithets. bu t wa s murdered an d dism em bered by hi s am bit iou s bro ther. Se th. 3r"'-.40 H oJW to read Egyp tian hieroq ly phs S pecial wr itings 41 ~n m -r pr ov e rseer or 01 the estate o versee r =. not least since th is bri ngs o ut the para llel w ith the wriring of the name of Isis (for wh ich sec p. @ lj'~':" } ='. Horus grew up 10 defeat Set h an d in h erit his father's thron e in legit imat e fash ion . as in bmt=fll st-Ib=f' h is w ife of his affection ' in Exer cise 4. Osiris is represent ed as a decease d king. ' for'.. taking the follow in g fo rm s: St:'i GlJ LAR PLUR. with the epithet: BM EA 162. Anoth er example occ ur s in th e ph rase : UI n k: It for the ka of _ ' of' is writte n in exa ctly the same way as the preposition . Th e w ri ting of Dj edu itself cha nges ov er tim e (a s we ll as sometim es displa yin g graphic tran sp osition) : Il th ft ~} mid-12th dyna sty MA SCVI. the writing s of wh ich yo u stu died in Exe rcise 2. the name evokes his subjects (the dea d spir its) arrayed befor e hi s throne : ~w. Sahatho r. .DC' = - !r. In deed there is still som e dis- As will beco me clea r from a nu mber of th e stelae w hich you will st udy in th is book.e. suc h as thos e compo unded Osiris Written with E60-seat above A36-e. st-lb occur s in a ra the r comm on epithe t: The stela of Ameny iden tifies his subordina te. o ne or othe r of thes e usu ally sug gests itself (d .2 .h ~~~ n m -r •Lrnwty th e chamber dd w lord of Dj edu (e pit h e t of Osiris) p u re as to th e exa ct re adin g .. However. 'the one who is for emost of the w es terne rs' (i.k=[ ml' tI st· /b=[ His true servant of his affect ion As a 'great god' i n tr ' I). see §21) b. th e dead gath ered in the realm of th e setti ng su n) . This behav es like an adje ctive and agr ee s wi th the precedin g noun.1 co \l JJn l H-Ib affe ction.wh o w as th en ab le to conceive his ch ild. w ith tb 'h eart ' : . th e na m e Khc nt ylmc ruu is often in clu ded in the offeri ng form ula amon gst th e epit het s of Osiris (agai n typic al of th e ea rly 12th dyn asty ).8 below ) th ey are w ritt en as follows: nb ddw lord of Djedu (w ri tt e n with graphic tran sposition. In EM EA 587 (see Exercise 3.l . Osiris ' rema ins we re ma gically re stor ed by Isis (1st) . Khen tyim entu ([mty -im nr w ). part icula rly co m mon in th e early 12th dynasty. .6. As n oted in Cha p ter 2. Indirect gellitive Th e two n ou ns are lin ked by form s of th e 'genitival adjective' n . situa uo n o f the heart ) The w riting of Osiris' nam e (an d the n um ber an d nat ure of h is epi thets) alte red at differen t per iods of Egyp tian h isto ry.his sister .INE FEJ\UNl NE n ti t o nu' nt late 12th fi~ } @ dynasty onward An example occur s in blk=f m « n st-tb«] above . the m ost importa nt of wh ich are reflected in his titles 'l ord of Djed u ' and ' lor d of Abydo s'.- hnty-tmmw Khent yimcntu Excursus: Egyptian funerary deities Osiris Osiris (l sfr ) w as a cen tr al figure in the fune rary cu lts of the an cient Egyp tian s. intimacy (literally. @ yU lord of Abvd os nb 'bJ'" (Cpithet of Osiris) ti t .

. Rep res e nted as a dog o r ja cka l. ' k ve rt hele ss. ~ Ex ercises 3. w hi ch me an s 'th e one who contin ue s to be perfect' a n d hints a t h is myst erio u s pOST mortem poten cv : sb or mr ~ hit or h w wr o Wepwawet 1I11d Anubis Fu nerary ste la e fro m Abyd os an d el sewhere of ten in voke We pw awet and An u bis a lo ngsi d e Os iris .. bu t looks simila r to ."1 lu t from place. More ge nerally. 2-( /. we pw awer (wpwn w) was an a ncie nt go d o f Abyd os a n d an ac tive particip ant in the cult o [ Osir is: th e annual passion -pla y at Ab ydos began w ith the procession o f Wep wawcr '10 protect h is fa th e r' . whose ico nograp hy is clo se to th a t o f Wep wawet.2 Words ip(y j Dl . ki ng of t h e d ea d . ' th e one who open s t h e w a ys' . Tra n slite ra te : Khen tvi rncnt u wc ncnnefc r . As yo u w ill see be low. but oft en th e tw o b ird s are ve ry sim ila r in writin g (somet imes we ad d a tick to the rw-bird to distingu ish it).3 Gods' names WP -WIIII wepw a wc t sha res a m ajor ep it he t wi th An ubis : wepwaw et li t /l dsr lord o] rile 'a cted lan d You ha ve alread y be e n introd uced to tWOforms of Osiri s: Khcn tvi men tu a nd . Wep wawet wa s associa te d with ce meteries an d fun eral s. B49 forepart of lion . Even the name We pwawet (litera lly. and a gr ee n or bla ck com plexio n all u d in g to th e fert ility of t he Nile floodplai n .. The rw -bird ha s a m o re ro u nde d hea d . represented arrival and re ju ve n at ion in the n ex t life .1 Siqn s and wonts a. 'i : Jc=. Fortu n atel y th e rw-bir d h as a ver y restricted usage : ~ or~ Ill' 1..42 Special writinqs 43 mu m m iform but wit h royal rega lia. he a lso ap pears in ca n ine form a n d bears the tit le 'l ord of the sa cre d land ': hi s o th e r tit les are m ore obsc ure .. an d Osiris.he r-bi rd (B3 Egy ptia n vu lt ur e ). 96) re call s th e u n trodden pa th s ov e r th e de sert along whi ch he gu ided th e so u ls o f th e newl y de ceased to th e ki ngdom of Osir is. see p . c tnpw im (y )-\l'1 Au uh is &d l".. Th es e are wr itten as follows . whe re 'sa cre d land ' mean s the ce m etery.} ~ 0 u . th e fu n erar y gods have d ist in ct roles. expedition 1 ~ E60 sea t A24 soldier with bo w and qu tvcr lie=. c lll "-r" th e one Transli terate the fo llo wi ng words (o n e uses a sign introduced in an earlier ch ap te r): grea t Ameny (nam e) in the "7 ~ II h /l lord of th e sacred land 3.J:. EXAMPLE SIGN E7 feather on standar d ~~ lmnt th e west . apparent in th e m yth ol ogy of the fune ral : Anub is em balmed th e bod y o f the decease d a nd co nd uc te d th e buria l cere monies: w cpwa wei led the deceased from t his w orld to the nex t. The other m ajo r fun e rar y deity was An u bis. as re flected in h is tit le 'lord of th e sa cr ed land ' inb ts fisr). Wencn n cf e r.~ dw= upo n his mountain ! dsr +}S WepwalVet v~?-<.1 11S0na lll and 3-(ollsl. s: mi: No tice tha t t he sign be confu se d : 1has ap p eared in two d iffer e nt w o rd s w hich should n o t sf place. position ar my._.. a sign which re ad s T or Tvw (in thi s bo ok we W sh a ll go fur t he sim ple r rea di ng Tw ) . po sitton Anubis The nam e a nd stan dard epithe ts of An u bis: 3. the nam e o f the god Khe nt yirnent u di sp lays th e TIl'bird (B 5 lo ng-legg ed bu zzard ).:.-' llant s(qllS lir Horus The passion of Osiris is also reflected in th e n am e wenen n elc r twn u -njr i. Osiri s.

h ow ever.4 Titles In th e te x t.. A4 1 arm giving loaf./) walking legs. Th e tOP po rtio n of th e stela of Arn en y re M FA 1( 2 ).. ' look at' . 7 5clll) The offerin g formul a is usually w ritt en in a tele gram-li ke style wi th ver y ab br e via ted writings a nd certain prep ositio ns om itted. 'place' ..p 'r..--". or IJ:. with out r as "--" or fA. the dam aged h ier oglyphs ar e pa n of t he sta nda rd epi th e ts of Osiris: hn ty -lmtttw (w it h an extr a rw-hird) .~ ~ . From the hieratic.:v mi . his .transliterated m t ir-n me ans ' w h om such -a nd-suc h a per son m ade ' hu t thi s is not a sa tisfactory idiom in En glish ..- = ! in he.con5onan t sign =. It will be usef ul for you to be familiar wi th t he se wh e n rea din g Cha pter 4 (wh ere th e pr esence of (i) in brackets will also be e xp lained ): m.ms: wr gene ra l-in - chid 0 J L _L J } ~ _ .. often with sound complerueu t 1/ L.pron o urn bcto r«. determinative placed under .--.. S iii In lin e I. n b sbdw (see p . using the tem plat e prov ide d in th e tex t (§ 2 6 above i .. H: l .r IIl r IVr m ea ns liter all y 'grea t ov e rseer of th e arm y'.6 Tile offt'ring formula from 8M EA 162 8M EA 162 (carv ed lim esto n e: w. 41 ). c . 'do'. ii lIl .. also written with arm as ~ rdi cn ---n di 3..5 Common verbs Som e co m mon verbs are w r iuen w ith ot herw ise uncom mo n sign s a nd will: some id ios ync racies o f their o w n.' .. .~ h· ::1 " .4 " T r . ra th er u nusua lly pro vide s us with a mo re fully wriu cn OU t ver sio n of ce rtain sec tio ns of t h e offe ring for m ula.. 'art ' . Meir L pl.written with the 2.written with z». Yo u sho uld also ma ke use of the vo ca bu lary int ro du ced in t he o th e r e xe rcises ab o ve . and stu d y t he indi vidu al w riting s o f th e va rio us co m po ne nt parts of the formula.msluc ra tr a nd tra ns la te .4 Tr :lnd . . E61 conical loaf. us ing th e sign -tables abov e: ove rseer of ~o k Tr.7 Offering tabl e scen e 3. Her e rhe y are wr itte n in a sligh tly differe nt Wd Y. nt r r J.Hpr in o . .« NOles: i rii) 'make'. th e following tw o rules we re in trod uced . 9 In sce nes. rn oh/nh " h f.l l f'> r h t» hi ../r m il m il 'see'. VO CA IJU LARY the cham be r . translite rated dl. written with a combination of 0 DB pot and A5 7 . the offer ings a re often sh o w n pla ced o n a ta ble bef ore t he ~ ... lnvJ t h e- . rd! 'give'. .44 H ow to read I:~qypri<lll h ieroglyphs Specia) w r itings 45 3. . in lroru of 3.. Some forms of t his verb arc written with only on e ~ I ... kbw Qebu (name ) 1 I I/(i ) 'bring'. Tra nslite ra te th em . ompanion ir-n horn of 11".

-------._.. this tim e w ritten fro m right to left. w ritt en w itho u t regis ters ). VOCABULARY :Bl l\~ .46 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Spec a I wri tings i 47 table scene from the to m b o f Scnbi (co nsult the sectio n o n the offe rin g fo rm ula if n e cessary )._ _ ___ _ _. nam e a n d title s of th e stela o wner the third line. th e fune rary ~ " n " m . the chamber m -h tt Arnen ernhet ~ .. _ _ thou sands i : tra nslat e th e h ieroglyphs wri tten within th e re gisters (a n d not those accompa nyi ng th e vases a t th e top left. [1l( IV) _ " .. mayor 't ~ '1 ~~l'I..~ . _. ii Ide nt ify th e d iffer e n ces in t he p hrase ology of t he o fferin g formu la.__ . th e prt-ljrw fo rmula th e se cond line and the ep ithets ... C'.c:> 0 ~ ~ X7ln Th e laden offe ring ta ble co nsrit u ring th e 'fu n e ra ry meal' for th e de ceased is referred to as : dbh t-htp m -r o verseer o f lmn _ . rhe required offerings ' .. Th e scenes and figures ar c in ra ised re lief a n d th e inscription s in sunk relie f. VOCABULARY i ~ h ity-: governo r. _. _ _ . I (Sec p."".... . II ._..EM EA 58 7.. Barnekc t bi-mkt n ttw . Tran slite ra te and b. ) 3 .. VOCABl: LARY ~..ill.8 Study exercise: BM EA 58 7 No tice that t h e in scrip tion h as bee n ca ref ully laid out: th e htp-di-nsw form ula tak es up th e first line. . n tnwtv 51- ~I c.-.. usin g th e not es a n d voc ab ula ry be low._. @@ 1115-11 born of count er of the double grana ries 111 &.. Yo u shoul d co n sult the sect io n s on the offe rin g formul a in the te xt (§2 6 ) whe re n eces sa ry.. 3 . Ho _ ... . 102 fo r so m e remarks on th e titl e m -t ' bl/wty . )11 ='=' dd htp -ntr ~ =} ~ rnnwu Sa rcne n u tet EM EA 58 7 (ca rved and pa inted limestone... 56cm) It is no w time fo r yo u to stu dy your first stela . .D gods offeringgiver hsb l . 40-42 ...n t of thp o vercr-r r of Ih p r ham br-r Am e ncmh er. l_ . sh ow n on the nex t pa ge. .. a. has another sta nda rd offe ring fo r m ula ._ . Yo u m a y a lso find it usefu l to read th rough th e no tes on Osiris given on pp .___ v_.9 Study exercise: BM EA 585 E M EA 585. . No tice h ow the n ames of Sar enenut et and his m ot her Bam eket a re written to fit the space ava ilable . _ rhn wtty ) . _ _ _ _ ... Epig raphy Compare th is stela wi th BM EA 58 7: i Iden tify the differen ces in the sha pe a n d a rr a nge m e n t o f pa rticula r hie ro glyph s (yo u may also w ish to con sider the fig ures a nd th e o ffe ring tab les). _. The clement -m kt in the mo the r's nam e is w ritte n in the sce n e a rea and in ra ised re lief. Translation Tran sliterate a nd translat e.. ~ . ... . ___ .

an d also supp ly ing yo u wit h a fi n n foundat ion for m oving on 10 study the wealth of surviving ancien t Eqyptian writings. equipping you 10 read a wider ranq e ofMiddle Kingdom stelae ill the British Mu seum an d elsewh ere. pl. Over th e n ext few chapte rs we will e qu ip you to bring this degree of accu racy to your tran slations. §28 Captions: th e infinit ive verbs typically la bel action s or events suc h as 'do' . In this pa rt of the hook we will move on to broaden your kno wledge of the ancient Egy ptian language an d how it works. or ' kick'. thoug h so me verbs label states o r cond ition s such as ' rem ain' . 4 ) (In ca ptions . word s a rc often writt en wit hout det cr m inauvcs. present or future . since' the irnace itself oicrurcs the mc aninc.:J Scenes and captions Tile first part of th is hook was dedicated p rim arily 10 building up your k now iedqe of the hierog lyphic siqns needed to equip you for the twin goa ls of reading the nant es of the king s and the ofJering formula. Scen es are oft en accom pa nie d by ca ptions whi ch very conve n ient ly label the a ction : 8 M EA 585 (carv ed lim estone. A good place to start is with scen es and capti ons . 52cm) n~KJ spt sm lt Bind ing a sk iff (Meir 1[. A maj or topi c to be dealt with in readin g hieroglyph s is h ow to get the righ t trans latio n of verbs according to whet her th ey refer to a ctio ns in the past.Chapter . \ . H .

10 3. 6 _ . ii Extra weak verb s behave like ordinary w ea k verbs.=. Exactly th e sa me is true in Egyptian.. 54-56). §29 Adoration The owne r of a ste la often expressed a wish to part icipate in certain im po rtant festivals beyond death. *'1 ). tWO points sh ould be borne in m ind : i w hat help do es the writing of the ver b give us? (the q ue stio n of form ) ii h ow doe s the verb fit in the co nte xt of t he inscri pt ion ? (t he qu es tio n o f [unctions As you will see. whi ch can be mo st usefu l in spo tt ing a partic ular form (w e sh all see that weak ve rb in fin itiv r-c .. they are not always ver y clear in th eir meaning. In Egyptian the equivalent of the -in9 form in thi s usage is termed the infinitive (see § 31 below fo r its forms ). th en we ca n usually get goo d se nse ou t of it.r 5n'(w) im n -m -hst Kissing the ground 10 Khentyimen tu in the great procession . when co n sidere d as a w hole (or paradigm ). the bare bones of w hich are: STRON G VERBS e. mJ) a nd in oth e r forms sh ow two (e. The terms for the va rio us Egyptian verb -forms a re now rather traditional. e. The vertical columns of stela BM EA 580 com prise a hymn to Osiris which beg ins: £~ -il ~ n n ---:-~v ' BM EA 58 0.11. which .or thro ugh having offerings made to h im at su ch times. by the overseer of the provisionin g areas Arnen emhet W EAK VERB S e. the re is on e general com ment we would like to make. the infinitive of stro n g verb s gives us littl e wr itten du e .. Egypti a n u ses a pa rt icu lar form of the verb whi ch.1\ zl~}' slim mu mr ti) to hear see stem does not usually show any alteration stem ends in a double consonant stem ends with a 'w eak' consona nt. . He either wished to participate in them directly . parti cularly the Osiris Mysteries (for whi ch see pp.W lWI Givin g praise to Osiris.Hf' rar hr. t his is usually introdu ced b y ~ In ' by' : tr an slat e 'kissing' in the examp le above as opposed to ' kissed' or ' will kiss'? ). In su ch ca ption s. As yo u will see below. as yo u w ill see in the next chapt er.. In m. we will transliterat e th e extra weak verb ' to give' as rdl or dt .g. p . rd(l) For the vocabulary.)m Lines 1-2: dii uw II isir sn lJ n W p.50 How to read Egyptian hierogly phs Scenes and captions 51 In English the -ing form of the verb tran slates rat her well here. differs markedly from th e form for expressing the pa st. '1 ) to the go d ..AK VERBS e . u sually allow us to see ea ch form som ew h at m ore clearly. whose root s e nd in a ' wea k con sonant ' (-lor . For pra ctical re asons. The following are the sta n da rd verb classes with a con venient exa m ple for each class: VER B CLASS EXAMPLE AND DESCR IPTIO N Before the figur e of the owner is a lengthy adoration caption . th e hieroglyphic writ in g alon e will not always dir ect u s 10 the exact form. the final -I is usu all y omitted in writing and therefore in tran slit e rati on. but so m etim es sh ow add itional features. f'r1 l\V tn ~nOI t h a n crrrrnc verh in fi n ir ivr-c i .IV) .. since hierogl yphs on ly wr it e consonants and not vowels. Fo r example: Notes i With weak verbs. nor do they always agree with the use of the sa m e term in describing the gramma r of Eng lish .g. ~ n. usually -I chiefly verbs with two or three weak consonants DOr... kissing the ground to wepwawet §30 Verb classes and the infinitive So how do es this all work ? The first and m ost basic point is that whe n Th e stem of a stro n g ve rb is not usuall y th at h elpfu l since it rarely sho ws an y differen ces.g.g. are the mo st inte res tin g be cause they sh ow a wider ra nge of variati on in different verb-forms.it will. once we take int o account how the verb see ms to be being used in th e in scrip tio n. In wr itin g. ad o ring (dwt } kissing the grou n d (sn u &6 : -1)' or giving pr aise td tt [JW ~q }. BLl NG VER BS (0 BM EA 567 : sn 11 n ljllIy -lmnt w m prt 'II . ~ !L.. Doubling verbs have a ro ot which ends with the sa me conso na nt re peated twi ce. Weak and extra weak verbs. wherea s using th e si m ple En glish pa st 'b o u nd a skiff' seem s a little inc omplete and unsati sfact or y.g.g. see the ne xt sectio n and the excu rs us on titles. So the te rm 'in fin itive ' a nd its mea ning is no t really im po rta nt . mJJ) and thi s can hel p in dist ingu ishing certai n forms.through seeing (mlJ :J': '}'). All the ve rbs in ancient Egyptian can be gath ered int o a small numb er of groups.r m o rr. However. however.. so me forms of these verbs sho w onlv one o f these co nso nan ts (e . ~ I ~. serv e as a conveni ent label by wh ich we ca n readily refer to the verb-form . The first ' 100 1 of the trade' that we need to int rod uce yo u to is th e top ic of verb classe s.Jj to love to give EXTRA W I. When the actor is m e ntio ne d in an Egyp tia n ca ptio n . however. Before we progress furthe r.

C VERll S ~ no change dJ~ sdm hea ring seeing loving DOtJ BLlNG VERBS . 44) illu strat e th is: Just like Englis h d ict io na rie s. See p. sho wi n g an exira . the ·i o r -IV of w eak verbs wi ll be a d ded in brack e ts (a s in t he tab le ab ove I in th e vocabu lari es in thi s book .M~ lSlr and al so . so rh ar yo u ca n see rea d ily wh ethe r a verb is a weak ve r b or n o t.' a bo ut weak ve rb s is thzu th e -I and . I : dlt liw 11 ~B= . All the ci ta tion fo rm tell s us is th at spti) is a w eak v e r b . Co ns id e r aga in th e sce ne an d ca ption w ith which we in trodu ced th is ch a p te r (repea ted o n p . h e re sp(i) 'b ind (tog ether)' . a nd do no t tell w h et her you n ee d 'b in d ing '. hu t o n othe r occas ion s ' to do ' will fit better.I : ~ h~ ~ 'I~ STRON( . Ho wever.do ubling W EAK VER BS ~1.) O n e uu po rt a nt poilu 10 nol l. 1'1. m il r~r ::J spt smh Bindi ng a sk iff . We a d vise yo u at this st a ge to follow our exa m ple h e re in a dh ering to a sm a ll number o f sugge ste d translation schemes for th e various form s we wi ll int ro duce yo u to. 2 : r ipdtw) Th rowing al the bird s 'Ill" DO Ull U !'(G \ 'ERBS Melr I.ll l1 worn l i~trd: In the exa mple s in thi s ch a p te r 'd o in g' will be the right ch o ice. r O il will find th e fnIl Il W. 4 : spt smh Binding a skiff EXTRA Wh\K VERBS BM Ell 5 8 0 .IV w ith which their ro o t or d ict iona ry forms en d do 110 t u suall y appear in wri ung a ud so n ee d n OT be rran-lu crat ed .52 } f<11I' h ' read ( qYPlial/ hieroqlyphs 53 ( ~ ni l co il of rope is a co mm o n dcre n uinau ve for ropes. co rd s a nd ac uo us p e rfo rmed wi th the rn . §31 The forms of the infinitive SO It' I 'S uu n 10 th e in fi nit ive and see how a ll th is w orks o u t. Toge th e r th is in for mation all ows u s to de cide th a t spt is an examp le of the Egyptia n infin iti ve and ca n be translated w ell into Eng lis h as 'bmd-In g. 53 ). sin ce this will help yo u to get go od sens e o ut of the h ier og lyphic in scri p tio ns yon will read in thi s book. 9 : ~ l. com pa re the Englis h 'To s tu d y hi erogl yphs is int eresting ' wit h ' St u dy in g hieroglyph s is int eresting ' w h ere the Engli sh 'to do ' an d 'd o in g' fonns h ave a sim ila r u sage . At fir s!' it is be uc r 10 ref ra in from tr yin g to be m arc imaginative or 10 'guesumat e th e mean ing. 'I ~ SPI bin ding pI.Iisrs of ancien t Egyp tia n ju st g ive you a sta n da rd cita tio n fOIDl (th e r oot). But if we look at the actu al example w e find the foll owing form. VI'RBS M c i r I.end in-I EXTRA W EAK VERBS nt rJ . So our first t ran sla tion sch em e is for th e infi n itive (simp ly su b stitute th e necessary verb for 'do): infinit ive translation scheme d o ing or to do Giving praise to Osiris The m ost n o ticeable feat ure of th e table is that th e form of th e infi n itive of weak ve rbs e n ds in a -I.end in -I Here a re so me exa mples 10 giV ing/p lacing rdit or dt: (r op rlori al in bo ih w ritings . of course. If yo u look a t the vocabula ry a l the end o f the book. pI. it is being used in a ca p tio n . If th e ra nge of m ea n in g seems a bi t lo o se. .~ 2~ r -. ~Q f\ ~}l\~ 1Ill! I W lW Seei ng th e ( a Ilk ~u ~ \ Inr <--"" W ~ AK VERBS l\k ir II . 'b o u n d' or wha tever in yo u r ac tua l tr anslati on . Th e inf i niti ve in Egyp tian ha s th e fo llowi n g form : l ~ FJ ~ Il "l\' E SlR O:>. dictiona ries and word .

in pro cession fro m his tem ple to his supposed to rnh a t Um m el-Oarab (' mot he r o f pot s' )..stick at the birds: Meir J. In Exercise 6. as you will see . The two edited la bels we re : a. pl.pro cession 0 f W ep w aw et '(n /l V -P---". th e re w ere actually two outward pro cessio ns . 1 t' I l T"nl <'" pLn~ ("" h th ".~) .a public sectio n during w hich t he div ine image passed thro ugh t he cemetery ab u tt ing the te mpl e 's we stern side . rmrs. of co ur se.fl ~ ) .. complete form as Exe rcise 4. IIi 'Y' o f Osi sins ( 7:. 2: stt rm(w) ill snbl m r-hrw Spearing fish by Sen bi.-::arting po int o f t he festiva l procession wa s th e Osiris Temple self in Exe rcise 6. Stelae were concentrated near th e west e rn en tra nce to r> th ~em pl e . th e rua p below gives a plausible version . n '" c. The cem etery a t Aby dos was t he refore a ve ritabl e cit y of the dead with a wea lth o f rnon u rne n ts. Dur ing the Middle Kingdom at Abydos .. and. in a n a rea of h igh grou nd known as the 'te rrace o f th e great god ' ( ~. in a rit ua l boa t carri ed al oft bv pri ests . the justified st(i ) ' spea r' is a weak ve rb . infi nitives of stro ng and doubling verb s do n ot offer us m uch help ill their writin g. The pr ocessio n cros sed t he terr ace be fore de s ce ~d in g into a wadi (the sacred lan d..6 . or erected o ffering chapels as ce no tap hs.o h llrl t . Abydos had a lon g hi story as o n e of t he most sacred sites in th e coun try since (Ii It " "'I(. 5. h ou sin g th e sta tue of th e god . As an ex a mple. Scene of Throwing the thr ow.the . Notice also ho w u sin g th e sugges ted tr a n slat ion schem e helps US to d ra w togethe r a decent Eng lish tra nslation of th e whole: 't hro wing at th e birds hy Senbi the ju st ified' .t he cu lt images of t he gods ar e ofte n re ferred to as thei r ~e~ nfrw ' sple nd o u r' ). howe ve r.. 2: ' m'l r lpd(w) I" snbi mr -hrw Throwing at the birds by Senbi.l iA "-J L ·inooe H lp ".. a n d a pri vate sectio n ou t in the desert wh ere the secre t rit es co nce rn ing th e m yste ries a nd passion of Osiris were per forme d. m embers of the elite dedica ted stela e.5.:::. As yo u will see for yo ur0 . Ex cursus: The cult of Osiris at Abydos The hea rt o f the cult o f Osiris a t Abydos wa s the a nn ual fest ival a t which his cu lt -sta t ue was bro ught.rt P " thp 1 1 th . is a st ro ng verb an d does not provide a pa rt icul a rly helpful w riting.54 How to read ( qypria n hierog lyphs Scenes and captions 55 Now . rh c justified b. . T~e (lQ 1 ~1 ~1Ib~ ). we can cons ide r again th e fish in g a n d fowli ng sce ne fro m th e tomb o f Se nbi w hich you stu d ied in edi ted fo rm in Ch a pte r 1 and w hich yo u can stu dy in its o riginal. The festival pr oces sion had two fundamental compo nents .. so t ha t th e decease d co uld look up on th e em erg ence an d re turn of the gods (h ence the ref erences to 'kissing th e gro und' and 'giving praise' as the images o f th~ go ds pas s by . pl..i)-I!).- th~ p~. How ever ."'"" ) a nd th en the 'g reat procession' ' <"" > .. hen ce the in finit ive str 'spearing' . Meir I. w hereas reasona ble alte rn a tives such as 't hrows at the bi rd s' do not: ' thro ws at the birds by Senbi the ju stified ' is not particu la rly goo d Eng lish. Yet t he cont ext of th e captio n and th e parallel w ith t he other cap tion showing ussu 's pea ring' ur ge us to con side r th e infi ni tive an d the tra n sla tio n 'th ro win g' .. yo u will stud y o ne o f t he princ ipal sur v iving ancien t sou rces for th e festival pr ocess ion itself. Th e god 0 'JD ) th en pro ceeded out mt o the dese:r on the God 's boa t-j o u rney to Poker ( ~ @ ) wh ere t he divine mysteries and rites were pe~med . Scene "f spear ing fish : Here we shall con ce nt ra te o n t he route of th e festival. Th e exact lo cation an d sco pe of th e various Egyptian place na m es use d a re still a rnauer fo r de bat e . ho pin g to en sure th eir co ntin u ed pa rt icipa tion in th e festival afte r th ei r ow n death. Abydcne stelae form an imp ortant body of the Midd le Kingdom monu ment s st udied ill th is book. But the con te xt a nd so met im es ot her parall el exa m ples can help o ut.

0 Jl\~ Translitera te and translate th e following sections (rom the 101' o f 8M EA 10 1. _. .1 Signs a. _ roI. pI. 11 VOC ABULA RY (N ORMALt SED WR m NG S ) o ut stret ched arm s 1 or 1 Both of these dctcrm inativc s a re u sed widel y.ign o re the se ctio ns in g rey ). the st ela of Nc bip us c nwosrer. however. for variou s festivals and fo r words to do w ith pra ise and su p pli ca tion .2 Words Tra nslit erat e the foll owing word s: 4. Soun d S /IS: ig 1 11 r. th e tomb o f the Isrd vnas tv king Dje r wa s beli e ved 10 be that of Osiri s hi m sel f. adora tion Meir I. that when u sed o n thei r own. 4 The bu ll is al so lab elled sep a rately be tween the tw o figures at th e top..!~ ~_ <ill ntr_ _journe __ . You ma y wi sh to rea d th e no te s on th e cu lt of Osi ris at Abyd os on pp ._.. ~ sn m (t<-j/ j w it m o b.56 How 10 read Egy pl ia ll hieroglyphs See/res and captions 57 Dynast y.~ 4." sister ~~ wife kiss repeat *1 . VOCAB ULARY ~ J) =C> JI c pre pre 'JC pre W p -WJWl procession the great procession the procession of w epwawet Poker .] 0 l~ rw d terr ace temple sacred lan d n ~ h wt nt r (I LJ i? ! ~Jl V6/ 1 ~ O Li @ L~ dsr _ = __ _ l':::r _ . Th e following n ot es will hel p you in translati n g th e ce nt ra l se ctio n: Notes The eye emblem in the cen tre can be rea d as a verb ' 10 see' . praise brothe r . Exercises 4..._ ·_ god's boat .. 54.-. -1 _ _ . _ .~ _.. It is though t 10 . Determinatives: SIGN hm ~ * hb h(w) dws EX AM PLE F6 basin combin ed with canopy A2 0 man with UlIJ or CIJ ~~ festival praise. 4~ bull 4..i y 1. pl.3 Translation adore."""._ -_ ::LJ 1[. spit 'i ~ }lJi:iI or iii lon g-horned n9m' bull lassoo .4 Translation ' e-... the y a re abbreviated writings o f t he two speci fic wo rds giv e n . r . da ting from th e reign of Am cnernhet III ( sh o w n o n the ne x t page . ~ .__ _ _ __ _ Mei r II.-I V wp (l ) separate.56 for usef u l backgrou n d information . Note. open l OX ~ 1_.--.

\ nf rw SIll 0_ ' sn /l Grammar land . BM EA 101 (ca rved an d p a in te d lim eston e. ~. As record ed in 't he mid dle sect io n of th e stel a .-. _---. Nebipusen wosret had th is st ela sen t to Aby dos in th e care of th e eld er lect o r-priest Ib i w ho had co m e. to th e reside n ce o f th e th en reignin g k in g Am enemhet II I.: ~ ~-r~ ~ lJO -~ I'r:=fnfrt prt ru hb (Wj=f nf r w h is wo ndc rtu l proce ssio n <::>JJo th e gr eat procession his wond e rful festival> 4. look a l b.-_.. Th e n a me o f the god (a n d h is titl e s) a rc w ritten first fo r rea so ns o f p re stige (as not e d in §2 2 ab ove ).5 Translatian Tran slit erat e and tra n sla te t he foll owing se ct io ns o n the n e xt pa ge fro m BM EA 58 1. mry is u sed in lh e epith et 'b elo ved of t he god X ' . so we 'Nil! on ly co ns ider two sectio ns . 66cl11) Th e d e c. Ign o re the parts in grey. on e of t he th re e stelae of th e ov erseer of th e chambe r Int ef so n of Se n et in th e British Mu seum ..' "ypticlH h iercaly p hs : Scenes and captions 59 ii See §§ 17. :. w. }:round . ----.0 "iIiI 41r enduringly and repe ate dly see .. Th ese ste la e ar e extreme ly elab orat e in their wording.iR.18 on th e ki n gs name an d e p it hets (th e epith ets a re di vided in to two columns m irr o ri ng th e geue ral di visio n into a sec t io n o n Osiris on the left and o ne on w epwawct on the right). as pa rt of the priesth ood o f the temple of Ab ydos..a scd king Sen w o sr et III form s th e ce n tra l focu s of th e sce n e . bcau iv.58 How to read .~ - --.----_. praise Q II ) * /:IMw) festivals int] d~~ m fJ In tc f ir-n born of splend our. . ptr nf rw 'II =. 36c ll1) VOCA BUlA R Y ll ~ 1 '~ " ""r= c" 1~1 Neb ip u nb t'=i) pw-s n ws rt se n wos ret nfr nfrw dWI ~ perfection . wond erful his ~ 13M EA 58 1 (ca rve d lim eston e ../l "'"- [C o prt ~f procession viewi ng ih e splendour in . VO C A BULA RY ._ . during pcrteci. wonder Se net - *1 - ~ r. w. wo nd er.--.. splendou r adore.

ntr priests Meres st-ib st(i) ..-.60 How 10 read Egy ptian hieroglyphs Scenes and captions 61 writinqs The extrac ts fro m BM EA 581 show two variant wr itings wo rt h n oting: [ltt'y im n tw m -r Kh ~lqytmenlU ') ov erseer of The first sign has two variant s.) lady (Iern.--- _ ~= r mrs _..-- affection.) at.--. . ..: hmt [Ir gover nor N c. read _ above J .-.-J ~ o o . I Ip d( ) W f I bl d ow . 0 nb. If S hea rt reve ren ce '=' C/ ._. E39) IJ and" arc similar soun d..vl(Y) compa nion snbl :>::! I' or =:1 11JJ r-bnv rJ ~ ~\l '- I I i . read : -50 ~ .. . read ~(jU .y <0< II' rmtw) fisb ~~ ~ the revered western hy .J') ~ hsty.._- _........-- ..6 Study exercise: Fishing and fowling scene f rom rite tomb ofSenbi at Meir You a re no w in a p osition 10 translit er at e and tran slat e the o rigina l versio n o f the fish ing and fowl ing scene from the to mb of Se n bi shown o n p age 6 1. Above wife..-.-. 'u ::?: .." ._ . with three or fou r pots (E38. ii Fowling scene : end o f first lin e .-. and can occur in varian t writings ' Unw ty th e chamber 4.n 'o f' Not es .~' \l QIII.. i Fish in g scene: ancient corre cti on at en d of line . t~ lm rut In IS/T d 0 wife before -- 4 1:f1 -n ~--D ~ ! "'- '" ~(jU ~ 0 Osir is th row his ju stified ove rsee r of [rtmty. tow ards : 1 Ib tmil] Inl1l.---.tr l~ m -r hm. n bt lord (masc..---.---....---_.. . intimac y spear .-.- -.seal-bearer of the king blty smyt sm r - <mrs desert =f r~ . sole Senbi .. - ~['v -. VOCABULARY ~i :~ iI ..-'..

the in scr iptions invoke th e four son s of Horn s.-. th e coffin of Nak h tank h) . facin g towa rds th e east.------. nbr--nb VOCABCLARY Nakhtankh . L. OTIlE R DEITIES ~~ r~ '--'''--. . th e mat erial th at you <I re worki ng through also puts you in a position to study inscr iptions on othe r kin ds of m u seu m objects. Tran slite rat e an d tra nsl ate w ith the h elp of th e vocabu lary and n otes below : The western side The principal inscript ion on the western side of t he coffin is an offerin g form ula to An ubis... At th e corne rs. The cent ral colu m ns in vok e deities closely linked to Osiris: Sh u and Geb on the east side an d th eir fem ale con sort s Tefnet a nd Nut on th e west..7 S tu dy exercise: The coffi n of Nakh tankh (B M EA 35 28 5) Alth ough in th is book we co ncentrate on stelae in the British Mu seu m . On th e eastern side (th e s ide with th e eyes looking ou t toward s th e su nri se ).. The body was laid on its left side. imst ! dwi -mwte ] hpy Irnsett Du arnu te f Hapy ~~ } SW Sh u Geb * 0 ~J 0 . . Th is represents th e typical arra ngement of a Middle King dom rectan gular co ffin.... protective deities for th e body of th e deceased (with th e classic Midd le Kingdom a rra ngeme nt of Irnseti and Duam u tef on th e east side an d Ha py a nd Qebeh sen uef on th e wes t). We sh a ll con cent rate o n the two exte rior sides of the co ffin. In th is exercise you will study th e in scripti on s on the outside o f a Middle Kingdom coffin (BM EA 35285. .62 How to read c~qyp tia n hieroglyphs Scenes and captions 63 4 .. part icularl y where th ey incl ude the offering form ula.. Translite rate a nd translate with th e help of th e following notes: . 0 gb tjn t nwt L~~q l2 (:. in o rde r to be able to look out th roug h th e eyes on th e eastern side to wards th e n ewly rejuvc nat ed sun a t su nri se.---------. ii mr -hrw is (a) w ritten occasionally with the papyru s-roll an d (b) om itted in th e north ernmost column ..e. Hen ce th e in scri ptio n s run from th e head at th e north ern e nd tow ar ds th e feet a t the sou thern end.-. The inscrip tions are align ed on th e co ffin as follows: w ><:: N S E BM EA 352 85 (eastern side ) (painted w ood..J _ ..- Tefn et Nu t kbh -snwr] Oeb eh scnuef 00 =" The eastern side The eas tern side of the co ffin is sho wn on th e next page .:1~ tlllr(y)·im nlll· . 2 12ml) Notes Imlb(y) tlr displays ha plography (i. On th e w estern side is an offering formul a to Anubi s.-1 i ~-?. wh ere the la st sign in one w o rd an d th e first in th e ne xt a re the sam e and th e sign is wr itten onl y on ce) . Wh er eas th e Osiris offering form ula con cerns the offerin gs to susta in the ka of th e de ceased. ---. THE EOUR SO"'S OF HORUS Kh e n tyi rn entu ____ _____--. th e Anu bis offeri n g form ula con cerns the burial itse lf. th e main inscr iption is an offering form ula to Osiris.-. om ittin g the in scripti ons on th e h ead an d foot en ds. " ~ g. iii the g b -goos e (B8 ) is diffe rent from th e sr-duck (B7).

the past tense is genera lly use d.Ll na bu rial . = I'i:==l . IS ~ ::: I buried the old nfr krst 1 . d . 4 2 ) an d a fu rt her epithe t: mlJlli ~ .. an affix _ .. will also introduceyou to the ancient Egypti n p ronouns. h er self) a ccord ing to the ethi cal v alu es of Mid dle Kingdom elit e society and in te rms of su ccess an d achieveme nt . the sen ten ce begins wi th an a u x ilia ry ~ } iw w hich is no t translated in to English (see §34 below ). ii Rea d ts=f nfr n I1rt-ntr wi th th e indirect genitive (see §27 above) .th e own er presents him self (rarely. and describe his official life. In orde r 10 describe th e activities which the offidal pa rticipa te d in . As a sta n dard convention. = §33 The past: sgm.this just makes it easier 10 spo t. L__b:-:r_n~~oP_l_is o cemet ery. for =f see §33. u sing the verb sdm '10 h ear' in the 'h e ' form ('h e h eard ' ) as th e stan da rd example. in tran sliterat io n th e .nt-f) (pronounced 'sedjcmene f) ' he hea rd'.. th e tasks he accomplish ed. In th is form.. iii An ubis is invoked with hi s standard epi thets (see p.n(=f) The pa st form is term ed the .n is usu ally separa te d fro m the stem of the verb by a dot . ~ k rs + _ .see § 33 below) followed by th e su bject ('1' ) and other e lemen ts.n »! ittw) ! ~l.w hich we can term self-presentation .. You may wish 10 introduce yo ur tr anslation of krst nfrt with a dash o r colon aft er th e htp-di-nsw section. This constructio n comp rises th e past form of th e ve rb (.::: . The offici£ll lntef son of Senet proclaims his ethical behaviour: BM EA 562. The form s of th e s4m. We s. part icu larly in roya l service. ls»] mea ns 'hi s tom b'.n(=j) for t he verb classes (§30 above) a rc.64 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Chapter 5 Description BM EA 35285 (weste rn side) In the next two chapters. Lin e 10: e 9 IT tm t)' sh -n i r the one befor e the divine booth VOCABULARY _ . English 'bury ' + '-ed' .n. is added 10 th e verbstem (wri tten after the det erm in ative).n <ed'. Notes The standard organization of th e Anubis offerin g formula is: htp -dl -nsw follow ed by An ubis wi th his epi the ts a nd th en krst nfrt wi thou t being in troduced by dt»].._ -_.. co ntratinq on nce inscrip tions in which the deceased reflects back upon.. we will introduceyou to the past tense.-tomb iw krs.tJ sdm. a nd his ethical beha viour. 1\. a §32 Introduction: description In a typi cal type of fun erary inscription .

.g.) = 1 in IWI(w)= 1 'm y cau le' .i n e 10 : . 'he hea rd ' ). As the subiects of verbs 1'1'. bu t d ocs n ot fix o n to it (h en ce the re is no '=' in tr an sliter ation ): Hekaib record>all inspection o] his p roperty by th e ru ler: Li nes 4. for vo cabula ry.. 7 3 for §34 Au x iliarie s Th e slim.4 .trhe ma n heard ' ).n ' -d ' + =f ' he' ) th an sdmni. n(=. s tela e a nd tomb in scri ptions) or st ro n gly implied (e. Line 10 : q }4~ K it~ ipn hk : 1w . tl l.:: 1 ~..m y') is sometimes om itte d in w riting. particu larly in te xt s where a figure o f th e person is pr esent (e.nl =I) [ww <m > m /. In stela inscrip tio ns iii' s!im .Il=! (rJdf.66 How 10 read Fgy ptian hier oqlyphs lll hu remakltr extols h is proper conduct as a responsible official: h e hea rd BM FA 17 83.'/. i ll' rdt. The suffix pro nou n s a rc use d: a.g.g.Il =I is much easier to re ad isdm ' h ea r' + .D .l!=f l1H . see Exer cise 5. In ot her con tex ts th e perf e ct (' som eo n e has done som e th in g' ) a lso su its.l . see § 35 below .. Lin e 4 : 67 :. th is is indi cat ed in tr anslit er ati on by the symbo l '= ' .' EA 56 2.. Ir invo kes a se n se of in vo lvem e nt in the assessment o r prese n ta tio n of what is sa id / w riu e n. see p . ~ ~ ~>JK A _Jr X __ A..e.. particu larly in recorded speech .nI(=t) dsl=i) I fe rried th e boatles s in m y o wn fer ry Iwll' ' the boat lcss: is writt en with a d o ubling 01 the 2-co nso na n t sign ~B 32 . In se lf-p resen ta tio n inscription s.n(=fJ give s a sen se o f lo okin g back o ver on e's life. iii lis is u sed for th e empha tic reflexive ' (m y / h im )sd f' or 'ow n' . ii (For the o m ission of vo cab nla ry.:r_ I·" .0: Note: IW d. th e no un follo ws t he ver b. ihere are d ifferent set s of pro n o u ns in Egyp tia n w ith d ifferent usa ges.. it He )[l =1 = ! L' l\ ~ sdm.. Iw f dm. . w he r e th e te xt is all a bo u t th at per son ): An other of Inh uretnakht 's sta ted eth ical acts: BM EA 178 3. as we sh all see . W it h an o rdin a ry noun su bje ct (e .~j) (Th ere is no w or d for ' an d ' in Egvp tia n .ll =f r opt iona l he loved he gav e EXTRA W 1:A K V[ RBS When th ere is a pr ono un su bje ct (e . On ce again thi s ha s th e practical valu e of makin g the su ffix pro no u n s easy to spo t in transliteration: slim .ID\ fin1 ~ "" 5 .. 'I hear d' . the y do no t corre spond to the difference between '1m e-my ' or ' h e -h imh is' in Eng lish .. §35 Omission o f the firs t p e rson s uffix pronoun Th e fir st pe rson suffix p ro nou n ('I-m e. l. VERR S Wf AK VFR BS mr. th e suffix pronouns a re used (see §3 6 below ).nl=/) is usuall y preceded by a n a n xilia ry such as ~ } iw.fj STRO J\G VER B S sdm.g. 'he ') The official Inte] son of Sen et p roclaims h is eth ical beha viou r: IJr.. i "'j 2. BM EA 167.n=/ t hea rd "'=-- L' ~= sdm. 148 for a full list ) a u ach to th e ve rb...) There is no sim ple English equi valent for I w and so it is left unt ran slat e d. The Egy p tia n pro nouns translat e by whate ver ha ppens to be th e most ap propri ate En glish form o f pron oun .n«] he he ard Th e suffix p ron oun s (see th e refe re nce tables o n p.( w )( = !) The rule r ins pe cted my ca u le I t<' Re pea ted co nsonan ts are so m e tim es omitt ed : he re on ly one m is wri tten in In mhntiv i) ' in my ferry '._..n t-cl] { tl hk r hbs w tl h iv 1 gav e bread In Ih e h u ng rvand cloth es IO th e na ked DOU HU N<. the pronoun s for 'I' and ' he ' a re give n her e (co m pa re with the exa m p le abo ve ): SUFFIX P RON O U N S s l!m .n=I no dt)t:htillg :1 .Il(=f) o fte n tr ans lat es w e ll as a sim ple past ('so m e o ne did som erh i n g) : §36 Su ffix pronouns Altho ug h. 4m.

We pr esen t here a number of the nam es to be fo und on the mon um ents studied in this book. see Referen ce table. Y u will often find this to be the case: th e relative o forms (an d the ir cou sins . the re is no separa te wo rd for 'w ha t' or 'w hich' . 148. 58): t s.. his elde st. ~Jt_H i w Ir. * jj .n t-ei) . Line 5: N<Jt"s n'" =-..sd ~ . _. th e desc ribed eve nt ' I asse mbled 100 bull s' is expressed by using th e scjm . th e cha rac terised eve nt 'w ha t I did myself' is expressed by usin g a not h er verb -form . and so we will attempt to ope n up thi s ar ea of Egyptian for yo u by th e use of our no tion of a transla tion schem e.«=1) I assembled 100 bulls throu gh what I did myself Excursus: Names and kinship terms Names and family re lat ionshi ps play an importa n t role on Iune rarv stela e. 115.by using th e relative forms . rat he r the verb.JiI\':.I1( f) discussed in = = this cha pt er: PAST TE:"SE PAST RELATIVE F O R ~t -=-"-- Ir.. Th e sa m e stela pro vides an oth er sim ila r exam ple: Between th e figures of lnhuretnakht and Hui. As the section on names indi cates. However. see p. and the kin ship terms used . it is not su rp rising that m any n am es is the n um be r 100. his beloved' .1l' . In si»] smsll'=f mry=f bo th SI1lSW and mry share the followi ng =f and th e ph ra se means literally ' his son. lrt.I(I< J=fn=!l w In In Egyp tian . In this book we shall focus on th e relative fonn onl y when it shows the ext ra -I.n (=j) for m ir. the use of the relative form s is ext re me ly com mon and wi ll crop up in a n um ber of example s. 'him ') t From the Abydos formula on 8M EA 162: BM EAI62 . As well as being described (som eon e did some thin g' ). events ca n also be characterised (trea ted as a 'thing w h ich som eone did ' : 'w ha t/wh ich some one did ') . Others ma y con sider these points a little abs trus e at this stage and ma y prefer to return to th is paragraph later on .n(= ij 4. Nev ertheless.:' :I ~.) For th e fu ll list of su ffix pronou ns. Notic e that missing ou t a word suc h as 'wh at' in translation leave s the sent en ce w ith poor sense: 'I assembled a hund red bulls th ro ugh I did m yself' . p. it is better to stick to th e name itself. ii m here has th e mea ning ' th ro ugh ' or 'by the mean s of' .ii. ~ . 'his' ) The top pan of BM EA 101 beh ind th e iiqure of Nebipu sen wosret (see p.the past relative form: lrt./l} ~ ~~i:'_~JJ ~ 4d. the part icip les introd uced in Ch apter 7 ) scream ou t for th e inclusion of an En glish w ord such as 'w ha t' or 'w h ich ' in translation. r:'I. form shows a -t ill its wr iting . tit" following dedication label about the stela appears: 8M EA 17 8 3: h i p 1 wrw 11 It Ibilw May 'Welcome in peace' be said for Will by the great of Abydos (For the meaning of cjd. Line 5: ~~ . Names Nantes referrtnq to personal condition In a society wit h high in fant mortality. m a n y Egyp tian names (like our own ) have a mea ning. ~ ~~ 10 8 M EA 101 : d wi tsir m (Ib(W)=! nfrw 41 r nhh Adoring Osiris in his wonderful festivals endur ingly and repeatedly c.n=f he did what he did frt.n -n=f sl=f sms wef mry=f d bl §37 The past relative form: stjmt. I1( j) form an d th e past rela tive fonn sgm /.l(w)=f .68 How to read Eqyptian hieroglyph s Description 69 b.n=/ BM EA 1783.w hi ch is qui te different from English an d is often seen as one o f the more difficult aspe cts of ancient Egyptian .n (=f) The following paragraph discusses a m ore advanced poin t wh ich som e of you may wish to work th ro ugh at this stage in order to gai n th e maximum u ndersta ndi ng of the inscripti o ns read as study ex erci ses to th is chapter. In rhis usage .MI ~ "'---(i. Th e difference bet ween de scription and cha racterisation can be see n in the following example: The self-p resentation of lnhuretnakht ends: What his eldest and beloved son Debi made for him Notes ii -n=/ precedes sl=f smswe] mry e] in word o rder. In thi s wa y we can isolate the following conven ient tran sla tion sch em es for the pa st sdm. As the ob ject after a preposi ion t' me'. rath er than trying to translate the name into En glish. so irt . However.n te i).. in tra nsla ting Egyptian monuments. §l~ ._ """I ~ ~ .n(=I) klw /00 In In .nt c i} in itself means 'w ha t I d id' with out needin g ex tra wo rds. for you to refer to . As the possessor of a noun tmy. Egyptian has a special wa y of characterising an eve nt .

"-II!1I Iuh ur et it.slI wr rl BM EA 57 1: S m ry=/ ..€I . The living m ember s a re us ua lly show n p rese n ting offeri n gs to th e o ffering -tab le. show a '" · 1 rhefo re _ Il l.. househ old Senwosre t (BM EA 571) Fami ly me m be rs a re oft en referred to as be in g 'be loved' . Usuall y tr-n is u sed of both th e fat he r and mo the r.j h mt snt Sit wife sister da ug h ter ss-rnn wtt su -sbk s-n -wsrt son of Rencn utct daughter of Sobek ma n of the powerful one g~ 0 L . _ : . Priru'i pa l kinship term s: ~ "-.hst IIb(= lj-pw. ) The pa renta ge o f th e ow n e r is us ually in trod uced by one o f the tw o following ph rases: tr-n born of r-c:> c~ ~ Ncbipusenwosret (0 .. A m eny (In id ioma tic Eng lish we m ight p refer ' h is be loved so n '.-'-._ ~ _ ...\ \ EA 101) The birth names of the kin gs them sel ves accord wit h the standard nam ing co n ve n tio ns.\ cO c ~ . nts-n born of Kinship terms Ste lae emphasise family re lationsh ips by naming members of the de cea sed 's family and hou seho ld (often in cluding se rva n ts a nd de pe n da nts) .} nb" tIll' Khu IBM f A 571) protected Na mes referring to deities One t vpe ass ocia tes the ind ivid ual dir e ct ly with a deity : va rious re la tives a n d d ependant s o n the mo n ume nt of th e dec eased ..1. .._ . stfUng BM EA 584: S ! mrv-fpih -htp l= His son.. I ) (OM EA I·B ) snb i h ea h hy strong..~ . i.. w e find a m o re ab breviat ed w riting.e . th o ugh . ~ 1r~ ~ Isis (BM EA 143) sst or c... • \. his beloved. 1 A : .! im n-m. • n. Amun is guidi n g the ch ild's fort u nes (compa re wi th Scnw osret above ). literally.c ~ ~~-i' cz.II mean s ' w h om X bore '.J U= 0 ~:&' ft~ .rl ..4" Ptahh otep (BM EA 584) Inh u retn akht (BM EA 1783) pth -ht p Ptah is content 1.> Intel (EM EA 58 1) A mcn ern he t (BM EA 587) Label bef th efirst sons ill the third row ofBM EA 571: ore I". ""- II father h usband broth er so n ~3 u ntH" mothe r A secon d type in vok es a dose . th e e ldest so n w as th e ch ief cele bra nt fo r his fat her (as Horus was for Osiri s). mos tly to th ose holding so m e for m of elite po sition .70 H £lIV to read J-:'gyprian hieroqlvphs Description 71 rn '>. Acce ss to su ch mou u rnent s as fu nera ry stelae was rath e r limit ed.relati ons hi p w ith a god: Sarene nu tet (BM EA 585) Sat sobek (BM EA 586) fiJ q~ ~ hi sn ~~ 1. Ptahho tep Loyalist names Na m es whi ch associate the ind ividua l with th e king: Som et imes.~ . The crucial rela tionship wa s t hat betwee n the fa th e r an d the eld est so n: in socia l te rm s. ..0 Scubi (Meir tomb cha pel B. ss sbt ~~ family. 11th dynasty nomen 12th dyuasiy nomen Sen wos re t is my lord ] .:'\ 0 J7L1 ~::}~ =. . • . his beloved. Hen ce Am cn ernh et mea ns 'Arnu n is in fro nt'.mny l=! His son. hor h. Label befor e one ofthe sons of Khuenbik offering fowl: A th ird ty pe involves a piou s state me nt in response to the ch ild 's birth : c:. vigo rou s -OQ Nakhti . wh c rcas ms-n is us e d of the mot he r alo ne .often fa m ilial . th us _ _ J ••• ... these 100 e njoyed th e be nefits of bei ng com m e mora te d by figur e a nd bv name .. thi s wa s the rou te of inheri ta n ce.. il< nsu. when the person thi s ph rase is a pp lied to is fem in in e. in cu lt term s. p ro viding family cont inu ity. i r-n m eans ' w h o m X m ade ' and inS. I'll ..

~ Al ./.lit t:: hkr 11.--. Tran slite rate an d transl at e th e offerin g formula at th e top of the stela (Lines I.5): b. A nother of In hu retn ak h t's sta ted eth ical acts (m added for clarity) : BM EA 178 3.. in this book we will stick to th e distin ctive tran slit eration using '-': i r -n an d ms-n .~ .l ./._ .2 en ding wit h th e word ad ju st befor e the end of Line 2)..~ " n ::H" f\ t ~ n rt .. Iww wbm the boatless repeat ferry the naked be fore Q~ Ip i Tran slite ra te the follow ing wo rds wri tt en wi th the se signs : I friend proceed.-' 5._. Howe ver. Line 10: 8M EA 162 md hw mst-n imn y m srt-hrw Medhu born of Arneny.. h . Lin e 4: d . The stela is sho w n on p..--_ . ferry .. Line 18: (The verb i r(l) ' to do ' is used with a wide ra nge of idiomatic meanings: h er e the British Mu seu m : BM EA 178 3. Some we re us ed in th e text ab ove a nd so give you th e cha n ce to w ork th ro ugh these exa mples th o rou ghl y.l ( np V....2 Words nm -.-_. ln huretnakht exto ls his proper con duct as a responsible official: BM EA 178 3. the justified Prop erly speakin g ir-n an d ms-n a re probab ly ma scu line relative form s . a. ke ep to a liter al rende ring of the Egyptia n. . Nag' ed -Dcir wa s an im portan t cemetery cen tre from Prcd yna stic ..3 Tran sla tion Trans literate an d translate the followin g sentences . The official In tejson of Sen et proclaim s h is ethical beh aviour: BM EA 562 . iAo' .72 How to read Egy pti an hierogly phs Descript ion 73 Th e n am e an d filiatio n of the wife ofA m eny 0 11 BM EA 162 (see Ex ercise 8 . h .. g 0 prt IlSW procession king the hung ry bury myself. wa s th e ceme tery for Thinis (::: Q tnts. " . Lines 4 . yo u can m ake a start on st udyi ng a more com plex stela in is the wo rd used for th e form al an d festal jou rne ys of th e god and the kin g. _ -----" ~ ..: rh . ! I I _ .~ . the stela of th e governo r Inhu re tnakht an d his wife Hui fro m Nag' ed. n T1 ~Arn ~.. th e capital of th e 8th Uppe r Egyptian no me @ (wh ich also includes Abydos): ln -hr t (lnh u ret or On uris) was its pri ncipa l de ity.-_ . Ity n otes h is success an d achievement: BM EA 586 . usin g t he n otes given.5: e. . You m ay wish to consult §35 on th e omi ssion of th e pronoun = i . praise boat -journe y ~1r j~.... 1n H·"c f n 'h I'> 1 1 f h .._ .0.-..4 Study exercise: BM EA 1783 In this exercise. b. Q }' ~ li (w) the old "'-' __ VOCABULARY _.f . a .-' 1111/11 ruler formal journe y ferry amethyst w rong [lr di(1j .. Ikhernofret relates h is role ill the My steries of Osiris: Berlin 120 4 . . set out ~ :. Ill' I lib For e. r~-' __.see § 52 below. my own I ~ mJ-:.•-. .h . Exercises 5. i l.~ 1~ favour.. Tran sliterat e an d tran sla te the section sta rting at the beginning of Line 4 (we sha ll return to the section from th e end of Lin e 2 to t he en d of Line 3 in Ch apter 7).. 1 5 . c f ::)r. ... I Sig"s c.. 5. Iw/(I<' ) cattle inspect .~J:u:> !:rs ~ 1ft lis=! . The ceme tery of Nag' ed -Deir. go.. 74.l 2~ ~3t Q~ !IIY ' Ll {=o. It is a collect ive term and n ot a p lur al (an d hence does not req u ire ( w ) in tran slitera tion despite th e pre sence of plu ral strokes). i r~~Q~ I e =0- IIIUnt 3ti. Line 2: lJb.Deir. opposite modem Girga . u .

38 ii See Cha pter 3 for the variou s tit les of In huretriak ht a nd t h e u se of imshw ' th e rev ered o ne '. . Hui ha s t he foll owi ng titles: Uh f mw W' II sole lady in wanmg hm tti... bot h in te rm s of its a rtw o rk and the con ventional phraseology of the ins cription .. ~ b(w) 100 IN I) Tire Family c... gentle lather love lord 01 the sky clothes the hu ngrv 100 bulls in.. 1 ~. p.Desc iptio n r 75 BM f A 178 3 dates fro m the First In ter m ed iate Pe rio d and is a classic exa m ple of the regio nal Nag' ed-Deir style of t ha t p er iod . iv See §35 for the om ission of th e first per son pro n oun ........ vii lrtt) ' do. v (/5( = 1 is u sed as t he em phatic reflex ive (a s in '1 sha ll do th at myse lf' or ) ' m y O \VI1 hou se ' ). ~ '"".....'~ !Z~r snw snu' ( siblings.: . h~h : ~ .. . fr .. alth ough som e writings . a nd a re int ro du ced by rid ' who say s' or rid=f'he says'. f .. VO CABULAR Y lu-1~... Be careful with t he title a t t he sta rt of line 2 _ iii Se lf-presenta tion inscr ipt io ns a re usua lly ca st as a speech.hrt nh t If m r(i) ~~ ~ li7! ~ J~~~c. . ..... ._ .. See §26.... I - sb: Im (J) " '- lamily.. . household Iw w the boat less Inhure m akh t mother ferry the naked I Q>I~ gracious.... vi Before mhn t th e preposi tion m 'in ' has bee n o mitted ... Translite ra te a nd t ranslate th e la bels a round the ot her family m e mbe rs....brothers and sister s ferry I I. .n tr h w t-h r priestess 01 Hathor E M EA 1783 The for m of the kin sh ip expression s are alike .. ~='I 'J=-l . Notes i = is a dete rm ina tive of prt-h rw. wh ich is o rienta ted a rou nd t he famil y a nd eth ical be ha vio ur. . ma ke' is u se d he re in t h e sense of 'acq u ire' or poss ibly 'ra ise' .. mwt m ltn t nb pt i iJ~} Y h bsw hsfl) praise I L.

76 H ow 10 read J:qyp tiil n hi eroglyp hs : Description 77 hmt -tm t t»] h is beloved wil l' h is beloved eldest son :-. s tcrm . th e suggestion has been mad e th at th e readin g shou ld be based a rou nd the nu m be r fifte en .._ . arrang ed in the typica l o rder in which th ey occ ur : ibd the moruhlv festi va l the half-month ly festival. rh nslV '. I :2' . Tra ns late the o ffering formulae a bove the two scenes .--. sh ow n on p. _ _ !!_ mrh t »: ~o{. h w! _ Ra i '= ~ J dbi Debi co o . The pr esence 01 the festi va ls on suc h ste la e rc fh-crs th e desire 01 th e B M EA 57 1 (lOP) (ca rve d lim eston e.. .- s. Mor e re cently...-._.\\ I S SI=f mr v=1 his beloved son ~ IA~ 44 "- " ._ .ry nb=f beloved of his lord l_~~_~W. 7 7 .\ . VO CA BULA RY ---. i.ff'll~ ~ nnuy Ncnwv 5... w. a. --.I~i~~~~~J oil. u ngue nt ma rne) Th e sec o nd o ffering fo rm ula co nt a in s a d iffere nt set of offerings : water beer Festivals j~ ~ sntr incense The genera l word for a Iesu val is hb: The procession of Osiris 1 0 1JCD or CD hb ds: ntr r pkr festival the god 's boat journey 10 Poker Poker : A num ber o f particular or periodic festi va ls arc oft en m ention ed on ste lae . --'::'~:II~~ I1/W . Th e loll owi n g is a lisI 0 1 t he ones which a ppea r on BM EA 57 1..5 Study exercise: 8M EA 571 (t op) The top secti on of th e stela o f Khu and h er IW O h us band s. as mddint. full moon dhwl1 the Thoth -fcstival th e Wag-festival The readin g of th e h alf -mon th festival is still u n clear.e.=f sms w=! mry»] i ni' ~ L ..m-t pr overseer kings advisor ss-imn Saamun (name) Sa ha rho r . An old suggestion to rea d smdt has problems.

.} n= 1_ ~ .. sh ow n o n th e foll o wing page.be arer [Ie rn.Jj Satrne n tju Sat w osret \======= '~======= . sh ows furth er fa mily mem bers and mem bers o f th e hous ehold a n d est ate staff. J (Na m es en din g w ith m-sI=f usually start with a god 's n ame... but ler overseer of the storehou se m -sr«] ~ Emsaf (name) Samenkhet bIlIllS =! his beloved mry(=JJ friend Scherepib (name.78 fest ival da ys: on ce th e god h ad sati sfi e d h ims elf w ith th em . bw ddc Khu Dedct " ~r ~ s-n· wsrt SCIlw o srCl ~ ... .. OCClj PATJONS Description 79 Offering bearers b._. Se c the concl usio n of th e festival list on BM EA 162 in Exe rcise 8. _ . _ ~__=-. Th ey ar e giv en below in a co nve nt iona l o rde r: accompa nving lite son washerman accompanymg th e overseer o f th e sto re ho us e VO CABULA RY wbi cup -bear er.6 Study exercis e: BM EA 571 (bo t tom) Th e bottom se ct io n o f ste la BM EA 57 1. --' . the)' w ere pas sed on to th e blessed dead ._ sn -mll(U-' =}~ . Hore rnsaf.z Tjau Am en ern hvi ~ 11 sst-wsrtt) hi si. Th is ca n lea d to un us ual arrange m ents. ) = e sI-mnbl ~~ame)__ .. Tran sln era tc them yo urself: ~ ~q~ -_ _-_ .i . as in hr-m -ssv] 5. S lcm) ~} --.. You ma y wish to make use o f the Exc ursus on na m es an d kin sh ip .. more fully Seh~lepibre) .. b. Transliterate a n d tr anslate th e in scri pti on s... S for a fu rther illust ration of th is poi nt . a. Tra ns lite rate a n d tr an slat e th e in scrip tion s accumpanyi ng the o fferin g hear- 1 * : IC> i ~ rh ty cm ering -rnard (literally..==== k> ~. '. Th e inscrip tions a ccompan ying th e two m ajor uffe rin g bea re rs in the top scen e tit th e hieroglyphs aro und the figu res . _~ ro:b'(j sh tp -ib ...-. i'iAMI:S Ai'iD TITLES . [ ' .hwthr JQ ~~ 00 ~ Bet Sahathor Hct cp BM EA 57! (bo tt om ) (ca rve d limestone.~ h m-ntr p ril'st .. 'th e en tvrer) cup. w... . L. -.1 h rt -p r sftw [ m sw do m estic butch er att endant ers in th e two scen es . Here are th e n am es and titles in th e sce ne . SOllie of th e n ames ar e n ot trans litera ted.==0 c-...) .Amen)' (l W ...::.

. In past de scription s. Somet imes elements are shared.n(=j)s wi th 'an d .r l~~~ 1ft~J!~ ~'i! whm.n>! Il(W) hb s..n=I'1 clothed ' carrie s o n th e desc rip tio n of In tel's ethic al be havio ur. it is useful to trans late the followi ng sgm. A past de scription is con tin ue d on simpl y by carrying on wi th the sgm. . iii hprw 'w ho existed' is a particip le (see Chapte r 7 ). or to usc com mas or semicolons .:&- This neg ation also occu rred in the openi ng sce ne to this book (no tice the sligh tly stro ng er tr ansl at io n with 'n ever') : Above the man roastinq a goose: lnhuretnakht is extolling his proper conduct as a responsible official: llM EA 1783. rathe r than starting a n ew point.. y Intef adds: BM EA 562.. \. fo r a clea r e xam ple of the use of a uxiliaries and s<!m. Now is a good time for you to starr using the Egyptian-English voc abulary (starting on p. see Ex ercise 6. ii r 'to.n(=f)!): The official InterSOl1 of Senet proclaims his ethical behaviour in general terms: Following on immediatel from his statement of positive ethical virtues (see above). § 38 Continuation Descriptio ns are often p resented as a series of connec ted ep isodes. Notice h ow thi s gives a sense of shape and connecti on to episodes . 23 : n nIl=! mt ty --A. in relation to ' sometimes has th e se nse of 'm o re than '. .:&-} q} In this chapter we \ViII lookat how complex descriptions are presented. /5/) ..n(=I) 'I gave ' is sha red: "] gav e b read to the hu ngr y a nd (I gave) clot hes to the na ked '.:. in particular .n follow ed by sgm(=f) (it is not.. Lines 10.n(=I) hst hr nsw s. th e first ep isode is in trodu ced by a n a uxiliary such as Iw.. Line 2: IW J1 r: ~~~ . as we might expect. de pending o n Engl ish style: 8 M EA 586. continuing to the next point and noting other things going on at that time. In translatin g suc h a series.n(=I) ' I .n(=f) fo rm . and ( f ) ad vancet d ) m y hea rt'. when reading the examples in the text. Irynotes his success and achievement: 5 (.. §39 Negati on Th e n egat ive of th e past ('I did no t do tha t') is m ade u p of th e n egati ve w or d -'.n(=j) s [0 give shape [0 descripti on .j Ib(= i ) r liw(~I) b prw r-Ill/ = I forefathe rs who existed before me I repealed favour before the king and advanced my h eart furth er than my 1ft . th en de scrib ed by a ve rb in the pa st tense made up of th e sgm. ' I repeated fav our .t.n(=j) with out an y furth er introdu ctory au xiliary.. Me ir In .) ~ ~ 1) c g . -(e )d' is sha re d.~fl e .Further aspects of description 8I Chapter 6 J gave bread to the hu ngry and clothe s to the naked Further aspects of description rdl.' (the re is no sep a rate wo rd for 'and' in Egyptian ). 0 "' - 0 I have never seen the like of this goose So metimes the n egation is w ritten (rathe r co nfusi ngly!) with _ ..!!ft:1 1 562..n>i htv BM EA =-1''l~= . fo nn e d by n Notes s<!m. ~}_ srw pn . ju st as in the En glish tran slation : lJr::: . 1'1. ~ l Her e the second past tense Iorm hbs. as we saw in Chapter 5. Line I I: n lr(= I) twi t r rm t I did not do wrong against people (or: I did no wrong .i3.I I : IW J buried the 01:1 and J clothed the naked k rs. 5 bel o w.

Lines 2-3: iw Ji." til' )m." fo r Ih. n -w l h m. ~T t i e t.=~ ()r o} P or r \\ he does hr irt the ) is doing The m ajor usage of the depend ent pronouns ar e as the obje cts of verbs (typ• II _1_ _ .. ~ t.).'n '<" ha ve " fOlldn. wher ever t h ~ king wanted 10 go) Nega tions with -'.. afte r In teft ! died .. . n ( ~I) . how ever.] ~ I w introd" n ' o in 5. In Midd le Egil lTia n the se ha ve th e follow ing [orrn (using sdm to label th e fonn and the w eak ver b i r ii) to ex emp lify it): c. the verb ap pea rs after h r in the infinitive form discussed in Chapter 4 . For a full list of form s.0 <E. we will briefly note the pre sent ten se form s. ju st as English doc s.·'b I followed h im to all his places oft he hearts dd . patte rn c an eithe r he use d to sta rt up o r to carr y o n a se ries of conn ected episodes WItho ut a ny obvio us written mark.f r rd wyrf m n!Jm{=I) His person [i.! -siv) ~.!.or th ings which ju st gene rally ar c . §41 D ep end en t pronouns Th e secon d set of pro no un s a re the depend ent pronouns (st"e Referen ce tab le.... §42 The prese n t t ense The m onu ment s discussed in th is book do no t in clud e m an y inscrip tio ns cast in the pre sent te nse. ] 4 5. Ikhernofr et has the image of the god placed back in the bark (see Exer 6.qoinH present (S he is leavin g right now ' )..q j m ..5) .~ I~ M 'JI H . . rdl ap pears in w ha tev er form is su itab le (in ih e exa m ple be low it appea rs in th e pas t ten se .ghl (i. the king) placed me at his feet ill my youth If you look care fu lly at thi s exam ple . and to allow us to cov e r on e in script ion w e would o the rw ise ha ve show n you h ut n ot equip ped yo u to rea d.. for which se e Chap ter 8. thi s w oul d req u ire th e suffix pro no un =1) a nd in a ny case such a sen te nce sca rce ly ma ke s m u ch sense . "". this IS not importan t at thi s point): After the festivities are ova .< .'two an d two make four ') an d tl specific or on. p .'f description The official Key r"'t~s h is ethical virtues: Tietii records that.. be tw een a qcncral present (u sua lly ex pressing habi t .n» ! w. des pite th e o rde r o f th e w ords. \ o.. Roth t. n h ry-ip»] I did not den ou nce it mall to his superior 11 M EA 6 14 ...5 for the general context of this example): cise No tice that th e su ffix prono un s serve as subjects o f the ver b (sec §§ 33 an d 36 ) and dep en dent pronouns as o bjects of th e verb . th e ot. _~ __~ _ " . see the Refer en ce ta b les on p.... . 'I caused that he proceed imide the great bark' ) It m ay help 10 think of this as ' placing som eo ne in the position to do somet hi ng' o r 'giving so meo ne the o ppo rt u n ity to do somet hing': hen ce th e exa m ple would mea n: ' I put him (in the position ) to proce ed inside th e grea t ba rk' or 'I facilitated his proceeding into the great bark '.. for you r inf ormat ion .~ £lM EA 55S. the n -wi is a d epen dent pr o noun and the refore sh ould be th e object o f th e verb (som eon e must ha ve plac ed me ) and so the sen te nc e must mean tha t the kin g place d me at hi s feel.-L. Ca usa tio n .Further aspects. .::.:.. f elm or +~ . 149 ): SPECl Fl( PRl Sc :"T ~ Jf or yo u } -wi -(W or -wti) or -ru: helil she I i.do not go wi th au xiliaries and so the. PR1:SENT :::::::lfi' }l ~ = 1i7i o :5£ ~ Bc rlln 1204 .t i (>l1 i c :ln n h p r1\ - In the specific pre sen t. lin e 5: n dH's{~ . .h i r h t h ". Line [ 3: '.lJ.e. e r h ve rb appears in th e future sdm(=fJ .' a\lxili a rv . Middl e Ki n gdom Egyptian distinguishes. The precise me anm g can ran ge from nuance s of com pulsion ('make someo ne do someth in g' ) to permission ('allow /let someon e to do something') and guidance (' ha ve so m eone do so me t hing) . _ .1r' ~. Howe ver. + } . p lace ' is used wit h the sen se o f 'causing' a nd is follow ed by anot h er verb . §40 M aking someone d o somet hing (fo r use w ith Exe rcise 6 . I.hr slim -su: ir.. The depe ude rn pron ouns displa y all im po rtan t fea ture o f w or d o rdering: th e dependent pron ouns att ach to a nd dir ectly follow the ve rb an d so precede a ny nouns: Tile official Semti refers to his early fa vour at court : RM EA 574. is exp ressed III the following w ay in Egyp tian : the verb rdl ' give. he served the new kin. } ri.SlI ' r s{w)I={ " bI nf n '" sLrml. 4 .J) Q.Sh e goes to visit her friend every week' . the n otio n o f ' ma king som eo ne d o so me thing '.r s r RA I.n(=fJ form ) whilst th e othe r ver b appear s in a fixed form (as it happens.c. dl .. f r-/JllH' wr t li lies 21-22: 1had him proceed inside the great hark (literally. '' ~:..~ In te] JlJ: 83 .c. .h ::d ~ . Th is sent e nce can no t me an : ' I p laced the king a t his feet in m y you th' (for T to be t he subject.

pI.~J1 T O' ~ 11'_~ "'3' V D IIIJ?lr' 1..<.{. §43 Other things going o n (ad vanced notes for use with Exercise 6. r ~ ~R = ~ 11J) : 1LJ J ll1r -.g Joge th er a present sgm (=f) form or hr sdm form afte r a pa st sgm. Iw Ir n=1 prt .84 How to read E qyptian h ieroq lyph s Further aspects ofdescription 85 usag e as their English equiva lent s (fo r exam ple. 1 Siqns b. save ~~ +Ijj lik e. ~ 11J) Ur.n (=f). ve rbs o f sta te and co nd itio n prefer ih e ge ne ra l present 10 th e specific present eve n when refe rring 10 rhings go ing o n now: ' I know t he answer now' .-. here with the se nse of leading o r Q ~O .u i 1 or ~ n\ .-il Th is First Intermedi at e Peri od stela sh ow s a numbe r of idio syn cracies in the ~np l1 i n o. yo u m a y have noticed that whereas in En glish con n ections are sh own by w ords suc h as 'a n d ' and 'as'.n(=f) for m (something else curren t o r present at th a t time ): lkhernojret relates h is activities during the performan ce of the Mysteries of Osiris: n ". Hekaib asserts h is ethical behavi our : BMEAI67 L Lines 4 -5 : Notes -=- l ri i) literally. the past events a re descri bed by u sing th e pa st ten se sgm . 23 : IW=l hr mrk er pst I have been roasting since the beginning of time Egyptian.. sr..jm (=f) To tile left of lhe main offering form ula inscription on BM EA 587: G }cn ~rjHITg BM EA 587 : l w w rb hs m t hnk t sn tr mrht The rh o usandts j of bread: beer. incense and oil are pure No tice tha t the re is no Egyp tia n word fo r ' wh en '.. co nd u ctin g. i nli sms 6. ' w he n '.ll LJ ~~ i>. By stringin.2 Words Transliterate th e foll owing words written wi th th ese signs : El since prot ect. in Egyp tian the sam e meaning is a chieved b y st rin ging together different ten ses suc h as sd m . . In Egypt ia n it is th e ver b itself which expresse s thi s by a pp ea rin g in a present ten se form (pr esent or goin g on a t that time ). ' to do /mak e ". Exercise s 6.n (=f) form.. hr sdm An ' ex a m ple of th is cons truct ion occ u rre d ill the firs t inscription shown you in th is book: Above rile man roasting a goose: to 2-consonant and 3·co ns o na nr signs: ml ~ El dr r ~ hs] Meir III. although th e appropriate En glish w ord ma y be nee ded in transla tion .-. as we have seen. -=.=. p .5 .. Ind eed. 'as' in th ese usages.3 Translation r*P9 ~ r J1 Transliterate and tr an slate th e following (see §35 o n o m ission of =f '1' ).5 ) However. equal sail ri ~ 6.I "-Berlin 1204 . as t'-' g~ drive away.. 'w h ile' .llrh :l ~ rh~ fnrm o f d l in<. concentrat es on the faet that th e subje ct is co nt in u ing to roast despite the long tim e he ha s been doing it: 'I am stil l ro ast in g and have been since the beginn ing o f tim e' . like many lan guages. nOI 'I a m kn o wing the answer now' ): a . ~. The first o ne repea ts ex am ples from the chapter ab ove a n d is written here w ithout a ny bre aks (as in the ori gin a l inscrip tion ): a. repel night of vigil follow th e like. dp f p r " . Egyptian expresses th e noti on of som eth in g else going on at th e sa m e time as that event expressed by th e sdm .1nrl t h p fOi Tn o f l h .l~1fri (!o.. peer. p -W/W I "'til=! r IlIi I/=! Line 17: I conducted rhe procession of Wepwawct w h e n he set ou t to prote ct his (ath er ~} iftr ~"t~ OPl.. as in En glish . the noti on o f 'go ing o n at the same tim e ' is ex p res sed by con nectin g word s such as 'as'.fI(=}) and sdm(=f) and Jelling th e ve rbs do th e work . ' w h ilsi '. ~ .l~ ~~ } -A. ln En glish . there is one use of the present tense w h ich will be usefu l when yo u stu dy Exe rcise 6. In past de scrip tion .. in Egyp tian. The official ln tef 50 11 of Senet proclaims his ethi cal behaviou r in qen eral terms: b..J.-.

.AR Y . 1. thou gh later accounts menti on th at Osir is was crowne d with th e cro wn o f ju st ification ( ~. Th e festiv al centred arou nd th e burial and rejuve natio n of Osiris. ii Rea d di..-. pr omote pU I (SOlllCOn C) ~ at case ~~ il plan '.rw ) a nd transfigured o r ens piri tcd ( r ~:.'\l Lines -\· 5: =1 r~ sr H' complain abo ut .\IJ U LARY Further aspects ofdescription 87 The fin al ex am ple is sligh tly mo re compl e x and is written in th e righ t. J . 42).\. Tjetji describes his advancement by king Int41I: E . 3 Th e go d's boa t -jo urne y to Poker.. f. 5 The re tu rn jou rne y to Abydos among genera l rejoici ng a nd th e re -ent ry of the god int o his te mple .Icft ord er of the or igin al: (CO"1TI "1CE D) .. the lowly ._. 1 ~ 1 a--' LJ o }. stat u. Sl I.\<Iidd le Kingdom Egyp t. n ow in Berli n . 4 1 for the my thologica l acco unt) . Thi s see ms to have been a cele bra tion of kin gship w ith the re pelling o f th e forces of c haos a nd disord er (po ssibly re flectin g the threat of disorde r at the death of th e old kin g Osiri s ... }~~ iwit -.. The ste la of th e Treas urer lkherno fret..i rb pf/ !} 0 pit ~ Lt mr k roast ~ r}t.86 How 10 read ( qy pli<1l1 hieroglyph s VO C. Indeed... posuion.-.~J J<!Th IIW-J.5 Study exercise: The Osiris Mysteries at Abydos 6..n»] · w (i j in cla u se 3.. This is show n agai n belo w. Th is see ms to ha ve been the sta rt of th e b ur ial pr oce ssion of Osiris as th e dead king. promote sr[t sk bh . ! -:: - sLIIll augrn eru . see §33 a nd § 36. Th e god w as co nveyed in th e grea t ha rk out in to t he des ert to his su pposed to mb at Poke r (pro ba bly the to m b of King Dje r of the First Dyn asty a t Um m cl-Oa rab).. when h e was eq uipped and prep ar ed for burial. --I:b. chief g o o ~e ad va nce .. Unf o rt un ately. but you are n ow in a positi on to read for yourse lf the speech of the ma n roasting t he goose.to.. see §42.wrong palace the beginning of li me ~~i i ' I( W) ".. wit h its pro mise of burial a nd rej uv en a tion for th e blessed dead . _ . Th e fes tival itself see ms to ha ve com prised five pa rt s: Th e first pro cession Jed by w epwawe t and culmin ating in co m bat agai nst the en emies of Osiris.see p. 2 Th e g rea t pr ocession of Osiri s h im self.. Notes i On su ffix pro n ou ns. t h is remains th e most secretive and elus iv e part o f the m ysteries.1ft ! ndstw) . ' ~ !rrv -rp superior.. as discussed in Cha pter 4.. iii Also read cI::= n wr w. :' il~ The celeb ra tion of th e Mysteri es o f Osiri s at Abydo s wa s clearl y o ne of the ma jor festiv als of . Osiris he re a ppeared in h is form of Kh cntvirnenru 'the on e who is forem ost of the westerners a nd was taken o u t from th e temple th rough th e su rro un d in g ceme tery site .J:. w hi ch we used to begin th is book. Lm-il> confidence 6.. VOCABUl. see §39. 1 l-" .. 4 A nigh t of vigil in w hich the go d was rej uve na ted as Wenenncfer (see p . ~ .EA 6 14. ii On the fir + infinitive te n se.- -- c..r ~ H! the great privacy this ordinary folk.4 Translat ion It has been a lon g tim e co m ing. ac cuse i Notes I -w is writte n for -wi. a n um ber o f th e elite erected ste lae or ce notap hs in t he a rea borderin g th e ro ute to e nsure their etern al pa rt icipa tio n in the rite s. ) .. includin g th e Hak er -fesu vities and a slaught er of the en e mies of Osiris at Ned yet (the myth ological place of his dea t h ). iii On n ega tion .. is on e of th e prin- .

S f=¢ 'it "" ( l\')1 pa lace . . _ ..-. ..] -.....o . Tra ns literate and trans late the fo llo w ing sectio ns fro m the st e la of Ikh cr n ofrc i: if:'J ~ ~ rfi 'J.. O n th e w ri tin g offt.s. _ ._ CO> ~~ -.." @ o~ hr w day enemies (Up )OH. beg in n in g on p ._ .- __ . o nly in th e se nte n ce be gi nn. _ nt r ..Jn night of vigil __ .. th e a uxiliary nv is followed no t by o ne hut by tw o or three past -te nse ve rb s.' ( vii Th e bark 01 Osiris is calle d the Ne shrn e t-b ark (ll.11=5 'it bro u gh t ' (fo r It/ ( I ) r!.e~ £:1 r' -lil JiLl) iJ. ._ .: ' It. v Sec §40 on di. Therefollows a description of the rejoicinq along the route back._. c. mt) or e lse is sim ply re fer red to as the great bark (wrl): both a re fe min ine words a nd a rc re lere d to by the fem in ine pron oun =5 ' it' in 111 .. si:d(1) 1511' sail...s ill' followed by a sing le ve rb. ' la t he r'.o1k 1~"~~ There follows a brief description of the manner in which lkhern ofret equipped the bark and put the proper regalia all the god. sbitw) Notes r lid p repos it io n + infin it ive. He subscq u eu rly erected a stela in which he re co u nt s how h e orga n ise d the festival (an acco un t wh ic h d ra w s on p rev io u s ve rsio n s given by ea rlier gen era tio ns of o fficial s se nt by th e Midd le King do m kin gs 10 Aby dn s ).. . _. n ot e t ha t in m ost ins ta nc es . overt urn follow the god's boat bNl\') lIS! .. ' rave! (sa nd rba n k ~J\ e-._------ sepa ra te.::> n® 'j='~@C> l:YiI. .. VO CAB ULA RY (for ot h er w ord s. Lo ok at t he epi so de s in t his sect io n from the ste la o f Ikhc rno fre t and exa m in e h ow iw and the p ast te n se sam._ .in g Iw qsr.-. iii You m ay find §27 on t he direct an d Indirect genit ive he lpfu l.}.-.. save =0 rq@ o ndy t t The stela is unjortunately silent 0 /1 the most mysterious features of the festivities such as the niqht of "1~lil and the Haker-festivities (compare with BM EA 567 in Study Exercise 8. then: <... _ ~.hi kr the Haker-fesn vities . As a guide.. _ --_ ..'l1 n · Iigh'ing Wt'nenllefer I na me 0 1 1/ ntr wds of Osiris} ~ '£it 0 U'fI bar k th a i tOnlb. . dpt- r ~ -. rep el rebels.. set out Poker journey "=- pJ m r~l r t ~Jir . oftell cenota ph xeshmetbark Ncdyet 1 '<. in th is te xt t h e ve rb is d e libera te ly chose n 10 m ark th e tra n sitio n of th e fest iva l from the pub lic view to th e hi dde n mysteri e s 10 take plac e at t h e tom b. then : pkr 11111 11 )J~ =~J)1 ni mt .. __.3).5: rea d he re it=f ' his fathe r' .. _ L _ It:: ~ => ~ . b ~ . clea r --_.__ r%s: n - . u-rnpkways.~o r1lI\ l/tllt !JIlW 4un~ or drive awa y. o Ll@ = i I J\ I I I proc eed..• 0 " _ _ _ _ ____ . tra ns lat e 'to pra ted ' .. ~ b. __ :"J ___" __ ·_ . en emies )i7j 0 'iii'..> na hr o "=. . __ _ • .> descr f iption 89 Sc nwos re t III to rc pa ir th e im age of th e god a nd to perform th e ne cessa ry rima I ac ts. 15 1) -.} - IT I 1~~ .. se e Egyp tian -En glish Voca bu la ry... : .. " - 1/ fathe r fig h t. see Exercise 2 . 'j=' ~ or slJ r '1m.. vi hrw pf' t ha t day'.--"". roads the :c:rt'JI a.n= 1 i. ifsr .. .-- EXTRA VOCABUl.n>! 101l0wn J by a ve rb to e xp ress ca usa tio n .88 How to read Egyptiall hieroqlyphs Further aspects ... transla te ' (01 ' ) t hat d ay . J ii You ma y find §43 h elp fu l in tr a ns lating wd /=! and [ms» ]. at (wh ich is) at the Ioretro n t of inside fell..--. iv dsr a s a n adje ct ive mean s 'sa cre d ' (in u dsr 'sacre d la nd ' ) a n d as a ve rb mea n s ' to clear (so m e th in g) o u t'.AR Y : . How d ocs yo ur gra m - .Il(=)) form a re u sed to give sh ap e 10 the pa ssage... go. --. ending with tile boat arriving <11 Abydos.1111 o r ! I ntr god pro tect.. an d th is happen s o n ce th e p rocession h as passed th ro ugh ts dsr...-..__ ........

'to ma ke great' .) lb qQ heart god's father re pe a t t BM EA 586 a or . _ H .n (=.90 How to read ( qyp ri. 90 is by no me ans an easy te xt.5cm ) 1~ e.n=i. so translate 'assign (to )' . see §3 8 on co ordinat ion an d sharing. iv hp rw ' wh o existed ' is a pa rticiple (see Cha pte r 7 for discu ssion ). and contrasts with th e spe cial gift of th e sta ff (with w h ich IIY is depi cted in th e low er scene) . but thi s precise mea nin g does n ot rea lly go w ith th e deco rated sta ff which Ity was also given . th is see m s to ha ve bee n a title besto w in g high rank an d favour on an official. In th e Middle Kingd om.. bu t with the h elp of the follow ing note s. H \ ' ltv (name) king eh o n v (carv ed and painted lime ston e. _ ------irvt .. he re dealin g with the kin g's gift of a grea t seal ([Hm ( J) and a staff (JT r) to It y.(PS. _ - -. . Th e full form w ould ha ve bee n s(J.n form . II . typically for pe rform in g special co m m issions for th e kin g to do w ith th e cult o f th e gods . a nd also legitimating h im for th is task. here 'heart ' ) lite rall y.'~111l Q m c 1ft . sec §§ 17-I ~ _ Th e k ings ca rtou ch e is surmo unted by th e skv hieroglvph ._ . 170 to work th rough it.m h iercq lvp hs 6. 0 11 th e om ission of = i T . viii it-ntr 'god's fathe r' . 63. ix Th e text en ds abruptly with the nam es of lty a nd Iur i. tra nslate ' (w h ich was) decora ted ' . vi mi .~ iwrl 11(U' j luri (name) (Iorc . "F_ ) r-hn before ".. ha ve a go at tra nslite ratin g and tran slatin g the to p section of thi s stela or lis e the key on p. vii sw rbt is a participle w ith femin ine agreement with sry t 'sta ff'. See Chap ter 7. ' to tie on '. see §35 . v Th e section beginn ing iw ts. r has th e se nse here of ' mo re than '. iii S( I 'to advan ce' (on e's position . VOCABULARY _. is u sed fo r th e seal which the kin g tied aro und ltv's ne ck.6 srud)' exercise: 8M lOA 586 II." 1 - ~" ~~ y '(.n is ano ther example of coor dination. ii wirm !tSI ' (0 repea t fa vou r' with wh m in th e sdm . y fs(i ) lit. --. fa th e rs lIy n. The wife 's nam e is sepa ra ted off by a vertica l bar." . So tes On dating an d th e titles of th e k ing.. Perhap s here th e title is directl y co n nec te d to th e episode o f th e king 's assign m e nt of th e grea t sea l a n d a sta ff to lt y.."'- lt-ntr H. which is n ot read .(P S' /I SW is a conventi o na l design ation. Mill' . I .- staff ~ } -== ~ " c ~ . Further aspect.' ofdescription 91 The ste la on p.II SW nb 'just like any digni tary of the kin g' (which you m igh t wish to put in b rackets) go es with the first gift (the sea l).

'[[)) 0"\<6: .qthegods. '" (Th e plural ca n be wri tte n w it h o r w ith out the pl ural stro kes ' I: m oreov er.. In Egypti an .r r fa vo u r Characterisation { 2~ amethyst Kh cpc rka rc t Seu wosrei l j J! come int o being.-. \B UrAHY !(()!':Tl :-il. "=-- hm r ~f his beloved wife mrr=f hsmtt l llpr-k. ) Co m pa re th e following exam ples show ing feminin e sin gula r agreemen t a nd masc uline plur a l agr eem ent : lk hcrnofret relates his role ill the Mysleries ofOsiris: Berlin 120 . You will be ask ed to s tud y the insc rip tio n fro m th e bou o m sce ne a t the end o f Cha p ter 7.. cxrsi before ad vance { p H IS v.VOc. th e adje ctive will al so end in -t . The j amily b. f"EM . howe ver... Line I H: IU " I n l =l 1"1 '"It I co nd uct ed the grea t pw cession The lop pari <l/ fliH EA !OI has Nebipuscnwcsrct ad.th e participle. PL rL\1. -w or o -I b:::(}l p~ n nfrtw) n fr . This w ill also allow us ru introdu ce you to an othe r extremely commo n F. ·.. the full list o f end ing s ar e: S:C. \ 1r~~ Satsobck no specia l end ing rJ -c. these foll ow a nd agree wit h the n oun th ey de scribe. If th e noun is fem inin e and e nd s in . Tran sliterat e and tran sla te the labe ls above the sons a n d daught er s of lt y. _1S c. T. Beh ind the !i!/ure L Nebipuscnwosrct: '! .\15C. To wrap up this to pic properl y. le aving no e nd ing at all .1. purticula rly epit he ts characterising the uwner as having lived an ethical life Col' having perfumr ~d well in roya l service.- - - 1 111I=f su -sbk Intel i I I §44 Ad jectives You ha ve alr ead y bee n introduced 10 a dj ective s in § IO. .' :. kno t rrJ dignitary of th e king elcctrum This clutpter concentrates on the elaborate epithets which abound on stelae.L.thi s is in dicated b y the symbol " in th e ta ble abo vc. V OCA B ULAR Y: :-iA ..::. we rslf) !i'1II need to rerU TII to adjectives.?$ U } Q Q~ Q {11 m sw' b seal decorate tie.:> iii "" 1~ /lf r n t rt s«.\\ ES j Q~ ~ ~ im n-m -h it sl1-w srr Amc nern h ct Sa tw os re t 1.' rin. the ~W o f the ma sculine plural a gree ment is ofte n omitte d in writing.' sta rt wi th.gypriatz verb-fo rm . '" } -t t~ PL .

) J \~ *~ nfr t good (n . ha . ii dd is a particip le m ean in g 'on e wh o said ' . §47 Participles and epithets Since a particip le be haves a lot lik e a n a djective .I\' (w it h r) Ho w e ver .ne t istw) hbu l=1 1uy I huried the o ld and I cloth ed the naked EXTRA WEAK (no r ) who gives . th e fem inine form of th e a dje ctive is used : (Part iciples als o som e tim es have a e nd ing .~ bik"Cf'h is servant ' . Cent ral colum n: mr II st-ibv] lrr hsst»] r: nb llis true servant of his aflection. see §§4 8 and 49 . whe rea s Engli sh prefers to add a ra the r ge neral w ord su ch as ' som eon e' (so hsy p ro bably mean s m o re a ccu rat e ly 'som eone naked ' or 'the na ked one') . Line 4: ~::)! ~ In k rid nfr t I was nne who said what Is good BM EJ\ 16 2. ) from ' what is good ' evil ( n. ab stra ct or general: 'an yth in g good ' o r 'what is good '.' H O R ' XCO MPIETI.. perfect had Basic ally. Th e form s of the part iciples in different verb class es are as follow s: PRES F. Sim ilar ly in -=. in En glish ' I am an Egyp ti a n ' . means 'I am an Egyptian person ' (n 01 a sold ie r. §46 Participles The parti ciples arc spec ia l form s of t he ve rb which ha ve many o f the quali- In the first pa rt o f thi s exam ple bo th> : : th e seco nd half o f t he example. see §49 belo w. proclaims his eth ical behaviou r ill qcncra l terms: ~TRO~(j who (one) hear s . for example. see §52 below) The meaning o f the feminine form o f th e adje ctive as 'w hat is goo d ' is similar to th e mean ing o f th e rela tiv e fo rm mentio ned in §37 . In the ca se of str o ng verbs.irr is th e present partici ple ('w ho does' ) ~ ra cter of ~:C=-' brk= f 'his serva n t'. it is n ot possible to tell the two apa rt o n the basis o f their forms alo n e .~ /I st-lb e ] 'of h is affect ion' h elp to characte rise }r.94 H<1\VW read t ::J YPlian h ieroqlyphs Cha racterisatioll 95 dWI 'sir m Irh (w)4nfrw <11 r nhh Adoring Osiris in his wonderful festivals endu ringly and repeatedly §45 A d ject iv es used as n o uns Adjective s a re typically use d to de scrib e o ther w ord s.. ) r- nfr good. who does what he Iavour s every day (ilSst=f 'w hat he favo ur s' is a present re lative for m . there is no need in Egy ptia n for a sepa ra te w ord meaning 'who' (or 'w h ich' or 'w h a t' ) since this is a n integral pa rt of the m eanin g of the Egypt ian participle verb-form . Saha tho r. or a donkey.~ '-~ '-" &-fl mrr dd (one) who loves (one ) . the adjective ca n be singular with the mea ning 'a rich o n e l(som e )on e rich '.11: lw krs. with th e ep ithet: <t> bill/ ' w h a r is bad' fr om J~~ bin Key proclaims his OU 71 ethical behaviour : BM EA 5 58.1D mr rd l BM EA 56 2. For example. Lines 10. but th e y can be us e d There a re two grnups of parti cipl es: th e present participle ha s the me an in g 'lon e ) w ho does sume th in g': th e pas t parti cip le has th e mea ning ' (o ne ) who did sOlllcthing' . ami is a lso used 10 elabor a te the 11/1' ' tr ue' and ~ .' AST OR COM PLET E o n thei r ow n to m ea n 'a person /p eople with that particula r q ualit y' . h owever. In Egyp tian th is is ra ther co m mon : The official llllef son of Senet. or anything cls e l): compa re also En glish expres sions suc h as th e 'the rich ' an d 't he poor'.o ~ sdm (one) who heard (one) who saw (one) who loved (one) wh o gave oou uuxc (o ne) w ho sees :d? ~ rt U WEAK ~-:> <. it is often us ed to qu alify a no un . i n Egypt ian . If the ide a is indefini te .. pa rtici ple s are comm only us e d in t he epi thet s ch ara cte ris ing a n official : The stela of All/my iden tifies his subordinate. As yo u w ill see in the examples below. any verb other th an a strong ve rb h a s a doubl e d con so nant in t he pres en t pa rticipl e bu t not in t he pas t participle . blbI Notes i Fo r tnk . .

like adjectives.) In thi s example.t if the n o u n is feminine : Bef ore the figu rr of Mrdehu . ~ irrt ('w h o d oe s' ) agree s with ~ hm t 'wife '.!!f It(\\')=1 llPrw r-!W=I my (fore -itathers wh o existed before me n a \!\. read here as in .!!f ~ -ec> ."-'. moving from th e spe cific in di vidual 10 a ge neralized so cia l chara cte risa t ion by chara cterisin g the first person T (specific ind ividu a l ) in gene ra lized th ird pe rson term s (' one wh o spoke wi th his own mouth') . written with the D 33 pa l.. i. the ad je ctive (~~ ikr 'a stu te' ) an d th e pa rt iciple (~ lid ' w h o sp oke ' ) both qua lify ~ ~~ nds. the pa rt iciple is th e form u sed in the n ame o f We p w awet. a pa rt icipl e mu st agree wi th the noun it de scribes and so wi ll e n d wi th a . it an swers the qu e stion 'w h at w as 1 lik e? ' .. see p. the w ife of Ameny: d o ~~ g person with ce rta in qualitie s or a ttributes: in ef fect . Line 4: ':1 ti ~ t 0. ink is followed by a participle us ed on its own. rh hr t-lb nb= f -sw r nmtt »] nb Line I : Ink nli s Ikr Ijd III r=! 1 was all astute individual . Alternativel y. =" in): !!d nin 1 was one who sa id what is good . . inclu ding : No tice th at in this ex ample th er e is no w ord for ' w a s' in this constru ction (th e sta tem ent could al so be translated in the present tense. below.\1 EA 586. to create a st a tem ent w hich m eans 'I w as so m eo ne who did ' (wh en u sing the past participle ): it (Pa rt iciples used on th e ir ow n sometimes trans late w ell as an English agen rive noun ending in < er' .e. In cidenta lly. for ~ m rt 'be lo ved '. a part iciple ma y show a n e xtra } -w w ith masculine plura ls: lty asserts that he advanced hi mself mo re than: B. belove d of him. but h e re the pa st tense see m s appropriate to the id ea o f an offi d allook in g ba ck over a life p res e nted a s n ow end ed ). s-m. For example. pa rt icip les ca n be u sed on thei r own to mean 'a pe rson w h o does som ethi n g ' or more su ccinc t ly 'on e who does som eth in g'. focusing on et hical be haviour a n d success a nd a chlevernent : The self-presentation section of the stria of Hekaib beqins in the f ollowing way : BM EA 167 1. he re 't h e o p en e r of the ways' . 'w h o wa s I? '. In th is examp le. ' th e one who opens t he ways' (compa re th is with his role in th e Osi ris My steries studied in Exercise 6 .»[. ca lled th e independen t pron oun be ca u se it can come a t the be ginning o f a state m en t: Ink 1 Independen t pron oun.0 \!\.) §49 Charac teri sa ti on w ith 0 In k The officia! Key makes a com m on statem en t about appropriate beh aviour: ~~_- o BM EA 558 . however.5): who spok e with h is (own ) mouth !: V ~I ~ "'p-WIWI Wepwawe [ The owner is referred 10 th e se co n d time in the third pe rson : ""-. It is no t u nusual to find th e u se of qu alifying express ion s such as par ticipl es: The self-presentation of Hekaib continues: :! ~~~ r~+} nb BM EA 6 14. BM EA 6 14 (the stela ofTjetji ) introduces Tjetji himse lf with a lon g list o f his rules an d ep ithets.96 How to read Egy ptian hieroglyp hs Ow racterisation 97 Just like an adjective. §48 Participles as nouns Aga in.<. Line 2: 'I (~.0 . see §50. 'I a m an astu te in di vid u a l' . 106 . : ~ 't> = \!\.!!f . "-..-= i o His wife. =' Il.= _ 7P . one who follows him at all hts journ eys (For vocabulary.. one who knows the desire of his lord. Line I : BM EA 167 1. rb a n d ~ r~ sms a re participle s u sed on thei r o w n to mean ' (a person ) who kn ows' and ' (a person ) w ho follow s' . ~ "". n LJ Line I : Ink I1 s Ik r li 1 was an 'astu te individual in k is th e T -fonn (firs t pe rson ) o f a t hird a nd last type of pronoun..-. Often. w ho does what he favou rs every day fn this e xam ple."\ EA 16 2.a Lef t column: !mll=Imrc=! lrrt !m t=fr' nb -:.

his beloved.4) : ~ ~q 4 Arn . However. Ptahhoi ep Often. Amenv tt n lfl i fu -n. In expr essions of fam ilial affection . w e w ill discu ss th e point in some detail: ln hu retna kh t decla res h is statu s within his fami ly: BM EA 1783 . 'his favoured one ". ~ ~ m r(i) som eti m es occurs in the pr eseItt Jinc om plete pa rticiple form ~ :::~ mrrw. th e passive participles do not usua lly hav e a dis tinctive writin g in Egypti a n.to his household As an a lternat ive. th e pa ssive part iciple is often followed by the geni tive I'o f'. w he reas his siblings (i. in the past passive pa rticip le do som etimes show a distin ctive q -y ending in th e past passive part iciple. the most com mo n examp les in our insc riptions co ncern th e ver bs ~ ~ m r i i} 'love' an d r ~ hst i) 'favour ' w hic h. though .. we find a m ore abb reviat ed w riting: Label before the fi rst SOliS in the third row of BM EA 5 71: Line ~: Ink m ry nb=! 1 was one beloved of his lord The passive partic ip le ma y even be followe d by a suffix pron ou n : The stela oi Tjetji COli rill lies: BM EA 57 1: SI~! ". usin g th e pas t ten se srjm.a nd th e tra nslati o n re shaped : 'on e who m his sib lin gs love a nd o ne gra cious to h is hou seh old '. n » i nfrt I said what is good The tw o const ructions differ clea rly in form and also in meaning. A part icul arly go od example occ urs o n B M EA 584 . rat her than wh a t he was like : A ma de-up example ro illu strate the point in the text: Ink mry nh= ! !.. the present gen erat ion fro m h is point of view ) ta ke the present passive participle : §50 Passive participles Pa rticiple s can either be active ('one wh o loved' ) or passive ('on e w ho wa s (bej loved). ill the course of every day ~ ~ ':1 ii6 ~ il<" dd. I>:: ' I ~ "=- f. n(=fJ for m. The rea son for this is still mu eh discussed an d may have to do with th e pr e sence of th e lollowing plur al gen itive e xpression . a m uch easi er way to understand this in th e next ex amp le is to note that th at th e pre vio us gen er at ion (the owner's mo th er an d fath er) take th e past passive parti ciple. ink mry n ir=! hsy n m wtc] mrrw snwe ] snwtx] im(l) n IM=! Lines 2-3 : I was one beloved of his father. an d would tell us ab ou t wh at he did .ts y=!m !Jrt-h r". Sin ce this is a rath er y com mo n usage . beloved of his siblings.O il.it "'::' BM EA 178 3.98 Ch araaer isati cn 99 This characterisation cons truc tio n tells us about what he wa s like. ju st as th ei r English tra nslat ions do . either the in direct ge n itive (as in the last examp le) or the direct genit ive: Tjetji decla res his status in relation to the kmg: c~ · ~ of Khue nbik offerillg f owl: ~'6.t t i r J= n (l l i ch \ V.ry~! l mny ~ ~ ~~ ~~ His .e. to be stu died in Chapter 8 : Lube! before one of the SOil S Li nes 2 · ~: tnk mry n ir=f 1 was one beloved of his Iarher In su ch a usage . It dot's not mean '1 sa id wha t is good' .fr-r ' h is beloved son'. nt r: -n b I was one beloved of his lord and favoured of h im (or.~t}1. as we ak ve rbs. and one graci ous of . you ha ve alrea dy en co unt ered the past passive usage o n a number of oc casions itt vari ou s labels of filiation . Un fortu n ately. his beloved . nrrrw might be trans lat ed as a ma scu lin e relativ e form see § 52 below . ) .' rn io h: urr.~ i]~ ::: } ~~}~q.thi s would be a des crip tion . However.~ ~~~ ~t~ BM EA 584 : sl=lmry=! pllt-!l1 P BM FA 614 . c:/ His son.>(. Inh uretnakht 's fu ll declaration of his status within his fam ily (this com pletes Stu dy Exercise 5. Fina lly. praised of his mothe r.

71. t he overseer of builders Nipta hkau §52 Re lative form s again In §37 a bov e we introduced yo u to the past relat ive form . as you will se e..l!) wrbtt) ' 11/]1 'IIr im evcrvrhing good and pure on which a god lives (Sfe Chapter Also .n e] 5r-1.fr>.L (alt houg h. who does w hat he fav ou rs every day t. her e is a tab le of th e form s o f th e re la tive for ms in the pre sent a nd the past.c. . First o f all.~ /lds ' individ ua l' was often used . In th ese notes. (7 5r.II ~f what hr heard what he saw what he loved what he gave DOt. the titles a re ga th e red toget her acco rding to th eir funct ion .rin c for m ula: The term ~ ~<:> In is th e ge n e ra l te rm for a regula r office or functio n.~:' "" ~ ~ ./11: in + noun + pa rticiple 'it is so-an d -so who did'.::: sdml.11=/ rdl t. and al so wealt h thro ug h prj .. Sahathor.100 How to read Egyprian hieroqlyphs Tire c'f eril1g formula in 8M EA 558: f 13M fA >58.\.Y "". for e xa mp le tak in g a ·1 when go ing w ith feminine wo rds. ~ ~ "=~ --. th e filia tion ex pressions for ma les I rn and ms-n may well be ex amples of m asculin e re lat ive fo rm s. particu la rly in t he First Inte rmediat e Pe riod. Thu s they agree with the no n n the y accompa ny.. . posi tion a nd po wer. Such an office bro ught sta tus.. to provide a n o th er co nvenient ref er e nce resource (th e list incl u des som e tit les fro m o th er stelae in the British M use um ). for so m eo n e of h igh sta tus w ho did no t ho ld a n officia l positio n .f.' iden tifies his subordinate. b. the relative for ms sho w thi s helpful e xtr a when used on their ow n with th e meani n g 'what so meone docs/d id ': The stela of Amen). The rela tive form is in fact simila r in u sage to th e pa rticip le.~ U~ I C\ ~ 1 __ " BM EA 584: In sJ=f s' nft rn e f m-r ik dw n -pth-ksw It is his son who made his name live (on ). va riou s titles were introduced to provide you w ith a resource for you r readin g. General co terms PA ST O R CO M PLETE STRO ~ t~ Ge n er ic te rm s for o ffice holdin g a n d sta tus amo ngst th e e lite include th e followi ng: £ ~ .ssr=f r : nb His tru e serva nt of Ius affection.: rQ ~ "i0 ~ rM : :.. The term blk 'se rva nt ' wa s o ften used as its a ttach ed esta te a m ea ns of stressing the de pendent relationship of one per son on another and could he used of pe o ple wh o oth e rwise h ad high status. j u st like adjectives. Lik e its Eng lish equi va lent. p. As noted in Ch apter 5. A~ ~' BM EA 162 . thi s const ru ction high ligh ts the per so n w ho performs an actio n. i::) f1.l/=f 1I11 1.. "am != . 'f f XTRA W b\K (Co m pa re with the forms of the participles in §46 above. this is actu ally rhe -r of femi n ine agree m en t): PRESE:-IT O R ST R O ~ (-..:BLI:-IG W EA K "" ~ ~c> l or l7 11/ office servant sr II . I~ C OMP L ET E n dJ ~ 'b. =" >= fC'''=. As wi th t he pre vio us secti on on the rela tive for m §3 7. A goo d e xa m ple occurs in th e offe. with the ep ith et: c-" -t ..0 I Mascul in e relative form s do not sh o w suc h a "" .it . relative forms d ispla y certain adjectival qualiti es .-': <:> "-- 111 rt . It occ urs qu ite comm on ly in a dedication for m u la which ide ntifies th e dono r o f a ste la : Tire label above Niptahkau on the stela dedicated ro h is[ather Khu cnbik 8.}S official individual ~~ :: <= ot..--- Exc ursus: Midd le Kingdom tit le s In Ch ap te r 3.) In pa rticu la r. ~ 0-. we shall e xhib it the for m wi th a . 122·3): ~ til -nb t IIf. Fortunately th ey are also fair ly uncom m o n a nd need not con ce rn us in th is book.<k=f nil' n st-lb»] Central column : i r r !. like particip les. Li ne 2: Churactcrisation 101 §51 ill + noun + participle The participles ar e also used in a construction introdu ced bv ~.. 1'1'. ! 111111= / nrrrr=f ddt»] what he hears what he sees what he loves what he gives I)OCBLIN G WEAK EXTRA wr AK ~ ~ ~\ ....L a nd thus ar e h ar der to spot.. U I ' .1r l\=---J __~ <:::::>J.

Howe ve r. also mo ved abo ut the cou nt ry in orde r to cele bra te t he festi val s of Egypt's man y god s. trrntty-blty is prefi xed o nly to h igh -level titles. w h o. In th e Middle Kin gd om. mayor of a town wh nu w) reporter. as well as residin g a t a cen tra l res identia l a nd ad min istra tive comple x. dispensing and u tilisa tion m. /11/)' '' governor. Titles proclaim inq attendance at call rt oversee r elf the CS!a IC (steward] J l::d1l' o ve rseer of b udde rs Reg iona l authority Titles as socia te d wi th th e go ve rnm en t o f region al districts: smswpr rt follower of the palace tl: or 1 rJ nsw king's adviser J m ya l rruun are. ill pr acti ce th ese were inte rt w ined in eli te Middle Kingdom society.ch icl Titles proclaiming attendance . ". som e wo me n ar e sh ow n bea ring a ce rta in range o f tille s wh ich usuall y a ccord w ith the sta tu s of their menfolk .@ 'n l.r rh n wty 'o ve rseer of the cha m be r' was th e '-Ili~~ -'-I ~ m -r ' [r nw ty II m -r h tnu 'overseer o f the cham ber for rhe trea su re r'. In gen er al w omen w e re not included in th e formalisati on of elit e society th ro ugh office h oldin g.102 How to read Egyptian h ieroqlvphs Stew ardsltip and production /II-r pr m -r O laraeterisatfoll 10 3 Th e palace and til e king The 'pa lace' was a n iti nerant com m un ity ga the red rou nd th e king . wh e re Sa ren e n utet has th e follo wi n g titl es.r overseer of the charnb rr Altho ugh w e hav e div ided secu la r an d relig ious titles for con ven ie nce h e re. th e officials att ach ed to th e treasury ha ve pa rticu lar import an ce: Procurem ent .r rh nw t» was or igina lly mo re general . Of part icu lar note fo r the stelae . II flWI soldier of th e rown regirnem Titles pr oclaiminq ra nk and au thority deleqated fr ont the k ing I. storaqe . In orig in it probabl y re ferred 10 the 'o ve rsee r of th e chambe r of th e resid enc e/ pa lac e'. snit IVfty sole companion Titles associa ted with pri estly fu nct ions. b ut elite men regu la rly serv ed in th e tem ples: Ad ministra ti ve ti tles a re com po u nded with t he word~ bity for 'king' . However.~~ r[J llwty counter of the double granartes dd itlp(w)-Illr 11 ntrw otlering -gtver 10 the gods Tit les of w omen Th e ti tle ( ~ ~ m. . provides a n ex ample of th is: hsb slI l<'r)' htm: ht m w hry J of what is sealed ) seal-bearer. by th e Middle Kin gdo m th e titl e had become split between a nu mber of dilt erenr br an ches of th e ad ministration .IIIIIY bity kings seal-hearer I' l n I O . As w ell as sign ifying h igh rank. herald Titles associated wi th th e ritu al ap pearan ces of the king ar e us uall y compounded wit h th e word /lS W for ' king' . th e rul e indi cated tha t th e holder was a u th orised 10 use the ro yal seal. assistant 110 the treasurer ) i ' '')f]. before returning 10 th e var iou s re gio ns to e xerci se th eir dele gat ed a ut ho rit y.r trea su re r (ove rseer "'. w hich te nd ed to be a male prese rve (yo u ma y a lrea d y h a ve not ed th ai most women dep icte d o n rhe stela e in th is book a rc usu ally referred to by their fam ily relationsh ip w ith th e mal e o w ner) . where th e sa me per so n co uld h old both sec u lar a nd reli gio us title s at on ce. t ':: Military K~ ~ ~ m -r mir wr genera l-in. BM EA 58 5.m the k ing ttlt-& ~@ fry nfr-hu keeper of ih e royal diadem rWI1~ imy -hn t chamberlain (the one in fronl) Religious titles 1. TIle treas u ry 1= ]. there w e re few fu ll-tim e priests. _ ~ wrb (1111 n tr Il"b-priesl hm'p riesl Kee per- 1 0 or l~ it 1I1r (1In k: god 's-lather 9C II ~F-~~r ~~ hryssu of-secrets 9 iili:J ka-priest Vry 11 M lector priest For th e m onum ent s stu d ied in th is book . w ho see ms to ha ve bee n responsible for the procurem en t of ra w mat er ials (for exa m ple th rough mini run a nd for monumental buildinc work . A part icul ar ly com mon m. ~ o rrt. Officia ls would n -gularl v visn th e palace in or der 10 renew th ei r att endance on t he kin g. -:'" Q.

man of rank on cha ir wi th rwit hou t Ilail EI 0 . b. :l DoC) hkrt IlSw ""II (hkn -nslV means literally 'th e kings o r n am cm") An oth er co m mon title of elite women as soria re« ihcm w ith th e ru nn in g of i h c esta te . .]j} ~ ~ v/ BM FA 167 1.irtl } ' to do. fo r space rea so ns . idiom of impa rtial uv. You m a y find th ai yo u need to inser t 'a n d ' occas io na lly in yo u r tra ns lation .. Th e sw itch to th e third person is norm al in such con structions .>~\ il 1}~ BM EA 6 14.e-. Rea d mity lib m II W I IIl . o u r o wn exp ress ion fo r so meone being 'a to wer of strength ' o r a ' pilla r of th e commu n ity ') v On ihe o m issio n of th e su ffix prono u n = / T in w ritin g in i h e ihird sentence . office. mistress o l ihc estat e c E x ercises 7.village with crossroads ~ps dign ified. I¥m l :s ~~ mt.le » of Haihor sole lady in wailing <f I y.1 Signs 7.. II a ppe ar s o n ste la e fro m th e la ic 12 th dynast y on w ard s: Estate and h ou sehold A ma jor excep tio n 10 th e rule o n so u n d co m plements give n in Cha p te r 2 is p ro vi d ed by th e ve rb . see §35 a bo ve .:: is us ually to be tran sliterat e d irr (a th ird fo rm . compare with §49 above a.man holding stick and kerch ief r= t1t sr official 7.2 Words Tran slit erat e th e following w ords w riu e n with these sig ns: b.~ga q qi3 ~. mo re rarely tr l rr '= LJ I nbt pr lad y o l ih c ho use. a . function town A7 . ~ .. rich . r3. e xcept tha t Ihe el erneru s o f ih e pa ssa ge a rc se pa ra te d o u t for yo u r co nve nien ce .11 a di stan ce fro m '. Th e self.3 A ImIOJ-lI l r (III' I-/l r 1I0 t e 0 11 the writinq (Jf lrt i) 'to do ' r rk . make ' (I hi s ve rb a lso ha s man y idi o mali c nI ea n ings ). r ' to kee p (some thing ) .104 Hewto read Egyplian hieroglyp hs Characterisation 105 Hi:}h status l i~ 7. carryi ng ~rJlt }f~~ . ~A rr ::. iv 1\1' 11 ' I ' grea t pillar' is u sed m e ta p ho rica lly (cf.alo n e (a n excep tio n occu rs o n 8M fA 558 in St ud y Exe rcise 7. w h ile . f ~ ~"""]_' Line 1 (see also §2 1i unde r..p resen tation section of the stela of Il eka ib beqin s in th e following way .. aug ust. iii shs] .co n sonant sign s ~ c.see ms 10 be w ritte n fo r lrri .~ . Lines 1-2 : ~1~ 7 ~ -=-~~ > E58 - 7 wi In! ~ Ar~r a a~rW/1 ~ ~ q @ r:t br Notes EX~\A PrE ~}r -f\l.emblem e re cted ou tside rill' temple 01 Min D18 . ii Th e pron oun =f is used 10 refer back 10 ih e owne r of th e siela a s n oted in §49 (as in: 'I w as a n officia l w e ll re sp e cted in his d ist rict ' or th e lik e) . =. it is ge ne ra lly w rit ten -c>. The hi erogl yphs a re o rga n ise d a s they are on th e o riginal. stressinq the topi c ofself -reliance (y oll may consider adding '01171' in yo ur tran sla tion 10 he lp brinq this 011/) . Id e o gr am s an d deterrninariv e s sail y} ~ r~ /m ' br ea th AIOiA l 1 .7 wh ere .should al wa ys be tr a n slit er a ted irr): ir irr . 2 -con sonanl and 3. The stela of Tj et]i begins with the kinq's name and then Tj etji is in troduced with a list <Jf epi thets: crea te comm a n d :) ~ <it <=> 5WC l't .4 Tra nslation Tran sliiera te and tr an slat e ih c fo llo wing. W he n read ir.

ste la give n as Exerci se 6.' §3 5 above. ra th er than J sm oo t h. In En glish idio m .-_ I WIf pillar gofs tn bc r tprtc srly titl e i Q f IiJ = 4t~Q C""J I rthc god} Amu n -Ra I~ ~ ~~ u-ntr Wist Ity mat ttc] house.. J!J ~ _ ./)...-> hry-sin b"ty l [tn -ib Sll .1\ ~ ~~ - . _ _____ _ _ ~~~ _ ~ 0 desire sa twos ret [n am e ) Notes i Fo r t he e pit het s. Exercise 7_ . ~ I is nOI witho ut its difficu lties... see §4 1.n=i) m . i ''-'. for voca bulary . Also co ns ult ih e table in § 52 for the w ri ting s._- .n as _ . keep at a distance dtgru tarv (literally.6: i .""..-.rJ(~J 1p r~ HV I to pass by. . 'august nn e') . SU rp... vi For th e "v rmg o f th e n egauve -". w vii The exp ress ion n w<l(= 1) hwt In ..__. Exercise 6. read lI(. 8 BM lOA 586 (low er secnom 7.ru n n ing composi tion .1 I T master of secrets ll il k J Khe ntvt bpi tm !( y ) >1 stro ttg arrn ~ -.._ . . \1 EA 58 6) Trartv ltt crate a n d translate rln . sec §§4 7 and 50 ab o ve . w h ich occurs »n RM FA 1. 10 ~.0'_ -. (one) foremost of position dau ght er _.l. _ _ _ H _ _ • • . AIIOIher variant Io nt t is ... fi ) . ._. ~:.n = i m_ Transl ate m as 'front'.-_ tmn -r lIy .. VOCABU LAR Y ." . · __ _ _ _ . 1.:lARY ( CONTIx VFD) Char acterisation 107 "'N t'S i .. yo u m ay wi sh 10 tran slat e m as 'fo r/to '.._..1 ~ l '- su-sbl: Sa tsobe k rname ! ! f\ ~ 'i . where mI)' is a parti ciple (see §50 above} .. ii Read na y n b ~f "lJ" 'onf: truly belo ved of h is lor d '. iv for in k + pa rt icip le.--. w~l h monogram or Gl and . b.6 ). .. ii For Ii m . ii 0 11 rhc depe nd ent pron ou n -sw. set. equal m o uth - pr nm tt 20 .-r sec tio n o f th e 'O .JCef q dig n tty.. 4 1 r J =6 muy i~ ~ 0 ..r Jp.vrhJ \'OCABt...::~ Q~ "1-f'" 1 ~ ": < ">"1 (place-n am e! ffm!. Notes i No t ice th e wri tin g of rlie tit le it-rut 'god' s fa th er: (cf. flb=f! s placed fi rst thro ugh p restige (see §22 ).fol lo wing.1SS 7. Th is mscripu on also in trod uces th e imp o rtant ve rb ' to conte: _ _ -_. . v mrrt is pr oba bly a pre sent re lative fo rm ..\._ II I . viii The re is some do u bt as to whe th er whm sh ould be read as a tit le o r as part of a name whm-ky.13. it See ste la RM EA 14 3.t . the stela ot Nakh ti to be st udied ill Exe rcise 7._. Lin t' 2: NOles Rem em be r that since th ese are relative fo rm s. . wealth 7_6 R elat ive fo rm s The relat ive forms a re used in a con trnou late Midd le Kingdom add ition to rhe offer ing Io rm nla. Translitcrnte and translate th e stel a wit h tlte h elp of th e: notes . with wal ki ng legs ideog ram written i n two fo rm s: a.7 Stud}' exercise: BM EA 558 The stela of Key on page 108 corues acr oss as some thing of a co rup e ndi lint o f sta n dard e xp re ssio ns. parall el 10 hJ. see §3 8 a bo ve (in boih n -n <l s(=/) an d n w<l(= '» ).-" ../). ~ . iii For the om ission o f the suffix pro n o u n .. _ -- -. . estate jou mc vs Thebes {pl ace ] pe er. see §49 above . see §52 abo ve. .8 : TIlt" voice-offering can be extended after 't w rything g o~'d and pure on which il /ivC')" as[ollo ws: g~'J BM EA 14 3.Jj } . pH ? pl. which is th e lov. So rne of th e sections of th is inscrtption han: already been used as ex amp le s ill ihe m ain text. _ _.~ ~ . . they w ill req uire t ra ns lar in g he re wi th 'w hi ch' ..walking leg:. ~ ._ .' •• _ _ • • _ _ _ Co • _ ~ _ •• • _ ~Q .is an early Io rtu of t l tc papy ru s roll ~.5 St ela of It )' (8.106 How [(I read Egypti JII hitr~'g1. 'ren te' - iyfi J/ i".

. 0 I m rti r : nb h u t} (name) every dav descend. heav en s wei -nurse lad y of the hou se Netn ebu the inu ndatio n (as the god Hapy) incen se smell...\ hWI bea ting director of king's ad vise rs man ~ ~8 EEl c>1 hry-tp h rt-h rw SP Il H ! it =' L':::~ ~ ky .n i .' . bre a th and in cense ). + or i :[ l }~ nsw king king' s ad viser (litle ) IlJ~ .. n ot a sep arat e word..6 .' Characterisation VOCABUL \ RY 109 J~ w llm (w) rep orter.. go down chief.._ lsi VOCAB ULARY ~~ ~ D C> <==> [set. i i In the writ ing of Ab ydos and Djedu the town det erm inative @ has been ex pa n d ed as th o u gh it were the word ~. BM EA 558 . both m ale and female ) pi I = LJ I I c> I =.co 0 00 Inure nbl p r nt- ms-n n ht t II dm II m/=! -@ ~ I -r=\ o I 10"0 I 1~ ~g cs nbw h' py ~~ 0'Y "- swe et his wife crea te brea th .8 Study exercise: 8 M EA 143 Translitera te and translat e the ste la of Nakhti (BM EA 143) on p. sntr st ~~1 ~ killl l ilt' y} _--. --_ ._ .. it is still simply the det er mi nativ e for Abydos and Djedu.I.''''''''-- •. -"..-- Notes Translate 111 near th e e n d of line 3 as 'a s' (a n elaboration into th ree p ans: offeri ng . Key (nam e) M}r [ws _ den ounce ___ _ _ _ _ u " '' _ _ ---1 7. ... superior course of the day dis trict +.c> in (i) mWI=! bring his mother ba m of Nakh ti (nam e.':.IDS How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs '. 110..:-. r . nwt 't o w n ' . [sis (name ) sky. You may wish to make u se o f your work for Exercise 7 . herald (title: aile who repea ls) comma nd J~ wh m repeat Me rti o } ~G~ =. However .. scent 1 ~ "ffi~ ' .

y o f th e endings is omitt ed : Th e stela ('f Mentju hotep ill the Fitz william Mu seum.f y form: ' (so m e o n e) wh o w ill/ may do so m e th ing '. This is con firmed by the u se of n k! II w ith out im . su ggest ing a date o f at lea st the la te 12th d yn a sty. the \\ .E9.sn ' w h o ma y pa ss' go es with ' th e livin g' ) or on irs o w n ('so rn c o n c who w ill do so m e th ing ' ). ( BOTH GiND ERS ) .r! I" the livinq <'[Ihe'chnm berlnin Mi n nc'fa (l ea r 29 of A m enemhet II) : BM EA 14 3 .sn hr 1> pn Line I: o the living up on the eart h w ho m a y p ass by th is tomb (See § 54 be low for th e form of the appea l 10 the liv in g an d its vo ca bulary. II 'e will introdu ce you 10 th e 'appea l 10 the livinq ' formula in which th e'deceased calls upo n [uture gmerm iollS til m ain min his [unerary cult.fy form In ex p ress in g the future . f ' /l[z w 11'11' II sws ttyr . §53 The sg m ty.fy form ca n be u sed w ith a noun (in thi s exa mple.fy &J.£7k~ r\\ sdm ty. bu t h as its o w n particu lar endings. the sdmty .sn Oft en . h oweve r. ° ni I I I slim IY·s)' sdmty.) As with participle s.1Y1. We will also look at the futu re tense used pa rticular ly to express w ish es and expectations. Cam bridge. In its fulle st writings th e sdmty fy for m disp lays the fo llowing for m s: .1921. swuty t. Th is for m has the sa m e u se s as the p articip les.signs. \\ t}. The wo rd tor Djed u is writ ten wit h tw o dd. A sim p le ex ample is: The appe. the place o f the p art iciple is ta ken by the sdmty.'[I(w) (se c §2 6 ) a nd by the u se of th e dd11'. It is thought that the 'b rea th of -lilc ' formula o n ly cam e into u se in the 13th dvnast v: if S(l . ·fo n n u la .\I A S C U U ~ E FEM ININ E PLURAl. thi s w ould su ggest a d ate in the earl y 13th dynast y for thi s stel a . §54 The a p p e a l to the living Th e appeal 10 the livinq formula is found on man y ste lae . Cltaptcr S The future In th is final chapter.110 How 10 read L' vl'lial/ h icroalvphs g iv Thi s stela s hows a number of features w h ic h place its d ate rather la le in the seq u en ce of st e lae studied in th is bo o k. h as an appeal to th e living wh ich begins : Fitz.

the (" II-priesls a nd IIm-prks lesses.io\ l% +~iP...-. Hailing tile visitor Th e owner 01 th e memorial add ress es the passer s-by. the stela of M entjuhotep begins with an appeal to thclivinq : FiIz.. 192 2.i)'" l ~ n '-J n .n kf.-I '1 · A . 148 lor th e suffi x pron oun =!11 'vo u") The appea l to the livin g is co m pos ed of tw o basic e leme nts p lus a Iurther. ' A ih ou sand (of) bread... b.E9 ." TI A \- I ' ~ I ' 9 ~ U[ Line I : I ' 1I 0W IpW u s lVlt (v) . a.a n in vo cation of the goodwill o r pie ty o f th e visito rs. 'May Osiris Khcn tytrnem u transfigure Mentjuh otep' ( ~} mrrwand ffi~} m sddw a rc both partici ple s: see §46 ab ov e . beer..such as temple sta ff a n d scribes .E9 .who are ofte n hai led in pas sing the mon ument: The stela of Ment juhotep continues: and w ho love life and w h o hate death. Line I: i rnij w tpw o ihe living upon the ear th u .'f Ob -: ~-o> =q.. pn m nw ' 11 1] msdd w tlPI lid=111 SII] tslr hn ty-i m nt w m ntw-htp o living ones upon the earth who may pass by ihi s tomb Sf.~ .~::J . SWI can be wri tten in the follo wing wa ys: FULLER w Rln " GS AHBRH'l ArF. in hailing the visitor . ~ ~ C?-. th e appeal to the goo dw ill or piety 01 th e visitor takes the form of a sepa ra te clause (he re beg in n ing = ~ m + m rr=lII) leading on to th e requ est to say the offe rin g: = I.J = ~ Q ~ &. . typ ically in the Iorrn : As we saw above.. nW r-pr p n b.. ih e overseer of the chamber Minnefer.r 'bnll'ty m n w-n f r m r -h rw May you say.oil Jil' f\ ~ ~I' ~~ o" ~~ -.~' n hT} .~ r I i! d l1 . ihe Justified' The request lor sa ying the off ering formu la u se s th e future sJm {~J) fo rm discussed bel ow in §55 . o r a de cla ra tio n o f th e ben efit s visitors wi ll gain if they ma ke th e offering. 'A thou sand bread.~ ~1 ~ r?W ~ ~ }~ ~ Fit z. ox and Iowl lor ih e revered on e . c. ox and fowl lo r ih e revered on e. E9. and i he w'b-priesls < this u-mp le... the overseer "f the chamber Minne ler. ~ = 11 1)0. The appeal to goodwill or piety Th e appeal to th e living is oft en augmented by a th ird e lem en t .. = '.71 6 I rnhw sW Il{y j. @ } i:.11 2 How to read ( qyptlan hieroqlyphs The f uture 11 3 "-.1f ' ~ I f. however.n ~ 1.sn hr I!. y. . i '''' 0-:i' ". As in thi s exam ple.nfr 1n·" -tIT \\' 1 () living ones up on ih e ea rt h."-..ffi~ } ~J Ip W Thi s is composed 01 the foll o w ing words: ~ ~ or Q 1 0 ' II (who are) upon the ea rth ~ P.. Ow the living TI l u (On the lonn 01 tpw ' u po n'.1922.rgr 9~~ ~ ~ } t --.1 i'i rr lid=tl1 II! t hnkt ks tpd 11 Im. )1 may you say.. may you say.A Q".I .J}lil ~ .SI1 I" m rh rt III In Od In ils l f m m rr =rn f ms U''P *Wl lVl r l WU f = ! nb lid=tl/ t h nkt .I I}. see §6 0 below... Sometimes this is included in hailing the visitor s in the form 0 1 participles: The appeal 10 the living of the priest Mentu ltotep: .1WI 7i71 t" . Line 5: . the ve rb swi 'to pass ' U" 'by') is typ y ically used in th e sJ mty.ff:0 ..IO lw) m .n WRITI NGS SWI Lines3 -5: ~ :1 --1g. th e visito rs arc hailed .) Oft e n . Tile offerinq reques t Tile o wn er requ ests that offerin!(s o r pra yers be ma de or sa id lor him : From BAI FA 829 : "l1bw tp H' '-' ~1tn (1Vj ·17 {r fl m (w)t-n tr w '"bw Jd=!1 tll 1 h nkt kl Ipd n tm itjt w) m..s n hr IS pn o rhe living upon the earth w ho ma y p a ss hv ih is tomb The appeal to the livi ng of the oversea oj builders Khu enbi k: EM EA 584 . ih c justified' (Sec th e Referen ce table on p . I .<o> EM FA 829. _ I ~ t =. Fitz .. beer. ~ . Line 1: i rn tn v tp w fI SUNl)'. optio nal e leme nt: . n.1922 .) There ma y follow a n enumeration o f the people like ly to pa ss by . S1l ' (they ) wh o sha ll pas s'.r 'bll " 'ly m nw.f form : Sl l' lty..:::. pass (by) ..1f .} ~. Q ~ t} ~ . ~ l!iI T . = = :. = 0 ~\· ~.:..

May 'Welcome ill peace' be said for him bv the gre a t of Abydos: on th e Wag-fe stival and on the Thmh -fc srival .] . but many te xts co nt ain a se lectio n : A brief version of the A bydos form ula BM EA 162. of the chamberlain Minnefer once more: a. = \ ' Ob = l.. Lines 18 -1 9: iw ir.. ox and fowl for the ~m~ A h tp -dl -nsw ssi r nb ddw II/r ' I lib Ib. ~ 1i7l~ 1\) t= I 1 ' n [lw tpw ts hm iwi -ntr hm(w )/ -nrr wbw nw r-pr -pn I!d=!n lJl t hnkt ks spd n ImJ[t(w) m -r rhnwty m nw-nf r m r -h rw o living on es upon the earth. and I made th e god's boat sail §58 Negation di . expectations and requests: the future sgm( =f) Th e fo rm use d to exp re ss wis he s. in fact . reve red one. great god. In the appeal to th e living.y m nlm t hr WI (w)1 imntt f . bee r. la list of festivals follo ws) (. It s fu ll form s ar e give n in §59 below (y ou may wi sh to compa re th e writ ing s of the two form s in th e refe rence ta bl es o n pp .. beer. Causation We h a ve al rea d y n ot e d t he use of t he ve rb rdl to exp ress ca u sation w hen follo w ed by an ot her ve rb with the se ns e o f ' to ca use/ h ave/ le t/ a llo w some one to do som et hing' (see §4 0 ). follo wing th e god a t his travels.. You wi ll be stud yin g t h is formu la in th e Exer cises to thi s ch apter.. th e first cla use is so metimes in troduced by ~ m 'a s' a n d th e re q u est clause som e tim e s b y 2 ~ ml ('j u st as . 'in o rde r tha t') . so that he might give an invocat ion offering of bread. §55 Wishes..1~il~~ ir1 } !?~.114 How to read EHypr hieroglyphs ian Th e future 115 o livin g on es wh o may pass by ihi s cenotaph in going n o rth or in going so uth. An offering whi ch the king gives 10 Osiris lord of Dj edu . Lines 1-2 : ~i BM EA 829.. 1"'" Hf.t(w) is the affi x o f the pa ssive w ith in used for 'b y ' I'may so m et h in g be do ne by so meo n e ') .. ex pectatio ns and the like is th e future stim(=f) ..r. alabaster and linen . Th e future sdm(=f). the ove rsee r of the chamber Minnefe r. Th e fu ll form ula h as tw en ty e lemen ts (a s in BM EA 567).. b.. may you say. ... Lines 4-5 : -t}. 'A thou sand (0 0 bread.:. i h e jus tified' Th e future stim(=fJ is a form distinct from th e present sdm(=f) n ot ed in §42 a bove (alt ho ugh the tw o ca n be di ffic ult to disting u ish by t he w ritings alon e ). is not used wit h au xiliari e s such as fw.t tw) n=f 'v. f 11. Line s 4 -6: OCC/. l1r. as you wish 10 follow wepwawet at his journ eys. . 'B read a nd beer . and the w'b-prieSlS of this templ e.. Thi s o t her verb go es in the future sdm(=f) Iorm: §56 The Abydos formula Th e Abydos form u la is a fairly standa rdised set of afterl ife wi shes.. {1J: 1 1'1 " r l . Purposeiresult clauses The fu ture sdm(=f) is al so u se d to ex press pu rp ose or re su lt (' so that '.Jw d/=f prt-hrw t hnkt la JpJ ts mn h: . lord of Abydos.-. mav yo u say..-. so yo u sh o u ld sa y . y o u have alr ea d y..n>! prt ' JI sms=1 nt r r nm tt. Hlt'" Th e future sdm(=f) in its ma in usage is negat ed b y ~ nn + [uture sl}m(=f) : 'yo u will / m ay no r do tha t' : - . for ex am ple . the !tm-priests and !tm-priestesses. -: ~ ---" = 0 - "-..:itm}.e'4 ._ ( !.11. The ma ture version bel o ngs to the first ha lf of the 12th dyna st y wi th earlier (less stand ardi sed ) ve rsions occu rring in th e 11 th d ynasty.. r ."". Th is is the fo rm u sed in th e offerin g form ula : The offering form ula fr om BM EA 558: BM EA 5 58. e n co u ntered t h e future stim (=fJ for m o f :':1 dd rsay) : §57 Purpose and causation The appeal to the liviru.' ) May hand s/ help be given 10 him in the Nesh rnet -ba rk on the ways of th e we st: May he receive offerings on the great altar On the festivals of th e ne cropolis. re qu e st s.".1rS Ikhemofrets description of the qreat procession of Osiris: on 8M EA 162 : Berlin 1204.' Grammatically. ox and fowl..n=1 sk d dpt-ntr I cond ucted the great pro cession. 14 5 an d 14 6 ).

J J6

Hewto read l:~qyp ria ll hieroglyphs

The future

117

The bOIl,JIII section of 8M FA IVI is based on the goodwil l and wish elements of the appeal to the Jiling (i.e. that goad thinq« will happen tc passers-by wh en they say the offering [cr m ula for the deceased):
EM EA lUI. Lines 2 ·4 :
5\\ 4 =1" lJ(W)T=1'l " iJrd (w )=1'l ." "" hkr=m "" Ib i=I" Y will hand over your offices to your children ... VO\l on hungrv, you will n ot be th irsty

SPe CIA L CASES

;u'r={ (With exi r a -r )
1>1I=f

may he come may he bring

(with ext ra -1)

,,,,II not he

.

Notes The ve rb mu ' to see ' also displa ys a form ~ h '::= mm«], ii The wea k verb form wi th 44 -.I' is m ost common in the first pe rson. iii The furms from (he verb s 'come: a nd ' bring' show a n ex t ra 1.

§59 Fo rm s of the sgmty.fy and the future sgm (=!) The sJmty f y an d the fut ure s(jm(=!) have th e followi ng forms : a. sdmty.fy
Sl~G l!LAR

§60 Adject ives in -y Wh e n used with no uns , a sp ecial adjecti ve fo rm of the pr e posi tio n is used:
The stela ofMentjuhotep:
Fitz. E9 . t 922 ,

PLURAl
FE MIl'l SE

MASCUUN E
~ C>

Line I :
.:tJ ~"'n -I \, !: I
sdm ty .sn

I rnhw tp w 11 ".

___

o the Jiving (w ho ar e ) upon the earth ...
He re ~} tpw is an adj ective de rived fro m th e pre p osit io n /5)1 tp ('upon') . tp w ag rees w ith th e n o un Sf- } ~ ~ 'n l/w (both sho w As a n adjective the plur al -w). This form is termed th e adjective ill -.I' (the -.I' o nly oc curs in the ma sculin e singu la r form ). Som e preposition s displa y a d istin cti ve wr iting in the adje ctive in '.1':

5TRO ~G

.tJ

\\ \\

J}

~ "'0\ \\ i \

sqmry f y
DOUB LING

sdm ty.sy

!f}

- doubling

~ 1,~\~ -:- ~ :£ ~ ~r\\ '\
m my.[y

:J::£'\:£'\ ~ r:-;-,
muty .sn
~ ...,

mutv. sy
<!':?;::J

91fJJ
WEA K
~

.:> "-\\ \\

4"=l 1fJJ [I .
C>
\\

\\

9 1fJJ"'r\\ I

I'

PR EPOSlT10~

ADJ ECTIVE

t~

-y

SdlY.[Y
<=>0 ""EXTRA WEAK
~\\

Id lY·sy

sd ty.s n
<:> O~ ~ \\

\\

<:>°r
~ \\

~

III

in at. towards in relation to

q + ~\

Imy iry
Ill Y tp»

(which/who is) in (which/who is) at, towards, relating to
(w hich / w ho is) upon (w h ich /w h o is ) upon

\\

I

. rdi shows r
ly( l)lt wOi

rdtty .iy

rdlty.sy
fJ

J) Jr\\ \\
lwry Iy

o,

~~ _

- shows nv
b. The fu ture s(jm(:!) :

J> \\ '"

~

or

rditys n

r:
= =
Q

J) } ~r~,
iu.ty.sn '

<;:I

hr upon

"

Iwry"ly

/5)1
n iTlJR E
STR O ~G

rp upon

~ or /5)
0\\

saml= fJ sam= !
fm=f

Adjectives in -.I' agree with their no un s in number and gend er : may he hear may he st"e
m ay he love
FE.\!.
r EM .
·1

ADJ ECffi'ES IN .y
~G .

PI..

SG .

PI..

DO UBLlt'G

\\

- no do ubling
\ ...fA )\ ·

MSC.

}
-w

.y mr-f c: mry= !
.il=!

e.g. wsc .

\+~\
Imy

H~}
1mB.'

H1\
tm t

not 'i I

1\

EXTRA WEAK

(no rl

may he give

-L

lmf

118
The stela of Inh u retnakh t beg ins with an offa ing formula in vok ing Anubis:

The fu ture Ex e r ci se s
8. 1 SigllS a. 2 -co nsona m a n d 3-cLlnso n all1 signs:
[n

1 19

t 'L it, ~ ~:+ } C)t)
H,\ \ EA 178 3, hip -di -ns w inp w tp(y) o"=/ lm (y) wr rib 11 dsr l.ine I : An o fferi ng wh ich th e king give s ( 10) Anu his w ho is up on his muu n tain, t he o ne in rh e wI-fetish, lord o r rhe sacred lan d

Is

tp

Adjective s in -y ar e co m mo n in titles. for exa mp le:
h rv-

ssn

ma ster o f secrets (lit er ally, rh e one upo n sec re ts)

j. ~.J

n bry- the one carrying I h e
hor

leri or pri est (Ilt erally,
lector bo ok )
, -

b. Th ree o the r sig ns w hic h a rc u sefu l a t th is po in t:
S IG ~

e XAM P LE

(bry is de rive d fro m th e prepo sition

iJr 'u nd er ', whi ch is also

us ed w ith the

l o r1

se nse of 'ca rrying'. ) like o the r adjectives, t he ad jecti ves in -y can be used o n their own ('t he one w ho .:', 'th e th ing which ,,: ). A pa rtic ular exa mple is the n ame of Kh entvimentu 't he fore mo st of th e w estern er s' :
The stela of Khuenbik beg ins wi th an offering fo rmula invok ing Osiris:

E30lE31 - co mbi nation o f E29 and If'/; D32 (a nd L e l l - sandy h ill -slo pe) E 17 - dagger, Used in the adje ctive in .y tpy

I

Im -Il l r

nec ro po lis, cem cre rv (who is) up on. See §60 above (who is ) in . See §6 0 above

rpy

+
8.2 Words
.!f}~

E33 - Iw o plan ks crossed a nd j oined . Used in th e ad ject ive in .y Imy.

fmy

BJ\1 f A 584 , Line I :

't d" It, !Jt~ = l.lJz' ~ dmrr ~ t'I = 1
CO>

I

.<p- =-'IH~d~A'i'tr. ~1),.

l1 ~ " J C-"j

@

(Itp -d/-IISW istr nb lidw !Jnt y-tmlllw (n/r) ' 1 lib tbliw An offe ring which ih e king give s 10 Osiris lord of Djedu . Khent y lmentu, great (god), lor d of Abydos

Tra nsl it e ra te th e follow in g w o rds:
receive, lake tomb, ceno ta ph
tu rn b

~3J..~
lJ ~·:o JJ i

rr an sfigu re

ha s bee n omitt ed in the phrase ru r 'I ' great god') onty is an adjective in -y meaning ' (t he one ) at th e front ' . imntw is also a n adjective in -y, de rived fro m th e nou n 1/111/1 ' I he west ' an d m l'ans l' th e ones of th e west' ,' westerners'. So hnty- tmntw means ' the one a t the front o f t he weste rners' (t he ' weste rn e rs' are the dead , the people in th e realm o f sunset) .
i ntr

lk,aA'
~fl~
(Sib )

entourage
akh -sp irit

~

(The bless ed dead become Ilj -sp irits in t h e a fter life by bei ng t ransfigu re d a fter death . )

VOCABULARY

u;.;
;;;;

' - - '- '- '

...

_ - -" .---" .'_._ - ---Minnd er
ha te

8.3 8M EA 567

/5

to m b
M er rtj uh ot e p

T6
ffi ~ l
j ~!
€I'"
O .!J

IHf1W-1l!r

=} ~=
c [

mn tw- htp
r-pr

msdti)
hmtwi -n ir

BM EA 567 (sho w n on p. 120 ) he gins wit h a date, a n offe ring for m u la, and th en moves on to a full set of the twe n t y eleme nts of the Abydo s for mula, of which a select ion a re given her e, incl uding som e m entioning th e Abydos m yste ries. Ign ore th e sections in grey,

t em ple
hm -

hm-p riests de ath

In

. j',

hm iwn-ntr
-'Ii}

p riestesse s
t ran sfig u re

bpI

1 3J..~

120

How 10 read 1~~Yl' li,1I1 h icroqlvphs

The fu tu re

121

ix Trans la te n snn u-rr I IIm l1= s as 'w h e n th e gre a t IIsm l -b ar k is at it s j o ur neys'. x In Line 10 I I -WI . th e 1I0me co m a in m g Aby dos. he re ref ers 10 th e in hab itant of th e nome, h enc e it call have a ' m o u th' . xi In se n 'a t' in your translat ion befure Iuk r ill Line 10 . x ii The vigil uf H or u s -J» or Horus th e figh ter rem ains one of the m ost el u sive asp ects of the Osi ris m yster ies, a ltho u gh it p robab ly refe rs to p a n uf th e rites con cerned w it h the rea n im a tio n o f th e dead Os iris. W h e n yo u have finis hed bot h Exe rcises 8 .3 an d 8 .5, yo u m ay wish pare the Abydus fo rm ul a e o n th e two ste lae .
VOCABULARY
to corn -

--- - _.-

..._ - - - - ~ \\

~~}

iiw
w r(w)

welcome th e great pres ent. o ffer Haker-rites toge the r wi th (th e on e) a t the front hear (th e (I has changed int o d
ov er ti m e)

."..-'1

'wy

arms before Ro -Poker (Poker) jubil a tion offeri ng s, peace carrying, unde r tr avel follow ers nigh t a n cestors

~~!

1»,7
=0 =
I

m -bih
t-pkr h nw
IIII'

1»,7J
ru~~~B:li EA 567 l (ca rve d lim estone; w. 63 .5cm)
Notes See n ote s to Exercise 7.8 for th e writin g o f th e d et erminat ive of ddw
a n d /bdw.

ms

Llv-

hsk r hn :

rgl
a C
<Th

J -

, .-.J)

="=

mil ~

tlll lY

hr

r:;
--- ~

sdm

< slim
s./ rt
f ny l
fJ· w r

r 10~,\ .J) n

S(l l

ii w epwawct has the epit h et billy tbd w 't h e on e at th e fro nt/ h ea d of Abyd os' (see §60 a bove fo r tlll ly ) . iii The n a mes of He k e t and Khnu m a re w ritt en wit h th ei r fro g an d ra m dcrerrni nauvcs resp ecti vely. iv bf -n bt ri[rtt} prtr )! m -bth II!r - .1 ' e ve ryth in g go od w hic h go es befo re th e gr ea t go d' . p r (r) 1 is a pa rticiple. v In Lin e 5 th e Abydos fo rm ul a begins w it h m s.l(w) -11=/ 'I vy br ... 'Ma y a rm s be p re sen ted to h im ca rry ing ..: Th e two gro ups o f th e venerated dead noted arc Sill SII' nssir 'th e followers uf Osiris' an d Ip J lj prw br-Im 't he a n cesto rs who exi sted before ' . vi In Lin e 5 -rw is the dependent pr on oun ' yo u ' (the ow n e r Amen e rn hct is sometim es referred to a s ' h e' so m cu rues as 'vo u ' ). Se c §41. vii On snyt imiy t} Jbdw, see §60. viii In Line R d in dd is flatt e r than th e normal form . Noti ce th at it does n ot

8
~

C>

F9

vigil en to urage

~G ~

smsw
grl1
tptwj -:

'I. n

~~ C
~ ...

m ,
I

~rr
6---1
I
.. .

Tawer
mo m e)

i

n D ~ H~

I <=

'j~o k :'_CD

9,.

7.......

. . - ...

_... -

sdryl n t ~1r-Sl1

the vigil of Horus-.<II

8.4 St udy exercise: BM EA 584
Transliter ate a nd translat e the ste la o f Khu cn bik (B M EA 58 4 sh u wn un p. 122 ) with its ap pe a l tu th e livin g.
N ote

In Lines 4-5 til mrre tn sms "'P-W/w l r nmtt »] lib 'in th at yu u w ish tu follo w Wep w aw et at a ll hi s journe ys' ; [m s is in th e in fini tive for m a n d supp lies the

. tran sliterat e and tra n slate w ith the hel p of the acco m pany ing vo cabula ry._ ....---. rI .. NOles See Exercise 3.3 for vocab u lary for th e offerin g form u la sectio n..~ . _- _. rorub Si! . <~ ... san sfa ction --: or }\z ( \.5 Stu dy ex er cise: 8M EA 162 The fin al ste la for yo u ro study is 13M EA 162. -1 ._. .. hlp hlp 'I offerings rece ive I grea t alta r FESTI VA I... ../)6 ° !ViW - p rt spdt So this begi n n ing of th e luna r year 1ft U [J.- Rc r u t m ame) j.12 2 How fa read F:!ypli'l/1 hieroqlvph» l The tutu re 123 VOC A llli LARY (CONTIN UED ) . plh h lp Pia liho tcp (n am e ..--. n nttt ~= Ih :0:::-.rrw t - . c:.......~ !Ii i E \ lIl>in T rn .._ _.\ 1aicn ho r ( am e ) n :'lip la hka u ~c":':~ ~if nt hd in goin g non h ceno ta ph .h 57 O ? de" o ~ ".-. Th e stela is shown on!' . 1 "' general -in -chief ' ..... } -ez> -.-.. .ti w) at the beginning of Line 4 wit h VO CABU LAR Y .. I o O c:n:::)i festiva ls I cob. ii Read di.J ~rn wig Wa g ~ festival TI>O lh festiva l [ 'J .~Y h btw] htp: . ..ES AN D OCC UPA TIO NS .f) 1 prt mnw pro cessio n of Min pr ocession of VOC ABU L \ R Y . p erpe tua te to foll ow ~ ~ ['j sf n b ~ ~~ sm yt lmn tt th e we ster n desert pr o visio ns ~r sms '::l dfp w) 8.. _.0 ~~ : Wil 2h. nui -n~1r n u. f \wQ. ---.m -r overseer of Ltl11l1 the trea su ry m-r 1115""wr rr u n -p tltL.::" 3.-- - - ' .t -h r h nt -ki pri este ss of Harbo r ka -pn csr j}. - .....-.. iii See Chapter 7 for the stru cture of th e va rious ep ith ets. _.. ---'l for .S d!11 0 Blv1 EA 584 (ca rved lime sto ne. i I Jll wlI ~{:~ ~ '> ~1 ~~~ m £ l Isf in going south ov erseer of b uilde rs . o r ~ ~} 1(1111' U'r (w j w elcom e th e grea t peace...'j ...s sp JnTI S 13&..d > Ll ~ hkr god dess) H ck ct K huenbi k ="= 00 iJlp lj nmw offe ring s (th e godl Khn urn ~ ~l~b jl q.--m name ( I he CO . " . => ~ o hb sk r SokerIestiva l tp -rnp t 111 -' IkJ".Q J\ ...... As usu al.. II .. or 1%. _ .-. . the stela of the genera l-in ch ief Ame n y.c./)}.. 125 .. ..:rf. . .. bw·n bl ]: (na me) mak e live... jou rn eys 1 ~~ <p hm -n tr it.----..1 o r 11 ".@ -c-i - C> . 53cm ) .

Fortu n a re ly.j . Abydos was clea red of man y o f us Mid dle Kingdo m mo n um e nts by collecto rs a nd earl y archaeo logists in i hc n inctccruh ceru ury with out a prope r record bein g made of th e fin d-sues . rJft -It' p(\. .-. m dh w ss-h n t -h ty snvtyt sit-h nt -ljt! ~tW~-::.. Dj efahap y . Paris (C35). il will no dou bt strike you ihat rh e ow n er himself is ac tu ally mi ssing from ih e figur es sh own ...= ~ ~ ~} "' \~ O Sakhen e rkh e ty Saut yr Sa tkhene tkh e ry • I ~rWl -~ft . L ~ ~ l" = L~ C> n'" .J: Onc e yo u ha ve read th is stela. 13M EA J62 .p r dorn csuc serva n t :-lAMI: S ~ ~~ Q C3 Io--J'~ - .. Cairo (CCG 20 546 ). JI 10 0 lack s a figur e o f Amen}' himse lf: instea d il depio s furth er relatives and dep en da nts lookin g fro m lef t to righ t (w hereas in EM EA 162 Ihe y look from right 10 left ). II has a com pani on . Th is pair o f stelae no doubt framed a centra l su la depi cting Arncn v himself: one pie ce which has been propos ed is in ihc Mnsee du Lou vre ..-. . lik e a nu mber of stelae from Abyd os. EM EA 162 h as be en allocated 10 a g rou p now known conven tionall y as Abydos NOrIh Offerin g Ch apel (ANOC) 2 . w hich sh ows th e same SI }' 1e and phraseology: ih c IW O wer e clea rly mad e in ih c sam e wor ksho p as a pair... II is only through th e w or k of scho lars scouring th e museum collccu o ns of rhe wo rld and sih ing th rou gh ihe spa rse arc haeo logica l record thai ori ginal gro ups of ste lae are gradu all y being reassembl ed .bea rer = ~ n h ry.. Thi s is because..------_ .fmny Ame ny Kh nvet "4 I .-=eb ~~ 0 . BM f A 162 be lon gs to a gro up dedica red in a n offering -ch apel at th e site.124 How iii read Egyptiall hieroglyphs (coxnx uru] ns: hairdresser The Iuture J2 5 TITLES AND OCC UPATION S cup. I Saha tho r Satsobe k Med hu ~~J~ ~~ ~a. Un fortun a tely. 0 b\<yt hnt-hty-ht p ss-hwt-h r sst-sb k rrM. now in th e Egyp tia n Mu seum.. 1100 Kheneikh etvhe tep ..

it tended weak sound. Originally a th roat y trill. he re for a celebrat ed ro yal pred ecessor. but act ua lly refers m or e ge n e ra lly to ro yal dedications. bu t distinctly rri llcd as in Scots pron un rta tlon Like h in home Empha tic h pronou nced in ih e throat Like Scots ch in loch Sllghtly softer than Like s in soap Like sh in ship k pronou nced a t back 01 m ou th .·.a n obscure cer emony designed to brea th e life in to an embalm ed corpse . it later became a stop . _ -. Called waw. 1= coo -_.n=f m mnw»] II It= f nb -hpt -rr mr. Accord ing to o ne su gge stio n. the ju stified.-·. Sen wos rc i: he has made a dedi cati on for his Iarhcr.. treat ih ern as a co nv e nien t resource for mem ori sin g so m e of the m ost co m m on ly u sed hieroglyphs. a lt h o ug h the re ason for it is st ill d isp ut ed by schola rs (a s in dee d ar e the intricacies o f th e gra m ma r o f th e fo rmula ) r so yo u ce rta in ly sh o u ld n ot w orry too m u ch a bou t it.21: rur nf r lib lmy s-n-wsrt ir. like sayin g a whilst swallowing 10 The perfect god. Nebh ep etre.- VOCA BULA RY dedicatio n . The followin g lists are intend ed to help you to identity particul ar hieroglyp h s qu ickly an d easily. mllw is o ften translated as ' m o n u ment ' in di cti on aries. sou nd more like y..Hierogl yphic sign-lists for the exercises About the Front Cover Th e co ve r sh o w s a derail of an in scrib ed ritual 100 1 u sed in the rile of 'ope n in g the mouth ' . Origin ally a sto p. .--1 ~~ [1 nb -hp t-r r Ncb hepctrc I Like k in kit Like gin gfl Like I in tub Like t in tune Like d in did Like j in joke. often not writt en Like b in bel Like p in pel Like fi n jit Like m in met Like n in net Like r in rain .·. A weak sou nd. The ap pea rance of an ex tra m b ef ore th e obje ct mn w is a sta n da rd part o f th is ded icat ion form ula .-. and a hal as a 'a' Called yodh . The text re cords a dedicatio n from Senwosre t [ to his celebrated p re decessor (here termed It "(fo rc jfather) . a statue or a n inscribed image. You ca n also. A th roaty gurgle. · . like Gennan ch in ich l _._.. Like w in weI.._. as in cockne y pronunciation of bottle as bo'l..h rw List I: l-consonant signs Called aleph. if you wis h. w ho is h er e identified by hi s pra enornen Ne bhe pe rre . iI indi cates th ai it is t he dedi cation o f t he objec t itself w h ich is se e n a s th e fo cal -p oint o f th e fo rm u la . ofte n nor wriuen Like y in yes Called ayin..... Mcn tjuhot ep ll o f t h e l l rh Dvn ast y. th e lord of th e twin lands. fo cu sin g on Senwosr ct 's perfonnance of th e commem orat iv e funct ion s o f kingshi p th ro u gh supplying th e ope n ing of the m outh implement for th e animation o f st at ues of his cel ebrat ed predeces sor.. MMA 24 . or French di in dieu . A mnw 'dedicati on ' refers here to the opening o f the mouth implem ent its e lf and th e rit e s asso cia te d w ith it.-. like Arabicq in Qun in (Koran ) iJ._ mrnv . a n d then work out how th ey have been us ed to w rite words.

journey on ks ox. on e -co n so na n t sign ..Jl ~ . Signs depicting people or parts of the human body AI 1\2 A3 A4 A5 A6 1\7 A8 A9 1\10 All Al l Jl IIw praise f ~ tm nt . broad) . we have us ed t h e following abbreviations: I c. way §A. m or e re cogn isable sign s ha ve been gro u ped int o three broad ca tego ries (h u mans. Th e signs ar e give n h er e in a stand ardised font . estat e I f7 11 'i' I ~ rnpt year give legs front (I ) face 1 ) 2 i. ideo . ta ll. Here.128 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Hieroglyphic sign -lists for the exercises 129 Li st II : Some common 2-consonant signs IW bl bh lib n kd pr house... 176) .! Sl 00 offering seat. nature ). smsw eldest Wp Wn mb ms mt ffi A iJi SS wd m twjt List III: Some common 3-consonant signs 11mo rim l Iwn r r1 j WI/. co m . animal s.! or sk m l' n bw whm IIf r n tr htp 11} ~ hnm 1 wsr [Ipr spd * pa lace dWI List IV: Some common ideograms I. my (§36 ) ~I List V: Full Sign Li st What foll o ws is a co m ple te list of signs appearing in this book . three -consonant sign. but it sh o uld be remembered that th er e will be some variation in their forms as they ap pear on m onuments. bu ll bread land bl 11IV ntr tp tm II WI/.1\0 a nmu step. place 0= G" I sw mr SII skor ~~ ndm :IT I ~I Sp it district et tp dsr upon ( I ) clear (2) sacred f\ WI = '\ mr W' mr or sb dw dr c o I rr sun elder.~ o In or nw pb br st Sl II cd e !tW( tow n lilt hr htp Ir i <-=> is '1 > g = ml ml t t lid . ideo gram. sign combi ned with o the r elements.con sonant sign . Index ? Ib hear! wes t 'Ill wit fight road.! god sweet mouth or ~ mw or b/.fJ ~ sdm spsy hear dtgnified n pr IIh n . two. 2e. Read er s who cont in ue th eir st udy of an cient Egyptian will eve nt ually need to become familiar with th e systema tic sign-list of Gardin er's Egyptian Grammar (sec p. th ere is no co rrespo nde nce between his list and ours in the wa y a particular sign is classifi ed . ~r siJt pi IW lin . in particular. Sinc e thi s is a pra ctical list design ed to h elp yo u find an un familia r sign q u ickly.. with an explanation of th e d iffer ent wa ys in w h ich each one has be en u sed to wri te words.. whilst others ha ve been gro u ped by sha pe (small. 3e.vr official co unr rvside sb or mr or IIlV 11 m u n expedition n ot (§ 39) rd(l) rdwy illill. the det ails of a sign will be affected by whether it is pain ted (a s 0 11 a coffin ) or in scri bed (as o n a ste la) . Sin ce Gard ine r used many mo re categories th an we have.

Other small signs DI D2 \\ 131 AI3 D3 I . ~ ~ B32 ~ 83 3 ~ B34 ~ E24 E25 E26 [ J0. Signs depicting creatures or parts of their bodies BI B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 EI BI O BI I BI2 EI2 E2 1:3 B54 E4 E5 1 El3 1 E I6 r E6 E7 E8 E9 EIO El l ~ EI8 EI9 £20 E2l EI4 EI5 E l7 E22 E23 B l3 BI4 B I5 BI6 BI 7 Bl8 BI9 B20 B2l B22 B23 B24 ~ B25 B26 '\-. B35 B47 t E27 £28 £29 ~ ""5r B36 B27 Il28 \) B29 B30 b B3I f' B39 Ij ~ B4I f E36 E37 E48 E49 '" E38 E50 1 U r £:40 E4 I £: 52 E53 E30 "I ~ E3 I L.n E32 E33 E34 E35 ~ 9 ~ E39 E42 E43 E44 E45 E46 £47 B37 B38 B40 B42 B43 B44 845 B46 B48 E5I E54 E55 E56 £57 E58 [ 59 j B49 B50 B5! B52 B53 B54 B55 B56 8 57 B58 B59 B60 E60 B6I B62 B63 864 B65 B66 B67 E61 E62 E63 [64 £ 65 E66 E67 E68 E69 E70 E71 g FI C9 CIO ( II F2 F3 ~ ~ 1 J F6 F7 F8 g F9 ~ ~ m FI2 §F. earth. C33 t ill F25 ~ F26 F17 F28 F29 = F30 = F3 1 F32 F33 F35 F3 6 C25 C32 9 . wat er. Signs involving sky. I D4 D5 n D6 D7 x DB LJ D9 0 10 0 11 O!2 A25 A26 A27 A28 A29 A30 A3 I A32 A33 A34 A35 A36 Dl3 0 14 0 15 DI6 D t7 DI8 0 19 0 20 0 2l D22 0 23 02 4 A37 A38 A 39 A40 A4 I A42 A43 A44 A45 A46 A47 A48 o 025 D26 0 27 02B o D29 CJ e 03 0 0 31 032 D33 D34 0 00 u A49 A50 A5I A52 A53 A54 A55 A56 A57 A58 A59 A60 D35 ~ 036 o J A6I A62 j 037 845 §E.=.... Other broad signs §G.! 30 How to read Egy pria n h ieroqlyphs AI4 A J5 AI6 AI7 AI 8 AI9 A20 A21 A22 A23 A24 Hieroglyphicsiqn-lists for the exerci es s §D. or plants CI C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 F4 F5 FlO FI I ~ CIl M o cn IY'-"l e CI4 = T CI5 CI 6 C27 C28 . * C I8 C30 CI7 CI9 *' *' I ) = FI3 F J4 FI5 FI 6 FI7 FI 8 Fl 9 Ll 0 1 = F20 = F2l Fn F34 F23 F24 00 cn en q C2 4 ~ C26 C29 MI!l C3l 1. Other tall signs §B.

(3 ) 2e . chi ld .1I1 fallin g w ith blood str ea m in g del. srl: 'talk about . or abb. f ry ' keep er' (I) va ria nt o f A27. weak A 46 A20 A21 A4 7 a rm s ge sturing den ial ideo . r 'a n n' . [III' A I5 A1 6 A I7 de t. dsr 'sacr ed' and rela ted wo rds ide o . w?m an. (2 ) del. or de l.Z d el. act ion . (2) he n ce ideo. 11 1 'h arm on y' . tp mou th m a n kneelin g in ad ora t ion officia l w ith staff and leat he r grip man lea n in g on fo rked Slick old ma n lea n ing on Slick o flicial hold ing fla il o flicia l seared m a n stri kin g I W O ~ h an ded wit h sla ff m a n str ik in g m an bu ildin g w all m a n fallin g m . §49 ) A2 A3 del. :J (l) id eo .13 2 Ho w 10 read Egyp tian hien1gl p hs y Hieroqly phic siqn -tists fo r the ex ercises 13 3 1'37 1'38 FW 1'40 1'41 1'42 F43 1'44 1'45 F4 6 F4 7 1'4 8 A2 2 A2 3 woman giv ing birth infant dc t. death face head in profil e ha ir front of face ( 1) id eo . !. espe cia lly if 11' person ified as a go dd ess (co m pa re with B 27 ) A29 A30 A3 1 A32 A3 3 A34 A 35 A36 priest com . nam es o f th e god Osiris man sealed woma n scared god sea ted goddess with fea th er o n h ead m an sea led with ha n d 10 ( 1) de l. (2 ) ide o . <: (3) ofte n a lte r na tive for A4 1-44 A I2 AI 3 AI 4 ann A41 ann offe rin g loaf (E6 I ) ( II ideo . falcon markin g s offic ial id eo . r ideo . ( 2) h ence 2e. ikd 'build e r' mk t a n d dw . spsy 'dign ified' an d related words. fell . en e my de l. ado re WI del. (2) h e nce 2e. o r d el.. IIII' 'old' (I) A9 AI D Al l A37 A3 8 JE>. mi' 'e xp editio n . sn 'kis s ideo. ( 2 ) read m or m i in the na mes bs- ( I ) det. (2) hence abb. e ffort. :J 'adore' .Ir A4 AS A6 A7 A8 ( 1) ideo . mwt=f by con fusion wi th anot h e r sign iL. lad 'st rike ' A39 A4 0 l c. §4 1. de ceas ed offic ia l a hcrn auv e form o f AID del. lmiy -imruw (a na m e o f th e go d Osiris I (I) 1'4 9 1'50 1'5 1 1'52 1'53 1'54 1'55 1'56 1'57 A2 4 A25 A26 so ld ie r man sea ted w ith dag ge r ro ya l figur e w ith Oail roy al figure fig ure o f Am un = Full list [j0 f""'1 §A. c. de l. tir ed. smsw 'elde r. accu se' A4 2 A43 arm hold ing st ick a nn h o ldin g flail a n n ho lding wand o r le tt uce arm s h o ldi ng shield and axe arm s rowing ma n gesturing m an sta n din g with ha n d to mo uth ma n wi th arms raised in jo y m a n wit h a n ns in adoratio n m an slu m ped A44 A45 id eo . ooup ation s of w ome n de l. ks . 'I. (2 1 de l. mil 'se e' ::<f 1ie eyes co m. ns\\' ' kin g' . /11I (o r . face. viole n ce. speak . Signs dep icting people or parts of tile Ill/ma ll body Al A27 A28 a bb. di o r rdl 'givc '. Ir. (2) hence del. (2) h e n ce l c.an AI 8 A t9 del. 'o n'. e ldes t: d el. ' u po n '. h air del. a ctio ns o r co n ditio ns o f the eye ( I) id eo . sr 'o fficial' : (2) hence del.Ir' face' . ' Ill ' fight' a nd relat ed w or d s 2e. hnw 'j u bilatio n ' (I) ideo . acti o n. go d. my' (§36. o vert h row del. lm/1 '(th e god ) Am un ( I ) alt ern at i v e for A 55 . me . vie w ' ( 1) 2 e. effort . !.. or de t. give birt h ( I) d el. lying dO W11. web 'priest ideo . n ames/ti tle s o f gods id eo . (2) a bb. army' id eo. ea t. em ot io n (§6) de l. tp ' head'. m an .g. ks 'k a' : (2) h ence 2e. r 'm o u t h' : ( 2) h e n ce l c. occu pa tio n s o f m e n. 12) del.m i) id eo . alternati ve for £61 . a lte rna tiv e for A I 2 2e. b rd 'ch ild '. n ose. fall. ptr 'obse rve. I th e in te rjection ' O !' del. bu ild. eye wi th cosm etic m outh h an d de l. or de l. wa ter pou rin g from ju g mumm y o n bier d el. rej oice ( 1) a bb . the negat ive wo rds (§5S) /I (§39) an d nn A48 U a rms raised ( I) ide o . (2 / del. or d el. vi o le n ce ideo.

m s 'bri n g' com bin ed sound -sign and del.?. r: ' (the god) Re ' d et. nm tt ' (fo rm al ) jou rn ey' falcon pe rched falco n -headed god sparro w ~ 3. IW especially at the en d of w ords. I fril zc. o r d et. 3m 2c. ( 2 t det. ( 2) det. alternat ive fo r B8 ( I ) 2c. su ckle ( I ) de t. . or det. for 1(1 'com e' 3. ( 2) h en ce 2c. ho wl falcon B I 7 com .. or det . A5 7 ideo . lSI ' (th e goddess) Isis' id eo .:jj b qu ail ch ick owl Egyp tian vul ture pair of v ultu res bu zzard gui n ea -fow l pin tail d uck whi te -fronted goo se duck tn flight trussed goose or du ck head of d uck d uck ling nair of nlo vr-rc I e. flesh. spd 'bird' 2e. ( 2 ) id eo.tJ w!lm -:r l e ll 2e WI' fi> "'(L~ o x h o rn s ox ear B4 3 ide o. alternative fo r F29 co m bined sou nd -sign a nd de t. A5 7 D33 com . pl det. pa th etic 2c. sam ' hear ' . bird n7l hide of goat hide pierced hy arro w piece of flesh forel eg of ox leg of ox a nim al belly wi th ta il y zc. or det. E5 2 2e r}: brea st pen is p eni s wi th issue of flu id low er leg A5 4 com. fa lco n . 9m ' fin d' .heade d bird co m.. bow l ( 1) ide o. bth in m-bth 'in i he presence of : l c. or del. Siqns depicting creatures or parts of their bodies.. p ierce ( I ) det. for 1 (1) 1 'seize ' ~ ~ v ulture black ibis cres ted ibis sacre d ibis feather egg ox head of ox ca lf new -born calf kid ram B3 4 com . altern ative for E56 B I4 BI5 ~ co rmora nt jabiru h u ma n. m I e. (2) hen ce 2e mt del. w l c. ' ram ' vari a nt of B 3 wh en writ ing "'B ~ B3 5 B3 6 B3 7 B 38 B 39 840 B4 1 B42 2e. A5 7 '3r. b. bps ' for el eg' (of animal ). or abb . j V . 1 ' (t he goddes s) St '" fC' 2e..134 1I0w to read Egyptian hieroqlyp hs Hieroglyphic siq n -listsfor the exercises 13 5 A5 0 A 5! A5 2 A 53 A5 4 A 55 A 56 A57 A58 A5 9 ~ y boa t's m ast (E56 ) co rn . &. A 57 ideo . small. fo r In !I) ' bring' com bin ed so u nd-sign and de l. rd 'leg'. m ale. sheep abb. sw. (2) hence ideo. for ssm 'con duct' an d related wo rd s. I ' id e-o or Ii. mrt 'h ar mo n y' A6 1 )r F2 9 co m . bird . sw a llow 1 ~ com bined sou nd -sign and det. (2) ideo. 9 b. h r ' (the god ) Harti s' ideo . Iw(I) 'co me' : ( 3) ide o . e. (2) abb .::l n ' Isis' ideo. catt le abb. f r n fv ' w :t<: h f"r m . goose abb. w r ( I ) ideo. hwt -h r ' (the go dde ss) Hath or det. A57 F33 co m . wa te r po u ri ng dc t. mwt ' mo th e r' . sbti) 'go'. gods ide o. A40 3e 'h e. web ' pure' an d re lated w ords ( I ) ide o. kl ' o x' det. w ea k. ib det. Ib in I IJ 'aklt-spirit' and related w ords A60 FI 5 com. 4'p \) ideo.g. cattl e 2e lw A62 7f' lJril ~ §B. bull. ram . 'strong arm ' (of ma n ) 3e. bt 'sou l' (New Kingd om ) ( 1) det. o r d et . bn de t. [h wty ' (the god ) Thoth ' ( I) 2 e. ~ ~ ~ 2e bs =" F -w ze. o x. mt B 16 B I7 BI8 BI9 B 20 B2 1 B22 B23 B24 B2 5 B2 6 B27 B28 B29 B3 0 id eo . brea st. b J eX j J) from j ug leg legs wa lki ng C20 co m. m oti on . (2) Sf. 81 B2 133 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BIO BI I B I2 B l3 B31 8 32 B33 B 34 II ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1h ~ 1> ). oft en con fu sed wit h B3 2e nh ( I) 2e Sl. ~ ) com bined sound -sign and de t. tread ( I ) d et. for w ord s su ggestin g m otio n w hich inclu de t he sou nd s. ( 2) det.>.

I'll ' moo n' ( I) in dWI 'ado re' . sky. (2) he n ce 3e. i nu (l ) de l. sbk '(the god) Sobek '. (2) he n ce 3c. C 18 C I9 C20 C2l C22 ~ po ol with flow ers reeds reed pair o f re eds he rb lotus clump of pap yru s sedge plant C2 5 com. (3) de l. or del. 111 3e. o r del. b' ( I) del. iJr . or a bb.l bd 'm ont h ' an d rela ted words ideo . hst ' fro nt' . sty ' rth e god) Set h ' 2e. (2) hen ce 2e. (2) 3e. n ( I ) del. lnpw ' (the god ) An ub is' 3e. stl l ' cou nt ry side' I e.r 'oversee r' (§24b l. (2) abb. (2) hence 3c. a lterna tive for E 16 de l. dw ( I ) del.136 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Hierogly phic sign-lists fo r the exercise s 137 B44 ox tongue h eart ( I) ideo . sm: 'Upper Egypt ' 2e. (2 ) del. SI ideo . pkr 'Po ker'. including th e go ddess Hek et de l. m. . C6 h alf m oon corn. or del. iJJ ' th o usa nd'. or abb . fl am 's w eet'. B6 1 frog fish oxyr hy nc h us fish d un g beetl e bee a Qq '\. ~ 2e. desert: (2) id eo. o r del. fish 2e. day. ha lf-mo nt h fest iva l. rr: (2 ) del. in ar 'e ternit y' alternat ive C n 01 C9 on Ie. Inll b ' ve ne ra tio n' an d rela ted w or ds 2c. [: (2) d et . even t base d on lun a r mo nt h . buy ' king' cn C24 C2 5 C26 C27 C28 C29 f t t ff + 0 ~ §c. lp sr 'foreign land' del. incl uding the god w epwa w et ideo .v ( I) de l. ll s ideo . o r de l. (2 ) 2c. p I} del. DI6 flowerin g sed ge pair o f ru she s tree tree b ra n ch !lili1 Q crocodile on shr ine cobra ho rned viper E I6 corn . "'m vl ' priesthood' ideo . E3 ( I) del. (2 ) 2e. iJ'. or del. spd IS C 32 C33 ~ C4 T . dog. dar kness upo n' C30 C3 1 scent ed po d sce n ted rh yso me th orn ( I) ideo . a n d hskr 'Hake r-rires' ( I) Ie. I ideo. ndm ideo . readin g unce rt ain (see p. sta r. wr ' (th e go d ) Wepw aw et' ideo . or de l. tree. kee n '. h ry ' w h ich (§ 60) del. hp r ab b.P ) tt ' fath er' 3e. terrace I e. ' (th e god ) Re' 2e. mw Ie. sb k ' (t he god) Sobek ' ideo . (3) del. iJt ' woo d ' and rela ted wor d s. C6 str ip of land corn . time . water or plants CI C2 C3 o e ==" sun-disc su n rise abo ve hill s ca no py of th e sky C3 cum . plity 's tr en gt h ' ( I ) ideo . wa ter. a lternat ive for B58 Ie. J W spin e wi th issue of ma rro w at end s he ad of leopard fo repart of lion *' * L M ~ * sta r C5 corn . IlJe 2e. hs].J ideo. (2) abb. ity 'sove reign ' ideo . S 2e. plant . wsr ide o. n igh t. IISW ' kin g' abb. earth. or del. moo n . ill ( I ) 2 e. Siqn s depicting sky. fro g. or d el. or uni ts per th ou san d in co un ting 2e. stan dard d og corn . hn ( I ) 2e. sw . cleanse. spd 'sha rp. 76) (I) 2e. sun. 11m. wp-w. 1111 ( I) del. /2) ide o. a Ie. D4 strip o f la nd slo pe o f hill valley be tween h ills de se rt h ills te rra ced slope ripp le o f wa te r grou p of ripples ga rden pool ( I) de l. rh-n sw 'ki n gs adviser' ideo . Wll h ind pan of lion de sert dog dog corn . (2 ) 2c. ib 'hea rt C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C IO CII C I2 Cl 3 C I4 C I5 C I6 CI7 ~ cresc ent m oon B4 5 B46 B47 B48 B49 B50 B5 1 B52 B53 B54 B55 B56 8 57 B58 B59 B60 B6 1 B62 B6 3 B64 B65 B66 B67 spine wi th issue of m arrow de l. bn r 'swe et' ( I) ide o . sh rin e h ead of dog god with hea d of m ythical animal h ar e pai r of cro cod iles mu mmified croc odile c:. rr 'sun'. (2) del. (2) ideo .

138 How to read Egyprillll hieroglyphs '1 0 beer jug basin (7) well full of water bundle of tlax jar-sta nd butc he r's block pot Hieroglyphicsign -lists[or the exercises 1 39 §D. 1" (1) ideo . lm n t 'th e w est ' an d related w ords ideo . IJCm 'se al' a n d relat ed wo rds see B4 5 <i! § E. e. fro m a wo rd pt t ' loaf' (similar writ in g) ( I) 3e. w. alte rna tive for B I (1 ) del. pass by ( 1) ideo . scen ted wood (1) l c. " f IzIf . ss.g. 5S 'alabaster' 2C 51l del. scent .~ ~ '\J r T '" G bUll small loa f \. br (I ) 2e. (1) 2c. Ilkl ' ru le r'. /l -wr 't he n om e of Taw er' ideo . mnw '(the god ) Min' ideo .1 €I place nt a (?). od our. we in imy-wt. hsb 'cou nt' an d relat ed words de l. (2) ideo. (3) often as a grap hic compleme nt for n d (E 15) an d ~d (E24) . m )'(r 'expedition' D28 D29 D30 D3 1 D32 D33 d el. h m see B5. sryt 'sta ff' ( I) del. Iln w (7) in the nam e n n"y 3e. sepa ra te . alte rnative for D I9 (1) del. fore igne r. ball of string (7) th re shin g-floo r road s w ithin en closure rou nd loaf moon part ly obscured l e. (2) 2c. d isease . shm 'co nt rol' an d related w or ds 2e. (2 ) abb. (2) del. or u nit s of one in co un tin g (§ I 9) Ie. enemy. (2 ) hence 3c. title of An ubis. or unit s per h und red in counti ng ( I ) 2e. (2) del. km 'black'. cross. 3e. (2) hence abb.. y. mi ne ral abb. fl n ) 1 ' hu n dred' . n wl 'tow ri ' : (2) hence de l. estate del. I. Other sma ll siqns DI D2 D3 04 D5 D6 D7 08 D9 D IO DII Dll DD D I4 DI 5 D I6 DI 7 DI8 D I9 D20 ~ 0 0 0 (\ D27 (I ) ind icates word grou p or ideogram (§ 13).-. (2) h en ce 2e. ro pe. kmi 'cr ea te ' 2e. plura ls (§ 8 .n tr 'god's fath e r' de l. !l n k l 'bee r' det . hp ideo . singu la r nou ns w hich re pre sent colle ction s of individuals.l. nw. scent . (2) abb. hm 2e. odo u r. d 'tl! ide o . especia lly as th e du al en ding (S I5) ( I ) de l. (2 ) ideo . Z 'bread ' ') " to E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 E IO El l E ll ED EI4 G 1 1 y 1 "' ". or abb. (2 ) 3e. irrigated land de l. km I e. hbsw 'clot hing' I e. or del.5ms 'follow ' an d re lated wo rds e ~ ~ 1 D21 pustu le pu stule wit h issue o f flu id log stri ppe d of bar k ! 'f ~ totem totem crook crook wi t h pa cka ge scep tre sto ne mace D22 D23 024 D2 5 . (2) by co nfusion . (2) abh. sn' w 'm agazi ne' 2e. g. I/W. Other tall siqns EI E2 E3 ~ 9 ] i 1 y w ood en st aff t h row -stick fuller 's cluh head of dog sceptre sce ptre with feath er scept re w ith spi ral sha ft standar d with feat her totem de l. III 'o ffice ' I ( I ) ideo. o r abb. to wn. mdw 'te n '. (2) del.. id eo . W'SI 'Th ebes' 3e. scent. alt ern ati ve for D33 at th e en d of a w ord. disease. O 0 @ 2e. sp (I ) ideo. p 0 :II x LJ I. h Ic. th row. (3) de l. pt t ' begin ning of tim e '. psd. (3) a bb . lJn m sin gle st ro ke \\ V 0 ~ pair of stro kes th ree str oke s gra ins o f sa nd canle h obb le irrig ati on canals cro ssed sticks burn ing ch a rcoa l wi th tlam es reed she lte r BI as abbre viated for hiera tic coil of ro pe tw isted cord twisted cord twisted co rd 17) reed rna t or s10 0 1 ih! ill o1t del. alt erna tive for D2 1 del. or un its 01 te ll in cou m in g (§I 9) del. /n (§ 49). it in lt. w' 'one '. n SI ' th ro ne' 2e. IZ!.] D34 D35 D36 D37 0 00 th ree pot s 'B sto ne j ug pa rt of stee rin g-gea r of boa t (7) sea l o n necklace heart A g \J (1) ide o. or del. or del.rp 'cont ro l' and related w ords. hpt 'stee ring oa r'. dr ( 1) l c. (2) hence 2c. WIS ideo .

SI 'pl ace. n tr ill SIl!' ' in ce nse: D 32 ideo. ( 2) h e n ce 2<. al tern a tive for 1'30 ( I ) 2c ms. h ouseho ld' . 111 1 2c . 1'3 5 i c. or de l. . k n 'di a d em .J Q togeth er s tylise d ba la nc e wall o rn a m e nt w ri ting eq uipme n t 1'3 8 klpll a lt e rna uv e for E66 ideo. a ltern a tive lor 1'8 mr . mll L 'linen' l1 1c. rnp E53 E54 E5 5 1'56 1'5 7 1'58 E5 9 ¥ J11 II ij 1'52 co m . i.~ ~.jd 2 c. nsu al lv JCCl) lII p . ktl.lI l icd hy D " 1'4 5 1'4 6 ~'" ~ tire. li cat . S id eo . co n ten ts w a ter po t in sta n d o intment jar o in tmen t jar f~ e I y I'l l "' t~ ide» . househo ld ' is probab ly a writi ng of 1'71 ~ Ii. Osi ri s' and sst ' (th e god dess ) Isis' id e o . '1/ ' pala ce ' reed co lu m n woo. 1)wt 'en closu re . ornam en t ' E39 1'4 0 E41 1'42 1'4 3 1'44 rack o f wa te r pot s wate r pot with issu e: o f alt c rn a tiv r for E .JcO H<'lI' to re. Dr JUh.bl ' Ia n iilv. 13) abb . fo u n datio n ' id eo . nI t 1'30 0 1 1'32 FB [(. r~ l r abb . 111"1 'pilla r': 12\ hence 3e l wn . (2 ) h ence 3c . sl. o r del. hrw ideo. e i ibt ' fa lll ily. 1'4 7 1'4 8 but cher 's k n ife lnu clu-rs knife 2c. rnrht 'o i n tu u-n t' .. h t 1) 2e.~ .' 1(1 1'64 E65 E06 E0 7 1'6 8 1'69 1'70 E71 Q. ( 2i 2c. 11 royal cro w n Iairnrc ne cklace ( fro m th e 13 1h d yn a s ty onwar d s) de t .len column p illa r 2c. 1Ii. sh 'sh rin e ' 1'22 cord wo u n d on stick cord w o u n d iu ort. or de l. n bt-h wt ' (th e go dd e ss) Ncphrh ys' ideo. fi le 5 1'27 1'2 8 ( 2 1) ! Y 0 oar sh ip 's sa il he art a nd windpipe 3<. IS( /) inls /t '( the god . or ab b. sca t'. {I IV 'b rea th '" I pen na n t 1'29 COl [(. \v b .iltcrua tiv« for FA 2 ( 1. iI "nw ' Ihe o ry of Hcli opo lis' ideo . . co o k 2<. sk: (2 ) 3(. 6 r. rupt 'y ea r ' 2c. lil t 'god'. 1'19 1'2 0 Ell atu-ruauve 2r. t )0 [3 7 wat er put rack o f . H '1 de l. h rt-ntr 'ce m ete ry '.d rill d rill cutt in g bea d pala ce facad e 2c. s ce t ( I I ideo . Is 2c rs E34 + ffi Eo l 1'6 2 1'6 3 o ffe r in g loaf mi lk-j u g withi n n et lasso b ra zie r w ith fla me bu n d le o f re ed s p ie ce s o f wood las h ed r crosse d p la n k s in imy 'w h ich is in ' (§6 0 ) sanda I st ra p twi st ed w ick 1f " . I I) id eo . 'scr ibe ' t c. D24 a n d 1'5 g ra in h eap fri n ge d clot h bo at's In a SI n otch ed pa lm [ 25 com .'29 rom . I! '. D2-1 p estle fold e d clo t h d ct. d t o r rd! 'give'.0 1 1. or n(i) 'spear' \ 2c r·"l" I I) id eo . l .\11 fnr Elf: 1'49 E50 " ~ large l pie rced hv a rro ws d ct . kd 'bu ild' and related word s. 14. or oct.ir On wd 1'5 1 1:5 2 JJJl s l trlll l' En 1'24 1'25 [ 26 s tick a lt crua tiv c Ior E22 Q p lan of estat e ide o. o r d el. usu al ly accompa med hy D33 3<. a rer pots v 2c hs . st : (3 ) he nce (I I 2e. Cl I and D3 2 ideo . a ltc rn a rive for A4 1 2c. 121 a sim ila r sig n ' lI..u! E~JYl'ti"l1 li ieroqtvphs Hi~r('glypl:ic sian-lists fi. hrt-utr 'cemctcry' 3(". Jn w r 'gra lla r y' f10J I (?) ( I ) id eo . 1 c.'1 th e exercises 14 1 1'1 5 1'1 6 1' 17 FI 8 I " lI!1 Kl lO W IJ 2c. 41 w ith a sim p le r va ria n t spin dl e illlP:/ 'w hich is upon ' (S60) )c.. J. nut ~ ~ ideo . I. Hi. k h ltw "liba tio n w a ter ' an d re lat ed w or d s a Ite m " Ii \ e for 1'40 de t . . ( 2) hence 2<.

(2) hence 2e. ss later alternative for F39 2e. we 2e.k 2e. precious metal F27 F28 F29 ~ knife or saw knife-sharpener strw 'buicher: "c" . D27 and E57 laden offering table door bolt wooden column fence lid or door stone block (0) coffin carrying chair statue plinth F22 com. canopy alabaster basin stylised bowl loaf (for offering) loaf (for offering) alternative form of F34 2e. location abb.qs. eil (1) ideo. but read m in mhrt 'cenotaph'. mr (1) 3c. (2) del. (2) 2e. clothing = "1'" I tethering rope fringed c101h com.. or det. building. papyrus boat F7 F8 F9 FlO alternative for F6 (I) det. htp 'offer' and related words (1) ideo. (2) abb. nil F54 F55 F56 F57 bh. perhaps as alternative for F49 r50 F51 F52 F53 FI8 det. ssir '(the god) Osiris' (see p. write. (2) hence det. dei. festival. (2) hence det. ms: 2e.fa Ie. sttwor 3e.flll = gaming board seal with necklace gold collar 2e. Other broad signs FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 papyrus roll papyrus roll papyrus roll basket with handle det. spst 'district' der. Wlt 'road' (1) 2e. mn ideo. nimt 'the Neshmet-boar of Osiris' alternative form of F50 det. boat. tm (I) 2e. . open det.pr 'house. mljnt 'ferry-boat' det. alternative for D38 (1) ideo. pro (3) det. sbw 'the town of Elephantine'. (2) hence 2e. coffin. abstractions (§6) earlier fonn of Fl alternative form for F1 F30 F31 F32 F33 F34 F35 F36 F37 harpoon whip water-skin 2e. sail (downstream) det. burial ideo. household' = F38 F39 F40 r41 F42 F43 F44 lHlH (similar writing) det. S. nbw 'gold'. (Ni) 'ferry' dct. (2) sound complement for tm orm 2e. F47 3e. dbht-htp 'ritual offerings' F45 Ic. hb 3e. or det. . Is (1) 2e. ss ideo. krs 'bury'. E28 weaver's comb (?) netting needle gird Ie knot pair of ribs (0) lc. estate'. btmly 'seal-bearer'. sn«: (2) 2e. water ideo. ssp F48 det. offerings alterna tive fonn of F9 ideo. rs(i) 'tie' and related words. festivals for the god Soker 2e. hw 2e. or det. mh 2e. stp ideo. 41) 3c. bread. D25."r Fil FI2 ~ loaf on mat plan of house F12 com. hb 'festival' m 'lP basket basin com. mr. s F46 alternative torm of E49 ~ ~ det. F24 sickle hoe plough adze on block n • Fl3ff!J FI4 F15 Fl6 FI7 Fl8 F19 F20 F21 F22 F23 F24 F25 F26 det. sbt 'family. prt-hrw 'voice offering' 6 vertebrae (7) vertebrae (0) cattle hobble road bordered by shrubs canal irrigation canals papyrns boat papyrus (7) boat ferry boat boat with sail furled boat under sail processional boat of Osiris processional boat of Osiris boat of Sokar sledge elephant tusk a <ffII> i'.142 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs 143 §F. sail (upstream) det. nb (I) det. m« 3c.

se e W!:. s4 Jn ~f he hears h e see s he loves EXTRA W EA K VERB S rd( j) give Notes . .do ubli ng WE A K ~~Ji. a grammar has also be en co vered .BU1\(.n=/ he' \ <I\-\' mr.. h r sdm . hr sdm is liste ning is looking ? D O U BU ~G d::1..c ~ = ~~ = . but so metim es: sh ow addit ional features.- m1lo-cf \Vith w ea k ver bs. sJ m _ 1l-~ f he heard nJl. (0 f J7 ~ 1 ) ()l .AK .g.n=I (r)di n4 (r opti on al) h e loved to exTR A WEAK he gave VERns c. ~~~ sdrn mn m r (l) hear stem docs not usua lly show any alteration stem en ds in a double consonant stern ends whh a 'w eak ' Th e present tense: (§§42-4J) ge"er~JI pres ent s fjm (::. 10 hea r St"CID t: .f > ~TR O I\' C nocuu vc . whereas w eak verb s show a fina l -t. the final -J is u su a lly omitted in w riting a n d th er efore in tra n vlite rat io n.1% 'b.1i. ii Ext ra weak verbs behave like ord ina ry' weak ver bs..g . Main t e nse s appearing in this b ook Tile past tense (§ §J J an d 38) Verb Iorms The fOt115 of th is boo k is on read ing ac tua l rnu nu men ts. c. c.end ill ·1 ~ rdl l id i l Ir option al! give The sp ecific present is m an e lip of h r followed by (h e infimrive.:.-\K ~~ ~ or Inn loving.no dc u blrn g wr AK .:. mlove ~ i v i ng."- mr.J: ~ 1.Reference tabk s 14') Referen ce tabl es Th e infinitive of st ro ng verbs sho ws no specific w riting .f d!of Inor) EXTR A W l::AK he gi ve s sPf~ ( I FK PRFSPlT Tile infi n itive (§ J l ) I~H~JTl VE ST R () ~ ( .n(..b le area of Egypti an a . . f.g. . ... VERB S sec lo ve GF:r..) . Verb classes (§JO) Middle Egypt ian ver b-forms sh ow d ifferen ces in th eir w riting accord ing th e type of the verb. thou gh for practica l reaso ns we n o rma lly rranslucr arc 'give' as rdf. e .doubling W ~A K :. . :\t"vcn helt:s:s a size..110 ch a nge dJ~ srJ m m Jl heari ng. (0 y ~~ ?~ ~I i\ loving- is ~I vi n g .F RAL PRESENT sJm (~J) WE AK vr sns ~ '-"' consonant.JlU~( . STRO NG DOU AU KG J7.end i n 'l [ XT RA WF . rather (han Str u g gling through a nWT s50 of gr ammar. The fo llo w ing arc the (our basic ve rb classes: Sl 'RO ~ G .g.:~:: t=--: 1 " L. i ~ ~ .f) and specifi c presen trr sd m [JOt. dm . Th e reference ia bles provide d he re CO VC T the gra mma r as. prese nted in th is book and are for quu-k refer en ce a nd cornpa nso n. usuall y ·j chie flv ve rbs wit h two or three ~vea k conson an ts . .~ tw mn lJrm n tu rdi v .

146 How 10 read Egyptian h ierogly phs Reference rabies 147 The future tense (wishes.<-J ""- rdl= ! (with r) "'- d/= ! (no r) (WI= ! (with eX ira may he -give sPECIA LCASES fj k"'- .n=! Compa re with th e corresp ond in g fonns o f th e participle s..II(=j) w ith -'.-./I(=j)..known a s GU1m 's ru le ..1: sdm m il (one) who hears (one) who sees (one) who loves d1~ sgm Ill' (one ) who heard (one) who saw (one) who loved (one ) who gave ~~ Negation (§§ 39 and 58) Th e th ree p rindpaltense s abo ve are nega ted a s follows : :-l EGATlOl<S PRf:SE:>'TTENSE PAS TENSE T FU TURE TEN SE he does not hear.. he ~IJ nOI hea r mrr ~~ LJ mr rdl (w it h r) EXTRA WEAK dd (one) (n o r) who gives -'..~ ~-<z> II sdm »] he did not hear he did nOI see he did not love he did nOIgive .t71\": ~~. the present a n d pa st tense n eg at ive s are be tte r th ough t o f a s constr uctions in their o w n right wi th th eir own grammar.\.y is m ost co m m on in the first person . PAST OR COMPLETE Q d7 .'P:.:.a.(im. n ... In fact. a nd n sg m (=f) negates the pa st sgm.G V ERRS D OUBLING VEKB S .~ 1. '-" what he mrn =! loves ~ mrt.gllll= ! mill= ! what he hea rs wha t he sees ..n= heard he ! what m tt. iii Not ice th a t the forms fro m the ve rb s 'to com e ' an d ' to bring: sh ow a n extra r tn the future sgm(=j) form .n»] what he loved wha t he gave '-""'-Co ddl=! wha l he gives => Co " ' - rdil.wh er e n Igm. not th e sdm (=j)."-. ~~ Int= ! ma y he brin g (with extra ·1) Sp ecialised forms: the participles. .n »] ~ ~ ~. he canno t hea r he did not hea r mav he not hea r. relative forms and sg m tY .f) STROl<C DOl.. Z:? 'Z ~ L-"J s<!ntl..n=! n sgm=! nil Part iciples a lso so m e t im e s show a} -we nd ing.B UNG . ~ rlll= ! II ! ~ ~ ". expectations} : the fut ure sgm(=f) (§§55-57. "i: what he saw WEAK EXTRA WEAK ss-. T he relative forms (§§37 and 52 ) PRESE:-. rather th an j u st a s sdm (=f) a n d sdm . Ho w ever.fY The participles (§§46-5 I) PRESENT OR INCOMPLETE STRONG DOUBLING W EA K Notes Th e ve rb I1IU 'to see ' also d isp lays a Iorm ~ ~ = msn r]. t he sdm (=j) in thi s co ns tru ct io n sh o ws a spe cia l fo rm : fi ~":' .1) may he come So ..11 st uck in fro nt o f them ..n(=f) .d7 ~ = -'.:. § 5 9) Fl'TURE s(im(=.'P:.."-'. no dou bling \V EAK VERBS -"-.. not the pa st sqm .or ~ QQ ~~ mr= or mry=! may he love ~ EXTRA WEAK "ERBS 11 -". ~~~ ~~ '--" L. req uests.-r OR Il'COMPLRTE STRONG I) O UB lI~ G ::: fl ~ - Sglll=! PAST OR COM TE PU The fu ture is n ega ted by addin g th e ne gat ion 1111 10 th e fu tu re sgm (=f) Iorm . ii Th e w e ak verb form wi th Q . th e prese nt and pa st te ns e ne gat ive s display a m ost u nu su al a ppa re nt rev e rsa l . no dou bling WEAK EXTRA W EAK II sltm= ! STRO'o..t7 ~ "- sdrn--f may he hear ma y he see II m!= ! mr= ! ~ }.t1~ . n(=f) negate s th e pr e sent s g m (=f) .

. nouns and a d j e ct iv e s Suffix pronouns (§§33.::to~r. If I r or nt5 1J C . -tn or -tn .52.j1' m ~ O he rit i} or +I? ". Th e sd m ty . or 0 min or I I I n lln or 0 or 0 = 1 or = 1 = ! =5 they n - II I I or I- I =sn sh. as the posse sso r or genitive of nouns. ' you ' etc.) helil sh e/ it "'- =f =k . SG. I -~ Inn 0 :it or ~ you you (Iem. .j he/it ~ 0 =" 0 ntk 1It( . MSC. I =n '= you (pl. afte r aux iliarie s.$ :~ Sl1 11/ -wr Sll w t The du al en ding rnsr . After ini tia l part icles an d the nega tion 111 1...nding 0 ~ )fr ~ -~ > 0 511 brothe r sister brothe rs sisters :it -I Stll PL.{11 or -tn thcv it. 36) ~ or ~ ~ :it you we " ink We you rpl) or n il they 0 1 ~ lfg..fy SdlY. FEM .fy mmy. s.148 How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs Dependent p ron ouns (§4 I ) Reference tables 149 The re lat ive form s here displa y th e ·1 of femi ni ne adjectival ag reemen t.Hi! rI ___ STRO!': G Vl'R BS JJ \\ \\ silm ty. so Q= / tran slates as 'I' o r ' me' or 'my' dep en ding on English usage (a nd so o n for the othe r pro no u ns) .fy (one) who may/will hear lone) who may/will see (one) who may/will read (one) who may/wilt give 'helit r" or r I I or I::::: i -sn ·51 -sy or -sty) they ~o DOUBUN G VERBS ~~~ ~"'::Jlfg~~ <=> 0 " ' '----fj \\ \\ WEAK VERBS EXTRA W EAK VERBS -st is used for ind efini te 'it' and ge ne rally a s th e de pend. in the tab les a bove an d below is m erely to point ou t th e pe rson or thing the pro n ou n refer s to. } -w :r ow )' ~c} l1t 1 .nt p ronou n for m for ' they/the m'.lc::./tt --. -(tv I or I I .. N ou ns (§ §8. ) ~= ·rr = 1> or o} = . no special .. §59) } :it or 1> you you rfern . e. tho ugh th e y still carry the same meanin g of 'wh ich someone doe s/did ' . 35. Th ey ca n also occu r in certain usages wi th ou t th e· ( (i. Nouns have a n u m ber (singular or plural ) and a gen de r (mas culin e or fern . or C>.n(=fJ b.. Obje ct of th e ve rb (except the in fin itive .) ·w l or · w (i) or . FEM . j I I or 0 ~ or _ Uses: As the su bject of cha rac terisations .:. English pro noun . with ma sculi ne adjecti va l agree me n t).) I I or ~ I I I <lrt o t r tn you (Ie m . 9. Th e use of T . come in pa irs: and fem..jy f or m (§§ 53 -54. Independent pronouns (§ 4 9) Pronouns. See §52 . such as sgm. Uses: a. b. whi ch usually takes a su ffix pron oun object).f y rdfly.1' we you (pl.. or The suffix pronoun s tran slate as th e ap propriat . as the su bject after a su ffix-co njuga tion verb -form. as the object after a p rep osition . MSC.J ly.n a lit! nts . -ty is common on ly with things wh ich ..( \. ini ne) : th e -w of th e plur al is often omitted in writing : SG .e . d. PL. 15) Uses: a.I .

} e> -w -r The plural ca n also be written with the plural strokes. (p l. 158 ). more often than not . 4- Adjectives ill -y (§60) SG. so the reading of the whole word is fJ sf.j month: monthl y fes tival Ihaw Abydo s (plac e na me) llt 4A =1 I. li ~ } ~ Iv(fj (a . v . ) bird sryt m . househ old e. it is not po ssible to list all of th e wa ys in w hich a word could be w ritte n (see § 14 agai n. (v.) stro ng verb.) from t::: nf r good (a dj . joyful tbt In . Adjectives can be used on their own as a noun. -w H l%} H~ wh o/which are in wh o /which ar e in sbd (n . upstream '. Although the hieroglyphi c writings given in this list are representat ive of what yo u ma y find . yo u need to kn ow its reading in tran sliteration : if necessary. you will find in th e section head ed !J that there ar e two words rea d hs]': 'repel ' and 'travel u pstream ' (see p . imagin e you come acros s the wo rd . the determi native indi cat es that the second of these is the co rrect meaning. 5 ' m an ' and st 'woman' are listed to gether). and the -w is ofte n omitted in writing. you wiu find (862) ha s the reading U whilst ~ (F49 ) is n ot a so und.) The genitive (§27) Direct genitive : common only between closely conn ected words or in fixed expressions.) no u n. lil y (suffix pron ou n .) weak verb. possibly read wsir J t t PL MS C. MSC. ) . 44-45) Adjectives follow the noun they describe and agree with it in numb er and gender: SG. SG. The followin g ab br eviations h ave been used here : (a . \\ ~J -y -L 1J~ 1~ lSI (the godd ess) Isis (see p.. M SC .l ciFt but do not recogni se its constituent sign s. Indirect gen itive: the two nouns ar e linked by form s of the 'genitival adjective ' n: SINGULAR MA SCUlJ:-iE FEM I:-ilNE 11 PLURAl. th e particu lar hieroglyphs used to write a word do not determine where it is listed.: ~~ nfrt the good (n . e. o or_ e> nw o r n nt nt Her e. For example. H~ imt im w im t QJ= ~ I *~ ~ J~ tsir (the god) Osiri s.) old . PL. -t 148) I O! (In te rject ion} 1§54a) ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~T ~~ ~ ipd (n. con sult th e variou s sign.g. e.) old age come m . 129. FEM . ado ra tio n I IW II] W i beco me an akh -spirit . alth ou gh.) plura l.) long. (w . the cont ext in which t he w ord OCCllIS will also help yo u de cide whi ch of the tw o is correct . function II ( w ) (n . as in ot h er Egyptian dictionaries. p.) o ffice. e> Egyptian-English vocabulary no special endin g -t PL MSC. FEM.g. There a re two stages in tra~king down its mea ning: ( I) If you turn to List V beginn ing on p. m e. (2 ) Returning to this vocabulary. words a re liste d alphabetically in transliteration following the orde r set OUI in List 1 (the only exception being that the feminine ending -t is ign ored..sign but a determinative for 'sail s/.) ad jecti ve: (n .. (n . SG. Of course. 1> e.) feminine.) prais e. FEM . In oth er words.) staff f~ [iu tu (n . (I. So to find a w ord. FEM . be Q~ jJ 1\ useful ~.) family.150 How to read t~i/yptia n h ieroglyph s Adjectives (§ § 1O. 70) H~\ imy who/which is in who/which is in ~} O IW (a . if yo u ar c not yet sure about th is).lists . PL.v. akh -snirit ( w.

) the Wag-festival bi In.-" + ~ or C (a...:jj IWl (n.) repeat.. (') Itn (n.]>~~ iwtt (n. (n.) sovereign f l \'-.) bring lJl I I . 'it is' (§5f) ::::: ~it.v.'lHl iWi(W) (n.e.) great. exist: n-wn-ms: truly. £.v.) be boatless (n.x Iw welcome Iw(l) (w..) palace society) im) (a.152 How 10 read Egyptian hieroglyphs Eqyptian-Enqlish vocabulary 153 ~Il]> iiw welcome see also Iw(l) r~ ~= ~ r!i tmn-r: (the god) imny Ameny (name ~Ijj or ~\.) count../l} Iw(l) rw.v.::.)(hrow(a Wepwawet ~= wn (v. (v.) reverence H. m-r rhnwt» overseer of the chamber uitle.) the great ~f\~lj. rnh-n-nwt (n. (n. one of t he sons of Horus.) cup-bearer .:.or]> 1ft w' (a.) wrongdoing gl Inhuretnakht (name) 1 ~ ~Q -= 9.) ox 1 In(l) (w.) west ~ ~ w rr w ---r privacy . see also hrv-: sl". important (a.\\l[ wr(w) (n.) open.. Anubis (title) +]>C) iYN1~ Imy-itnt chamberlain (title) Y 1ft Ikdw (n.l.) chamber. keeper of the kings diadem Is (11.2jI ~_~C~ Imn-m-Itil ~. inspect ~ >0 ~ -fiIll\ iIll\ -=: Iry ~ -=:\1) try ~ Ii.) -WI I.) priesthood Iwn (n.) great w'-b-priest ~ Iww bootless person ~_ In by 1§28).1 iornb ~-:.) do. me (dependent pronoun.) channing.) western. -<00- Ib (n. Ithe god) f\ ~ Wi!! (n. astute ~~n 'onwlY (n.) pure one.) keeper Q"'::" T.e.. (n.) relating to (§60) (n.) order. see also iytt ) ~~:~ imsti uhe god) Irnseri. wav WO! (v.) revered one.) pure wrb (n.) entering maid 1n~ w5rt Wosret (name). i.~tJ wnn-nfr (the god) Wenennefer.) heart: see also hrt-Ib. truthfully.) ]> w }? In.- in-hrt-nht ----!J~--J:~j throw-slick) V~I.) fighting ~~ j~ wrt (n./l I W!I ~~ Imn (the god) Amun l1y Ity Iname) r~ or '1 C Wist Thebes (place-name) J ~ or ~I b r= "".) order Wili (v. ~.) -~~~ 'i (a. see kd 1=} ~~ 1ft or": (n.. alone (11. Ikr (a.) set OUl. separate b.e. proceed Ity (n. p.) open wnwl (n.) be.) live.v.j the living -t cs I~ ~ <nht ntr 1m on which ill r ~ ~f.£l try-nfr-hst (title) (':j \. Osiris a god lives I§26) U~_~1ft ~~ Ip :: ir-n made by.. ~+ ~\ or + Imy (a.) ~ imnty (a.. i. gifts of ----!J~~ in n-rst-n because wp(l) (w.. effective.) fight.) produce.) local soldier =1:'1. st-ib Ib(l) (w.\:.) come J}} ~]>. living for all time -t]> 1ft: nhw rn.) life ink I (independent pronoun.) who/which is in (§60) imy-wt 'the one who is in the wr .e.) seize (the Ian er wriring indicates ihe reading has become II) }. (rr. 11= web d=1ft ?J.v. J49) one. \~t'? '" or ~ Q }-~.) father ~~ 1ft! It(w) forefathers I'" It-11fT god's father (title) 11 ~ 'kyt (n.) cattle 11 0 mw (n. for lmntw people of the west. i11i!\]> ~!. reporter. (n. literally 'powerful one' and may be used a s a designa tion for female deities WI see imv rri.jj 'hi (v.v. (']1 t- + wbs cup-bearer wbst (Ie m. (in society) ~~'" 'i(W) (n.) excellent.v. t di 'Ill:! given life ~ wr (a.) ~ wnn IV.) ~} Iw see §34 t~ imnt (n. 'nl.) the great bark ~ Imil.) powerful -4r <rr> ~ ~~ or or ~ imihy or imshw (n. born of (v.) sun-disc..:.) pillar.) arm.. herald (title) wsr (a. plus many idomatic meanings -t ~ 'nl.:. i.) stand OO~ rhnwty variant form of 'onwty whm (v. gracious (the writing indicates the reading has become Inn or 1m) ~ -=:~~".) moon '="r 4_ 4\ ) I[{I) (w.1 ba-spirit . §49) Intflntef (name) ~]>=~ 1. see hnt r (n.) be thirsty Ib thirsty ~ J~= ~ person Ir(I) IW." 'he (v.) road. note ~\\ Ip-' "try arms. Iwnw Heliopolis (place-name) iwrt luri (name) gg ? ~ 7]>~ ~ Inpw (the god) Anubis -t--. make. i.) the great (in ~~ 'h rn...jj AmUII-Re "It (n. WP-Wiwt (the god) 'm'i(v.) builders.

pre sent nf see pf ~}.v.ms-n born of ffi} ' i msw (n ."'1.) call out.\ what is proper..lt 0 o ~ e mntw -htp . } palace ~ U o or . to m b mr]: (v . ) proce ssion ~ ~c=.) servan t (see p.Jf ~ prr (v.) pe rfection.) long · horned . 1 mn".. this is -:Jp--.v.:. ·n we .n see f"J . '7 ='= or = ..) true. .:{' (Iem . mi str e ss of the estate .1. ) wa ter ~ ~ pkr Poker (place. i..) nega tive n (§ 39 1 II W 0. like nh n t (n . king of Upper and Lower Egypt (royal title ) ~\i. n WI (n ..154 How 10 read Egyp tian hie rog lyphs Egyptia n-English vocabu lary 155 ~~ ~ .) ob se rve.) mo ther =~ mnrt (n . beginning o f time l\1r ffir4} ffir"l ~ 1P1:---\ mh n t (n.) lady mnrw (the god) Montju ~ d..) yout h ~.e .) stren gth ~ ---'0 roa st ~\ or ~'D _ mw (n.) kin g ~ c §'j or ~ 1\ min ~ 1~: or ff = c~~= .) go ld 'i' " J ~ bt Bet (na m e) ~~ or ~ m·m among ~ or \ m -r (n. mn w dedicat ion .:::: n-p th -ktw Nipt ah kau (name) IIt S (v .) go O UI ~ ~ prt (n.) line n ~ nbt (n .1 mwt (n . . ) ling (§23) ~ nls (v . ) see..) n to .. see also nlr ~ 10'>.) n].i1.1'1 ¥c>Q~ A o r ~ ~ eq ual. e..= n bt pr (n . form al journey nn see pn nil o . ft br-mkt Ba rneket ( (name) ""'p . mt' '. the processional boat of Osiris nb aiL eve ry (§ 16 ) ". I or ~} 11 mnht (n . for n-wn -m l r set" um I1J nill (a .) sk y o~ .) n of (§27 ). ) ~c.. §. (pl. : b ad btty (n . d ty.) p erf ect ..e.. ) wet-nurse ~ n o =' -'.) overseer. harm o n y: (t he m t rt (n .p Pla hh ot ep l.. us .@ (n ame ) I1bt-'llb Nakhtankh ill p rt-htw (n .) ~~~ nf rw (n . 1 nhh 01 ( n.) rf.J 0 n 51' never t':' IlSw ( n . for negative II (§ 39) . ~ ... 148 ) Ink (n . often writ ten ~ m-r pr overseer of an es tate..) cenotaph.g.~~ • .9 . good .) li n ..f =f h e. bea utif ul ~~ u. 7 ++ (fern . v.if II' a _ sn wsrt Nebipusen us ret (na m e) m rh t ( 11. (the god) Min =l%~ nfm t (n . .) be true. w oman of high status ~..}. peer miry (n . 0 (p l.na m e )..) ha te (n. m r -hrw (a. ~ L ~ Il1'h'l (n . sp len do ur ~I or ! ~:i nm tt (n. righ t.o ~ c. • .) w ant. ) give binh ~ ::: nfr (a . r-pr ~~ mi as. 149 ) stewa rd see also nbt -pr.) be justified ~! Lh f't . ) Ill.. him . Men tjuhotep (name ) m r t l) ( w . for n -r u. 126 ) ~ nwt (t he goddess) :-<ut nft (n .. justified .. e xped ition . w ond erful. us (depe ndent pronoun.~ .) tn . (p l .) true of voice . see a lso r-pk r ~ . ~~ n. monn m ent (se e p.) step. t. ( v.) ant iquit y. m-r pr. su m mo n nw see n ~ nsw -blty king of the d ua lities. p...:.) Nes hm e t· ba rk.) lad y of the h ouse. . arm y ++ ""-'" 1} mdhw Med hu (n am e) 00 0 /1 without: fut ure negatio n (§58) p r (II .) town. ffi.9l\<' (n.) ferry ~. our (suffix pronou n .v. .) oiL unguent bnr (a .) hai rdresser 2. pro per. see the se con d elem ent ~ ~ ~ m rti Merti (name) o p ~ p r (n .. : .. ) estate 5::n '.. gui de p] th at . p . = n w e. for n·wn ·ml 'see \Vn I'll thi s.: bin (a. mil (v . msi-n-hr Maienhor (n a me) o} pw it is. for specific titles. 148).I. for .: . (a. ) (fo r) go ddess) Maa t. ) stro ng. ) present. y . truth. !OI) '. ) b ring.J: mst (v.) offsp ring msdt t] (w . vigo rou s = ~ ~ n h t! Nak ht i (n ame) prti) (w.JJ IIW (v.) pleasant ~= m -bih in t he presence ~f \ =r ~ mrs Me res (name ) ~g~ or n bt-hwt (th e goddess) Nephthys A II bw (n .. ~ . love Jh..~ o r ~ '~Q eternity nn wy N enwy ma rne ) prJ I (n . look at l\~ m ·s/=fEm saf (n a me) msii) ( w.o r . his (suf fix p ron o un ..... i. ± ~1 pi!' (th e god ) Pla h o ! d= c olaO /n ame ) prJ h.IIbl=!J·pw· . I' ll (n. 'ft 'S= .) voice -olleri ng ph ty (a.iJf '-ll.

- \f h usb a n d bm -k/ tn .) Hake r. s(wl (n.-!C'g..ritcs tat In . l dOnlestic servant ~ Irrt·pr I k m .e one SOll S 'I f).>godd ess l Ha.-:.n·bik Kh uc n b ik ~ }. j offering. 1.] pe rso n 1§lg ) I~. (n.) cont ent . In .. usu all v lj\\. ~ ~ b p~<: In.h or ly--:: ~ !lSt In .!I !l ~ .!Jl\~~ [m m (v ..1 death .rm ~ ::: }a rnvl Re fll t IJla me) h wt~hr uh .) for. ) l. 1 r-pkr Ro · Pok t' r . t day . ) ebonv r inwar ds.v. 841. ) pr aise om in fft)I]t tem ple !Jm}" (a .wtW J(lWII- r[' · m w k in{s ad viser.) -:: . e .' e b ~ I~ hnw (n. for wo r d s co mpo und ed w ith r S( ~ under the seco nd elem en t.o ~ '3 ~ nkl (n .:. ) rule I! titJ~ ) n rr nj"r the pt'rfl'n ~Oti r ruva l j ~ .cl rJo r rwd ~'~ ur ~J j tcr ra cc give . king Siroll g ~. t arnerhvst nt r m } }:nd i !I @ ~ lo:ol1 s n rrwl.O 2:J~ marne) I ~0 I)rr -h rHi dail y (o UISe 1§17j i-p r {n.e.n . 7 ~t5 hm i In .~u [. v.w . t hings hw Kh u (Hamel day. Ra o r Ri.:.:. la.p taccsee Jbu ph \1111. 1 ftlfm . ~ h ry la ) who/ w h ich is up o n 1§60 .) wi fe I".! hungry pe rso n 1 ~ nJm (a.) sma ll 9!3t-..:rlt nJs ru . ~~ bfry tn . ) ~m ~p rkst ~~_ o ffe rtu gs ..I C M4T:. pu t: ca us e tJet or CD I Jp= f'~ IIp' ~/I t n . I clot he /:zkrlv . ~ =-: hry -pr In. ~ aD tnp -nt r (n .' uhe god I ~ :tl hr -lnt hdl)[ e ~ ~ or I~ I m (w ) In ..::=.) pt'oplt' rn In. ~ ~ h. nils (a .pI In.) ch ie f. t 1 ~~ ~IH'I Hui m am c) I~ hk r ~V.) tecc hr on .:: ~ J<"~""> ~ ~~ I) f IJkl l.t descend (. ] ~~ }8 hrw L.::: 0 .g. J~'~ ha'l i ll ....) domt"~tic: serva lll h ry -s.I b cc()n1~. in or de r to (p .) en cll)sur e.~ hkr rthe goddess } Hck c t tn . He tep m ame ) rc ~ . i.' toget her wit h or hbny in .:. ( n .156 H . hm [n. as ~~ verba l al :Jiia ry (§42) -i".:> wri tte n fr ont ? be fo re suffixe s. t festiva l r. \ '.) se nd hskr (11.... dayiirue IIr (th e god ) Horus. ) gm't"fn \)r. ' fore m ost of t he w e stt' flI er s' Ina m e o f Osiri s.:.\qQ th e IIpy (l ilt"' gud) Hapv. at: be ca u se II f. fe et l Jr~ (n .) ~m ·p ri~stess flirt o fft'rin gs lowl y = r rJ Q ~c it . ~ h )ll111 (n. } I~ ~nI·ntr 10 .!.v. r-hn befo re c:.) th ing.:>I • I rJ ~ ~'(V Abydos} !~~ lnm-rur If ..) th ousand J."J.:.-y..mr ~ (n. be co nte n t: (n . ) fa vour r~ f ~ ~:~ 9n ry -im Ju"v Khe ntyime nlU .) d lJ':lI .) fe stival tlf the be gin n ing of t he lU lhU y ea r iet b hWI (n .) gladd ( n -=:' lrlft r!fl~ ~ t1l1m) VI-I fri(r hl ' ~ 0 r see nh h j1". indi vid ua l 'lr. ) yea r 13 ~~: !I'PY(n .t(i ) i W.) beer (§ 11) !II ( n .t wash cr man (n .p-m p l (n .1'o III 1! read Fyy ptiun hieroqlyphs -.] legs.: ~ 4 @ n dvt Ne dyet tplace -n am e t ~ ml p rot ect (V. nr ~r t" I n.) pnso nified as th e god Hapy) l ~ ~~~ o sl n o f=<~~ r <~ In . fn u nda tio n 1~ /:zwr. I kn ow. Khuyt mame i !.:.) divi ne rnj.3t-. as k i ugs nam e 11 til (n.U) (n l na ked <::Q-:.lQ -T III.} sweet fU h Iz. kmgs co nfida nt Uilll' ) r~ty ~ or ct < )1) .\-' Neru ebu m ame t e ~ r[z ( V.) w ho/ w h ich is in fnmt for em ost 1§60) .!! &rr IV. j clothin g oar I <~1ft (n.) 1 §40j rdwy m. a t: mo re than rp.) an offe rin g which the kin g give s (§26 ) hlP Ji £ 'J. 1 beat be aring 12C.j pe ace. 8 1). ) fish f ~ . etc r (n.) ruler 1§ 17i .) per son .) ruu u t h rg I C::.Il iub (v.C. j th e (Jf Horus hip (Y. ) ~ ncmy dr m na llle -"~ ~ /.. vatisfacu u n: m . hsb (n . sa tisfy.1ft: n. Iea ru l ~ 'i h W ( I J 1\ \ '.(} '.) co u nter .j ka ·p ries t hi nsw (11.) hun ger rdO) (w.) j ubilati o n (n . ma yo r 17 rHpI (n.d Ll' 1l 1-lIb ..) regna l yea l til .rty·.) 1'" has 'V. ITot' I. !lit [ n.) temple complex h J)! ? ~ hr (n. m a SC'Cfe ts hry -'p (n .~ fi . res t.J) h l(l ) (w.) nak~tf v :: I~ ::: ~ rm/ (II .) :\ile inu nd al illn tofte n rnpHp Ill.' pt'r Sl. j T hbsw rn. supe n o r . r-hst.

Ih e inte rio r. preference: sec SI r ~ or .h Sobek :' 0 1 ~. for fJ sp St'l' c~ .io i ll. ) ~~ : s. pe rpe tua te (n a me ) -sw he . ) b rl -n(r (n. m bro th e rs and sh ins wi sh .flU' rt{ft{(: ' JO (v.ne ) ~ A6 sp.b s! (v .'o'-fllr Kbcnctk bvn tvhct cp (name) ~~ ~ o r g~ l (n.~ m (n.llll . it.trl Sl"n WOST l (n a m e j e snb (n .<'. p..tj} ~ sr (n .) da u gh lt"r )'P(t (v . trilvel d owll'jlre. <. ) f} \:i9 bequ eath .) rebel .] pass = rn +6 ""n ~ sn IV ) kiss .. a sststa m: hrv-h bt (n. p lall (11.. p . j man rt 0 r(J r~~. v..) rep on .) su rpass sw' b ( v. Sa tsnbck marne ! ~ it sri (n .) (all t" f (II. ) W 'a cldcrv ldcvt Sakhen tkh ety uram e ) PI - rTM ~q~~ f:znt. in timacv st-r (n.) bin d (l ligelher) r ~ lliill.d child ~} "'. ) p ronoun . the-m td epe-nden t pn I110\ 1II . fI.'0'1 (n .011 impro ve rtl. i hli n~~ .b rt -l h ln ..Sllt I t~ .[J m (v.j go ose @ Otmty -bi1. pn cst ~ I~ st -hw t -h r Sa ha rho r III Jm e) i\ j" ll.) cou lllr ysilk f ~1.) br othe r !. p.tb .JTII1 int o an spnt r.) pr o cedJl rt". set" . ~ L{~ Y ij rr..-J J.nct sntr (n ame ) p ronou n.t w o ma n -SI she ..l ~ €I Q '. .j travel upstream ..il Khcntyt na me) pla ce- ~ X 0 0 hrr rn . ) 1'"' bll icher a/ 1m ( \'. ur I~~ -on rbev. :-.) affect ion. S' J ( v.) Unil l"d wi l h b nm . ~ nQ ~ ~ or s (rl . dutv ffit. I . \'. -.:. ~j~: sbk (th e ~". ) Svll S J! H~ ip t t) ("' . ) co n trol: director Wile } " .~ bsf(w) tw.e _Ih t" pa lac t" ~ = ~ sH mn Saa m //Il In a. m t'l in .Ll h ealthy see also lJdft) ro Jje .. p .) las-soo i. accu se h guc.) promot e. 149) )"1 (n .wI [v.00::' . . travel SO U th: ~ s m.Hl'jf . ~ sIp m .~ X Se. 11 S!I in !Jnry JJ:l·n[r.-mno t Sam en k ht"1 (nam e ) slII. bt IV. . l a. th ey (dep en de n t } ~ or t ~ rJi snbv Semb i marn e) (V..-<1 (. l! L j pap vr u s sk iff EE brv-t» c ha m be rla in j n h le ) ~ q.t' t!.'. ) (Kt"ejla l a ) di <. transfigure ak h - .j dt"sC"n Isn' §2 3) ~ f "-- S[15[ ( V. con d u c t .fy .1. ~~ (n .~ st t n . ) di~lri ("1. iherr m (suffl x p ronou n.l\~.))' sh e. ccmc tcrv 3§: H I -) (rl.i nll)nlelll .l. 1·19 ) ~ l ::: snf r by.) sea l place. war d o ff 4.'~.) . h e r (suffix pr onoun..lil f~ s. her. ~.b IV. sta t us ~1*~ III .) ability SI.r~ lmry sh.ntr ' t he o ne in front a t th e K od\ boot h ' (e pith e t o f Anu bis} rm ~ sec tmy-hn t 1£ brv-: m. for mv-hrw se e she . ya l C1 lm pa n ion f ift sb ~ ( 11..nwrj-r Sau t yt rname l ~ ::.~ .) comp lam abou t.) >in ibe. r<.:i Sj.\ . I n. ( \\1 _\'. 14 9 ) ~ } ~ tJrvv tn . ) co ltlTnl lmw (I l. 148 ) 4.t J/u]. or - s j. ~ bd{(. r"["HI < r~ ~ sllr iv . ) hkrt -nsw lad v-tn -wai tmg 1 ld . for ff1r' -Sp st"C" rn pl Sf" In .) repel . ) in cen se OInI\\' ary .t vo ice. t sh a re.) wh o / wh ic h is (§60) ~ =}~ S J-ff1n w rr f: r-." !4 ~ c-.j IV. S-/I -W.Jf br under.08 g~ n-tb (n . l)(h~ibl y be re Jd )1 u~er r:'R\ \\ brv (. posit ion.J 1-:.Jr before.. i r rdepen dent pro n ou n.\'.' tra wl IlI)Tlh . llillt" :.t de put j.) :~ (jU ::r.) leiL ov(' n u rn r!':>i sljr o md u G ..' sa li<. 'jl'e al so lH[ {W j (ti lle ) ~.. ad va n ce S't1tr (v.. mv brp Iv. Ithe god ) Kh n u m (namel _ In I 1\\'. 'I . the.lIlCC Iv \} ]. ) sok n m Jpa n ltlD $a re llen u lt" (ll ame) 1 ~""~ ~ ~I J.) health: (.r seal -bea rer of m ·r !Jlml Irea SUT er th e kin g "il k ) ~:~ ~o7 co n fide llce l J ~ ]~ o r ' ICS'-'" sbt (n .. d t.:::C h n-hrw m . ca rr yin g ~~ ~ (n am e) SII-mnrw Sa lmo n lJu r~ i sm r in _) l-OUrlit" r. ) prom ol e..) tcctor.) iCllerior. in Irom »I b. 1·19) bnl -!Jnl . 'iee ulld er bn f :..=).i l nile godd t"ss ) SOlh is i.l . ) 'lhl t"r ~ F I)r lv.) rebel :: } ~ srw r~ j} srb (V ... assi stan t (tit le) .) tr.~ 51 ll -b l \' -tu $m S 1 . ~ b lm (n . h er.:~ /m r .) official m.~ sea l -bea re r.{r: :: ~:> 4~ : ~ "} ."t l1l. ) ~~~ se e smy l (§23) .) dail y co urse ~r7M -'::-~' ~ su-bnJ-bl( Sa tk hen tk hc u (ua rru-) ~'>- e rut h e v. h im (de pe ndrru or ~ .li'l" ~I1P 1 tv . ~ m · r J! ovns('er (lft h t' s i o r e h tl ll~t: Q f ro 1Il.'/:!Jr -ib Se hcl t"pib (Ila mt" j ~ :ill' ""'R1!' ~ tn . dugmen! 'U <=-1i7fg Q} ~ 1m) r'!Jnw in sIde '1 ~ HI-\t'srr $alwo-s rel ~.) decorat e sw . p. w .

one of the suns ot Horus or If~ tpy liw=f'the one who is upon his mountain' (title of Anubis) tfsee pf a - ~ lit (n.160 How to read Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian-English vocabulary 161 n=~ I'o[)~.o~ m J~ '\ 8Z.) ox.] granary tIlvy (n.) hear.) land Inyt (n.) breath.) bread l.) cross.£ d(l) (w.) build.) give.v.) (see <tn. indicates that ~r ~ krst burial (v.) travel. wealthy sps-nsw (n. speak name) Reading uncertain z m... p.:jj or It ks (n. . "-dws-mwtc] (the god) Duarnutef.) dignity ill g Arr~. i.r.) tie.bh (v.) dignitary = =k you. 148). provisioning area ! [j·wr the nome of Thinis (place- *"'0 or *0 .) travel.) magazine. ~~r dws (v.) required offerings hry-stu nLJ JV] sJ. or ti kbw Kebu (name) tpy (a.) (dependent pronoun.) provisions p.) head ~ j': dbht-htp (n.) (suffix pronoun. 1- smc (n.) wrongdoing slil (v.v.) be free from (m) Iw (the god) Shu Ipsy (a.. p.) (for) all time.) follower. a name of Horus 0= or (l ill . i receive ep 1< tp (n. one of the sons of Horus 1-. assign tsw (n.) relax. name) perhaps read mddint or smdt (see . ferry (v.e. see also Ikdw I I I T = dw (n. or p. your (pl. -tn you.) follow ~} [msw (n.) scent.J rid (v..i smsw (n.= or.) (see =1) d ~r)..) denounce = s l~R ri'm (n. i~~ lilt (n. x i' SSII fa.) secret. your (pl.i~ P'i ~rr=::=l krs ~~!h1 kd kms (v.) boat-journey alternative r".ak ~ skdti) (w. i. your (suffix pronoun. for hry-tp see hrv. Iw (v. (a. attendant ~IT grh =1" Ii.) sacred _XI '-~:IT ~I~ ts dsr the sacred land (place-name) ""'" =t you. calm down LJ n·. -..... depart slim (v.) separate.148) Y ks (n. stp ~~ lilt (n.. see also under 'nlr r~.wty (the god) Thoth ky Key (name) of the king <tn ~:::rn dhwtt (n. ris=i 'myself'..) chosen L4r@ L} tp-r (n.) bury tfnt (the goddess) Tefenet tn see pn <tn. used in conjunction with suffix pronoun.£ " . clear. sail ~ ~ skr (the god) Saker st (n. listen. your (I.J. p.149) ts(i) (w.:g: J-m (n../l . see also J[f ssp (v.) who/which is upon.v.) the two lands.) choose.) say.} or ~[~~ ddw Djedu (place- *1 dWI (v..kbh·snw=f (the god) Oebchsenuf.) wealth.) shoot.v.) Upper Egypt A ~n.) half-month festival.. spss (n.) create "-.) dignified.a ~~~ iii(I) (w.) vigil -tn. ! I "_J lif(lw) (n.::.149) -{W 1r~ e lif.) adore L.148) '::J~ =L~ liji-h'py Djefahapy (name) Ar ~ y} I~ tlW (n. your (I.) following In (divine epithet) in Hor-Jn. spear (v. chief (§60) ~1"-.) sandbank "i1 V lis self.) entourage (n. for tp y liw=fsee tpy r*f=l r} c---=>r} the reading had become sdm sdrt (n. bull = =t you. 44 a l'i lfr.) ka-spirlt J~). Upper and Lower Egypt = ~o ddt Dedet (name) ~ '".) mountain. enduringly.) find (n.) ancestor (for hry-tp see hry .) (suffix pronoun../l sms (v. -tn you (pl.v.1. see rdtt) ::.e... the p .)~~ tlwTjau (name) you.) boat kis Qis (Cusae) (place-name) ra if r!.. i L.v.fl1l~ snwt :IT I ts (n..- ~n or : : '0" snow (n.) electrum "'-.) the festival of Thoth lir since Ap~ spsw: (n. wind Art:: =44 ~ ~ f.) night =} '" - dr-ntt because you (dependent pronoun... knot. (a. originally sty st(i} (w.1. dignity J gb (the god) Geb gm(l) (w. for tp-rnpt see rnpt) B>"!" ~ ~ dpt (n. etc risr (v.£'--.

Key to th e exercises

163

Key to the exercises

Ch a p t e r 2
2.2 Words :

~1ftor ~

.<I

y or U
~~
Ox

kl

f\~~
Ch a p ter I
1.1 Kings' names:

wu

mr
wp

pj j
1.2 Words f rom the roastinq scene:
Kh uf u
lse sr

sm r
'bif\V

V

n~ ~ @

~="' ~ @

ddw

~~~ 11

owfw

____ .1t

':~.i./ 1- 1"
(~~'! '-. . ...
_';

=~

srw

~~
2.4 Expressions:

'mil

'0~rf1

bnmw

V~I~

Wp - W IW :

tsst
ppl

Pe pi

a.

I!

n tr "t

great god

IJ' lib ,

ntr t wcbt

every thin g good and pure

1.3 Gods' na mes:

1.4 Translitera ting words :

2 .6 D a tinq :
rn
rrun -sp 25 IJr IJm (II) n t r nfr lib tlwl'

~ -;-~ ib

Inpw

1 ~~

hk r sbk: sk r

'lr~1ft

IIlis hb

~1
<::>

pt h

U==" <rr>

urn
Co
t= =J

~.!J~ ~

1n-

bill
tkr

n·ml'l -r' d! ' Ill; mt r- Jt
b.
rnpt -sp 14 iJr IJm
Il

Regnal yea r 25 und er th e per son 01 the perfect god. th e lord of th e tw o lands Nimaat rc, given life like Re en du r ingly. Regnal year 14 und er th e person of th e king of Upper and Low er Egypt Khepcrka re, living en du ringly. Regnal year 13 und er th e person of the king 01 Up per and Lower Egypt Nubkaure. give n lire end u ring ly a nd rep eat edly.

-JJ 0

rs

~~~
-JJ~ -JJ~I
1\~ ~ ~ T

spd
rnrr,

~ ~~
~@

nsw-bity

ph

c.
(Id

m pt -sp 1 J iJr h m II nsw -bity

''Y'
p'
h bs
IJpJ

~~
<::> ~~

nbw-kt w -r » d i rn lJ rm

al r nbb

1.5 w rit ing 0 '" words in hieroglyphs:
[JIm

;;~ g ~ p8

sr

r:1
IIJS Il:r
~l1V

LJp 'T
@C

=r

<3 qr.l

Is sn

2.7 Study exercise: Middl e Kingdom kings of the 121/, dyn asty :
The order of ihe first cart ouche na mes should be as follo ws:
shtp-tb -rr tJpr-kJ-r ' nbw-krw-r" (l' -ap r-r '

kr st

=
b. d.

ra

r~

(Am c n ern h ct I)

{J'-bw-r '
n-mr r-r -

1.6 Transla tion :
c.
sn b i

(Sen wosrct I) I m enem het II) A (Seu wosrer II)

mr- hrw- r » sbk -k i-rr

(Sen wosr et 1Il1 (Am enernhet Ill ) (Amenem het IV)
(Nefru so bck )

th e/a n ast ut e in divid ual w ith Scnbi

.'Ittr

tk r r pk r

the /a n excellent plan to Poker

2.8 St ud y exercise: Ne w Kingd om pharaohs:
The New Kingdo m pharaohs listed are :
n b-phty- t " gsr-k ,· r' , ,-tJp r-k r-r' ,, -apr -n·r' m vt-ki-rmn -hpr-r »
r

1.7 Translating the offe ring scen e:
A Iorcle g for th e ka 01 Sc n bi. the jus tified.

r h-ms
im n -hsp

Ahrn o sc

Amenhorep I

dhw ty-m s
dhvav .ms fJltv!pswt bn mt -Imn

1.8 St udy exercise: A fis hing and fo wling scene:
Above scene on lett:
'Il t

Abo ve sce n e
' n/'l r IpJ(W)

Speari ng th e fish bv Se~ hL the ju st ified.

rm(w) In snbi m r-hrw

Th row ing a l

right in snbi nw- hrw th e brrds by Senb i.

(ll ~

-ihwty-ms
tmn -ht p hla -iwnw

Ihl'

j usufied .

t-h prw- rs mn -hprw-r:

Thnmtose I Thut mose II Hatsh e psut Th ut mose III Amc nh ore p II
Thutrnose IV

dhwty -ms
tmn -htp hks- wtst
ih -n -trn

nb-rnr t -r r

Amcn h otcp III Akh en ate n

J 64

How to read l::qYPlian hieroqlyph s

Key to the exercises
Hn retttlte'h
Ra me vsev I

16 5

r./sr·!Jprw-.-" str -n-r e " mn -rhry-r :

h r-m -hb m ry -l mll
r~ · mS - J H'

3.9 Study exercise: 8M EA 58 5
ht p-dt- nsw
s sir li b [ dw Ilfr
rl

mn -mr t- r r
I VST- m j " ! - , " :i1 - 1I-" "

. } n

mr v-n -psh

r r.mssw nsrv- tmn
, ·· mj' -J/:t") h k H W II W

wsr-m r t-rs n.ry-imn

Se i i I Ra rnesses It Ra rn c ~ ~e ~ III

nb ,baH

dl=[ prt -hr w
: h nl::t ~.J lpd ;5 mn tll tJt nbt · ntJr ntr tnt n kl II fmt by dd f:rtp ( w) vnrr n n trw hsb-I1IIVTY m vr pr
.H-nJII Wrr mv-hrw

2.9 St udy exercise: 8M EA 117
Tilt' Inis s/DR ph ara oh s a re all t he ph a ra u h s of th e I vth -t z th d yn asue s incl u sive , and wi th in th e 18th d yn asty. Ha tshe psu t. Akh e n a ten a n d Tu ra n kh a mun (as w ell as the ot h e r A m a rna p hara o h s, Ay an d th e sh a d u wv figu re of Nt?fnlJderud lt'n/Sm etlkhka reL

m s-n iu- m k t

Chapter 3

An offe ring wh ich th e ki ]; give s n In Osiri s, lord of Dje du. grea t god . lo rd o f Abydci s. so th .lt he may give a vc..tic o ffe ring o f :e bre ad and bee r. o x an d fo wl . ala baste r a nd lrneu. and every th in g on whi ch a god lives for th e ka o f the rev e re d o ne , the offer in g-giver 10 {he go ds . th e co u u u -r of the do ub le gr an a ries an d stew ard Sa ren c ruue t. th e jusu ficd . bo r n of Bamekci .

3.2 Words:

3.3 Gods ' "ames:
wnn -nf r

Cha p ter 4
La bels
10

3M

=

IVr

th e m ol' of Abyd o s o n p . 55 :
~f

rwd n ntr

3.4 Titles
m'T "bn wty

hwt -ntr

111

sstr J]nty -rnm tw

rV...d!I

If

p kr dsr

smr-wcty

th e ter race of rh e grea t god . th e te m ple of O srris-Khern vt m eru u . Poker sacred land

C) \ \

4.2 Words:

4.3 Trans lat ion:

3.6 The offering form ula from 8M EA 162:
htp -d t-nsw tJr ISIr !Jmy · /m n l w

[nt r ', nbltbrfw m , (w)l " f " I>, nfrt wrbl dl=[ prt -h rw
m [ m frnkl
1/

m k, IJ'd m ~I "b (l) nirt kJ 11 irnslt w br 'If f 'I m ·T ml ' wr lm ny
tr -n ~bw I1 -bnv w

An o ff ~ r i l1 g w h ich th e king gives/p lac es be for e Osins-Khem yim eutu . (great god. lo rd) of Abyd os. in all h is goo d and purr: plac es . so that he n ra y gi ve a voice o lle ring in bread and in beer in ox a nd fow l and ev ervth tng good fo r ihe ka of ih e re ver ed o ne before ihe great god . ih e ge ucr al -tn- ch iet Arnen y, born o f Kcbu . th e justified .

t o . ..

C_ Ji
.J

snr
dwt

~~
~1 ~l j ~~

hmt

Me lr H, pi. 4 :

sr f:r ns sw

Lassoo rn g t h c lo ng- horn ed bull

*1
~ it
Ce nt re:

sn
w~l1n

Mel r I. pi. I I :

'"

wpt kf ( W; Separa ting t he bu lls

4.4 Tran slat ing th e capt ions
ptr njrw n lr nf r
b ~-km' · r ~

0 11

8M EA WI :
See ing ih e splendo ur o f the perf e ct god Khak aure. the ju sufie d. bel oved o f w epw awcr. lord o r the sacr ed land be lo ved o f Osiri s-w en enne te r, lo rd of Abyd os.

3.7 Offen'ng table scene:
dbh t-h tp
~ .,( w)
11

m v· tJrw ml)' " 'P'W 1wt n b th ! sr m ry ssir wn n -n]r n b sbd w

ks ,p,i

~I

11 1>1 ntrt W"I>I
1n/ ( · tlTJA,

kJ r Imf ~.V huv-: snbr

The requi red offe rings: thct usau ds Hf ox an d fowl and every th in g guod an d pu re fo r th e ka lIf the revered one, the gove rnor SC'l1bL th e Jus tified.

Righ t:
dlV!

'.vp-wm..'t m prt=! ntrt

rfl r n h h
LefJ:
d ws sslr m bMwl =[ nf rw

Ad o ring Wep w a we t du ri ng hi s w o ttd c rfu l p -ocesston fo r ever and eve r.

3.8 Study ex ercise: 8M EA 58 7
htp -di-nsw
lsir nb J dw n[r ' I llh lbdw prt·!If1.V
I
kin~ gin. \ " Osiris. lo rd of Djed u. g rt."3t .~ o d . lo rd of Abydos. d vo icl' (l fk r i ll~ o f h re ad an o ht."e r. ox and fo wl. aidbasin an d lin e n. an d C \ 'c ~'l h ; n F: goo d an d pu re 0 11 wlt ic.:h a gocJ live s for the ka o f the rev ered o lle. , he o vrr Set'r of li te cha m ber Am cn em he!. the jll s1ified .

rfl r nhh
I(

Ado rin g Osi ri s duri ng his wonderfu l fl'sti val !i f(lr eve r and eve r.

c \

o f fc rmg v ·hicll I he ...

hi

4.5 Trall.slating tile captions on 8M EA 581
Top :

!)I " bl
11

h"kl ki wd {, m ll ~ 1 ,,[rlt ) """blt l
rn !;t "I r 1 m

sn

{l

n l! n ty· lm1ltw
In

ml!

"rnY w p -w n...It
m' l
~lj n w:ry

k f n Itmb f wj m -r rb n w ( f}'/ tmn -m -hu rn1r.!JI!'v

inrf

Kb sing Ih e ~ro u l1 d 10 Khemyim em u a nd s e e i n ~ the sp le nd o ur o f Wepwawet ily th e \lvcrw er (If the cha m he r Im e L

HOl lO n! :

p ,-f-b rw n I m ~ b ( tv}

166

How to read Egyptian h ierogly phs

Key to the exercises Chapter 5
5.2 Words:

167

4.6 Study exercise: Fishing and fowling scene from the tomb of Senbi at Meir
Left-hand sce ne:
SIt

rm (w)
In Im'by fJr tstr nb smy t tm nn

hu y -: m-r hm -ntr snb i m r- hrw Righ t -ha n d scen e :
rmt'f

Spearing fish by the rever ed one before Osiris, lord of the western desert. th e gov ernor and overseer of th e p ries ts Sen bi. the jus tified .

2 :- ~
Ib...m,
~ a

h51

rill
hki
n/tl lt
I

~~r }A ./J
2~ ~}~~

trnms
w ril
hsmn

r Ip d(wj tn hlly-' lIt mty -bl ly

sm r vty snbl mr-hrw
Above Senbi's wife :
hmt ~f

Thr owi n g at birds by th e gove r n or, sea l-bea rer of the kin g, a nd sole co m panio n Senb i. th e ju stifie d.

- " ./J
l~" ,

fi

twi t

r~<Y

NJ )

n Sl- Ib ~f mrs nbt Im' iJ

His wife of his affect ion M eres, possessor of reveren ce.

5.3 Trans/a/ion:
a. b. c. d. e.
iw i r.n»! prt ('It Iw kr s.n»! I,(w ) Iw rdl. n(~I) I n hkr hbsw n b'y Iw iI,.n (= I) Iww m m lJnt (~ I) ds(~ I) Iw w hm . Il ( ~I) h51 br nsw
I I I I

4.7 Study exercise: The coffin of Nakh tank h (BM EA 35285)
Easte rn side - ho rizo nt al in script ion :
h tp-di- nsw tsi r nb ririw lIn ry-Imnt w ntr 'I nb IMw di»] lIt nb(t) nfrt "",br iJl m t h nk;
kl Ipd 5S mnll t An offering wh ich the kin g gives

I conducted the great proc es sion . buried the old. gave br ea d to th e h un gry a nd clothes to t he nak e d . fe r rie d the boo tless in my o wn ferry . repe ated fa vo ur befor e th e king.

rnb l n tr 1 m n kI n Im'iJ( y) ntrl- f'nu mr-h rw Vert ical in scriptions from north
Im'lI M Im'IJ(Y) Im,o (y) Im'!J(Y)

Osiris , lord of Djedu. Khenty imen tu . grea t goo, lord of Aby dos, so that h e ma y give everything good and pure: a th ou sand of bread and be er, ox and fowl. ala ba ster and linen , on w hich a god lives , for th e ka of the rever ed o ne . Nak htank h, the justified . '
to to

5.4 Study exercise: BM EA 1783
lines 1-2 :
htp-dt-n sw in pw tp (y)-Jw~f 1;,,(y ),w I nb udsr p rth rw n h1CV.r btm,.\··b/ ,y smr-w'I (Y)

south:
Th e re ver ed The rever ed The rever ed The rever ed justified . on e one one one before before be fore befor e IJ11setL Nakhtankh, Shu , Na kh ta nk h . the ju sti fied. Geb . Nak htankh, th e justified. Dua mut e l. Nak hta nk h, the

hry-hb t

IJr trnstt nllt -'n iJ IJr 5W not -'n y mr-hrw IJr fi b n ot- 'no mr- hrw IJr dwi-mwt»] nIJI-' n!t

imt hw ljr ntr (', nb pt
In- h rt-nb t

An offe ring wh ich th e ki n g gives to Anubis, the o ne on his mou nta in , the one in th e wr. lord of t he sacr ed lan d: a voice o ffe rin g for t he governor, seal-bearer of th e kin g. sole companion. an d lector-priest, and revered on e befo re th e gr ea t god and lord o f the sky. lnh uretnakht.

lines 4 -5:
iw rdt.ntwi]
Iw Iw
ril . n (~ i )

mr -hrw

I

Western side - horizontal in scri ption :

n b~ r h bsw n hry

ntp-dt-nsw
Inp(w) bnly sh-ntr tp(y)-ilw=f tmtyr-wt

n b lI-dsr krst nfr t m Is~f nfr n b rl-n/ r
Iml!!Y lJr ru r ( I

nlll-rn!J mr-hrw
Im' bM b r Im'b M !Jr Im'lr(y) IJ r Im'!t (y) !Jr
ml('-!Jrw

An offering which the kin g gives to Anu bis, the one bef ore the divine booth, the on e on his mou ntai n, th e on e in the w r, lord of the sacred la nd: a good bu ria l in h is wonde rful to mb o f th e necr opoli s: th e rever ed o ne befo re th e great go d , Nakhtank h, the ju stified.

ir.n( ~ I)

Iww < m> mbnl (~ I) tfs(~I) kl( wi J00 m irt.ni--i} ds(=l j

I gave br ead to t he hungry and clot hes to th e naked . I ferried th e boa tless in m y own fe rry. I acquired 100 bull s th ro u gh what I did m yse lf.

Th e famil y :

1}m t=f mrt==J bkr t·ns w -\{"'u
itm (I )·ntr bM-b r Im'b' bWI H~f m ry»] ntll<Y

His be love d wife, th e sol e lady-in- wai nng a nd pr iestess of Hat hor, th e revered one Hui. His be loved so n Nen wy .

Vertical inscription s from n orth to south :
bpy not -'nb m r- h rw

The ded icat ion : on e o ne one one before before befor e before Ha pI', Nakhtankh, the justified. Tefnut. Nakhtankh, th e jus tified . Nut. Nakhtankh, th e j usn fied . Qebe hsenuel. Nak hta n lth, th e
in.n n ~f H=f smsw»] mry» ] dbi

tjm nb t-'nb mv -hrw
nwl n!JI-'nIJ mv -hrw kbh -snw» ] n !tr-'n IJ

The re ve red The revered The rev e red The re ver ed just ified .

What his beloved e ldest snn Debi made for h im .

5.5 Study exercise: BM EA 5 71 (lOP)
First o fferi ng for m ul a :
tup -dt- ns w

ssir nb ddw hntv.Im ruw

An offeri ng which the kin g grves to Osiris, lord of Diedu . Khe n tyi rnen tu.

when he set ou t to p ro tect h is father. up-bearer EmsaL . whereas th e pairing of ma le and femal e figu re s seem s to relat e the fema les 10 th eir acco mpan yin g male figu re father than directly to either Sah at hor or Saamnn . and placed me in his confidence in h is pn vaie palace (pala ce o f privacy) . pr imn -rn-hst =f mWI =! bl iw r n<! II ~f bsfn~1 sb l(w ) hr nlmt shr. His be loved son the priest Sen wosret .ntr s. I drov e aw ay the re bels at the Ncsh mer -bark: and I felled th e enemi es of Osiris. 6. . I clothed the nak ed.{ .r =:. the stew ard Saamu n.J mll y M san tms skd ~*f=1 ~r ~ Secon d offerin g fonn u la: to Osiris.n »i sk d dp t -r ur Iw Iw cond ucted th e proces sion of Wepwawet.n = s ssir tJnly· . I did not com plain a bou t the great . His belo ved wife Satwosret. at the hall-m onth festival wl9 f!trwn the Wag-festival an d the Tho th-festival dn ntr r pk r and the (festival of) the god's boat -jo urn ey to Poker n im J!J( w ) m-r p r ss-tmn mv.m~( SN tT mrh t so th at he may give wate r and beer. His m oth er Bet. Th e cup-bearer Seh et epib. (once again the fonn u la is finished off by the inscript ion s above the figure s of Saam un and Khu ) Offering-bearer s: wbs sht p-ib onms =! mry~f tn t] htp-dt -nsw sstr nb tm nt nfrt n rr ' I nb IM w An offering which the king gives 6. he promo ted m y position . Iw dl.nv-i bfllw) ssir ir. and I pu t the lowl y at [th e ir] ease . kin g-s adviso r be loved of h is lord.WIWI !. incense an d un guent bl nb(l) nfr( l) wb(l) and everyt hing good and pu re ' nb' nt' tm on which a god lives m Jod m ?-nl at the month-festival. lord of Abydos. an d I follow ed the cod to h i. b ml~f mrt» ] trw (a nd) his beloved wile Kh u. lord of the beautif ul we st. Hi5 bel oved wife Sat mentju.5 Study exe rcise: The Osi ris Mys teries at Abydos: His belove d son Ameny . I felled all h is enemi es on the bank of Ncdvet and I h ad him proc eed inside the grea t bark .ml=! mrt~f SfI-mnrW SJ mry»] m · . 6. Household and esta te: f msw (1W d t.4 Tran slat ion : iw=:. cleared th e way s of the god to his tomb at th e forefro nt of Poker. Here the ma le figu res a re given in rela tion to eithe r Sahathor o r Saamu n (th e prin cipal male figu res in the offering scenes abo ve) .n«! lJ (W ) hbsn »l trl)' n Ir(~I) IWI/ r b.11=1 prt ' I I { ms=:. His belove d son the stew ard Amenemhet. Transliteration an d Tran slation tw tr.m nlk' nb IMw n ( m< -h ~.168 How to read Egyptian h ieroglyp hs Key to the exe rcises Chapter 6 6_ Words: 2 1'} 169 a thou san d of ox and fowl. The butcher Sahathor. The en tering-mai d Dedet. The w ashennan Sahathor. the just ified.( n t r r r.f w (l ) sO nt . m ry»] imny hm t»] mrt.3 Tran slation : kr s. great god. tw s' s.(~ I) rmr bu ried th e old .n» t prt WP . The over seer of the storeho use Intel. n(~ I) n N w ) I gav e bread c.Jsr.n =1 WI(W) I ntr r m'h ' l~f hnu ph hrt -pr b w sftw st-h wt-hr The attendan t Tjau. b.J m ity o-w pn J h ave bee n roasting sin ce th e beginning of time · J h ave never see n the like of thi s goose.! n w -w advance d m e. and J did no wr on g again st people. i hr m ' k: rjr pn 11 5_ S tu dy Exercise : BM EA 571 (/lOtlOm) 6 Translit eration and Translation : "_Famil y: nU=:. the j ustified. The dom estic Kh u ..n.hrw for the revered one. Iw n. hmt»] mrt»] bw (an d) his beloved wi fe Khu. to the hungry and clothes to th e naked . The \.n »! wnn-nfr hrw r! n ' h I ' I s b r_ n ~1 ofl(w)=f nb hr (H I! n ndyt dtn»! WJ to=f r anw wrr i n . n hkr trbs(w ) n hsy n sro (=I) ' I(W) s* bh .f sn-wsrtt} 5J=4 mry = hm . n ~f s l (~ I) JI_n~f He "m w (l) m st o rHb ~f 'It=:. cond uct ed the grea t pr ocession .n. m -r p r S J-~ Wl . alabaster and linen .wsrt ! SI ~f a. i~ ~~ rr~ a. and everythm g good and pure rnbr ntr (J irn on whic h th e great god !ives n Im lb (w ) rh-nsw m ry nb »] for th e revered one. wbu hrp ' k(yj ' ddl rhtv st-hwt -hr The cup-bearer Het ep .r Sl truf wbs m .f J-f=:. followi ng th e god at his travels: an d I mad e th e god 's boa t sail. (the form ula is finished o ff by the inscri ptions abo ve th e figur es of Saha thor and Khu) Offerin g-bea rers: 51 m ry=f m -r p' ss-rnn ht m v-b rw =1 m. the steward Samenk he t. (an d ) It brought Osiris Khentyim en tu lord of Abvd os to his palace. nd . His belov ed frien d In tel . . th e ju stified. h ouse. i n t r r n mtt»] wrJl~f You may ha ve noticed th at the use or "his' renders th e precise recon stru ction of gene alogies rat her pr ob lematic. protected Wen ennefer on that day 01 th e great figh t. dkf m w 1.(I r ml' · brw th e steward Sah atho r.sl ~f hi m kJ Jpd ~s mn ht 1 nb [ t} nfr(l) w blt) )1 (i r 2Q +~ mt His beloved son.

.w SrJ lIis dau gh te r Satsobe k. one fo rC' most o f positi on in the hou se of h is I()rd : a n ofh ciJI grca l of his hc:art..nsw II W n rn ~ nJm st snt r w r/1 n kI tI hlty J nht t mr -h rw ms-n nh t! mvt -hrw Below (fro m righ t to left ): hm :=f n bt-pr 1I1'lIb lV m rt-h rw mwtx] nbt -pr nbt t mvt-h rw An offe ring whi ch th e king gives 10 Osiri s. ift' onc wh o follow s hi m al all h is journ eys. ala baster a n d lin e n. an d whi ch t he i nun dan o n brin gs. His SOli Amc ue mhet . whic h t h e sky gives. sa thai he m ay give a voice offerin g of brea d and bee r. th e ju stified. 7. Th e Wet · nu rse Ise l. wh ich ihe land creates. I m htp -dt . w hic h the la n d crea tes.III=I) m splll=1j tnk: Jd IIfTl mr rt lJrp rh. JJ-::l 7_7 Study exercise: 8M EA H 8 tnp-d t. alaba ster a nd linen . and wh o kepi h is i ow n at a distance from h im self. o x and fowl. The re ver ed one . I hav e come from my to wn. His beloved wtfe lu ri. a tru e ki ngs adviser beloved o f him wh o doe s w ha t t he king fa vo urs dur ing the cou rse of ev ery da y. th e bod 's falhe r ltv says: I rep eat e d favou r bef ore th e king a nd a dva nced my he art more th a n III)' Ior c. Yt. His da ug hte r Sat wosrct . I was a dign it arv in The bes.. The rev e red on e before t he gre at god the re porter Key. I surpassed allY pee r o f m ine in thi s I OWTI in all ki nds of d ign iryrw can h .' ll) -lIbl II l r tm b II kl II I m l~ lw) ky rh -nsw mF m ry»] Irlr) b sls)r II SW m b n -h rw tit rr nb 111. lo rd o f Djedu. ij nsw r f1(w)l = ij Or Orn' r.\ 1 r npt -sp 14 [r r am n .) f hi s.h u» t ! hrn=f 1Irm " m hsmn w rb mi tps-mw nb fryl::::t m hb ny J w rb J m Jr m tm l [l ( W) it -n tr ity hmr =f m rt»] twr t Iw /511 -11= 1 b.1ion. great god. lord of Abvdos. the ju stified . t. I ha ve desce nd ed from my district . th e j us tified. grea t god. Ihe ju stified. a nd wha t th e direct or of king 's ad vise rs lov es. lo rd of Djedu . I!lt' rna sle r of . v nl' lru ly bd tlYcd of h h 'd lo' d..-i) li st sr.w sWI.. n(=i) mfr. one wh o knows Ihe tlt'S of h is lord.170 How CO read Eqvp tia n hi eroqlyphs 7.6 St udy exercise: 8M EA 586 <1 . a nd III )' .2 Words : 7.kl .Isw · buy ~p r.8 Study exercise: 8M EA 143 ht p-dt-nsw v lib qdwnt r ' I lib vbdw str dl=[ p rt -hrw r h ll~ r k.r ' -1111 Jr Iml g ( w ) i t -sur It.::.. Ch apter 7 7. S' . an d everythin g good a nd pur e on wh ich a god live s.n(::.2 Words: isir nb [ dw n{r q nb vbaw dl=f prt -h rw I h nkt kJ sp d Is mnh: ~I nb tt) nfr lt) . I wa s o ne who sa id wh at is good . His pe rson assigned 10 fi t' a great seal III pure a rne rh vst. a nd a grea t pillar in Kh enr yt..·~1T Key 10 the exercises 17 1 6. lord o f Abydos . r~~ lJ~"' m : SIb fllyl Is '3.ft in e bony decorat ed in clect ru m.V(= fj nb m m oW m m ~PS5 n b was a n . LlX a nd fowl.god '" falhC'r. 5'1=f SlI-sbk SIC =! sTl. fb(o::::. Ipd fs mn tn b t nbt nfrt w br r ntH n tr fm ddt pt ~ mH 11 111111 ~ ' plY) 7.n sw tw w h m . the swe et br eath of life. born of Me ll i. Ihe m islre ss o f Ih e house Na kh tt. I I! } nds ikr J d m r=f t r rn ~pf=f shs] nwt» ! r=f fn k . t crels of Am lln -Ra in J /I V place (. the mi stress of the hous e Net n ehu . born of Nakhr i. an d eve ryth in g good an d pure on which a god lives Iu r th e ka o f th e rever ed one Key. I did not command a beati ng for a man of m ine ..11= m 11 1< 1 1) 11= ) h'. ..lSUllt' individual wh o spo ke wi th his ( wn ) mou th. so tha t he ma y give a voice o ffering o f bread and bee r. th e god 's father tty. ddt pt k rmt " 11111/ h' pl. I d id no t de nounce a man to his superio r. o w ho ac ted with hi s (ow n) stro n g arm . His mot h cr. Te.m-h n His so n truc f. a nd t he scen t of pure ince nse fu r th e ka o f the govern or Na kh t i. m wt His tru C' se rva nt of his affCt.4 Translation: tt. aa The re ver ed one. blb f ml ' sr q SI-Ib=f &1I1( V) 51 m pr IIb=f n tb =l r&&r1-lb IIb=f Im j JW r m utJ=f nb /I ) II Cha pter 8 8. ) v wh ich th e sky gives.5 Stela of Ity (8 M EA 586 ): tm 'tUWj It ·tlff m ry n h ~:f 1t'---" Thl' ft'v("f( O ll t" I h e. 1St His wife.nsw II qws l=I) S II hry-tp»] II wq(=tj hwr m s=1 fm lb (w) lJr nt r r l whm ky ms-n m rti m v-h rw An offe ring whi ch th e kin g give s 10 Osiris. th e [ustified. Thl fam ily : SJ=f III/f sf=f tm n. JU S! like an y dignit ar y of th e kin g.ar he rs wh o ex isted befo re me .: II.6 Relative fo rm s: 14 u nde r the person o f t h t ki ng of Upprr a nd Low e r Egypt Kh e perk a re living fore ve r.sp m' h'l mV l\ ~ ~ ~~ .{ps m w iiI twn rl m 01HYI . and wh ich the in n u n datio n brings as an offeri ng w h ich th e kin g give s.

imnrw nb ibd w rnpt-sp hwt -h r ms-n mti.r mJr w r Imn y q dl=sn prt-!. May he hea r ju bila tion in th e m o uth of Tawer (at) the Hake r-rhes of the nigh t o f vigil durin g the vigil of Horus-s». Lowe r sce n e: ". a: th e Soker-fesrival.bf. born of Kebu . at the pro cession of Min . Ma y h e tr a vel wit h t he gre at god during the god 's jo u rn ey to Ro-Poke r. m ay you say: 'Bread and beer. His beloved so n Pta hh or ep . His tru e servant of h is affection.ju stfte d . at th e proce ssion of Sot his. May ' w elcom e in peace ' be said to h im by th e grea t ones o f Aby dos . He k el an d Kh num am i all t he god s of Abvd os S0 (ha l they m ay give a voice offering of br ead an d beer. oll he west ern de sen .·h wl-J.172 How to read Eqyptian hieroa lyphs m . May h e rec e ive offeri ngs (from) upo n the gre a t alt a r d u ring th e festivals 01 th e necro polis. May hel p be give n 10 him in the Neshmet -bark on the wa ys of th e We st.k iw-r-: d/ ' n!1 dl r n~h ht p-di -nsw sstr nb ridw bm:. (grea t god . An offering whi ch the king giv es to Osiris. who does wh at h e favours eve ry da y the treasure r Saha tho r. mr sdmx] h nw m r n :1-"" h skr g. the h airdres ser Kh uye t. 50 th at h e m ay give a voice ol feri ng in brea d an d in beer in ox an d fow l an d in everyt h in g goo d for the ka of th e reve red o ne befor e th e gr eat god .v 'bau! mr tkd w n-nth -kstw.in-ch ief Ameny 1 Fam ily. the great god. at the begini ng of th e luna r yea r. the ju stified . His da u ght er Ren a .3 BM EA 567 : J 3 br hm n nsw -bn :v nbw. the justified. m r. a nd at JII the great festi va ls which a re performed for Osi rts. so that th ey may give a vo ice offering of bre ad an d bet:"r. Kh ent yim e ntu grea l (god I.l(w) n = lt v m ~ rp ! 1 w r (w ) Jl I bdw 11 In nbt n!'(I) pr(' )1 m-lnh ms. th e ge neral-in -ch ief Amen y. offerings an d prov ision s fo r th e ka of Ih c reve red one th e ove rse er of builde rs Khu n en bik. ox and fow l. 1000 . given life end u ringly and repea tedly. ox an d fow l.mn w m p r t spdt m i p . co lle ague s an d sta ff in cen rral scen e: itml=! m rt=! I rrt I}S I=! r r nb S Itm (l) -nl ' hwr -h ' m dh w mst -n Im ny mJr' · y n-t' Wbil SlI-bm ·b 'y blk=! ml' n st. 1000 _ox and fow L 1000 .r( v) .ttw] n= r it OY b r /:z Ip ! m h b(w ) rev.5 Study exercise: BM EA 162 ht p-di-n sw !. the. His be luv ed broth e r Kh enc'k h et yhe te p born of Satso be k_t he ju stified . lord of th e sacr ed land.bw m l r-b rw dl.h rw ms-n " w t Regna l yea r 13 u n de-r ihe person of the kin g of Uppe r an d Low er Egypt Nubka ure .bd w !Jr nsk' in goin~ non h or in goin g sout h. May h a nds be pr e sented to him carrying offerin gs du ring the fes tiva ls of th e ne cro polis alo ng wi th the followers of Osiris.4 St udy exercise: BM EA 584 lup-dt-ns w w tstr nb ddw hnry-tmrn <nlr> rJ n b Ibdw ap -Mwt nb fJ asr IInm w h it' itkl "trw nbw smyt Il11 m l An o fferin g w h ich th e king Rives m hbt w} lib ' I trrw n isir hnty-tmntw nt r n kI n m. pos se sw r of rev e rence . Khn llm a n d Heke t a nd a U t he go d. 51=! m ry=! pIli-hIp ~k( h nr !Jnmw His will' Hat h or..n-.pd m /1 nb(t) nfrt 1 n kJ n j m J~t w l] r l1(r r. in that you wis h to follow Wcpwa w('1. at aU his journ eys. the o ne a t the forefront o f Abvdos.. . ssl~f r r nb m · r l] unt $.nt r fm r Ims tw) n Is tr Ip(Wj-' bp.I kJ Ipd !.Kh e n ryimentu.p r Imny Sakhen e tk hetl'· Th e ka -pIil'St Djdahal'Y. m -r ml r wr Imny tr -n J. t he ju stifie d .uw ) Il=! IIw m !t' P 'I In wrw nw Ibdw slil=! itll' Ill' m ~iJ f.n-bl k lid Osiris .lm l-IIIY hm -kJ <f!I -h ' p!}') nSI bwyt J.1lI·bry -h tp Ir-n SJl-sbk m Jr· b rw His be loved wife who doe s w hat h e favou rs ev e ry day th e pn l'stt'sS of H<Itho r M~ d hu . 17 3 8 .h II sdrt m sdryt nt hr-l n \V J m dhwu .' brl.n -ht Sl/=! " W(I) m" (I)-brw III SI= S'lll1 rn =! ! " 11-1 ! I W I 4 !Jnt. bo m of Amcny. It is h is so n w ho h as ma de h is na me hv e th e ove rsee r of bu ilders Nip rah ka i.m p t 8. for the ka of th e gen e ral. -Im SIl l jw WT(W) 1/W ~I 11(' ' I An offeri ng w h ic h th e ki ng gives/pl aces ddw In YI tmt Ibdw dd. ho m of xer ur. offeri ngs and pro\1sio ns.. alabaster a nd line n . lord o f Abydos. born of Ma iu enhor.Ib=! I " J. w b.. t!. May th e gre at on es of Dj edu and the entour age ill Abyd os enspirit you. w ho says : to be fore O siris-Khe ntyimentu..I r tslr tmtv-l mntw [ nt r ' I nb] IMw m sfw) l=! nbt nf rt w rbt dl={ prt-hrw m r m h nkr 111 kl . Th e fami ly: ~ml ~f Key to the exercises the ove rseer of bui lde rs Khue nbik .1 h tp d! (lw) it' W p W 1A1 l o m mrr=rn {. . m hb-skr m prt. th e a nce sto rs wh o exist e d befo re. lord] I1fAbv dos in all h is good a nd pur e pla ces. lord of Djt-d u . I ~nkl ta (pd 5S mnht 8. tx! as everyth in g gO and pure on whi ch a god lives for the ka uf the reve red one before aU the gods of Allydos and before th e killg. lor d of Djedu.n r r r r-p kr nl mt wrr r nm tt»s m itb(w) IlWhr t.. an d everyt h ing good which goes before th e great god.1 Is mll!. the ju stified."=! m ' rY)=! !. lurd of Abydos an d wepwaw ei. alaba ste r and linen. The do me stic Ame ny. r n b fmrb mJr· tzrw i rn tr w n v1t(y) . The Clip -bea rer Salkhene lkhe lY . 1 itll'dR IlY) II kl n /m !/t (w) m -' I~dw b w. at th e Thoth -Ie stival. ala basler and lin en . Wepwawe t.fw dl =slI pn -J.rw I hllkt ki Ipd 5S mll!. w hen th e grea t Ne shmet-ba rk is at its jou rn e ys du ri ng the-festivals of the ne crop olis. Khe rnvi me ntu.m m /11 nb(l) n/ rt k <bt •n!1I Ill' 1m n kI n Jml!Jy br nt r ( w) nb(w} .r tkd w hw-n-blk. IOn } »rr w nb .l(w ) n =! "wy m 1l5 mr hr 1"1(1")1 Im n t Ssp=! ht pl it' h tp ' I m hb (w ) II b rt '"lr rid.sn br m rJ:z r( tn m bd m II'! I o th e Ihin g wh u m ay pass by thi s tom b Il b r nm u=! lid=ln I hn kt !. 1000. Ma y ' Welcom e in peace' be sai d to him by th e grea t one s of Abydos at th e wag-Ic su val .

Fit zw illiam Mu se u m . then examplesfor stu dy are o n di sp lay in m os t ma j or m use u ms . V. 107 -30. Coffins A convenient introduction to co ffin s and their d evel opm ent is: J. Am e rican Unive rsity in Beiru t Press . A more detail ed discussion of Middle Kingdom coffin s can be found in: * H. tra nslite ra tio n a nd tran sla tion is: * W. with a Glossary of Words and Phrases Used. Ind ex of EH tiall Administrative and Religiolls Titles of the yp Middle Kingdom . Titles There is n o re adil y a va ila ble gen e ra l work on title s to aid you in yo u r reading . the ma jo r listing of Middl e Kin gd o m titles w ith h ie roglyp hs. H ieroglyphs On hi eroglyphs. J . Briti sh M useum Pre ss. Qu irke. Live rpool. 5. London 1987. Oxfo rd. if you ha ve access to a good specia list library (su ch as the lib rary of th e Egyp t Explora tio n Society. Leu ve n 1988. Malek. Ho w e ve r. Chests of Lif e: A Study of th e Typology and Con ceptual Development of Middle Kingdom Stan dard Class Coffins. Wille m s. a co nv en ient listing of tit les by functi on can be found in : * S. The Manch ester M us e u m . Orien taliste. Quirke. rea ssem bled by Sim pso n into the ori gina l gro up s of m onu m e nt s fo u nd at Ab ydo s. Who were the Pharaohs? A History of their Names wi th a List of their Cartouches. Oxfor d 199 4. Boston 19 37 .A.J .H. Th e most convenie nt collection o f Aby dos ste lae re ma in s: * W. Naga-ed -Di r stelae ofthe First In term edita te Period. Da vies. K ings' names A full er list of the carto uch es of th e kings o f Egypt can be found in : S. The Ori enta l Mu seu m . Aylesb u ry 1989. Durham . Peabo dy Mu seum of Na tura l Histo ry and The Unive rsity M us eum o f th e Un ive rsity of Pennsylvania.K. Taylo r. so me w o rk s o f pa rtic ula r re levan ce fo r the to pics co vered in th is book w ill probably only be fou nd in specia list lib raries an d the se a re p refixed with *. the following muse ums have part icul a rly su itable collec tions (th e list is not e xh au stive and a n umbe r of ot her m u se u ms and private collections al so have Mi ddle Kingdom stelae and coffins o n disp lay ]: Southern Englan d: Bri tish Museu m . B ritish M useum Press. Shire Publications. includi ng some of th e stel a e stu d ied here .J . Bri tish Mu seum Press. M us e u m of Fine Art s. (Th is book contains ph oto graphs of a n u m ber of Ab ydcne M iddle King dom stel a e from m u se u m colle cti ons around the w orld. Revue d 'f. In the UK. Oth erwi se. We hav e tried to co ncentrate o n books which a re still in print and ava ilable through maj or sto ckist s. f Translations The most con veni ent set o f t ra ns la tio ns for M idd le Kin gdom ste la e (which ! . Ashmole an Museum. However. Sim pso n.. Scotland: Royal Mus e u m of Sco tland. Egyp tian Hieroglyphs.O .) Th e foll o win g titl e contai n s a n u m ber o f stelae from Nag r ed -Dei r of a sim ilar kin d to BM EA 1783 (p .J. Quirke. roruain a number o f lnreresrin o 'kin" for vrudv- Religion: Osiris and the afterlife A co nvenient rece nt acco unt is provid ed in: S.'gyptologie 37 (1 986 ). New Have n and Philad elphi a 1974 . 74 ): * D. pp . Glasgow. Ed in bu rgh: Kel vingro ve Art Gallery an d Mu se um . AB C of Egyptian Hieroglyph s. Be iru t 198 2. An cient Egyptian Religion. open to members of the society) then th e Iollowin v tw o work . Howeve r. London 19 92 (especia lly Cha p te rs 2 an d 5) . b~'1YP tian Coffins. Non hern England : Me rse yside Co u nt y M useum. The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos: The Offering Chapels of Dynasties 12 and 13. Londo n 19 90. Ashmolean Museum . Dunham . Pu blications of th e Pennsy lva nia-Ya le Expe d itio n to Egy pt No . tw o bo oks in particu la r ca n be recomm en d ed to comple ment t he early part of this b oo k : W. Stelae 1£ yo u are interested in ext end in g yo ur reading of ste lae an d coff ns. Ward. Reading the Past series. 'The regula r titles of th e late Mid d le Kin gdom'. Ca mb ridge. Lon do n.Bibliography and fu rther reading 175 Bibliography and furth er reading The follo wing bib liogr ap hy is hig hly se le ct ive and a imed at works which w ill su p plem ent thi s book and a id you in further reading an d stu dy .

gender. Glasgow GI 5YD. 1 17. /l0-8!. 93 -4. 82. Lopr ieno. dual endi ngs 19 . Grif fith In sti tut e.O .5 Inh uret 70 .8 ca rto uc hes 20 .2 . 12 3. 6 8. 11 5 cha racterisation 6 &-9. genit ival adjective 40 epi thets .3 Th e a u thors of thi s bo o k ca n be cont acted via Sch oo l for Scri be s. see word order dat ing 21 dati ng criteria 38 . 100. Ancient Eqyptia n Litera ture . 150. son of Osiris 4 1. 52 -4. 114-15 fun erar y cu lt see offeri ngs fut ure. see kinship First Intermediate Period 22 funerary beliefs 35. Griffit h Institute. 1 17 .176 How tv read Egy ptian hie roqlyphs • M . defective writing s. PO Box 25020 . 93 -4. 19. bu t ly in g be hind the pr esentat ion o f t h e la ng uage is th e pa rt icu lar 'v e rbalist' ap p roach developed by Mark Collie r in a numbe r of sp ecia llst papers. seealso Osiris filialion. Faulkner . Ca m bridge Uni ve rsity Pre ss. see titles eth ical beha viou r 35. fee Osiris . British Museum Pres s.9 ho norific tr ansposition .1 2 1. 14 9 dyn asties (of kings) 22 infinitive 4 9-50. O ur boo k is n ot intende d as a gr am mar book.18. 1 50 . see tenses captions 4 9-50 causation 82 . 82 co-ordination. Parkinson . see nou ns. 63-4 ap peal to the living I I 1-14 auxiliaries 66--7. Thi s b oo k also pr ovides a co nc ise accou nt of t h e historical devel op m e nt of ancient Egyptian language and scripts. seealso adjectives graphic tran sposition. 76-8. 144. Orbis Bibli cu s et Orientalis 84 . Being an Introductio n to the Study of Hieroglyphs. A n Amhology ofMi ddle King dom Writings.H.41. 150 Anubis 42. see words Djed u 4 1 duals.101. Egyp tian Grammar. 84-5 Grammar Ga rdiner's Egyptian Gra m m ar also remain s th e mos t cump re h ens ive treat ment of a ncient Egyptian in English. 76--8 . Oxford 1962 . A m or e recent a nt hology of transl ations fro m a variety of Mi d dle Kin gdom tex ts . genitive (possessor) 39--40 . Uriive rsita tsverla g. see word order Horus: name of king 20 . Go ttin gen 19 88 . Ancient Eg. 7 I.87-9. although a n um ber of the se ction s on th e ve rb (occupying th e se cond h alf of th e bo ok ) are now rather da ted . 124. 73 . Cam b ridge 199 5. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian . Un ited Kingdom .8 3-4 festivals 50 . Berkele y and Lo s Angeles 19 73 . 9&. II L 116. 13 ideograms (sound-meaning signs) 17.vptian : A Linquistic lntroduction. Lichtheim. 110. seealso agreement agreement 10. Index Dictionaries and sign-lists Th e m ost co nvenie nt dicti o na ry in Eng lish remains: R. 75 family. Some stelae a re als o includ ed in Licht hcim's earli er an d more rea dily a va ilable bo o k: M . 50. 26 . 58 .B. four sons of 62 . Lich theim. 14 8.9. 2 8 coffins 62-4 compound expressions 40 contin ua tion 8 0-8 1. 87 . london 19 9 1. is: R. 96 . see kinship feminine . Ancient l-. Un ive rsity o f Ca liforn ia Press . 12 1. A m or e compreh ensive sign -list with a n ext ensi ve disc uss io n o f th e u se of sign s is inclu ded at t he end of : A. Abydos form ula 114-1 5: see also Osiris adjectives 10. 73 Isis 4 1-2 Khc utyirnc n tu . abbreviation s. 10 7. 71 . 54-6. 1: The Old an d Middle Kingdoms . 3rd ed iti on. see wo rds Abydos 4 1. 114 tin ker-rues 87 . 39 . Frcib u rg and Vandenhoeck & Ruprech t. as noun s 94. see words descnprion 65 . 65. 80 de te rm ina tives (mea ning-signs) 5-6. A simila r 've rbal ist' approach is conveniently presented in : A. Oxfo rd 19 57 . Bot h o f these works a re still in p rint and readily avai la ble . without linkin g words 6 7.18 direct ion of wri ting. 80 -8 1. 150. Ga rdi ne r.gypti<l11 A utobioqra phies ch iefly "f the Middle Kingd om : A St udy and an A ntholoqy. Voices f rom Ancient Egyp t. in clu ding stelae . 9 6.

147 : as nouns 96 . abse nce of 2 I ndex 179 Index of ill ustra tio ns (mon u m e nts fro m the British Mu se um coll e ction) EM EA to I (Nebip usenwosret) 58 BM EA 117 (king-li st o f Ra rnesse s II) 31 BM EA 14 3 (Nakh ti) 110 BM EA 162 (Amen v ) 44.60 wo rd order 10.11 6. do ubli ng . present . 149 Neshmet-bark (of Osiris) 88 New Kingdom 22 n omen 20 . fu tu re 49 . 3 5-9 . of king s 20-21. 100-101. 82 . present 4 9.5. gen der (m a scu line. 34 . past 95. 67. 14 5. 41 so un d-sig ns 1. strong 51. festivals a t Abyd os (Osiris Mysteries) 50. 120 w ord s. 51-2. gra phi c tr an spositio n 32. 75 . 148 tran slite ra tion 2. of Osiris 24. 28 . see sou nd -signs so und. 14 8.83.Den 7 3-5 na me s: o f kin gs 20-2 1. 8 3. z-consonam sign s 15. see w ords subject 66 . see da ting rela tive form s 68 -9. 3-4. 34. 149. 70-72 . 9 9 priests 10 3. om issio n of 8-9. 67 . 148 pronun ciat ion 3.28.95-6. see sou nd-s igns st ra nge writ ings. classes 50-5 2. perfen 67 .8. see te nses te n ses 145-7. 15 0. 1\3. 14 5. independent 97. suffix 66. fem in in e ) 9. 67. 26 . sa no un s. 106 BM EA 587 (Ame n ernh e t) 46 BM EA 17 8 3 (lnhuremakht) 74 BM EA 35285 (cof fin o f Nak hta nkh) 63 .117. l -co nso na ru signs 3-4. 72 . as Khen tyimeruu 41. 82 . 66 .16. 87 . see Osir is Wepwaw e l 42 . filiation) 69 .7 0.34 . 148. sound-com ple ments 16. see also Osiris ne ga tio n 8 1-2 . 8 7 . 98-9. 96 . 150 w eak ve rbs. of wom en 10 3-4 tra nsla tion and tra nslatio n sch emes 4 9. 53-4. o f of ficials 34-5.50. flexi bility in spelling 16 . 87 . 54-6. I J I. object. as wenennefe r 42 . 145. p resent 95. 21 regn al yea rs. as noun s numbe rs 20 .5. 17. root 5 L 52. 104 pro nou ns 66 : depe ndent 82-3 . II purpose 1 15 5 1. 147. 146. see also pronou ns weak con so nant s. p rese nt 100. see tenses plural ending 8-9. 50-5 1. 12 5 BM EA 558 (Key ) 108 BM EA 56 7 (Am cn emhet) 26 . 97 . 14 9. 10 5.2 voice-o ffering 37 -9.3. gen eral 83.70-7 1. 18.72.178 I ndex kinship (family. see pro nouns o fferin gs 35 . as gen iuve 68 .65-6.147. 14 8. weak 51. tomb of 55-6.. 11 5-1 6. 87 poss esso r. 146-7. 79 BM EA 58 1 (In te l) 59 BM EA 58 4 (Khu en bik) 122 BM EA 585 [Sa rcn en u tet) 48 BM EA 586 (lt y ) 2 5. 144 tran sposition . 98 -9. 85 . see wo rd o rde r trea sur y 10 2. 6 5. w rit ing the plural 8. 1 18. 19.5 5.70 . 44 . 4. as o bject s 68 . 9 L 10 1. 54.72.m ean in g sign s. 68-9.67-8. 147 . 39. 150 Poker 55. see also adje ct ives. 147 . gen de r me a ni ng-s igns. 19.2 6. 3con son ant signs 17.6. 149. 14 9. 18. 149 .87-9.5. 7 6-7. sgmtyf y as fu tu re equivale nt II I passive 11 5. 148. 53 . 149. 44 . see also pa rt iciples. di rection of writ in g 7-8. of o fficia ls 69. see geni tive. rela tive form s titles and epithe ts 33. 90 . 144 . 28. 40-42 . 26 . past 68-9. see also Horu s 'sacred land ' 5 5 self-prese ntation 65 . see also pa rticiples past.97-8. 1l7. 120 EM EA 57 1 (KIm) 77 . 147 . 107 vo wel s. 93 .127. plural strok es 6. 107 . 67-8. 14 9. abb revia tions 32 .144. see ve rbs Wen ennefe r. see d e rermma uves Meir 13 Middle Kin gdom 22 Nag' ed.2. passive 98.3. speci fic 8 3-4. 87 . see ideog ram s so u nd co m pleme nts. 5 1-2.9. 12 1. 100 . II L 114. extra we ak 51-2 .64 masc u line . o ffering form ula 35-9 Old Kingdom 22 Osiri s 40-4 2. 118. 102. 80-8 1. see tenses pe rfect. 28 no uns 9. fun er ary 35. 117 presen t. pronouns p rac no mc n 20 . 14 7 .3 ve rbs 4 9. defective/strange w ritings 25 .9 3. a> su bjects 66.mean ing signs . 8. hon or ific tra nspos ition 33-4 palace 102 parti ciples 94-5. 75 Seth 30. sound. 8 3. pa st 49 . 111 . stem 51. 149.14 9. 28 p rep osi tio ns 9-10.26. 83 . present. 37 .9.