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Pra-embryonic and Post-embryonic Development in Insect

Pra-embryonic and Post-embryonic Development in Insect

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Published by: debora herawaty hasibuan on Mar 24, 2011
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10/20/2011

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Pra-embryonic and Post-embryonic Development in Insect

Presented by : Debora Herawaty Maria Hutabarat Rizki Jayati Yeni Khairina

Outline
‡ Pre-embryonic Development ‡ Embryonic Development ‡ Post-embryonic Development

Pre-embryonic
Fertilization ‡ The sperm swim toward the micropyle -- the first one to reach its destination enters and injects its nucleus into the egg. ‡ The sperm nucleus quickly fuses with the egg nucleus to form a diploid zygote -- a one-celled embryo. ‡ This event is known as fertilization. ‡ After the egg is fertilized, it undergoes a period of rapid growth and development known as embryogenesis.

a special opening near the anterior end of the chorion. serves as a gateway for entry of sperm during fertilization. .‡ The micropyle.

‡ As a developing egg moves past the opening to the spermatheca. a few sperm are released onto its surface. the spermatheca. .‡ A female receives sperm from her male partner during the act of mating---insemination ‡ She can store that sperm for long periods of time in a special part of her reproductive system.

Embryonic Development .

life begins as an independent egg. . This type of reproduction is known as oviparity.Egg In most insects. Manufactured within the female's genital system Released from her body through an ovipositor Production of eggs by the female is called oogenesis The egg-laying process is known as oviposition.

‡ Each insect species produces eggs that are genetically unique and often physically distinctive as well -spherical. conical. ‡ Each egg is composed of only a single living cell -. ovate. barrel-shaped. or torpedo-shaped. .the female gamete. sausage-shaped.

Some types of eggs .

Egg structure ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Egg shell-chorion Vitelline membrane Periplasm Nucleus Micropyle Yolk Cytoplasm Cytoplasm reticulum chorion Periplasm Vitelline membrane .

chorion . ‡ The chorion is perforated by microscopic pores (called aeropyles ) that allow respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with relatively little loss of water. called the chorion . ‡ This egg shell.‡ The egg is covered by a protective "shell" of protein secreted before oviposition by accessory glands in the female's reproductive system. is sculptured with microscopic grooves or ridges that may be visible only under an electron microscope.

fully grown larva tsetse fly. adentrophic (nurse gland.The main type of Reproduction Oviparousexpulsion of egg from oviduct Egg Fertilization Ovoviviparouseggs incubated in reproductive tract hatch immediately upon being laid Egg Fertilization Egg membrane ViviparousGiving birth to young. Egg Fertilization Placental (aphids). gall midges). haemocoelus (hemocoel. . Several forms of this are seen in insects.

The Other Type of Reproduction In Insect ‡ Paedogenesis ± Reproduction by larval insects ‡ Parthenogenesis ± Development without fertilization ± Unfertilized eggs produce: ‡ Males (arrhenotoky) in Hymenoptera ‡ Females (thelytoky) ‡ Both (amphitoky) in aphids. some wasps ‡ Polyembryony .

Polyembryonic ‡ Found in some endoparasitic groups only ‡ Single egg results in 2 to µseveral thousand¶ larvae ‡ Some larvae may be µdefender morphs¶ ± Hatch more quickly ± Eliminate rival parasites ± Fail to pupate & they die ‡ Remaining larvae become µreproductive morphs¶ that complete development and reproduce to carry on the species .

EMBRYONIC PROCESS A developmental process that usually begins once the egg has been fertilized. movement. It involves multiplication of cells (by mitosis) and their subsequent growth. and differentiation into all the tissues and organs of a living insect. .

Embryonic Development .

foregut and hindgut. blood. sense organs. ‡ Mesoderm: Heart. exocrine glands. gonads ‡ Endoderm: Midgut. : . external genitalia. endocrine glands. circulatory system. brain and : nervous system. respiratory system. fat body. : muscles.Developmental Fate of Insect Germ Layers ‡ Ectoderm: Epidermis.

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sexta embryo 37 hours after fertilization M.Manduca sexta eggs. M.Embryonic development of tobacco hornworm . sexta embryo 57 hours after fertilization M. sexta egg showing micropyle hours after fertilization M. Newly emerged larva showing the head . sexta embryo 115 hours after fertilization. sexta embryo 19 M.

pupa.steroblastic Gastrulation. only portion of yolk undergoes cleavage Blastula.protostome (mouth and blastospore) anus from Larval development. caterpillar. nymph.centralized Cleavage type .Summary of Insect Development Yolk distribution.meroblastic. maggot. adult (imago) Developmental determination.ingression and invagination Blastospore type.multiple molts.mosaic pattern .

POST-EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT .

it is called a first instar nymph (or larva). . ‡ These post-embryonic changes are known as morphogenesis. it will continue to develop and mature.‡ Once the hatching emerges. ‡ As it grows.

‡ Its primary role in life is to eat and grow. but it is small.MORPHOGENESIS ‡ Once an insect hatches from the egg it is usually able to survive on its own. wingless. it will periodically replace its exoskeleton (a process known as molting). . and sexually immature. ‡ If it survives.

‡ In many species. . ‡ Collectively. there are other physical changes that also occur as the insect gets older (growth of wings and development of external genitalia. molting. for example). and maturation are known as morphogenesis. all changes that involve growth.

Instar Timeline of MORPHOGENESIS .

Molting ‡ The molting process is triggered by hormones released when an insect's growth reaches the physical limits of its exoskeleton. ‡ Each molt represents the end of one growth stage (instar) and the beginning of another .

‡ Molting stops when the insect becomes an adult -energy for growth is then channeled into production of eggs and sperm.‡ In some insect species the number of instars is constant (typically from 3 to 15). . or other environmental factors. food availability. but in others it may vary in response to temperature.

larger replacement must be constructed inside the old one -much like putting an overcoat under a sweater! . so a new.‡ An insect cannot survive without the support and protection of its exoskeleton.

‡ An insect that is actively constructing new exoskeleton is said to be in a pharate condition. occurs quickly (in minutes to hours). . ‡ Ecdysis. however. ‡ During the days or weeks of this process there may be very little evidence of change.

. ‡ It is said to be in a teneral condition until the process of tanning is completed (usually a day or two).‡ A newly molted insect is soft and largely unpigmented (white or ivory).

sclerotization of new exocuticle .shedding the old exo.Summary of Molting ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9: Apolysis -.separation of old exoskeleton from epidermis Secretion of inactive molting fluid by epidermis Production of cuticulin layer for new exoskeleton Activation of molting fluid Digestion and absorption of old endocuticle Epidermis secretes new procuticle Ecdysis -.and epicuticle exoExpansion of new integument Tanning -.

.Exoskeleton traits ‡ fixed in size ‡ new exoskeleton  Incorporates the changes that are part of metamorphosis.  Initially soft and is larger than the old exoskeleton.

‡ Stages between each molt are called instars.  first stage which emerged from the egg is the first instar or nymph.may be four or five instars before the adult stage is reached . -.to grow must shed its skin or molt -.

Cicada Ecdysis An adult cicada (Homoptera) just after molting .

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