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Javascript Tutorial
Contributed by Bogdan V Friday, 01 September 2006 Last Updated Wednesday, 04 July 2007

{mos_sb_discuss:23}

JavaScript is used in millions of Web pages to improve the design, validate forms, detect browsers, create cookies, and much more.

{mosgoogle} JavaScript is the most popular scripting language on the internet, and works in all major browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox, Netscape, Opera. What You Should Already Know

Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:

* HTML / XHTML

What is JavaScript?

* JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages * JavaScript is a scripting language (a scripting language is a lightweight programming language) * A JavaScript consists of lines of executable computer code * A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages * JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) * Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license

Are Java and JavaScript the Same?

NO!
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Java and JavaScript are two completely different languages in both concept and design!

Java (developed by Sun Microsystems) is a powerful and much more complex programming language - in the same category as C and C++.

What can a JavaScript Do?

* JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - HTML authors are normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages * JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page - A JavaScript statement like this: document.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page * JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element * JavaScript can read and write HTML elements - A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element * JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server, this will save the server from extra processing * JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser, and - depending on the browser - load another page specifically designed for that browser * JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer

JavaScript How To ...

The HTML <script> tag is used to insert a JavaScript into an HTML page.

How to Put a JavaScript Into an HTML Page

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!")
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</script> </body> </html>

The code above will produce this output on an HTML page: Hello World!

Example Explained

To insert a JavaScript into an HTML page, we use the <script> tag (also use the type attribute to define the scripting language). So, the <script type="text/javascript"> and </script> tells where the JavaScript starts and ends:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> ... </script> </body> </html>

The word document.write is a standard JavaScript command for writing output to a page. By entering the document.write command between the <script type="text/javascript"> and </script> tags, the browser will recognize it as a JavaScript command and execute the code line. In this case the browser will write Hello World! to the page:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!") </script> </body> </html>
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we may use the HTML comment tag: <script type="text/javascript"> <!-document. and just write the entire line on the page.write("Hello World!") command as pure text.Programming Help.webdotdev. Videos. each code statement has to end with a semicolon. How to Handle Older Browsers Browsers that do not support JavaScript will display the script as page content. This is not always what we want. To prevent them from doing this. Articles. Many programmers continue this habit when writing JavaScript. OS System Help. {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Where To}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} JavaScripts in the body section will be executed WHILE the page loads. but in general. This prevents the JavaScript compiler from compiling the line.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. http://www.write("Hello World!") //--> </script> The two forward slashes at the end of comment line (//) are a JavaScript comment symbol. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads. JavaScripts in the head section will be executed when CALLED. semicolons are required if you want to put more than one statement on a single line. 2010. Ending Statements With a Semicolon? With traditional programming languages. Where to Put the JavaScript JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. semicolons are optional! However. like C++ and Java. Books-Web Dot Dev Note: If we had not entered the <script> tag. 14:29 . other times when a user triggers an event. the browser would have treated the document.

Articles.. Videos.. OS System Help.. When you place a script in the head section. </script> http://www.webdotdev.Programming Help. </script> </body> Scripts in both the body and the head section: You can place an unlimited number of scripts in your document.. <html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.. </script> </head> Scripts in the body section: Scripts to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . Books-Web Dot Dev Scripts in the head section: Scripts to be executed when they are called. go in the head section.. or when an event is triggered.. 14:29 .. <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> . you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it. so you can have scripts in both the body and the head section. 2010. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page..

OS System Help... Videos. 14:29 .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Books-Web Dot Dev </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> . Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script. Articles..js file extension. </script> </body> Using an External JavaScript Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages. you can write a JavaScript in an external file. 2010. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js" mce_src="xxx.Programming Help. point to the .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag: <html> <head> <script xsrc="xxx.webdotdev.js"></script> </head> <body> </body> </html> Note: Remember to place the script exactly where you normally would write the script! {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Variables}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} http://www. To simplify this. without having to write the same script on every page.

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A variable is a "container" for information you want to store.

Variables

A variable is a "container" for information you want to store. A variable's value can change during the script. You can refer to a variable by name to see its value or to change its value.

Rules for variable names:

* Variable names are case sensitive * They must begin with a letter or the underscore character

IMPORTANT! JavaScript is case-sensitive! A variable named strname is not the same as a variable named STRNAME! Declare a Variable

You can create a variable with the var statement:

var strname = some value

You can also create a variable without the var statement:

strname = some value

Assign a Value to a Variable

You can assign a value to a variable like this:

var strname = "Hege"

Or like this:

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strname = "Hege"

The variable name is on the left side of the expression and the value you want to assign to the variable is on the right. Now the variable "strname" has the value "Hege".

Lifetime of Variables

When you declare a variable within a function, the variable can only be accessed within that function. When you exit the function, the variable is destroyed. These variables are called local variables. You can have local variables with the same name in different functions, because each is recognized only by the function in which it is declared. If you declare a variable outside a function, all the functions on your page can access it. The lifetime of these variables starts when they are declared, and ends when the page is closed.

{mospagebreak title=JavaScript If...Else Statements}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle}

Conditional statements in JavaScript are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.

Conditional Statements

Very often when you write code, you want to perform different actions for different decisions. You can use conditional statements in your code to do this. In JavaScript we have the following conditional statements:

if statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code only if a specified condition is true if...else statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code if the condition is true and another code if the condition is false if...else if....else statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed switch statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed

If Statement

You should use the if statement if you want to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.
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Syntax

if (condition) { code to be executed if condition is true }

Note that if is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters (IF) will generate a JavaScript error!

Example 1

<script type="text/javascript"> //Write a "Good morning" greeting if //the time is less than 10

var d=new Date() var time=d.getHours()

if (time<10) { document.write("Good morning") } </script>

Example 2

<script type="text/javascript"> //Write "Lunch-time!" if the time is 11

var d=new Date()
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http://www.else statement..else Statement If you want to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is not true. in this syntax..... 2010.. You just tell the code to execute some code only if the specified condition is true. use the if.webdotdev.else. 14:29 . Syntax if (condition) { code to be executed if condition is true } else { code to be executed if condition is not true } Example <script type="text/javascript"> //If the time is less than 10.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. OS System Help.write("Lunch-time!") } </script> Note: When comparing variables you must always use two equals signs next to each other (==)! Notice that there is no . If.. Videos.getHours() if (time==11) { document. Articles. //you will get a "Good morning" greeting.Programming Help. Books-Web Dot Dev var time=d.

..webdotdev. Syntax if (condition1) { code to be executed if condition1 is true } else if (condition2) { code to be executed if condition2 is true } else { http://www.else statement if you want to select one of many sets of lines to execute.else Statement You should use the if..write("Good morning!") } else { document.else if...else if. var d = new Date() var time = d.getHours() if (time < 10) { document.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October... Videos. OS System Help.write("Good day!") } </script> If. Books-Web Dot Dev //Otherwise you will get a "Good day" greeting. 2010.. 14:29 ..Programming Help. Articles.

write("Hello World!") } </script> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Switch Statement}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Conditional statements in JavaScript are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.write("Good day") } else { document.webdotdev.write("Good morning") } else if (time>10 && time<16) { document. http://www. 2010. The JavaScript Switch Statement You should use the switch statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed. Videos.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.getHours() if (time<10) { document. Articles.Programming Help. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev code to be executed if condition1 and condition2 are not true } Example <script type="text/javascript"> var d = new Date() var time = d. OS System Help.

Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically. Example <script type="text/javascript"> //You will receive a different greeting based //on what day it is. Tuesday=2. var d=new Date() theDay=d. etc. Note that Sunday=0. OS System Help.Programming Help. 2010. The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure. that is evaluated once. //Monday=1. If there is a match.getDay() switch (theDay) { http://www. Articles. Videos.webdotdev. Books-Web Dot Dev Syntax switch(n) { case 1: execute code block 1 break case 2: execute code block 2 break default: code to be executed if n is different from case 1 and 2 } This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable). the block of code associated with that case is executed. 14:29 .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.

Books-Web Dot Dev case 5: document.write("Finally Friday") break case 6: document.Programming Help.write("I'm looking forward to this weekend!") } </script> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Operators}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Operator Description Example Result + Additionx=2 y=2 x+y 4 Subtraction x=2 y=2 x+y 3 * Multiplication x=5 http://www. OS System Help.webdotdev.write("Super Saturday") break case 0: document. 2010.write("Sleepy Sunday") break default: document. Articles. 14:29 .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Videos.

5 3 % Modulus (division remainder) 5%2 10%8 10%2 1 2 0 ++ Increment x=5 x++ x=6 -Decrement x=5 x-- http://www. 2010.Programming Help. 14:29 . OS System Help. Books-Web Dot Dev y=4 x*y 20 / Division 15/5 5/2 5/2 2. Videos.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.webdotdev. Articles.

2010. Articles.Programming Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Videos. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev x=4 Assignment Operators OperatorExample Is The Same As= x=y x=y += x+=y x=x+y -= x-=y x=x-y *= x*=y x=x*y /= x/=y x=x/y %= x%=y x=x%y Comparison Operators OperatorDescription Example http://www. OS System Help.webdotdev.

Books-Web Dot Dev == is equal to 5==8 returns false === is equal to (checks for both value and type) x=5 y="5" x==y returns true x===y returns false != is not equal 5!=8 returns true > is greater than 5>8 returns false < Is less than 5<8 returns true Logical Operators Operator DescriptionExample &&And x=6 y=3 (x < 10 && y > 1) returns true || http://www. Articles. 2010.Programming Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.webdotdev. Videos. 14:29 . OS System Help.

webdotdev. To add a space between two string variables. use the + operator. To stick two or more string variables together. 2010. 14:29 . txt1="What a very" txt2="nice day!" txt3=txt1+txt2 The variable txt3 now contains "What a verynice day!". Videos. OR in one of the strings. insert a space into the expression. OS System Help. Articles.Programming Help. for example "Hello World!".com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. txt1="What a very" txt2="nice day!" txt3=txt1+" "+txt2 or http://www. Books-Web Dot Dev Or x=6 y=3 (x==5 || y==5) returns false ! Not x=6 y=3 !(x==y) returns true String Operator A string is most often text.

Books-Web Dot Dev txt1="What a very " txt2="nice day!" txt3=txt1+txt2 The variable txt3 now contains "What a very nice day!". http://www. Syntax variablename=(condition)?value1:value2 Example greeting=(visitor=="PRES")?"Dear President ":"Dear " If the variable visitor is equal to PRES.webdotdev. If the variable visitor is not equal to PRES.Programming Help. When an alert box pops up. Conditional Operator JavaScript also contains a conditional operator that assigns a value to a variable based on some condition. the user will have to click "OK" to proceed. then put the string "Dear " into the variable named greeting. then put the string "Dear President " in the variable named greeting. Confirm box. Videos. OS System Help. 14:29 . and Prompt box.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Alert Box An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. 2010. Articles. {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Popup Boxes}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} In JavaScript we can create three kind of popup boxes: Alert box.

If the user clicks "OK". When a prompt box pops up. 14:29 . Videos. If the user clicks "Cancel" the box returns null. Articles."defaultvalue") {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Functions}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} http://www. 2010. Books-Web Dot Dev Syntax: alert("sometext") Confirm Box A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. OS System Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. Syntax: confirm("sometext") Prompt Box A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.webdotdev. the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. the box returns true. Syntax: prompt("sometext".Programming Help. the box returns false. When a confirm box pops up. If the user clicks "Cancel". the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.

Videos. Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!") } </script> </head> <body> http://www. Functions are defined at the beginning of a page. 14:29 . Articles.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 2010.Programming Help. or when the function is called. Examples A function with arguments.js file). that returns a value How to let the function find the product of 2 arguments and return the result. Books-Web Dot Dev A function is a reusable code-block that will be executed by an event.webdotdev. OS System Help. JavaScript Functions To keep the browser from executing a script as soon as the page is loaded. in the <head> section. You may call a function from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external . you can write your script as a function. A function contains some code that will be executed only by an event or by a call to that function.

The { and the } defines the start and end of the function..Programming Help. Books-Web Dot Dev <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html> If the line: alert("Hello world!!"). Now. You will learn more about JavaScript events in the JS Events chapter.var2. the script is not executed before the user hits the button.. var2.webdotdev. 2010.. in the example above had not been written within a function. it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Videos.varX) { some code } var1..com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 14:29 . OS System Help. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. etc are variables or values passed into the function. Note: A function with no parameters must include the parentheses () after the function name: function functionname() { some code } http://www. Articles. How to Define a Function The syntax for creating a function is: function functionname(var1.

Books-Web Dot Dev Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters. So.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 14:29 . OS System Help. you must pass along two parameters: product=prod(2. otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.b) { x=a*b return x } When you call the function above.3) The returned value from the prod() function is 6. 2010.webdotdev. functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.Programming Help. JavaScript Loops http://www. Example The function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b): function prod(a. {mospagebreak title=JavaScript For Loop}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Loops in JavaScript are used to execute the same block of code a specified number of times or while a specified condition is true. Videos. and it will be stored in the variable called product. The return Statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. Articles.

and the <= could be any comparing statement. In JavaScript there are two different kind of loops: for .loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true The for Loop The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run.var<=endvalue. 2010. 14:29 . Articles. Videos. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.Programming Help. or equal to 10. Note: The increment parameter could also be negative. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than.webdotdev. OS System Help. Syntax for (var=startvalue.var=var+increment) { code to be executed } Example Explanation: The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0.loops through a block of code a specified number of times while . you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row. Books-Web Dot Dev Very often when you write code. <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0 http://www.

write("The number is " + i) document.i<=10. {mospagebreak title=JavaScript While Loop}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Loops in JavaScript are used to execute the same block of code a specified number of times or while a specified condition is true.i++) { document. Articles. 2010.Programming Help. Videos.write("<br />") } </script> </body> </html> Result The number is 0 The number is 1 The number is 2 The number is 3 The number is 4 The number is 5 The number is 6 The number is 7 The number is 8 The number is 9 The number is 10 The while loop The while loop will be explained in the next chapter. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev for (i=0.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. OS System Help.webdotdev. http://www.

com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Books-Web Dot Dev The while loop The while loop is used when you want the loop to execute and continue executing while the specified condition is true. <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0 while (i<=10) { document. Articles. OS System Help. while (var<=endvalue) { code to be executed } Note: The <= could be any comparing statement.write("The number is " + i) document. or equal to 10. Videos. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than. Example Explanation: The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0.write("<br />") i=i+1 } </script> </body> </html> http://www. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs.webdotdev. 2010. 14:29 .Programming Help.

OS System Help. and then it will repeat the loop as long as the specified condition is true. because the code is executed before the condition is tested. even if the condition is false.. Articles.while loop is a variant of the while loop.webdotdev..com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.Programming Help. 2010.. Books-Web Dot Dev Result The number is 0 The number is 1 The number is 2 The number is 3 The number is 4 The number is 5 The number is 6 The number is 7 The number is 8 The number is 9 The number is 10 The do. This loop will always be executed at least once. 14:29 . This loop will always execute a block of code ONCE. Videos.. do { code to be executed } while (var<=endvalue) Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> http://www.while Loop The do.

OS System Help.in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object.. JavaScript For. Articles... 2010.write("The number is " + i) document.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 14:29 .write("<br />") i=i+1 } while (i<0) </script> </body> </html> Result The number is 0 {mospagebreak title=JavaScript For. The code in the body of the for .Programming Help.In Statement The for..in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object...webdotdev. Syntax for (variable in object) { code to be executed http://www. in loop is executed once for each element/property.. Videos.. Books-Web Dot Dev var i=0 do { document.In Statement}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} The for...

OS System Help. 14:29 .webdotdev.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.Programming Help. or a property of an object. Articles. an array element.in to loop through an array: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x var mycars = new Array() mycars[0] = "Saab" mycars[1] = "Volvo" mycars[2] = "BMW" for (x in mycars) { document. http://www. Books-Web Dot Dev } The variable argument can be a named variable. 2010. Videos.write(mycars[x] + "<br />") } </script> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Events} {mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript... Example Using for.

For example. and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The name is then stored in a cookie. We define the events in the HTML tags. OS System Help. we have the ability to create dynamic web pages. you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".webdotdev. Videos. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. onFocus. Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript. onBlur and onChange http://www. and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. 2010. For example. Books-Web Dot Dev Events By using JavaScript. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. 14:29 . you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.Programming Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version. Articles. Examples of events: * A mouse click * A web page or an image loading * Mousing over a hot spot on the web page * Selecting an input box in an HTML form * Submitting an HTML form * A keystroke The following table lists the events recognized by JavaScript: Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions.

gif" width="100" height="30"> http://www. If it returns true the form will be submitted. otherwise the submit will be cancelled: <form method="post" action="xxx.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.gif" mce_src="webdotdev. If the field values are not accepted. Books-Web Dot Dev The onFocus. onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. 2010. The function checkForm() returns either true or false.Programming Help. the submit should be cancelled.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver event').webdotdev. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected: <a xhref="http://www. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. OS System Help. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. onSubmit The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()"> onMouseOver and onMouseOut onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Articles. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field: <input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">. Videos.return false"> <img xsrc="webdotdev. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form.webdotdev. 14:29 .com" mce_href="http://www.webdotdev.

Mozilla 1.. When users see errors.Catch Statement The try.Programming Help.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages.Catch Statement}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} The try. Syntax try { //Run some code here } http://www.webdotdev. 2010. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page: By using the try. so you don't lose your audience... The try block contains the code to be run.catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.. Videos. Articles..0. but not for the users. JavaScript .catch statement (available in IE5+... Books-Web Dot Dev </a> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Try. and asking: "Do you wish to debug?" on some pages. telling you there is a runtime error.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.. and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs. OS System Help.. 14:29 .Catching Errors When browsing Web pages on the internet. Error message like that may be useful for developers. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3) Try. I guess we have all seen a JavaScript alert box.. they often leave the Web page.

14:29 .. there's a typo in the message() function. However. A JavaScript error occurs: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function message() { adddlert("Welcome guest!") } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> To take more appropriate action when an error occurs.. Articles.catch statement. 2010. alert() is misspelled as adddlert(). you can add a try. The example below contains the "Welcome guest!" example rewritten to use the try.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.catch statement. However... a JavaScript error occurs..Programming Help. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error! Example 1 The example below contains a script that is supposed to display the message "Welcome guest!" when you click on a button. this time. the catch block catches http://www.webdotdev. Since alert() is misspelled. Books-Web Dot Dev catch(err) { //Handle errors here } Note that try.catch is written in lowercase letters. OS System Help.. Videos.

Books-Web Dot Dev the error and executes a custom code to handle it. 2010. The code displays a custom error message informing the user what happened: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!") } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.nn" txt+="Error description: " + err. Articles.nn" alert(txt) } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> Example 2 The next example uses a confirm box to display a custom message telling http://www.Programming Help.webdotdev. OS System Help.description + "nn" txt+="Click OK to continue. Videos. 14:29 .

webdotdev. If the confirm method returns true.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.Programming Help.com/" } } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> http://www.com/" mce_href="http://www.nn" txt+="Click OK to continue viewing this page. If the confirm method returns false. Books-Web Dot Dev users they can click OK to continue viewing the page or click Cancel to go to the homepage. 14:29 . 2010.n" txt+="or Cancel to return to the home page.w3schools.w3schools. Articles. the user clicked Cancel. and the code redirects the user. the code does nothing: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!") } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.nn" if(!confirm(txt)) { document. Videos.location. OS System Help.href="http://www.

Books-Web Dot Dev The onerror Event The onerror event will be explained soon. Boolean or an object. If the value of x is higher than 10 or lower than 0 we are going to throw an error. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error! Example 1 The example below determines the value of a variable called x....Programming Help. Syntax throw(exception) The exception can be a string. Note that throw is written in lowercase letters. If you use this statement together with the try. Videos. {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Throw Statement}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} The throw statement allows you to create an exception. The error is then caught by the catch argument and the proper error message is displayed: http://www. 2010. OS System Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Articles. 14:29 .webdotdev.catch statement. The Throw Statement The throw statement allows you to create an exception..catch statement. integer. but first you will learn how to use the throw statement to create an exception. you can control program flow and generate accurate error messages. The throw statement can be used together with the try.

"") try { if(x>10) throw "Err1" else if(x<0) throw "Err2" } catch(er) { if(er=="Err1") alert("Error! The value is too high") if(er == "Err2") alert("Error! The value is too low") } </script> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript The onerror Event}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Using the onerror event is the old standard solution to catch errors in a web page. http://www.Programming Help.catch statement to catch errors in a web page. 2010. 14:29 .. Videos. Articles.webdotdev.. Books-Web Dot Dev <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x=prompt("Enter a number between 0 and 10:".com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Now we are going to explain how to use the onerror event for the same purpose. The onerror Event We have just explained how to use the try. The onerror event is fired whenever there is a script error in the page. OS System Help.

Videos. Articles. you must create a function to handle the errors.url.Programming Help. 2010. Example The following example shows how to catch the error with the onerror event: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> onerror=handleErr var txt="" function handleErr(msg.l) { txt="There was an error on this page. the browser displays the standard error message in the JavaScript console. OS System Help.l) { //Handle the error here return true or false } The value returned by onerror determines whether the browser displays a standard error message. Then you call the function with the onerror event handler.webdotdev. If you return false. If you return true. Syntax onerror=handleErr function handleErr(msg. The event handler is called with three arguments: msg (error message). the browser does not display the standard error message.url.nn" http://www.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Books-Web Dot Dev To use the onerror event. url (the url of the page that caused the error) and line (the line where the error occurred). 14:29 .

nn" alert(txt) return true } function message() { adddlert("Welcome guest!") } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Special Characters}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign. and other special characters into a text string. 14:29 .webdotdev. Articles. 2010. quotes.Programming Help. Videos. OS System Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Books-Web Dot Dev txt+="Error: " + msg + "n" txt+="URL: " + url + "n" txt+="Line: " + l + "nn" txt+="Click OK to continue. Look at the following JavaScript code: http://www. Insert Special Characters The backslash () is used to insert apostrophes. new lines.

This means that the string above will be chopped to: We are the so-called To solve this problem.write(txt) JavasScript will now output the proper text string: We are the so-called "Vikings" from the north. Books-Web Dot Dev var txt="We are the so-called "Vikings" from the north.write ("You & me are singing!") The example above will produce the following output: You & me are singing! The table below lists other special characters that can be added to a text string with the backslash sign: Code ' " & Outputs single quote double quote Ampersand Backslash n r t new line carriage return Tab Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Articles. Here is another example: document.Programming Help.write(txt) In JavaScript.com/nvd ." document. 14:29 http://www." document. a string is started and stopped with either single or double quotes. This turns each double quote into a string literal: var txt="We are the so-called "Vikings" from the north. you must place a backslash () before each double quote in "Viking". OS System Help. 2010. Videos.webdotdev.

White Space JavaScript ignores extra spaces.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Videos. 2010. The example below will be displayed properly: document. 14:29 . JavaScript is case sensitive .therefore watch your capitalization closely when you create or call variables. objects and functions. you cannot break up a code line like this: http://www. Books-Web Dot Dev b f Backspace form feed JavaScript Guidelines Some other important things to know when scripting with JavaScript.webdotdev.Programming Help. OS System Help. JavaScript is Case Sensitive A function named "myfunction" is not the same as "myFunction" and a variable named "myVar" is not the same as "myvar". The following lines are equivalent: name="Hege" name = "Hege" Break up a Code Line You can break up a code line within a text string with a backslash.write("Hello World!") However. Articles. You can add white space to your script to make it more readable.

An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. 14:29 . creating your own objects will be explained later. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. http://www.write ("Hello World!") Comments You can add comments to your script by using two slashes //: //this is a comment document. Object Oriented Programming JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. 2010.write("Hello World!") or by using /* and */ (this creates a multi-line comment block): /* This is a comment block.Programming Help. However. Articles. Books-Web Dot Dev document.write("Hello World!") {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Objects Introduction}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language.webdotdev. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. in the Advanced JavaScript section. Videos. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. It contains several lines */ document. OS System Help. and how they are used.

com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev Note that an object is just a special kind of data. Articles. Videos. Properties Properties are the values associated with an object. OS System Help.Programming Help.webdotdev.length) </script> The output of the code above will be: 12 Methods Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects.write(txt. An object has properties and methods. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string: <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!" document. 2010. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters: <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!" http://www.

Videos. String object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. 2010. Examples of use: The following example uses the length property of the String object to find the length of a string: var txt="Hello world!" document.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.write(str.webdotdev. OS System Help.toUpperCase()) </script> The output of the code above will be: HELLO WORLD! {mospagebreak title=JavaScript String Object}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text.write(txt.length) The code above will result in the following output: 12 The following example uses the toUpperCase() method of the String object to convert a string to uppercase letters: var txt="Hello world!" http://www.Programming Help. Articles. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev document.

com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. In the example below we set a Date object to a specific date (14th January 2010): var myDate=new Date() myDate. We define a Date object with the new keyword.setFullYear(2010.0. 14:29 . Articles. OS System Help. Videos. The following code line defines a Date object called myDate: var myDate=new Date() Note: The Date object will automatically hold the current date and time as its initial value! Manipulate Dates We can easily manipulate the date by using the methods available for the Date object.write(txt. 2010.toUpperCase()) The code above will result in the following output: HELLO WORLD! {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Date Object}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Defining Dates The Date object is used to work with dates and times.Programming Help.webdotdev.14) And in the following example we set a Date object to be 5 days into the future: http://www. Books-Web Dot Dev document.

Programming Help. We define an Array object with the new keyword.getDate()+5) Note: If adding five days to a date shifts the month or year. Books-Web Dot Dev var myDate=new Date() myDate.setDate(myDate.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.webdotdev. Articles.14) var today = new Date() if (myDate>today) alert("Today is before 14th January 2010") else alert("Today is after 14th January 2010") {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Array Object}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Defining Arrays The Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. The following code line defines an Array object called myArray: var myArray=new Array() http://www. The following example compares today's date with the 14th January 2010: var myDate=new Date() myDate. 2010. the changes are handled automatically by the Date object itself! Comparing Dates The Date object is also used to compare two dates.setFullYear(2010. OS System Help. Videos.0. 14:29 .

14:29 . Articles. The following code line: document. The index number starts at 0. Books-Web Dot Dev There are two ways of adding values to an array (you can add as many values as you need to define as many variables you require).webdotdev.write(mycars[0]) will result in the following output: http://www. OS System Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 2010."BMW") Note: If you specify numbers or true/false values inside the array then the type of variables will be numeric or Boolean instead of string. Videos.Programming Help."Volvo". var mycars=new Array() mycars[0]="Saab" mycars[1]="Volvo" mycars[2]="BMW" You could also pass an integer argument to control the array's size: var mycars=new Array(3) mycars[0]="Saab" mycars[1]="Volvo" mycars[2]="BMW" var mycars=new Array("Saab". Accessing Arrays You can refer to a particular element in an array by referring to the name of the array and the index number.

The Boolean object is used to convert a non-Boolean value to a Boolean value (true or false). Articles.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. OS System Help. We define a Boolean object with the new keyword. Books-Web Dot Dev Saab Modify Values in Existing Arrays To modify a value in an existing array.webdotdev. just add a new value to the array with a specified index number: mycars[0]="Opel" Now. Boolean Object The Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value.write(mycars[0]) will result in the following output: Opel {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Boolean Object}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} The Boolean object is used to convert a non-Boolean value to a Boolean value (true or false). 14:29 . 2010. The following code line defines a Boolean object called myBoolean: http://www.Programming Help. the following code line: document. Videos.

Mathematical Values http://www. Videos. false. or NaN. -0.webdotdev.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. You do not need to define the Math object before using it. Books-Web Dot Dev var myBoolean=new Boolean() Note: If the Boolean object has no initial value or if it is 0. the object is set to false. The Math object includes several mathematical values and functions. 2010. null. Otherwise it is true (even with the string "false")! All the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of false: var myBoolean=new Boolean() var myBoolean=new Boolean(0) var myBoolean=new Boolean(null) var myBoolean=new Boolean("") var myBoolean=new Boolean(false) var myBoolean=new Boolean(NaN) And all the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of true: var myBoolean=new Boolean(true) var myBoolean=new Boolean("true") var myBoolean=new Boolean("false") var myBoolean=new Boolean("Richard") {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Math Object}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Math Object The Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. undefined. 14:29 . OS System Help. Articles. "".Programming Help.

square root of 2. Examples of functions (methods): The following example uses the round() method of the Math object to round a number to the nearest integer: document.7)) The code above will result in the following output: 5 http://www. and base-10 log of E. Books-Web Dot Dev JavaScript provides eight mathematical values (constants) that can be accessed from the Math object.SQRT2 Math.E Math.LN2 Math. Videos.LOG2E Math. 2010. Articles. PI.PI Math.LN10 Math. natural log of 2.webdotdev. OS System Help. These are: E. base-2 log of E.SQRT1_2 Math. You may reference these values from your JavaScript like this: Math. natural log of 10.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.write(Math. square root of 1/2.Programming Help.round(4. 14:29 .LOG10E Mathematical Methods In addition to the mathematical values that can be accessed from the Math object there are also several functions (methods) available.

webdotdev.random()) The code above can result in the following output: 0. there are some things that just don't work on certain browsers .write(Math.specially on older browsers. http://www. Books-Web Dot Dev The following example uses the random() method of the Math object to return a random number between 0 and 1: document. 14:29 .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.random()*11)) The code above can result in the following output: 7 {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Browser Detection}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} Browser Detection Almost everything in this tutorial works on all JavaScript-enabled browsers. Articles.Programming Help.floor(Math. and then serve up the appropriate information. 2010.write(Math. Videos. OS System Help. However. So. sometimes it can be very useful to detect the visitor's browser type and version. The best way to do this is to make your web pages smart enough to look one way to some browsers and another way to other browsers.6541642429235167 The following example uses the floor() and random() methods of the Math object to return a random number between 0 and 10: document.

Articles.e. among other things. the version of the browser Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var browser=navigator.appVersion var version=parseFloat(b_version) document.appName var b_version=navigator. i.write("Browser version: "+ version) </script> </body> </html> The variable browser in the example above holds the name of the browser. Books-Web Dot Dev JavaScript includes an object called the Navigator object. The appVersion property in the example above returns a string that contains much more information than just the version number.holds. "Netscape" or "Microsoft Internet Explorer". 14:29 . We are going to look at two properties of the Navigator object: appName .write("<br />") document. The Navigator object contains information about the visitor's browser name. that can be used for this purpose. The Navigator Object The JavaScript Navigator object contains all information about the visitor's browser. and more.Programming Help.webdotdev. browser version. OS System Help. 2010. but for http://www. Videos.holds the name of the browser appVersion .write("Browser name: "+ browser) document.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.

webdotdev. To pull the version number out of the string we are using a function called parseFloat(). which pulls the first thing that looks like a decimal number out of a string and returns it. Example: The script below displays a different alert. in IE 5.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.0.0 and IE 6. 14:29 .0 or later! Microsoft starts the appVersion string with the number 4. IMPORTANT! The version number is WRONG in IE 5. 2010. Articles.appVersion var version=parseFloat(b_version) if ((browser=="Netscape"||browser=="Microsoft Internet Explorer") && (version>=4)) {alert("Your browser is good enough!")} else {alert("It's time to upgrade your browser!")} } </script> </head> <body onload="detectBrowser()"> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Cookies}{mos_sb_discuss:23} http://www. Videos. JavaScript is the same in IE6. so for most scripts it is ok.0!!! Why did they do that??? However. IE5 and IE4.Programming Help. Books-Web Dot Dev now we are only interested in the version number. depending on the visitor's browser: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function detectBrowser() { var browser=navigator. OS System Help.appName var b_version=navigator.

he or she could get a message like "Your last visit was on Tuesday August 11.expiredays) { var exdate=new Date() http://www. 2005!" The date is retrieved from the stored cookie Create and Store a Cookie In this example we will create a cookie that stores the name of a visitor. What is a Cookie? A cookie is a variable that is stored on the visitor's computer. The next time the visitor arrives at the same page.webdotdev. Examples of cookies: Name cookie . 2010. Next time the visitor arrives at your page.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.value.The first time a visitor arrives to your web page. the password is retrieved from the cookie Date cookie . he or she must fill in a password. The name is then stored in a cookie. First. With JavaScript. you can both create and retrieve cookie values. we create a function that stores the name of the visitor in a cookie variable: function setCookie(c_name. The password is then stored in a cookie.The first time a visitor arrives to your web page. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. the current date is stored in a cookie. he or she must fill in her/his name. Books-Web Dot Dev {mosgoogle} A cookie is often used to identify a user. it will send the cookie too. Articles. he or she could get a welcome message like "Welcome John Doe!" The name is retrieved from the stored cookie Password cookie .The first time a visitor arrives to your web page. 14:29 . OS System Help. Each time the same computer requests a page with a browser.Programming Help. he or she will get welcome message. Videos. he or she will be asked to fill in her/his name. The name is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page. The first time a visitor arrives to the web page.

length+1 c_end=document. Then. then return the value. then we add the number of days until the cookie should expire. if not .indexOf(c_name + "=") if (c_start!=-1) { c_start=c_start + c_name. After that we store the cookie name.c_end)) } } return null } The function above first checks if a cookie is stored at all in the document.cookie=c_name+ "=" +escape(value)+ ((expiredays==null) ? "" : ".length>0) { c_start=document.length return unescape(document.cookie. 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev exdate. In the function above we first convert the number of days to a valid date. then check to see if our specific cookie is stored.setDate(expiredays) document.cookie.webdotdev.substring(c_start.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.expires="+exdate) } The parameters of the function above holds the name of the cookie.cookie.cookie object holds some cookies.". 2010.cookie object. If our cookie is found. the value of the cookie.cookie.indexOf(". OS System Help.c_start) if (c_end==-1) c_end=document.Programming Help. Videos.return null. If the document. Articles. and the number of days until the cookie expires. http://www. we create another function that checks if the cookie has been set: function getCookie(c_name) { if (document.cookie object.cookie. cookie value and the expiration date in the document.

Programming Help."") if (username!=null||username!="") { setCookie('username'. 2010. we create the function that displays a welcome message if the cookie is set. Videos. asking for the name of the user: function checkCookie() { username=getCookie('username') if (username!=null) {alert('Welcome again '+username+'!')} else { username=prompt('Please enter your name:'.username.length+1 http://www. and if the cookie is not set it will display a prompt box.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 14:29 . OS System Help.cookie.365) } } } All together now: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function getCookie(c_name) { if (document.cookie. Books-Web Dot Dev Last.length>0) { c_start=document.indexOf(c_name + "=") if (c_start!=-1) { c_start=c_start + c_name.webdotdev. Articles.

indexOf(".". Videos.webdotdev.c_start) if (c_end==-1) c_end=document.c_end)) } } return null } function setCookie(c_name.username.expiredays) { var exdate=new Date() exdate.length return unescape(document. 2010.cookie. Books-Web Dot Dev c_end=document.cookie.getTime()+(expiredays*24*3600*1000)) document. expires="+exdate) } function checkCookie() { username=getCookie('username') if (username!=null) {alert('Welcome again '+username+'!')} else { username=prompt('Please enter your name:'. 14:29 .cookie=c_name+ "=" +escape(value)+ ((expiredays==null) ? "" : ".setTime(exdate. OS System Help.Programming Help. Articles.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October."") if (username!=null||username!="") { setCookie('username'.substring(c_start.cookie.365) } } } </script> </head> http://www.value.

Books-Web Dot Dev <body onLoad="checkCookie()"> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Form Validation}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} JavaScript can be used to validate input data in HTML forms before sending off the content to a server. If the required field is blank. If a value is entered. Form data that typically are checked by a JavaScript could be: has the user left required fields empty? has the user entered a valid e-mail address? has the user entered a valid date? has the user entered text in a numeric field? Required Fields The function below checks if a required field has been left empty.Programming Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.webdotdev. the function returns true (means that data is OK): function validate_required(field. an alert box alerts a message and the function returns false.alerttxt) { with (field) { if (value==null||value=="") {alert(alerttxt). JavaScript Form Validation JavaScript can be used to validate input data in HTML forms before sending off the content to a server. Videos. OS System Help.return false} http://www. Articles. 14:29 . 2010.

return false} else {return true} } } function validate_form(thisform) { with (thisform) { if (validate_required(email.webdotdev. 14:29 . OS System Help.htm" http://www. with the HTML form could look something like this: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function validate_required(field.focus(). Videos. 2010.return false} } } </script> </head> <body> <form action="submitpage.Programming Help.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. Articles."Email must be filled out!")==false) {email.alerttxt) { with (field) { if (value==null||value=="") {alert(alerttxt). Books-Web Dot Dev else {return true} } } The entire script.

alerttxt) { with (field) { apos=value. Articles.return false} else {return true} } } The entire script. Also.webdotdev. Videos. with the HTML form could look something like this: http://www. and the last dot must at least be one character after the @ sign: function validate_email(field.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.") if (apos<1||dotpos-apos<2) {alert(alerttxt).indexOf("@") dotpos=value.lastIndexOf(". 14:29 . Books-Web Dot Dev onsubmit="return validate_form(this)" method="post"> Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"> <input type="submit" value="Submit"> </form> </body> </html> E-mail Validation The function below checks if the content has the general syntax of an email.). the @ must not be the first character of the email address. This means that the input data must contain at least an @ sign and a dot (.Programming Help. 2010. OS System Help.

alerttxt) { with (field) { apos=value.") if (apos<1||dotpos-apos<2) {alert(alerttxt).return false} else {return true} } } function validate_form(thisform) { with (thisform) { if (validate_email(email. Articles.lastIndexOf(".htm" onsubmit="return validate_form(this)" method="post"> Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"> <input type="submit" value="Submit"> http://www. Videos."Not a valid e-mail address!")==false) {email.indexOf("@") dotpos=value.focus(). 2010.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.return false} } } </script> </head> <body> <form action="submitpage.webdotdev. Books-Web Dot Dev <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function validate_email(field. 14:29 . OS System Help.Programming Help.

webdotdev.Programming Help. 14:29 .webdotdev. the browser should execute a function that will replace the image with another image. We will then add an onMouseOver event and an onMouseOut event that will run two JavaScript functions that will change between the images. Articles.com" mce_href="http://www.gif" name="b1" /> </a> Note that we have given the image a name to make it possible for JavaScript to address it later. OS System Help.com" target="_blank" onmouseOver="mouseOver()" onmouseOut="mouseOut()"> <img border="0" alt="Visit webdotdev.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. In the following example we will add an image that should act as a link button on a web page. 2010.Com!" xsrc="b_pink. Books-Web Dot Dev </form> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Animation}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} JavaScript Animation It is possible to use JavaScript to create animated images. Videos. The onMouseOver event tells the browser that once a mouse is rolled over the image. The trick is to let a JavaScript change between different images on different events. The HTML Code The HTML code looks like this: <a xhref="http://www. http://www.gif" mce_src="b_pink.webdotdev.

and not to the <img> tag.src="b_blue.src="b_pink. The function mouseOut() causes the image to shift to "b_pink. Videos. browsers do not support mouse events on images! The JavaScript Code The changing between the images is done with the following JavaScript: <script type="text/javascript"> function mouseOver() { document.gif" } </script> The function mouseOver() causes the image to shift to "b_blue.gif". Unfortunately.Programming Help.gif" mce_src="b_blue.gif" mce_src="b_pink. 14:29 . The Entire Code <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .gif". another JavaScript function should be executed.b1. This function will insert the original image again.webdotdev. Books-Web Dot Dev The onMouseOut event tells the browser that once a mouse is rolled away from the image.b1. IMPORTANT! The mouse events are added to the <a> tag.gif" } function mouseOut() { document.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October. 2010. OS System Help. function mouseOver() { http://www. Articles.

Books-Web Dot Dev document. Clicking on one of the regions takes you to the associated link.gif" mce_src="b_pink.src="b_pink. 2010. OS System Help. Normally.b1.webdotdev.gif" } function mouseOut() { document. with clickable regions. each region has an associated hyperlink. Each of the regions is a hyperlink: <img xsrc="planets. Example The example below demonstrates how to create an HTML image map.gif" mce_src="b_blue.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.webdotdev.gif" name="b1" /> </a> </body> </html> {mospagebreak title=JavaScript Image Maps}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} HTML Image Maps From our HTML tutorial we have learned that an image-map is an image with clickable regions. Articles.webdotdev.gif" } </script> </head> <body> <a xhref="http://www.gif" http://www.gif" mce_src="b_pink.src="b_blue. Videos.gif" mce_src="planets.b1.com" mce_href="http://www. 14:29 .com" target="_blank" onmouseOver="mouseOver()" onmouseOut="mouseOut()"> <img border="0" alt="Visit webdotdev!" xsrc="b_pink.Programming Help.

onDblClick. onFocus. onMouseOut.8" xhref="venus.htm" mce_href="mercur.58. Here's the above example. Videos.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Mercury" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="124. Articles.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Venus" /> </map> Adding some JavaScript We can add events (that can call a JavaScript) to the <area> tags inside the image map. onKeyPress.3" xhref="mercur. 2010. with some JavaScript added: <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function writeText(txt) { document.htm" mce_href="sun. onMouseMove.innerHTML=txt } http://www.126" xhref="sun. The <area> tag supports the onClick. and onBlur events. onKeyUp.82.htm" mce_href="venus. onMouseDown.0. 14:29 . onMouseOver. Books-Web Dot Dev width ="145" height ="126" alt="Planets" usemap ="#planetmap" /> <map id ="planetmap" name="planetmap"> <area shape ="rect" coords ="0.webdotdev. onMouseUp. OS System Help.58.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="90. onKeyDown.getElementById("desc").com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.Programming Help.

htm" target ="_blank" alt="Venus" /> </map> <p id="desc"></p> </body> </html> http://www.82.gif" mce_src="planets.0. and because the two planets seem to share many characteristics. 2010. Books-Web Dot Dev </script> </head> <body> <img xsrc="planets. Videos. 14:29 .Programming Help.58.')" xhref="mercur.')" xhref="sun.58. Venus was often considered a twin sister to the Earth because Venus is the nearest planet to us.htm" mce_href="mercur.8" onMouseOver="writeText('Until the 1960s.3" onMouseOver="writeText('The planet Mercury is very difficult to study from the Earth because it is always so close to the Sun.')" xhref="venus. OS System Help.htm" mce_href="sun.htm" mce_href="venus.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="90. Articles.com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.126" onMouseOver="writeText('The Sun and the gas giant planets like Jupiter are by far the largest objects in our Solar System.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Mercury" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="124.webdotdev.gif" width="145" height="126" alt="Planets" usemap="#planetmap" /> <map id ="planetmap" name="planetmap"> <area shape ="rect" coords ="0.

but after a specified time interval. 14:29 . it is possible to execute some code NOT immediately after a function is called. OS System Help. 2010.Programming Help. Articles. Videos. The two key methods that are used are: setTimeout() . It's very easy to time events in JavaScript. Books-Web Dot Dev [mospagebreak title=JavaScript Timing Events}{mos_sb_discuss:23} {mosgoogle} JavaScript Timing Events With JavaScript.cancels the setTimeout() Note: The setTimeout() and clearTimeout() are both methods of the H http://www.webdotdev. This is called timing events.executes a code some time in the future clearTimeout() .com/nvd Powered by Joomla! Generated: 20 October.

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