y Gypsum - (Greek) - Gypsos - Chalk y Plaster - (French) - Plastre - to mould y Chemically, the gypsum used for dental materials is

pure calcium sulfate hemihydrate, which is achieved by boiling calcium sulfate dihydrate under various temperatures. y This procedure is called calcining y Gypsum CaSO4. 2H2O usually white to yellowish white, found as compact mass.


y Different forms of gypsum has been used for

centuries for construction of various artifacts. y Believed alabaster used in King Solomon¶s Temple of biblical fame is a form of gypsum.

Dental plaster & Dental Stone Production 4 .

1/2H2O Hexagonal anhydrite CaSO4 CaSO4 Phillips.Anusavice .2H2O Gypsum (calcium sulfate dihydrate) Plaster or Stone (calcium sulphate hemihydrates) CaSO4.CALCINING 5 110o-130oC 130o-200oC 200o-1000oC Orthorhombic anhydrite CaSO4. Science of dental materials 11th edi .

.6 y The various forms are alpha ± hemihydrate and beta-hemihydrate. y Gum arabic plus calcium carbonate added to reduce the water requirements y Grinding of hemihydrate after preparation can eliminate needle like crystals which decreases water requirement during mixing.

Compatibility with the impression material V.Michael Bagby . Color VI. Dimensional stability III. Strength and resistance to abrasion IV. Clinical Aspects of Dental Materials . Biocompatibility VII.Economical I.Desirable Properties 7 y These include: Accuracy II.Marcia Gladwin. Easy to use VIII.

Wataha- .Craig. y Small irregularly shaped.denser. more regularly shaped crystals Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi . gypsum under pressure in the presence of water vapor at 125 degree C y Larger .Difference 8 Dental Plaster Dental Stone y Alpha ± Hemihydrate y Also called hydrocal y Obtained by heating y Beta ± Hemihydrate y Obtained by heating gypsum in Open kettle at 110 to 120 degrees C.Powers. and loosely packed crystals.

08 to 0.5 y Compressive strength- y Relatively non-porous.4MPa y Setting expansion ± 0. y W/P ratio: 0.45 to 0.2MPa y Setting expansion ± 0.30% 30MPa y Tensile strength.20 to 0.10% .Difference 9 Dental plaster Dental stone y Porous in nature y W/P ratio: 0.30 y Compressive strength- 12MPa y Tensile strength.28 to 0.

Craig.Powers.Wataha .Differences 10 Dental plaster Dental stone Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi .

This variety is made by boiling gypsum rock in a 30% calcium chloride and magnesium chloride solution. Craig+ Introduction To Dental Materials 3rd Edition Richard Van Noort .after which the chloride is washed away with hot water (100" C) and the material is ground to the desired fineness y These act as deflocculants seperating the particles thereby smoother than stone.Densite 11 y Also called improved stone y Types 4 and 5 high-strength dental stones are manufactured with a high-density raw material called densite.

Setting Reaction

y Exothermic reaction, magnitude of temperature can

be upto 30° C at the center of the set mass y Calcium sulfate hemihydrate is mixed with water to produce calcium sulfate dihydrate.

(CaSO4)2.H2O + 3H2O

2CaSO4.2H2O+ unreacted(CaSO4)2.1/2H2O+ Heat

Phillips, Science of dental materials 11th edi ,Anusavice

Setting Reaction



Apllied dental materials 8th edition John F.McCabe & Angus W.G.Walls

Setting Reaction

Hemihydrate is mixed with water and suspension is formed

Saturation of hemihydrate

Conversion of hemihydrate (solubility rate 0.8%) to form dihydrate

Solubility limit(0.2%) of dihydrate is exceeded

Crystallization of dihydrate
Apllied dental materials 8th edition John F.McCabe & Angus W.G.Walls

Anusavice . thereby entering into an active state. the mass converts into Solid Gel. Science of dental materials 11th edi . In sol state hemihydrates particles are hydrated to form dihydrate. Phillips.THEORIES OF SETTING REACTION 15 y COLLOIDAL THEORY: Also called GEL theory. It states that when mixed with water. plaster enters a colloidal state through Sol-Gel Mechanism. As measured amount of water is consumed. y HYDRATION THEORY: This theory suggests that rehydrated plaster particles join together through hydrogen bonding to the sulfate groups to form the set material.

it received the full support of Jacobus Hendricus vant¶s Hoff. Phillips. Science of dental materials 11th edi .Anusavice . The theory is based on dissolution of plaster and instant recrystallization of gypsum. In 1907. followed by interlocking of the crystals to form the set solid.This is the most widely accepted mechanism.16 y DISSOLUTION-PRECIPITATION THEORY: Proposed in 1887 by Henry Louis Le Chatelier.


y Mixing time for the below are as follows: Mechanical mixing ± 20 to 30 sec Hand spatulation ± 1 minute Phillips. Science of dental materials 11th edi .Anusavice .Mixing Time (MT) 18 y Mixing time is defined as the time from the addition of the powder to the water until the mixing is completed.

Phillips. Science of dental materials 11th edi .Anusavice .Working Time (WT) 19 y It is the time available to use a workable mix. y 3 minutes is adequate. y In case of gypsum it is time that might be needed to pour an impression. one that maintains a uniform consistency to perform one or more tasks.

Setting Time (ST) 20 y y y y The powder is mixed with water. The initial setting time is defined as the time taken for the material to develop sufficient strength such that it will be able to support the lighter needles.F. Science of dental materials 11th edi . & John. Phillips.Anusavice.McCabe et al : Applied Dental Materials .No:25) The time at which the setting reaction is completed. and the time that elapses from the beginning of the mixing until the material hardens is known as the setting time. This is measured by PENETRATION TEST. This is around 8 to 16 min (ANSI/ADA Sp.

y Occurs at approximately 9 minutes. y Material has no measurable compressive strength. Phillips.Anusavice . Science of dental materials 11th edi .Loss Of Gloss For Initial Set 21 y As the reaction proceeds. therefore the needle could be safely removed. excess water is taken up in forming the dihydrate so that the mix loses its gloss.

y Needle is lowered onto the surface. y Event is marked by definite increase in strength. y The time at which it no longer leaves an impression is called the initial set. .Initial Gillmore Test For Initial Set 22 y Smaller needle is used. noted as ³Initial Gillmore´. y The mixture is spread out.

y The Elapsed time at which this needle leaves only a barely perceptible mark on the surface is called the final setting time.Gillmore Test for Final Setting Time 23 y It is done with an heavier needle. y ½ lb needle and 1lb needle are used to check the initial and final setting time respectively.Michael Bagby . ½ lb Needle 1 lb Needle Clinical aspects of dental materials ± Marcia Gladwin.

Powers. the plunger is released.Vicat test for setting time 24 y The next stage is tested with Vicat Penetrometer. y Soon after the gloss is lost.Craig. y The time elapsed until the plunger no longer penetrates to the bottom of the mix is known as the setting time Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi .Wataha- . y The needle of 1mm diameter with the weighed plunger rod of 300g is supported and held just in contact with the mix.

Clinical Aspects of Dental Materials .Michael Bagby . Temperature IV.FACTORS AFFECTING SETTING TIME 25 Spatulation II. W/P ratio III.Marcia Gladwin. Modifiers : Accelerators & Retarders I.

11th Edi.2. the more no. of nuclei.Restorative Dental Materials .. Spatulation Time 26 y Within limits longer and faster the plaster mixed. . * Craig¶s .

W / P Ratio 27 If more water is used.11th Edi. * Craig¶s . . the fewer the nuclei per unit volume.Restorative Dental Materials .3.

y The ratio of solubilities of hemihydrate & dihydrate at 20°C is 4.5°C) . y This is because at this temperature dihdrate becomes more soluble in water. setting time decreases. . as the temperature increases.5.3. Temperature ± 28 y If the room temperature(20 to 25°c) is raised to body temperature(37. the solubility ratio decreases until 100° C reached and the ratio becomes 1.

4. Modifiers 29 y The rate of gypsum setting reaction of gypsum can be altered by adding certain chemicals. Accelerator B. y These are called A. Retarder y The act by changing the solubility of hemihydrate and dihydrate forms . .

.A. y Accelerators used are: Terra alba 0. Sodium sulphate .up to 3 . Potassium sulphate .upto 2 % III.5 t0 1.0% .3 % I. ACCELERATORS 30 y Decreases the setting time.finely ground set gypsum II.upto 2 . Sodium chloride .4 % IV.

y It increases the setting time. y Commonly used retarders are: I.10H2O) .2% II. Potassium citrate III.B.>20% . RETARDERS 31 y It acts by reducing the solubility of calcium sulfate hemihydrate. Borax (Na2B4O7. Sodium chloride .

Manipulation 32 .

. so it is important to keep w / p ratio optimum.MIXING OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS 33 ‡ The strength is the inversely proportional to the W/P ratio.

IV.Wataha . Stiff spatula with round edged blade of 20-25mm width and 100mm length is used. I. II. Required amount of water is added to the moist bowl. This will allow entrapped air in the powder to escape. Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi .Craig.Powers. Sprinkle powder over the water slowly over 30 sec. Mix allowed to soak for 20min. V. III.Measurement & Combination Of Powder And Water 34 Clean starch free rubber / plastic bowl with a top diameter of 130mm is recommended.

Stirred at a rate of 2 revolutions per second over 1 minute. Spatulation should be done in a single direction to prevent the breakage of dihydrate crystals While mixing keep the spatula flat against the wall.Wataha . This will help in wetting of all the particles and also removes the entrapped air bubbles. Either done in hand or mechanically.Craig.Powers.Spatulation 35      The act of mixing powder and water together is called Spatulation. Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi .

Fig 3 High speed is used for energetic. smooth. 36 .Fig 1: Powder and water are added to mixing bowl Fig 2 Low speed is used for preliminary mixing. Fig 4 Final product is homogeneous and final-phase mixing. bubble-free.




Vacuum Mixer



y y

y y

For mixing investments, plaster, die material and duplicating silicone 100 mbar vacuum output evacuates air bubbles trapped in the mixing material and also prevents development of boiling bubbles Vacuum mixing bowls are fixed to the agitator coupling by means of a vacuum, which eliminates time-consuming coupling to the mechanical holding device Transparent vacuum mixing bowls in sizes 250 ml to 1200 ml An electronic timer accurately controls the mixing time to the second and the manometer integrated into the front panel of the unit always shows the current vacuum in the mixing bowl Spatula and mixing bowl geometry have been optimized for the investment and duplicating silicone processing An attractively designed benchtop stand is available for use as bench unit

Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi ,Craig,Powers,Wataha


2 to 0.07% y The growing crystals of gypsum cause an outward thrust.Michael Bagby .05 to 0. this causes an external expansion and internal porosity in the set mass.3 % y Stone: 0.10 % y High strength stone: 0. Thicker mix & increased spatulation ± increased SE 2. y This can be manipulated by : 1.Setting Expansion 40 y All gypsum products expand upon setting y Plaster : 0.Marcia Gladwin.08 to 0. Thinner mix and decreased spatuation ±decreased SE Clinical Aspects of Dental Materials .

Setting Expansion 41 .

Addition of water during setting increases the surface film thickness on the inert particles and gypsum. Due to crystal growth. II. y Suggested Theories for the mechanism are I. IV.Hygroscopic expansion : 42 y Hygroscopic expansion is the linear expansion that takes place when the investment is placed under water. Added water force gypsum to swell. thereby forcing them apart. Water added during setting causes further hydration of calcium sulfate III. .

Hygroscopic expansion : 43 .

Type III. y Gypsum dies do not reproduce surface details very well because the surface of the set gypsum is porous at microscopic level. 25 requires that:   Type I and II reproduce a groove 75Qm in width. . IV and V reproduce a groove 50Qm in width.REPRODUCTION OF DETAIL: 44 y ADA specification no.

STRENGTH 45 y Wet strength / Green Strength  The strength obtained when the water in excess of that required for hydration of the hemihydrate is left y Dry strength  The strength obtained when the water in excess is driven off by drying Ù 2-3 times more than wet strength .

y The surface hardness increases at a faster rate than the compressive . High compressive strength of the hardened mass corresponds to high surface hardness. the surface hardness remains practically constant until most excess water is evaporated from the surface. the surface hardness of a material is generally measured in terms of its resistance to indentation. y The surface hardness of unmodified gypsum products is related in a general way to their compressive strength. hardness is defined as the resistance to penetration. y For dental purposes. strength. y After the final setting occurs. because the surface of the hardened mass reaches a dry state earlier than the inner portion of the mass. after which its increase is similar to increase in compressive strength.SURFACE HARDNESS AND ABRASION RESISTANCE: 46 y In general.

Science of dental materials 11th edi .Anusavice . Type 2: 60% 3.Effect of Hemihydrate on Set Gypsum 47 y X-Ray suggests the presence of various forms of hemihydrate on set gypsum 1. Type 1: 90% 2. Type4 & 5: less than 50% y Increased concentration of hemihydrate results in a weaker set material Phillips.

HIGH STRENGTH TYPE V ± DENTAL STONE. HIGH STRENGTH. HIGH EXPANSION Materials In Dentistry ± Principles and application 2nd edition Jack L.Classification of Gypsum Products ADA specification no 25 48 TYPE I : IMPRESSION PLASTER TYPE II : DENTAL PLASTER TYPE III: DENTAL STONE TYPE IV : DENTAL STONE.Ferrancane .

Non-toxic but may be unpleasant due to dryness and heat evolved during setting Excellent at recording fine details . ..low viscosity Dimensionally stable. Jack L. Rigid and mucostatic in nature Obtained by adding modifiers to dental plaster. Materials in Dentistry.TYPE I ± Impression Plaster 49 y It is used as an secondary impression material for y y y y y y completely edentulous patients. It is hard and brittle and breaks when removed from undercut regions.Ferrance. although extremes of temperatures should be avoided.

potassium carbonate. sodium bicarbonate. Potato starch Flavoring agents: used to offset the bland taste.4-1% Alzarin red: 0. 3. 4. 7. 2. 6.04% . potassium chloride & potassium nitrate. Potassium sulfate: 4% Borax: 0. They help in cohesion & facilitate border boulding.COMPOSITION 50 1. Retarder: sodium carbonate. Hemihydrate Accelerator : potassium sulfate. borax Gums: tragacanth added to improve handling characteristics. 5. Anti-expansion solution: It is added to plaster.

moulds for dentures.Dental Plaster 51 y It is composed of calcium sulphate y y y y y hemihydrate with modifiers. to mount casts on articulator. Uses . Laboratory or model plaster. .TYPE II .study casts. It should flow evenly in all parts of the impression. After setting it should not wrap or change shape. It should neither contract nor expand while setting.

y Chemical composition is alpha hemihydrate.TYPE III . y Uses ± secondary casts for fabrication of dentures . y Harder and stronger than type II.Dental Stone 52 y Laboratory stone.

acts as accelerator y Borax .Composition 53 y CaSO4.2-3% y Potassium sulphate .hemihydrate y Coloring agents . 1/2 H2O .retarder .

500 psi y High hardess.Type IV ± Dental Stone. . high strength 54 y Has high strength of 79 Mpa / 11.

High Strength. High Expansion 55 y Higher expansion material which compensates for greater shrinkage that occurs in many newer. . high melting alloys for dental castings y Stronger than all other gypsum products.Type V ± Dental Stone.

0 Type IV +20 % 0.0-0.15 35.16-0.0 Type II +20 % 0.30 Type I 4. 2.0 .0-0.15 5.0 - 75 + 8 75 + 8 50 + 8 50 + 8 50 + 8 Type III +20 % 0. Max.30 35.20 20.Properties 56 TYPE SETTIN G TIME (min ) SETTING COMPRESSIV REPRODUCTIO N OF DETAIL EXPANSION E STRENGTH RANGE ( Qm ) ( MPa ) ( %) Min.0 8.0- 9.0 Type V +20 % 0.

Master cast / working cast preparation Die preparation.Uses 57 y It is used for impression making procedures. y In making study casts for orthodontic purposes. Used for mounting casts on articulator. Used in flasking procedures Used as dental investment material. y For making diagnostic casts for diagnosis and treatment y y y y y y y planning. . Used for making face masks. Used as interocclusal record material.

Dental Investment 58 .

. y Also called investment casting. y DEFINITION: The casting of a metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable (wax) pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature. after which the pattern is removed through the use of heat.Introduction 59 y The technique used for casting of alloys is Lost Wax Technique.

Into (contd)

y Dental Casting investment is a material consisting

principally of an allotrope of silica and a bonding agent. The bonding substance may be gypsum (for use in low casting temperature) or phosphates and silica (for high casting temperature). y Investing is the process of covering or enveloping, wholly or in part, an object such as denture, tooth, wax form, crown, etc. with a suitable investment material before processing, soldering or casting

History :

Its history can be traced back around 3000 B.C. This meticulous procedure of casting was used by various craftsmen to produce jewellary and ornaments.
y 11th Century p Theophilus p Described lost wax

technique, which was a common practice prevailed in 11th century. y 1558 p Benvenuto Cellini p claimed to have attempted, use of wax and clay for preparation of castings y 1884 p Aguilhon de saran p used 24K gold to form Inlay

History (contd):

y 1887 p J. R. Knapp p invented Blowpipe. y 1897 p Phillibrook Described a method of casting metal

filling. y 1907 p Taggart pDr.Taggart discribed this technique and further devolped on this technology. Deviced a practically useful casting machine.

Stability at higher temperatures.Requirements of an Investment 63 1.11th Edi. * Craig¶s .Restorative Dental Materials . 4. 6. 8. 7. Easily manipulated Sufficient strength at room temperature. Porosity enough to let the air and gases escape. Inexpensive. 9. Ease of divestment. . Beneficial casting temperature. 3. 2. Smooth surface. Sufficient expansion. 5.

. * Craig¶s . or cristobalite or a mixture of these. y Quartz. y Function: 1.11th Edi.Composition 64 1. REFRACTORY MATERIAL: y Investment material capable of sustaining exposure to high temperature without significant degradation. To expand and compensate for casting shrinkage.Restorative Dental Materials . tridymite. Resist the heat and forces of casting 2.

phosphate.65 2 . ethyl silicate. . BINDER MATERIAL: y It is used to bind the refractory mass that is not coherent y Binders used are alpha-calcium hemihydrate.

3. . y 1. Reducing agents ± Ex : Charcoal Sodium chloride. 2. 4.66 3. Potassium sulfate (accelerator) Copper powder(reducing agent)/magnesium oxide . OTHER CHEMICALS: These are added to achieve desirable properties. boric acid ± to q shrinkage. during dehydration of calcium sulfate dihydrate.

High heat investment : a) Phosphate bonded investment b) Silica bonded investment 3. Brazing investment 4. Investment for all ceramic restorations .Classification 67 Based on casting temprature : 1. Low heat investment: a) Gypsum bonded investment upto (700°C) 2.

Classification ± Based on composition 68 GypsumBonded Investment PhosphateBonded Investment SilicateBonded Investment ‡ Conventional casting of gold alloy inlays. onlays. and FPD¶s ‡ Copings or frameworks for metal ceramics & for some base metal alloys ‡ In casting RPD with base metal alloy Phillips.Anusavice . Science of dental materials 11th edi . crowns.

these investments are typically restricted to casting type I. Cristobalite and quartz are responsible for the thermal expansion of the mold during wax elimination. and IV gold alloys . II. Because gypsum is chemically stable at temperatures exceeding 650°C. III. also containing cristobalite or quartz as a refractory material.Gypsum Bonded Investments y These are any casting investment with gypsum as the binder.

Science of dental materials 11th edi . ‡ For casting inlays and crowns Type 2 ‡ Hygroscopic expansion type. ‡ Inlays.No.2 [ISO7490]) 70 Type 1 ‡ Thermal Expansion type. onlays.Anusavice . or crowns Type 3 ‡ For casting partial dentures & complete dentures for gold alloys Phillips.Classification (ANSI/ADA Sp.

Requirements of Gypsum Bonded Investments 71 .

Modifiers . Binder II.Refractory component III.72 Components I.

y All forms shrink after dehydration at around 200°C y y y y & 400°C. this is caused by decomposition and release of sulfur gases which also contaminates the casting. A slight expansion takes place at 400°C & 700°C Then contraction takes place.I Binder ± 73 y Gypsum ( hemihydrate) ± 25% to 35%. Therefore it should not be heated above 700°C Ideal temperature for heating is 650°C .

Fused quartz doesn¶t undergo phase transformations. Crystobalite are used in dentistry. -quartz is stable only above the transition temperature with decrease in temperature. Cristobalite. Fused quartz & Tridymite has low linear coefficient of thermal expansion. . These at high temperature convert from ³low´-form quartz to ³high´-form known as -quartz.II Refractory component74 y y y y y y y Silica(SiO2) ± 65 % to 75% Quartz. Tridymite and fused silica are the 4 forms. Quartz.

Effect of temperature on silica 75 .

y Boric acid & sodium chloride ± Regulate setting time & setting expansion y Coloring agents.III Modifiers : 76 y 2 to 3% y Reducing agents ± carbon & powdered copper. . It is used to produce non-oxidising atmosphere in the mold.

. y y Setting expansion is the linear expansion that takes place during normal setting . Hygroscopic expansion is the linear expansion that takes place when the investment is placed under water. Hygroscopic expansion 3. Thermal expansion 1.Expansion 77 y Three types Setting expansion 2.

causing outward thrust and thus resulting in expansion. y The growing crystals of gypsum cause an outward thrust.0. y ADA Specification No. Thicker mix & increased spatulation ± increased SE 2. Thinner mix and decreased spatulation ±decreased SE .2 for Type I investment permits a maximum setting expansion in air .6%. y This can be manipulated by : 1. this causes an external expansion and internal porosity in the set mass.Setting Expansion 78 y Inclusion of silica results in interlocking of silica in between the crystals.

Setting Expansion 79 .

y It is a continuation of normal setting expansion.Hygroscopic expansion : 80 y Hygroscopic expansion is the linear expansion that takes place when the investment is placed under water. because immersion water replaces water of hydration. .

. I. II. thereby forcing them apart.Hygroscopic expansion 81 y Suggested Theories for the mechanism are Addition of water during setting increases the surface film thickness on the inert particles and gypsum. IV. Due to crystal growth. Added water force gypsum to swell. Water added during setting causes further hydration of calcium sulfate III.

after the ring is filled. . A wet liner can also be used .2% for Type II. Usually done by submerging the ring in water bath at 37ÛC for 1 hour. Significant additional setting expansion results. Expansion is 1.Hygroscopic expansion 82 y Water is added immediately to the setting gypsum y y y y investment.2% to 2.

Hygroscopic expansion : 83 .

Hygroscopic) 84 STAGE I : Initial Mix STAGE II : Crystals Of Dihydrate Are Formed STAGE III : Crystals Grow STAGE IV & V : More marked intermeshing of crystals .Setting Expansion (Setting Vs.

85 .

HSE with silica. particularly when expansion is unrestricted.FACTORS AFFECTING HYGROSCOPIC EXPANSION 86 EFFECT OF COMPOSITION : y Proportional to silica content of the investment.q HSE . y Finer particle size of silica ± HSE y Hemihydrate . EFFECT OF W/P RATIO : y Higher W/P ratio .

FACTORS AFFECTING HYGROSCOPIC EXPANSION 87 EFFECT OF SPATULATION y Mixing time is reduced ± q HSE SHELF LIFE OF GYPSUM y Older investment ± q HSE EFFECT OF TIME OF IMMERSION y Before initial setting p HSE y After initial setting p q HSE .

7°c (100°F) water it causes heating. expanding & softening of wax pattern. y When placed in 37. EFFECT OF ADDED WATER: y Magnitude HSE Amt of H2O added during setting y Water is drawn between by capillary action & thus causes separation of quartz particles .Expansion .FACTORS AFFECTING HYGROSCOPIC EXPANSION 88 EFFECT OF CONFINEMENT: y The confining effect on hygroscopic expansion is more pronounced.

89 .

Factors Affecting Expansion 90 .

y Quartz changes form at 575ÛC.Thermal expansion 91 y Occurs when mould is heated to eliminate wax.1% to 0. y Cristobalite changes from to form between 200ÛC -270ÛC. y Silica refractory material is responsible.6% at 500ÛC for type II. y Expansion is 0. .

92 .

Mater. where the required expansion rate is 1.2008 .2.6%. it results in higher shrinkage at 250°C.1. J.5% . y When cristobalite is added in lesser amounts.vol24 No.Techno.0%.Effect Of Cristobalite & Quartz On Gypsum Bonded Investments 93 y Crystobalite to quartz ratio is very important for adequate thermal expansion.Sci. y But when added from 42-47gm/pct it resulted in adequate expansion of 1.

y o W:P ratio p q Thermal expansion.weakening of the material. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFIERS: y Excessive silica . or LithiumEliminates the contraction of gypsum o Thermal expansion y Boric Acid p o Thermal expansion p o Hardness of set investment . Potassium. y Sodium.Factors Affecting Thermal Expansion 94 EFFECT OF W/P RATIO: y Depends on the amount of solids present.

The cooling path will follow the expansion curve.THERMAL CONTRACTION 95 y After thermal expansion if the investment is allowed to coal. y The investment contract to less than its original dimension due to shrinkage of gypsum when it is first heated. y The process of heating and cooling cause internal cracks .

96 .

5 Mpa ( 2 hrs after setting .D. y According to A.A. sp 2. y Adequate strength of investment is needed to prevent fracture/chipping of the mold and to resist contraction of the investment.STRENGTH: 97 y Depends on the amount & type of gypsum binder used. y After burn-out of the mold.the compressive strength of investment should not be less than 2. the strength should be no greater than that required to resist the impact of the metal entering the mold.

. 3. 4. Investments with NaCl .q strength .Factors Affecting Strength 98 Increased W:P ratio . Heating of investment to 700 o C ± may o (or) q strength by 65%.q compressive strength. Repeated heating & cooling cause internal cracks q strength 1. 2.

higher hygroscopic expansion rate and less surface irregularities of the casting.FINENESS: 99 y More fine silica particles . .

POROSITY: 100 y This occurs due to the pressure in the mold. Uniform particle size. . greater porosity. Therefore less hemihydrate with more amount of gauging water is used. More hemihydrate less porosity. y This helps in venting out the gases y Therefore wax pattern should not be covered more y y y y than approximately 6mm of investment. This provides sufficient interconnectivity of porous network.

therefore the separate as they settle under normal vibration. y Different components have different specific gravity. y Therefore should be stored in Airtigth & moisture free containers and should be purchased at small quantities. . Setting expansion and hygroscopic expansion changed.STORAGE 101 y High relative humidity : Setting time changed 2. 1.

. Silicate-Bonded Investment y In this the binder composition is less than 20% to withstand the high temperatures.INVESTMENT FOR CASTING HIGHMELTING POINT ALLOYS 102 y Most base metal and palladium alloys have a melting temperature of 850 ± 1100°C. Phosphate-Bonded Investment II. y The type of investment used for such alloys are: I.

6H2O)n coagulates around MgO and fillers. cristobalite or both in a concentration of about 80%.PHOSPHATE BONDED INVESTMENT 103 y Any casting investment with a binder formed from magnesium oxide and mono ammonium phosphate. This is combined with silica in the form of quartz. . Upon heating the binder undergoes several several changes believed to be responsible for increased strength at high temperature. The resulting colloidal multi molecular (NH4MgPO4.

Types (ANSI/ADA Sp. D frame work Type II . crown and restoration.42[ISO 9694]) 104 Type I ‡ Inlay. P.No. ‡ R.

Phosphate Bonded Investment 105 y Most common type of investment for high melting temperatures y It has three different components: A. Binder ± Magnesium oxide & phosphate (acidic monoammonium phosphate) B. it gives greater expansion . Refractory Material ± 80% Silica (Quartz/Crystobalite). 33% dilution of Colloidal silica is being used.

Setting reaction 106 y Acid. forming a binding media with filler particles embedded in it. y Monoammonium phosphate reacts with basic magnesia . y Soluble phosphate reacts with water. .base reaction.

NH4H2PO4 + MgO +5H2O [room temperature] (NH4 Mg PO4 6 H2O)n MgO [colloid ±like particles ] NH4H2PO4 H2O [dehydration at up to 50rC (NH4 Mg PO4 6 H2O)n dehydration at 160rC(NH4 Mg PO4 H2O)n [300rC-650rC] [non-crystalline polymer] (Mg2P2O7)n crystalline Mg2P2O7 [+ MgO + quartz + cristobalite] overheating above 1040rC Mg3 (P2O4)2 107 .

due to decomposition of binder magnesium ammonium phosphate with evolution of ammonia y This can be eliminated by adding colloidal silica esp cristobalite .SETTING & THERMAL EXPANSION 108 y Thermal expansion when with water have a shrinkage at 200-4000c.

109 .

110 .

. y setting time ± 1 hour y Factors affecting and setting time p o temperature p fast set : (as the setting reaction itself is exothermic) o mixing time p fast set (generally mechanical mixing under vacuum is preferred o L : p ratio po working time.WORKING TIME & SETTING TIME 111 y working time ± 2 min.

Requirements of phosphate bonded investments 112 .

2000:26-32 . HV ± 225 seconds y Powder / liquid ratio (g/ml): 100/12 ± 100/16 y Chilled liquid would increase the setting time.MVP. A.HP.S.Dental Materials J 16.MVA. HA.Juszczyk.MA -180 -195 seconds 2.The influence of handling technique on the strength of phosphate bonded investments 113 y Mechanical spatulation under vacuum and pressure suggested by Jhonson resulted in the least amount of nodules. y Recommended spatulations per second : 45 ± 60 y Total handling time : 1.

JPD-54: 367: 1985. y The surfactant also makes the unset investment more viscous and reduces the compressive strength Mueller. . et al 1986.Surfactant containing phosphate bonded investment 114 y Addition of surfactants to phosphate bonded investment can increase the hygroscopic setting expansion .

X.RECENT ADVANCES 115  Titanium casting with phosphate bonded investment with zirconia: 1.2002:512-515 .W.P.Dent Mater J:18. resulting in a smooth casting without cracks and the investment was easily removed from the casting but the micro hardness was reduced.T. Thickness of the reaction layer of titanium casting was reduced.Lou.Guo et al.

the later reverting tosilica upon heating. GPT-8 . This is combined with cristobalite or quartz as the refractory material. These investments exihibit considerable thermal expansion and can be used when casting higher fusing chromium alloys.SILICATE BONDED INVESTMENT Definition : y A casting investment with ethyl silicate or a silica gel as the binder.

SILICATE BONDED INVESTMENT 117 y It is rarely used because its time consuming and complicated. y The product of the hydrolysis is a colloidal solution of silicic acid and ethyl alcohol Si(OC2H5 ) 4 + 4H2 0 _ hcl Si(OH)4 + 4C2H5OH . which is bonded by the hydrolysis of ethyl silicate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. y The silica refractory material.

Make it alkaline. Strengthen then the gel .Composition 118 y Binder p silica acid gel y Refractory p silica (cristobalite) y Additive p magnesium oxide .

according to the manufacturer's instructions.119 y This investment is usually supplied with two bottles of special liquid. y Before use. . so hydrolysis can take place and freshly prepared silicic acid forms. In one of the bottles the manufacturer usually supplies a properly diluted water-soluble silicate solution. such as a solution of hydrochloric acid. mix an equal volume from each bottle and allow the mixed liquids to stand for a prescribed time. The other bottle usually contains a properly diluted acid solution.

2H2O is formed in practice. which is bonded by the hydrolysis of ethyl silicate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. y Has higher silica content and has better refractory properties. .Setting Reaction 120 y One such investment consists of a silica refractory. y The product of the hydrolysis is a colloidal solution of silicic acid and ethyl alcohol HCl Si(OC2H5 ) 4 + 4H2 0 Si(OH)4 + 4C2H5OH y SiO2.

y This contraction is called GREEN SHRINKAGE. . y During this process. y Volumetric contraction accompanies the drying.Green shrinkage 121 y The Soft Gel is dried at a temperature below 168°C. Hard Gel. reducing the size of the mold. Gel loses alcohol & water to form a concentrated.

5 Mpa y Recommended linear expansion.NO:91 FOR THE FOLLOWING: y Recommended setting time.30% from wat stated by manufacturer y Recommended compressive strength.122 DISADVANTAGES : y Gives flammable content during processing y Expensive. ANSI/ADA SP.1.15% from wat stated by manufacturer .

Manipulation : 123 Powder + hydrolyzed ethyl silicate liquid p mixed quickly and vibrated into a mold p allow heavier particles to settle quickly while the excess liquid and some of the fine particles rise to top. y . y Within 1½ hrs p the accelerator (NH4cl) hardens the settled part. The excess on top is poured off and there by decreasing the L:P ratio at the bottom.

Divestment : 124 y Combination of die stone with investment material in a particular composition.9% Thermal expansion p 0.6% (at 9770c) y Divesting : process of removing an investment from a casting or hot pressed ceramic. y Properties Setting expansion ± 0. and casting is completed. . Then the entire assembly with the wax pattern is invested in a mixture of divestment and water. The die is made with divestment and colloidal silica liquid mix.

They possess usually a compressive strength of 2-10 Mpa. Particle size is usually not fine. Dental Materials: Properties And Manipulation 8th Ed: Robert G. y Steps p 1) Broken parts are Stabilize by sticky wax 2) The broken parts are then embedded in investment with portion to be solder is left exposed and free of investment.Craig et al .Gypsum bonded dental brazing investment Type II . y They should have low setting and thermal expansion.BRAZING INVESTMENT : 125 y ADA Sp No 93 p Type I .Phosphate bonded.


INVESTING 127 y Wax pattern cleaned of debris. y This thin film of cleanser left on wax pattern reduces surface tension of y y y y y the wax & permits better wetting of the investment. Appropriate amount of distilled water / colloidal silica is dispensed. The entire apparatus is applied to the power mixer. Powder is then dispensed gradually to prevent entrapment of air bubbles & All the powder particles should be wet thoroughly to prevent pushing out of the unmixed particles to the surface. and the vacuum is attached to remove air. The lid is applied to the bowl. this aids in expansion. Dental Materials: Properties And Manipulation 8th Ed: Robert G.Craig et al . Once mixed the investment is poured slowly into the casting ring in a vibrator. greases & oils y The ring is lined with a ceramic liner. until the casting ring is full.

y In hand mixing the pattern is painted with the material and then vibrated slowly into the ring. y After mixing pattern is either hand invested / vacuum invested. the investment is directly invested from the mixing equipment. y In vacuum mixing. .VACUUM MIXING 128 y Mechanical mixing prevents entrapment of air bubbles reducing porosity & evacuates potential harmful gases released during mixing.

Wax Heating & Elimination: 129  In Gypsum bonded investment ± temperature is critical. because it causes release of carbon which gets incorporated in the pores.  In Phosphate bonded investment ± at high temperature carbon is converted into carbon di oxide and evaporated. .

EXPANSION OF THE INVESTMENT 130 y Once set the investment is allowed to set for at least 45 min. y All metals shrink when they cool from the solid state from 1% to 2. Setting Expansion 2. y Investment should expand sufficiently to compensate for the casting shrinkage. Hygroscopic Expansion 3. Dental Materials: Properties And Manipulation 8th Ed: Robert G. Thermal Expansion y Total expansion will be equal to the sum of all the three expansions.5%.Craig et al . y Three modes of expansion include: 1.

High-Heat Thermal Expansion Technique 1.CASTING TECHNIQUES 131 y Two techniques : Hygroscopic Low-Heat Technique 2. .

Powers.132 Vacuum Mixer y y y y y y y For mixing investments. which eliminates time-consuming coupling to the mechanical holding device Transparent vacuum mixing bowls in sizes 250 ml to 1200 ml An electronic timer accurately controls the mixing time to the second and the manometer integrated into the front panel of the unit always shows the current vacuum in the mixing bowl Spatula and mixing bowl geometry have been optimized for the investment and duplicating silicone processing An attractively designed bench top stand is available for use as bench unit Dental materials properties &manipulation 7thedi . plaster. die material and duplicating silicone 100 mbar vacuum output evacuates air bubbles trapped in the mixing material and also prevents development of boiling bubbles Vacuum mixing bowls are fixed to the agitator coupling by means of a vacuum.Craig.Wataha .

J Prosthet Dent-1999:81:129-134 . Clinical aspects of dental materials . J Prosthet Dent. 7. Introduction to dental materials ± Richard Van Noort.References 133 1.William J O¶Brien 5. Materials in Dentistry principles and application.9th edition 4.84. Powers 3.Marcia Gladwin. Skinner¶s Science of dental materials .99:282±286 9.11th edition .32-37 10 J Prosthet Dent-1998:26:59 11.Ferrance 8. Restorative dental materials .Science of dental materials .Anusavice 2.11th edition .3rd edition .2008. Phillips . Dental materials & their selection . J Prosthet Dent-2000.L.2nd edition Jack. Michael bagby 6.2nd edition .Robert G Craig & John M.

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