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Outline 

Introduction Technologies Laws regarding DRM Controversy Shortcomings Conclusion

3/24/2011

Digital Rights Management

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Introduction 
DRM controls the use of digital content Preventing access, copying or conversion to other formats by end users Digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times Digital piracy-Internet and popular file sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies DRM disallow copyright infringements DRM is implemented by ‡online music stores ‡e-book publishers ‡television producers
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Technologies DRM and film DRM and television DRM and music Computer games E-books DRM and documents Watermarks Metadata 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 5 .

DRM and film ‡Content Scrambling System (CSS) employed by the DVD Forum since 1996 Simple encryption algorithm License agreements DeCSS by Jon Lech Johansen in 1999 ‡Protected Media Path by Windows Vista Protected Video Path (PVP) PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor ‡Advanced Access Content System (AACS) by AACSLicensingAdministrator Used by  Intel  Microsoft IBM Toshiba  Sony « 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 6 .

DRM and television ‡The CableCard standard ‡The Broadcast flag concept Supported by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Obey specification determining whether or not a stream can be recorded Block time-shifting It was adopted by Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB) ‡Content Protection and Copy Management (CPCM) An updated variant of the broadcast flag It was developed in private 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 7 .

DRM and music Audio CDs ‡Discs with DRM schemes could not be played on all CD players ‡Sony's DRM software Root kit Holding shift key or disabling autorun Abolish DRM completely Internet music ‡The iTunes run by Apple ‡Napster music store ‡Wal-Mart Music Downloads ‡"Connect" run by Sony Kazaa 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 8 .

Computer games ‡To limit the number of systems the game can be installed ‡Mass Effect in mid 2008 using DRM ‡Spore in 2008 using DRM ‡Prince of Persia by Ubisoft in late 2008 ‡Anno 1404 ‡James Cameron's Avatar ‡The Sims 3 by Electronic Arts in June 2009 ‡Silent Hunter 5 by Ubisoft using Uplay authentication ‡The Settlers 7 ‡Assassin's Creed 2 ‡Uplay servers suffered by DDoS attack (Distributed Denial-of-Service attack) 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 9 .

and sharing of e-books ‡Main e book formats at present : Mobipocket Topaz ePub PDF ‡Main e book DRM schemes at present : Adobe's Adept DRM Apple¶s Fairplay DRM Barnes & Noble Amazon ‡Two software programs to view e-books : Adobe Acrobat e-book Reader  Microsoft Reader sealed . inscribed and owner exclusive e books 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 10 .E-books ‡DRM restrictions to limit copying. printing.

DRM and documents ‡Documents such as Microsoft Word PDF  AutoCAD files emails intranet web pages ‡Enterprise digital rights management (E-DRM or ERM) ‡Commonly known as IRM (Information Rights Management) ‡DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 11 .

Watermarks ‡Digital watermarks involve data embedded within the audio or video data ‡Added during production or distribution ‡Purposes recording the copyright owner recording the distributor recording the distribution chain identifying the purchaser of the music 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 12 .

but within separate file 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 13 .Metadata ‡Metadata are information such as purchaser's name account information email address ‡Metadata are is not embedded in the played audio or video data.

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Laws regarding DRM ‡Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) in 1996 ‡WIPO stands for World Intellectual Property Organization ‡The American implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) ‡The European implementation is the European directive on copyright 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 15 .

1998 ‡This act criminalizes the production and dissemination of technology that allows users to circumvent technical copy-restriction methods 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 16 .Digital Millennium Copyright Act ‡It was passed on May 14.

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Controversy 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 18 .

flv Professor Ross Anderson of Cambridge University Mr. in his article The Digital Imprimatur : ³How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle´ Richard Stallman in his article The Right to Read as: "DRM is an example of a malicious feature .a feature designed to hurt the user of the software. as expressed for instance.Cory Doctorow. and therefore.DRM opposition ‡DRM critics are : John Walker.com FreeCulture.org GNU General Public License 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 19 . it's something for which there can never be toleration³ video. a prominent writer and technology blogger ‡Other organizations : TechMediums.

many companies and artists have begun advertising their products as "DRM-Free³ ‡Apple began selling "DRM-Free" music through their iTunes store in April 2007 ‡However iTunes continues to use DRM on movies. ringtones. and audio books 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 20 .´ DRM-Freeµ ‡Due to the strong opposition that exists to DRM. TV shows.

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Shortcomings Methods to bypass DRM DRM on general computing platforms Watermarks Obsolescence 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 22 .

or to plug analog recording devices into the analog outputs of the media player 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 23 .Methods to bypass DRM ‡Burn the content to an audio CD and then Rip it into DRM-free files ‡Analog hole Use software to record the signals being sent through the audio or video cards.

directly decrypt and copy the content 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 24 .DRM on general computing platforms ‡DRM are designed to work on general purpose computing hardware ‡Software must include all the information necessary to decrypt the content. such as the decryption keys ‡An attacker will be able to extract this information.

although degradation of video or audio can occur. 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 25 .Watermarks ‡Watermarks can very typically be removed.

it may be difficult to transfer DRM-restricted content to new media 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 26 .Obsolescence ‡When standards and formats change.

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Conclusion ‡The future of DRM The technology can be expected to be heavily used in the future to support : Digital library collections Code and software development Distance education Networked collaboration 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 28 .

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Questions 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 30 .

Thank you! 3/24/2011 Digital Rights Management 31 .

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