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Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech

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Published by: Stiffler Gaurel on Mar 24, 2011
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11/30/2012

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Direct and Indirect Speech

When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes. Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense, indicates that something was said in the past. In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. If the main verb is already in a past tense, then the tense changes to another past tense; it can almost be seen as moving even further into the past.

Verb tense changes also characterize other situations using indirect speech. Note the changes shown in the chart and see the table below for examples. With indirect speech, the use of that is optional. Direct Speech simple present He said, “I go to school every day.” simple past He said, “I went to school every day.” ⇒ Indirect Speech ⇒ simple past He said (that) he went to school every day. ⇒ past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day.

present perfect ⇒ past perfect He said, “I have gone to school every day.” He said (that) he had gone to school every day. present progressive He said, “I am going to school every day.” ⇒ past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day.

past progressive ⇒ perfect progressive He said, “I was going to school every day.” He said (that) he had been going to school every day, future (will) He said, “I will go to school every day.” future (going to) He said, “I am going to school every day.” ⇒ would + verb name He said (that) he would go to school every day. ⇒ present progressive He said (that) he is going to school every day. past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day Direct Speech auxiliary + verb name He said, “Do you go to school every day?” He said, “Where do you go to school?” imperative He said, “Go to school every day.” ⇒ Indirect Speech ⇒ simple past He asked me if I went to school every day.* He asked me where I went to school. ⇒ infinitive He said to go to school every day.

“I go to school every day. “I go to school every day. If the verb said is used. ⇒ had to He said (that) he had to go to school every day. ⇒ might He said (that) he might go to school every day. “I went to school every day.*Note than when a Yes/No question is being asked in direct speech.” ⇒ future + simple present He will say (that) he goes to school every day. Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used.” present perfect + simple present He has said. Some examples of this situation are given below.” have to He said. “I might go to school every day. . then a construction with if or whether is used. Direct Speech simple present + simple present He says.” ⇒ Indirect Speech ⇒ simple present + simple present He says (that) he goes to school every day. then use the WH to introduce the clause. ⇒ should He said (that) he should go to school every day. ⇒ present perfect + simple present He has said (that) he goes to school every day.” He was saying (that) he went to school every day. past progressive + simple past ⇒ past progressive + simple past He was saying. future + simple present He will say.” might He said. past progressive + past perfect He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day. The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. “I may go to school every day.” ⇒ Indirect Speech ⇒ could He said (that) he could go to school every day. Also note that with indirect speech. “I can go to school every day.” should He said. then the form of the modal. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. or another modal that has a past meaning is used.” must He said. “I should go to school every day. these are examples of embedded questions. “I go to school every day.” may He said. “I have to go to school every day. “I must go to school every day. Direct Speech can He said. If a WH question is being asked.

what went wrong.ought to ⇒ ought to He said. where. He asked whether. how. No time shift Special Verbs Intention: Example . There is no "do" or "did"needed. try to extrapolate from the examples here.. why.. there are enough to provide examples of the main rules governing the use of indirect or reported speech.. when.. whose.... They are not used interchangeably... report. For other situations.... asking He wanted to know who went home. Verbs of saying Verb of saying in the past stating connection that.. Reported Speech: Rules of transformation 1.. refer to a good grammar text or reference book... what (Subject). example He stated that Tom had gone. They inquired him what he would do..answers The word order is the same as in a statement. “I ought to go to school every day. or better still.what(Object) . and inquire. announce. whether. who. exploratory questions comment who (Subject). tell... While not all of the possibilities have been listed here. requesting to + infinitive We told him to go to bed.” He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.... if Questions requiring a yesor no. There is no "do" or "did"needed ordering. The word order is the same as in a statement. check a grammar or usage book for further information.. Some other verbs that can be used to introduce direct speech are: ask....... suggest.... if.

/ He disagreed.. She agreed She excused She thanked He said good bye 2. time shift interjections: Oh. He denied.Greeting: No: Yes: Excuse: Thanks: Good-bye: He welcomed. What. She was surprised Direct speech past present perfect present future 1 Reported speech past perfect past tense Conditional . / She contradicted.

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