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**A Network Distribution Power System Fault Location Based on Neural Eigenvalue Algorithm
**

L. Sousa Martins, J. F. Martins, Member IEEE, C. M. Alegria and V. Fernão Pires, Member IEEE

Abstract — A new approach to fault location for distribution network power system is presented. This approach uses the Eigenvalue and an artificial neural network based learning algorithm. The neural network is trained to map the non-linear relationship existing between fault location and characteristic Eigenvalue. The proposed approach is able to identify, to classify and to locate different types of faults such as: single-line-to-ground, double-line-to-ground, double-line and three-phase. Using the Eigenvalue as neural network inputs the proposed algorithm is able to locate the fault distance. The results presented show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for correct fault diagnosis and fault location on a distribution power system networks. Index Terms — Artificial Neural Networks, ClarkeConcordia Transformation, Eigenvectors and eigenvalues, Fault Location on Distribution Network Power Systems.

I. INTRODUCTION n this paper a new approach is presented for the diagnosis and location of anomalies on electrical power distribution system networks. Fault diagnosis is of great importance even in a medium voltage network. Likewise, fault diagnosis is an importance factor for quality service (related with fast maintenance response to fault situations), in electrical distribution networks. The use of artificial neural networks (ANN) for fault diagnosis and location on electrical power networks is not new. Often ANN is applied in association to phasor computation [1], [2], or used as a pattern classifier to improve the performance of a distance relay and for fault classification [3]-[5].

Some of the fault location algorithms consist mainly in computing impedance of the fault line, based on voltage and current phasors data. Thus, a relationship between impedance and fault distance is established, assuming as previously known line parameters [6], [7]. Others use voltage and current forward and backward traveling waves, which change their shape at a discontinuity, therefore, allowing fault location [8]. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the Clarke-Concordia transformation [9] and also on the eigenvalue-eigenvector approach associated to an artificial neural network algorithm [10], [11]. The main purpose of the global algorithm is to classify and to locate the fault, where the following fault types can be identified: Single-line-to-earth fault, § § Double-line-to-ground fault, Double-line fault; § Three-phase short-circuit. § This methodology has been applied to an electric distribution power network, consisting in two interconnected sources, feeding a unique load located on a third node, as in Fig. 1.

i12

1

I

l12 l13

3

2

i13

l23

Source S2

Source S1 Load

L. Sousa Martins is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal (e-mail: smartins@est.ips.pt). J. F. Martins is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal (e-mail: jmartins@est.ips.pt). C. M. Alegria is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing, I.S.T., Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1096 Lisboa, Portugal. V. Fernão Pires is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal (e-mail: vpires@est.ips.pt).

Fig. 1.

Electric Power Distribution Network.

To study the effectiveness of the proposed method, a model for the physical components of the system (sources, network lines and load) is considered. This system model uses lumped parameters and adopts the differential equations representing each of the possible fault or steady-state situations. Fault conditions simulations were establish on “Matlab/Simulink” software.

0-7803-7967-5/03/$17.00 ©2003 IEEE

For asymmetric fault situations during the period. The eigenvalue quantifies the modulus of that axis. [11]. Thirdly and finally.5 By applying the Clarke-Concordia Transformation to the three-phase system current instant values obtained during a specified period. which is greater enough than the rated value of the system. line currents are transformed into “αβ0” current components by applying Clarke-Concordia Transformation (1). II. hence the longer the main direction of ellipse. The main direction of the ellipse main axis indicates fault type and the phase or phases in which the fault occurred. In the second step an eigenvectoreigenvalue analysis is performed. the figure of a circle is obtained in the αβ plane. fault location may be established by considering the current distribution on αβ0 coordinates. normal to αβ plan. after applying (2). The nearer to the origin (position point of the current detector) the fault occurs.A main advantage of the proposed methodology is the fact that only current signals are needed. the distribution of the phase currents on the αβ0 coordinates is similar to Fig. The radius of this circle is proportional to phase current magnitude. Fault Classification Pattern for single-line-to-ground fault (phase a). [TC ] = 2 3 1 − 1 2 3 0 2 1 2 1 2 3 − 2 1 2 − 1 2 (1) i zero 1 0. What is of major importance is that the main orientation of the distributed data sample in αβ0 space characterizes the fault type. allowing a pattern definition for each type of fault. 2. 1000 500 i zero 0 -500 -1000 400 iα iβ = i0 [TC ] ia ib ic 200 0 -200 0 -1000 -400 -2000 1000 2000 (2) i beta i alpha Fig. analysis. the β−axis lags the α−axis by π/2. of three-phase system. For that purpose at least one period of 20 ms must be considered to the length of the sample train. In the first one. . Furthermore it is possible to establish a relationship between the eigenvalue of the previous current distribution and the location of the fault [10]. by current components iα. 3. For three-phase short-circuit. In this approach it is considered that α−axis coincides with phase a. which will be obtained considering the following: -1 400 200 0 -200 0 -200 -400 -400 200 400 i beta i alpha Fig. in the steady state (absence of any fault). the development of an artificial neural networks algorithm is considered. Fault Classification Pattern for steady state (Absence of fault). The eigenvalue is used as a method for quantifying that radius. Fig. Therefore. Figures 3 to 5 present the distribution of the phase currents for some type of fault. it is also considered.5 0 -0. Therefore. iβ i0. 2 apart the current magnitude. 2 presents the distribution of the phase currents on the αβ0 coordinates. As only current transformers are used there is significant cost reduction compared with other methods of fault location. the greater the fault current magnitude. (10 kHz). So it is possible to characterize the different fault states. the obtained curve is an ellipse. Considering the data parameters shown on the case study. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY The proposed methodology is based on three distinct steps. which is a function of fault current magnitude. A third axis (0-axis).

4. Eigenvalue Fig. 7) is comprised of two input vectors (eigenvalue data “λ" and fault type vector “kf”). 1 0.3 0. ANN presents. The output of the network will be the distance of the fault (m). an eigenvalue/eigenvector approach will be used. Artificial Neural Network The topology of the proposed neural network (Fig. 6.2 0. Fig. they can learn from data.9 1 Fig. Distance versus “eigenvalue” after ANN application. B. PROPOSED ALGORITHM A.] 1000 1 500 Single-line-to-ground 0. 6.Distance [p. as it can be observed on Fig.8 i zero 0 -500 0.7 0. one hidden layer. λβ. . 7. composed by five neurons.u. Fault Classification Pattern double-line fault (phases a–b).5 λ 1 2 3 i zero 0 -0.5 m -1 2 1 x 10 4 4 0 -1 0 -2 -2 -4 x 10 2 4 kf 4 5 Input layer Hidden layer Output neuron i beta i alpha Fig. among others.Compare fault and pre-fault characteristic eigenvalues. and one output layer.6 -1000 2 1 x 10 4 0. Algorithm Structure The main steps of the proposed algorithm are the following: • Step 1) Data acquisition (phase currents).8 0. • Step 5) Fault Location/Distance calculation III.5 0. Artificial Neural Network Topology. 5. “error-back-propagation” was considered. Fault Classification Pattern for double-line-to-ground fault (phases a-b). To decode and evaluate the above results.4 0. λ0) are non-linearity related with the distance of the fault.4 4 0 -1 0 -2 -2 -4 x 10 2 4 Double-line Double-line-to-ground 0. • Step 4) Fault Classification – Compare characteristic eigenvectors with fault patterns. • Step 2) Clarke-Concordia transformation of sample data and Eigenvalue approach obtaining eigenvectors and eigenvalues. In fact. obtained by Clarke-Concordia transformation.6 0. • Step 3) Fault Detection . Eigenvalues (λα. Therefore the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) is a good way to represent that relationship. they can handle noise or uncertain data. Since it is a well-adapted training algorithm. some advantages as: capability to deal with nonlinearities.1 0. adaptive. The applied ANN is of the “feed forward” type. good predictive accuracy and they can operate quickly.2 i beta i alpha 0 0 Three-phase 0.

5 -1 -1. Sensitivity to Harmonics In the absence of a fault the distortion caused by harmonics on the distribution data sample in αβ0 space does not assume a special meaning.5 -2 -1 0 1 2 x 10 4 C. As an example. 8) is practically a circle with a slide distortion. Obtained results for fault absence with and without harmonics are: • • λ α = 159. artificial neutral formed by short-circuit current limiting impedance to 1 kA.It corresponds to the application of ANN algorithm for location of fault point. PEX insulated. 8. For single-line-to-ground fault the distortion is practically equivalent to zero. 9. line-to-line fault and three-phase short circuit.5 km.34 mH/km. formed by: • Sources . In fact. i beta 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 -1000 -1000 • Load . 5 and 7th. L= 0. CASE STUDY A. for different fault conditions occurring along the line length.88 (under optimal conditions) λ α = 159. x 10 2. R = 0. 1). Simulated Results The following fault types were considered: Single-line-toground fault. l13 = 1.0 km and l23 = 1. 50 Hz.5 4 i beta Admissible distance fault of 0 to 100% of total line length. Network under harmonics influence in case of the absence of fault. The steady state results are important as a base standard for fault classification and fault location patterns. with S = 95 mm². the curve on αβ plan (Fig. B. -500 0 500 1000 i alpha Fig.Assumed as symmetrical and concentrated on a defined point. Figure 10 shows the obtained results with a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 8%.5 2 1.Substation power transformer of 20 MVA. rd th 0 -0. due to the 3 . The steady state (fault absence) is also studied. Y/d.0 km.90 (under harmonics influence) i alpha Fig.012 %. • Feeders corresponding to underground three aluminum conductors cables. 9) is an ellipse just like the obtained under normal conditions (without harmonics). Three different feeders with lengths of: l12 = 2. Total harmonic distortion of 8 %. The following basic conditions were considered: • • • • Each sample train (10 kHz) has one period total length (20 ms). Resistance fault Rd of 1 Ω for ground faults and of 0 Ω for phase faults. This corresponds to the power distribution transformers (MV/LV).5 1 0.382 Ohm/km. for double-line fault. the curve on αβ plan (Fig. For the other types of fault. 60/20 kV. as expected.5 -2 -2. Network under harmonics influence in case of a double-line fault. which increases with the proximity of the feeder end-side. The total eigenvalue deviation is less then 0. Power Distribution Network Data 600 400 200 The case study corresponds to an electric power distribution network (as presented in Fig. . 1000 800 IV. the distortion assumes a very low value. The distortions caused by harmonics on the distribution data sample in αβ0 space in fault conditions do not assume significant values.

Kondow R. 15. [6] Takagi T. [8] Bollen MHJ. David L.6 0.10 0. Vol. C. Jorge. 101(8): 2892-2898. IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition 2002: Asia/Pacific. b) double–line-to-ground fault.4 0.6 0. [3] D. Simulation results presented show that the proposed algorithm is a promising technique for Fault Location on distribution power systems. Poeltl. on Power Systems. [1] ∆λ [%] 0. Alegria CM. [10] Sousa Martins L.50 0.3 0. independent of his presence at the moment of the analysis. V. pp. David L. on Power Systems.5 0. REFERENCES A. IEEE Trans.1 0.10 0. Travelling-Wave-based Protection of Double-Circuit Lines.2 0. Frohlich. K. 12691275.050 0. 370-375. Distribution 1993. J. 12. [9] Jones CV. Nº 4. 1967. pp.9 1 Distance [pu] c) 0. . pp.5 From the obtained results it is possible to verify that the influence of the harmonics over the proposed location algorithm is minimum.5 0. Dunn.30 0.10 0. Pires VF. Nº 2.9 1 V. Nº 1. 13. “Artificial Neural Network Approach to SingleEnded Fault Locator for Transmission Lines”.6 0. Adly A.8 0.8 0. Transm.-Gener. Johns.5 0. 14. Girgis.4 0.40 ∆ λ [%] 0.30 0. on Power Systems. pp.8 0. PS 08 (3). April 1997. [7] Jun Zhu. “Artificial Neural Network Approach to Distance Protection of Transmission Line”. d) three-phase short-circuit. IEE Proc. Lubkeman.40 VI.030 0. [4] Aggarwal. • Almost independent on harmonics influence. Vol. c) double–line fault.00 0 0. Yamakoshi Y. on Power Delivery. Nº 2.2 0. October 2002. The unified theory of electrical machines. 801-809. Vol. Maun. Development of a new type Fault Locator Using the One-Terminal Voltage and Current Data.5 0.20 0. [11] Sousa Martins L.020 0.3 0. This approach uses the eigenvalue/eigenvector and an artificial neural based learning algorithm.4 0. “Two New Methods for Very Fast Fault Type Detection by Means of Parameter Fitting and Artificial Neural Networks”.C. • Location of the fault. pp.7 0. 140(1): 37-47. Matsushima T. Nº 1. Vol. pp 2091-2095. Benne.1 0. IEEE Trans. Vol.20 0. October 1999.7 0. Eigenvalue deviation due to harmonics: a) single–line-to-ground. Nº 4.000 0 0. June 2002.40 ∆ λ [%] 0. on Power Delivery. Jan 1998.00 0 0.3 0. April 1997. Yamura M.8 0. Alegria CM. Martins JF. pp. “Automated Fault Location and Diagnosis on Electric Power Distribution Feeders”. Pires VF. February 2000.7 0. 14.50 0. 1250-1256 [5] Jun Zhu. IEEE Trans. “Automated Fault Location and Diagnosis on Electric Power Distribution Feeders”. IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems 1982. The Application of Neural Networks and Clarke-Concórdia Transformation in Fault Location on Distribution Power Systems. 3. 14th PSCC (Power Systems Computation Conference).50 0. 1-6.1 0.00 0 0. A New Accurate Fault Location Method Using αβ Space Vector Algorithm.040 ∆ λ [%] 0.010 0. on Power Delivery.9 1 Distance [pu] d) Fig.2 0. “A Novel Fault Classification Techique for Double-circuit lines Based on a Combined Unsupervised/supervised Neural Network”. b) Distance [pu] a) 0. IEEE Trans. CONCLUSIONS In this paper a new approach for fault location in distribution power networks was proposed. Plenum Press. Coury.3 0.9 1 Distance [pu] 0. D. IEEE Trans. 12. Vol.4 0. 10. October 1999.20 0. 0. Vol. • Recognition of the faults type and identification of faulty line or lines. IEEE Trans. [2] Z. pp.1 0. Adly A.30 0.Girgis. 801-809.6 0. 102-108. Lubkeman. Xuan. Chen.2 0.7 0. The main characteristics and particularities of the proposed method are: • Reduced number of input signals (this is an importance aspect due to the non-use of voltage detectors).

Sc. design and protection. He is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering. He is presently engaged in research on advanced power systems protections. He has been an Associate Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering. teaching Power Electronics and Control of Power Converters. Portugal. Sousa Martins graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST).Sc. Portugal. Modeling and Simulation.D. (Technical University of Lisbon) Lisbon. Degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the Technical University of Lisbon. V. since 1991.D. electrical installations. in 1975 and received an Msc. Portugal. Portugal. in 1975 and received Msc. BIOGRAPHIES L. Currently he is a Professor. His primary areas of interest are in electric power networks. in 1990. Lisbon. Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal (ESTS). Degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from IST in 1989.D. Alegria graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST). and Voest Alpine. Thecnical University of Lisbon. Portugal. He obtained his M. Fernão Pires received a B. Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal. M. and Ph. in 1976 and 1980. Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setúbal (ESTS). Degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the Technical University of Lisbon. Portugal. and Ph. Degrees in Electrical Engineering from Imperial College. and Ph. He is also with the Mechatronics Laboratory. Since 1991 he has been a member of the teaching staff in the Electrical Engineering Department of Escola Superior de Tecnologia (School of Engineering) of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal. J. in 1996 and 2003. Portugal. since 1977. University of London. Portugal. At the present date he is preparing his Doctoral degree. respectively. Portugal. Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal. On Industrial Electronics and Pattern Recognition Letters. He has published articles in international scientific journals such as the IEEE Trans. .Sc. advanced learning control techniques for electromechanical systems and non-linear systems. in 1988 and M. respectively. Martins graduated in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST). F. degree in Electrical Engineering from the Instituto Superior de Engenharia (Higher Institute of Engineering) Lisbon. He is Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering. Converter Control. Angola. His research areas are in control of electrical drives. in 1995 and 2000. His present research interests are in the areas of LowDistortion Rectifier topologies. C. Thecnical University of Lisbon. He is also researcher at Centro de Automática of UTL. Instituto Superior Técnico of Lisbon Portugal.VII. His employment experience included the Siderurgia Nacional.

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