DHS AP Biology

AP Biology Guided Reading Chapter 39

Name Weston Baumann

Define the following terms: a. etiolation Plant morphological adaptions for growing in darkness. b. de-etiolation The changes a plant shoot undergoes in response to sunlight; also known as greening. c. second messengers A small, nonprotein, water soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell’s interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein. 2. Explain the two ways that signaling pathways activate enzymes. A plant growing in the dark allocates as much energy as possible to the elongation of stems, so it can break ground before nutrient preserves in tubule are exhausted. When a shoot reaches sunlight elongation slows down, leaves expand, roots elongate, and the shoot produces chlorophyll, to look like a normal plant. 3. Complete the diagram below, and explain what it shows.
Reception CYTOPLASM Plasma membrane Phytochrome activated by light Cell wall cGMP Secondary messenger produced
Specific messenger kinase 1 activated


Response Transcription Nucleus factor 1 Transcription factor 2

2 One pathway uses cGMP as a
secondary messenger tha tactivates a specific protein kinase. The other pathway involves an increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, which activates another specific protein kinase.
Specific messenger kinase 2 activated

Transcription Translation
De-etiolation (greening response proteins


3 Both pathways 1 The light signal is
detected by the phytochrme receptor, which then activates at least two signal transduction pathways. Ca2+ lead to expression of genes for proteins that function in the de-etiolation (greening) response

Define the following terms: a. tropism A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or away from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation. b. phototropism Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light. 5. Explain the importance of auxin in plants

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Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress. What is the action spectrum and how do photoreceptors determine it? A graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process. Plant development that is controlled by light 7. The exposed crosslinking polsaccharides are now more accesible to cell wall enzymes Expansin CELL WALL Cross-linking cell wall polsaccharides 4 The enzymatic Microfibril cleaving of the cross-linking polysaccharides allows the microfibrils to slide. 6. The extensibility of the cell wall is increased. c. blue-light photoreceptors Initiates divers responses in plants. which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die. seperate cellulose microfibers from cross-linking polysaccharides. a thickening of the stem. Include a brief description of the following: a. phytochromes Regulate many of teh plants responses to light throughout its life. programmed cell death. b. and explain what it shows. involving slowing of stem elongation.DHS AP Biology Auxin is a chemical that promotes the elongation of coleoptiles. and fruit ripening. 10. 8. activated by low pH. Cell wall enzymes 3 Wedge-shaped expansions. and a curvature that causes the stem to start growing horizontally. ethylene The only gaseous plant hormone. Page 6 of 6 . Complete the following figure. b. leaf abscission. Explain the meaning of each word root in the word “photomorphogenesis”. apoptosis The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death. triple response A plant growth maneuver in response to mechanical stress. Turgor causes the cell to expand 2 The cell wall becomes more acidic 1 Auxin increases the activity of proton pumps ATP Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM 5 With the cellulose loosened. a. Pohotoreceptor mediates response. An asymetrical distribution of auxin moving down from the coleoptile tip cause cells to elongate faster on the dark side rather then the brighter side. Explain what circadian rhythms are and how each plant determines them: 9. the cell can elongate.

Hypersensitive response (HR) A plants localized defense response to a pathogen. that destroys microorganisms or inhibits their growth l. c. caused by stimulus-triggered. statoliths In plants. i. Elicitors A molecule that induces a broad type of host defense response. Phytoalexins An antibiotic. Pathogenesis-related) m. animals. 11. Oligosaccharins A type of elicitor (molecule that induces a broad defense response in plants) that is derived from cellulose fragments released by cell wall damage. In invertebrates. PR proteins A protein involed in plant responses to pathogens (PR stands for. Heat-shock proteins are found in plant. produced by plants. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) A defense response in infected plants tha helps protect healthy tissue from pathogenic invasion. a grain ot other dense granule that settles in response to gravity and is found in sensory organs that function in equilibrium. heat-shock proteins A protein that helps protect other proteins during heat stress. e. n. resulting from a increased ethylene production. and microorganisms. a specialized plastid that contains dense starch grains and may play a role in detecting gravity. Gene-for-gene recognition A widespread form of plant disease resistance involving recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by the protein products of specific plant disease resistance genes. thigmotropism A directional growth of a plant in response to touch. biotic Pertaining to the living organism in the environment. abiotic Nonliving. selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels. f. j. An example is thickening stems in response to high winds. Their biological clock. b. action potentials A rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell. thigmomorphogenesis A response in plants to a chronic mechanical stimulation. h. a. d.DHS AP Biology A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persist even in the absence of external cues. k. Define the following terms in a way that makes sense to you. Page 6 of 6 . g.

Compare and contrast how plants defend themselves from herbivores and how they defend themselves from pathogens. How do plants use gene-for-gene recognition? An R protein usually recognizes only a single corresponding pathogen molecule tha is encoded y an avirulence (Avr) gene. 15. and chemical defenses such as distasteful or toxic compounds. or statoliths.DHS AP Biology Salicylic acid A plant hormone that may be partially responsible for activating systemic acquired resistance to pathogens. Flooding. o. Page 6 of 6 . Other than light what types of stimulus do plants respond to? They have to grow against gravity and when in the ground with no light to grow to they use gravitropism. 16.Complete the following figure. Heat. such as thorns. Plants counter herbivores with physical defenses. Salt. the epidermis of the primary plant body and the periderm of the secondary plant body. What are the 5 types of environmental stress? Drought. 17. but if the skin is penetrated then the plant mounts a chemical attack as a second line of defense to kill the pathogen. and Cold. Recruitment of parasitoid wasps that lay their eggs within caterpillars Synthesis and release of volatile attractants Wounding Chemical in saliva Signal transduction pathway A maize leaf “recruits” a parastoid wasp as a defensive response to a herbivore. 12. and explain what it is showing. an armyworm caterpillar. Define gravitotropism: A response of a plant or animal to gravity 14. 13. Also trees may adjust by thigmomorphogenesis. Plants counter pathogens with their skin.

DHS AP Biology Word Roots aux- circcrypto-chromo cyto-kine gibbhyperphoto-trop phyto-alexi stato-lith thigmomorpho-genesis zea-xantho Page 6 of 6 .

DHS AP Biology Page 6 of 6 .

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