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In violent crimes, body fluids or small pieces of tissue may be left at the scene o laboratories can determine the blood type or tissue type by using antibodies to detect specific cell-surface proteins. o Drawbacks…(elaborate out loud) DNA testing, though, can identify the guilty individual with a high degree of certainty, o DNA sequence of every person is unique (except for identical twins). Genetic markers that vary in the population can be analyzed for a given person to determine that individual's unique set of genetic markers, or genetic profile. FBI started applying DNA technology in forensics in 1988 o RFLP analysis by Southern blotting o short tandem repeats (STRs) The Innocence Project o nonprofit organization dedicated to overturning wrongful convictions o uses STR analysis of archived samples from crime scenes to revisit old cases Reliability? o greater the number of markers examined in a DNA sample, the more likely it is that the profile is unique to one individual o using STR analysis with 13 markers, the probability of two people having identical DNA profiles is somewhere between one chance in 10 billion and one in several trillion

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