Colegio Gimnasio Campestre San Sebastián

9th Grade. Synthesis 1st Term Dear students, you should know this information to study for the Synthesis Evaluation Tests. Here, there are simple recommendations that you should take into account to study for the upcoming Final Term tests. English y You have to use the Comparative and Superlative forms of the adjective correctly. Comparatives: -Ann is taller than Gabriela, so she was chosen to play in the basketball team in the school. -The clowns with the blue wigs are funnier than the clowns with the orange bowties. -Albert Einstein is considerer the most intelligent person in the history of the humanity. I want to be so smart, too. Superlatives: -Chuck was the shortest student in the 2004 prom class. I remember that everybody called him: Gnome. -Scary Movie III is the funniest film produced by the Wayans Brothers. I have seen it about ten times. -Colombia is the most wonderful country around the world, because it has lots and lots of beautiful landscapes and touristic places to visit. y You have to know the different adverbs of frequency and use them correctly. -Always. I always say thanks to God for all the things that my family and I have. -Usually. I usually go to cinema on Wednesdays with my friends to see the last movies in 3D. -Sometimes. We sometimes visit to our grandparent·s house on weekends, because they live alone in this huge apartment. -Seldom. They seldom study for the Math quiz, so they rarely are in the prominent student·s lists. -Never. She never says lies to her mom, because she thinks that is the worst sin of all. You have to recognize the grammar of the Perfect Tenses -Esther has studied about three hours for the Math test, but she has had that call all her friends to remember them about the next activity. (Present Perfect) -Sue and Kevin had walked across the main Avenue in the suburbs in the south and there never had happened anything wrong (Past Perfect)

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Science y You have to know the different parts of the cell and their main functions.

The cell is the functional basic unit of life. It was discovered by Robert Hooke and is the functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life -Nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, vacuoles, lysosome, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus« y Know the Mendel·s laws Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their offspring; it underlies much of genetics. They were initially derived from the work of Gregor Mendel published in 1865 and 1866 which was "re-discovered" in 1900, and were initially very controversial. When they were integrated with the chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core of classical genetics. - The Law of Segregation states that when any individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate, so that each gamete receives only one copy. - The Law of Independent Assortment, also known as "Inheritance Law", states that alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation -An independent assortment the chromosomes that end up in a newly-formed gamete are randomly sorted from all possible combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes. y You have to define DNA, genetic and chromosomes. - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information - Genetics is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms. The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. -Chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. y You have to know what mutation is and its causes. - Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. The sequence of a gene can be altered in a number of ways. Gene mutations have varying effects on health depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins.

Social
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You have to know a list of at least twenty Colombian former presidents. You have to recognize the main Colombian symbols and know what each of them represents.

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You have to recognize the most important aspects in the life of Andres Pastrana Arango. Andrés Pastrana Arango (born August 17, 1954) was the President of Colombia from 1998 to 2002, following in the footsteps of his father, Misael Pastrana, who was president from 1970 to 1974. In 1982 he formally began his political career, gaining a seat on the local Bogotá council. He also specialized in press articles on the production and trafficking of cocaine, for which he gained many journalistic awards. In 1991 he was elected Senator. He proposed the Plan Colombia: The term Plan Colombia is most often used to refer to U.S. legislation aimed at curbing drug smuggling and combatting a left-wing insurgency by supporting different activities in Colombia. Plan Colombia can also refer to a wider aid initiative originally proposed by Colombian President Andrés Pastrana Arango, which included U.S. military/counter-narcotics aid, but was not limited to it. The plan was conceived between 1998 and 1999 by the administration of President Andrés Pastrana with the goals of ending the Colombian armed conflict and creating an anti-cocaine strategy y You have to know the current and historical situations of the Armed Conflict in Colombia. War is a behavior pattern exhibited by many primate species including man, and also found in many ant species. The primary feature of this behavior pattern is a certain state of organized violent conflict that is engaged in between two or more separate social entities. Such a conflict is always an attempt at altering either the psychological hierarchy or the material hierarchy of domination or equality between two or more groups. The Colombian armed conflict or Colombian Civil War are terms that are employed to refer to the current asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict in Colombia that has existed since approximately 1964 or 1966, which was when the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and later the National Liberation Army (ELN) were founded and subsequently started their guerrilla insurgency campaigns against successive Colombian administrations. It originally began as a backlash produced by a previous conflict known as La Violencia, which had been triggered by the 1948 assassination of populist political leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The subsequent targeting of civilians and public infrastructure by the different armed factions contributed both to the creation of the guerrillas and that of paramilitary groups organized to fight against them. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the spread of both the illegal drug trade, the drug cartels and the U.S.-backed War on Drugs increased the intensity of the conflict and involved all of its participants. y You have to know the main characteristics of the Colombian armed groups. - The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia ² People's Army (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia ² Ejército del Pueblo), also known by the acronym of FARC or FARC-EP, is a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary guerrilla organization based in Colombia, which is involved in the ongoing Colombian armed conflict. - National Liberation Army (Spanish: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) is a revolutionary, avowed Marxist guerrilla group that has been operating in several regions of Colombia since 1964.

Their membership is estimated at around 1,500 guerrillas as of 2009, down from a peak of around 4,000 in 1999. The ELN is less known than the largest Colombian rebel group the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Unlike the FARC, which has a strongly orthodox Marxist background, the ELN, initially, was strongly influenced by liberation theology - The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, or AUC, in Spanish) was created as an umbrella organization of regional far-right paramilitary groups in Colombia, each intending to protect different local economic, social and political interests by fighting insurgents in their areas. y You have to know what the demilitarized zone in Colombia was. With the hope of negotiating a peace settlement, on November 7, 1998, President Andrés Pastrana granted FARC-EP a 42,000 km2 (16,200 sq mi) safe haven meant to serve as a confidence building measure, centered around the San Vicente del Caguán settlement. The demilitarization of this area had been among the FARC-EP's conditions for beginning peace talks. The peace process with the government continued at a slow pace for three years during which the BBC and other news organizations reported that the FARC-EP also used the safe haven to import arms, export drugs, recruit minors, and build up their armed forces.

Math y You have to know about the theory and life of William Jones. Circumference and diameter. -As a mathematician, his most noted contribution is his proposal for the use of the symbol (the Greek letter pi) to represent the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He became a close friend of Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Edmund Halley. In 1712, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was later its Vice-President. You have to know about the theory and life of Teano. Proportionality of numbers - Theano (Greek: ; 6th-century BC) was a Pythagorean philosopher. She was said by many to have been the wife of Pythagoras, although others made her the wife of Brontinus. A few fragments and letters ascribed to her have survived which are of uncertain authorship.She was said by many to have been the wife of Pythagoras,The writings attributed to Theano were: Pythagorean Apophthegms, Female Advice, On Virtue, On Piety, On Pythagoras, Philosophical Commentaries, and Letters.

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You have to know about the theory and life of Brahmagupta. Negative numbers - Brahmagupta was a great Indian mathematician and astronomer. Brahmagupta wrote important works on mathematics and astronomy. In particular he wrote Brahmasphutasiddhanta (Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma), in 628. In it he invented many formulas and mathematical properties. It is composed in elliptic verse, as was common practice in Indian mathematics, and consequently has a poetic ring to it. Brahmagupta made use of an important concept in mathematics, the number zero. In chapter eighteen of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta, Brahmagupta describes operations on negative numbers.

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You have to know about the theory and life of Carl Friederich Gauss. Calculation Math

- Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (30 April 1777 ² 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy and optics. Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum (Latin, "the Prince of Mathematicians" or "the foremost of mathematicians") and "greatest mathematician since antiquity," Gauss had a remarkable influence in many fields of mathematics and science and is ranked as one of history's most influential mathematicians In his 1799 doctorate in absentia, A new proof of the theorem that every integral rational algebraic function of one variable can be resolved into real factors of the first or second degree, Gauss proved the fundamental theorem of algebra which states that every non-constant single-variable polynomial over the complex numbers has at least one root.

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