5Lrq.I~L~ HAc:.

_' - . ~





Iturpdrit:tjon v

lIr'h!Irl'ngmcf (·{wri.

{l11o.'ll1.t! 1-

~1L)(lEicelli II.':' 3

C~~I),mlr'lldilq_~ 4

jI}[l;)i;,'!Il 6

SI~h¢rJ~' 7

Gllrm-:I 8

V(!'~'1j'fli)]itc (ldocrase)

'Sillillmnil~ 10


I~ l;uja[ru\t~ 13

PWd::lII.l.~:i I¢!" 8.: Silliman LIC i 1'1 te rf.tIJW th

fi:~";lf,i~ 1.6

l'QPf.lZ 17

.\llaLl'r:t)l~k Is


WoUou:tonite 41

l"ec:toUte 42

A I'lthDpbyll itt' Gedrire

CU:I'Il:mlngteni.1.e Grunerite 44

Tremolite Fe r~'rIil c!]n~~li I~' 45

Hornblende 46

Kaersutlte 4t'i

Glau:::;(~rliil,j'I<t~' ·~9

Arfvedson ite 50

ALI1 irrnarite j I

Asrrophyllrte 52-

Lamprephyllito 5"3

Muscovite 54

Uitl:1ilc. 5~

Stilpnomclunc 57

Pyrophyllite S~

Talc 59

Chlorite 6U

Serperuirrc 62

Prchnitc (.]

Mi~rodillt M

Perq"Fli~c & Mieroperthdic


CJllMir"i[J Su,pphi r1Ji\~ ,Eu:dialy le lO"i",ite

Erllfhte II

J'irmlflilli I~ 24

,,,!'Illmile- (Orl '1'1 ite)

L,:lill.'S(ffli te '16

Pum pcllyitc 27

McliJ.it(' 2.8

£,;Clrd ierhe 3(J

r'otlrmaJlne 32

A:l:iJlI[f 34

(~J11.1(llll'm:l:enl! 3:;

I%fj~ili Jh

'ri.l:1\ll.LU!J;LlC :J, 7

C1lIJOpyro:KclJc & Orthopyroxene

il~tergr~lwl h 38

!);-Lnod i lit! *6

/\ tl~)Fl hO(lla~t~ PI',) g_i ~ lase

GUm-'ll JO

My r ruek ite


'" ,,,,

G ra n ophyric [C,"" I tl re

Tridymite 74

Cl'ii~.t~hidil~ 7~

Nephel m!;: 7€1

San ld n!l10c &l\,lerjlu~Ji' 1"1(:

Leucite 79

N osean so

Cuncrinite ~I


Analcite X3

Corundum ,Ho<l

RlitHe HS

Perovskite Spinel Brucite Calcite Dolomite Apatite Fluorite Dl.:c[itc·


l:o:~ j.J9

90 92 '1,1;;1 1,14-

I Iuw ieite 95·

l;Ll~;:,;maL1ik 9~

Y oderi le -n

'~I(A'x 'J8




The purpose of this book is to ill~IM,~i~ lileappL';;~lnmC€ of man}' pHhc CQImi'1:C ~Il 1'f:Ic:kAOTJ:I1li J1~ m incrals in ~ hi h section under the microscope. 11 i~ j'J01 our inllcllIiOl.l that i( 8hollUd be used ,1$ a snb:;Iil ute for ~I TIIbn~ralog}' textbook but r<11h~r as a l;iJbl)r~!.lor.y 'ha:ncllo.!.i<lll<. for use ill practical d,I!'l~e.. .. (ogt:l!lit;;1' wmth QIlI: ~'lr the standard textbooks or} mincrej'l'l;1gy _

The idea of p:md,.cinf.a series or phQl@gnl,'[1h~ of J,n~9J;l.;'riJ11:o IF. thin section came frum two .. ourees. '1'I101l:!j,Qll of nile of the uurhors, I. R MacKenzie, 11~el1 in his second year .~ a student 1..)1" g.eology. ~LIMiistoo I,hat lbese would be; a useful .ait1 in n::coglJ.t:r.ltIg minerals under the mi:CrfJscopc. On questloning IPI'!,Jeq?.raduak,;;, ill second-year Geology d'I,S,~R in Mb!!lL.::~~~stBr. UL1ivl;"n;it}', ,",,'113" ~hl;:y r1mfernid ~:t:r~,a'il1 tcxtbeoks to eltht.'rc:, the .J:n~'w~1" was illvar.iably i h;'ll' they found those I~H,l()ks which contained illuslrntions aocornpanymg the I~),I particularty 1I:!itlfLI1. espee ... I]y when they C,l.u.ild rc:cogni?~ under t'he microscope features whic:h equid be: seen in the phvlngf.aph:;.

Sume of the lC:-il~}()ob which, in our- opinion, contairr ~hiil best phoromicrographs 01' ,dJ'l.Iwln g::; ,of n~ i ncrab are ruther 01«;1 "rtc'l <l re no; ra;.,ild.ily a'l'aitiahll;:,to the SLudc;nl: of tocl~~.YRo~e.nblJscb·~Mikro:;J.::f)r· i:\'.d:t~ Pf'rogri:Ip.l'!i~ dn /i,1 id1R~'uJiC1r rin(i G{':\,t~itid·. publis her I in I, 905. has ;;..ome cxc~lIenr rlriQt,omil.'fogl'aphs printed in _black. "i!d white. 'i\'hik Teall's Brjii,~11 Petrography. puhlish>l;,!d ~Ii ! g88, ha:::: heautifu] drawing:-which appear to l;iu.ve .... een hJim:LL.ct~lm.Ll'€dI bcfu.n: reproductfon b)i 'P~·fr!lillg. t-I. G. S'mi,II';<i "Mil1ct(i1!> and the Microscope", firsl printed in 1914. has been fou nd useful oJ gtmt:r~.tiomi of :o't Lldent5: of elemenrsry m:i1Ier;llQgy bt.'1;'HI~e ofthe hi.ghqualily of the iI1LL~tr.tli{)n:;. It seeme.l In us that if we could n;prmiuce faii,hr~!'II:" boy colour 1'l1lOlognlpfly, tb.1; .<'I ppearnnce of run nerals uader the ru ieroscope bql:ll 111 phll),f"'f"Olarizcl.i light and under eros-sed polurs, tile uscfu~n.r-~s Of photomicrogli~ pl'I.~' as a l<::m;:iLiTlg md would bei ncrcascd ~·~ii..' !"ill 01.:l;,'ily.

'I'hc mr:tjo.ri!), OftJlC photographs were made from Ihitl sections of rocks- in the teaching eollections of Ihe GcolO'gy r.~epaItThlcn'l in Man~hesl,el' Unlvc.rl:ii!Y· '111d \1,'C are gn~Le:fu] '1.0 mau) of {JUt ,colhll::~~le~ 11] liI!·imLdl~t;,leTfQr pm;"'idin~ us w ill"! thin sections, We arc p~lrlklJlarly i:'mjt:l'i:l'~d. to Profu'::!::'~I'.L ZllSb"lIJj~~TI lor his t:I1th[lsin.::ml ami V!l(Otill'age ment to us Lu undertake this wOl"k and ,~! Ik S. O, Agrel'l of the Departmcat of M,ncnt.!ogy lIlld l'etl"ology of Cambriu:g~ Untvcrs-ily who ~iCI}' k.iru1ly found. fn:lln the, Harker C~ll1octi,on ill Cmnb.ridg'C, ~I mlm[ocr uf .. dditional ,hh~ M:ChOI1S. Dr. A.,grell and I'ro"fcssur W·. A. Deer very [!ie:nef(Ju:s!y :1:!!-rcco 1.0 look ~, 111m! of ~~l~ photograflh~ ~. h,uJ [[Ja~e and hetped ua 1.0 tl-ecidc whilllher they w.e.re; suitable or could be improved, The authors' alone are responsible for uny l'ienciencjo:-:s, wlll,ell arc.~ iIll'iTl t'il'esC-I'Il in the plwh)g_r,a,pf"ts, W~~!realso.g.n~teful to Dr, ,'. 'Wad!-l'worth or. Ih!': M.auc~lW~f-l::r Departrnerrt for m~",l'.lng 3. llul1Iher of uscfu] ~tl@el$liooi> !"(ir lmpruving the .desoriptions flf the phutcrnict ogmr-h:'ii 'blH OI.gain w~ ~li()nc art responsible lor any errors which ftr.ly -appc~tr here. FioaUy we am much indebted to MbSS. P.alr~C'i<J Crook

who l}'flfd the text, II:()I: once btll innumcrabje tlmes, until we fIJ wtra~ we considered to be a cornpro 111 ~S:C" bet -.yeefl toe tk: laile.d and Dri~f desc riptions of t he plio lugl"j~l~hl.s"

We shouJ 111 i be lO thank ! he- f;·raff of the puh Ilshcr5,p.o1Tticub r.ly .~ Bobbi O(JUre, ror their cousldcratiun nnd belfl'fulm:3s ill prepa.Ta,IJ Otj of this work.

Introd uction

The minerals represented Iiere.are ulrrani;gcdi in the sameorder in which l:bo:~y r~pt=II;:(lr in Deer. Howle' and 1,u~·:sin:Jl::r·\;; lntro(!rinft!i'J ttl !~()f'k' .I-}))'ft!il;g Mil'wra!s [relevant page Ill.imh~r;:i gi v en at the 'end nl"em;b rm1fl hll ~!l;lI-e hl"'l~ki.!'l!>.), except .O!' a I'ew minerals which are LWi' d,;:scribc.:d by these fl III h ors, · ... ·jt_ deerite, hfi.1k ietl'e, IlJti~ma ni L,.;._ yoderire and' Iamprophyllise. The dec:is.io~1 ,IS to whichminerals !(I ind\ide has ~t~~L based mainly on [WO consideratious, firstly. bow ffeqU:~El~~y lh~)' occur o!n~'! sl;;(.'oIldJy whether ':J. j)liolog:r;.~pll t"hUl be a useful ~Id in ~demilk~i i 01'i,

r rdhe headi rlg~ r~;. each miners I. we have I i:;;;. L~j ~hL; chemicalformul 11 (;;,imrliJiled [[1 s,!ltlle cases), erys[aJ sy~[E! m, o pl;tf:' sign, the v a lues' of t he i3 l'err:;;Cillve index fur biaxial minerals and tile W 'lfl~1 r.: T!:l}' refractive iildiocs for uniaxial mi!H:~'r~l~ ~(lgl;;lher with th-e hij'e.rricl·.~,!:[OIl~I,;, These llgur~ hevc been quoted fr~mj Deer, Howie and ZUSSlnal1':>: he-ok with their pennission The rock type and '1~,ql'lrl}', of the 1>'pOCiI!11~tl;; are ~lIak~ where these ,~rt:hlown, and tJ),nuag!lL1Tt;<llioll~ u~t;!~ in t~kkins Lbc-photQ~ra'Phfi a re ~!"e;t! Each photograph is ;l-c~ol'rlp,~rni~d !J '!/ a brief" J'.~.:nptl'OlJ. of tJH:nel.d Or ... iew illustrated but, il1 general, only ,Ilrrr..~jlil/::'; whic[je.ul be seenin the phrJwgnlph!>.arc discussed __ Thus ~'e IHIVoIh-l['rljH&;J teferene . ..e to optic 3:1:1 •• 1 angle, sign of elongation 811\! dlsperslen. ln [[lo:;.l OlSCS atleast t .. vo rbotngtatih~ have been made {()f !:;j.t)l rn lneral, one t IJ plane- pol(i.l'lzed ligh~ ~~td ~ he ether the.same ... ·I~· ~mder ,e;mfise(i !J'O]IiTIi. H the mineral is ple(I'Chwk: W~ have reproduced two ·pi'lOh')~f;).r:hs.i01 plane-polarized lighf w:id, the pil)hrri;,;:cr in two unhogonal posit in n~_ r fI (he ~~!S(;; of isotropic Ini nerals we rw,,,..~ tended !,il (llTdl the ~'il:w taken undercrossed p.ob.I-cs.

Wl,h l~l,Ii exeepliens the PQlru'lzer has been SoIt'L parallel to the edg~ !l.\.f ~bc photogi' .... l.phb LIt ' ... 'e ha'i'c not m ade much U!>C of this filet since ~f~Ll5s[on of extinctson angles is omitted excepT in the ease of the p!<t!lloCli:t8t:: fdds.paL';, because chi::. wNrlJ: necessitate renn.1du(.:inrg ::l .![.LlmiW:r'Q'i' phoiogmpJl:S taken under c ros .. sed polars .. ttl order b, show pleIKhtoil.itil. WI,'; have used rotation of the polarizer rather tl'HH1. fa(a~.l(l[)-n'f the stage of the llJ6CrQSCOpe for Iwu reasons .. Firstly. tbli=-. makes it ea$ler 10 compare the pnologl'aphi> ,f,! !l'lj I) bservc the ch ange i 11 ~1}161!rshowtl by ail)' oI,lne cl:.y~taL~md'soc.m1.dly il IUrS ix:cn done. lQ! ,f_Cli;)lHu,agc the lise 01' th i's CJ1~'lhoJ fi_ir dr::tcoting weak pleochr~i~m.

Aillrou~h ~'i'e ha,,'e adopt¢d Ihe- proccdm'l? of retaining L~IC thin !e(uon in !he ~me orientatioo !'orrlll ~hrc,.. pnot.ognrphs. tt'lis iUI,;' on~ 'isallivan I"IJ&,\-J;: IT thcre are only a few cI'Y~1 .. 1.i:\ in !hcfiidd oh'jew, 'Ol' [.h.e crystals: na'l'e a :>iU;'O!'lg prdi)f1-cd orientation in tht:; r(lt:k ~crtion used, we bilYi; OCcn'llCl\lhle ,'n ~h(loW lhc ma-ximlllJ1 clW.oge. 111 ~I b:,;orptio,II co]om I'IM ml.~1~9i1 of 'the r)o]1i.riJ.er -rhr'lll!lgfu '90" since tfrte exl remt:' ~b:mrptioll .;:okH~rS':iI rt: 5howI'l bya crystai v,'ht:n its vibration di recti()l1s a;'re mlfi;ldlel to;lUld ptlrpemlicLLlar tD Uu: pokuizer, hI' chc~t: posjtion.~ the. Cj'j'SI.i!:l i'i'mI1d. be ftC ~:1.1 It'lc-lion When ''ii'ue>~'ed Lll'Ide, Cf1)S~t.'lJ p!ll .. r:s aIld .ideally wO-\'!'Lsh 'to; shmv lhe (:Ii.).n;!dc[]sli'c intcr{e·rerrc.e i.)~'1.our~[lc<!r [() tb.dr ma:l:imum il1tel,~~ity_ Well<p,-e not sp·cr.ified. ~n which 01' Ihe lVl'D

orthogonal posirions the rnl~fizn is set in the photographs t~b:w p:I'oi{le- poi,ll ri tell ligtt[.

As menl:io:nEXi above we have qll(licd the numerical value of I bircfringeuce rUT' each mineral, hut ill the description ofl jphtlwgraph we have generally referred to the order Q1' 1 Ill!.: i:rat'C):feIcl i;:()I~i~H, To enablethe rt;m!~r L·{~ translate 'lwefri!lget!lJt W;;L parti 'u colour we have included on p, "'i ;1 pho Logmr"l of ,1 q uartz ~,,-ed.ge· W .1 birefringence <stale along irs length, 1'hi.~ ,~lwuld nlll be u:!''ed a: l'vfkh~jt-LeI!J Chatlllincetf-ie Ihicklllcs:s of the seerion rs no!' f<ll\eii it ll.~0 un 1.1'1 bei I'l,g' assureed UM( the ~e(:1j m Q1l. ~f~tand ard t laic kness, , O·01l"r'Ji·n. Thus the mineral names are n:proJlll.ied against the h.ighll order colour which they show in a tl1.i[1 secrion d'!;*~mhlId thickn rather tll.1DI D 1'1'P'L'l$i a'l:! r;idi al lines 'Nfukh show the "a.riilllo!1 in (:,Ql~ wi[h thlekness, and hitefril'l~fmt:~ ()f 'Iht, mineral mitl1 ~r M·ic..:.lwl-U chart

The falIhrl~1 reproducficn of'rhe rmerference colours Q( min_.r;Tals thl n sec •. inn L'I r In, ."!. (j 1.1 ariz wedge . .as seen under .;:rl ]~-~\::" polars, doper to [1 large extent on rJi,t!o lyp.~ of film 'Used and also on. Ilu: printi P['&Ct~~:S, Kame: of t be M.idlel-I,ev)' chart ~ th~r~ have been p'LIhlt'lh dep-arl ~lighth' from tile Hue wlcf!IJn; ;mtl one- fault which is rai commonconcerns the middle of die second-order c.::OIOUlf!ii when broad band of brighl gn:en is som.;?l~irne~ ~'!'g{Jwrl '!?~(\""et:11 blue a: yellow, Obse(\>'ot.i(lll II a qliwrlz wedge under cr.oMed polar:. reve that 11118 second-order ~Jiollr between blue and yellow r:;; ,1 rather p: green in contrast to the r~id)' deep gI,~'nl in the third order, 'Only minerals which are cotn'\1rlt;:~ anu. have negligible dhpeni!)11 is ~rs:;ibk to distinguish the..~od two greens and even then (ljbly aJ c(}fl:>,I~I.e:mbk e .... pericnoc. In some of We phnhJg;l'tlphtl of mintrah;: moderate birefrit~gt:ii1t:C the edlgt of the crpthl~ (:,IF! be seen to 'If'o,t:(.lg,c.~haped and thus the order of rhe interference colour (lam determined fairly read r~y,

S-.gI'JJ~ ofthe common minerals \!"11ict~ ure w:iL.lilll)' considered dimel to i.de~1AHy (Iit;.:g, l?llnlierit~)~r\1 represented hy n)ll~ than om" ro section if lh'e' considered that additional pl1otogni.phs would gi .... ( better idEa, or the ..... rhllion:s .ill appcatiCj!nce wlnkh Oia)' 1,1;:' t:';lJ:~~I~,j d.iff-m·i?1lt f()ch Or Wi'~ w!-!s·.impo~~ib:~(". in onIB.field. 'L')f \'~ew. to iIi Ll::;'n

I.hl;; cliffe-renl pl'opef~je~ \\'lhch w!: wished [0 show_ .

In 8;- few .cases the photograph!! l_,':r.kc:o. ill, plaIl@'.-pcJlafize-d ! ight sh~ .~it;; pink ;;tlId b>IDEi:I colour~ due to 0$1 nr}' po.4lru!itLon pl'oouoed .i rl'l: phOWgr-dpruC equipment ,>"hen SU,dl ~{,.i !)I-J'("S 'liI~ PI'csc;n'l we ha ViZ; !!loOt tbis tn the J!es,ctiptitm of ~he pbO'Eograph_








" O.'()IW



Birefringence chart

Aipl!ltl~fI MictDc\lnt!" So;iitldl_ Sopphiriniii

Anol1hDc~ V",liWlllftita Zuil!iW

ClHUl'ldum QgillrH

C!hIDritll, Eudlillltro

AndaliJli'" .. Arf",!Hillcr!!l'W

,Jadllit .. Staurmita

MYlnUI 54rpgntil'll!! Cllrdlllrtto


Cancrlnite, Hornbl&i'ldfl


Anlhophvm~Glldf;ito ""Ulroil!)


Chlloorodiw Forllterito ~Uanitl:!

!tpldotfl Mu:I.QOVI'la

Aeo"lrlna-AQllit"1I1 P'I',gphyllite Taill!


Onhorhorubic ( .~ ( ) I '6,')1-1·~6jl'

U .f~_j~ () 'O.~'2

The oli\'IJ1CS form a \:OH1[.}ll:IC :;e>ii<.l solutiou bel'Wl',iell me m~Il1.,:~jan end-member, 1:1iQ;11~i'i!~\ and the iron endlIl~riip:r fay.:J:li'tc.

These photosraphs show n'l,),'~) olivine phenocrysts in Pl Oiil:-gf"incd groundmass 01' pl~.glOdtls{·fcldspat", pyrLlX€1)~ und iron ore, The lJ{lP~~' pl'l~lo~:.r,{ph, lak.cTiil1 ~1:!!-;le-Pll~~1 ri t.'t-'(J li gh L. !th ow, 'Llle tyjii CJlI ~h,iPC :01' ali vine, crystals: the lrregutar '.:laclI;,!-t and sli~IH ulteratiue ulung the cracks are cl1 • .u;u;:~el'l~lj~ 01' this ID][lCraJ: there are d~m. (I f !':J~-iI"'~ ge lLl engthe len gtl'l i,~ f 1,1 rl" oi' fht' crystals,

~11 '11~e-l~~I.,;er jJhologm-ph: taken under ~~~o!,>:i(:d polurs, one of the crystals IS I:;lI' '''(:T}' nearly perpendicular tu all .;:!pLLI;~l::<:jS und flO :l;11L1W~, u verv 10\ .. '- interference cnl .Illr~;1 I~ ,In nnornalou ~ brown ca,mr;;'l~i, by, di ~ lJeiJ'~lQIl ' uf the (;6i: ic flxe~ The other crystal :'.h':I\!,o~ ,I seeoud-ordcr blue on the nfJl whereas the main part of the cry lUl shows a ;,;l.i~I1tI.y. Itlli'er L:(jILlii.r, The higher bir""fl'illgeI1L~~ on therim uf the 4!11'f1;!J:l i~ 1m p(ldi~,:~L~iQn ul"uhlgl~'er h'(,Hl (.:()l1h~I:H, TIle reverse effecr, viz, lowering of the b'ii'",il'gi~!!,'eil';(;! colour l.hi~ ILl the wedge ~._h~p~ or the ny:;(al boundary. call he 'fen 011 the bo LL () m edge of ~., ne 1.1 r 11:1~ oli vi IlC tT}';,;t'-ll~ and flliIt'l Iln ;:j dirl()p}'roX~~l{~ phenocryst pm'! 0:1' which just wpe;),I's ;lll h,~ bou om 0 r the field, [I],

S:(h'~'iJl1I?!'J Ji'o-'tI! ulnlc.:r.,.{.(I;ul~t!, i~hwml' Ket[. Hm<'aiL In(lf~f'iil1.-

rdtiOJ! x 43. ' ,

en ..



Orfhol'h(Jl111bUd +) (-) i ,o::H-J. ·K6S1

'il-O J~(l·()52

HI ,~

nir~fiil~lf~n I;¢ The fI~j'fi:ne;;; form a complerc solid' aolution b'("[ we Il'mgrm,s·iall end-member, ['ur:>~q;'le, ~.pd Ihi;; ~ !'(;r:

member fayali teo '

The u pp~:r ph~':l.t}graph. l;~ke~! In pj (lIl,(}-flL)-i::lif'l7.ed 811 O;W~ i;.,] i v,i ne (h ri';!wn,if1h-gr~n iC:0.1t~U I', occupyln g, It the fj.eld) i]ite~'groW!l Witth a-calcic p.~a,g'iOi:hii;.t_ Th) relid of the olivine against the: fcldsp~t is, no ticea p,ale colour in O~jviD;r,; ~CL;):liJJ ])1.Imi::-p.~!I'Hi'.'lt.d Ji cemmon but i1 doe:;;noL show rleuchrt1i~m - 'tile i l'u~H'ir:h jTie:~nhe,t':'lL;If. the ~I'iM ~J10W .a ;r~n>Dwfsh.-1 colour" Thecracks in the crysht!s arc quite charact as is the -r .. lighta.~tcr~~lial1 qT ~h~ J11in..;;:ral·~:~on~ ! 11;:: cr

In ~:h.e lower pho~Qgn!"ph, l;lKen Hflder ¢IU~;';~~ I the .i!H£:rli.l;rellf~ lxiln'EJr,; ;He· 111Lwtl'r' second fmdli: h.l.ghest oolot'!.r~h(lwit:lg lrn·thls V.l~ is the yellm ... snrall w·t}·stal .i 'Il~t above 'thecerttre of thq ~icld - c(lJ{lur~i:ndic-atG';;t f:ll~g.tleSo"iIl!TI.rich clivi ne since bi: ·g£nC€colotl[~. well into the third order are oldy ~ .olivincs with hig!1 iron contents. ll].

SfJf'f-iJ1"Ii?n jJ'tJIn gabbro pi(Tih:, JiJol't,lj~r (j1"'?~IP s Ska« iIHnrs.i@i1 •. East Gr:('~nhu~d .. m{Jgn.I'f(catin~ ;<.13.



Or'th l~r'b'!;.)lnb.lc ( j -MM-! -h64' 0,011·,0,020

RI P 1~lrd'rmgcl1ce

III t~(; upper pnoLogl:ap.lli, tak~TI un planc'[loiar.iliAl light, \l~ dvmill<lIlL mineral is .ll:'H1nl.iG:ellik with subordinate ;).il,;-ite, In pI4tl¢-poia.rized J~g,11IIht: calcite can b~ ceoo·gnizc.rl hy its gc n(j cleavage and i win lamellae. The high! relief of the monueellite a,g~i:J'll>1 tha' mounting S)1::W:!tJiIJ ~1I be seen ill .~ ::;rr.dl~ hale near the top edge l1f theslide.

ln the lower photograph, In!,;el1 under {'ms~d polars, Ibe mtcrfcrence colours urc seen l~; !~ 1Q'w firstorder; lhe I~ig~<;sl colour .seen here i:s the oi'ange-yeUow colour. 11 iibl1uid be remembered Ui4!l1 in rocks without quartz or fdd~];lli!' pr¢.Seli I it is ~()I'(~etiule~ difflcu [I' u ~ j~idge the ecrreet thickuess ur ~1 sectlua a ruJ this 'section may be ~lfgMly thin, [J OJ,

,!lyl?dmefl from m(mticdli!t~-·.\·'flinf:'.J-phfo,wrpili! rock, Bar- 1!Phl.~"', C(I!:imgford, Eire, fl1(1g1Iijiwf.wn x 32,




l\ig(O,H .. F)2·2 Mg;l SiO_~

M oncclinic ( + ) "002-1-627 O·02~-OlIJ4

AIllH.llIgl1 members of the humiie g,(J1.iP, M wbi,cl' ehrmdrodite is-Due, are fn:"'!li~JlI!)' J·ellov.~il'ill in colour, it thJ~ ease. the.chondredite i:-. ILearly colourless ja lhir ;sectoon.· In the ~gp.pel: photograph, taken in pl.tlne pula,riLed li~ht. the hIgh "die! is distinctive, as ~~lro is fllt hg,;k or a good clea vagliL Here ~ t is shown iii ~'t:rg'ro\,!,tll wi'll ..:.;~dcjl:e ('hn'lw.f;li!;~, colour) LUlU. I'I'IQ crysl<l:l$.lYf muscovite,

In. the lower photograph, raken 1,iJl1d~I' crossed polars 'the muscovite crvstals show <l bluish- ... etlowIntcrference colour, ~~'hdle tl1~ €alC{t-c i!i grey Qf d;i-k 1In::y, ~iilHirl~ ['I,'iirming i:, "b~lwn I f:i two (If the l:rYfJ!'c\ I~ 11 f. chondred i ~i and Lhili i:;. ~i characteristi: .. oj' the monoclinic members (i the hum he group.

lt may be- truH Ibis secuon l~slighUy thin because th! highest interference colour in this £i~ld 1];; tb., fir~t~ar(l& nod shown in the crystalin the lop right part of thtl field and lrom the birefringence we should expect to se colo lin; il&J t() second-order red (see phmogruphs 01 p.S). 111j-,

Sped~M.{~!'J f"m~1 marble, i'i~'II..' Jel-'S,c}-', (lSA ,; .rlwglli! mllm~ x 21).


{\'-hnl!ncljrliL~ (+) HiM ! ·cJ_, (1,018 0·034

In lll~. :secfiOJ! H conecntrution of cht1t1drl.!d·il~, pale ~'I!l'IfJwi sh C{)Jo u I' under pl~n.I);:-PQlari.zcd Ii g.lu \Ll!lPC r ~hOH}J:!mpb). 'is ~hClwn ~tll~Tgr\l)wTi wilh a gltr~llel ,[tJ.roVl'Il). The yc[l'owldl {'Q]OU.I: whicb characterizes the members Dr ,h~ ~)lJmi~!.: group I~ ,<,cry pale hen! ~('l I bell ~I separate T)h(l~(~fl.r'i!ph i(~ shew tJH:' rlE:Ddll-(~i~T1:i h;-.!~ IH.H hem kr,::l.i.i.cLe-i."I Some of the ct"y';.ral~ -:;hl_)\;~; ~il!l'l;' of pour ,cl~a"ii\ge,

111111.i;; "jJ.;1\' tinder crossed POI.3i"$ (l.m~'~1 phH1C)!.~rl'[J'h). the tv,tjnniflg which chl.l.rm;:t~ri/i\.~i> the monoclinic member of thLuci.ie~ j swell :i llustrated ,11'1(1 r he j n terfercncc COIOlLJ"~' extend i.i[1I.I> l'nod(ll¢ second-order. The g;:11 netm lIl.~~ wok is u srm.smJu!' H.Jl d i L can be seen to be ~ljghlJy b.i refl'H~g'::li.

hi addition to ehendrodite lhi:s reek -also conta-ltl'f! ~jlil~)lnmllh:: but, since -It::, b.lrE!frlnge.jqe~' i:r ill the same tM~e ;~~ 11ml {lr .;.;hcmdwdi[c, thC)" can QIl'I~ be ~li~tirJglli~biM "by ! he rifCI [bi1 L theelinehumitc has a '1 i ~h~r rell,lI.cth'-e index. 11 3l:,

.$'jJirflll{ljljr[l1lJ !lNltn/e •. 1/~'lm',,!, S,k.I't'" ,'-;mthu·ul.: m(,Igr1ifi~YJI'i/111 ): IN,



= Tetragonal ~ + P 1-923-1,950 1·\l.63,_2'015

~ Hl42:.-U,O{,:'5

Rl w t

;!;ir~i'1n wmlll(}t'lly OC'CU:I'~ ill ~ath\::r ·~n1;;.ln t:rY::Hal::., bui i: easily notj:coo becanse: of d:l very high reliel, Tfie' 11ppel f!,flOtograrl~, taken ill j;)~~:mC-Jlok-lril.e·d !j~ht. sh (lWS; rathe: lil~ge lir~QtiJcty~L~ Is 1i,~:>(~,i?l~:ed withsphene in a tint, graill~d grul~mkrrijt~;5 TIl tll FI'11 offe!df:JJllf_ SpJlemi aha h~;:;,,· !"!<;;ry high relief f.!lld II'L this pno:togmph i'l [5 vcrydifti.ct!h h: ~lMi'Tlg'JL1"h 'tn)m th~ zircon, ,Tbe g.ood~le>t\'~,ge:> in, .;::i~c@t: a re well dtSp~:JYcd ill some -, oftru:p,<ty~Lal:,..

1 fl. [he J ("i\t'~J'ph(JitO~r:ltph5; takl:.l1 un d-fr ~Ii'Ofi:'iedi po.b18 1'ITJ(){,t ofthe zircon ("''TY s Lfll8~bvw 11 ~&Il i uterfereuee nolou r: ~Wl':1PUht 111(: crystal to the left of ceutrc which·:;i1uw.:,; lw~ del:tYH~ ~L right !wg!e},Tbj~ cr;c~U~is"cU11Ijmtl~"l 3[. ri~1t 1!Ir.:ti!:Jes 'I"" lite r.pt-te axis -andheneethc l.ow hw{':rfer-enCi colours, the sphene cl")ltltalsmmperhblp:, be mare eaflj~ ldentl fied in this photogn~;ph because of'rhelr much high.: bLmfr.ingl::rtoo and by- Ute;: [:l'It:SCIl'Ct: o FrwillniJ1g (top of fi~~( of view 11:1 centre $mQ '1:(1 tbe 'right or zircon sb.ot"·~llg lev lvil'el:r i ~)&ellli~ ). lU},

S,W'C fml::'11 }rom ,~egrt);r,1 (i~I.11 in .i':Y''''',i-j 'ilt'--lifgriu!1t lie, K.~l, r~'nir1,r'lIta, U8S R,- i!!tlt:,rdfj01/.i{;!! x :IN_.

Sphene CaTiSi04(OH, f'.)

MonncliJ\ic l ~ ) H~I'O 1·034

I). l n'l1-(}' I 91

'Sipheoo IS. It relatr v cly e~tsy nuneral to identify because ie 'Q6mmollly [orms diamond-shaped crystals of very high rd~rh.wi [~g 't bWWTJ ur n'(l -brow ~ I;;.jl QU r. These ~I,';'~ t u n;:s 'inc weH ii'ihm\l11. in the llfi'~r and middle phO((Jogl'apJl~' ULkil'Q in plaue-polaeized tighL These crystals 1IIJC 1'1130- ebr()li~ und t)im.plc I wi nni ng it; eornm on, The mineral inrtrgrnwn with sphene in this section ~s ulkali fc]d:;Pill[

The h)wc.l' photograph .. taken under crossed polars, ~W'I> u !H!ml~I'r Hf try'~!<Ih neu.r '!.ilt." extiuctkm position h'tJl those whicb show double rt:fntc:tinn have II ·.,-,lour ''ilr~' i>ll1'llbr lL) the ansnrptlon cnlour seen under planefK1\1~trJl.ili:I ~ighl. This isdue to the extreme hircfhngenee of ~pb"::[J~·:;ll(:.!ii Lha'! [he imcrfercuec colours are n;!,)' 'ru.giJ o·fd,~r. i.e fl~I'nll~l white ligil~- In crY"'1.<!i:;: l1<'ilhmH Ihi.'t dl1r<tGterisnc: shape dw~ n~Cl i.~ useful for id~I,ml]... :1 lion , 1'171.

!Jpi'!/"tlU:'n/r'(HI,1 ,"1J·JU?tw-I"'i('!1/;·(u:k. Kola P(>niliilUlrJ, USSR.,lh'i!!lll,ifi~ C!!iml x ]lJ.





(.M'g., Fe, Mn)lAI2SiJOI i almandine group Ca_~{Al, Fe. n, Cr)~8i.~O'.2 andradite group


1,714 l·:!l:;}iT



A considerable m.ng,c of compmrtiD!]l1 i!ol [!'!"ls::;ible if gn,n1et8 .,jJli.(i hence the- range of rdl'aet[.'c indices quoted They ure very commenly t_u.h~J:r-itl(]:r subhedral in ~hapc

Tile Ifl[lf!'fl' paH)log"~ph ~h(lw!-o ~! nurnber uf t;ijoh~'ljIl'f guructerystuls, of tl'ae .alfu.a:nd1.n.e :i:el'ies,'"i nJ~t~r(lWfi wi U qU<Jrlz and m.ic:.'I. iu a lucta.luorpLllc rock. Th~ga.l~lle stands lI~l 41U.ilc cl.¢H.dy [rom the oih!:'" mine:r<JJ~ boc<lLlifo: of lt~ h~ghreiief.~ 11 t:l brownish colour, H~how~ inclusiom of the grol;llldirnas¥ mine-rn]s ~m~ ~ili~ h1f very OOmru.OJ fta:tun~.

The r:I'Iiddle pllqtngmpl-! show;,. ~hc ·~amt:' ... 1t:'w ~l:tIill~ (;rO<l:i~t;AJ polars ::I'ne! tile' g;!rnels' ~[l[l seen to he 1.~otf'Cip.i~ (~01n~' ~mnLltl;S·aK: ibi:n}frJ:lJg(::nL and .tnay~how zoning. am 1'111' iT! ni ng revealed ini he luy,' biIJ;:'fi-illlf;;(';t:ilC(: roJO'Ui":S" ,'liC~ lower pJiQt.(lgf:arll, tl.5). .

The I~w(;r ph()lograpn, taken 111 plaFie-pO]il.ri7.~ light shows a mdanhc.g~Jnci. (Ti-rich andr·adltc) jll. 11m :;r1k.aHI.h ig!l~ol!s r~cl¢. lts d'C(!'j:! brown ~!uh)~r- i::ll1lth~r ul1~/I'enb di!ltri hllt.ec.1 btl!)'1 t>~w'i'~ £:allil1g 11 l. !:h~" ~.dgc.s -af the cry1it.a,[; the eta:,hel;h'.!1 shape is. \;~ry characterrstic. The'- othCf fIli!'!~I';lllfti this sectiueis aheredalkali fdd!>par, rZn.

UVf;'fJ" wid middle ,~pn:jiil!en front f,'l1rfJ(·r. mi£a sebin. {'machry, .,)'CY)r:!ami, rn(w!W~'.atif,)lt:;.,; I}, [J(HNrm Jpl!.(;.Ull.fiI, lr~m Sl'.wr:giltrf)~l fpJ IIi'fp(utllll~' ilIY(,lJttf. A~.~Jf:r{, ,Vvt:l(J.ll~ rlm,~!'l-f!i(i'Jtirm'x za.


Vesuvilanite (Idocra.se)

s.:y;mJn~~r~ It I t; III

Tet:rtlgu'l'p~1 ( J ,700--1 ,74(, I-7tH- I, 75~

()-UCH -(HI(lH

[tl ltl!: lIfif!€:[ phuwgra;ph. L~k~l ~ '1:1J p~;],m:-Dt.'~larizoo ~:i;Slhl, I)tJ~ Gr%tal of i(l.()!i;;r.i~ occupies most of Ihefield or view, IIll ~lig1lt ycllmvj1)h-brown .;-olour eall be ~OO[l ][1. conunst ~(lII!fe\l,'bolc~; ill. the section, I ts VI::ry high re'llC'f can f~'I!>t) 00 mt1R~~'1 ells mounti"llg med.iru.m,

'The k~""e,· pnol00gn;rh under crossed polars shows the Jihafll~leristiclow atU)ltlalou~ i., "e.rfercnoe c()lours·alJld ihe '~!l!:!~'8:i:gLll> of haf.ld:s In frn:: 'ImerferC:L'l!ct.' colours is also a. fn,trly common fe-a'Lun: I)t"argt: crysrals and Is- an intlie!!LiulI (,f.zoni.llg. The rei~ no ~ig~i (If the poor elea ",":a,gl::' m.lli~ cQ'~fal. The aeomalous i nterferenee 'COI01.11 15 due La&tro!lg dls(X:n::i~m and is Ihemnst ilsef'!-IIprope:rLy for j~a1tifyiD:g this iulner"tt1, it eommoub.l. OCC[!Tl> with $I\\'l3Ular g:;lIlnel \lihichrrnll.t also show Im~' birefringence '1l01o::!<lIfS,lInd. sometimes ~he two mimemls. ~\ru oiJilficlllt to d!§Wl~llih,

n,' ~te~ncr)':;.l;:ds a~: "tflclo""~i edge of tilt: field of "i~w an" t:Ill'; ~hl.II;m'~1 g:1'een inel ~lstM~ in ~ he ves IJ',," j·<tfLite are rublinc amphibole. [321.

Vesuvillliirt& (I docra~eJ



KymmeVy fU p.

Orthm:barnlbic ( I ) 1:c5~:::'-h)6~ .0-·020,...0 ,022

I n the upper pl'lot>!1gr,l[lil ;Eak~nll1 ptalli~·pDla[lwd light. nll file crJstals .wh~~h stand out in relicf [UI.! silliIi:H'IItik Wllle:!l ·.~hov;:s dC1!rdy <fIgaiUl:~;:t lht ~,[!lr..ah:,ri~c with whiQIl it 1~ i[l.lngIown: at tim 'to'p k::U-h~:md ~Or'fiet·ol' the rb.otogr,~ph a yello'W 1111110 ~m:~ be seen ~II Ilw ~rdiel'!te {q, '-'J- .hl t!~is ~~li~lli I ht:i [i;illiH'i ~J I~ ~d)~. liOli; n ];;r:i'.j}I~g ~p:~Effl"fed {~riE;rtta:Hbll ~jKh n;ir~fi'!lD~'~ hf the ery.~m:18 arecur at r.i,v.d.aIl:g(I1l3 to t!l~ir leugthand !;l11JW dialnOJ,lld-~hapcW cross-seetiens iltJ'c 'tQ I he r",~:,; d_' the { 1 i I)} form; the {O W} d~H \'~gc i::; w~U !jispl;tyed it'ii semeof the erystals,

ThE mrerfcrence CO[L1UT:> .$liIO'ioiilirn me- lower pfui:lMO' graph a;reg(;rltr11 ~].y low' 1>i flee- the h,1gh.~~t eelcursare shown iii cryi>la!8 cut 'l]:Jc;mg the~~ngttb: of the pri~m~~trc ~I'Y:>I fd" (1iee p.'! 1 j" Crysla~s cut ~o U:nrt L~~~ (0 I 0) ~le;1\'m.ge i s S;1~a:rp and well definedsho lIld be '111 'exth~Clioa w~~em! panlHel to ,the edges 01' the ph~.il'ugi"~.pb, to. ii::w crYKta!s cut ral';J.lh:lm their k'llgth ;shuw .~y\::rllli-iiHd;er oolqlJltoi_ [34J.

. .

S'p'Cc:imenfrmp Ka1'fS,l'l-CfJrdil!ftr-ce ,<:iltimt1I;T;J~! gflHH, l'hcJW. 1,J(;/da.,grJ~'tur-; mr1gniiinrf-/()prx 40,



fU ~

Orthorhombic ( -1- ) 1·051::-'1·662

O·()1H .... 4}0Z2

llLIIl!~ pnoh.lgn'l,pru; show lath-like cl"ystals. of sillimanite wbl13'hsl'fllIll (JUlin ml!1:h relief agains; lh~ Gardie[,~Lcw:iiUli 'f\'~ld\ jt b itl i:Bt'~o.wu, "will.hiE! t.:hol; clJroicri k un: nlrlt!l~['41ll", sI:Th!lJlll.egd.l<!~like crystals w:hieh are also 01-" slllimanire: hiitb~ ()f ~'~' long. TliIrJCiW crysrals oir ,~HHI"r}l)tlll.eo al"e ~i:rmcd fibml.t!.C but t:lleconceli!tr,at~t):rIof' needles h:: iifJ~ylliit1ietil ~I) ju>stify t~.e 'usc" of this term here.

10 the 1!JWt:f phol;Qgr.apl!Jl. taken under GfoO:SSOO polars, iJl" I;ri;ood-br~lt:r pm'plil:ih-Mu,e in(erfcn..\nl,;·c.c'.()l~u.[ is near .0 tb~ n1<l,:dmlll!1 C9-11}~!T Sfi wnl)j' sfllhna:nil·i;;'. Sillimanite r ~ijfiLlI[t ~l') di!l.tlli£,wtlh from Inull lte .(q. '1,' .. ) hut m ulllte ~O~j:i 1"10 I ellen oO~C!H III ,!;;ry;s.tttb as large as those Ill~~ii.iiUld here and i:i: restricted 'lO \'(;I:)' higb ternpera LIo.iTC eennct r~~t~rTl(~rph!c; f()\;:b·, l~4J.

1~·fii'I~·~ff,iltJrlti;( fQIth1:tltf!~\·mii1i.lmUf' grlds.I' r I km,Wl~/h 0/ h\\H', M'l1d~c:ar, magntjicalirm:x bll




Orthorhombic t +) 1-641-1' 67 5

{HH 2'--~~'()2:K'

Mul~iH] U~IHl.l:Iy occurs ii:l 'i!"eJ")' SI)KIH n,eedL~lik;.@ cll's!Jlls The upper ph1i.1tngraph, 'lakcn il'i pl!lne-p,ola!~~z.ed ligJl1'1 Ill:!ow::;. lnullit!]]- cly,stids w:ithin <J.' bJ~ crystal of aHortbite1 (nm.;icc tile .hjgh m:1gni.ilCiil:li OTJ 1J800, for this p.hoh)~JlIl~l-tl These -ct}'l'il.:ti5 .hlll"ien very p;i~epillk_co.loHr:i1l ~b:is:sectial] but Ihc pCll't pi~~ in ~b.~ biLckground is p"'l"lihahly dll~I(1 ·!i.n-ilill('i,I:'I ri7.8111)t:I, Tbe F(1t!ik~~·.ll buchite 4n1".:l Hle two ".er~ dJ;l.rk brown patches in the field (ll"'i!i~'w are of-gktss_

ln the j,uw;erphu'ltl'gmph ,I aken U ndll;!x (;ro:s~J puh' [~! '~h:re blf.1(;k li j\,~$ p<irfiJleJ ro rhe 'i'.ertjbl ~ ~d~ ~If !M~ pbh1to£:;r''l]l~1 tire pJ.'lgiodfl;;;elwin limella€i rJ. the exli !1ci':i~!iI positlon and in t l~]~ p;hoto~I'21Fh these eeuld easily b~ .i;onftLse"d with mullitc needles. The. iIltt[fcri1:n~~ c,ol,oli:~ '!itwwn by !i1I:::St: 1;l"1""j'6/lN h lJii" mulllte lire Tlt:ll as m~h "'~ expected and dli:;. is C<'i\lSed h)" the 1~,!I;t ~1r::H tile c!1:s;talS <!:f!' lhil1llJ~.r tlaan the tOilal th ickn.em~ of ,flu:: !'!.CCi:EOIl.. Tilf Inl(:.Ffc[cm,;::: QO.]:Ollr.l o:tM~LIIHc .~!11 1:1 sttthtil (I-(}.3 mm thitk .~J:l!.i) ~I]d b~ ahr),lI.l LM same ~ ~ tllo:se Of sHhrnanilc. [37[,

5'pecfmCfl.lrrll:n h~(hiu!.( Rw;!h' a' C1:r:rOJ:UOfll ~i!!, 8·tJ;.\): rJ, J"'hdl, SCoJ.lcmd, fmtf!!1ifi!·~jthm x !til;',



Orthorhom bic ( -) 1-6J3-I',6:;3,

0·.009 n·m I

fbI;) iln.~f pholognlph, lal:.Tu in planc-polarlzed lighl, Slb~''''Hlne t«:UlII~~~~jH- porp-nynJblat!t ofn[Lduln~:ite III a :mllc-pai r:lc(I' gMIJtKCIfI~SS" TI':I~ I: wO clea vages upproxiI!Il:tllli1)' -at ngllt • .anglf:sE.o one another Can be :SL.':!I.:1h III the ;;::;Ill~-C IJiI' tne crystal tUi{HI.~, [s :i_ recl.,~:t~uJ[!r areu full of il1~li,!~i(lt1:;~! ndra d ~ating towards the corners of the C'r')'sta i tbc~ 3J~ .eonceatratioas of inclusions, This V(] I'iel:y nf Q:ndi!IU,'i<ite i$ kr!4)W!1 as ehiastolilc because on tile 'rlEit~I'1Jl rmU!:'fTl formed hy rhe iflciU1:iioDIl and it is fairly commoo in low-grade metamo rphlc rocks,

10 lhe iU'i'1-ur pho!ogmph. taken under crossed p'().l::irs. the C:l:ll~furm rMU~rri ·i 5 M iII .... i sible and the cha racteristic i'llW"order Il]tE-rtCfe!1Ct.' colo ur' is seen, [IR],

S:{~tLJfrrt!J~ FI,m ~~hi~J.!/mlit(J slase. J .tik.I(. [h':Mrid . .E..nr;I.anJ. ~llifii.\1rilm x 44.








2' ~.s

OtthOTh(J-rrtl~ii:; ( - J HS3J-H'i5J

O'Q(l9 0-'001 1

RIi3' Bn:efrlng~'1l(.-e

.1,11 thin section ~Iidalusite sometimes snows n pale pill pleech roism and if seen i's.rai rly ili~gM'stk:_ A Pf'l browntsh-pmk ~olo:ur !"'~fJ he i«en In the upper phnt( sraph. liil,k',:m i!l plane-polarised ,ugh: and its Un.Il\IG:: distrihu'lionbchilHlct.erislic.. The l\igl],[l;:lief ag~tin qua:r(z is n(ltJ.cetd;li~. There i~.a large area in I.ht: sl i de tn I,t right of eentrc O-f tile I'l.tl!~wgrap.h where rhe reliefo]' U aadalusite is <tho 'tltnl'iOU5 - tb s is a hole in the ik'! std'i~'lI1_

The absorption colour ,affects ~be h1W fiisl-ord jilt;;: rfcl'cnr.:e colour ,~~ tbil.t the :;umf: patch); diM..! burien visible under crossed polars (lowe, pbotogeaph). Anti lusite has h ... 'ogu(I"j d.clH'ageR, flIO) aLid tUO,. and ~ most sections :;hCHN allt!!.:'I. tJ ne goo,d cJea .. 'a,gc. The fr.~ ig imeefcrcnr.:.c eolours in 111 os' flho,lug"':J,ph are dlJo;:.lL'J SI1l~ CIl"YMAIR' (lfn:m~o\'i,e" [3B1,

Spf!timcn .from, cmrUlCI ro.{:&. Ardam plr.dw·j. IhmL~8 lrel{1f~d; mJI'~gl!ifi(t'Hron x :m,


Arndalusite &. Snnmanite int,ergrowth

In the' ypper phQfDgr-aph, taken in plane-polari zed light, mos.t or [he field is 'occupied" by one ~rYl>hll of andalusite wid]..,", fe!,!., inclusions of biotite and .of quartz, The' {11ft} ct~a"'Il&es of tin; andalusit« i,;uli be seen .~pp rox i matel]' at nghl."angJes to- each other ;fl!1d parallel tOU1C edges of the ~it'l!it~I!i11,J)h, 'Imeq~r·own wlth 11m andajusitc are numer~5 ~i~mood.·~t'laped ar~~tals of silliman ite wi th Ln~ (0 L0J cl~a.\f~e bisecting the an!;!#; between n\i.~ andah.!sUe clea~'i,gBs. The two minerals were probably formed arthe same rimcnnd Ihe.coi He idl':;l1G~ {,If the z <l xes of the c r}'s.ml~ m&l«11lIhe ililltll.ariJ~\I (If tbe! r structurei .. , The d i ffere nee ~ni; ftfl'<tdi ve 'lilclICe5 of the 1'",,"0 rni 11 erals ii'i not su fficientlv ~rtat to show mnch d i IIe.rence I n relief in th is photograph.

Under 'r~')s$e4. polars (lower photograph) both the lufda:luslte and si.llimalll he show low j nterference colours hut [he eoleur of the sillimanite is lower than thar ~( md(LILI~i'le; des.pile the foc·t tQ_at sillimanite has-a greater 'bfi,"efrlI1g·e~t:e #,-,il:l andalusitc (tJilld. vibration .din::ctions of wth miller·al;; tife at 4.5Q to jhe edge'S 01' the rliotogl'ap h). rll th~s {}'de.n.~.t.[(ln both minerals 'show cetlltrcd acuee bist;:l.tri~ 'inh::d-en:m.:e-s fl&iJfe~, [:1..4] [J&l

~JWtjIfJt?l~ Jrom' consaa I'ock, lJielldrJi'r:m (,·(.ma,;c _ Ross f?f

Jill/I., Scot!rlJJd; ma;,rr1f{itatitm x 52, .








Tr.il,;iinic {-) j·72J 1'72~

I HH1,..O ,01 6

:I n these photographs kYilI.ni·!1;: oceurs <t.lI"H1_g witil 'lluart .. , and biotite. In lhc t!PPCi'l)hIJW~·nl.ph taken in plar~ poJ~H'i~\!(1 lig!:it;ky,ultlc ls ~afjil~ recognized hy ~'l..!:i hig!: n::licf cllmpitrud with quartz and by lh..:: l'aeL that Iht! W~~· developed cleavage appears ,\·-eT}' {notrk. It. h;L~ b~{! .slIKI;;{'S.t~ Illal the aP.rcaJ'-;ir~Gt: ork-1-'alll~t: resembles ,L Gtt~ ruler with bl~~k cngruvmg marks, since 1'lll.;pmmJnelll patti 11 ~ paralle I to (M I )i_~ frel[ II ~ n II y \' i ~il~h: lL~most al riJ.lbt-;HI~lc!S 1.0 the length (:J;ftlle cr_Y::'~'Lls,

·J'll the IO~'''-1;T phorugraph. tabm lmdur crossed pol~11:l\ the hngll1 iill.~uft:r<:nce_coll_iur:l of'the biotite eoutrast \'IIiL~ those of k>'~nlk. Unfonullakly 1:1111> se .. nion is,_ ''''~r1' ;;t-1gh'lly·thiC;-k ~I,I lhat qLlaJ·t1.i~ -sllOwrflg a yellowish "liMit(: hence 011 the other _~I',)H:lS an: l'ihowll'l~ slightly high, interference eolours tll'.tl expected: one h.llf (.If a t\lIii:ll'tedJ..:\i~l!iitl) crvstal MI()w:s ;J.' colour Ckl~I.' to LD~ M!n:,ilivc titf::

r~<'1. !41"\." . . -

Sp!§Cimelljl'(J:m kyamk jffJ'f!i,s;~, UII!I~ [lNfuhCl_l'r, Im(~n1cl, ... \'Ilirt;!, Scotland. moglIiJiU{MIO'fl x 16.


Topaz, AI2S'i(J:rJOH, ,F)2

S'i'fmml::lJ)' ru ~

Orthorhombic (+ I !·6(ff>-j'·63I (H)()'I':-()·ffll

lhe IIPf'::r phoiograph, taken ill plane-polarizedligh]. is fir II l'I~J9<iJk-"i!J.(Irj:- t'1;)cll, The quartz is 'full of rnany tiny incITI~ij}tl:;; whereas the LOp.aL, which stands nut in Ij'f:jief (I!!lIiLl:.t thequartz, dsrei<nlo.'cl}' Irce trcm inclusions, 'I'he p!:'rfl~[ {OOll cleavage of to.~.i., is visible in one of the !I.'1)JtHls,

[D thc lewer photr gnlpll, taken undercrossed pt~hu:::i. iL 1~'Jlflk!1j:t to distingulsh illc l0P3Z from the quartz ::;im)1.,: ,be!l' bilTt:Il"i~lgCrJt::Cis. almost id~l1~ir;;tl.l The: narrow wlli~e ~~J\~ tI ii l"l! borders of t he loptiz oerY:!;'l!l h: arc muscovite R!1d tili, CCI~lIcj ll'i an jndjcatibu of the l)r.;;$l;."ni;~: of [upa£: since. tol')il7 is Irequcntly uceompanted by mus. t~r~'llc. [45].

Sp~y;ml!n lrom topar-taurmalinc qU!JtI~ !'o(·k. 8,l(lckpQoi C1fif Pif. Com'~'(JU, .E1i.gla11.d: wagr!f,Yiw[lwl :.; -9-






MOIJtR.!lil'llC {p.~,i;":n~1{1-·OtLf'iorh (H~1 hi,o) {-I- )

~ m ·74J 1171J

RJ. a.

0-01 ].-0 ·1)·1 ~

Tlle;upper O1Hd .t)lirld]~ pbnt()g(.\P~~ show pl~,phYI:Qb]a.<.,t~ of staurolttc witl} bjo,tih.'; ina-fine- &~'1in!;:cl! mass o.f q ULlJ.("l and fEldspar:, Pleochrelsm of the ~laUin_";~itc from ,ydlot'" Ie, pH]';: ydhiwi!.i sh.OWili in-H. fc.w or thl,:: Cil"'5t~b. The l0i4!:."llg>l :JJi1 pe of tiu]nc of nbt: siau roli I.t; IZ}'::; tals.is lypi'N ~ and I'h~ high Idief 1~.g~-J~)sllhegl'tllm(!t~Jln.:)ll·i::; wel~ i~ll.~tn~ted hl rhe alsnost hbck edig:es. {lflbe crystals,

111 the ~owe r r!l()tclgrapkta~ef! lImdier. crossed p~lan, the 1 (jeW i:Ll:lt" rlcrencc cp~onrfj. can be. seen, the. .l.arge br-ov;ll' oolo~:r0d 'CI:J~l,f~~. mf(." UWI;: i~ celcur ~o 11 eonsbination 0! HI e absorpt i (lr~ C(~~ou:r amd ani rst-o rderred ... r nclusie [l~ as seenhere are "re~:y c.{)mmqflii)~ta.uMlit~, {49],

Spl:':r:l'nu.m jml'Xf ,\"t~lw'nli!~~ ,w:hi..:l, rij/afidy Lak«, SrlMI;iijt- 1I:!l<?wim. Canoda, map,n.Wt:(!.Iir:m }(: 21~_


Munoclinic Of triclinic (-) or (-) 1''111},-1-7::14

CHloe,. IJ·m'2

Th'\l l!J,lr~r ~nJ. mi~klk photographs, taken [I) plane(l~ia~'2:~ll.gl' I, KhIJ'I'. <I. number ~r ulh·;,:.- glN:cn' ItL")'Oi L~tls Qt

. chloritoid ill wh~C:lj '~he !1t~L1ng. r.leol~tlr~}i $-m l.el!1 pale :;~Uo'''''' colour eaa he seen I~y CL~nlPJJ'ing the two ~i~:~ ... s iI;'ilh lhd polartzer ill orthogonal positicns. hI til is. rock uft.liJl~itQi!j ,i~ inlergrown Wl1 HI rnu seovitc and q uart7.;':1 few gil.rne1 crystals m'~ alse visible, The highrelief' of the cbloru(titi .it(l'\1;.s ~l p aga ifl~t the micahut it 11 .. 1 S.IOWlL relief Ilian [he garner, These .:.eL;[i~)tIS have ,a preferred orient:iti'fllll and are cut.nearly ~lt 'I':ight-fmgl~' LO Iht' pr;::Tr~l basal ~t.zll\'ai}c and hence the. 8(,I'()ng l~iiM·r:f"li'()q~r[', Set.::LiOn:'; ~IH IJ1;1U'1Jld 10 (01) I) have only weak pleoch rolsen,

In the kl\!i'?i pb.Olt1:g~-l:Iph, 'l~kt;I1 under crossed POhl£S, th~ jiLte~reeetl"C~· colou r ,~ <ire ~1ig.hHy IlHom~lu'll:" fur two );I:aSiJll~. viz. the ·abw rpti O'r! C()I,OUliS aed tai r Iy 8h"::II~g cllJ:lp;:r~.km, ~o twinning 1.~ visible in lHl.y of these.cryst ... als ~l'IIrQIISh chloritcid is eommonly multiplytwillnied. 152J

~dfm!~1 from .1·{:MSf. it", de (imL~ .. Briuan», Fmi1':t:.';' !ilik!t!·f~Car.ioll x <Ii.







MOl10diniv ( - ,i [l r I + ) 1,70)-]·71's. ~W~l)-(HH~7

In the UP~f -ami middk; phorogruphs the- !>,)ppbirlll~ crystals ar .. • P;;l;OgL~i.:::cd by their ~:010111'. wljich iuthiscas, is plt:'l)(l.hrI1k (,";,lTIi ;;Il[! illttlgL~-hltle to ;1 hr(w.'ni8h-ydlo";!' !;~II'.IW, [II t.bh jj(1~1< t'ts hi~1.1 rdicf shows up quihr well hili there are-other high relief minerals LIJ lhe jidcl, .... ~7.. garll",1 (large crystal at top len-hand corner of the th~~d) ;mod orthopyroxene (pinKish ..:n!;:ila_[~ <II h(lllltll nghr). Tlu ccntrul part of the ~it:ld '!~r .. dew ~s ,r:rf:.Y·lupl'rctitl intcrgrowth ".:)1" curdierire ~111 1 orthopyroxene. Biotite HUl ljlllll."lI are lh¢ OlGlel' minerals present.

l!llde:I' crossed polars t[mv'..;r ph(HO~~nlph) 1.1~B Ill.•. I:! r ferenee colours 8{',CLJ j 11 the ~ pphi rin ~ are l nrl U.'::rI(:OO ~ "he absosption colours and Iht< low birefringcnc .. 1:: pm duces a~1l~'m~!lolu::; hl.I.Lffi~.

Car';.;J'ul ~Ll.ld~· nf the clear 1!I·e;.L~ l'EV':":.lIs yellow plel~ d][L)i~ tmlne., III the !l::ordi;;rih.' ;lad the sapphirine Cl'YS!i1, i [1 II Ie '1 uwer left pan 01'1 11~. tield oJ) r 'o! ie w :i ~ 51,1 rrouuded b~ jPlllltlply-lw]Dn~~d coriherlte (q.v.), [57J,

SjJt'cimen /rw?/ ~:('hw, 171.11 (' 'odera, Iwly. m.(IJmi," catior: x ::'7



(I"~4.! F~~ f~a)fIZI'S~.Ou~(OH. Cl}

Trigona! ,+ } or ( -) 1":59:J.-I··b4J

1 'ji;lT ~ -6.'14

(HmO to Q,Ol 0


!~j [~e' iIDP~.pb,*ogt.;l,ph, ,tt.lKetf in p~l!I1e-p((lJlJ!rJ7.Ll.I fjgh~ 11, nuitlhe:r '~fEi~jjieill:r4L Ci!"y'~·t~:ls. of Clu"!iaJyte ~h(Jw up i.1ill {'cl'ii/1f{;ta.tJf>(.'l!.m;r..lrM,c I(!dth wja !en It IS surrounded. 1 rr this ~ft\~p.b. l1t~ 8iil!Ds.lage diAp.h ragm has bOCH left faj Lty. Wtoli~~Jfflll-'fft[ 1mt{/: l:j'e~moro tl..lUydo:'led rhe rel!'ef,u-f ~1&JiJJt.rtC' !~'ili.ilflshow mOH; :HFQftg~y agai nsr rhe ,m~lc'itc,

TM inW<til' ~h01.D,[Faph, 't;3!i;;:en undee crossed polars, tfwW6' i'fiif~ ([~JfJh~'J,i'HJslic It-,:;:~un!s 'of cud ia I yte wh ic h. <Ire fa) afti: l!1!i)lil'!iil JLiisiriltNJh(l(ti or .~ow-.in'tcJ:.fcrencofl eolours, ~; dj~flJ\hg~i(Jll, wllich i:s IlIQi ~lwOlt.:Y'1:i cle,~rly tdaH..iJ t,oa H,'ll'J,1..~·tt.nmt;\'!.~ a.,.d ([I) the l.l.ait vehlO'of an ~\te['i'ihOIJ1 J .. ro~\l£!,~;!iL'd!~~yt~ l~ ~:;lo.<:U)'n(lfLCed trt t!.~ITd ~~UI~e~\ ~Cl'II!J~ ~li's.ii.l~~1. :a;!wa~.n> red or brnwn "in colour lm~ in lIThl wcr[lNl the cdlolU', .ur pt6!ioCii r. i:s gm~'l'a.lly. pale, The ('.r~":\hJ ;1t lhe IiOp leff-h and comer of ~he fi~elodi;s dl:kal:~ !'~M~P~1 1!I.'llich Il(:!re· shows OJ p,Hcny ¢;\.tlm:,:WULJ not ~js~miJar 19 that of tlre eudialyte ~ the: three gn~,eni$h .r~~i n the field' of view .• He of an a~l.;'i.1i I'lfiiP.-hllK)k. [59],

.t'¥:!fIJlJ&.>!/r-jYi1 ~f.4 J: f,~~,or·tok d.!!:, IIi.fil,;rI<!c\·,~ul ,1.fl1m,\Irm., W1~~"i f1M'!~,'lfIra:m%'J~fictUimf x 42.:

... _
" .~ \ .r
( r.
I \
I \
r .,
I Z1


SYfflI netry

ru ~


Orl h(I'I'h om bic I + )

1 ' 6&8-1-7 10 (H)Q4-lHJ~JS

The upperphotegraph, taken ill plane-polarized m shows :!I. aumbe r . of sh on prisma nc c rystals I.)f ?f lntergrown witn quartz and ~i ~rri,lll amount ~f felA I.'hl': high relief nftL~f; zoisite t:i~;:iiMt tin.' 'qmlrll iN eb .. '. Th~jJ1., is ;1. ~'IJ,p.r;\e~tioll ul' ~t cleavage parallel l (1 lheJeng nne crystal ~H dll;l bottom lef],

U nder !,;'f{)s:;.ed polar'S. (10 wer phQ.tflg[aph) theze try:sHU';' shnw lin .~i.nom~L1flmi bhu:: imerferenee er -su[niewh at unevenly djsvi buted and this i:;' eharactc nf both zoisiteand the monoclinic mineral c.liIlQ7U they are Ji.:;tin.gui~h·cd bll U:il; tact thal 'lousil,~ l'~ straightextlnctlon in all £~,:i~1mL- This sample i:<: 2;( alLbou£h none of the l;i)·;;tal:-> shown here ~I'f ex p<lin.;lIel m the edges (jof' U]~ 1)hc;.lo~mph. 1 G q,

Spf."(.'imetl JfWfi' zaisite schist, Gten Roy, 1.I~venre.fS'· . .')~:Ot((iIU:l; 'mag~l~ficalitm x 6U-




M onocl inic ( - ) m·n~-1·7S4 U·OlS·_(j·U4!f


The; colour 91' cpklol:C in [hi II section (]'~Ilow 0"[ greenishyt:l~!Jw) H a 1~111~'which ,e(iOl~)le~. il III he kl~l1ltl"fied !:',urly Mj;iJjJy ~i1l"i.~ I'NIL~ number 01' ~·mm()n li~~llel'a~,~, wh.icl1 a(e ~JJow in dlin secnon i$ I'!Q[ great 1 he pleo'i::hl'rt-isrnill ~lLn'«.'1I 1;.)' cOli'1lpari~~tl ofthe uppfr and middle photogi"lJpli~ taken ill plane-polarized IJgM ill which some ~f)'stu~s chan.L{C" fL"OIII colourless '10 ycllcw. The presence (If agoed I;lcl'va~c'('an be 5C(,'TI in a Iew erystals, 111c. rcliel' vi' I:JIld ore libows against l he quartz in the uppc r ri ghl pan 0 t:M ficlu bru the wb-st"3gc diaphragm was rather wide (lPI;[I, 'when these p~HJ t t"lEf-HpL1G WI;H.' iaken.

He low-er p'hntop_raph. :dlOW~ the flame Vgew taken under crossed pola rs ami the bright .!rl'tcr:fcrellC€ colcucs, itl:th~r UJJ,C'~'C:lll~' dist riiY.I!l'lcdi, :J re V'G: ry (,:~,amctcr~.stic, l~3l

srw:r.im(mfp'om epido,iize.d basalt, M iihiRmr, lJ SA. nf{l,;n~fi~ (-lTJirJIJ lo! 12.



Monoclh.ic ( +) ~ . '750-1-3(17 0·02.1 lH)gg

A 11 1'10 ~~g,Il11o.t a.vcry common rill nerul it i1.;i~d uded bh"Ti; because of L~S. ~peC.L~lt<Quhl r pleoch m.iccola.ull'!,v.i;l._ ydlvw, Cafl'll~ ue-red and viold 01" ~J.' rl~lh yS,L lhj,~ j s wen shown iL1 tbc uppc.r and rci.(Mle i'.lh)togr~\p.h.s.. L,Lkcrl~'ilbU1~ p~ku~tzcr iII {J rthcgoru •. 1 positirl11:;: illlp:l\,n!;:-polari; ... .c~ ~igMthe p~:rI~l ~lerl"l'< •. ge d'bes· 1.101 show up well It! Ill!:> ll'l!npl~. nor -dOC8 lI1L~'l<mden£:f hw the ctyl;it~b I;u be dlJng;rted"

Ttl~ lower photograph sh ows lhOit the intcr:rer-cru,:1.;' oolnun, n re f(l<:li:;;kcJJ by lhc ~lb~OfPti(l"ri colours and int. I hns dritn.1Jlia.ntly roo _ l'Wt') l:r~n,la!l> shQw simple tWl<ltling ~ "Id £I nother sh ClWS ()ne'lhi 11 twin lamclta, The ]Eltt:!l!rtl' .... Ti on nera] (s:howi ng dI.lc -c 11:.1 Nl.Cterl:Hie ,uiJtphlboh,: d~'a";ag~s,1 is a pa.le coloured !])aqg~I1c~ ~mp.tt1ibO~t; which it I'! htHJ!l;I, plnkiu hand ':sp~iml;:IU 'is (}ol~!!I.dcsi; hl thin M:l.'l.i~ ~!!.

'n~i:;, dist11.~Cli"ije ~~;I@dHOi8n:i' is nut ~1i1 in(llctJIi~J n I)(a pal'ilCubJ'ly Iligh eontcnt of manganese: ~ he ~~I ~!:! I,~" nese~)f:I.rilJlgY:lrlely of cpidou- ~ali~'(j thuljte :"~HJW:<; tire I;OImli caleurs as pi~In~f]ti;L(:,. 163]-.

Sp(J~'bnen jhwr piwmmtiU!--qrl{'}I'I;:' rod;;" l.,fmH{r!/ 8rt" TmIZ(JIf<i(i: !t1(.lJ(n{/ie(,f{iotr x 1'2.


Allan'it'e (Orthiite)


IU ~


MUflOClilltC ~ =} or (-I- l I ·7110 I 'IX 15' (j-OLH)-036

1'hc:' ~Jlp\:r r~ht'Jn!I:§J';ljrth, r,~ik~i~ ill p'lunc-pl..\lm:i;,xu ljgh], ~l!l:Iw~ the browl'! eoleur L,I' the rrl'ill~p!l, wnkhr is ~rieleri~ti'C as are the dark cracks, Tl1er.u1iti'H~~~'~~ e~I'Qgl]is '-~lltai!'lcd in thls nuneral cause a hmwfI 11'f'lJu il! lb~~EL'T~Ul1k1,i r.lg rook d uc to. radiaticn dam age but thet~ i,;, 110 .siJ..u of this ill the thin section, Allanite .I!oO generally ~~ih~Jy pleochroic in. ShH(I~ of brown.

Tile Inwer riln'l(igra,ph, t,akf:n under crossed polars, ~hO~'h ,a...:rysl;:l,1 {)f biotlre enclosed ill rhe h!,~¥-er HLlanih: cTf~raL These allanite cry~lill:;; -are .Ill uch larger rh;.] I] are commonly Jeund, The other two minerals visible in thls ~~o:niW microcline (turtan twinning] and ~1iI1;fflJ:. ,(~J,

$p"ecmwn fr'OIIJ gruuite, WN11' M(mria{'lll.y, )'Iudag{(;iOc:al',' ~~~il'jificfIJimf. X 28.

tUlanite (Or1h i1:13


"', ,'>~ y~ --;- ,

r.*, ~.,., '

.~~ _, .. ~.

, .~




Orthorhombic (+) 1·674




The upper and middle photographs are of the same field of view, one in plane-polarized light, the other in crossed polars. The field is almost entirely occupied by lawsonite and the feint pleochroism is shown by the slight difference in colour of the crystals in different orientations with respect to the polarizer: many of the crystals show one 01 the two good cleavages. The birefringence is moderate sc the interference colours extend up to second-order ant this is shown in the photograph under crossed polars.

The lower photogra ph made from the same thin sectioi was taken under crossed polars to show multiple twinnin] in lawsonite (large crystal in the centre of the field). Tb mineral at the top right comer of this photograph i glaucophane and it is shown here since the occurrence 0 lawsonite is restricted to glaucophane-schist facie rocks. [70].

Specimen from glaucophane schist, Valley Ford, Califo nia, USA. Upper and middle specimen; magnification x 2 Lower specimen with twinning; magnification x 27.



RI ~

Monoclinic ( + ) 1,675-1,715 0·012--0·022


The whole field of view is occupied by pumpellyite except for the clear areas which are voids between crystals and here the high relief of the mineral shows up clearly. The upper and middle photographs, taken in plane-polarized light, show that the mineral is slightly pleochroic from yellow to pale green and this is fairly characteristic of this mineral- the more iron-rich specimens being more deeply coloured. There are signs of cleavages in most of the crystals since pumpellyite has one perfect and one good cleavage.

In the lower photograph, taken under crossed polars, the interference colours range up to second-order blue but the feature which is most noticeable in this photograph is the 'oak leaf shape formed by the crystals lying diagonally across the centre of the field. This habit is found mainly in vein occurrences of the mineral but when it is seen it is diagnostic. [71].

Specimen/rom glaucophane schist, Tiburon Pass, California, USA; magnification x 44.


. .,.~

\~ . ...., ..

Jr."" .. ..... :.~

.. -






". ,..




Tetragonal f ) or of -I- l


-= .I. --O)S-I-tJ40


w t

Iii Hl f:ringtl!1':e,

O'()Ofl 0,-013

The tlppel' and middle phorographs arc of melilite, lnu lll'lcolJlp(l;hgrit'IJ. ~ rather rare rnelilito-rich rock, 0JJ p'llulncgfapb LHk~n in plane-polarized ligh; 'and the ()l~!'( under crossed polars. 111 lhi.' rock the opaque mineral rna,gnotill:::-l'lnd mostof.lb~ 1'i1:st nf Uu: lield is. QCIi,mpi6il b meliliu::, IIi "bJ}~-pol:Hi1.ed light Lh~':te is' nothing vel d~stinC:li\i~ about LhcmiHfl'a.1 and there are s~gn:; of at lea om: dt:flvage., Under crosacd 1J'I]Icl,r~ however th(:,.~ tcrference colour [!> ~'~.-y ch",ract.ell'lstic:illy sn llin,~a(.l1l h)lU,e eolourand when lhis (:;;m D(J f>L~ef] Lt is a ll;!l:)f diagnostic property taken ~doW:' with the ~11~iJ,xi cJlar<ti(;U:i[ of'the mineral. Zq11ing urlhe colou r ar Ute e~

of the. crystals i~ tlh~) fairly 'l:;rp'i,c,·ll. .

The lower photograph hi ltlkerr rmd~J' crossed pol., and i,s fre,m u ':ok arn. Here ~ he zoniIl-g [r'V1 (I an ti]l{)ITJ<llti blue. toan anomalOlls brown eelour i~ obvious,

Tlu; refractive Indices quoted ab(,n'I;l''fJre for the' 1 ..... n'en Hl~m'bcT:i oj" Ihe ntelilitc series-but the bhe.fdngCI'IO::: o)'~..f 'i!! for a me-E)I!>!!!!' of the 801,0 soluuon containing, all:l:l( eq.urt~ arnnunts of the twn cnd-mt;tn bers, ,72j"

Vppn (mil mMdfp sW,J,"/tj~eJ1S.lKQm rmciJ1l'rpahgrip~" U"I'~~r pahgrt', ('olmw4(), .uSA: "mf{lIr/i(:(~ti(m X 4}, .r ,(H'.'!"f' -'pi n'lf'PI j,-om mC'lilile-ph/o;qapik-(Jltl()p,l'ro,";mll: triG/(, Gm [r-icrh, CarUngfi,mi, l.rf!tmrd: "fj'lrilgllifirr:rffon X 72,



Slmmelry Itl 11l ~

T ctragonal .( - ) I)~ ( -I- ') I, 6()'! I ,632

L "(l5S 1.-(,40

O' ()OO---{J'O l:l

"be lWO l')n{)tQgrl'!ph~ s 110WJl here Me onf melil ileiH ML oljI/IHiJ.mdil.itite, the 'llppl1: f photograph taken under plane-polarlzed l.i~llt. ln tht .. V·jfilYII the mellfite crystals [$i€,lliblc laths of plagiod,!.sc. in the. J:l;w undmass of a. h:i~iI [with microphcnocrysts \li" olivine] except lJull. Lho:.:. mclili,le crystals WIll.lliol1ly huveu dark line a!u!l~ ~he CIi;JI" re uf Hie I;~! 1'1 s, - :i¢~[.1 j)It.l)' III a few cl·YI:I·al::;. II) l~h::> v ie.v. - (tl1~ tfj IMhlded gl'nmid mass,

Under CI"'ll~~OO polars [lower p31Oto~.raph) the anom .. a30U5 blue colour zoned to'a white celour j5 quite. ~1,i.nC.lll/ti<Lrld is a t:bl ir bi' cen a iii .j ndicu W.~l!Ulf rneli lit~. Tholl 6}'S1alii. ~h~~w~ll~ yelkl\v, red and 8. normal blue iit-· turfCtl'::n!;C eoleur ure oii· v ine, The. hn.l"wl'l crystuls, best ~~lIlil tht:· '~'i~w i n plan~-PDI~irlzoo light, a t the bottom len dlh$!·Jjdd iir~ olperovskite. TilclJLC:s.CIlCC of'pe'j'l'"Ivskile i", :I dtJ~ 10"lhi; (t.;~l:llnt!K:e ulmelilile und vice-versa, p2J. •

. 'J}f!f.ifHr!n /ilJli'J otivin« mi1!lUWtf::, Katunga, Ug{JfI:du, 1)1Qkl~i.(jlallmJ· (3.




Orthorhombic ( ) or (+) .1-514-1 '~7~

O+Hl'HHll :'i

'fhe upper Jl:bntograph, taken in phI1c~po~lIrittJ lighl, .sl~ows eordierite iutcrgrewn with .'11kali fe!dSpa.!\ T11~ COTdu()li'~c: can be t""(X:o!]gl1iL~l~ in ~hi~ ~et UUr:1 by i l'S tLmii~ uppcarancc whereas l:h~ n.':ld:s:p~~t 18 !~l;fi!M~'ely clear, ri) H(ldi:ti.u'll ihereure irregutar Ci"tlCI\':-'l 1lllid v,eru~ at theedges [If Hie i,;!.IOO1(:ri'le~";!·Yf.Ll1>i WtJi<C'il i'J.!I'(:ly~J!ow~sh in colour, l"jl ese.are composectl.. of a mincralwbish is gc.rl'1tf'd.ll.y QqiL~""i putite and this ··(l.1terrt tionis.very 601"llm~n in ~unh!:"'d (~.

In tJn: Iower p.lJ.()lOgnlpn, l<t1:o:}t~ !JHdt:T cro:->!;.ed ]'l.(HP.!.I·~, the b.i;rdriTlgci:l(.;t! ufl he r,;~~~'i!,;; riLe i sseen [(~ he ,,;ery similar lu L.ht1,! of the..flik,~H reklsJ~@'I' hut rn~my QJ the COI(Ji.cri1~ t;~)'s-t.(ll,f; sh ~\" I .. me II.$!' t.\'i'i rtri i.n.g andthis cuuxes i l tc ~ cQnfusfldwltb p.IL~~,i{)cb~l~ (t£ii: pli-uW"!;,:HrphS mi [l3!~-r8:4J_

S·.pe,NIJ1efl' (ram Siml1f{m.it(,--{(;Jnhniw x.nt-'"~\:N, for! VI21!jJliil:

Mac.kw{.tscar,' nr.ain (li.MI im1 x .z0.· .



On!wdY~)!,litJit:: l ). 01' < I ! -5::t4-1-574

lH)f)j -)-01:<ii

The upper photograpb. taken In plane-polarized light, ~~fJW~ most of the held occupied cry cordicritc, with a ITI.i~nbo;:.;T of ±tldndt::~.lt mirterals :sht""ij'~lg up. iIi I"(:ij;cf [the. ~ri~lci.rde~ areulr bHl1hle::. ,mfi 1101 riiirl.eru~ in elusion '>}, 1\1'f)li~d.()ne 01' two ol'l~emcli,lsh)rlS are yellow ha II,)~s ~It)d these are pleochroic, [he mi n e ral f (ll'm i ['IS theh ;:11,0 ~llll'l():'.r ln the centrc.of'the photograph was not ill. U1e plane cifthe thin section,

The lower photograph, taken under crossed .polars, &lii~""'S ~h~11 .r!hl ... 1 1)1' ~h!; liekl is taken up 'by (I lamellar I!~.'iil-rlecl cordiertte. The i !'lChLf;j(1 liS ~\'Etidl ~th}w ;.! secondorder -bI.UI2 inre rference 1:;0 lou I' are -nf si ili mani te and t hese de> 1101 produce ycllcw pleochroic haloes.

Thl.': v.rl;!~n~t: 1).1" yellow pll~~(.!I:u:Q,ic halues, frtq uently ~(l11 in f~(II'di.edle, i:;; l~jl'e ~)f the "1"110<;1 uselul diugt!oS'lit: ~pl'{lp'e!1~B8" bur these III ay nor he com m un .HI (0 rrlieri I es in bontaminated ig;neouf; rocks ill which cycii,t.: IWi,ll.Ilit"lg!5o ,I llsefu.1 d:i.ll£lHx~tic feature. 1&41L

·1i~I:iltrtl,i [rum 11:lIi'd;.i.'l'llf' ;,min1i.i.IIi/r~ giifi.~.\:, 1"I("£lr iho,,,;')' '\ffI.dtl~a.~c.ar, maglJfjicaii{J'ff K." 72_




T,ourma,1 ine


Trigonal r -) ,1-6'10-1-(60 ! ,635-1 '075

iH)21 O'(,H~





The photographs -on thu:> P<:lg-e and Ihi;l OIi,Ptl~i.fe' p~,g€ are of thin sccticns from the ~I\1Qlt: n);.4: speeimen. Comparison 01' these h'i~ pl,o~'o~raph>lT cabin i,1I] planepolarized Iiglu wllb the polariver in orthogonal positions, t;hU\;"l> [he Ji~Lii~C:l pleochroism and. zoning of Ih~ ubsorplion (:OiUH1'_ In Lhe lov;"er photograph the polariz.c:r »: ~IS nrrenred parallel to till: short dimension or tht photograph since the maximum ubso 'p'~[VIJ C;;(liOlll I~ shown when the len gth uf L'h~ crysta lift, 1. ri!!: Itt-11t1gle); (Q lhe plane ~)'I" pol"lriz1ll.ictn of the light. (T11l" crystals were 1'1.01 oriented to show the maximum '1Xirl.H1:ion ih fjJbsor-, ption colour, otherwise in thlol photograph taken Lm~J: c:r~s;;;o(] ~JD1:m; - see TJ!;!;;;,~ p~,I~~ - U'!ey ."...:mkl be in the cxlinetion positicn.] Th6, other minerals present arc quariz and alkali Ieldspar wilh crystals of rmiscovite at the lop lell ami at ~h(:: ri'gh'l edge of the field. Cornpa ri S('11 ;'\ilh lhe '~i!Hll::! view, taken 'Onder crossed polars, QII 1111': oppusi L{~ .r);'1 ge 1:<: -J1e(les~iL f'Y '10 idcnt lfy the In uscovite

Tourmaline shows u wide range ,(I( colours in haad specimen: a brl.'Wlll:;:h-yeiio~, green or blue are the most com !TII,111 c()k) urs seeo lit th i~' section, I,IIi ignco us rocks j t is I!::;Li'111~i restricted to laic-stage acid vnrietics butis very COlt11U6n [[I minor amounts ill meuunorphused.sednnents The f~!v.l llial nl¢ rn.iXJDIJ.Jlm ;lO;;;fl!'p~IO.lt cnlour ls shown ,'<'Iu.:T! ~h~, L~I!g'Lh ,rr tilt c J'~,:,;tal s ls 'at righJ:.,:'u1.glc!> te l1.i~ plal"l~ '-'if polarization of the liglit is ,[I. parlicularJy useful . d1ugrlO;;t[c leature wbCJ1 tourmaline is presenl ill ftlirly 8m~.u Cr},Sl..:r1S, J90),




S )'TIlmcll)'

Trigona] t

I ,('; I 0- j,{i50 1··f,~5-i :675

n' 02 I tHI);;

RJ c


Tlo • .;: photog raphs on this pl1i:!e and the opposi te rage ,1I'e' 'of thin sections from the same n.l'I,::\J. ~pecimen .. Compa I: isnn of these L lAo I) ph 1.1 1.1I!:~I·aph~, taken ~ n plane. polarized lighll with the pl118 nzer in orthogonal positions, shews the ui:.linl,;:l pleot:h1'()lml and zoning of the absorption ~.llltlllr, III the lower photograph thepolarizer was Ofit;I];I.-~d parallel to the .short dimension of ~ILI; pt;oI)Iog,raph :-;ine€ the IlKlXIIUlIffi absorption L;HI "I.IIr is shown whenthe length 01" lh . !;t)"il~1 'i~ ;',11 l'i:gln·angJes 11:) the plane of pelari« .. ~[i~)·!I. (}f [he light. {The crystals wen; iliJ'! oriented [(I :;;J1O.\II the maximum 'lari<!H}ml ill ~Lh~)~I}lln [1 CO~OIl r; otherwise .in the phOlog"«,.p'h lot).: en ueder crossed polars - ser ric::-;'l p~g~ - .1Ie), would be. i~~ tb~ extinction posit ion . .) The orlrer mi l.~eriliR present are quartz, and .: a lkali rddspllr. wi lt1 f.:l'),St",'ll.s of m:U.::KO\'tt"C fl L the.cop kr~, and ::11 the rjghi if;dj!.e ,:'if [he field. Comparison with lhc same view, takeri under creased polurs, on Hl~ oppesit . ~n~~e i~ necessary co identify the muscovite.

Tourmaline shows a wide Hmg<:: 1,.)( culonrs ill ha.IU:I. specimen: .a brownish-yetlov ... , g:r-een or' blue are the most eomrnen L:uh lurS see: Li il 111 in sectinu, I II ign~~u~ .I."ocb it is l~;WfLU}' 11f~ll'icLed tel I ate-stasc acid varieties bu l is "'cr~ com InD 11 i n minor umo 1I1Il.t::.; in me lilm:orphlJsed sedl uiems, l'h c fa-ct th';'l.l I:h~~ llW ximu rn d b!;orpl;i (.,rl Co I L,lll r L~ ~ 11 01,1,111. wlW!;i, the lcn-gUl 01" tlte ",;fj}.!1J 1::; . i~ ,~l righ HIrlf!Je~ to 'tJl@ plane of pola ri I ~!.Li ~ ,II nf the I i,gh t :k;,'] particularly useful i:hagTH.):>l ic fen ~ ure w hen tourm al lne i ~ present {n [<li.d~· ::'ni ;l]b c 1':y~t:J I.~.. 1901.

,"flf:d.lhm ii'am t~)l)(c-toufm(lHmj-.p,.u/.rl= roc«, lJlurR[1()di elm' Plt, CLlf111.1'(Ii'I. E'lglrm(i, 11wgn{{in.llimT x 2:fJ.



Trigonal (-) i-sro I f~~O 1-635--H'!~

~ 1°0 t.l-Q·035

.R!. r


TIle Uppe.l· phutogrupb, taken under crossed pnbr:o. iJwl'.'s the: :;"1JfI;;: [i,cld of view a~ illu srru ,I ~~J on the rrev i LlL.I.i f'~>1!lI.:, This.,shm\';!l tf,¢ moderate bil'eTI'irn:efl(;e "f lourmaline, i.e, up to rmddle.second-order C;:)!onr':>,

'SiIB;1t:t; the crystals dll '11i~ «pecimcn sho ... vs 'l.lllll'ly :.Iw,l'lg prefe~ted orientatloe a 1~()1 her l'bin section ~'a~ 'lil iiH 'nghl'.'i)t;lgl.e::; 10 the fir~t and IIIL~ is shewn in the 111~'!i,\,:1" pll{1itograph q;.1 ken in plam:·p'lia.r'i;;,ed light. ThE:'! vie ... ", H~I~""'~ the; tfig(H~ii!r cross-scctioua] nuiJir.le ul [he- LOllF- 1m! I i ti~ crystal s an d ag;~ in ~ h uw:> zoniug of tile H b~l,lrp I:i on f;o.lf!urs, . SO;;~ ti 011'1 cut ill [11 i ~ f.Jri'I:!IHU,lDOH can be lI$t~,d 10 ·d.~~rm in ["I h e 11 ii i CI xi:! 1 tI':~~~.t ivc l' haracter 0 th e rI1!]Ict\J1. 19[1l

5:rHdM1::71 jrlJffl wpu=-wrll'n'Ul{in~', (Jjlwrl:t 'l'od. B lackpoo! Om' Pit, r01'ii!'I'tJ.!f, 1~'lll{fr~lu( maenilica: ion 2V_

. r V -.1 /'! I~




l'nclinle (

Birefri ngencc

,1-681-1·701 fH109~ll1ll

l'he u[1f1el pllpt~lgf;4pb" taken 1[1 plat~().pobrizcci light, ~hrfws aJn~m;r the who I,r. field ef YL(:W 1::; oteri pii;!ij hy ax in i te wh ieh has ct pale brownish c 010~r in lhi:;, :::p~'>;.;i 1I'~I'I" hut rid detectable pleochroism, l\..J.os!. ()If 'I:i:v,ry~_ltJb shuw one 1)[' more cleavages anti this is characteristic since il h;~s fo'Ur cleavagvs. Thl': lri~iI n::ii~r ollhe rnineriil fH IW~ up ag;.litt~r a f~w holes itt the slide.

In Ih~l(1wel' photogrnph under crossed polars, the bl refringence IS seen t D be low, The axe-bead ~hd'-P" oI)J (h!; crystals can bcmorc clearly 'SC-C"t1 under L:rl)1;~cd rvlj~n; ~llld lhis shape is nlirl)' dia.~~HJ:"li~ wl'i~rl hlh~[' alnnp. with tile high reliel, !uw hi!'el'r-ir1g{:lllr:;e ;1liLJ. presence of more th-.aJI

une ~teaV1ig¢ LII mosr CI-:r·S_t<I.I~.. rt.;l71-

.)/uzcimeil frat~1 exinite-acrinoitte rock. lit. "'e:~·. ['o.mw(JII. Efrf!,/and, maRti/firat/on x 31.


Ort'hopyroxen,e· ~ [Hg~ Fc)SiO}

Ortlnrrhern hie ( + ) or ( - ) I '653 '1'7"7.0.

1'-00"7 ~}OlO

If] UI~ liPI):.;r :m~ middle phNrlgra~~lls. taken 1M plclIU?plliam:ed I i~h r. l tie colou red 1.1'i ~h-rcliof min eral 1'<; .0') n f,'It~h I)r h~)111 hi~; f.1 Y Ll,}l'IC[l1,; lind the most freq ucntly ,}'CC'lI f _, rm@. -;i;lrrlr,lO:.~lwn ]~ hypersthene, The churacteristic plc{)l!t.roj~~m from green to pit.:r~ is.!l. good iiWlicl'!l,n01! 9r! he. pn;~("TIoc of orth opyroxcnc .. The change ill en lour l1uy JI nl btl veryinlcnse bill (;,UI bc dceected most easily lJ~ .. rotatlng l.h~ poll] rizer Ll1 rnllgh 90"" ~I ~ h'lt- heen dum' heft'.

The lower photograph, raken under TV~St;d pnlars, ;n{J,ws f:fil"l~· I.t;iw·infe-rfej'ell"_~e colours. Since Ute fI.:lg-rich members of'Ihis series have the lowest hiref'nngence thls 1:0> :J, 1'.lLr1y M~-Tic.ll specimen, Ti:J{~ pthl1:-f minerals ill this $\..~\~ll~~ lUI,.! quartz, alkali IcltJ$p~r_ plagioclase and. one l;;I1I~ral (Jr bio I ire,

I ~~I1,L11J 1£1 btt MJ¢d 11-1 <II wh j'le.. the pleoch ruism :i:; H U;:j~fll ~ diagli.o~tic property it -j,:; trot- ;tl",8)'~ p-n-:-'>t:111 il' Nlhopy- ~

roxsncs. pmq. .'~

S,t'roPl.in-wl'r/mm cbarnockite, near Far: I)wiphin ..... l(ulaf!:a,~rur.: rnalJlli:,fi,:,tJ1 iWl x ]I!,

, '"'

~ . ,\ '-'"

..... : J

, "'L, oA I .1'-'


-J -,'






Ca{Mg, Fe,Si:lOfj

MnTloL;]irli~ (. -) 1,(;7(J J -]4·1

o·~ 19-Q·.Q3·3

nil:: U Ii pci:tp~ III LLlgC'aph. LfJh~H i D\' plil.rl~-po!!~.t ii.!:td Ii!! Iu, ~.f~j,~W;; ;1 nurn be,1 L'1I' phell()~n'o;,ll';: nt nU~,!~J~~ngetf:r,~r '""iU! some ,~IJllJ.11 Ceklf;l'Ol(;f., [Ind. fl. few altered OI4~'illes (3!e.ll~wbrown t[1':-;t~J5 with bLack .td_g:cs) and w~ndcd' pseu.doleueitcs Zoninzin the hHJ!P phenocrysts or 8qgitc is \,~;,:jbk!il1 pl,Lm~-1J;0la:r:i~d li.ghlQOl!at!BI;) of J;;l]gb:1 dij:r~r~ ~iIL;.e:,. ill i1.b";iJrp~11)n (,;(jl~11I find dl.o:l!~ip" or ,:oJlll~iI i!!-

dll~bM, - ,

L L~def crossed p()hrf:'~! II ~\~el' r !.~uH11\r<t(~f~ J ! he ?~ ~ni 11 g ! ~ sccu more c:h('a)'ly~t::id l~t1tb ~h'llple and 1~';(I1.fi.lb.r twifir)ir~S urc obvious. The l(:mgeJ~'s1aJ at the.llppedef[ (lHh,~ ,field !i bows h.Q'LI r-gla ~~ ;.(ollil1~ :i~ well as, conccmriczeniug. The: iB1H,'!rl~re[ll,;~ colours- nmgt up ['(1' middle second-order

hlne, '

11~l: N~ck: circular rl1:gions 'WCf~ pl'(~h1lJhly J~uclt'i!!. crysiul ... origilHuly but ,ut now ffir:dL1lran<l'I'clte_

The g'()od cleavage usually associatedwith P:'f'Q,'wn(';> ~vt:~ H'\.ll ;:;hU'~'I tJP lJl Ih~ 1.;[ Jsl~ i:,;, Then I Hlbu truc ef the r)'ro\'~HI::? Iii lTM:tly 1,11'1 he luuar rl)"~'~, [l20J

.)~M:.:irncn /r(Jnr: 1)!jf3I,1,d()b!.l~f.il t;-b£.udi1lft m(f,/I~' pn'mwifk', .t-lI,(!:i/'wor)(1. ;10/1,)" M()man{1 USA' magHU/('tlilu"1 k\ JO

Titaii1aug ite

t\1l.@ljll.<: which an: rich 'in titanium u~.lwlh have a purptlsh or hrflWn colour in thin secuon. The tippel' and middle l)no.tograpbs show crvstals of'tltanangite takcn in planoP]Jhi[,i7i;.-d light: lh. 'Y ba'\-e a sornewhat darkcrcolo'if than i!l1!o'Liril. The pleochroism is- quite: distinct tlni'li>o i~ ,..,_mollg ... {!:be ,I hso l'l}li ,)(1 CD lour, The ,(;0] ou rless minerals i n th i ~ iQd:<I!'e sauidinc _ ncphcllne nnd I euci l~.

Uo~e r er~;n;:sedp'!.:.lar:,; (J I,wier tiJl'01"flgrap!1) the j [I. terferancc uolours ~~~, 10 s.nr~le exrem, Illaflk:cdJ hv the al};;.orpl:lon"!';vloll.f bur [he "'I'yst-alto: ~H the bottom. ;1' the 'field of v -i.;;w :"hIJ ...... :at third-order grcen colour and Ihis 1:>}! :higl:!,;:.n;lllou.r than-expected fro~ a normal all~il.;: siuce jl Ili:pre~t:j1I_~ a bi refri ngence 0 f abo ut c} 04 i I the ~.;:eA_i (In Is of $li'i,naafd. thkkncss 1.1] this 'iJ~W 1'tIt: wilite area is almost

~efitire]y sanitlim: but the Lhlrl ,1-e,gi()11 ~n the top k:ft Dt'.thl' phctogra ph it< part 0 r a I eucrte crystnl. r J ~OU-

:spel'imr.m./1·Wrl h:ud,t"'__rwp.hf'iitT~' d(tlerii~ 1'1/ff.f,c!l(;'J,', rOJ?d~I',r.&l'g, Gf':!'In(m,'l: nU:lJ{rri/i('£li irnj' )( ;ZO,


C I i,nqpyro,xOIilEl & 0 rth()pvrox:elil~ i nle rorowth

Cllinopyroxene 8& Orthopyroxene

i nterg rowth

II! the upper pbll~llgr·(lp~!. l?!hn i,1i ~1'J.;,I:lle-pl.1I;lri;>.e~lliglH, the dark crystals are Pywx,enes and the liglll: CI}'i1l';ll:). plagioclusc feldspars. In some of the pyroxene crystals ,l l~~liL:HfLT structure Gill be seen but 'Lhi:;; i,1) more dC'<lrly vi~'ihl,l: iTi Ih~ hJWL·r plnni Oi:';nlpn, la~~n IlTItkr crossed po!ars.

The. lal'g.e I.:ir~'sLtLl ,u:-::t ,abl}Ve the centre nf rhe field of' view W!il~~ .o,riglLlJJi.Jy a pigeonire -;:I:.IKl il]":'cT(.cd to !LfI erthopyroxcnc (dark-brown interference colcurt COf.ltaLJ1 ing lai';;c:llac of elinopyrcxenc {grcrJl) p,aralk] to (0U1, of ~hl' original pigconitc: lim' lamellae of t:liJlopyrmcl1l; (while) ure ur ientcd parallel l.:..' (HID) ol' nIL;' orrginul plg~qml~_ The cry_;;ta~ <II ~he !Of' lelt-hanrl corner of ~b't! jJI10m,gI';lph IS ;,1, ilJnula:r inverted p,igeonlle the coarse d.iJ)()P)T0''1~[jC: lamellae are blue but Lh~ tine: Jamdldt' use onl.:_v j u:.l visible

Tile simply-twinned crystal ill Lh~ lower part (f(' lhe-tiehl of view (,,~ok:'l and rt~ddi::;b-)'dj,.,w inleilereuce col('11I;;:11~ ;J. elinopjru :-"CIlI;: ~ w inn ltd un l 'I(l(f) f:1I1~l s IIG\', I.ll~eX:'ltl! ution l~mi,c'lh:: (IL:fl;"l.h~)rj'["f>.,~~le 01' pigconltc, r 1.10111241-

SpecImen fh'in notite, Bu,./nddl r11l rusion .Soutt: A/dc'II, irW!?m/imliwr x 24,


Aegirine-'au!gite (Na, Ca) {Fit Mg)SilO()

1\,·1 '-H1o{;lirli~~ ( - ') or " + 1 ]·710 !·7Nt)

0·03..0 0,050

The IIPPI.![ ~_ml middle [1hnln!:.\r;~p~n .. !;~k~l! In pl.u'epr>hHit'ed I.lgl1t ~h(~w '[he greel) tfi brewnlsh-yellow colour and FI.em~lll\,.i;'iTil wltkh urc diagnostic of'sodium-bcaring py:ro'l<<:m:1;, Zonin g shown b'y varia Li Oil. in the uhsorpuon colour is'f~icrly commou in such pyroxenes, i\.lmL of the crystals show enly one of the 'Pl:r(CCl i 110 ~ d,;tl..,.~gu::: bu~ a small cQ" lal em bedded m Hut; g~'cl1 I'MI. s I ~1 lhe ri g 111 "I' the field shows both cleavages clenrly

The lower phol{)gri~.pk taken under crossed polur», ~bQ\Ii~ 'tl~: hir~ffin.gel'Ke associated with IhLfi mineru I. ne dt:;,1 lncriun between a pyrexene 'willi ~(liHt'! (!f dH::.ac~i.l'ine rnnl'K~u~~ (Na:H::SiiO(j) and O!l~ ~.,·~tll a high prnportioc ef t~e molecule is rmll'i( ~I! the h;~~~:;; ("'If refractive i:ntrgQl;:~, P!ll':i~ ~xjal ,1I'l!:lle ~"r:l~! ex.Lill'ClioT! angle ill ~n (0 W) ':i~!'!!ln so lhtlt i I i:-; III 1'1. ~H'1::;:';1 b le from these phoi ogrt1pl1:;. ,11{HliZ to ud"trmIIH': whether tlli;; mineral l"U!::J ,I ::.w'II' or laJ'gC <lifll)\Jll! (lflrne ae,gi.ri:nLmok~ule ll.~~j

S'pu:1me1J ,fi'm~1 s(J.daNh~,1Jend(!, lUrnrn~:>5(1(r. H;>;"s,1 G rnn- 1'l:Ltid, mlI,~n~'!jcatioll ~ 32.

Aeg.i rine· 8ugitte




S ymmct I)" R] ~

M'.:!lluchnie ,( +) 1,(4)', i '66J 0.·012 0'01 3

III theupper ph.(ltogl'flph. taken in plane-polarized light, IW() lkav;,t,gc.s can be seen iu surue c.[!r·s~.,tl:,j. the others show OIIt: .l';[~i:migi. There 'is -;'],!;lighl dillerence in colour between gr.l.iilS iei. 'lhi!~ section kim rhls i~ d Lie to ~lra:, polarlzation in 1 he photographic eq IlLpmet"l"C andi s not .1 property of t"i1i" mi f'lct~d.

The lower ph(}IO.g1"i:l:pli. taken under crossed polars, shows the JD\'" hil'eJ'ril;genl;;t; characteristic of ju.deitC' which StT\'CS {O distmg-Llls:t] it from other elinopyroxenes whki, have moderate to higll bil'eftiilgylice, This section is from-a vein j;jl u serpentinite and HlI;~ whole jj~;lu ·js occupied by jaderte, II J7J.

Spt:n'/'11C:fi Il'om /ad(lii"" .\·~rp('11.uRil(', San Brnilo Quad· {iJI1!P', Calilomfa, (.ISA. maglji_;lr"r.Hif'll xj.,~_




rncl:lnlc (-)


Hi2a 1·65n O'013-~}0J4

T~~ upper phm.og:rapll, tJ kefi 111 pl<l!1~-p61~.rb/~d light. ~1iD\i;'S a man be I' oh,,·cJ llaston i re 8:rr~t,lll': I~'~ FIg su !"'P:J.!'fllit!i to the length of the plmt0gr:1pb, The other colourless crystals ;lJJr{: of nepheline and a . few dC!E:l.-j, green aegirine t:r::r'it.ti:lb~lre a.b;;:; v'i::;tiblol,:;, The few i>lighl~y cloudy I'Cgil))oll~ (Uilt: is almost in !.he centre ol the tickl) an: d 1.I~ 'to holes in tht;. shde. Wu.iJa:-;'lumk crystals are elongate .. d along the y crystallograpbie -axe:,; ::1.IKl h;:lve t!I('e¢ .c:I<eavuge~. ~IH or which mc parallel to the )' :lX.IS: S~) that most erystals f;hQ\v .at least one good. cleavage.

m Ute lower photograph, t<!,kco under crossed polars, '!h~ hrterfereuce C[,1110U.f!> t;:\;!t;:'nd up L~'1 Ilrst-erder orange ~nt Dot to red, thts ls a nSe!ful d~a_gllns.ti:~ pwper!,;:.- taken !"()",p''''itl\ tfie tendency 1'~)r rhe ~!'}'~hlb to be dOl1g<l.tc(], ~ -simip-II<; twinD.LI"l]! is tom mo n ,tud is fijl0\!iTl 'in Utt! .I ongcsi ~~t::lL [Mal

Sf ,rilttl(',r" /r(.Jm rJI!P/J~.ffne 1~IJ/ht\,ttmH" md·; Oldl~in.1!(J l~,,!ga,J'. T(lw;:cmiu, m~rp:JlincC(ttnn )( l:l.



Triclinic 4 +) 'I -sus . ] -(11 ;'i o ,():~O IHB I{

RI ~,


In the upper 1}IIL.I~L'I,grtlph. taken in plam':'-p'plartu;d light, colourless erystals ot pecrolite 51.111<:1 ,0ll'l h. n~lil!Ll~f1iru.1 I he other colourless minera 1:<., vi z , a ~od.~c; 1)1'1,~llkil<1~ leldspar and micrec Lim: , 1"cc1ollw, h:lL~ two r<!,(i"!"'·1 t:kM v~~:; lind !;O l he large crystals ;;;ll()'V,' at I eas1 L1U!:. d:e11 \jtlg~!.

l tl I h~ IOW'cr photograph, [akcn uudcr crossed polnrs, "the pectelite Cr)~IHls ."how up clearly because of their bright interference oolnnrs ~xl~rHlifil:S into second-order, L~~ highest coleur in LIlliS "'113"" ]).e,in,g, :'I !<.eCLtll<:l-or.d{:l' blue

The mineral with a ~LighL!;' green hI brm!,o"i'l 1;61L1U1 ill this r.J.lclo; j:<: eckermarrniu- ~I .emf)' uncommon amphibole; and OJ 'grnup n!' :\[11,111 ,tckul,1 r o:.:r:Yi>lal5 of sodic P1' roxrnc, r 1441-

SfJecilYr~l! ./r{ml})('1 'wlil f:_{'"(k{,'Hnmnit'(~/1(''Phehm! sventte, Noera Karr, ,"':I1i.'d~n .. ~1~agn~';;(f~tJ(in Jot 5.~

Anthophy'llite Gedlrit,e

(Mg. Fe)?Si't)'02z(OIl, 1'")2 (Mg, Fe)sAl"Si(,Ol2(OH. FJl

Orthorhombic ( ) L1,( f I I'M~-1'7JO

0;0.13 U,t~2~

Ri refrlll g,mc~

'Ihe name an1hoph}~II,j~: it' used forthe Al-poor members 01' this series ami gi:ldrtl'e ler ~ht" Al-rielr minerals, Th~ 1.!P'P~ j' ph otogra ph. in plaue- pelurized l'i~ b t, 5h "Wf; ~TltlH'l)tI yllitc. hi ad lc and cord i eri c e. The UTI Uloph~' llite ~hL1""r's ~)E1~jc.lt:r;,] bIt· rei icf ~lg,l i 1b.1 the cord icri lc wi til v;'hich 1'1 L~ intergrown and the tYE)ii.41 amphibole clcaVllfe.'l at 1 ?,Ii''> il re :';1:'';:11 in so me crystats,

lhe II)'W'er photogra ph, take n LInnet ern ~;I)t,':d polurs, 'irmw~ ll:L;J,~ the, b~l:t:lfl'i II ~t;'il~~'i * :I ow j n CQI~lj[la'I·I8.~)11 wi~ h Lhlll Clfrnl)f.~ "Irlpllib-l~ik:~. Mcm'bc-r.s of tbe ;;lmlh'l1~llynikg~drile series arc orthorhombic in symmetry and in thi:..' l'e~p.td dillcr from other amphiboles, The absence of t't1ihlllifl~ i~ ~111 indication thar rhis may be an orthorhombie amphih.t;li{: nllhC)LlgJl (.'If CQUI'SC' LIl~:'i i~ 11~,)1 LlhiJgnt1~uc: [l%i.

SpeC;·'.lJeri jlom ,clJJ'JiN'il" ".'lHh(J{lhylllrL' schist, Pipr«, Jite!I'fJSww.lndhJ. mll~nifll:·wi(}l" ){ 61.

Anthophyllite - Godrit~


Cu,mmingtonite Grunerite

(Mg, Fe),)SigOn(OH)l (Fe. M g).)"Si80V;(OH h


Monoclimc (+"} Of (-, 1''644-1-7f~ 0-1)20-0'045

'he name arunente if; used. for U1!l.': trnn-rieh membersef tlL'i:;. :>ofdc~- whr::'rea~ cumrningtonitc I::; L1::;l;)l1 for the uitermedlate members, No' pure ),iIg :md-JlJ"'ITI~r !~. known,

Tho upper phott)gT~ph. taken iu pume-polarlzed li~ht, showscummiaglouite c:rystal:'. intergrown with 1.1 p~ai;i.oK clase n~td:,p·il.l· a nd a few crystals oW biotite. LT nfortu m!lC:ly the characteristic amphibok' .clocH. .. ·<I;t;"I> does uo1 i':h~Wr'!J~ well in. this thin section. The dad:.t(bge~ 1"0 f;ome Dr the crystals have 1.1 deep eli v e-green ~O·IO.ll ... wlnch is plcochroic and these ,I"r~ prIJh;lh·'y due to a common horn bit::ndr;.

h'l [lie:. In ..... erp'ho1n~r,L'Ph, taken under iC:1'CI~~ed polars, lnteeference CQlrll:.ir~"I'an:@e up to middle second order the blue-coloured crystals in the centre of the hdd show lilt· ~i~lles.t colour in iliill view, i~L~ second-rmler blue, ~II lhal Ihis is <I l~lqrl)1 f\·1g-rticn cumrnlngtonitc sinec lIM:

olour-!> ~h.own by grunerites extend well into lhe third order, L he 'fact that the miacral has only ,I \:~I"y JY<lle colour III planc-polanzcd jjghilli ~Il:,o an irldic;niltTllh,ll it ls H(}[<l gruncritc since they tend lo be hrowni .. h it) ,WI,HJ1. Multiple twinning is I,::h;lr .. cteristic of members of this series un d can be :;,(!!;!"J] ; [I ~lHfle II!' 1 he crystals near La the, '\;[;"[HI'e of !h~~ lil:!Jd I,ll" view, 1'1(10].

~)ft lJt1~·fl.lI·,m! {·wmnfl1!:l(mil.· norilr, Lrl l'u1il't./·,'wn6, FIO(.lIu:e; nwgniliuJUtl.n Y _~(j,

Tremolite -Ferroactinolite

Monoclinic ( 1·612-1 ;697 1)·0 I 7~l 02. 7


The upper .::md middle photographs, taken In ~~hl1l~ [,>(')1" 'I'i::-.edl ighl ~ show u gr~uv of . act inolhe, cd')':o;~al s shnwi:llg Imm,oul'~IXl, :rjj,;.bl.'hroism, M,os'l of the: crystah show one good cle01,v<t1;e tHH none of them are cruro show the angle hetweenthe ·U :I O} d~ll,'t'fI!l:~'

The Im1;'cr photo,gfi.l.ph, taken under crossed polars,

,1;irow:; twinninz in one or two of the CJv~I::'~h and thisis lairlv (;OLUmO;' The interference co]nul::O; a,re"i.0'fnin~lh!cjJ bvg~lXnl> and browns but thisis due to tile addiuon oI)J·{hr.'

·~bSMp~i;~'Ull;o!O{lr~, '

This is, actll1(llit<e 1'8'II~T 'lh.J11 lremelitu because of its. , gu~[1 coleuration since ,he moli re 'i ~ coloerless.

Since the common twin !,;:L'W fa I' the nl():11I) .. ;li~li(

am rhi.tl~'l..::. ~~, reflection 3C~05~ uoo ),~l(m gated crystals '~llOV.'in.~ 11, :;;11 f).I'rl:y lll;;IiIli~d t ...... ill junction an:: the ~l'l~St .suitable cl)':'>ta-I So ft:'lt' nteasuri flg • he e x b nell on H;Jlgk: y ; 2 since these must be nearly (UH)} ~clk.'i1:>. The l~lD"gl.: twinned crystal showing rme half (If the C['y'::;,I',<,1 it! lb.!.; :~'.l:,dndion positionis not in a sultable.orientatlou. since the (100) plene i~ quite oblique to the lengrh ofthe secnou :lind lih!)"" ~ up ;1;S a while band in thj's photogra ph, [I 63).

Tmmolite - Fcrnur.ctinolite





Monoclinic ( ) 01' t I )- 1-6J~-I'?'l4

IH1l4 O'H26



1'1"11;' I!,['v~r tmd mi!.hl1c phocogruphs, taken ,in plane--. ~~Gta r lzed I j.g.l'l1, :"h'I~W hum blende and bio lib: t ogJi>tllcr \;,'ith quartz, alkali 'l'ekl::::pi! ~ wid "~ sodium-rich pllgj(J. clasc. The h [Wit blends ~~1 n w~, pleochroism Jrorn green 'I,u brown whereas the rl~n.chr(lL:<:,m of che hlouteis trem ~I dark brown to a pale hrQ.w n, A few L ~f i he nnrn hlt:ml~ crystals show the- characteristic shape and twocleavages III 1 :::0".

IJ'IJerl:wl>~(1 [191:lrs (lower photograph) twiuning can be seen In a few of the hor 11 "1~1l de cl'ysn a i:" Mid lbe highes; inrerfercnce colcur ~CLl in tl'lii. view ls 'a second-order h I ue, The (I i Il~ft!:[']o:.;l: be l ween biotite and hornblende cal] be seen ilL thi:,. nIILf~lll:\r;'!f)h hI'I he fT,IOLI iCbf appearance M the iJlt.erkrenoeto~(m!'~~.11 ! tie ~:lr.Y;e hi9'1-i~e!,;"'Y:::;t~Ll 'M/[Iio;,;!l'LS

neu r l o its ext i !lJcti l'lr.l ~~)'S'il i ~ sn. 1167 I

Spr:l'imrm Forti granise. J\..fO,tJt (if Rannach, ;S{'(}'(tami. mtlHnt/in:lft m x 2(),



MonOl'lirLlt: ( - ~ or of -I- ) !. fI J1j.-+ 71 4

0, 0 l4 0: ~26


The llppt:r and middle phologplpb~ show brownish phei1(:';:'J'y~18 of b(,rrnbknd:.; ulong with pJ'l~iDd~H~ phcnucry·~I.~ i [1 u .n ne- gr,) in t',~Jgn I~J!)daJtl s[" main bo' or" l~ll.~Il.i: f~ld~P:L!', The 1,v:rk: .. ~J ;J"[l"iph i Ib~'lle~ tr.w.: Miid d~il y,~!.!>:.:: l'itHl be aeen l[) ;1 few cr)'s.taJ.; .,uH;l the ple()c.hr('i.~w i~ quite p:p;:rP(ulIlc.Qd, The opaque! rilns are pmbably due to the r.onmll ~c.L1 o.f lTIaguctil<: hv Qxid!\li{JU \::..f i'I'0I1" :.I nd "J 1'1'1 rtiirlr eemmon iL1 flornbk'-n:lc."i. in V(;I';:~H:riC" roc-b;:. '

'The rI11'~rfiilr¢II~~ 1;(J.INir~ (ig\vtTpho~6gr;Lph) tend to be Oll<KU.rreri by the absorpllu.i! (1)11 Hlt1:i: III.:: f)irr.rrlrl:g>:.::n~~ ~lr common hornblende 1.5 low to nr ... Jsr~H6"~ r 147]-

~;:fu1l\(,fI from 11'(1C!JyW" i..I1Clp.1~'MI,', ML D{l1"e 1'rJ1,Kion, rrL~m'!li; miW'11l;flcatian x. 32_






S}'ml111:' try R] i3

f\'1m1Lxlini.; -( -) HJ'ilU 1'"141 (j·01o}·O,mU

The LJPper and middle pl I o hJ!!; nrphs, taken in planepolarized light, show [~1I:: su OQ£; p1e.o(.hwq~rn and foshn1WJj i.;OJVLlT whicl'! ls characteristic of!.l1i~ Initl¢JOal. TIJ= ;arnph:ibo!:lle &!i~pt: ~llJiJ cleavages arc w~1I dIsplayed in Ih,. crvstal ill the-centre cfthc fiekl.

'The lower pfl111ugruph IlIke!] \LlH.'ICT crossed POI,'!:fS, ~hQWS that the ab~()rpll un colours ure strong cneugh to mask partly the interference colours, but the bircfriLl· gence of ltiJi:; mineral has.a "Very large range and is not a lJ.,;tll'ul dilll!!I1o:stic property. It is difficult 1"0 dl~thimli:>l kaersutire CnJ!"!l other brown am phi boles, Tb<l iHllp!;ibliJ.,. j n this 1'0!:k WaR previe I ish k n own as barkevikite. [17((J.

:;''p!2(fml'!fl [rom ir~gudi(~, Lugar Silt. Ayr,~/dre. , ... :mtlturd; magn!"!'it.:atW!1 :l( 20.




Ml1IH'tclLnk ( " l '622~ 1,60"' o·OW.;.-tH)l].

The uprer aud middle "hot,Q~r..;.trh~. raken in planeF(ll.n-i:r.cd 11.1l~ L, shoW HElinl;...' glaucopha He 'c:r)'~ lals wi L1 H fr.:'!!>' small t! ua r~ l. t:ry:sla.h. The l ..... 0 pri :-:'Tna ti I! cleu ~'fj i1:~~ .. H .I 20'''' are cll!arly seen ~I nd Lb.{~ ~ l rik.iug i l,b:::01'11D 10 n t:n lu urs I'I'hi,] I '\"~II')" lrum bhLfl 1'0 .1 lave nder- blue ;;j. re ryp le·;11 f()'J' !1l1i~ rnit1~r;I.1. 'l he <.' 0) ir) Ill':" are zcm€J uern the l"l'l<:u'gim; (',f WTll.e erysta ls.

In thi2 lowerphotogruph, taken under-crossed polars, .the intcr!erencc colours are 10\.,. order, but annrnalous bc~~i«~t;; .(Ji' 111.;;: S!!'[_III~ ~i h~~)'rpljmi .L(~~I)UI'h. Th~ 7:i'!llitl£, iii: even more ea.,dly· seen under crossed pobrs.. .

The only minerals which SJU.1W; comparable absorpuon colours arc CCkl:.L"JmHl ni lc whichma Y :;jho\,'i a p~ lela vender (;J~~(JLir and j'{)J~'ri~J;: (i.t.v.) hli,l, bofh H'll:' '~'t!ri r;'H~ in 0u;um~lj~~·L~. T~li.s :-;·,.11r1t'.Jt: :tho1:ll·d. 'p(,.~~W~li btl d·Mcl·ihed I'nQI"f: cnrrecrly as-crossrte since tJ.tI!:I:C Ii', generally some fil2 '.~ substituting for AI and the name gl.auC'oi:dl~11C ];S' rcstrlctcd to ruincrals with rather ]0\\' contents or Fe :! _ r 1791 '

,\m'( imen j.ICIJ!'J1 srhls«, .\'J'll/mo.\·. Greece, 11Jfl,'d;n!,firu!iuN 1-\ ,::'YJ..



~·1().110e1mic ( ) .H:i79 1:109 fH1~1!!-()'01:2

hi the upper and middle phntogruphs. taken iii] planopol;:l[·i .... _r;dlighl, nrtvedsonhc is. lec"0f.rli-7Cl~! hyit~ absorptici'I1 CO!('IUi";i; which wlr~' ltom ~I. deep Pf'L.il'~f:j;;,m t-I'!IJ~ Iv brownlsh-graee m~I)ILl·. TIle hlu\:' 111a}' be so dark rhnt the crystals appear opaque NOm: vf these crystals, show the lypic,Ll amphibt:)1e eleu .... cg_e hUI I he L'~'JoUT and pkochroismuru cbnruetcristi .. ~_lllllli!l. rock lhl;;"!rrv.e~bljniLI! is illlergr~l ~~'Ji with ~~~ lkuli fdd spar. r~agi ocl ;).%:. fl. tid. l.J kJtlrl~,

Ill. die 111'w~r pbl,.~l()graph, taken under 0L'"+):';:';ed rml:m, ~h c arfvedso i I ,i I:t. shows II 1 H)TI1 [1 lcus i 111C rference C.~).I~ mrs, because or tile sll\')llg 11h~l,lrplio'n colours. The bir~fi'1I1- genec is low S8 that b['i;?il,~ cl)lo~lr~ an: not to !be expected,

I( i~ Jiflkulllo dis~.mgLli\11 arfvedsonlte 1"0111 ri{:b;;;rki!o:;' slece hnl h m~.y 5110W Q.hl'! deep: blue iLh~Llni! iun coluur illusrmred ltere, lJIIl ricbcckitc dnc~ not :-;Iln~' l'll~ brownish.colour seen in lilL::; :;'~!ll1pk ll~7].

Srl'f'imqT_lnlm s.'.l:niu', ililmn~"HH{ mtruston, U}('SI Grt:l'fllalld. magl1ifl(trti{1fl -.:: 3].


T riclinic {-I-)

ntrcfrin~cl1cc Il07

In l~ .. .! upper aml middle photographs, taken in planep"l.l'rji.<.Id li g~! I '. I 1-1~' "'1,;'["1' 1.I.a rk brtrw n l'I"y~ t tJ,b l'ITt acnigmilli te.. ~ [ i:-; ~n'm~~ hlll~' so d~1 rk ~I:> I u \~ Iil'p~:t!r opuq He bu l ihe bmwrl 0::01("1111" canusually be seen ;11' Ihr.· edges (If the crystuls. A fl.· ... • of 'tile ctist<i.11'>.5ho\l,o cleavages and nne cry~tLi] ~I.L lhc bottom ctlge of-thefield I]:i:.~ two cleavages <11 ~lpproJi.i:rlwl,l.!ly !2if: in this respect it .... oukl he mistaken ["N' un ;JHlphi bole, That it b pleochroic can be seen by oi:otnparul~ 1111:=~~e IWU photographs,

Under L:r(l!\'~ed rm1fll'!;C (11.m'~1" photograph) the brown colour masks any interference colours ~o thul 'iL i::; no! po,ss.ib]c to cstnnate the birefrlngence, nlt: I~~rgt: T'c:;:;.l~Ilgul.tr l:r~~L~,I::,: irl th]'~ vicwurc sodizun-rich o1:lbli j~1tl~r;:ll·)i;. O~B or ~h>li!nl blC'ing 0[1 the extinction position. 11118 remainder of Ihe [ield i~ ~)(;"(l~pi.¢.d by ~: bnJ' ... nish i~i~l>. I' j I u

'Spt=l.'tnmi [rorn pallk[f';;'r1'!f, .l\mteUcria. ltai». n1t1.iVt1fl" ttllit)!~ X 31.





Triclinic ( 1


o· 0(; (apl' rox ,)

A stro P Il}'U.it€ usua lly oceurs i n needle-shaped crystals lu radiatin~ gn:l'tLp~, but iu this section it bl:ct'lI"":S ll~ rather shupeless trry~·l.t! I~ ~111'1 [Jf iTId'm.1 un~ in ; I Ilnl;',.-gr..r~11I;:(1 g_mull,:I,ma.;is: The Ltppe>r and, Irdddle plml;('I.gmrl~~ !'ilmw the pleochroism WhLCb is from brown to :t yellow colour, SOIl.K~GDj'!>l.a]s are much mere distinctly ydk.l~'" than Lhtj!o'\l illustrated, Mo::;ll!t}'-:i[,lb :;110\\1 O1J.~d ·<lV'~lo;e

.El~c"~lll:;il: of the strung absurp: ion '~111(lIIr'\. II is dl11icull If:

Judge tilt: order of the interference colours shown in the lower photograph. l .. akcn under crossed pelnrs, b.ul 1J:II:Iargc c.rY::fLal ~~t the lor oftfue llekl ~how;;-; ;1 Uii!"~~-vrlr.;;(· ~1;~;i!1 t:('IIOI.IT which imllc;·flle~· a h~·I'eri'illg.eiloe L)f at least o 'i 14:;;,) \ ... ~'" k now that the bi rc frl,n gencc 10;; faIrly high.

Tile groundmass of this rock ~'nn;,;i~l;;; 1;)1" 11 !>Qtiil.lm-rl!Jb pl.i :,:;i1'J0bst; le hlspar. L Il}2J,

~'pecimen "frrmJ mtcrosJ..',,!lJiU', Eass J;Pl!rJIJ/alJd, m,a~~.'JUJcat ion :;; 20,


fI,·f0J10ci i 11Ic ( I ) 1-747-1-75·1 O-(nl~HBj



Hire rri t~gel1(:.~·

flHfl rnleeral IS lncluded because It OCl:t1I'!; in some of tbe rocks from the Pilanaberg compkix and tJ1C Bcarpaw Mmll~lal[L,<;_j11. ""to[rlana .. and these Ina), be represented in .rr1(tJlY tr.;·~chil1fg c(Jo~k~chon~.

Larnprophy Ilite i~ the paw- brown mirrer ;~I, w hieh shows ~litfil lllt;tl.c:luoli:im (~)I .. 1Tfipilrp U-jJpel ,lilt! mid.d'r::; ph~tta·grapns). "\. te\~ euhedral crystals can he seen and. Oil. cleavage j"" .. isibl€ in a number of crystals. (The greenishCO.lOLLICd r.nil1cr~'lIs are aegirlac-augirc am.l arfvcdsonitc: tbc ( ... olourless mineral is mainly alkali (feldspar),

Lnder crossed poJarii (lower photograph) a few oh.he ]3.l11pJophyllite crystala show very ~Jigbll}' anomalous colours and om:' showing hour-gluss zoning has H. dlL;lill;;;'L'1 Y lIrl'O:lJiHlluu:. r"!owrlc~:l10 ~I r Ttl i~ ~;ry:'l:.11 I.'] cu I m.':;u]_}: perpendicular l.o lUI optic a.'tis. tlTltll he :Hllltll~lkrHR colour is due to dispersionol lh~oI:l[.1lk ~P;~~" Twinrung Ci1H. ~ seenin (.m~ of lilt. crvstals, Th;J~ u.e blue huerferencs I.:(liL III I' IA II :;.eC,(llld-()I'cte-r t11,il.f: can be readily seen at the I\lotl!£~olik.:l ierrnlnarion of one of the crystals,


'\f onoclinic ( 1 ) 'I ,747-1-75<1 (HB2-!.HHS

Th~5 mineral Isln;;lutkd because lr I)OClm in SOIDe of the rocks frmn I,lie, Pil;.'Iri:;bcrg complex and the Bcarpaw MOUnlll.iJl~ in Mon~'Hri<l and these may tJ.e' represented in 1J1,1rJ y tC<lt:hing_ co Ue~l ktrls,

l.arnprophyllite ~s tbepale-brown mineral which sho .... '~ ,~Ugh1 .t'iI¢~'l;l:tr~i;;'FI1, (compare li,l1:[.itlr ~mdlTIidd,le P flo1 0- ~mpb;,;)_ A 'reV.' euhcdral ery~caIG, ea 1.1 be :gCClli .and ,1 cleavage [l'.,v1;;;ibh~ if! tl number ofCry~lfl,ls., (The greenish(;oJo:llrcd ml nera I:;; ;,L re m!!glrinc-a I:lgt.te anti a rrvtd~oni tc:

Iht: colourless min,erai it! mainly .al'kali [feldspar),

Under CI'(I'~,:;e.l poiers (lower ph.0togr,~p,h) u rcw of the larupropbvlllee crysurls show very ,,'II,gilli),' anornalcus. colours and one ,~ht)wirlg hour-glass ?-:QfllfIg II~J::; a (ij:~li1Lclly anomalous hf~IWIi i.:{11(}~1.r. 'Ibi.~, cryst;JI i:<. ,c~11 !lei;! r ly pcrpcnd i cu lar to M optic axis ~111 J the- an oma lou ~ t.:Oi,I1IJr j:. due 100 dispcrsronofthe optic ~I~CS, Twinningcan bt~11 if] one oJ tile crvstals, Th,!'1 the blJ:.IG m1cr.fi;';I'CL1Ce oolQ<I:II' ls !~ :>o:;!c~lrH.I-'.l;rtl~~r blue ean be rei'l!liiv SL::-t'!Jl :aL the wedge-like Itl'1nirwlioIl or one of the crysi ~d~_

~p('r'lin{;'/J fro.m gr~~',1i, /JJ:j'aiu. J'ifmt~bng. ~!J'~tlh Aj'rir;a; ~!iJgn~fi{'cHion '>< 44._






RJ a

Birefri n genet:

_\1 onocl inic ( 1,:582- 1·6J 0 0·,030--'0-049

A '1(;.1:'), sligbt g1'€r;mi'Nh rlnt (Up~f p!]OfOtp·.,l.rdt) can he ~ .in In'il:. nrusoovlto i1g..'l.:iJl::;'~ the quartz with wh lch ~I intergrown: thi::; ce L1.1tl be due to the minera] being phcngitc ruther than muscovite but. 1(1 'this case i.t ls due I slight stray ptll.:iIizahol'l in the photcmicroscopc, Mo~ll li!~ ~~rY'~l;1L.;, ,,1101..; ...... the .~,;:rt:~,,::( basal cleavage.

III the 'II:1,\'er phol0g: .ipll, taken umler {:.f()s.seLi polar similar interference colours are shown hy IIliOS.~ crysl~ due to a preferred orientation III the rock; one crystal ne. the urp right-hand GOmer of the photograph is cut ncur parallel 10 ~hl;; basal (,:MI;;~I.VHge ~mtl so !;1;.jvc~ I\gO(; nterference tlg:u-re. 1"1 fll!Y of the ';I)'~wl,; "h~·)~· l ..... illinlr and l':l"ys.ti1I:>; which are tW,U' IQ the e:)djl1C'~ir.m poslrie show the 111 otrlcd appearanCG which is characteristic of ~ nncus, [2Q~.],

,Sj)ec.rmerr tF'~ml kr(1iJ1U ,\'c/Ji,I'1 Hhmmi~ IIJ .':;rwr,rrn'!jlt. Uns S11ellanri, Scotland; "wf!n~ficatim'r x 44_


"'·lnH0ciinic ~. I '60j-11 :69:6 0··04 G'O.H

It! .P

n~uhlt:. is ill'.'<H'ldbly 'brown. urgreen Incolour, The UPP~I and rnidd.ie pllow_gni.phs, taken in plai'l.e-puI3.riz~d lighl. ~llI.H"" u lidO. almos: entirely m ... "Cllpj~.d hy biotite-- with numerous dark brown (,), b.lack plcCK:hmic haloes. The perfect ctica \'(l,ge can be. 51;.'1:1:1 in IW:WY of the crystals, The ma;.;i'I'llUIl1 absorption colour 'is sbuWII when the p(;.llari.7.er I::; paralfe] to the cleavage,

ill the lower l~hologTaph, taken under crossed pelars, the C!')"$'L;:ds in tile centre.of the ~i~dtl am fa.irl}' close to tlJ~ extinctiun position, and this h<ls been done ,(I emphas i:t.e the mottled appearance w~icl~ is ch;:tractel'iiJ'~ic 01' all micas.and is. most clearly seen when dose to extinction.

The gwen i:t; tl C fYSW.! at the IiKlHolll lei"i-hand corner of the fkld. jl'.. tourmaline. [2111,'

'Sperimf;'fI .In/In 1,;io/lI'(.'-I,I."rmillj-;J{-l1eLu· .fhm f1W~ (.\<61n( lUJ.~s l~1 j\i 1If.1 , Smli(.md, magrJij'-r::ation X 5],






M Qnm::11 [1il,_~ [ - ) I -605 J ·(i9.6 O-Q4-..0' 03

These pIioJ.llographs· Sl:h1W I)j'!~wrl ·pncnocrystl:. of biotite in :l,n111~-iY~Hi'i'l~J gWllnd:rmls:'., TIn; change ill. :;tbmf'j')li'!JJ] colours 011 W(1IliTIl"b:;, the pohri.'t'l! (upper and Jt:Iid,d~'l photographs) ~ri4j zoning of the abserption colours is dearly seen. T1d:- :;-,uuung is probably dl.it: to .... ,~r.i~L.iOI] in tl'nn. ~:Ui~ titanium contents,

In thl:: lower photograph, l"tlk.nL under crossed pv'l~m, zoning nC!hl; birefringencecolours nIT! also be seen, p!!.! long erysta I to 111{: righ I 0.1' CCl1 t Fe S IlOw~ t;1 ues .':lIlt! ~"'G:1IDws ~\Jhi~h arc second-ordercolours.

Ill'; ot-hF minerals III therock arc feldspars and ~I li;:w mierophenocrysts of PYI'(loXt:ilC {high relief). (21IJ.

S'pfJdmp.!t jr'()'rn tamprf)phj.rc. P~(ffifl Rtl)-, llt'ffnC, .( -(u'l'I'm:ft/ htand.~_. m~~ll~hmfi(m X .. lZ


Monoctinlc ( 1'~76-1'7'45 (HnO·-wllO

IJi rt:fringcllI::c

The browu l • .uh-:.htlpl;d crystals En these phnl~)~raph::; am of 5~,ilpl;)omda.tlc and the pronounced pleochroism i,~ dli-',lIrly ilh1strat€d~ hy the IJPpCr- ~nd middle pi:J!ytL"IQ;i'f) t')h ~ with Lbe polarizer mt~ued thmugh 90". It [nay he brown, Ill}l in this example, OJ'gree:tl uudso can be confused wuh hDOIiI~~ bill the de:.fvJige.l;l; !1~)!, l1~aIly if::: wdJ de v eloped as in bioti res, This sample showa a da rk er I:vroWII COIOUT thal\ ~i;, expected il! ,l ji't::;ih sample because it I~ partly oxidized.

The iutcrference CUklllT;-; ~I oc gC,m:ral.iy nnn,s;l:ed b}1 I he hrown bscrption colour as ~L'1I1 in iht; lower pbl)[o.gnl.ph. enken under crossed polars, There ~,~ :sli~h'l signs of .anotber de~v:-l,&<: at right-angle» to the leal~lh of the i.T):SLaI~ and whenthts i:;; elear it is •• useful ohs-eI'ValiO!1 to Ji;;~~l1gtLish ~til r IUllne:hU1C:'. hom biotite.

The chemical for.mula giV~tl a bove i~ sinrpljfled fl.dld Doe!'> tlot show the wide variation ill composition which tl-Mfi mluerul nJUY have. pn].

Sf!~i'.fHI~rr ,ti'om ml~l(m'l(lrphlt''ir:d ironstone. L(J,Violll'ilte. CdJ~Iarma,USA, m(~~11f(icarfOll:x 1':,


PyrophV'1 rite




S),InlTJ-t:·1 ry

MOl IL.H.Ji 111(; t. - ) j -586 I; :>8~ Mi5Q



The: I;JP.r'~1 pi·IL.H.Oi:!iPIJ;!t ~l'iI)WD u riel~l (If "ieo; ... ciiflH ell tl rel ~ occ IIJ'~etl h.y j)J' ,~()ph Y llite bu r 1: here a 1"6 11!.') tea tur vi f.<l hle ...... tlLch pcrmite.a·s·yd.inlnc1i"-l1l between PYfop,b)'Jl: and muscovite.

Under crossed pol~rs. . lower photograph, thu :rmm.l· appcuruncc js also similar to [hal Qj" musco ... itu, 'H section 'WhlS chosen bccuuse -it shows rt;:!i1li'.:i;.,L)' lar 0ry~lab ofpyroph¥llite3rIlJ un imerlerence IL~.Iir~ ~ho\/,'! rru .. I;:n~1\:l \)plk 'lx.i;11 lUl~l.e tu corurast L\t the low val seen in muscovlres, Lsually pyrophyllirn occurs iL1811 SimI11 crystal-, that it is ~mpo;l~i.blc [0 obtain un j (er.l"~r.m;J: liguro ("rnm lhern, Ll~5j.



RI ~


MIHh)(!linic ( - ) 1,589 i '594 {I-05

MO::ltof the ~iekl of vsew is occupied hy tHk: in a MgJ1iy d,;ftirmt:'d l'fx,:k, I'l i3 mucb easier to jd.ellfify I,a"k: in hand 5l,'I6t.;imCIl than ill thin ;;;~ti~!'I because it feels slippery, wberexs ill tlun section j[ can tte confused wi'lh 11 white III ~ca. The change in relief of tlillrt:nm~ parts L).f the higl~ I 'i ~Otlt{)fl;li:d bands L1 r !'elk.is well iJ I.usl ra It;J by the 11 peper and middle fih0~ogr~:lpJ1S, taken with the p.Qhui.lcr in onnogunal po!>i tlons,

The lower photograph, taken under crossed polars shews ~'corld-(lord~r interference celoura over almcst the' ",'!'lole ,lid,j ['xcepE fin illlall areas of chlorite wh.i(;h is J1i:ergfo-wIlw]th the tale. The cI,Jm~l~ shows tl first-order ~l'"Cy or whire COIOUl'. [1l7].

=p.r.'{TmmIr(l'm .'''''(u)~~m .~4~.,unitJin. "Ilf:!mh,:'f:_'~' }.fassfj: So.wh Vest Turke}'. rtwt'!!finUil.m )( 2.7,




WOIl(ldi!!i,~ {-I-) Of ( -} 1,;)7 1·67

~} fJO""o.{l.I

i be term cMnrite colter:;. a w lde r,ange oJmlu,era:l 20m po~ i~t i.on s hUl rril~[oii merubera of tb LS grm.Jp ~trC L:'lthct colourless 01" gH;GU in colnar and \l,'h~n Ill, gr.e<in mineral j:l;, obse rvcd inu;rg1"o::JiwTI with a brown biotite 1U;:Ln the pb.otog.ftlpll adj~oI;;Cl.Il ,t'l I::;; likr;:lly to be s;:h!oril~', The upper rJl'O~of,)gT~Ph, .lHktin inNajw-p.oIkH·~~e(J lil!!:h1..~hol)W3 <I biQttte f)neiluug dow 1'1 to ~1 ~'1 ~lo!'i!:e ~y th,x! re ~tdu,li 'b !,()W!1 lhkes of bl()~IFe'al'~' surrounded by paleg,n,:e.n chlonte: h i s 1,J~I,p,ll}' pi eochrni c. C b I nrl [ell as: a ["f!rt£:ct basa l clea va,ge hut it b viiiibk: in: mrly.~ fc.wt!;l'yt;tal~, in thi:s. ",'l!l:W,

L"ndu t:W38oi:dpohL£5 (lower r:HiNUgI<l!ptl} ~tle i"i:t'l om " <!:lIJLn; ir.ll.crferellce CQI(j~!t::; which Me chaeactenstsccf ;':ullLe (;1'IJ] on tt~ ;U'e cle~I .• ,'1 y ~,I~e n, /!dthV,,!!',~l al I cMr)r i lei; do nor 1).'1 v e aiH'IIflll lonsen leurs, (Il!ei r hi rehi [l_gcn~e if. al ~~:lIy~ low. l2J.lJ

Sp.a /nlom .{(~iM micu-dion Ie. G/Cll L(:FI', SC'otJ.cmd. !jf,a~l'I~li(_',atilJrI x 58_



M o noclinic { + J or ( 1·S7-I,{i,(

= 1~·(j(l-O,)1

Only one photograph tupper) Lake]] in pbne-po!arized light [:il dlOwn here because there arc enough ,,'y:;t:,tls ill diIJc[i,)nt Oil'l~~lt<lUfJm to. ""how the pleochroistn from ptlilc yello,,,.i5h to green, The perfect eleavage call be de\lriy seen in many tlf [he' cry:,;hl~s and ()Ult'i-!> arc (Jut n~.rry parallel 10 the b ... isal ·dea ... ,age and. of course, show n()

cleavage. -

In the lowl;[" phot·Og.I"lpf~, I,~cn under e rlilS~t::d polars, the low gl't¥ an(l anomalous ~mJ'wn colours are characterlSliu of some chlori res. There are a15Q s-igil s of t,\, i I-I rung in some crystals.

The mineral wiu~ wb.kh the. cj,IQrll<:- is int'~r~g-roWtl i~ .~tl:l.lljlJ.liil:i,.,(l K_·.L'lch feldAp'<ir formed In 1(~"'~lcfilporli.:~!1l'e ""\Jill:', rnlj,

.\'[Jel'!nw~·1 .fJ't)i"'llldJifr~rla-qw.1I'!':: l'ein, .'il·, G altal'd, ,'{1.1·-i i Z('tIwr.d.- m(l.rniJ'ic..(Hir~i'l x 7:, .







'= Mon~)diIlio:..: t -)1 1- 54-1·56c)'

n· OU4-I}O 1 7



The name serpentine covers three polynrorphs ""'111 cannoi easily fbI;; distinguished o pti.l..:aUy, and ma speclmens contain more than one,p[)lYlliorphi(.l for:

This 1:peclmei1 is probably a mixture of ll:r<1rdilJi; ,II: ohrysotile,

Ill", uppeJ' photograph ili0Y;'S serpentine which~;<:.pi yellowish in colour to~:elher will, an l1Pll1(]UC iron oxic tki~ f.i.~gr~l;;:~L.e is undoubtedly the l'esulL ~f breakdown an Qlivine (if p'Yr'(Hetlc'. although relict crystal :'Ihflpe,,;j not eloa rly defined as .i 1"1 ~I)'rr.it: I,;:;tamplcs.

Tilt: lower photograph, taken un der crossed pola shows lhc i.ow first-order colours ttl:ilrn~'l~ril>~il; of t ~IV~tHin~ minerals and it also show:'> Il mesh lextu wh lch i 8 a cormnon ft<tL ure of this mi neral and is :l;;:;]u oia_gl,f}stic_ l242j,

Spnwmm }rom serpesuinue; Luor«. C-or-;J wfJN. EJiglall' ml~I1..ijJ·U!litm X 2fi.







Orth orhombjc i( +- " 1-6J5 I·M2 0·012-0·035

'1:o8t of'the field i-s occupied by prchnlte i1llh<mgh .01 re·w eryst,als of calcite C<iD be seen in the.top part or the upper photograph, take fl in plane .prl!<1ru~J light. The pale pink and !):11e(;\lH,:o!0l.iJ5 art ~Iray po 1.'1 r:ill',~ tion co lours produced in tile photographic equipment, On!:.! (lJ the characterisuc features .01' this rninera] is ip. tendency 1,0 form .m.diuling gr.Oll.P!'. .of crystals and ~his 'is best seen in the iow·er p'hotograph, l<L..kt'lJ. under c:m:S!;Cti pelars.

Prehnitc -ci1a.r<lctvrb[ieaJJlI shows very J'lrig_hl secondand third-order c,olollr:S'and! since Ihc mineral ill thin secti nil 1:; ~I lmost .. dt ho 1,I!1 colcu I" these inle!f"fcH~nCe colours are usually '.'~I"Y pure. [2:77J.

I, ~.
• '",
, Specimen Irilm m.f1rbJe. unknown locality.: l1toj;nifirutioe x 16,



M icrocliine


Triclinic ( i-srs H,on7


Thetwo photographs SJlOW ;~ perthiuc microcllne G[y~tl~l ClI! ~ljJ'Pmximatel, p'H'U lle I 10 (001) with the trace o[{OlO} parallel 10 lhc long dimension Qf'[iJJl':: photograph.

The upper pho ro graph was.. raken in plano-pole riml. light\!,o"l_h Itt!;! substage d.la.p'hrag~)j closed to accentuate the relief i f'I tli 1 Ie mill parts of tile ~eL;tion.ParalIcJ if) the short edge ~"If the rruJlo.gr::apb ",,:1'1;:. ~maL1 !,:l;inlt)l~ditF;,:tiTI.!\\ ill relief fm.1TI the bost - these are .mic,rope,rtbiliC' albite lamellae. At an an·gl e n r ~I bou I 2Y' to tl~e sam e edee 1)[ the pbrl:LL'lgl'1jpb there .. ;n::" three 01' f(l~jr thick ",'elm o.fpertllitj,; albite wlli.en ~il-::i'l..) diner in relief rrfltll 10-- surrounding material.

The IOI.\'CI !lliotA)graE-lb, taken under c-tos:;;e(1 pelars, sll'(~w~ the cross-hatcbed i,wilH'Iinl;! (ulbits and.per.cline !a">'H) whj~h is "(2I:\~ eharacteristic Dr microclinc, 1he.: perthitlc albrte vci~, Lit 25° to the: s.hllr[ edge of the photograph are rather dark herr? bur show ! winning ;c("{ii·din,g. to [he '.It)~ld;1''''' - the composltlon plaue (010) m:s parallel t() chat of ilht albite twinned IameHflf' in, the rnicrocline.

The twin lamellae- ic1 lilt: rnicrocline are most !':h.;Irpt~ defin W dQ~ 'to the' albite ve ins ;':l,rHJ tJJey are of variable wi;o[[Jt. -j his mineral should 'r:Jot be contused with anorthoclase (q. v.), ll~51,

:-'''rh'<.:il''i:(f[.(j ..fFi~II·1 pt'![fllat ii«, DI(lJ~Qnr):U ine, l'up..!tfial'l'l, Ma"m~, USA, magr~~'l7~'ali,rJi! x 4:1,

Pert,hi1te &. M,icro;perth i,te

(k. Na)A,JSi,30s

Perthite is jhe nume gi.ven W an :io[et,growth of ;.1 p()Jt~~l';i1lm-:ridJ. and a iiodium-I'icll feldspar when the host material I~ the potassunn-rich fek:l.r;r>ar. W'llen the host material i;;'1;1 rl~gi0dase the name annpert hite is used and when the aodrum-rich and f,ml<fssilHxHici1 phases are in eqUf~J urnonurs riLl.? term rnesopert hitc js userl. Pt:r~hite il': u:red, when the m'!O;lj'gl'Owth can be seen in harn] specimen mtd microperthrte when jr i~ \'i~i'blt only under tbe microscope. These '1 brea,; photographs wert' taken under crossed ,[,ohr:::.

The upper r~h~~C1gHll)ll' shows mos):_'OrnLt: ~idd occupied hJ';:I mineral wi!l'I.tl very da dt grt:y interfer~[")cl.:' colour ::lJld .srnall.whitc blebs of'micropertlntic.albitc fairly unilutrnly i1isr::ri bured thrcngho ul., Two elea vages 'H'C·.'] sible almost ill right-angles Ld"OUe- another 511 thai. illis sectioo IS 1;\11 JJ(.'i,\!T"l.r'Pc!;p~jj.Lli!/ular to H1e x axis. Nu twinning j"~ 'visJh!.a:: ~IJ it is likely TIl have monoclinic :':}'lllmNI'y mit! the name IX! hi_K;I<tsc-micr, 'E..erlhi"l-tl is ttpprll priutc. .\ 11":: •. rly \;C11 tred acme bisectrix :111I.~d'~'-rcnoCc figure i~, obtained rrum this secnon .. vith an 0rtl.il, axial angle ilf." "omit 451), a valuo;=; appro p d'lt~ for orthocla se-rnicroperth tte.

The middle photogruplt is !l coarse perlbik Q'UI nearly parallel to vOl OJ The while Hn:;'lb arc sodmm-Jeldspru' <tile! Ih~ dark areas are u[;potas:-;.iiJ ru-leklspa 1'_ Wilhili the dark are.aS are fine IIg.hl"";o]Qmed l:m~dl.~II': of microperthitic albite which li~ on H!! angle of approximately 7S' to the trace ,'Il' the ((I()! ) cleavagewhich i:-, paraljcltn the long t:Jgc of the photograph, Allbough no I_\"i:o.nillj!: can h~ ~~rdl1 ci the i' I he SOd.l!J m-rrcl I or, po tassrurn-rich phases, .r Mhill' lwilllilll.f We're present II" would not I~~ seen in 8, section ClI( r1eall~ parallel [('I (1.)10). 11:1 uddirlou pericliue tWI,lliIIJL!:i wi!1 not h~'w~nin a Saer:lU)TJ!cOlll"xacdY':-H right angtes m lhe twin axis, 1m: J' cf)'f'lallut":raph.i:c aXI:;'. and will r£:' rJ~lfr(':llll to detect in ,l secuon I,;}u:;.c to this orientation. lrorn this i;.t:!clilln alone it ill l1(ji pO!i-.<;ihte hi ~ilY whether the petasslam-rlch phase I:'; orthoclase or microel inc ..

Tlltt lower p'n~)lo~Tr'iph is al~41 c,j" a micl'oper.hiLit :CJd~ft;iiT ~n the S:U])L': ori e n l;i tion <if; 'II re til i ddle pho-tognl rh, JUt 11.Cf~ 11rl'I)'I11~l'ro~rtlll'[l- alblte IS 'ii1)''!,blL;, oriented .11 rbeut 75'"'th 1h~ 'Ira;.:c of'the (Of)! Il'k.ava!J.i::- [1.8.\].

/Tfflf:r VpUil'flfH fmili .!l~'//"m.!t gramJNf.~'. 1+- • .'\" (1/ .1m'ioaJ'uTI'_ Mr~rJ<if1.mci:11·, mugnftlcdtir.'n x ;:! Miildlr' ,o,;pc('f- 11I."'J1I.o:m r,Ulkt}O'n'1l l,kIlJi!),: fnjlfl,nl!inHlnr(x ~7. l.tjfl"~'I' ,!Nylm('1"I.f'rr~i~J pq~nw!ih', Kmlal'ma, Ellwi' Jmtia. rJ!df:!w'fi'dtitm x: .7.5_

Porthite I. Mic.rnparthi1:e·



(K, Na)AiSi10tj


.\1.:ri"loclil1ic -, 1 '522.- 1-52:8- fHJO(!-(V007

Then arne ~:111 kl:irlG is used for monoclinlc al ~n~i rcldB]}arS which occur Jn ... olcanic ru~kg~ they are usually faJjr.ly PQta8si~m1~.ricn. The 'upper pno:LogT1tph taken ill planepo!uized light slJow'S 31 few phenocrysts of sanidinc in a groundmass also 'omp0!;t:J majnl}' [J samdlrltl. The [tlgu!ar arll'AngcInen~ of il1clusil_l11S al bo.'[li ends of UtI; lai'.t;t;:s l crystal uti tlines rhe shape n f the gl'owi rig crj-stal,

S i mple twi 11 t~ i alg. as seea j [M tbe lower photograph taken under cressed p~lali1, is v ery Cc(J:rn,mol1 u1 monocli n lc ~!lkl~Jj feldspars and this serves 1'() distinguish them trom p,lagioclase'> since the latter Y.':iuallY :<:hu'i\.' lamellar twinning as 'W~U as Slt\lp£t; lwilln'lng. The n,·in l~l,W in tfli:. case; is the Cartsbad law which. is the most 'IretluCtltly observed twin 1."1"'" in monoclinic feldspars. [2:-;5].

Spe-~:i/j!F.'~ from p Iron I.'ili It:, $lm ilnge!o. tschi«, !tal.>,;, magm'{iuuiljJl1 x 24_



Il'idil!ilC ( -) ].528, J-53:2 IH107-.0·00e

The name-anorthoclase is used I'm' !"I'j,g:linil; ;,?tliuJIi-.rich ~I lkal i leldspar which occur In volcaruc rocks, 11 Lt:' upper photographtaken in plane-pula f'.i~ed IngtH shows a gr0L1P .~( erysiuls or anorthoclase in afine-gralned gU~IlJ.nl:lr'n<l$;:; III.'::JI.II,'II leklspur und quartz. There' are sliglll l';ii:\i'l:' of €lea v ages because 1 he I;., rgr;::s l crystulis c lit uhn ostat rijgllt:mglt:s. to both (IO'!) and t'll 0) elea ~'~tp;~,

The lower photograph, taken under CnjSst:lj pelars, shows alhile ~lrH.I perieline ~\ v in lamellae forming 11 CiW"Sbatched Of '[:lrl,rn- pauern which tll first ~igllt resembles the texture seen In microcline, J n ~lw_iI"EhQ'l.:]at!r.: however the knnelluc arc seen in ~CW:lt'l';'{!'JI tH~'.ldy perperrdtcular L0 I hi;" x G;y::;:M.lo~rapll.k a,;(:"; as. It) ~h~s L~:r~ and, iII this i' i'i~~l ~ n Iiun, u i]~r,rdy centred acute hisectl'lll i ntertereace lig.me <':,11"1 I)i~ obtained. [2R5]I.

"p~'(:/:m("~ }fOIn pantelter~h:, f'amdl ... rus, rialy.: rnagmJi" !..'arilitl x.3"7_




, iii

01 •




Trichnie (+ ,lilT ( J '532:-l'SS5 O-(Hr;;' IH)l3

Hi re fringt:n ee

1i1l".';1!l p·ll'~togrl:l phs lifo! nf a [hi ~1 :,;r.::d.i-L~ n or a Iubrado nr.oi: 1,:.1.'):'.1::11 cut ~-Jlrnil$l exactly 'II rlghi-unglcs ~o· the x t.:0' s.ta!lf'l~r:iph h: ii, ls, and 3"11 IJ W{!l~. exposures \;,.·ei'e !F(ddl' under t:1'O::ISCU po lars, In Lb~ llprer ph()togmpjl the ((J 1 0) clea .. agubtL·:> been so; parallel ro the· long edge of :Ih~ p.I~()to_l!.raptJ which is perpendicular 10 I he y1l;JI:ab(JJ! J LHCI intI 011' t he po la ri ... ,et', 'lhe (("10 H ,c:'lc'-I."tl.g(: i:; n~'~ pai·" 11,,1 1'1') In;: shorl (~(Lf!C' of the pIWI,I.t! .... 1pb I1tll·~l1oW) Rlight chnngcsin ~lirC!;:,iO-Il ~L the bt)l;UlldUI'!e~ of lilt: albite twin hjLI1t:JI1~e 8l~~fI III the [WIJ [vwer r1hotQ!!raf1h~ .. , h~ middle ,Iud I,~",\·el' phologrO:lt'i·111'i ;<;110W Lbc ~.IJ[J~·fi,·:.mre ·~f the ''iL:.~1 il~i"I aftcr routtion I,) i he extinction P(l~"(10m; of'thc L \.\.u sets of tv.' i U1 lamella C" .. rbe:- ungle ·0 r r~)hl LI (f[J tn eurh C,'I<:i~t~ :y,-<l; from H !:;r;!pi) nfcmnposililiii iE! the rbtgiodtl~1: leldspur s.cTr~'"'l ;~g;.ilIIM extinction Iltgl;c it) a ;,ll'dj~)!"I 1!111 pcrp(;i1.JiI;:LDI~I" hi the _\' axis, lhe C{f!'l] positon o['lhii:i cry,l;]I is about A.hj~;lI.f1".. J31~J.


S: ... mmetry

Triclinic r +) 01' ( 1512 0-5HS ~HJ~IT uo IJ.

These ph o 109.l' 01 p h.s ::oho';\-' :1 number of phenoc rysts ,HI d mierophcnocrysts .91' r~·I~jL..l'\,:hl::;~·· in the fjn~-_~r03jHed ~wLl:rLtlma:ssc of an tI.n:cle::rik (~ few phcnocrvsts of orthopyroxene are also vI:;'il/le) 1 n plune-polarired llfbt ~tlPPkli photograph] 7..Min~ ea n h~ $1;;~i1 by the .arrangcmenl ufinclusions ln the tTQtlP 01' l'eltl!-:J1<1f ~1·Yi>tr.lb in lh&.: ,Ct,!lIln; of lh~: liel •. I. Within I'bis ;lg._Q,J'egaLl: 111(; brown 11 Huer!;:J!IS q'yph),"r}'~lamnc J~mLllldmas:'i iIKru'!l~lf1ii,lcd in l!h;;: grn .. ,ri II g ~I yl1l.<l h,.

Linder crossed polar;;::' (Iowel' photograph) lamellar ,\, ... inniugis visible In most oJ the C'I,y_HnJ:.: i;J1'I(] oscillatory 7,()nircltl i:-; ubvious iI'I the crystals which are near llJ their extinctlon p"l>i~i~Ir')';. The krw gl:C), interference coJ'riur~ .are ~'Iightly :Ulrlr.n;1IlHl'9 ~lklC lO dispersion .. a feature which u;' not uncommorr j~.! s)lugiQda::;(:"!i from .... olcanic

.. .[..\.k~, r:\ I 81.

jjl('dmefJ frmlJ I} l'rti_'H_'ti~ !Huip,w(!, H ,11 nt Hill,l, 11t'llf B~rdtlP'(:'.I'l. Hungarv, nllp.f1i!h't~1i1111 x .?fL




gymm~rry RIw £"

Trigonal ( ~ , 1-544



Quartz is ~hil! most common 01' all minerals and I:;; fl:lJrty ~-<is:ily di1>l.inglli!'<hed! rn;;1ut Ieldsparin 'hi'~ section bec'ill!;i~ it i1! g,enc'.f.dy unaltered "lila bel:; visible 'lwinn~I]E Dr cleavage, (It may contain. fluId. bflcllJs~un:) and ;1" these aee verysmal] 1Hld numerous they may glve 1111t qili:utz .it. d.~sty appearance.)

The upper photograph, taken inplane-polarized If,gllt, shuwij, cle"1f quartz phenocrysts In i:I veksrnic rock ,:lm~ lhe~e. have I.:lllbaYIl1t".r.I.L!i agaa nst ~ he S;FI)undl:rl<1s:;; of 'tillii rock: l!:iis j:;: n,L}t All uncommon feature and HIU1!)ugl\. sumetimcs Interpreted as due to resorption nf thecrystajs it m,a.y be '0 1JIf; to lh6 rapid]): !wwil1,g cry5tal cnclos.inl]!, [h~ grcundtnass material,

- In rhe lower 'p hotograph, ra ken under -noo:soo pelars, :<:(lme -I,;fyst<lb show the w~ite interference colours e haracte ri sric uf crystals cut nearly l,,..ra lid LQ the optie axis, Signs, L)f a yeilvINish interference c(ilm~r ~ an indication rhat the thin 'soction is :;lis;IiUy too thick, l ]'4(} J-

$J_f,f(:rmfll /h.1I'11 auart: /Wr'llfi_Ft_.r. /JJemJuM. Isle I~l A rrC;!'1 .... (.'fll/~id; maguf!i arion '[(11'_



TI'i~mi;11 (-~ [·544



u.i E


Tbcse pllO.log! ;Jph~ ~110w ql_J~l-rlL tIL II tnetamerphic mr:k. [11 Lite upper ph!H()g!·~lJlI., taken ITI [,litl [l~~-poi.<nll('d lfght. DJl!::i~ \)f the field of'vlew uppears Ie) 11'~ occupied by d':irr quunz crys [~l.!;,: 'IN irh a few' sm·:"I . .I i nd usion ~. I'll ~ '1"1"1 i r]~T~1 h ;]1 !h~'orllL~'r~ of the photograph arc biorhe ·8.n.d. sillimanne.

['1) the lower l'lhm'lge'i.rh, rf! k en Im{k~r crossed polurs,

individuul crystals ofquartz can bt": seen hUI, ·, ·ii bin these,

the extinctlon i~ not unlform and thls.shado )· <;:l:1illd'iun

i~ f;'lirl~" cenun .. 1IL 10 deformed rocks, Clll;;~.I· 11lf;1't::..:"H)!~ 01" Llii~ view ·rt;~· .. ·,w~· ,Ih.,.!. ~ll the top right LOII1.:)r and the bottom left co "1 ~e, ,n r the J i t'!1 d ~I[" view ~ there ure ["cgi.I?)]j:; ' .... 'hich d iffcr in []] a l' tile .:r~':'; hi. h. h<ll vt: ~Ii I r.k burJ~·(~. 1HLJ I hi rl \~iILlcJit, pene L I.~~ lcngi L1tl~ th e crystal: ,.It! I'l~ lt~rt - hHfiJ h.(liIMlll cOrnt;"r tbere ure !ii:t;!n.~ nf twin lamellae in one \)f the CI'Y:;;lflls. These tin; cerdicrtte crystals and they have been included itl 1 I'll,; ji~l,J of view to show thai the rchcf and hirdrillgenGe 01 c"ftlir,>,r'ilt: may depending 011 its composuion, I,K~.\'e!r1 sunilar 10 Ih;J1 ol"'II".11"(L but can be dlstmguishcd by <iig_IB l:tf ~tll"'n.lill)I'~ ro pinitc <tl lhecdgcs 1)[ the ~ oro ic ri t~.1'! ra i L1 s, P4-l ~1,

~~f!L:dmt'lI f.r.OJU rorshcrn« ~i~;riHl~H,'W M.I~(Jl.H' J Ilr WI I" no 11r (Jf' hl4J1y, iU";('W.7.~l'''lr, m~lgIUIN:t:J/lmi r 4J

.. J 1' ..





r11i:- C<),il:-i;;;j:' of U n iJ)LCT~roWtJl of pb£,lOci;I~L~ an ! tll!;lr!·{: with :'t v~rlili Uhi r 11!'l; IlW··\.,..hi"h L:. d~~frl.y seen III the kn .... ~I· phOl('''f!_nLpll, 1.;1 ken urulur I..:YV:'':K:d polurs. This ~hf),Lll,1 Iif: !,;onl~K1l1OJ with ~ralwp:hyl'':;''- 1e-:.;1ILTI;: eq .~.'.)' I'D the upper ],'1IIJ .. rlogruph, taken under p~;H1t:-.p(JhlTl;r.~'ll light, till: i!rl~j'gn)w~~ is almost invisible heC;;]I-i~ I ~h' [1IH~j.r.I~'bb'': and the iEI[f!rg_r'lllc';o:JJ ql~<Ql'!L tw .... 'c ulmost the saruc ~'I whereas the. FoNHOI.lnder 1.1I'[b" fidd, cxecpt fQl[ au apaute I.:ry~ldl I!l ti1~ centre, I~ 11cnl~rj~11 by ulkuli fcklspur wnh Iowur RI. The alkall reldspar Il"·~ 1! rnicroperlhitic texture wuh oriented inclusions or lihlgll'd<l';~

S~'.l'Cfll".'1I ,f.i"ow ChQ/'IWi'.~·il", ::5 ~'I/l flm:fI~-.l'I'Sf (~r FUl'i' lJ~r1!I.JhiFl, !Ha(i'offtJ;;"Cm', magllf;tic<lrftllJ ",. 5':.

Granophyric tex,ture

These photographs. sbow all mtergH'iw111 of qllilrL;f unrl ,,!kill, f'ddsr;~.r, Even iJ1 planc-polarrzed iigll[ fu.p~j' piwlng,I..lph) 111l:! irnergrewth L:::: visible because of ,'11(6 difference ill r~fl'illg-e!!c:e ol"Ulr.: !"it;; minerals ~L1d the fact thai the alk,ali fcldspnr is hmwfl. due 10 alteration. wh:.;n':;;1~ [be areas p,t' quartz arc clear, lJ uder -=I-'f~~~·t! pol,1 r:.. (lo\",!;:'''rhl,ll'u,graph)wha'l appear. t \I be tb ... '- outlmes uf lndi\'-'i~il"tl~·r"i:'lab' ure v, isible. Wb,ll'l i:~{ not knnwl1 i;;, W!Y@.[ rn ,del'l;) I I fi(;$;~ sh a lXl~ rcprcscn t ~iL~C(,: each -c-r:',<·:st.;.li' 'L'(1II.:;.i~~~ l~f ,I hO!I~ O::lIu~!l amounts ... if quartz and feldspar ulthough lr I" p1'rfhilh1~ rhnl 11'1.: crystal (HII]im,~ is that of [,dd~pal;_

SPff'I:Jj'WIJ /1-IJIn i!-:'J'iltWphyn", East J IJ R!'{I fldb_ .... -~, W' S~Od)jll:d, n l.l11;1I r/irrlJiOlJ x 32

G r.anophyric tOldu






PI 13

~ )1'I1HW!\')rnbi .. ·.! + ) 1,,:(";"(,1, 14}!:O

(1·01')1 -004

Bi rc fri ng~l1('e

'The upper photograph. taken In plaee-polanzed hghi. I~ l~f;'1l!i]{!.-gl·;lill~.J f0'::1:. in which thvreisan dtiJlg'Hcd.Cil~'I1)' or ~'Ci.J1 w.llldl is H'll~illly.rill';d \;,,'i"lh I rid:.-'milt-_To the righr or [h"" pl1 o t o p.mph 1.11 e 'I. r i{j), rnire shu ...... 's up ttl L,J:icJ ~I ~~I inst the ruountiua medium \"'hen:~ i.ller~ <m~ :':[11,1]1 h~)k:> iTI the

~[jdc: .,

The Ivwt:r rhVlo~~l'aph, lJ.k~.il under r.:ro:lis~~J. polars, shows IbaL the '11'1';!~'llIile il;l!=. 'I'E~'ry luw hi:i'en-ill,g~m;t;:: lhe \,iC(}gc-;,:h~lp~dmllUl.C'd. crystals are charaeterrsuc or tlns mineral, AHh 'llgh (be name Iridymircimplics thrcc-Iold ~rouf~~ ni" twius, I W~'-I wiJ]lll.;d individuals liT!.: prcbably more cummon. I H~~J

SI'~:l·im~ll.iI'!!IH dacite, lhl/"IJiJi..' faicatio, .Ill (JUJ1, maxn~l!' ceH/OIl »: 7J.



Te-lr:aglJn.11 (- ) "4S"



r iJJ

Ili retri ngcn cc

In the 1J.l.[lpel 1)h'm,~g;rhl~h, 1.tl.k~iI i~l plllnt:~p~d;'l'n7.h~ 118:l1l. c risr 0 bal itc is r ntcrprowu wi t11 p~ roxene {brr,wl~}, Jil,1f!,~nC:1~1~(, feldspur (,eol,(mrlc~;:ll and opaque crystals \'!ihicb iJ .. FE: probably mainlyilmenite. The eristobaliteshewa moderate relielaguinsl the pltLg.iochl~ feldspars because of'thc k,,,.qntie); ll!' lhe crissobalitc. II is cburucrerlzcd by what i:o; I .. rll\,\·jj ;,!,:. 'rile; !>1'n,1"llttl;l, i.~ resernhl.mce 10 curv .. .,;.:J 1*:; un Ll roof, Lnder crossed !'hfhtri; {I(iv.'e<r p~lnl(f!:!r;lJ:'h), Ihl,: cristohalitc shows ... ·cry low frey colours wlHdi ;JI'f! chu nil.; I,; r1~ lie The d'iiITi:;n;m orien la l ions shewn bv the ditl~renc.=:-. 111 hil'ei'ri'i!!lnce .rre partly d 1I~ to ',h~ ~ik structure hut mulriple twinning ifi nl:\i(} pt'esenl.. 134Hj..

J;'.',;!tei'r.'W!!fI .li·m1! cotJf""·-2:;rail1<·d {Itl.\·!ili, Ar.'l)Jio t'( li.ilJ«1' ~iIl'ltl"Ii!, ma)mitlf.'o{f,m x. 164.



Symmetry I{ I e

l Iexagonul ( 1'52(1 1·542 1'529 ] ·546

O{M)J (HW5

Tli'i' L:oh}~lrk':>!'.lniMf;·II,~ in the . upper photogruph, takcn.Jn pl.!rle-r'o~.::n'i·i1:.r.:tl ligh[, are rnalnly 11C1JlmHne ~1j1rJ "ill>;;:' nuite. A slight difference In relre-i' 1,;.10 just be detected n'llL It i~ (l~C~\"<lry to look at ! he lower photograph (t::lk~i:1 under erossed polars) to see tle<LI'I'l' Ihril lhc lU\:;i18 with hrigh; interference colours ,,-~on~$~ or cancrinite q, .... _) whitt: lhl" very dark :1l'l'!,H ,11'1;; of nepheline: ~L' 'L"-l~~!~';:qgc~ ht'e' vi:-,i.hlt:;"o ~ha tthcre ls un lik dy l (if !:>G ~U1 Y al kah felds}ltll' in tlli, ~jeid of \'i",~ .... , C~li1('I'jl\iLe r:<i very afton as:;;o('I'~le..l with nepheline purticularly jn pJutl.ll~~ H.i'!..i.:s ',u,l1d thj~ ~\,'L:;j a clue 1:0 the presence of nepheline.

The gF.~I;Jl mineral iii i he:,.\; photographs ~s ;'le.gidll~';.1 ilg i L{~ ;Hl\l lilt" OU;:;:U I' re nee l~ r an ~llka1L pyroxene 111 d i~": ucs thai the rock is rich in ~dl'i1Ii,; hul is not ncc:e~~.!lil~ ncphcline-beanng. l3~bl-

~)'tlFlJJlh- /rml!. Iw!-,h~r;n\' ,\'.n'~I.I"I!, Kha/)'l:::e.l'o. Kula, US.SR:

IlJ'U;{II~.fi(,rH·ifm x .14_


Ileo;;,jglln;-11 ( I '51{, 1,542 I '5':'::'1,J l,j46


E U.l

I'bese, pbL'rL'lgli'aph~ ~lh)W nephellne ph!2I]00r3'~~& in the fin!3-g I'; I i ned g 1'0 11Jl drna ~~c~n t~"ln.j I}g a I ~O small !£T..r,.;:n cr'~'SCfll, of aegirinc-augirc uud u rc~, v crysruls of ::,plJ~n~", It i~ common ro find nephclim; phC110cI1'Yf>L!'> tu:;dhcr with

,al.k.a:lj l'ekhpar phenocrysts 'in the surne ruck urul it is scmcume» ditllcuh kl (Ji;:;l'irl~ui'llllll '1[1 (.;.;t: pi; IILIl!,i'flj)ll:-' P!1 [1,7;>1.), All l'lll'I'~Jrh:;;;:-; filll~nl'(:l'y~I;1; IiI [l.li$ field L1f vic~\, .n'e [11' neplieline ;;J Itbnuflll there are ~~OI11(! smnll sunidlucs in the grouudmass. The crystul ut the top I,d'! ofl he licld 01' view with the indu~i(_lUl of ~~~&ii';nc-;I!l1:.·il~· "h'I\\!~ ;1 l11;."i;~go-l'l ul 0 u lillu.: 17[1 1 i~ ; r1(';01Tl r'l'll': 1'<:.

I'll ~h;: '''lwei' phnh)gl'})ph. tnken under crossed pl'll,ar.<" I'll eire:.. :1.th~f1; d ."h':1 ped rrysju I i ~ fai r I~' dark .1 [1 d i ~ t-li~ !tell!' I ~ pe r pendicular to the r,;.pr.,ic: ,L~ E;-; ~ fl' w srnull sanidinc ,cr}'~lolIl~ .... ,i.!11 be f<';":O,g]li;,:~tl ill the groundrnass b}' the P:r,L'SCt1t'~ o r S] LTIpk I wmui ~:; L ~ 56 j,

-"Ypl"r)nlf'/i ,11'('1111 J!Jrorw'ii~c, ojevted h(,,~·r,. Olcloi;1j'iJ Le~rgm, I '11!_~1t( ta, Iwgnlj'lf{1 r roN >< } 2,



Sani,din,e& Nepheli:ne

The 1iI1'I=K;r photograph, Illke,i~ ill rl{J~'I"':-[iul~II'i<~J ll~lU, ShH~"":<' pilt:l:l'11CTY~lS of nepheline and ~:.\llldin~lt~ N gn)llndn)~l~~ J:0I1:'1[W:<:t\{I frMrn]y or the same two minerals with ~C.l.1:1l';:: 'py.r()~e~H~ "I.iieJ,i r~\'" tTlinU:L~' u:r}'~L~h ofncsoan. Il~!;H II se [h r;i n,,:licf und h i.l'.crl'l I:lg€:I1De' rl ;'1;: V~i'y sirn il;u' i I. .i~ dinlcLJI~ to ~1i~llILgll.hh nrphcliue from ':;';1nidme, Cr:r::~f!l.lj which ;;.til1W <I good \,!lc~.Lv~g:e or ,~jt1tpl~~\yil1nii1g ,)tI; ;il.m'l~t certai nJ}' "'~I n i d i ri~·- basal 3.C'l.,'tio lUii 'Q f rlltp.ilf: li ill: fll~ ht\xa).tD11aI imd rii'i~rrH.l~k sections 'an:: .Lls'uallv near!v ';,:,q ~i aic so thac '1 h e [ ..... \) n :;; nU.w dUllgtL led lTyst~l, i n tl~~ (li:nLn:JJ[ ahe field <I.I.e =>;IH!din~~, whcreus tllC·{tfO);IP of L::.tY,S'[f.ll:;:,u'" the right of tile 11i'!:ld .~i·H I Vo"!flg [,l1If!ly huxagonul ~ll A PL: Mil nepheline.

l) nder Cr~)8~~~~ I r!~.'lu f'.'.l!Qwcr p hot 0 g:r,arf~} :11 C:\!, .(!.I',Y:<;[';JI S :;how ~iJllP le 1.~· i [·L;: llit::~,.; "tit snn id inc!'; tl,.,'rJ1n~d rll the IrlV~JlU luw. lnj he ~1'~~Up ,Y!' ;,:;,y~l,fIH W,l lb.:.: rig[1l (:)1- thedl~ld. one or !]ll' ,,;r}:;:~al~ :-;r.owinJg 11,~~ag{)nfll ~I~;'mi.:: is ;1 lruost bl,v/k a~1Gl ~\.'o nephellne cut i~Jm0~le"11.~lhl p"'3rpe.lt"l:iL~J.br Iii 1hl,; ()]~ii.; '-'1X i::! , ~h,_: other i;s, l:lIt~I.~Ij[I~' obl,itt lie to the () pl·i~';I:;: i S II rld ~I ~'l' W); \'~TY low bln.:rri.ngocrtOi; wil,IHiLghLZOlllllf( ne.11 the ir1:~q{i.i~:::, I:::~-)II 3.561,

.s/wdm(Jn fi:~JI,N IW.~v.rll1 p/.IUI'JVti{~V, JI~'o~f UtiCA, Ct,'~'I~waH_ FnghlW); mar,IJ1/icmi(}11 X 21,



.1. etl';~;gl~fi,11 (Pseudocuhlcl \ f ) 1-508 1,511


The u-pper pnottJ'gr;"'l'i!. taken in plane-polanzedHght, s!'lltW~ celcurless phonQC:I'y"~1 ~ ol' It:llcite. together wit~l ml.C:Hlj:lh.enoci'y~15 of a<!girrne·a.U.I!.i l·l!JIecIii§b~bn'{)wn} and IlO:;,eUfI (1.um;d brown crystals) 11, a Ilnc-gruined gn,)lmd:ma~;; mamly ~,~f" plagioclase hut ~.Mlflif!·ir!g ::::maU lr;uiJjt~' und IIl0f:ei:!11 cryslals, Lcueite ~(m\etiin.t'::s has .radially or concentrically arranged jli]c.lmi(1n~ 01" 1:l1~1:'~' but thi~is nul ,~ppaJfmt here,

lJlller <CHJ,.S1SI.:-U polars (In.""I:[ phol,ograpll) the il,p~. pcarance 01" multiple lwiLmiiig in It~nn: than one onemanon i~ verv -ch';'lr;'l..:L(·l[itltic of leucue: .... e r ..,. small lcucite ~HStll15 in the gl\)luIJm,t;J:J appear i,SOli'()I!ic. i ,c;;Lll:ik is s.(1111~lim!.';" replaced by .JIl II~leri!::lOwtl1 of ulkall j'el.d~piH· and llef1hel'ir~e while retaining [hi:! S;hHP~ of the Ieucire cr~'5lans and r11l:'; Il:i lermed pscudoleuerte. L:l67],

~'Pf(('~'JWlr _ti"om Je''ld/aph.~'j'e R.1(,d~~I'I, ,E1]d, Gcrrllall,l.', '1"~''f.fJijir-m ll)ll l<, ZO.






Cubic J ·495

These Jlhm\~g~·;.!,pl!::uu"C Irorn ~Ji.ffi.:TCn[ rocks and both ,l~" lakcn Lil pbnc-pnl,.!r.l7.f:d 'li;!.lhL onl,,!".

The upper p~ot~gr;lp~1 :o;h\~w:l. !W(c) w::i::":":~[J pbel.Ci!ocIJ~~~ W Illl d a dL ~'lhILm;t black, ri nl:'l d ~H! tui rOil ():>;.iUt; il1l>lll:::iu.n;s:·· l·h!·mlgh ... ~'H rhe cores or tho c.ry:;"tJ\.ls !'11E-re ;.I!"t:: IHHIJC;roll";; orientated il1L:I!I~i('!i:., A. J"nv mlG::r().pl:iI":i1()Cry~i~ ill!t:lIi.'iktIl':'; visible In rile field mlt1 this is ~h(' ~llnh:: rock as used :Ill tlluslraic lcucite {q .v, J; tht"!n~~'1 re also micTOp,l'lcI'lO(;[YSl~ ('It noseun, dark brown with il]dlJ-iljlH~~ similar 1(\ the rims or Ul~ pJ:I~'n(:)cTY::;ls~,g\:cell to hH!W!I' p},m;wJl.C iu 1I [l.D~ ~l'flLi[~d !11 ac-, rnui n l.y or pJa~ i oclase w.i U, :;'WII~ ':;tl lcite; 0,[10:1 to .. stray p~~1::i ri:;':cl'l lon In the microseepe the c~kin~ dll)w~ wcal> .intcn;e-rent"f! C:fJlqHy~ if' Ihili jJll0t,ugr.'l.pb,

The Io ...... cr photogl'll,h ~t,;!!~~,;; !wSo:;:aTi crystals. lull M. ·il)dl.iSol~)'I:"i:;, inlergeown with sarudine ~""hitl~ is 1l:\:t from. inclusions; nit; ~l!b-;:,:lifgt aperture ba$ heel"! 'tlle~!,-d 'hid:; but closiua ~1 .;lil~lw,; nne lu ;Q~ the diflerence in rell~f "bl'lWl\!1!l U~~ nOHk~H ;::in.:l IJ,~ "'~Hli.21~n,.; -I'l,(}t(':dn ha.8·~l mueh '~"w~r RI ;JTId isisotroprc. [J75J

U/"I'jJi'I' \'f!,,-,r.im(!l!! ,hNll .lc--1)r.it[}plJJ'n·, Pdrtr>rr, E~'/d C~i"n1t.III)'; tJ·II'~JWr/:ir.:.{[n(m ~ 27, .l,tJu~!;'t 'VIN:ilI1('1~.i'rom r!{M'~'mJ s'~lIid';/Jlfl', 1,(,/(1( na See, Gel'11J.:1lI)', !1·jljf!.nU~·w.1rtlft .;-:: ,'iJ.



Hex~J,g~)11 ~I r - ~ 1,:':;03

J ,52£



L w

~ i refri 111:>rcUl'C

Jnihc upper phl)l..Ograpb. mken in planc-poiarlzedlight. 11'It: objective ~';IS raised ~ri,gh[Jy to show the Becke I~jill;.:, The minerals which have tbe Becke line within their IiHII rid aries ~HC nephel i ne lIJTd ~dkJd I feld ~P'~,I!' which j n 1:1'1 i:-. roek tm..,'~ almost i d-e 111 i'~d~ relracti .... e indil;~:- - lhe low refractive i ndcx mineral is caucrmi tc,

Under C{O~!)Cu polars (1IIw~'j photcgraph] rh~ cunefinite "ho,wl'l li!l':;!-onlcr CO!QUI"l':, evcept for the 10I.1·¥1;! .;,:r'y~IJtl to the len nf' I hI;; ikld wlm:h i~ ~1 low second-order i,}luhh-red ~'Q1Qu:r. In nepheline.syenites the ::IPllt:~r~m-.;c of 4 colourles« rniuerul with lirst- ur second-order inlerfcrcncc coln~u'!> and a verv low relractive i.lu[e,;.: If, [l~uaH~ it good II1.dlC~<! Ii Vf.I Q!' Lh~ presecce tlh:~mcri;}i reand !!l 'IIml Ibis loCad~ tile ()h~n'el' to look for 1 he presence of nepheline, [381].

Sfi!f.im~~n .from nephdill" ,\·_l:"nrll'. unknown lot w'iry, I1IIJg11i,tira1ioI9 x lJ,


I \
I "t{y'
" \
-~ \*'"
\ "" 82


3{N aA1S130aJ' NaCl- 3(CaAI:!S.E208}CaC~

S}'ntln~ lry

T etr.;lgonitJ ~ 1-540- ['.504· 1<516-1 ·600


t hI'

III L1lI'T.in~en~e


The upper pha1Qgrapl}. taken :Ill pklne.-pni.;H'i .... .eci!igf,,.. ~!!lfW ~ HHlinl1' y.;;l:LPO~:I~('. (~elou:rics.s i LQ~£t I'l.e! """ict! ~I. PJI ~~ 'grf''¢i! l='1i:riO:pyw.>(enot IIrid one t:fystal of biolitC: il!! the '';~Iltrc ·of fhe '!iel(L /it cr:('~1tl ~I. ~hl: JiJW!i;:I- Jr.fl r~i'l ofthe Ji~ld shows ! \0,'0 ',:,.ll s .of d.:;~:wag.~s_ ill fi'ght-Hllgks. w; one ;'!:il~i[!noi;':i' M@·::.i 'I\i' 'h~ 9th.:!' ",~Y;o)l~lb shoW J,H l>\;a~1 Cl'fH1 cle.rvage.

rn the lawn photogra.ph, mk@ll under crossed po'l~r1f_ some QI' the crysrals sno w aeeend- order.celo urs but those l>i1nwir1g Lwu9h;av~1g~~ have I~w irl!.t:rfIo:T~I1t:.Io:-C'olou·r::,; :1ml are ell! iie.;1Ii·ly f!! righHl1I.gk:s lil\ (h~~ "['11 i{: w~r:'l ;'ii:'~~;'" U;I~ ~ IUD} dL:m.",,'ges ~>Iri:l f';w)Jld h~ 11115 npli:t a;;:L",. The DtlmfIL'iS i [1()Jl 1 n the tlc.~.ttf1I,lte: se r i es, I'r()m l be !l1Irria I i te end-m I1:.I1Lt,,:il n .. .,j",'l·"Lcb) to t be nacioni Ll': end -membc r, is obta i n~d from ~jtl1c:r ~ I'{;i"raro;::tl \'C I ndexdetcnrrina lion ~1".~ measurenrent (}j' hi'r;,:'i"I,ci n ~..:no~.1 J ii'l, I

·)1.)f't ttnrn .! I'f/IH 'U~~;f 'oj pMo.:.'I9lJpll r -1\LW!Y(r1/ ita; 'J<,a~' M r;}j1hl'l ; :H CII!u!j.lIc\:r',1r; ir1llFI'1!fi~ ·,11 im1"<: 20

(".11 bic

I, ·479 1 '493.


The upper phn[ogmph. taken 'In plane-polarized Iigh}, t>hiJ"'~'~·;1 Ina!l_g;ubr a.rc-a 01" ,:IHi .. IL:·i~~ hounded by d01l{,l .... led ·(:ry~l.ill::; ~Jrrla!!i(,K:lat:;::. 11l<: re-fl:;:II.:.u v e iud '.\ (")f :.I Il?l iri te i{ \'ea'y low so 1110:1.l. with ni/L~ :='NJIH;t.aJ;~ diuphrugm ~I(j~~l, II Sl.mdf: out lIT I"{:] i;,;1" :1 gai 11:'[ sh e surround ing TIl i II~ I"; ... I~.

[he lower pti<.i!ugnlrh, taken under cws:-t:(,f p,)brs. shows llml lhe ~iilldcit~ is isotropic; :;;vmsrim.e:o; ~makih; shows ~liJf'l gl'ey interference L:·olnl.lf;land complex i wln"ILln_g, and III such eases il t;.;u' he mistaken i'"lT 1t::I.~dle, :111 SOIllI:.': rocks lcucite w,~y he: enti rcl1' r.jpk~c\;:d hy analeit ... ~ bui rarely ure lhe IwLl' minerals seen Q.ogc·llwr. 11 !l1;Jj' he necessary ~() m~;·.LSUI'C the rc.fraG~i ... ~! 111'.i.€x to Ji!;linglairsh amlk-l'l;! rrolrl leucitc, 13891,

,';'Pi'd:il)Jj!n irom (Tt!'ll~nltfl, H(,mlf2~rd Brr:d:r.,f'. A I rnhir~'_. S'I:<1!lw~d, magrliliuuFOil x 61.

C.ortl ndu m



1 ri,f',l -nal , - I .1 7r~D I· 7~I:~ 1-768 ]·77.2




B'i refringence

The LlIP.P~T photograph shows -a number. of L:~)nln·lIlJm erystak e 1"1 t'i!d L Ir.d ~ 11 rc1tl::::~ar. Its I1I.gb relief ~s c I'~arw~ri!rbL;ic and when it ,,11o:W":;: II :;Ii~hl bl'li'i::;h colour, <IS it does here, this I:;; ill'lindiC;J(iol"l tiT lhe presence of sapphire tblue variety ofcnnllUiUlI1}; The <lillIlo:;~ b~ .. ck material IS gla~;t full 0 r inc lmi on s.

In !h:.: lower photograph, ra ken 1111(1t:[ ~r{l,;:s!>Cd polars, rlle-liiEJI(~!"1' colours S(,\'CCl] arc- 'f1in+()fder y~Ho"i, Bt';I.:lUl i:! (}r its extreme haruness corundum crystals may he Ihid.ti than thf:'Hll'J'(jlJ.tldiri~': minerals ~lIT1.d so show s!jglllly htgl';t;:1 'uhLt'r~ It",,1.11 the birefringence I mlk;:'l1I;!;-;. r;..·11J1~Dpk· twinIllr.l,g i .. ,; quite common in corundum but Is lIol presemin -k.~1y (l f these cIY SLl.lS. L "'\I~J.

Spf!dme(l [com 1'110:.11/1,.;;. Rudh' t.1; ·crll'omuil'J Sill. ,ROM i?.t ;tfldr. S,'()(imuf. fll<JgllijU.'(.IJic'll X 52_




Te1m.g,lJl;11 ~ I ) L.'o05-2"6l3 J."S91'-~'9(11

O,2R6 Wl~6


w r"

Tho:;! np['I<lf "md middle photographs !;h.Q\~ ~NLlo:'; ,-",nrly la I'ge ... '!r.ys(~LI ~ ~1 r rut Ill: In .a rna ~,~ ,Ij I" bl 'Il~:nt".1 rl,l gi L loC'I:~ se tcldspur, One ofthe (;r}~Lah tlh\w/f:"rwL,1 guud ,-~II!lJ, v agc" at ,111 ungle of appcoxirmuely 6W, Tb~ oeer guldell-Or{)""'H colour ls fairly charactenstlc or rLIII:11~_ Under crossed polan (miJill~ [Jll~l.nt!!'lL['iilJ lt can he SNI1 that thereare IwirL hnnellne l';-LI',illel. to the traces o] the two clca v ,~g{':e:;, ..... il'i..:;il are P' rd,abl,),"<, 0,11,'"' TIllS crystal hus IX;~~I1 5!:1 'IIt;}I,! I~) the cxtincuon position [Q shew the Iwint~illJ:\' Beca.u..'H~ L.,r the str e ng ubsurru i~nl COlnlll" il ~:': nut possible to ~~timak lh~ hirel'nngenee wlrich is very higb nor W be ::I''''' "I re 0;1"111 e ve I')' high rcfraonvc LIl d !Ot:';:l, The ()I her .:,;ry~! ,II which dCI[:~ not ~bO\~, twinning ,IPPl:-(lIl"i In h~~ I be saine cllhmr II) plane ligM .ClUJ under ,;w~::;\~l4 F.H d'l1":'._

The lower photograph, mk~11 ill plune-polurized l-ip,ht, show:,; rl~'{;dk~ ~lJ rurrle '\'Iklhln hlonte, l he DC(:'LJIT[;Ll.C": of rutile a;'''lc~,!Ie,; ill hi,()'1 ire arul quurtz i,~ Ftlil'J~1 common but wllw the needles are :I,S flnc us those illustrated here there is ~'L~I) I.ilde [hat COlon be done optically to -suiblish Lind '11111:): nre lndced nuilc. llJ.l5!

L'JI'{li'/ {w-d !llidd/~' ,V!N:m'riH fFfm~ r~It('Y'erl uWJY/hrl\'HI', U(N!i{~i1d, Virginia, U: ... :".t, ml~~II(fi!:'i1!imr X 2~L Lower ~1~tXlrt1l'Jf..1h:mJ J.lnknOllm Incalirv. 1'lj{)F!;II~!inltf.(Itf ;< 72_

Pero .... skite


MoI)HQdi Ilk:' (pseudo-cubic) (+ I l·lO 2·38


The Il]'lpt:[ ph<.)"i,l.;'gl.:lliptl, taken iLl pl.;lIW-po-l;I.I"I~d hgbl. (,how~:1 i'e.w dark brown !,;r}'!;:til.1~ I,lr perovski tej Ill'~'rgro 'h i! \'vili:t meliJitt; colourless] :~mj U'OU ore (1lI~ldq. Zmrin,g Ii '!h~ brown ~o]QUI' L~rlhe pero v ;:.;~ir.e 1.:<111 be seen. The relief i;.; very lIigb b III the stn"lng ,i bsorpt ion ':I)! our tend ~ tel Ob'<:CIH-': ihls,

J nihc lower phntugraph , 1 akcn II nder ern .".~ .. d -rrdnr.s, IhL.: p::'J'o,,·:sk.ite: ct)'~ttlls are bire fi' 1 11 gent nrul show complex nudtiple twinning. Ihj:'l cross-hau.hcd i winning is a cn'.lql!.'lcrif;rk of perovskite mJd serves to di::'li.l1!!:uJ~h it Jrom QUlf.lC 1,11 her dark brown minerals .. ltF. occarrencc ~IJong with nler~luicis eummen {SCi,; descrlpucn ~lr rr~c:·lili1e.

p·,29) [4221-

Slh·,:~·m('lJ fhm~ n1eti}iff' r(~(':k .. '':ir'I.1!.l.'! Hilt. C,JimH A'rdl'im, I~efatl,i. ma.fd,IiUi'·(lJ,irJl~ x 4.?.


(Fe. '\lg) .. C\1:_04


1·719 !·:H5



I he -, spinel .:!l:roup l'O\-.{'.i·~ ). ....,id~' r~m,gr:: III"" dll~rni~;'ll ;,Gmp'q;';i lion h ut ~ he comrnu n va T; ... l i~:; :'Lr~ a I!..IJ't) i '11 Oli.;.. wi lh Fe und j\l;!-f!:HI b:.~ j II JI i o i i .• Hle ra Ilg_", of I{ I gi ven d od 'lloll:0H!r I he I~rrk iH'tl:"l ;l.,.~.d:dll'mnlLdnH'Jc!h vurictlcs: The ~UilT~u.:ll;'"ri::'lGI,1 .:.doHrs are dark :f!"e:e:ll .JJ dark. brown und !111.·[ \\.(? Init::i\~phl1l(l.gl·;1ph~. both taken in plane-polarised liuht. ~lio ..... i.Wl.l dliffe,'en1: occurrences.

_. l'he upper photograph sJ1D"VS d irk .gr~\~·Ql spine] w~0tller with oli v inc, The l-pindcry ,tIll!'!" ~IT# ~Ilhh~fh'll ln ~htl"p~ ai"IL1 111l:ir wlll\lr jf,' zoned $0 'tha1. some of Lh;.-; ';1')'fi[;j.l~"5h('I\v brownlsh c-or c is.

In tile- I wcr photogrnpb 'h~ ~p'itt~li~ till . .:· v ~11 darker .olivc-grc c n colour. The lihtlpt:;-. ,~I· the crystals Me U0l..:nl1i11 l:Q hy 'n, e 1,:: II~L';:. I.~ I [I gi Lie I a!i.Q wi t 11 which it is iliL¢["I(.]\'Wil :)ome (~nhe d,H"t E"otgk.t'lS- in this tidd of ... ·:[:::w J..\~1)1>r. .. 1 '~f~!..,,~ C"rL:I\\'tied with j].}~lusj(;ri~ but I.h,,:~c· cun l~~' I'M(lil~ di~[ill::.mi:;.llqd from the spine] bOCG1USC::: of lhl;." high rDI i.~f.r..f thcs pi ncl, r424l

LIPPI"" ,~p~dl ~1.'1I /rrJ1H !Jpirrd-;,) r.~ len','e' l • .'I'rw'i.i IJ. r/'e."J'~'iu.~. lrrl(('; rH/J};ni/ii·,rli1m :>c 43. fAJil"""( 1'lw.cil'rIl'H frmn buchite, I?r~;-/h" (CfN'Ofl,!(lin ."l:m, R""s ~1l ,'-flili. Scatiand: ma.[!.I1[fic.lril'i'i 10.




Tri.g')Jl;.I.II, I ) 1'56U-J'590 1';)~O-I-!'iHf)

lH~12 I) 02:0

rh:f! l.I·[lP~' pbufugrapn, taken in plmle"poJ:.tn;red J,i~11~, ~ll(iW:o-. h!,!!;;:in" (dl;:[lr ~r~a:::) uucrgro .... n with dolomite {dJ~.fkeJ: O! !'e:rj.~). Tln:::-.c- u rt" pnJh"IMy 10'%11 d om crphs ilfr.11 pCTJC'I,l~ t MgO),

II) the view under cl,<)~~d l)(~t,Lr;; (I'JWo!.';r photograplu, the "hT1il:il'c' urcns CO IlS i.., I: c1)i'" f,lg1!.~94~:'; Ilr Ii bres Wll11 'kf.1': birc-n'i 1!~CIi';_;C. A l~w region, which show aIKlllll!llIu~ blue

Cl~l<II.1:',.:; M~ ul ~<"111'(:111in~: [.13d,].

,')'r>('_cm r{'II./nm r hruc, r of! I i'ICI,h!L~, L(~"dbe{!" A "\'_~l'm, Sro; !'1WI, 1I'i{1~1 .. i/;I'iJlirll'· ;< 72_



'l'risonal ( - ~


1-41::6 ]-65:-1

n'17 .. ,



Birefri I.1gcn.~t;

MOJ;l ()f lhe Held of viewis occupied hy ealciu, and -I,hlo: upper ;:!iNJ!T'IiddlE! photo'gnl.:tb~ Illk~1l ~11 plane-polarised ligl1L show the-change in n;Jit"f ~~nH"lLTei!d by I"fll::Hirl,,' the pol<lri:.':..:r IlwCI'lJf(h 9fi<', This 1:0 referred to as "w'illkhng' >In(ll~ HlOf,t easily. ~crl"l h) rll'l;Hinp the pt,hli·i".t!T' 3:. ha:s been ~if"ln,e here, BCl:mJ~ uf rile:: perfect fh~lillrlLd~edra! d..:a';',\g(: moM cryshlr:;':,hl,.lW (II least nne- g"oull cleavage.

UII,~tei' crossed polurs (hn'i.'~r phOWl::1f;!~~h) the inIerlerenee colours qlll he seen to .t..tl,r very hb~b ()L'd~r' thisaeetionmay IJI~ ;;.llghtly less lhan the uonual (loU} rnrn in [1.1i.{.!kn~~rs ~; II~ ill sections ol standard thidl:fieSs. the interference colour prodtlL:o:dlS !-! bi,gh-order white_ T:wi'tl n h~g C;J,IJ]' be loc'elJ i u! ,.q Ie", CTlr'::;t~lll .m'!.!1 'I h i ~ CRt:! be useful in dis-lillr.!!.j~hing calcite trum dolomite (q-~'.), r47() I ,

Spec ... mess from di&p,!ade~j(n',\'It:'ril'" mf.{.dd~, l.rlc}; /)uh:h, S;'cflttw'ul; nWgt! (Ii( (1'/ i1m x 44~





Tri!;u.md ~ 1'50(1 .I·(tP-i






Thi~ ~t~Lj,on contums hul h calcirc and dolomite and, sil\;,.'C the 1,~1" minerals nra ~tHl!~~IJJt tel di!inii~uj~h the lhl'lI section kl~ 1tt:~IJ siuined. M0~1 urLbe~.;[aiFliil~ :1!:~hi]1queS used depen d (J[] the fact 111;'I! ca kilt ES read i I Y soluble i I] d,jlw.L.: Hel \\'hcirc:':H~ dulcrnire 17; uot, 'i>~) that the muierial which i~ slaincd red i1l·1 hcsc pho1.;')'gl'a ph:.- i~ the euleire, lIT the upper and middle pbotographs. I, .• ken ill planepolarized li¥,bl.. It can he,~~:11 that there '.11~~ hmdb.c or ilnlornite Wi.!!1 i I ~ ! he s l,1 tiled l.:'IIJ.:i te. The ch ;].11 &1:: ! II 1"1':]icf oi the dolomite caLI:';t;~1 by I:OlU[lHe 111~ polarizer tllwu~h 911" I;;' cl~;HI}' shown.

J. he!. lower photogs ;.JI}h (lllik.m] lll~de[' crossed Vi,)I)]J'~) i:!how:-; the h ~!!h hi I'cf'rin&e~'I~~ 1I ~5(Hjjt!i?~J \"! I ti d olom ite. The ervstnl -sho vi i 11'k i .cl 1m\.' col DHr L\I lilt! 1'1 llill 'Iell' lhe

'1 i t: ill o r ~'ic:w I 'ii. I"i H:::I ~'rlh.:. r 4<19j . ~

Sp,.',r:iJ~1('11 f i'lim fl~r,~.wrf1!! marbl«, Sri' t .(,lrnh.l; J7i()J:J[(fr~'~1 tlo« x 0:


Ca tIi,·1 g( C(3);.


T"ignIMlc I·:mll


!I,l~ H79

Bir",fril1.~en('c· 1]- ~79

Tlrcsephotogruph ... were mken from .af! unstained scetiun of LILl: same j;0l',k. ~j~:d fttf the previous pi18tograph:. (_j!" JoJumi 1/", iii \ he IJNIoilI' pJwto;!!rapb. (taken under planer~)"ll"i/~d light) LWL1 rhombohedral de.l"Ivagcti cuu be seen at 11(j~ in the! crystal in l.ht upper P;II"I. ~Ir [he field,

In l.h~ lowl:r·phull)~'.r;·lph. I"lkld~-'- nuder crossed pobr-1i_ I,c"illl hIHldl;,!~ are seen to bis,cet the obtuse unglet o;;\W~~tl o It! ~l.:aH'<I.ges; i .e, parallc 1 t ( the shu rl diugurral (l r ! he rl1L!r!'!h shape fmrncd or)' 11K dcaV~':fi,;~" BUi h d"lolrlile:.a;nd entcire may have twin tl[[bl"[lU!.! rH.,.~dtel [fl the- lnll.~ d.agonal and parallel to tbe rlmj'!!hl'l,beriTal c!c:.niagcN themsclv .... ,~. hut only dolrrrnitc JI;n, 1 l'>'il1 la rneilnc In tho posl 1 i oushcwn here, 1:~:-\9 I

S [!I;;f'ii iTf~IJ !f'MH I-:J r8 rat r~ n 11idi /c;, _\'.1'1: LWJk. ~,r.; 1'1 n!t!i:ill~:.at imr ~ :11




A.patit,e Ca~(P04)iOH 1 F. Cl)

I h~"\ <IllU11.d ~ - ) 1-624 1'666

! '619-1'(,67



s OJ

Bl refrm gcncc

lL1 the ~lpp~r rh01Ggru.pi.1,1 aken in p·IHnc.'P0bl.-i~~d I.iglll, need les: b!'it! 91WbU IU.:-X:1,!,."'Cllla I Cl'y:<:l~l ls of upu ti tc stand l"'l.1~ in rellef ng<tic!~l nepheline (clear): (h:.: Opa{ILLe mirtera] ts ihnenjte, )fl[iii:: ~l.r ~ht: ilruernte cry~1111,> hevlngrlms !:lr sphene.

The lower pllotog_r;!I;t1l tukun Lintl~l' CI' ;;.~\~,;I I.TU];UJ. :<;h()w~ thul rhc blrefriugenee ofupatirc is about tile same as tbat ,'jf'll!i: Ilot:plwLil'(I.:_ ",'n{]l Lhi~I:-lkt~!r1 "ll)iiV wirh the high RI Ii; U~dLlI I~,)I' id~!!!~i(icilliml_ TI~e ime J:!,I',jii[ :::hl,lwing ~. 1)"1 I rl·-gn~(m ill Wrfei'l;lllce 'L~I) lour is aegi ri mHHJI~.1 H:, l5!)4]

~'jJ:l-'{'flll~'11 II'DIN "/J'!'.I.l/ LJ-Ni!{J.JI, 'lfll.':' rock LI'l·tI=~'n, /(e,/a 1 ..... ,;, ... ·R; nI'(It!,liifi('(JIi(J1? x .#i,





These ! Wil photographs were hlul1 raken in plunefll.i Il&i i zed l ighL.Tbt upper pi W I L fij i',1 Jl 11 ;,;hciw~ a number of PLJi'I~!e crystals o! lluorite i·lw~rg.n~wn WiLI.~·~1 rare minO;!".f;I~ webl.~~I:;:tc_ A r~·w \.;rJ::;,!,~I:, ,~! 111<l top of the ptl~*)gr.~ph _~h f):W s lgn 1>.0 I" the perl ect ,[ 11 I :- L h:avl'lgc_ HI! ~~ri 'I. 11,1" j h e luwcst relruutive Jilctfl);m ull [he common 111111~1';il:<; and hence shov v :,; c;fml1id~l"tl.l'>lc relief Ui§,~II"I.s1 mosr other mlnei ;1~1i_ In this case the purplt: ~:()!.~)Ill' _gi\-~s :.i useful ~ht~· hi its it..icmi iy

The' lower polloi '111f!,nph shows fluorite a~ ::;.In;I}1 anhedral grains iurergrewn ...... ilb. muscovite lien: agaln du; pule [.1I.lrp1o;l G('tl()u:r which is Lln~"'~III" di:-;lI'.lbut~d, l:-: useful Lur idell; rficannn: il::., isot i"o;lriJ: character and very low refract i 1/C j Ll UCX won kl cun fi 1'111 th c i den lih~a:[ ion [5 i 1 J,

U,rJjwr ,''f!"c'l'illfm ll'r)1n ('n;oJin' di;jHnfl", JW'glw _ W·~'\·! r;rr;I'I!hl"ld,I}MTRntfi('(lIWI~' r- X :11, Loj.re~' .vptYimr:lr ji-(N'"Ii gj'WJilt'_ Rostowrac«. ("lmH~'f.I/i, b'ng/aHa; rmr.gllf/"f"IJiirJII

).; 44.


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