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vu©P'DyeDusrf;

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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 1
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-------------
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 2
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 3
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--------------
0d u m&yd k i f ;
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 6
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Ä Ä Ä
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 7
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 10
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 11
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-------------
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 12
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 13
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 14
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----Ä---

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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 15
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 16
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-----Ä-----
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 17
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 18
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 19
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---------------
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 20
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 23
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 24
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 25
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 26
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 27
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 28
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 29
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 30
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 31
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"mwfrD; 12-yg;
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ADZç raumif;rIADZaMumifhjzpfay:aom ur®Z"mwfrD;vnf;
aumif;? pdwåaZm=topftopf rpJjzpfaom pdwf\t[kef
aMumifh jzpfay:aom pdwåZ"mwfrD;vnf;aumif;? OwkaZm=
Owk [laom "mwfr;D rSaygufzmG ;aom "mwfr;D vnf;aumif;?
tm[m&aZm="mwfqrD aS ygufzmG ;aom "mwfr;D vnf;aumif;?
ur®aZmwkaZm=ur®Z"mwfr;D wkrYd S tqifq h ifh aygufzmG ;aom
OwkZ"mwfr;D vnf;aumif;? pdwaå ZmwkaZm= pdwZå "mwfr;D wkrYd S
tqifhqifh aygufzGm;aom OwkZ"mwfrD;vnf;aumif;?
OwkaZmwkaZm= OwkZ"mwfr;D wkrYd S tqifq h ifh aygufzmG ;aom
OwkZ"mwfr;D vnf;aumif;? tm[m&aZmwkaZm=tm[m&Z
"mwf r D ; wk d Y r S tqif h q if h a yguf z G m ;aom Owk Z "mwf r D ;
vnf;aumif;? ur®aZmZaZm=ur®Z"mwfqDwkdYrS tqifhqifh
ayguf z G m ;aom "mwf r D ; vnf ; aumif ; ? pd w å a ZmZaZm=
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 32
pdwåZ"mwfqDwkdYrS tqifhqifhaygufzGm;aom "mwfrD;vnf;
aumif;? OwkaZmZaZm=OwkZ"mwfqDwkdYrS tqifhqifh
aygufzGm;aom "mwfrD;vnf;aumif;? tm[m&aZmZaZm=
tm[m&Z"mwfqDwkdYrS tqifhqifh aygufzGm;aom "mwfrD;
vnf;aumif;? £wd=þok?Yd 'Gg'o0d"m=wpfq,fEh pS yf g;tjym;
½Su
d ek \
f /
"mwfrD; 26- yg;
- aw 'Gg'o=xkw d pfq,fEh pS yf g;wko
Yd nfyif? oDwOPS0aoe=
oDwwpfq,fEh pS yf g;ç OPSwpfq,fEh pS yf g;wk\ Yd tpGr;f tm;jzif?h
pwk0Dowd="mwfrD;ESpfq,fhav;yg;wkdYonf? a[mEÅd=jzpf
uke\f ? A[d'g¨ =awm awmif ajr a& v ae eu©wf ponfwüYdk
jzpfaom A[d'¨"mwfrD; ESpfrsdK;wkdYESifhwuG? qAÁDo=ESpfq,fh
ajcmufyg;wkdYonf? a[mEÅd=jzpfukef\/ / £ar=þ"mwfrD;
taygif ; wk d Y o nf ? Oa'EÅ m =y#d o aE¨ a eaomtcgrS p í
xMuukeo f nf½adS omf? awZOö=t½Sed [ f al om"mwfr;D ukd vnf;
aumif ; ? MobmoOö = tqif ; ta&mif [ l a om0PÖ " mwf
ukdvnf;aumif;? "lrOö=tckd;[laom av"mwfukdvnf;
aumif;? rkOöEÅm=wzGm;zGm;vTwfukefvsuf? Oa'EÅd=wpfcP
wpfjcm; wkd;yGm;í xMuukef\? wo®m=xdkYaMumifh? t,H
uma,m=þudk,faumifud k ? t*¾ *¾ dedr®dawm="mwfrD;wdkYonf
wnfaxmif zefqif;tyf\? t*¾yd al &mp="mwfr;D wdjYk zifv h nf;
wif;Murf;jynfh\? t*¾dcE¨blawm="mwfrD;wHk;BuD; "mwfrD;
cJBuD; twdjzpf\/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 33
A[d'g¨ p= A[d'"¨ mwfr;D ESprf sKd ;wdo
Yk nfvnf;? tm'duyÜawm=
0d0¥|m,D wnfaxmifO;D rSpí Oa'EÅm=jzpfay:wnfxeG ;f Mu
ukeof nf&adS omf? awaZmbmo"lar=t&Sed t f rsKd ;rsKd ; tqif;
ta&mif[laom 0PÖ"mwftrsdK;rsdK;-tcdk;[laom av"mwf
trsdK;rsdK;wdkYudk? rkÍöEÅm=wzGm;zGm;vTwfukefvsuf? tZÆwem=
,aeYxufwdkif? Oa'EÅd=wpfaeYwpfjcm; wdk;yGg; wnfxGef;Mu
uke\ f ? wo®m=xdaYk Mumif?h oaAÁm=tvH;k pHak om? avmaum=
r[myx0D jrifrh &kd pf Mu0Vm ork'&´ m 'Dy ae v eu©wpf aom
avmuudk? t*¾dedr®dawm="mwfrD;wdkYonf wnfaxmif zef
qif;tyf\? t*¾dyla&mp="mwfrD;wdkYjzifhvnf; wif;Murf;
jynf\ h ? t*¾cd E¨bal wm="mwfr;D wH;k "mwfr;D cJawG twdjzpfí
jzpf\/
oDw"mwfrD;rS oDw&Sdef xGufonf? oDw ½kyfuvmyf yGg;
onf? OPSS"mwfrD;rS OPS&SdefxGufonf? OPS½kyfuvmyf yGg;onf/
awaZm="mwfrD;udk qdkaomtcef;onf? ed|dawm= NyD;NyD/
-----Ä-----
tm[m&0,f tus,fjycsuf
MoZm "mwf q D
- MoZmemr=MoZmrnfonfum;? ½lyu©E¨ó=½kyfpk½kyfcJ\?
om&blawm=tqDtESpt f xGwt f xdyjf zpfaom? odaea[m=
tqDtap;rsdK;wnf;? avmau=avmuü? odaea[m=
tqD[lorQonf? t*¾dem=rD;ESifh? zka|m=awGUonf&Sdaomf?
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 34
Owå&dwGm=qlqlwuf yGufí? O|mwd=x\? t,Hyd=þ
y&rwf " mwf q D o nf v nf ; ? t*¾ d e m=ur® Z "mwf r D ; ES i f h ?
oH,ak wåm=aygif;,SOrf o
d nf&adS omf? oEÅw=ð tqD,Of tquf
qufudk? 0a¹kwd=wdk;yGg;ap\? um,H=wpfudk,fvHk;udk?
xarÇwd=t&SnfcHhcdkifatmif axmufyHhay\/
« wdk;yGg;aom tqDuvmyfpkonf tm[m&uvmyfrnf\/»

"mwfrD;\ rSD&m jzpfaom "mwfqD


- avmau=avmuü? t*¾ó d =rD;\? o&PH=ud;k uG,&f mum;?
odaea[m= tqDrsKd ;wnf;? odae[H=tqDrsKd ;ud?k 0dem=uif;í?
t*¾d = rD;onf? e 0wåwd=rjzpfEdkif/
xif;rD; aumuf½kd;rD; EGm;acs;rD; trIdufrD; NrdKU &Gm awm
awmifukdavmifaomrD; a&eHrD; qDrD; za,mif;rD; i&JrD; NydwåmrD;
wpfukd,fvkH;ü&Sdaom "mwfrD;tvHk;pkHonf xkd0w¬KwdkYü&Sdaom
tqDukdwG,fí pJG&awmuf&onf/ / tqDtm;aumif;vQif rD;tm;
aumif ; onf ? tqD e nf ; yg;vQif rD ; tm;enf ; onf ay:aom
tqDukefí jymrD;aoG;jzpfaomtcg ikyfaomtqDukd rrSDEkdifrS
ao&onf/
- {0H=þavmurD;twl? ,xm0kwmå eH=qkcd jJh y;D aom tjym;&Sd
ukefaom? oaAÁoH=tvkH;pkHukefaom? t*¾DeOö=ESpfq,fhav;
yg;aomtZÑwå"mwfrD; ESpfyg;aomA[d'¨"mwfrD;wkdY\vnf;?
y#do&PH=ukd;uG,f&mum;? odaea[m="mwfqDaywnf;?
odae[H="mwfqu D ?dk 0dem=uif;í? EkyZÜ EÆ =dÅ jzpfvnf; rjzpfEidk f
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 35
ukef? e wd|EÅd=wnfvnf; rwnfEkdifukef/
«rD;pmESifh rD;xGef;&mü xGef;aomrD;\toufonf a&eHqDüwnf\/ /
a&eHqDukefvQif ao\/ / þtwl txufü jyqkdcJhjyD;aom ESpfq,fh
ajcmufyg;aom "mwfrD;rsdK;wkdY\toufonf "mwfqDrsKd;wkdUü wnf\/
/ "mwf q D y G m ;vQif yG m ;uk e f \ ? "mwf q D q k w f v Qif qk w f u k e f \ ?
"mwfqDikyfvQif ikyfukef\? "mwfqDukefvQif ukefukef\/»

"mwfqD 26-yg;
- wo®m=xkdaBumifh? t*¾DeH=ESpfq,fhajcmufyg;aom "mwfrD;
rsdK;wkdY\? y#do&Pm=udk;uG,f&mjzpfayukefaom? MoZmyd=
"mwfqrD sKd ;wko
Yd nfvnf;? qAÁo
D =ESpq
f ,fah jcmufyg;wko
Yd nf?
a[mEÅd= jzpfukef\/
«ESpfq,fhajcmufrsdK; ta&twGufrSm "mwfrD;ESpfq,fhajcmufrsdK;ESifh tpOf
[yfí aphpyfatmif a0zefav/»
- ouavm=tvHk;pkHaom? uma,mp=owå0g ac:&aom
½kyfaumif ½kyfcJpkukdvnf;aumif;? avmaum p=jrifhrdk&f
ork ' ´ & m r[myx0D p aom Moumoavmuuk d v nf ;
aumif;? BoZm[d="mwfqDrsdK;wkdYonf? &u©dawm= apmifhcsKyf
tkyfxdef;\? xrÇdawm=axmufyHh csD;yifh\/ /
MoZmyla&m= "mwfqDwkdYjzifh wif;Murf;jynfh\? MoZmcaE¨m=
"mwfqDwkH; "mwfqDcJawGom jzpf\/
tm[ma&m="mwfqDukdqkdaom tcef;onf? ed|dawm=NyD;NyD/
----Ä---
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 36
4-pwkw¬ rmwdum
r&Prnf x l ; "mwf b D v l ;
"mwfqD "mwfrD;wdkY\ tm;&dS tm;rJYudk qdkrIrSm "mwfMuD;
av;yg; "mwfMunfajcmufyg;wdkYü qdkcJYyHkESifY csifYíodav/
- t,Huma,m=þwpfudk,fvHk; wpfaumifvHk;onf? ,u©
yla&m="mwfMurf; "mwfEtk pkpuk kd wpfcw k efrQ tuserf xm;
tukefpm;aom "mwfbDvl;rsdK; tjynfY&Sd\? £wd=þ
rmwdumyk'üf -
r&P"mwf E S i f Y ruif ; Ek d i f a om w&m;pk
- "mwk,au©m="mwfbv D ;l rnfonfum;? "r®"mwkbwl =H "r®
"mwf jzpfíjzpfaom? r&PH=r&P"mwfaywnf;/
- Zmwm=topftopf rpJjzpfMuukeaf om "mwfMu;D av;rsKd ;ç
"mwfMunfajcmufrsdK;ç "mwfrD;wpfq,fhESpfrsdK;ç "mwfqD
wpfq,fEY pS rf sKd ;wdo
Yk nf? {urwåmyd=wpfcrk Qvnf;? r&aPe=
r&P"mwfESifY? 0dem=uif;í? e 0wåEdÅ=rjzpfukef? oa[0=
r&P"mwfEiS Yf xufMuyfwuGomvQi?f 0wåE=Åd jzpfMuuke\ f ?
wo®m=xdkYaMumifY? uma,m=wpfudk,fvHk; wpfaumifvHk;
onf? r&Pyla&m=r&P[laom "mwfbDvl;jzifYjynfY\/
"mwfbDvl; t&udk jyaom pum;jyD;\/
------------
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 37
5-yOör rmwdum
ted p ö
- t,Huma,m=þud, k o
f nf? tedapöm=t&Sncf chH ikd f wnfwhH
Ekdifaom oabmr&dS? £wd=þrmwdumyk'fü-
tES p f t rm wG , f w m&m r&d S j cif ;
- 0daZÆmbmaom=vQyfa&mifonf? o,Hyd=rdrdonfvnf;?
toma&m=t&SnfcHhcdkif wnfwHhEdkifaom tESpftcJr[kwf?
wó=xd k v Qyf a &mif \ ? tAÇ E Å a & p=twG i f ; üvnf ; ?
oma&m=t&SnfcHhcdkif wnfwHhEdkifaom tESpftrm wG,fwm
&monf? ew¬=d r&S?d wo®m=xdaYk Mumif?Y aom=xdv
k Qyaf &mifonf?
tedapöm=cdkifjrJaom0w¬Kr[kwf? O',meEÅ&ar0=xGuf
ay:jzpfyGm;onf\tjcm;rJhüomvQif? tEÅ&"m,wd=uG,f
aysmufav\/
- {0H= þtwl? ocFg&myd= yx0Dç tmayg tp&Sad om ocFg&
w&m;wdkYonfvnf;? tom&m=t&SnfcHhcdkif wnfwHhEdkifaom
tESpfcJwdkYvnf; r[kwfukef t&SnfcHhcdkif wnfwHhEdkifaom
tESpftrm wG,fwm&mvnf; r&SdMuukefrlí? tedpöm=
tedpöwdkYomwnf;? O',meEÅ&ar0=jzpfay:onf\tjcm;
rJYüomvQif? tEÅ&"m,EÅd= uG,faysmufMuukef\/
ted p ö jyD ; \/
--------------
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 38
6-q| rmwdum
'k u ©
- acarm=ab;r&Sdaom? oda0g=csrf;ajrUom,maom trI
onf? okacg=okcrIrnf\? ,xm0kawåm=qdktyfcJYjyD;aom
tjym;&Sad om? aom tedpb
ö ma0g=xdt k edprö o
I nf? tacarm=
ab;uif;rIr[kw?f toda0g=csr;f ajrUom,maom trIr[kw?f
txacg=pifppfaomfum;? b,H=ab;rIomwnf;? wmayg=
ylyefrIomwnf;? wo®m=xdkYaMumifY? tedpöm=tedpöw&m;
wdkYonfomvQif? e okcg=w&m; csrf;omwdkYr[kwfukef/
r&PbD v l ; \ avmif r D ; vuf e uf
- tyd p=wpfenf;aomfum;? OyÜZw dÆ mG =jzpfay:jy;D í? Oypdwm=
wpfcPwpfjcm; Mu;D yGm;Muukeaf omw&m;wdo Yk nf? ygaue=
&ifYjcif;trIESifY? oa[0=wuGxufMuyfomvQif? Oyp,EÅd=
Mu;D yGm;Muuke\ f ? aom p ygaum=xd&k ifjh cif; trIonfvnf;?
r&Pó=r&PbDvl;\? tm0ka"m=avmifrD;vufeuf
aywnf;/
- ,au©m="mwfbDvl;onf? ZmwH ZmwH=jzpfwdkif; jzpfwdkif;
aom"mwfpkudk? awe=xdkavmifrD;vufeufjzifh? 'ga[wGm=
jr§dKufíNrd§Kufí tuRrf;zkwfí? cg'wd=pm;\? wo®m=xdk
aMumif/h Oypdawm=wpfcPwpfjcm; wpfaeYwpfjcm; Mu;D yGm;
cdkufjzpfaom? uma,m yd=wpfudk,fvHk; wpfaumifvHk;
onfvnf;? ygu o[dawm=avmifrD;vufeuf zkwfjr§Kduf
csuEf iS hf xufMuyfwuG Mu;D yGm;&onf? [kwmG =jzpfí? 'kau©m=
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 39
'kut
© pkomwnf;/
'k u © jyD ; \/
---------------
7-owå r rmwd u m
tewå
- toma&m=t½SnfchHcdkif wnfwhHEkdifaom tESpfom&vnf;
r[k w f - tES p f t rm wG , f w m&mvnf ; r½S d o nf j zpf í ?
tedapöm=xGufouf 0ifouf wpf½SLxGufrQ rysufcYHcdkif
rwnfEdkifaom? 0daZÆmbmaom=vQyfa&mifonf? uó=
tb,fol\? 0oH=wpfem&D wpfy[dk&f wnfapvdkaom
tvdu k ?kd 0wåw=d vdu
k Ef ikd t
f eHY nf;? t0o0awå=tvdv
k u
kd jf cif;
tvsOf;r½Sdaom vQyfa&mifü? aum £óa&m=tpdk;&ol
t½Sif[lí rnfolwpfa,muf½SdaytYHenf;? tedóa&m=
tpd k ; r&ygyJ v suf ? {aom rrmwd = oif ; -igU[m [l í ?
rnrmaem=rSwfxifolonf? Or®awåm=t½l;vHk;vHk; r[kwf
avm/
t½l ; vH k ; vH k ; jzpf j cif ;
]]igY[m}} [k xifrw S rf o I nfyif t½l;rI vH;k vH;k jzpfav&um;
xdkvQyfa&mifudk ig\udk,f[k qdkol rSwfolrSm qdkbG,f&m r½SdjyD/
OyrmjzifY vQyfa&mifudk tpdk;&aomol ydkifEkdifaomol[lí r½Sd?
tpdk;r&yJ rydkif rEdkifygyJESifY ]]igYvQyfa&mif}} ]]igYvQyfa&mif}} [kqdkcJY
,lcJYvQif xdkoludk t½l; qdkMurnf/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 40
tpd;k &ol ydik o
f [
l í
l r½Sv
d Qiv
f nf; xdvk Qyaf &mifonf t½Sif
r½Sd pifppfomwnf;? xdkodkYjzpfrIonf tESpfr½SdonftwGuf ouf
oufomwnf;[k jyonf/
emrf½kyfw&m;wdkY\ tESpfr½SdrIudk jrifvQif þvQyfa&mifESifY
wlrIudk jrifvwåHU/ /tESpf r½SdrIonf aemufü xif½Sm;vmvwåHY/

tewå av;csuf
þum;-
1/ tESpfr½dSaomaMumifY tewåç
2/ tvdkodkY rvdkufaomaMumifY tewåç
3/ tpdk;r&aomaMumifY tewåç
4/ igydkifqdkifaom igYudk,fr[kwf-olykdifqdkifaom
olYudk,fr[kwfaomaMumifY tewå-
[k vmaom tewåteufav;csuf wpfvHk;wnf;usyHk
wnf;/
þudk,ftvHk;½Sd emrfw&m; ½kyfw&m;wdkYü-
1/ jzpfay:rIç
2/ wnfrIç
3/ yGg;rIç
4/ qkwf,kwfrIç
5/ uG,faysmufrIç
þtrI ig;&yfonf yk*¾dKvf\ tvdkESifYqdkifaom trIpk
r[kw?f toD;toD;aom ypön;f taMumif;wdEYk iS o
Yf mqdik af om trIpk
aywnf;/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 41
1/ ylvíS rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd at;apvdak omfvnf; at;emrf at;½kyf
jzpfay:írvm/ / a&wGif;a&uefrS at;jraoma&udk
ay;rSom at;emrf at;½kyfjzpfay:vmonf/ /
jzpf a y:rI /
2/ xdak t;emrf at;½kyw
f u
Ykd kd wpfem&Dywfv;Hk -ESpef m&D ywfv;kH -
taerysuf qufvufcg wnfaeapvdak omfvnf; tvdk
twGuf oufoufESifh rwnf/ / qdkcJhNyD;aom at;jr
aoma& at;jraomavwdkYudk wpfem&DywfvkH; ESpfem&D
ywfvkH; rysufrpD;ayí aerSom taerysuf qufvuf
jzpfyGg;um wnfavonf/
wnfrI/
3/ taoG;tom; tm;cGefAvwdkYudk yGg;apvdkaomfvnf;
tvdt
k wGuf oufoufEiS hf ryGg;/ / tpma&pm "mwfpm
aq;0g; ay;oGif;rSom yGg;avonf/ /
yG g ;rI /
4/ jzpfyGg; wdk;wufíaeaom a&m*g½kyf a&m*gemrfwdkYukd
qkwf,kwfapvkdaomfvnf; tvdktwGuf oufoufESifh
rqkwf r,kwf/ / oyÜg,jzpfaom aq;0g;tpmwdkYudk
ae&musay;oGif;rSom qkwf,kwfavonf/ /
qkwf,kwfrI/
5/ ylemrf yl½kyfwdkYudk aysmufuG,fapvdkaomfvnf; tvdk
twGuf oufoufESifh ruG,fraysmuf? at;jraoma&ç
at;jraomavudkay;rSom aysmufuG,favonf/ /
tvGefcsrf;vSí at;emrf at;½kyfwdkYudk aysmufuG,fap
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 42
vdak omfvnf; tvdt
k wGuf oufoufEiS hf raysmuf- rD;yl
aeyludkay;rSom at;½kyf at;emrf at;ukd,f uG,f
aysmufonf/ /
uG,faysmufrI/
tvGefxif½Sm;aom tcsufpkukd jyvdkufonf/ / tNrJedpö
aMumifMh upkud Mf uaom auR;rI arG;rI jyKjyifrI MuOfa½SmifrI aqmif&uG f
rIwdkYESifh tEkpdwfum tcsufaph tuGufaph jrifatmifMunfhav/
þokdYvQif trIig;yg;wdkY\ yk*¾dKvftvdkESifhum; oufouf
rqdkif? tvGwfu jzpfaom rD; ae a& av aumufyJ opfyif csHK
jrufwdkYESifh om qdkifaMumif;ukd tvif;odjrif&ojzifh rqdkifol
owå0gu ighu, dk f ighu,
kd [
f k tqdtk pJG txifvcGJ suof nf rsujf rif
'd|jzpfownf;/ taMumif;ESifhpyfí tewårnfaMumif;/
tewå N yD ; \/
------Ä------
tukefvkH; a&mBudwfí jyjcif;
vu© P ma&; 3-yg; w&m;qG c suf
,cktcg tukefvkH; a&mBudwfí tedpöç 'ku©ç tewå
vu©Pma&;okH;yg;ukd xif½Sm;atmif jyaytHh/
vu©Pma&; ok;H yg;ukd ½Ivkd jrifvakd omolonf xdvk u©Pm
a&;okH;yg;\ cdk&mrSD&mjzpfaom ½kyf"mwf emrf"mwfwdkYudk wpfudk,f
aumifvkH; tkH;tkH;ql<u tukefxatmif qG&onf/ / wpfudk,f
aumifvkH; tkH;tkH;ql<u tukefxrS jrif&onf/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 43
qG e nf ;
qGenf;rSmvnf; þcE¨mukd,f ESpfykHcJGí qGenf;ç okH;ykH cJGí
qGenf;ç av;ykH cJGí qGenf;ç ig;ykH cJGí qGenf;ç ajcmufykH cJGí
qGenf; ponfjzifh rsm;aom tjym;½Sd\/
- ½kyfwpfpk emrfwpfpk jyKí qGenf;onf ESpfykHcJGí qGenf;
rnf\/
- a0'em okH;yg;jyKí qGenf;onf okH;ykHcGJí qGenf;rnf\/
- tm[m&av;yg;jyKí qGenf;onf av;ykHcJGí qGenf;
rnf\/
- cE¨mig;yg;jyKí qGenf;onf ig;ykHcGJí qGenf;rnf\/
- ajrwpfpkç a&wpfpkç avwpfpkç rD;wpfpkç 0dnmPfwpfpkç
tmumowpfpkjyKí qGenf;onf ajcmufykHcJGí qGenf;
rnf\/
yuúKomwdrif;BuD;onf þajcmufykHcGJESifh uRwfonf/
vu© P ma&;ü tbd " r® m enf ; rvd k j cif ;
tm,weESifhcJGvQif wpfq,fhESpfykH jzpf\? "mwfESifhcGJvQif
wpfq,fh½SpfykHjzpf\? aum|moESifhcJGvQif okH;q,fhESpfykH jzpf\?
tbd"r®menf;ESifh cJGrlum; w&m;o½kyf tvGefrsm;jym;\/ /
þcE¨mukd vu©Pma&;ESifh Budwfe,fvdkaomolrSm tbd"r®menf;
rvdk/ / ynmyg&rDyGg;rsm;zdkY- y#dorÇd'gÓPfyGg;rsm;zdkY t&müom
tbd"r®menf;vdo k nf/
w&m;uk, d f tpdwt
f vD rsm;jym;vGe;f vQif cJrG jI crf;rI 0efBu;D í
c&D;rwGif ½So
d nf/ / tpdwrf sm;vQif rjrifEikd f rxifEikd af omw&m;pk
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 44
trsm;yg½Sdonf/ / rjrifaomw&m;ukd vu©Pma&;wifívnf;
bm0emtppf rjzpf? w&m;uk,
d w
f &m;csuu
f kd twyfjrifí xifro
S m
bm0emtppfjzpfonf/
ok w å e f e nf ; ñ§ y f í cRwf & jcif ;
jrwfpGmbk&m;onfvnf; tbd"r®menf;udk wm0wðomü
wpfcgç pE´u;l awmwGif ½Sio f m&dyw
k &å mukd wpfcgom a[mavonf?
onfjh yif b,fowå0gukrd Q tbd"r®menf;ESiahf [mí cRwo f nf[rk ½S?d
wm0wðomwGif tbd"r®ma[mpOftcgrSmvnf; ewf jA[®mwdkYudk
okwåefenf; ñ§yfí ñ§yfí cRwf&onf/ / Ak'¨gEkówdur®|mef;udk
pD;jzef;vdkaomolonf us,f0ef;eufeJvSí psmefr&/ / pwk"mwk
00w¬mefur®|mef;udk pD;jzef;aomolonf odraf rGUeufev J í
S psmefr&/
þtwlrw S /f
ouf a o om"ursm;
t½Siof m&dywk &å monf w&m;tpdwt f vD us,0f ef;rsm;jym;
íaeaomaMumifh q,fhig;&ufrS &[EÅm jzpfonf/
t½Sifarm*¾vmefrSm w&m;tpdwftvD oifhwifh½kH cJGjcrf;í
½IaomaMumifh ckepf&ufESifh &[EÅmjzpfonf/ / oufao/
"mwfajcmufyg;cGJí yuúKomwdrif; uRwf&mrSm "mwfBuD;
av;yg;ü vu©Pma&;ok;H yg;wifvQif Oyg'g½kypf k Ny;D awmhonf? pdwüf
vu©Pma&;ok;H yg;wifvQif apwodupf k Ny;D awmhonf? tmumo
"mwfrSm xif½Sm;vSí tultnDrQ xnfhavonf/ / þ
ur®|mef;pmrSmrlum; t*FgpkH½kH pkykHvdkufonf/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 45
Oyrmjzif h jyjcif ;
bkHeef; jymom'f aqmufvkyf&mü onfwdkif xkwfavsmuf
,ufr qifhMurf; 'kdif; usm;wdkYESifh owå0grSm trmcH txnfcH
"mwfBuD;av;yg; wlonf? jymom'f trGrf;tjc,f Bud,mpkESifh
tMunf"mwfajcmufrsdK;wlonf? jymom'f AdokumpkESifh "mwfrD;
q,frsKd ;wlonf? tzd;k tc xrif; &dum© ay;aom jymom'ft½SiEf iS hf
"mwf q D q ,f r sd K ;wl o nf ? aumuf y J toD ; tES H E S i f h tMunf
ajcmufyg;wlonf? aumufyif yJyifESifh "mwfBuD;av;yg;wlonf?
v,fajr ,majrESifh "mwfrD;q,frsdK;wlonf? rdk;a&ESifh "mwfqD
q,f r sd K ;wl o nf ? rd k ; a&½S d r S ajr"mwf j rL;onf ? ajr"mwf j rL;rS
tyifjzpfonf? tyifjzpfrS tyGifhtoD; tNrJjzpfxGef;onf?
rD;xGef;&mü qD a&eHESifh "mwfqDq,frsdK;wlonf? rD;pmESifh
"mwfrD; q,frsKd;wlonf? rD;awmufESifh "mwfBuD;av;yg; wlonf?
rD;a&mifESifh "mwfMunf ajcmufrsdK; wlonf?
MumtdkifBuD;ü a&ESifh"mwfqD wlonf? &THUajrESifh "mwfrD;
wlonf? Mum½kBH u;D awGEiS hf r[mbkwBf u;D awG wlonf? MumyGiahf wGEiS hf
tMunf"mwfawG wlonf/
Oyrm av;csuf ü qd k v d k & if ; t"d y Ü g ,f
Oyrmav;csufü qdkvdk&if;um; i&J NydwåmrSwpfyg;aom
umrbkHom;pkwdkYü "mwfqDrSm "mwfrD; wG,f&onf? "mwfrD;rSm
r[mbkkwf wG,f&onf? r[mbkwfrSm "mwfMunf wG,f&onf?
"mwfqDavsmhyg;vQif "mwfrD; "mwfMuD; "mwfMunfwdkYonfvnf;
avsmhyg;ukefawmhonf "mwfqDukefcef;vQif "mwfrD;vnf; ao
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 46
awmhonf? "mwfMuD; tpnf;ta0;vnf; ysufNyefawmhonf?
"mwfMunfpkvnf; uG,fqHk;awmhonf qdkvdkonf/
MumtdkifMuD;ü tdkife,fa&ae us,fí us,fí oGm;vQif
Mumawmvnf; us,í f vdu k o
f nf? tdik ef ,fa&ae usO;f í usO;f í
vmvQif Mumawmvnf; usO;f í vmawmhonf? xdt k wl y#doaE¨rS
pí "mwfr;D "mwfqw D oYkd nf wpfcPwpfjcm; tvH;k tzef oP²mef
MuD;yGm;atmif wnfaxmif csJUzGifYMuukef\/
ur®Z pdwåZwdkYonfrlum; MumtdkifMuD;rSm a&a&muf&m
Mumvdkufí aygufouJYodkY tZÑwå OwkZ tm[m&ZwdkY MuD;yGm;
wdk;wuf&m vdkufíjzpfMuukef\/
OwkZ tm[m&ZwdkY MuHK½Hk qkwf,kwfí vmvQifvnf;
qkwMf uuke\ f /
a&ukefvQif MumaysmufouJYodkY OwkZ"mwfEk tm[m&Z
"mwfEkukefvQif ur®ZtMunfwdkY ukef&ukef\/
vl U ouf w rf ; \ qk w f r I wuf r I
vlwdkY\ toufwrf; qkwfwHk wufwHk jzpfrIonfvnf;
"mwfqD"mwfrD;wdkY\ tcsufomwnf;/ /"mwfqD "mwfrD;wdkY
tm;½Sdtm;rJYodkY vdkufí toufwrf; t½Snf twdk vHk;&yfoP²mef
tMuD; ti,f taoG; tqif; tajymif trGJ jzpf&onf/
jzpfyukH m;-urÇmOD;tcg owå0g trsm;ü 'kp½ö u kd f uif;½Si;f \?
okp½dkufq,fyg; jA[®pdk&fav;yg; opömw&m; xGef;um;\/ /
xdw
k &m;wd\Yk om,mcsr;f jr pd½k rT ;f vSaom t½Sed t
f 0gwdaYk MumifY ae
v eu©wf wm&mwdkYrS jzpfaom "mwfqD "mwfrD; ajr a& rdk; av
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 47
wdkYrSjzpfaom "mwfqD "mwfrD;-opfyif awm awmifwdkYrS jzpfaom
"mwfqD "mwfr;D -vlwYkd tm[m& jyKMuaom aumufrsKd ;pyg;rsKd ; tyif
tudkif;tcuf t½GuftnGefY toD;tyGifYwdkYrSjzpfaom "mwfqD
"mwfrD;wdkYonf tvGefESpfqDMoZm ½SdMuukef\? xdkA[d'¨ "mwfqD
"mwfr;D wdrYk mS wG,&f aom tZÑw"å mwfqD "mwfr;D wdv Yk nf; tvGef
ESpqf MD oZm½SMd uuke\f ? xd"k mwfq"D mwfr;D wdrYk mS wG,&f aom ur®Z½kyf
r[mbkwf "mwfMunfwdkYonf tESpftoacsFwkdif tpOf t"GefY½Snf
wnfuek \ f /
aemuftcg owå0grsm;ü 'kp½ö u kd wf &m; ay:aygufí wa½GU
a½GU wdk;yGm;í vm\? 'kpö½dkufw&m;wdkY\ acsmufcsm; ylavmifaom
t½Sdeft0gwkdYaMumifY qdkcJYjyD;aom A[d'¨"mwfrD;"mwfqD tvHk;pHk
wdkYonf wa½GUa½GU ESpfqDMoZm qkwf,kwf acgif;yg;Muukef\?
xdkA[d'¨"mwfqD "mwfrD;wdkYrSmwG,f&aom tZÑwå"mwfqD"mwfrD;
wdkYvnf; wa½GUa½GU ESpfqDMoZm qkwf,kwf ukefcef;ukef\? xdktcg
xdk"mwfrD;rSm wG,f&aom ur®Z½kyf r[mbkwf "mwfMuD;wdkYonf
tpOftwdik ;f qkw, f wk í
f wpfoed ;f wrf; ud;k aomif;wrf; ponfjzifY
q,fESpfwrf;wdkifatmif qkwfwrf; jzpfvmukef\? wpfzef'kpö½kduf
zufu qkwjf yef\? okp½ku d zf ufu wufjyefaomtcg A[d'¨ tZÑwå
ESpfqDMoZm wdk;wufí touf wa½GUa½GU ½Snfí oGm;jyef\/
bk & m;½S i f a omf r S rwwf E d k i f j cif ;
trsm;owå0gwdt Yk wGuEf iS Yf wpfavmuvH;k odr;f usKH ;vTr;f rd;k
í jzpfvmaom "r®wmtcsuu f kd oAÁnKb&k m;wd\Yk bke;f uHaomfrS
vnf; ckcH wefpY m;jcif;iSm rwwfEidk ?f oAÁnKb&k m;wd\Yk bke;f uHonf
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 48
touftoacsF tusdK;ay;Edkifaom tpGrf;½Sdonfcsnf;? odkYaomf
vnf; xduk aH Mumifjh zpfaom ur®Z½kyf r[mbkwf "mwfMunfwo Ykd nf
bk&m; oEmåef tZÑwå "mwfqD "mwfr;D wdrYk mS wG,&f ukeo
f nf? tZÑwå
"mwfqD "mwfrD;wdkYonfvnf; xdkumv½Sd trd tz tm[m& Owk
ponfYwkdYüygaom A[d'¨ "mwfqD "mwfrD;wdkYrSm wG,f&ukefonf?
wpfodef;wrf; wpf&mwrf; jzpf&onfrSmvnf; xdkA[d'¨ "mwfqD
"mwfrD;wdkY\ twGufESifY jzpf&avonf? xdkYaMumifh jzpf&m touf
wrf;udk rvGefEdkifMuukef/
touf w rf ; ud k rvG e f E k d i f a om uH w &m;
touf toacsF ay;Edkifaom owdå½Sdaom uHonf
q,fESpf wrf;rSm ay;cGifY&í ay;&vQif q,fESpfudk rvGefEkdif/ /
tvGef cdik af om"mwfEpS [
f q
k t
kd yfaom jy'g;&nfukd puúLESiYf xkyí
f
xm;vQif puúL wpfoufom wnfEkdifouJYodkYwnf;/
]]£'d¨yg'fav;yg;udk yGm;íaevQif wpfurÇmwnfEkdif\}}
[laom ygVdawmfrSm toacsF,surÇm[k r[mod0ax&fMuD;qdk\/
xkdukd r[mt|uxmq&mwkdYu y,fMuí xkdumv toufwrf;
ukd urÇmqkdonf[k zGifYMuukef\/
wpf & mwrf ; rS m yif ½k y f a jymif ; atmif jyKvk y f E k d i f j cif ;
wpf&mwrf;rSmyif jzpfaomfvnf; rdrdukd,fukd ½kyfajymif;
EkdifvQif wpfaxmifru ae&yg\/ / ½kyfajymif;enf;um; yuwd
tpmtm[m&wkEYd iS ohf m raerlí ckid cf ahH om ausmufoH jy'g; ponf
ukd xajrmufatmif pD&ifí ajymif;jcif;wnf;/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 49
tenf;i,fqkdOD;tHY- xkdausmuf"mwf oH"mwf jy'g;"mwf
wkdYukd pdrf;pkdaom ]]tmrubm0}}twkdif; rsdKcJYvQif ukd,fwGif;okdY
a&mufaomfvnf; A[d'¨tjzpfukd rpGefY? tZÑwåbm0 rul;/ /
tmru Zmwdukef qkH;atmif usdKcsufí rsdKcJhvQif tZÑwåbm0okdY
ajymif;ul;í cdkifcHhaom½kyfwkdYukd yGg;ap\/ /rsdKzefrsm;í yGg;
zefrsm;vQif wpfu, dk v
f ;Hk 0,f yuwd½yk Ef ,
G u
f ek q
f ;Hk í xk"d mwfaoG;
"mwfom;jzpfav\? xkdokdYjzpfaomtcg wpf&mwrf;rSmyif wpf
axmifru ae&\/
ouúaw0 Z&m, y#dur®H umwkH/
«aewådygVdawmf/»
Z&m,=tkrd if; aqG;jrnfjh cif;[laom Z&mw&m;uk?d y#dur®H
umwkH=raqG;&atmif MuHaqmif jyKjyifjcif;iSm? ouúaw0= jzpf
aumif;onfomwnf;/
&om,eaboZÆH [d ye okpd&Hyd umvH ZD0dwH
y0awå wd a ,0/
«0dok'¨dr*fr[m#Dum/»
&om,e aboZÆH ye=&om,e "mwfaq;rsdK;onfum;?
okp&d yH d umvH=wpf&mwGi;f rSm wpf&m wpfaxmifru umvMumjrifh
onfwkdifatmifvnf;? ZD0dwH=toufukd? y0awåwda,0=t&Snf
cHhckdif wnfwhHapEkdifonfomwnf;/
þonfum; uAVDum& rS0D &J aom umrbko H m;wk\
Yd cE¨m
onf "mwfqD"mwfrD;wkdYrSm wG,fwmí wnfae&aMumif;ukd
txiftvif; xk;d xGi;f í odEidk &f ef twefi,f qkv
d u
dk af om tcsuf
yifwnf;/ /þtcsufukd rsufarSmufxifxif aumif;aumif;
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 50
jrifro
S m ocFg&bm0udk jyvdu
k w
f ikd ;f vif;rnfaMumifh ocFg&"r®wu
Ydk dk
qGvkdufaom tcsufpkyifwnf;/
tm[m&ES i f h pyf í cG g enf ;
]]tedpv
ö u©Pmukd oEÅwd zk;H vTr;f onf oEÅwu
d dk cGgrS tedpö
vu©Pmay:onf}} [laom usrf;*efpum;ü oEÅwdukd cGgrIonf
tm[m&ESiphf yfí cGgrI £&d,myxESiphf yfícGgrI tema&m*gESihf pyfí
cGgrI ponfjzifh rsm;jym;\/
tm[m&ESifh pyfí cGgrIukd qkdaythH/
]oaAÁ owå m tm[m&|d w d u mm]]
]]oaAÁ
(ck'´uygX ygVdawmf)
oaAÁ=tvk;H pku
H ek af om? owåm=owå0gwko
Yd nf? tm[m&-
|dwdum=tm[m&ESifh wJGzufí touf&Snf& wnf&Muukef\?
wpfxyfpmjyKí rsdKtyfaomtpmü "mwfqDxuf0uf
"mwfrD; xuf0ufyg\/
qmavmif r l E S i f h EG r f ; vsrl
qmavmif EGr;f vsí aeaomolü qmavmifru I m; ygpu
"mwfrD;onf tpmtdrfrSm tpmr&dSí txufESvHk;tonf;odkY
rD;ul;vQif ESvHk;tonf;paom &ifwGif;om;wdkYrS "mwfrD;xí
avmifonfudk ]]qmavmif}} ac:onf/
EGr;f vsru
I m; wpfu,kd v
f ;kH &dS ½ky"f mwfw\
Ykd avsmyh g;rIwnf;/
av[kef vdIif;[kefaMumifh a&rSNzpfaom vlyrmP&dSaom a&jr§Kyfpk
MuD;onf a&rSvGwfí ukef;ay:odkY a&mufav&m a&ESifhuGmí
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 51
tmaygtap; aNcmufoNzifh twGif;wpfcGifvHk; tNyifwpfcGifvHk;&dS
a&yGufwdkYonf NzKwfNzKwf NzKwfNzKwf ausysufMuukef\? twGif;
wpfcGifvHk; a&yGufi,fwdkY ausysufyHkudk tukefNrifatmifMunfh/ /
xdt
k cgtwGi;f om;a&yGuw f Ykd ausysuuf ek o
f nft
h wGuf a&jrK§ ycf MJ u;D
twGi;f om; tm;vH;k usí
J [mí ukeo f Nzifh wa&GUa&GU MuKH UíoGm;\/
usef&dSaom a&Nr§Kyfom;wdkYvnf; avsmhavsmhyg;yg; tm;EGJU tifEGJU
NzpfMuukef\/ /NrifatmifMunfh/
rD ; td r f y sH Oyrm
rD;tdrfysH rdIif;cH&mü a&eHwdkifMuD;udk rD;nd§í twGif;odkY
oGi;f vdu k v f Qif rD;awmufzsm;rSxu G af om tcd;k wdo Yk nf rD;tdrw f iG ;f
wpfciG v f ;kH tNynfh wd;k yGm;um aeuke\ f ? þud,k w f pfaumifv;kH onf
rD;tdrf&SnfMuD;ESifh wl\? wpfxyfpm;rsdKvdkufaom tpmpkonf
rD;tdrfwGif; oGif;vdkufaom a&eHwdkif rD;awmufMuD;ESifh wl\?
tpmopfwiG yf gaom "mwfqD "mwfr;D wdrYk S xí wpfu, kd v
f ;kH tjynfh
wdk;yGg;aom r[mbkwf½kyfopf uvmyfopfwdkYonf rD;tdrfwGif;ü
rdIif;cdk; wdk;yGg;jynfhvQrf;onfESifh wl\/
þOyrmNzifh tpmtdrfü xrif;tpm a&mufaomtcg
wpfudk,fvHk;ü twGif;wpfcGifvHk; tyfoGm;&mrQ rvyf&atmif
bkwfopf ½kyfopf uvmyfopfwdkY wdk;wuf jzpfyGm;yHkudk twyfNrif
atmifjyonf/ / jrifatmifMunfh/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 52
rS e f w H k ; zef w H k ; Oyrm
vlaumifyrmP&dSaom rSefwHk; zefwHk;MuD;0,f tv,f
twGi;f ü rD;wdik o
f iG ;f í xGe;f xm;vQif rD;awmufonfEiS hf wpfjyKd ief uf
rSefwHk;zefwHk; wpfckvHk; rD;a&mif tjynfhtEHSUjzpfay:\? xGef;xm;
aomrD; wa&GUa&GU aoíaoí rdSefírdSefí oGm;vQif xdkrD;a&mif
wdkYvnf; qkwf,kwf enf;yg;í oGm;ukef\? rD;awmufaovQif
rD;a&mifwdkYvnf; tukefaysmufukef\/
þOyrmjzifh xdk½kyfopf uvmyfopfwdkYonf tpmtdrfrS
tm[m&qlvQif qlqlwuf wdk;yGg;ukef\? tm[m&usvQif usMu
ukef\? tm[m&ukefvQif ukefMuukef\[kjyonf/ / jrifatmif
Munf/h
oEÅwd cGgyHkudk qdktHh? ,ckaeY npm pm;jyD;aemuf tpm
a&pmtjyD; jzwfvdkuftHh? þudk,fonf tb,fodkYjzpfoGm;rnf
enf;[k ÓPfESifh Munfh/ / ,ck pm;aom tpm rusrDtwGif;
,if;tpmwGiyf gaom "mwfqD "mwfr;D wd\ Yk t[keaf Mumifh wpfu, kd f
vHk;&dS "mwfqD"mwfrD;wdkYonf vQrf;vQrf;awmufrQ tukefxí
wpfudk,fvHk;0,f txnfcH trmcHjzpfaom "mwfMuD;av;yg;wdkYudk
tjynfhtEHSUyGg;apukef\? "mwfMuD;av;yg; topftopf jzpfay:
wdk;yGg;vQif MumtdkifMuD; OyrmuJhodkY "mwfMunfajcmufyg;wdkYvnf;
vif;vif;wuf wdk;yGm;ukef\/
aEGtcg ajcmufaoGY usaJ csmifíaeaom awmMu;D rSm rd;k Mu;D
onf;pGm&Gmí ,cktopfjzpfay:aygufygG ;aom tnGet Yf &Guwf jYkd zifY
xlxyfydwfqdkY ndkYndkY rIdif;rIdif;jzpfouJYodkYwnf;/ /rD;tdrfysH
OyrmESifYvnf; wlatmifMunfY/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 53
rsuv f ;kH ESpcf o k nf xdak wmtkyüf csKH yw k if ,f ESpcf Ek iS Yf wl\/
xdck sKH i,f ESpcf o
k nf t&Guaf <uí us&J &JaepOf rd;k Mu;D &Gmí twGi;f
tjyif t&Gut f nGeYf jynfo Y jzifY wpfcsKH v;kH pGí J &Tr;f í ydwí f yde;f í
pdrf;pdrf;ndKUndKU rdkYrdkYrdIif;rdIif; jzpfjyef\? csHKjzpfyHkudk jrifatmifMunfY/
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 55
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 56
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 57
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 58
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 59
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 63
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 64
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 70
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ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 72
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vHkpGmtkyfíxm;rl vifyef;½Sd a&wdkYonf rD;½Sd&m yef;uefwGif;odkY
pkí vmukefouJYodkY ajcz0g; ajczrdk; ajcovHk;paom atmuf
wpfcGif½dS "mwfqDwdkYvnf; ygpu"mwfrD;½Sd&m 0rf;üpkvmí t&nf
jzpfum avsmusukef\? "mwfqDwdkY vdkufygavvQif ajcz0g;½Sd
toufcJ tm;cJç ajczrdk;½Sd toufcJ tm;cJç ajcovHk;½Sd toufcJ
tm;cJç 'l;qpf½Sd toufcJ tm;cJç aygif½Sd toufcJ tm;cJwdkYvnf;
jrnfhjrnfhaMurG uG,fqHk;Muukef\? t½kd;ta&rQ usef½Sdonfum;
trsm; rsufjrifwnf;/
wpfu, kd vf ;kH ü "mwfqt D userf sm;ao;vQif aq;0g; "mwfpm
ESifY axmufr jyKjyifí "mwfqD "mwfMuD; "mwfMunf toufcJ
tm;cJwu Ykd kd t,Ofqufvuf arG;jrL ysKd ;axmifí &ao;\? "mwfqD
tusefenf;vSvQif axmufr jyKjyifí r&jyD/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 74
nDnw G íf aepOftcg wpfu, kd v
f ;kH tjynf½h adS om xd"k mwfqD
xdk"mwfrD; xdk"mwfMuD; xdk"mwfMunf xdktouf xdktm;wdkYudkyif
ig[k,lí pdwfrmefwvlvlaeonf? x<uaomif;usef;atmif
ES;dk aqmfyifaY jrm§ ufaom tyOwk tytm[m&ESiYf awGMY uaomtcg
xdk igwdkYonfyif ]umvemig } awG jzpfí ukef\/
vlavmuf½Sdaom rD;jcpfaq;cJMuD;ü tyu twdkuftcdkuf
r½Sd&atmif apmifYa½SmufEdkifygvQif rD;"mwfpkonf xdkaq;cJMuD;udk
apmifaY ½Smufíaeay\? wpGe;f wpü aumfzwfEiS Yf wdu k cf ukd rf ad om
tcg aq;cJ½Sd "mwfrD;wdkYonfyif xdkaq;cJMuD;udk avmifíypf\/
aq;cJMuD;ESifY þudk,f wl\? aq;cJMuD;ESifY tjynfh½Sdaom
"mwfr;D pkEiS Yf þud, k Ef iS Yf tjynf½h dS "mwfr;D pk wl\? "mwfr;D tkycf sKyí f
aeaom aq;cJMu;D tom;pkEiS Yf "mwfr;D tkycf sKyí f aeaom þud, k f
tvHk; igpkwl\? xdk"mwfrD;onfyifvQif aq;om;pkudk tukef
avmifí ypfonfEiS Yf wpfu, kd vf ;kH ½Sd tZÑw"å mwfr;D pkonfyif vQif
wpfudk,fvHk;½Sd "mwfqDpk "mwfMuD;pk "mwfMunfpk toufcJpk
tm;cJpkudk avmifí ypfaomtrI wl\/
wPSmç rmeç 'd|d[laom rdpäm"mwfMuD;oHk;yg;onf xdk
aq;cJrmS ½So d nfjzpft?hH xd"k mwfr;D pkuykd if ig [k ,lí wvlval ernf?
awmcsHKwdkYrSm ½Sdonf jzpftHh? xdkawmcsHKwdkYonf igwvlvl aeMu
ukerf nf? xdu k mva&m*gjzpfvsuf rao? use½f o dS rl mS rlum; aq;0g;
tpmESifY wpfudk,fvHk;udk topfpdkufysdK;wnfaxmifí ,l&onf/
tonf;ü "mwfopf toufopf tm;opf jznfo h iG ;f pdu k yf sKd ;
&onf? ESvHk;cJrSmvnf; jznfhoGif;pdkufysdK;&onf/ /
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 75
þtwl tqkwfcJç tn§dKUcJç tlrcJç tlodrfcJç rsufvHk;cJç
OD;aPSmufcJwdkYüvnf; umvemwdkufa>c&m tydkif;ydkif;jywfí
ygavukefaom "mwfqDcJ "mwfrD;cJ "mwfMuD;cJ "mwfMunfcJ
toufcJ tm;cJwdkYtwGuf avsmYyg;aomae&mwdkYudk tpm;jynfh
rDatmif "mwfqDopf "mwfrD;opf "mwfMuD;opf "mwfMunfopf
toufopf tm;opf jznfhoGif; pdkufysdK; wnfaxmifí ,l&onf/
þumva&m*grI ü vnf ; rD ; q,f Y w pf y g; avmif y H k u d k qd k a v/
orydkif;ESifY 0dorydkif; trQifjywfatmif jzwfav/

ausmuf e m a&m*grsd K ;
i½kwfoD;tp½Sdaom 'g["mwfrD; tpmrsdK;wdkYudk bdk;ab;
pOfvm pm;aomufrIrSjzpfaom 'g["mwfrD;onf y#doaE¨u
yiftpOfvdkufygí taMumif;tcGifYudk&aomtcg ausmufem
trsdK;rsdK; jzpfay:\/
xdk"mwfrD;onf taMumif;tcGifYudk&aomtcg x<uí
wpfudk,fvHk;½dS aoG; onf;ajc av ovdyfwdkYonf xdk'g["mwfrD;
bufyg jzpfMuukef\/
tonf;cJ jzpfíaeaom 'g["mwfrD;ESifYwuGaom aoG;ç
onf;ajcç avç ovdyfwdkYonf ausmufema&m*gjzpfí tonf;rS
xMuuke\ f /
ESvHk;om;rS aygufzGm;aom ausmufemç tqkwfom;rS
aygufzmG ;aom ausmufemç tn§Kd Uom;rS aygufzmG ;aom ausmufemç
tlodrf tlrwdkYrS aygufzGm;aom ausmufemç aemufausmom;wdkYrSç
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 76
a½Shzuf &ifom; 0rf;om;wdkYrSç vuf0J vuf,m eH½S yfom;wdkYrSç
vnfyif;om; a&rsdKom;wdkYrSç rsufESmom;wdkYrSç rsufvHk;om;
OD;aPSmufom;wdkYrS aygufzGm;aom ausmufem-- ponfjzifh twGif;
tjyif wpfudk,fvHk;onf ausmufemcJMuD;twdom jzpfownf;?
wpfu, kd v
f ;Hk ½Sd toufcJ tm;cJwo
Ykd nf aoG;yky&f nf jynfyyk &f nfjzpfí
ausysuf,kdxGufMuukef\/
þausmufem a&m*grIüvnf; rD;wpfq,fhwpfyg; a0zefav/ /
orydkif;ESifh 0dorydkif; jzwfí Munfhav/
tvG e f us,f 0 ef ; vS j cif ;
trmBuD; trmi,fponfjzifh rmrItqifhqifhç tEkBuD;
tEki,fponfjzifh El;nHhrItqifhqifhwdkYudk y&rwfESpf ajrtppf[k
tjrif½IíMunfhav/
wG,frIuyfrI zGJUap;rI,kdpD;rIwdkYudk a&tppf[k jrifatmif
½Iav/
tylBu;D tqifq h ifçh tyli,ftqifq h ifçh tat;Bu;D tqifh
qifhç tat;i,ftqifhqifhwdkYudk rD;tppf[k jrifatmif½Iav/
awmifhrIwif;rI wGef;rIa0SYrI a&GU½Sm;rIudk y&rwfESpf av
tppf[k tjrif ½Iav/
txnfynwf j'AfoP²mef ckcHydwfoef; trQifwef;í
raeMu apESifh/
xdkrSwpfyg; avmuü ½SdorQaom a&m*grsdK; temrsdK;
ab;rsKd ; &efrsKd ; 'PfrsKd ; Oy'frsKd ;wdt
Yk wGuEf iS hf azmufjyefcsuçf cyford ;f
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 77
aomjyKjyifrIwdkYudk jzwfí azmufjyefcsuf-tvkH;pkHwdkYudk ukefpif
ESHUpyfatmifqdkvQif tvGefus,f0ef;rnf/
qdck NhJ y;D aomenf;twdik ;f usus ee xifjrifEikd Mf uvQiv f nf;
awGUu& jrifu& <uif;orQaom trIwdkYESifh pyfívnf; Munfh
wwfjrifwwfMuawmhrnfom jzpf\? xdkYaMumifh <uif;aomtcsuf
wdkYudk rqdkNyD/
tpOfxm0& a&jynfhaom MumtkdifBuD;ü MumawmBuD;\
tedpöbm0ukd jrifvdkvQif a&udk taiGUtoufrQ rusef&atmif
ÓPfESifhcGmíMunfh? a&oufukefvQif xdkMumyifwdkY\ wpfcP
wpfjcm; EGrf;e,f ajcmufcef;í oGm;aom tedpöZmwdonf ÓPfü
xifvwåUH /
EGrf;e,f ajcmufcef;rIonf MumyifwdkYrSm om,mrI r[kwf?
rom,mrI ab;Oy'frjI zpfí xdMk umyifw\ Ykd 'kuZ© mwdonf ÓPfü
xifvwåHU/ / a&wdkY MumwdkY\ xdktedpöZmwdrI 'ku©ZmwdrIonf
MumyifwdkYudk om,m½Tifvef;atmif aqmifoGm;rnfhtrIpk r[kwf?
romr,m EGeH m ñd;I EGr;f ajcmufcef; uG,q f ;Hk atmif twif;aqmif
aom trIpkomwnf;/
xdkZmwdrIrsm;onf a&Owk ajrOwk apmifha½Smuf zkH;zdí
aecdkufom tvdkufoifhzkH;uG,fí aeMuonf/ / a&Owk ajrOwk
ESifhuGmcJhvQif csufjcif; xGufay: xif½Sm;í vm\/
MumyifBuD;ESifh xdkab;ç xdkab;ESifh Mumyif-tpOfruGm
tNrJygaMumif; xif½Sm;pGm jrifvwåHU/ / xdkMumyif\ toufonf
a&OwkrmS wG,o f nf[k jrifvwåUH / / a&Owkuek cf ef;vQif Mumyif\
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 78
touf ukefqkH;csufudkvnf; jrifvwåHU/
<uif;aom opfyif awm awmif csKH EG,f jrufawmpkuu dk m;
rd;k a& rd;k aygufukd tNy;D jzwfíMunf/h / ,ckEpS rf pS í rd;k a& rd;k ayguf
tNyD;jywfcJhaomf[k cGgav/
-------Ä------
tewåteufudk okwfoif½Sif;vif;í
0dedpä, jyKjcif;
twå y k ' f \ teuf t"d y Ü g ,f
tewåyk'fü twåo'´g twGif;a[m/ / ]]tZÑwå tZÑwåm "r®mç
A[d'¨g "r®m/ tZÑwådum "r®mç Am[d&m "r®m}}wdkYü A[d'¨o'´gç
Am[d&o'´gwdEYk iS hf jyefzufjyKí vmonfuv ocFga&
kd nf;aumif;- ]]ocF
y&awm yó? 'ku©awm aem p twåawm wm}}[k y&o'´gESifh
jyefzufjyKí vmonfudkvnf;aumif; axmuf/
«twåm=tvGefqkH;aom twGif;/ / teufrSef»
ig\ ½k y f ? ig\emrf ? ig\pu© K ? ig\aomw-paom
odrf;ydkufrIum; twå\ oEÅutaerQ odrf;ydkufcsufwnf;/
þ½kyfonfyif ig\twåwnf;ç þemrfonfyif ig\
twåwnf;ç þpu©Konfyif þaomwonfyif ig\twåwnf;[k
odr;f ydu
k rf u
I m;-oEÅuwGirf uyJ oEÅuxuf twGi;f jyKí odr;f ydu
k f
csuw f nf;/
tvGefqkH;tm;jzifh ig\twå[k twGif;jyKaom tZÑwå
w&m;pkwGifvnf; pu©Kç aomwç Cmeç Zd0Sgç um,ç raem[laom
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 79
"mwfMunf ajcmufrsdK;wdkYudk ig\ukd,f[k odrf;ydkufpJGvrf;rIonf
tvGefqkH;pkwGif tvGefqkH;xuf tvGefqkH;jzpfjyef\/
xdkYaMumifh xdk"mwfMunf ajcmufrsdK ;wdkYudk tZÑwå qdk&
jyefonf/
tewå y k ' f \ teuf t"d y Ü g ,f
tewåyk'füum;-
e twåm tewåm
twåm=tvGefqkH;aom twGif;onf? e=r[kwf? tewåm=
tvGefqkH;aom twGif;r[kwf/
twGif;\ jyefzuf jyifzufoufouf qdkvdkonf/
vlEiS hf reD; awmBu;D ü½Sad om opf&u
G rf u
Id f jrufru
Id rf sm;onf
rdrEd iS hf tpyftEG,f tenf;i,f r½S[ d í
l vnf;aumif;-qdik o f l ydik o
f l
t½Sif[lí jrLrQr½Sd[lívnf;aumif;-tjrifpifMu,fvS\/ /
þtwl vlUcE¨m jA[®mhcE¨mpkonfvnf; qdkifol ydkifol t½Sif[lí
jrLrQ r½Sd? ighudk,f olUudk,f[k qdkrI jrifrI rSwfxifpJGvrf;rIonf rdpäm
oufoufomwnf; [k tjrifpifMu,fap&rnf qdkvdkonf/
«tewåm= ig\ ukd,f[k pJGqdkorI twGif;jyKxdkufaom w&m;pkr[kwf/ /
teufrSef/»
,owf a om ]]uk d , f } }
]]ig\ udk,f}} [l&mü ],owf}í a&;onfrSm t½kd;tpOf
jzpfí a&;vdkufonf/ / pifppfrlum; ½kyftpk emrftpkjzpfaom
þcE¨monf um,tppftrSejf zpf\/ / um,o½kyf {uef [kw\ f /
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 80
/ um, r[kwf[k ,lcJhvQif rdpäm/ / um, [kwfvQifvnf;
um,o'´g\ emrfrowfjzpfaom ,owfESifhudk,fvnf; {uef
tppftrSef [kwfawmhonf/ / ,owfESifh udk,fudk &nfí
udk,fr[kwf[k ,lcJhvQifrdpäm/ / ,owfESifh udk,frlum; taygif;
tpk [laom teufudk&onf/ / cE¨o'´gESifh rjcm;vS/
,-rowf a om ]]ud k } }
],}rowfaom ]]udk}} o'´gonfomvQif twGif;[laom
teufudkjyaom twåo'´g\ teufaywnf;/
xdt k csuu f kd o'´gusr;f *efwiG f ur®um&ut&mü ]]ud}k } [k
tok;H jyKonf/
udwfur®om"et&mü ]]tyf}} [k tokH;jyKonf/
twåaemyk'f y&óyk'f [l&mü twå[k ac:onf/
twå a em ur® H [d w G m e y&H uwå m &rm'd a o
]]twå o}}[k
vmaom oH y sif * gxmü ]]y&H uwåm&H}}udk ½Ií ]]twåaem
ur®H}}üvnf; ]]twåmeH ur®H}}[k teuf,l/
twåaem=rdrd[kqdktyfaom? ur®H=uHudk? [dwGme=pGefYí?
y&H = rd r d [ k q d k & aom uH r S w pf y g;aom? uwå m &H = uwå m ;ud k ?
tm'dao=nGefjy\/ / teuf /
uwåm;onfum;- Bu, d mukd jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh Bu, d m
ESihf Zeuç Zn jcm;em;vS\/ / uHonfvnf; uwåm;onf jzpfap
tyfaom Znoabm½Sad omaMumifh Bu, d mESihf rsm;pGmruGJ wpfv;Hk xJ
wpfckxJ twGif;jyKvdkrIaMumifh twå[k tpOfvmonfjzpf&m\/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 81
ref v nf q &mawmf \ tqd k t rd e f Y E S i f h twl
],owf } ud k y,f & jcif ; taMumif ;
]]tewåm=udk,fr[kwf}} [laom ],owf}teufudk 0drkwåd
&owGif y,f\/ / y,fxdkufvSayonf/
tom&u|ukd tewå\ o'´w¬qdkonfum; roifhvGef;/
c,a|e tedpöHç b,a|e 'ku©Hç tom&ua|e tewåm}}-
/ ]]c,a|e
ok;H csu/f
tedpöH=rNrJç tNrJr½Sd/ (o'´w¬) c,a|e- jzifh ,kwådudk
,ljyonf? o'´w¬udk rjy/ / aemuf ESpfyk'fwdkYüvnf; þenf;yif/
refvnfpmtkyfüum; ,o'´gESifhqdkaom ]udk,f} udk trSef
qd\ k ? roif/h / ig\ud, k o
f nf a½S;b0ü ewfjzpfczhJ ;l onf [l&mü
twåukdyif ]]udk,f}} qdkonf [k ,kwådjy\/
xdkokdYaom t&mwdkYüf um,o'´gESifh qdk½kd;yif r[kwfaom
aMumifh xdk,kwdÅvnf; roifh/ /um,o'´gESifh vm&mrS ],owf}
ud,k uf kd qdo
k ifo h nf/ / t[Ho'´gç tw¬o'´gESihf vm&mü ,owfEiS hf
]] udk,f }} rvdk/
tbd " mef r sm;\tqd k t rd e f Y u d k tud k ; taxmuf j yjcif ;
tbd"mefrsm;rSmvnf; wdww d¬ Ykd Muq
H aom twÅ y&d,m,fpk
rSm um,o'´g rvm/ / twÅ o'´gonf um,teufü jzpfonf[k
vmonfrSmvnf; þ tewÅm-yk'f&Sd twÅo'´grsdK; r[kwf/ /
]]y[dwawÅm? pGefYtyfNyD;aom udk,f touf&Sdonf}} [l&mwdkYü
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 82
twÅo'´grsdK;aywnf;/
avmuü udk,fylonfç udk,fat;onfç udk,fav;onf
udk,fayghonf-[laom pum;rsdK;wdkYü ],owf} ESifh ]udk,f}udk vdk
tyfonf/ /udYk tzdçYk olt
Y zdçYk udYk [mç olY [m- ponfjzifh twGi;f buf
tjyifbuf vk,ufrIwdkYü ],rowf} aom ]]udk}} udk vdktyfonf/
txufü jyqdkcJhNyD;aomtwdkif; tvHk;pHkaom cE¨mig;yg;
½kyfemrfw&m;pkonf trSeftm;jzifh t&Sifocif[lí jrLrQ&Sdaom
w&m;pk r[kwf/ / qdkifol Edkifol ydkifol[lí jrLrQ&dSaom w&m;pk
r[kwf/ / r&dSaMumif;udk qdkcJhNyD;aom txufpum;wdkYü xif&Sm;
vSNy/D
trS m ;xuf yd k í rS m ;aom trS m ;rsm;
xdkYaMumifh rdrd rsufpdudk ighrsufpd[k twGif;xm;rI
twGif;jyKrI twGif;vkrI twGif;,ufrIrsm;onfyif trSm;pifppf
jzpf\/ /ig\ rsufpdwGifrQ ruyJ rsufpdonfyif igwnf;ç
ig\udk,fwnf;[k twGif;xm;rI vk,ufrIrSmum; trSm;xuf
trSm;om jzpfownf;/
]] udk }} - trSm;
xdaYk Mumifh udt Yk zdçYk olUtzdYk ud[ Yk m ol[
Y m ponfjzifh Opöm"e
ocFg&wdu Yk kd twGi;f jyKrI vk,ufrw I üYkd twGi;f jyKcsuEf iS q
hf Mkd uaom
qdkifrI EdkifrI tpdk;&rIudkjyaom ]]udk}} onfom trSm; pifppfjzpf
ownf;/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 83
]ud k , f } -trS e f
]]ud}k } [laomtoHonf ],owf} ESiq hf akd om ud,
k rf mS rIum;
y&rw¬w&m;wGif toHk;wGifvSaom rkcstrSefMuD;aywnf;/ /
udu
Yk ,kd yf o l nfç udu Yk ,kd af t;onf - ponfwüYkd twGi;f jyKí vk,uf
odr;f ydu
k cf suEf iS qhf akd om ]ud}k r[kw/f / t[kw{f uef pifppfreS af om
y&rw¬obm0udkjyaom ]udk,f} aywnf;/
tewå teuf okwfoifcsuf NyD;\/
------0------
ed*;kH
þwGiaf &GUum;- "mwfBu;D av;rsK;d ç tMunf"mwfajcmufrsK;d ç
"mwfrD;q,frsKd;ç "mwfqDq,frsKd; "mwfbD;vl;wpfrsKd; - þig;rsKd;
aom "mwfwdkYjzifh owÅ0gac:aom ½kyfcJ emrfcJwdkY\ jzpfrI yGg;rI
wnfrI qkwf,kwfrI ysufqkH;rIwdkYudk odom½kHrQ a0zefjyNyD;vQif
tedpötcsuf 'ku©tcsuf tewåtcsufwdkYudk t>ruft&dyfrQ
tvif;jyvdu vu©P'DyeeD}} þpmusr;f opfonf ouú&mZf
k af om ]]vu©
1256-ck? ewfawmfvqef; 11-&ufaeYwGif atmifjrifNyD;pD;ay
ownf;/
ZtpodYk vu©P'DyeDusrf; 84
w&PDa, r[m*gar?
t&an 0owm r,m/
uwm vu©P'DyeD?
ur®|meud©'g,deD/ /
w&PDa,=avSul;trnf½daS om? r[m*gar=&GmBuD;ü?
t&an=v,fwaD wmausmif;ü? 0owm=a*gZmouú&mZf av;q,fh
&S p f w G i f wd k u f o pf w nf u m aexd k i f y gaom? r,m=igonf ?
ur®|meud©'g,deD=0dyóemur®|mef;rIü tMunftvif tjrif
rsufpdudkay;Edkifaom? vu©P'DyeD=]]vu©P'DyeD}}þpm usrf;
opfudk? uwm=pD&iftyfownf;/
vu© P 'D y eD NyD ; NyD /
------- Ä -------